Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
) and upper neck extensors (UNE). Secondary outcome: Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for cervical extension/flexion and shoulder elevation. Training compliance was self-reported and categorized as regular if performed ≥ 1 times a week. Results: Neck pain at baseline was 1.9±1.7 (mean±SD) in ETG and 2......Introduction: Flight related neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew and affect individual health, operational capacity and flight safety. Exercise training has proven effective in reducing neck pain within other job professions. The aim of this study was to investigate...... if an exercise intervention might reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew. Methods: A total of 31 helicopter pilots and 38 crew members were randomized to an exercise-training-group ETG (n=35) or a reference-group REF (n=34). ETG received 20 weeks of strength, endurance and coordination training...
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
) and Pressure-Pain-Threshold (PPT) in the trapezius m. and upper neck extensors. Secondary outcome: Maximal-Voluntary-Contraction (MVC) for cervical flexion/extension and shoulder-elevation. Results: Neck-pain for ETG was (mean±SD) 1.9±1.7 at baseline and 1.8±2.1 at follow-up, and correspondingly for REF 2.......4±2.0 and 1.7±1.7. Preliminary intention-to-treat analysis, revealed no significant effect on change in pain or PPT between groups. Further analysis, controlling for training frequency, intensity and volume are pending. Baseline MVC for ETG cervical flexion/extension was 184.4±59.8N and 247.2±63.8N......Introduction: Neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew (1). The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise intervention could reduce the prevalence of neck-pain among helicopter pilots and crew. Methods: Thirty-one pilots and thirty-eight crew members were randomized...
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
BACKGROUND: Neck pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew-members, and pain may influence individual health and work performance. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise intervention could reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members. METHODS: Thirty......-one pilots and thirty-eight crew-members were randomized to either an exercise-training-group (n = 35) or a reference-group (n = 34). The exercise-training-group received 20-weeks of specific neck/shoulder training. The reference-group received no training. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Intensity of neck pain previous 3......-to-treat and per-protocol. Students t-test was performed (p
.... The helicopter does not stop until the tape is over, hence, the training evolution quickly becomes useless because students usually make mistakes during the first minute of the tape and are unable...
Simulators will gain an increasingly important role in training helicopter pilots only if the simulators are of sufficient fidelity to provide positive transfer of skills to the aircraft. This must be done within an economic model of return on investment. Although rotor pilot demand is still only a small percentage of overall pilot requirements, it will grow in significance. This presentation described the salient factors influencing the use of helicopter training simulators.
Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS
Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.
Barnes, John A.; Statham, Flavous D.
The Helicopter Pilot Training Program of the Army differs from those of the other services in concept. It takes nonpilot servicemen and trains them to fly helicopters. The study provides normative performance data for a pilot trainee in an army light-observation helicopter as a first step toward establishing normative data for pilot performance in…
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling
. Secondary outcomes included: postural balance, strength, stability, and rate of force development for neck and shoulder muscles. Measurements at baseline and follow-up were conducted at four air force bases in Denmark. Sixty-nine participants were individually randomized to either a training group (TG...
Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter
Flight related low back pain (LBP) among helicopter pilots is frequent and may influence flight performance. Prolonged confined sitting during flights seems to weaken lumbar trunk (LT) muscles with associated secondary transient pain. Aim of the study was to investigate if structured training could improve muscular function and thus improve LBP related to flying. 39 helicopter pilots (35 men and 4 women), who reported flying related LBP on at least 1 of 3 missions last month, were allocated to two training programs over a 3-month period. Program A consisted of 10 exercises recommended for general LBP. Program B consisted of 4 exercises designed specifically to improve LT muscular endurance. The pilots were examined before and after the training using questionnaires for pain, function, quality of health and tests of LT muscular endurance as well as ultrasound measurements of the contractility of the lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM). Approximately half of the participants performed the training per-protocol. Participants in this subset group had comparable baseline characteristics as the total study sample. Pre and post analysis of all pilots included, showed participants had marked improvement in endurance and contractility of the LMM following training. Similarly, participants had improvement in function and quality of health. Participants in program B had significant improvement in pain, function and quality of health. This study indicates that participants who performed a three months exercise program had improved muscle endurance at the end of the program. The helicopter pilots also experienced improved function and quality of health. Identifier: NCT01788111 Registration date; February 5th, 2013, verified April 2016.
McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U
USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. 2014.
Prophet, Wallace W.
For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…
A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, including limb weakness and back pain. Incidental finding of syringomyelia provides a challenge for clinicians due to the wide variety of possible symptoms. In military aviation, neurological findings in pilots can result in extensive investigation that can lead to potentially invasive management. Conversely, the potential for chronic progression of a spinal syrinx and subsequent neurological deterioration makes early identification critical. Ultimately, the discovery of a lesion may have implications for flying status and operational capability. A 25-yr-old man working as a navy Seahawk helicopter pilot presented with episodes of right arm paraesthesia and pain between the scapulae. On at least one occasion, these symptoms woke him at night. Upon magnetic resonance imaging, dilatation of the central canal in a syrinx-like pattern in the lower cervical region was noted. Neurology review suggested the finding was persistent and unlikely to be responsible for his symptoms. No surgical input was recommended. His symptoms were attributed to mild cervical spondylosis, which resolved with ongoing physiotherapy, and he was returned to flying status. This case highlights several issues involved with the incidental finding of a syringomyelia. Surgical intervention has been known to worsen symptoms. Conversely, studies have identified minimal radiological progression in cases of idiopathic syringomyelia, with fewer individuals displaying neurological deterioration. For aircrew, potentially unnecessary neurosurgical intervention poses risks to a flying career and overall operational capability.Schiemer A. Idiopathic syringomyelia in a military helicopter pilot. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):962-965.
CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.
A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…
Time -in-Qualification Summary Statistics Box and Whisker Graph. .......54 Figure 10. Qualification Distribution and Comparison for PQM, ANSQ, and...the distribution curves; therefore, we must also consider the median for comparing time - to-train. Figure 10. Qualification Distribution and...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. AN ANALYSIS OF AH
van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; de Loose, Veerle; Meeuwsen, Ted; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Our aim is to estimate the self-reported one-year prevalence of neck pain in military helicopter pilots and to compare work-related, individual, and health-related factors in the pilots with (neck pain group) and without (reference group) regular or continuous neck pain. A questionnaire was
Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.
The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…
Martin, Daniel; Nixon, Jim
Controllers and pilots must work together to ensure safe and efficient helicopter flight within the London control zone. Subjective ratings of pilot perception of controller responsibility for five key flight tasks were obtained from thirty helicopter pilots. Three types of airspace were investigated. Results indicate that there is variation in pilot understanding of controller responsibility compared to the formal regulations that define controller responsibility. Significant differences in the perception of controller responsibility were found for the task of aircraft separation in class D airspace and along helicopter routes. Analysis of the patterns of response suggests that task type rather than the airspace type may be the key factor. Results are framed using the concept of a shared mental model. This research demonstrates that pilots flying in complex London airspace have an expectation of controller responsibility for certain flight tasks, in certain airspace types that is not supported by aviation regulation. Practitioner Summary: The responsibility for tasks during flight varies according to the flight rules used and airspace type. Helicopter pilots may attribute responsibility to controllers for tasks when controllers have no responsibility as defined by regulation. This variation between pilot perceptions of controller responsibility could affect safety within the London control zone.
PROCESS Blue screening involving human filming usually employs a blue or green backdrop, since skin contains little blue or green hue. These backdrops...Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality 27 - 10 RTO-MP-HFM-136 a. b. c. d. e. f. Figure 13: Frames Showing Physical Object ( witch ... filming . However, when a user’s hands disrupt the light from a helmet-mounted light source, the shadows cast onto the distant background are diffuse and
Lee, Wonsup; Jung, Kihyo; Jeong, Jeongrim; Park, Jangwoon; Cho, Jayoung; Kim, Heeeun; Park, Seikwon; You, Heecheon
This study measured 21 anthropometric dimensions (ADs) of 94 Korean male helicopter pilots in their 20s to 40s and compared them with corresponding measurements of Korean male civilians and the US Army male personnel. The ADs and the sample size of the anthropometric survey were determined by a four-step process: (1) selection of ADs related to helicopter cockpit design, (2) evaluation of the importance of each AD, (3) calculation of required sample sizes for selected precision levels and (4) determination of an appropriate sample size by considering both the AD importance evaluation results and the sample size requirements. The anthropometric comparison reveals that the Korean helicopter pilots are larger (ratio of means = 1.01-1.08) and less dispersed (ratio of standard deviations = 0.71-0.93) than the Korean male civilians and that they are shorter in stature (0.99), have shorter upper limbs (0.89-0.96) and lower limbs (0.93-0.97), but are taller on sitting height, sitting eye height and acromial height (1.01-1.03), and less dispersed (0.68-0.97) than the US Army personnel. The anthropometric characteristics of Korean male helicopter pilots were compared with those of Korean male civilians and US Army male personnel. The sample size determination process and the anthropometric comparison results presented in this study are useful to design an anthropometric survey and a helicopter cockpit layout, respectively.
Heffley, R. K.; Bourne, S. M.; Hindson, W. S.
This paper describes a current study of several basic helicopter flight maneuvers. The data base consists of in-flight measurements from instrumented helicopters using experienced pilots. The analysis technique is simple enough to apply without automatic data processing, and the results can be used to build quantitative matah models of the flight task and some aspects of the pilot control strategy. In addition to describing the performance measurement technqiue, some results are presented which define the aggressiveness and amplitude of maneuvering for several lateral maneuvers including turns and sidesteps.
van den Oord, Marieke H. A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
The 1-year prevalence of regular or continuous neck pain in military helicopter pilots of the Dutch Defense Helicopter Command (DHC) is 20%, and physical work exposures have been suggested as risk factors. Pilots and cabin crew perform different tasks when flying helicopters. The aims of the current
Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter
The aim of this study was to provide information on the occurrence of spinal pain, i.e., low back and neck pain, among commercial helicopter pilots, along with possible associations between pain and anthropometric and demographic factors and flying exposure. Data were collected through a subjective and retrospective survey among all the 313 (294 men, 19 women) full-time pilots employed by two helicopter companies. A questionnaire was used to assess the extent of spinal complaints in a transient and recurrent pain pattern along with information on physical activities, occupational flying experience, and airframes. The survey had 207 responders (194 men, 13 women). The pilots had extensive flying experience. Spinal pain was reported by 67%. Flying-related transient pain was reported among 50%, whereas recurrent spinal pain, not necessarily associated with flying, was reported by 52%. Women experienced more pain, but sample size prevented further conclusions. Male pilots reporting any spinal pain flew significantly more hours last year (median 500 h, IQR 400-650) versus men with no pain (median 445 h, IQR 300-550). Male pilots with transient or recurrent spinal pain did not differ from nonaffected male colleagues in the measured parameters. Spinal pain is a frequent problem among male and female commercial helicopter pilots. For men, no significant associations were revealed for transient or recurrent spinal pain with age, flying experience in years, total hours, annual flying time, type of aircraft, or anthropometric factors except for any spinal pain related to hours flown in the last year.
Acute and chronic spinal symptoms such as neck pain may limit flying performance significantly and disqualify the pilot from flight duty. Mechanical neck pain is very common among pilots because of their exposure to vibration, +GZ forces, helmet weight, poor neck posture during air combat maneuvers, previous neck injuries, and poor treatment plans for such injuries. Successful treatment of such injuries requires appropriate therapeutic procedures as well as an aeromedical assessment. The aim of this case study was to demonstrate the benefits of conservative procedures such as spinal manipulation and mobilization therapy (SMMT) and exercise therapy (ET) in treating chronic mechanical neck pain in an Iranian commercial helicopter pilot. A 36-yr-old male patient presented to the clinic with moderate, intermittent nonradicular chronic neck pain and limited range of motion over a 2-yr period. The patient was treated with cervical and upper thoracic SMMT followed by home ET for 5 wk. After this period, the patient reported significant recovery and improvement in range of motion in his neck. Mechanical neck pain is very common among helicopter pilots. Although Air Force and Navy waiver guides recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications as well as SMMT and ET, there are currently very few published studies that examine the benefits of manual and exercise therapy for treating mechanical neck pain in commercial and military pilots. Based on the results of this study, it seems that SMMT and ET may be a safe and effective in treatment of uncomplicated mechanical neck pain in helicopter pilots. Alagha B. Conservative management of mechanical neck pain in a helicopter pilot.
Conclusions: Cortisol levels in saliva and workload are the usual in stress situations, and change inversely: workload increases at the end of the task, whereas the cortisol levels decrease after the simulated flight. The somatic anxiety decreases as the task is done. In contrast, when the pilots are faced with new and demanding tasks, even if they fly this type of helicopter in different conditions, the workload increases toward the end of the task. From an applied point of view, these findings should impact the tactical, physical and mental training of such pilots.
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Riebling Nørnberg, Bo
the effectiveness of the training exercises in reducing neck pain. References: 1. Ang B, Harms-Ringdahl K. Neck pain and related disability in helicopter pilots: A survey of prevalence and risk factors. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 2006;77(7):713-719 2. Lange B, Toft P, Myburgh C, Sjøgaard G. Effect...... of targeted strength, endurance, and coordination exercise on neck and shoulder pain among fighter pilots. A randomized-controlled trial. Clin J Pain 2013; 29:50-9 3. G. Sjøgaard and B. R. Jensen. Low-Level Static Exertions, The Occupational ergonomics handbook, edited by Waldemar Krawowski and William S...
Jansen, C.; Wennemers, A.S.; Vos, W.K.; Groen, E.L.
Helicopter landings are more challenging in 'brownout' conditions, in which sand and dust is stirred up by the rotary wing aircraft, obscuring visibility. Safe brownout landings require new sensor and display technologies to provide the pilot with information on helicopter motion. In this respect
McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G
Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill. Fatigue is a serious threat to operational safety, particularly for sustained helicopter operations involving high levels of cognitive information processing and sustained time on task. As part of ongoing research into this issue, the object of this study was to develop a field-deployable helicopter-specific psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for the purpose of daily performance monitoring of pilots. The PVT consists of a laptop computer, a hand-operated joystick, and a set of rudder pedals. Screen-based compensatory tracking task software includes a tracking ball (operated by the joystick) which moves randomly in all directions, and a second tracking ball which moves horizontally (operated by the rudder pedals). The 5-min test requires the pilot to keep both tracking balls centered. This helicopter-specific PVT's portability and integrated data acquisition and storage system enables daily field monitoring of the performance of individual helicopter pilots. The inclusion of a simultaneous foot-operated tracking task ensures divided attention for helicopter pilots as the movement of both tracking balls requires simultaneous inputs. This PVT is quick, economical, easy to use, and specific to the operational flying task. It can be used for performance monitoring purposes, and as a general research tool for investigating the psychomotor demands of helicopter operations. While reliability and validity testing is warranted, data acquired from this test could help further our understanding of the effect of various factors (such as fatigue) on helicopter pilot performance, with the potential of contributing to helicopter operational safety.
Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Madinabeitia, Iker; Masiulis, Nerijus; Cárdenas, David
Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill. A tear sample was collected before and after physical effort to determine the exercise-induced changes on Tosm. The Bayesian statistical analysis demonstrated that Tosm significantly increased from 303.72 ± 6.76 to 310.56 ± 8.80 mmol/L after performance of a maximal incremental test. However, while the untrained group showed an acute Tosm rise (12.33 mmol/L of increment), the trained group experienced a stable Tosm physical effort (1.45 mmol/L). There was a significant positive linear association between fat indices and Tosm changes (correlation coefficients [r] range: 0.77-0.89), whereas the Tosm changes displayed a negative relationship with the cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2 max; r = -0.75) and performance parameters (r = -0.75 for velocity, and r = -0.67 for time to exhaustion). The findings from this study provide evidence that fitness level is a major determinant of Tosm response to maximal incremental physical effort, showing a fairly linear association with several indices related to fitness level. High fitness level seems to be beneficial to avoid Tosm changes as consequence of intense exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G
Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill requiring constant control inputs from pilots. A deterioration in psychomotor performance of a helicopter pilot may be detrimental to operational safety. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychomotor performance deteriorates over time during sustained operations and that the effect is more pronounced in the feet than the hands. The subjects were helicopter pilots conducting sustained multicrew offshore flight operations in a demanding environment. The remote flight operations involved constant workload in hot environmental conditions with complex operational tasking. Over a period of 6 d 10 helicopter pilots were tested. At the completion of daily flying duties, a helicopter-specific screen-based compensatory tracking task measuring tracking accuracy (over a 5-min period) tested both hands and feet. Data were compared over time and tested for statistical significance for both deterioration and differential effect. A statistically significant deterioration of psychomotor performance was evident in the pilots over time for both hands and feet. There was also a statistically significant differential effect between the hands and the feet in terms of tracking accuracy. The hands recorded a 22.6% decrease in tracking accuracy, while the feet recorded a 39.9% decrease in tracking accuracy. The differential effect may be due to prioritization of limb movement by the motor cortex due to factors such as workload-induced cognitive fatigue. This may result in a greater reduction in performance in the feet than the hands, posing a significant risk to operational safety.McMahon TW, Newman DG. The differential effect of sustained operations on psychomotor skills of helicopter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):496-502.
Mitchell, David G.; Hoh, Roger H.; Atencio, Adolph, Jr.
Two piloted simulations have recently been conducted to evaluate both workload and handling qualities requirements for operation of a helicopter by a single pilot in a nap-of-the-earth combat environment. An advanced cockpit, including a moving-map display and an interactive touchpad screen, provided aircraft mission, status, and position information to the pilot. The results of the simulations are reviewed, and the impact of these results on the development of a revised helicopter handling qualities specification is discussed. Rate command is preferred over attitude command in pitch and roll, and attitude hold over groundspeed hold, for low-speed precision pointing tasks. Position hold is necessary for Level 1 handling qualities in hover when the pilot is required to perform secondary tasks. Addition of a second crew member improves pilot ratings.
Wagstaff, Anthony S; Arva, Per
In order to investigate possible hearing loss as a consequence of aviation noise, a comparative analysis of audiometric data from Norwegian Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel, airline (fixed-wing) pilots, and helicopter pilots was performed. The results may be of use in giving advice regarding preventive measures. Male ATC, airline, and helicopter pilots were selected randomly from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) medical files. There were 182 subjects included in the study: 50, 81, and 51 subjects for ATC, helicopter, and airline pilots, respectively. Two audiograms with a 2-3-yr interval were analyzed for each individual. Age correction was performed using data from ISO 7129. Threshold changes per year for the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz were examined in particular after age correction. For all three groups, mean hearing threshold levels were above (worse than) ISO 7129 predictions for most frequencies. As expected, hearing thresholds increased with age in the group as a whole. Looking at the 3-, 4-, and 6-kHz frequencies in particular, all groups had small but highly significant increases in hearing thresholds at 4 kHz between the first and second audiogram. The mean hearing thresholds for this group of aviation personnel are higher than International Standard ISO-7129 would predict according to age. Highly significant changes in hearing threshold after age correction, indicating possible noise-induced hearing loss, were found in all groups at 4 kHz. The fact that helicopter pilots had similar hearing loss to their other aviation colleagues indicates that current hearing protection for these pilots is effective in counteracting the increased noise levels in helicopters.
Radstaak, M.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Brosschot, J.F.; Kompier, M.A.J.
This study investigated the effects of a compressed working week with high cognitive and emotional work demands within the population of Dutch Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) pilots. Work stressors were measured and levels of well-being were examined before, during and after a series of
Gaetan , Sophie; Dousset , Erick; Marqueste , Tanguy; Bringoux , Lionel; Bourdin , Christophe; Vercher , Jean-Louis; Besson , Patricia
International audience; BACKGROUND: Helicopter pilots are involved in a complex multitask activity, implying overuse of cognitive resources, which may result in piloting task impairment or in decision-making failure. Studies usually investigate this phenomenon in well-controlled, poorly ecological situations by focusing on the correlation between physiological values and either cognitive workload or emotional state. This study aimed at jointly exploring workload induced by a realistic simulat...
The use of paralytic medications in the performance of RSI intubation is a high risk intervention used by many HEMS crews. There is no margin for error in RSI intubation as the results can be fatal. Operating room access for airway management training has become more difficult, and is not representative of the environment in which HEMS crews typically function. LifeEvac of Virginia designed and implemented an SST airway management program to provide a realistic, consistent training platform. The dynamic program incorporates standardized scenarios, and real life challenging cases that this and other programs have encountered. SST is done in a variety of settings including the helicopter, back of ambulances, staged car crashes and simulation centers. The result has been the indoctrination of a well defined, consistent approach to every airway management intervention. The SST program facillitates enhancement of technical skills. as well as team dynamics and communication.
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling; Boyle, Eleanor; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela
Neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members is common. This study quantified the physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles using electromyography (EMG) measures during helicopter flight. Nine standardized sorties were performed, encompassing: cruising from location A to location B (AB) and performing search and rescue (SAR). SAR was performed with Night Vision Goggles (NVG), while AB was performed with (AB+NVG) and without NVG (AB-NVG). EMG was recorded for: trapezius (TRA), upper neck extensors (UNE), and sternocleido-mastoid (SCM). Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) were performed for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from pre- (0.7±1.3) to post-sortie (1.6±1.9) for pilots (p=0.028). If sustained, UNE activity of ∼10% MVE is high, and implies a risk for neck disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaetan, Sophie; Dousset, Erick; Marqueste, Tanguy; Bringoux, Lionel; Bourdin, Christophe; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Besson, Patricia
Helicopter pilots are involved in a complex multitask activity, implying overuse of cognitive resources, which may result in piloting task impairment or in decision-making failure. Studies usually investigate this phenomenon in well-controlled, poorly ecological situations by focusing on the correlation between physiological values and either cognitive workload or emotional state. This study aimed at jointly exploring workload induced by a realistic simulated helicopter flight mission and emotional state, as well as physiological markers. The experiment took place in the helicopter full flight dynamic simulator. Six participants had to fly on two missions. Workload level, skin conductance, RMS-EMG, and emotional state were assessed. Joint analysis of psychological and physiological parameters associated with workload estimation revealed particular dynamics in each of three profiles. 1) Expert pilots showed a slight increase of measured physiological parameters associated with the increase in difficulty level. Workload estimates never reached the highest level and the emotional state for this profile only referred to positive emotions with low emotional intensity. 2) Non-Expert pilots showed increasing physiological values as the perceived workload increased. However, their emotional state referred to either positive or negative emotions, with a greater variability in emotional intensity. 3) Intermediate pilots were similar to Expert pilots regarding emotional states and similar to Non-Expert pilots regarding physiological patterns. Overall, high interindividual variability of these results highlight the complex link between physiological and psychological parameters with workload, and question whether physiology alone could predict a pilot's inability to make the right decision at the right time.
Cowings, P. S.; Kellar, M. A.; Folen, R. A.; Toscano, W. B.; Burge, J. D.
Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group contained 4 pilots from HC-130 Hercules aircraft and 4 HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group contained 3 pilots of HC-130s and 6 helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded on each crewmember and an instructor pilot rated individual crew performance. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE). The remaining participants received no training. During a second flight, treatment participants showed significant improvement in performance (rated by the same instructor pilot as in pretests) while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFTE management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.
Aherne, Bryan B; Zhang, Chrystal; Newman, David G
In the United States, accident and fatality rates in helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) operations increase significantly under nighttime environmentally hazardous operational conditions. Other studies have found pilots' total flight hours unrelated to HEMS accident outcomes. Many factors affect pilots' decision making, including their experience. This study seeks to investigate whether pilot domain task experience (DTE) in HEMS plays a role against likelihood of accidents at night when hazardous operational conditions are entered. There were 32 flights with single pilot nighttime fatal HEMS accidents between 1995 and 2013 with findings of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT) and loss of control (LCTRL) due to spatial disorientation (SD) identified. The HEMS DTE of the pilots were compared with industry survey data. Of the pilots, 56% had ≤2 yr of HEMS experience and 9% had >10 yr of HEMS experience. There were 21 (66%) accidents that occurred in non-visual flight rules (VFR) conditions despite all flights being required to be conducted under VFR. There was a statistically significant increase in accident rates in pilots with pilots with >10 yr HEMS DTE. HEMS DTE plays a preventive role against the likelihood of a night operational accident. Pilots with limited HEMS DTE are more likely to make a poor assessment of hazardous conditions at night, and this will place HEMS flight crew at high risk in the VFR night domain.
Kellar, Michael A.; Folen, Raymond A.; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Hisert, Glen L.
Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior is one cause of aircraft fatalities due to pilot error. In such cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. This study examined the effect of training in physiological self-recognition and regulation, as a means of improving crew cockpit performance. Seventeen pilots were assigned to the treatment and control groups matched for accumulated flight hours. The treatment group comprised three pilots of HC-130 Hercules aircraft and four HH-65 Dolphin helicopter pilots; the control group comprised three pilots of HC-130's and six Dolphin helicopter pilots. During an initial flight, physiological data were recorded for each crew member and individual crew performance was rated by an instructor pilot. Eight crewmembers were then taught to regulate their own physiological response levels using Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT). The remaining subjects received no training. During a second flight, treatment subjects showed significant improvement in performance, while controls did not improve. The results indicate that AFT management of high states of physiological arousal may improve pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.
Hitherto, in the field of aerospace science and industry, some acceptable results from control behavior of human operator (pilot), are caught using usual methods. However, very fewer research, has been done based on personal characteristics. The performed investigations, show that many of happened faults (especially in ...
Gomes, Jose O.; Woods, David D.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Huber, Gilbert J.; Borges, Marcos R.S.
Offshore transportation using helicopters is a complex socio-technical system. The resilience of this system is an emergent property related to performance variability in many nested levels, e.g. pilot activities, maintenance, management systems, helicopter design and so forth. This paper examines production/safety tradeoffs in pilots' work in the helicopter transportation system for the Campos Basin oil fields in Brazil to understand the resilience and brittleness of this system. The study team carried out and analyzed 63 h of interviews with pilots, co-pilots, managers and human resources personnel of some of the main helicopter-operating companies. About 80% of the oil extracted in Brazil comes from this Basin, a 3 h drive north of Rio de Janeiro city. The oil company hires nine helicopter-operating companies to transport about 40,000 people who work on ships and platforms every month. The main goal of this project is to discover how the transport system is resilient and brittle, given the workload demands and economic pressures. The analysis uncovered goal conflicts that arise at the boundaries of the organizations and how people in different roles cope with these conflicts, and their implications to overall system safety and resilience
Yang, Ji Hyun; Cowden, Bradley T; Kennedy, Quinn; Schramm, Harrison; Sullivan, Joseph
This paper aims to provide insights into human perception, navigation performance, and confidence in helicopter overland navigation. Helicopter overland navigation is a challenging mission area because it is a complex cognitive task, and failing to recognize when the aircraft is off-course can lead to operational failures and mishaps. A human-in-the-loop experiment to investigate pilot perception during simulated overland navigation by analyzing actual navigation trajectory, pilots' perceived location, and corresponding confidence levels was designed. There were 15 military officers with prior overland navigation experience who completed 4 simulated low-level navigation routes, 2 of which entailed auto-navigation. This route was paused roughly every 30 s for the subject to mark their perceived location on the map and their confidence level using a customized program. Analysis shows that there is no correlation between perceived and actual location of the aircraft, nor between confidence level and actual location. There is, however, some evidence that there is a correlation (rho = -0.60 to approximately 0.65) between perceived location and intended route of flight, suggesting that there is a bias toward believing one is on the intended flight route. If aviation personnel can proactively identify the circumstances in which usual misperceptions occur in navigation, they may reduce mission failure and accident rate. Fleet squadrons and instructional commands can benefit from this study to improve operations that require low-level flight while also improving crew resource management.
Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)
Two recent piloted simulation experiments have investigated advanced display concepts applied to civil transport helicopter terminal area operations. Civil Category A helicopter operations apply to multi-engine helicopters wherein a safe recovery (land or fly out) is required in the event of a single engine failure. The investigation used the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, which has a full six degrees of freedom, to simulate the flight task as closely as possible. The goal of these experiments was to use advanced cockpit displays to improve flight safety and enhance the mission performance of Category A terminal area operations in confined areas. The first experiment investigated the use of military display formats to assist civil rotorcraft in performing a Category A takeoff in confined terminal areas. Specifically, it addressed how well a difficult hovering backup path could be followed using conventional instruments in comparison to panel mounted integrated displays. The hovering backup takeoff, which enables pilots to land back to the confined area pad in the event of an engine failure, was chosen since it is a difficult task to perform. Seven NASA and Army test pilots participated in the experiment. Evaluations, based on task performance and pilot workload, showed that an integrated display enabled the pilot to consistently achieve adequate or desired performance with reasonable pilot workload. Use of conventional instruments, however, frequently resulted in unacceptable performance (poor flight path tracking), higher pilot workload, and poor situational awareness. Although OEI landbacks were considered a visual task, the improved performance on the backup portion, in conjunction with increased situational awareness resulting from use of integrated displays, enabled the pilots to handle an engine failure and land back safely. In contrast, use of conventional instruments frequently led to excessive rates of sink at touchdown. A second
Di Rito, G.; Schettini, F.
This paper deals with the architecture definition and the safety assessment of flight control systems for light remotely-piloted helicopters for civil applications. The methods and tools to be used for these activities are standardised for conventional piloted aircraft, while they are currently a matter of discussion in case of light remotely-piloted systems flying into unsegregated airspaces. Certification concerns are particularly problematic for aerial systems weighing from 20 to 150 kgf, since the airworthiness permission is granted by national authorities. The lack of specific requirements actually requires to analyse both the existing standards for military applications and the certification guidelines for civil systems, up to derive the adequate safety objectives. In this work, after a survey on applicable certification documents for the safety objectives definition, the most relevant functional failures of a light remotely-piloted helicopter are identified and analysed via Functional Hazard Assessment. Different architectures are then compared by means of Fault-Tree Analysis, highlighting the contributions to the safety level of the main elements of the flight control system (control computers, servoactuators, antenna) and providing basic guidelines on the required redundancy level. - Highlights: • A method for architecture definition and safety assessment of light RW‐UAS flight control systems is proposed. • Relevant UAS failures are identified and analysed via Functional Hazard Assessment and Fault‐Tree Analysis. • The key safety elements are control computers, servoactuators and TX/RX system. • Single‐simplex flight control systems have inadequate safety levels. • Dual‐duplex flight control systems demonstrate to be safety compliant, with safety budgets dominated by servoactuators.
A. A. Lebedev
Full Text Available Сonsidered question of reducing oscillations of cargo on helicopter external sling to improve the safety and efficiency of flight operations during the conduct of urgent aerial works. Offered practical recommendations of piloting a helicopter and effective maneuvers to eliminate oscillations of cargo on external sling.
Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine A E; Beckers, Debby G J; Brosschot, Jos F; Kompier, Michiel A J
This study investigated the effects of a compressed working week with high cognitive and emotional work demands within the population of Dutch Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) pilots. Work stressors were measured and levels of well-being were examined before, during and after a series of day and night shifts. Results revealed that (i) the start of a series of day shifts was more taxing for well-being than the start of a series of night shifts, (ii) there were no differences in the decrease in well-being during day and night shifts, (iii) distress during shifts was more strongly related to a decrease in well-being during night than during day shifts and (iv) it took HEMS pilots more time to recover from a series of night shifts than from a series of day shifts. It is concluded that HEMS pilots should not start earlier during day shifts, nor have longer series of night shifts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
NASA civil helicopter safety News & Updates include the following: Mar. 2002. The Air Medical Operations Survey has been completed! Check it out! Also accessible via the Mission pages under Air Medical Mission. Air Medical and Law Enforcement Mission pages have been added. They are accessible via the Mission pages. The Public Use, Personal, Offshore, Law Enforcement, External Load, Business and Gyro accident pages (accessable via the Mission page) have been updated. Feb. 2002. A Words of Wisdom section has been added. You can access it by clicking the Library button. A link to a Corporate Accident Response Plan has been added to the Accident page. The AMs, Aerial Application and Instruction accident pages (accessable via the Mission page) have been updated. Jan. 2002. A new searchable safety article database has been added. You can access it by clicking the Library button. The 2001 accident summaries have been updated and the statistics have been compiled - check it out by clicking the accident tab to the left. Dec. 2001. Please read the FAA Administrator's memo regarding the latest FBI warning. 3ee the FAA column - Fall 2001 Read it now!
Hahn, M. E
The Chromakey Augmented Virtual Environment (ChrAVE) 3.0 System is a training system created to augment initial, refresher, and proficiency training in helicopter aviation using accurate simulation...
Abrahamsen, Håkon B; Sollid, Stephen J M; Öhlund, Lennart S; Røislien, Jo; Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi
Human error and deficient non-technical skills (NTSs) among providers of ALS in helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) is a threat to patient and operational safety. Skills can be improved through simulation-based training and assessment. To document the current level of simulation-based training and assessment of seven generic NTSs in crew members in the Norwegian HEMS. A cross-sectional survey, either electronic or paper-based, of all 207 physicians, HEMS crew members (HCMs) and pilots working in the civilian Norwegian HEMS (11 bases), between 8 May and 25 July 2012. The response rate was 82% (n=193). A large proportion of each of the professional groups lacked simulation-based training and assessment of their NTSs. Compared with pilots and HCMs, physicians undergo statistically significantly less frequent simulation-based training and assessment of their NTSs. Fifty out of 82 (61%) physicians were on call for more than 72 consecutive hours on a regular basis. Of these, 79% did not have any training in coping with fatigue. In contrast, 72 out of 73 (99%) pilots and HCMs were on call for more than 3 days in a row. Of these, 54% did not have any training in coping with fatigue. Our study indicates a lack of simulation-based training and assessment. Pilots and HCMs train and are assessed more frequently than physicians. All professional groups are on call for extended hours, but receive limited training in how to cope with fatigue. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Gerdes, R. M.
A series of simulation and flight investigations were undertaken to evaluate helicopter flying qualities and the effects of control system augmentation for nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) agility and instrument flying tasks. Handling quality factors common to both tasks were identified. Precise attitude control was determined to be a key requirement for successful accomplishment of both tasks. Factors that degraded attitude controllability were improper levels of control sensitivity and damping, and rotor system cross coupling due to helicopter angular rate and collective pitch input. Application of rate command, attitude command, and control input decouple augmentation schemes enhanced attitude control and significantly improved handling qualities for both tasks. The NOE agility and instrument flying handling quality considerations, pilot rating philosophy, and supplemental flight evaluations are also discussed.
Full Text Available Planetary gear train plays a significant role in a helicopter operation and its health is of great importance for the flight safety of the helicopter. This paper investigates the effects of a planet carrier plate crack on the dynamic characteristics of a planetary gear train, and thus finds an effective method to diagnose crack fault. A dynamic model is developed to analyze the torsional vibration of a planetary gear train with a cracked planet carrier plate. The model takes into consideration nonlinear factors such as the time-varying meshing stiffness, gear backlash and viscous damping. Investigation of the deformation of the cracked carrier plate under static stress is performed in order to simulate the dynamic effects of the planet carrier crack on the angular displacement of carrier posts. Validation shows good accuracy of the developed dynamic model in predicting dynamic characteristics of a planetary gear train. Fault features extracted from predictions of the model reveal the correspondence between vibration characteristic and the conditions (length and position of a planet carrier crack clearly.
Schulz, Russel E.; And Others
The report, the first of two documents examining the relationship among job requirements, training, and manpower considerations for Army aviation maintenance Personnel, discusses the development of task data gathering techniques and procedures for incorporating this data into training programs for the UH-1 helicopter mechanic sPecialty (MOS…
Caro, Paul W., Jr.; And Others
As part of the Army's effort to use synthetic devices to improve training, researchers evaluated a captive helicopter attached to a ground effects machine. Experimental groups received varying amounts of pre-flight practice tasks designed to develop flight skills, while control groups received no device training. Student flight performance during…
Full Text Available Helicopter pilots exposed to high intensity noise and other risk factors had increased risk to be noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Therefore, it is beneficial to study several risk factors related to NIHL. This study was a nested case-control. Data was extracted from available medical records among helicopter pilots who performed routine aerophysiology training indoctrination (ILA during 1980 through March 2004 at Saryanto Institute for Aviation and Aerospace Medicine (Lakespra, Jakarta. Case was those who had audiogram with a notch of 40 dB or more and of 4000 Hertz on one site or bilateral ears. A case was matched by two controls who free from NIHL up to 2004. All risk factors for cases and controls were counted as of reference date of cases diagnosed. There were 187 medical records available for this study. A number of 32 cases and 64 controls were identified. The final model reveals that NIHL was related to total duration of works, flight hours, and blood pressure. Those who had 500 hours or more than less 500 hours had a moderate increased risk for 2.5 to be NIHL [Adjusted odds ratio (ORa= 2.50; 95% confidence intervals (CI = 0.66-9.29; p = 0.180]. Those who had total duration works 11-24 years had a moderate increased to be NIHL for 2.7 times (ORa = 2.71; 95% CI=0.90-8.10; p = 0.075. Furthermore, prehypertension and hypertension stage 1 subjects than normal blood pressure had moderate trend increased risk to be NIHL. In conclusion total flight hours for 500 hours or more, total duration works 11-24 years, or prehypertension and hypertension stage 1 increased risk NIHL. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:185-90 Keywords: noise induced hearing loss, flight hours, working duration, blood pressure
Gilson, R. D.; Dunn, R. S.; Sun, P.
A kinesthetic-tactual (K-T) display concept is now under research and development (R & D) at the Ohio State University. It appears to offer considerable promise for useful application in helicopters by conveying control information via the sense of touch. This is a review of the overall R & D program including the original K-T display design, initial studies in automobile and fixed-wing vehicles, and feasibility experiments in a helicopter simulator. In addition to investigations of control and potential workload reduction, present efforts are directed toward establishing optimal design requirements for K-T helicopter displays. Potential applications, modes of usage, and the kinds of information that may be displayed in helicopter applications are discussed along with a brief forecast of future R & D. A brief description of the latest multi-axis laboratory prototype K-T display is also provided.
A Lunar Landing Training Vehicle, piloted by Astronaut Neil Armstrong, goes through a checkout flight at Ellington Air Force Base on June 16, 1969. The total duration of the lunar simulation flight was five minutes and 59 seconds. Maximum altitude attained was about 300 feet.
Wang, M; Hu, N Q; Qin, G J
In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.
Wang, M; Hu, N Q; Qin, G J, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, Hunan, 410073 (China)
In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.
Casner, Stephen M; Geven, Richard W; Williams, Kent T
To evaluate the effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal in-flight events. Numerous accident reports describe situations in which pilots responded to abnormal events in ways that were different from what they had practiced many times before. One explanation for these missteps is that training and testing for these skills have become a highly predictable routine for pilots who arrive to the training environment well aware of what to expect. Under these circumstances, pilots get plentiful practice in responding to abnormal events but may get little practice in recognizing them and deciding which responses to offer. We presented 18 airline pilots with three abnormal events that are required during periodic training and testing. Pilots were presented with each event under the familiar circumstances used during training and also under less predictable circumstances as they might occur during flight. When presented in the routine ways seen during training, pilots gave appropriate responses and showed little variability. However, when the abnormal events were presented unexpectedly, pilots' responses were less appropriate and showed great variability from pilot to pilot. The results suggest that the training and testing practices used in airline training may result in rote-memorized skills that are specific to the training situation and that offer modest generalizability to other situations. We recommend a more complete treatment of abnormal events that allows pilots to practice recognizing the event and choosing and recalling the appropriate response. The results will aid the improvement of existing airline training practices.
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir
for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference...... between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from...
Speed IFR Instrument Flight Rules IM Instrument Display to Map IMC Instrument Meteorological Conditions IO Instrument Display to Out-of-the-Window...thesis. My deepest thanks go to Professors Quinn Kennedy and Ji-Hyun Yang for allowing me to run down to San Diego with their precious equipment to try...support concerning TOFT-2. A large “thank you” to CDR Jeff “Angry” Nolan, Chief Staff for the Helicopter Sea Combat Wing Pacific for tolerating my
Kang, Kyung-Wook; Shin, Young Ho; Kang, Seungcheol
Many countries have hypergravity training centers using centrifuges for pilots to cope with a high gravity (G) environment. The high G training carries potential risk for the development of spinal injury. However, no studies evaluated the influence of centrifuge training on the spines of asymptomatic fighter pilots on a large scale. Study subjects were 991 male fighter pilots with high G training at one institution. Subject variables included information about physical characteristics, flight hours of pilots prior to the training, and G force exposure related factors during training. The two dependent variables were whether the pilots developed acute spinal injury after training and the severity of the injury (major/minor). The incidence of acute spinal injury after high G training was 2.3% (23 of 991 subjects). There were 19 subjects who developed minor injury and 4 subjects who developed a herniated intervertebral disc, which is considered a major injury. In multivariate analysis, only the magnitude of G force during training was significantly related to the development of acute spinal injury. However, there was no significant factor related to the severity of the injury. These results suggest that high G training could cause negative effects on fighter pilots' spines. The magnitude of G force during training seemed to be the most significant factor affecting the occurrence of acute spinal injury.
To provide healthcare professionals with an insight into training in aviation and its possible transfer into surgery. From research online and into company archives, relevant publications and information were identified. Current airline pilot training consists of two categories, basic training and type-rating. Training methods comprise classroom instruction, computer-based training and practical training, in either the aircraft or a flight-training device, which ranges from a fixed-base flight-training device to a full flight simulator. Pilot training not only includes technical and procedural instruction, but also training in non-technical skills like crisis management, decision-making, leadership and communication. Training syllabuses, training devices and instructors are internationally standardized and these standards are legally binding. Re-qualification and recurrent training are mandatory at all stages of a pilot's and instructor's career. Surgeons and pilots have much in common, i.e., they work in a 'real-time' three-dimensional environment under high physiological and psychological stress, operating expensive equipment, and the ultimate cost for error is measured in human lives. However, their training differs considerably. Transferring these well-tried aviation methods into healthcare will make surgical training more efficient, more effective and ultimately safer.
Franks, Peter; Hay, Stephen; Mavin, Tim
Competency-based training (CBT) for pilots was formally introduced in 1999 by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) for training leading to the issue of aeroplane private and commercial pilot licences. This initiative followed the Australian government's introduction of CBT policy for vocational and workplace training in the late 1980's.…
One of the casual factors listed in a 1996 mid-air collision between two Australian Army helicopters in formation was a speculation of possible luminance imbalance between the right and left channels...
Hassan Mohammed, Mohammed Ahmed
For an efficient maintenance of a diverse fleet of air- and rotorcraft, effective condition based maintenance (CBM) must be established based on rotating components monitored vibration signals. In this dissertation, we present theory and applications of polyspectral signal processing techniques for condition monitoring of critical components in the AH-64D helicopter tail rotor drive train system. Currently available vibration-monitoring tools are mostly built around auto- and cross-power spectral analysis which have limited performance in detecting frequency correlations higher than second order. Studying higher order correlations and their Fourier transforms, higher order spectra, provides more information about the vibration signals which helps in building more accurate diagnostic models of the mechanical system. Based on higher order spectral analysis, different signal processing techniques are developed to assess health conditions of different critical rotating-components in the AH-64D helicopter drive-train. Based on cross-bispectrum, quadratic nonlinear transfer function is presented to model second order nonlinearity in a drive-shaft running between the two hanger bearings. Then, quadratic-nonlinearity coupling coefficient between frequency harmonics of the rotating shaft is used as condition metric to study different seeded shaft faults compared to baseline case, namely: shaft misalignment, shaft imbalance, and combination of shaft misalignment and imbalance. The proposed quadratic-nonlinearity metric shows better capabilities in distinguishing the four studied shaft settings than the conventional linear coupling based on cross-power spectrum. We also develop a new concept of Quadratic-Nonlinearity Power-Index spectrum, QNLPI(f), that can be used in signal detection and classification, based on bicoherence spectrum. The proposed QNLPI(f) is derived as a projection of the three-dimensional bicoherence spectrum into two-dimensional spectrum that
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir
/shoulder muscles to assess possible overload that may call for exercise training to improve capacity and prevent neck pain. Methods Nine pilots and nine crew members from the Royal Danish Air Force participated in a standardized representative flight sortie encompassing: Patient transportation (A-B flight...... with the flexed and/or rotated positioning of the head may play a role for the high prevalence of neck/shoulder pain among this occupational group. The present exposure-assessment suggests that strengthening exercises for the UNE, lowering the relative load during flights, could potentially alleviate neck pain....
Rosser, Timothy G.
Civilian pilot training has followed a traditional path for several decades. With a potential pilot shortage approaching, ICAO proposed a new paradigm in pilot training methodology called the Multi-Crew Pilot License. This new methodology puts a pilot in the cockpit of an airliner with significantly less flight time experience than the traditional methodology. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent gender, country of origin and pilot training methodology effect an aviation consumer's willingness to fly. Additionally, this study attempted to determine what emotions mediate a consumer's decision. This study surveyed participants from India and the United States to measure their willingness to fly using the Willingness to Fly Scale shown to be valid and reliable by Rice et al. (2015). The scale uses a five point Likert-type scale. In order to determine the mediating emotions, Ekman and Friesen's (1979) universal emotions, which are happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics are provided for respondent's age and willingness to fly values. An ANOVA was conducted to test the first four hypotheses and Hayes (2004, 2008) bootstrapping process was used for the mediation analysis. Results indicated a significant main effect for training, F(1,972) = 227.76, p . .001, etap 2 = 0.190, country of origin, F(1, 972) = 28.86, p relationship between training and country of origin, and training. The findings of this study are important to designers of MPL training programs and airline marketers.
... (Optimal Transition HC Allocation Model) that minimizes lost flying days. OTHCAM takes into account variable training durations, travel times and tour lengths as well as manpower and aircraft constraints...
Patrão, Luís; Zorro, Sara; Silva, Jorge; Castelo-Branco, Miguel; Ribeiro, João
Human factors and awareness of flight physiology play a crucial role in flight safety. Even so, international legislation is vague relative to training requirements in hypoxia and altitude physiology. Based on a previously developed survey, an adapted questionnaire was formulated and released online for Portuguese pilots. Specific questions regarding the need for pilot attention monitoring systems were added to the original survey. There were 117 pilots, 2 of whom were women, who completed the survey. Most of the pilots had a light aviation license and flew in unpressurized cabins at a maximum ceiling of 10,000 ft (3048 m). The majority of the respondents never experienced hypoxic symptoms. In general, most of the individuals agreed with the importance of an introductory hypoxia course without altitude chamber training (ACT) for all pilot populations, and with a pilot monitoring system in order to increase flight safety. Generally, most of the pilots felt that hypoxia education and training for unpressurized aircraft is not extensive enough. However, almost all the respondents were willing to use a flight physiology monitoring system in order to improve flight safety.
Van de Pol, Corina; Greig, Joanna L; Estrada, Art; Bissette, Gina M; Bower, Kraig S
Refractive surgery, specifically photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), is becoming more accepted in the military environment. Determination of the impact on visual performance in the more demanding aviation environment was the impetus for this study. A prospective evaluation of 20 Black Hawk pilots pre-surgically and at 1 wk, 1 mo, and 6 mo postsurgery was conducted to assess both PRK and LASIK visual and flight performance outcomes on the return of aviators to duty. Of 20 pilots, 19 returned to flight status at 1 mo after surgery; 1 PRK subject was delayed due to corneal haze and subjective visual symptoms. Improvements were seen under simulator night and night vision goggle flight after LASIK; no significant changes in flight performance were measured in the aircraft. Results indicated a significantly faster recovery of all visual performance outcomes 1 wk after LASIK vs. PRK, with no difference between procedures at 1 and 6 mo. Low contrast acuity and contrast sensitivity only weakly correlated to flight performance in the early post-operative period. Overall flight performance assessed in this study after PRK and LASIK was stable or improved from baseline, indicating a resilience of performance despite measured decrements in visual performance, especially in PRK. More visually demanding flight tasks may be impacted by subtle changes in visual performance. Contrast tests are more sensitive to the effects of refractive surgical intervention and may prove to be a better indicator of visual recovery for return to flight status.
Stewart, W. A.; Wainstein, E. S.
This document contains discussions of the following: The pilot career; Career and education; The pilot skill--definition, measurement, and retention; Relevance of training to combat; Selection; Motivation; Training innovations and the role of research; Simulators; The instructor pilot; Topics for research. (Author/CK)
Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Andersen, Christoffer Højnicke
) seldom, trained but stopped, 6) no participation at all. Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVC) and Rate of Force Development (RFD) for cervical flexion and extension were measured by strain-gauge transducers. Results Prevalence of neck pain was significantly reduced in ET from baseline (mean ± SD......Introduction Neck and shoulder pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots and a growing aero-medical concern. Unfortunately, previous intervention studies have been unsuccessful in relieving such pain within this occupational group. The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise...... intervention could reduce the high prevalence of neck pain among fighter pilots. Methods F-16 pilots were randomized in a controlled intervention trial, to either an exercise-training-group (ET, n=27) or reference-group (REF, n=28). ET underwent 24 weeks of strength, endurance, and coordination training, 3...
Van Raemdonck, Veerle; Aerenhouts, Dirk; Monsieurs, Koen; De Martelaer, Kristine
Objective: This study evaluated self-trained basic life support (BLS) skills acquired from an e-learning platform to design a complementary in-class training approach. Design: In total, 41 students (15–17 years, 29 men) participated in a pilot study on self-training in BLS. After 6 weeks, a
Van Raemdonck, Veerle; Aerenhouts, Dirk; Monsieurs, Koen; De Martelaer, Kristine
Objective: This study evaluated self-trained basic life support (BLS) skills acquired from an e-learning platform to design a complementary in-class training approach. Design: In total, 41 students (15-17 years, 29 men) participated in a pilot study on self-training in BLS. After 6 weeks, a compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) test…
Full Text Available Air transport development brings an increased focus on the safety of piloting. The safety conditions can be assessed by mental workload. Psychic discomfort or excessive stress on pilots can negatively influence the course of flights. Therefore it appears convenient to monitor such parameters, which represent the mental wellbeing, or discomfort of a pilot. Since physiological measurements can provide a good information about mental workload or stress, this work primarily focuses on the observation of the change in heart rate, as it is an indicator of stress during the training of pilots, using the designed modular telemetry system. Another aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of a change in the avionic data visualization. This can have an unfavorable effect on the piloting of an airplane. This work, based on the evaluation of heart rate shows, that the switch from analog visualization to glass cockpit creates increased levels of stress in pilots, which was proved for all examined subjects except one. Significant level of correlation in the heart beat rate change in subjects in the course of training was also discovered.
di Renzo, John Carl, Jr.
Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesis about pilot and instructor pilot perceptions of how effectively pilots learn and use new technology, found in Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA), given initial type of instrumentation training. New aviation technologies such as Glass Cockpits in technically advanced aircraft are complex and can be difficult to learn and use. The research questions focused on the type of initial instrumentation training to determine the differences among pilots trained using various types of instrumentation ranging from aircraft equipped with traditional analog instrumentation to aircraft equipped with glass cockpits. A convenience sample of Pilots in Training (PT) and Instructor Pilots (IP) was selected from a regional airline. The research design used a mixed methodology. Pilots in training completed a thirty-two question quantitative questionnaire and instructor pilots completed a five question qualitative questionnaire. Findings and conclusions. This investigation failed to disprove the null hypothesis. The type of instrumentation training has no significant effect on newly trained regional airline pilot perceived ability to adapt to advanced technology cockpits. Therefore, no evidence exists from this investigation to support the early introduction and training of TAA. While the results of this investigation were surprising, they are nonetheless, instructive. Even though it would seem that there would be a relationship between exposure to and use of technically advanced instrumentation, apparently there was no perceived relationship for this group of airline transport pilots. However, a point of interest is that these pilots were almost evenly divided in their opinion of whether or not their previous training had prepared them for transition to TAA. The majority also believed that the type of initial instrumentation training received does make a difference when transitioning to TAA. Pilots believed
Ilieva, K.; Manolova, M.; Belousov, S.
The pilot training results shown that the used approach is appropriate and could be disseminate among the interested parties. • The interest from the side of the different professionals is an important indicator about the necessity to care such courses for non-nuclear professionals.The effectiveness of the training program for non-nuclear specialists will be assessed using the replies of the Course evaluation form as well as the feedback from employers, trainers and observers
Survival training of military pilots in the Polish Army gains significance because polish pilots have taken part in more and more military missions. Prolonged exercise of moderate intensity with restricted sleep or sleep deprivation is known to deteriorate performance. The aim of the study was thus to determine the effects of a strenuous 36-hour exercise with restricted sleep on selected motor coordination and psychomotor indices. Thirteen military pilots aged 30-56 years were examined twice: pretraining and posttraining. The following tests were applied: running motor adjustment (15-m sprint, 3 × 5-m shuttle run, 15-m slalom, and 15-m squat), divided attention, dynamic body balance, handgrip strength differentiation. Survival training resulted in significant decreases in maximum handgrip strength (from 672 to 630 N), corrected 50% max handgrip (from 427 to 367 N), error 50% max (from 26 to 17%), 15-m sprint (from 5.01 to 4.64 m·s), and 15-m squat (2.20 to 1.98 m·s). The training improvements took place in divided attention test (from 48.2 to 57.2%). The survival training applied to pilots only moderately affected some of their motor adjustment skills, the divided attention, and dynamic body balance remaining unaffected or even improved. Further studies aimed at designing a set of tests for coordination motor skills and of soldiers' capacity to fight for survival under conditions of isolation are needed.
Plioutsias, Anastasios; Karanikas, Nektarios
This paper presents how the application of the STPA method might support the evaluation of fighter pilots training programs and trigger procedural and technological changes. We applied the STPA method by considering the safety constraints documented in the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) of a
Moritz, Eric J
.... This research examines most of the current databases used for tracking the flow and effectiveness of the different programs at Altus, including those employed by both training organizations, Boeing...
Ivanov, V V; Vorob'ev, O A; Snipkov, Iu Iu
The problem of spatial orientation of pilots flying high-altitude aircraft is in the focus of present-day aviation medicine because of a growing number of accidents in the air. One of the productive lines of research is to study spatial orientation in terms of active formation and maintenance of its imagery in a complex environment. However investigators usually emphasize the role of visual (instrumental) information in the image construction, almost ignoring the sensorimotor component of spatial orientation. The theoretical analysis of the process of spatial orientation has facilitated the development of the concept assuming that the pattern of space perception changes with growing professional experience. The concept is based on an active approach to the essence, emergence, formation and variation in the pattern of sensory perception of space in man's consciousness. This concept asserts that as pilot's professional expertise increases, the pattern of spatial orientation becomes geocentric because a new system of spatial perception evolves which is a result of the development of a new (instrumental) type of motor activity in space. This finds expression in the fact that perception of spatial position inflight occurs when man has to resolve a new motor task--movement along a complex trajectory in the three-dimensional space onboard a flying vehicle. The meaningful structure of this problem which is to be implemented through controlling movements of the pilot acts as a factor that forms this new system of perception. All this underlies the arrangement of meaningful collection of instrumental data and detection of noninstrumental signals in the comprehensive perception of changes in the spatial position of a flying vehicle.
The US state lawmakers are concerned with the budgets and management of public colleges, though with a little push from "helicopter parents" who hover over their college-age children and challenge administrative decisions, legislators are increasingly intervening in a range of student-life issues. Frequently, legislators who are parents…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter performance plan and operations... Helicopter performance plan and operations. (a) Each operator must complete a performance plan before each helicopter commercial air tour, or flight operated under 14 CFR 91.146 or 91.147. The pilot in command must...
Alagha, Babak; AhmadBeygi, Shervin; Ahmadbeigy, Shervin; Moosavi, Seyed Ali Javad; Jalali, Seyed Mahmood
Susceptibility to hypoxia is influenced by a multitude of factors, including fatigue, physical activity, illnesses, ambient temperature, rate of ascent, destination altitude, medications, and alcohol. Anecdotally, several reports have been made regarding changes in the form of hypoxia presentation in Iranian fighter pilots in the absence of these factors. This study focused specifically on the effect of pilot age on susceptibility to hypoxia and its initial presentation. We assumed that a pilot's age may increase his susceptibility to hypoxia and consequently reduce the amount of time it takes for hypoxia to present. Because our literature review did not reveal any previous study addressing the possible relationship between age and susceptibility to hypoxia, the purpose of this study is to address and clarify this relationship. In this retrospective study, we collected information from Iranian fighter pilots (n = 30) through an anonymous questionnaire in 2000. The form of hypoxia presentation of each subject was evaluated during five altitude chamber training (ACT) sessions that were conducted routinely from 1972 to 1984. To enhance the accuracy of the study's results, confounding factors such as prior hypoxia experience in an ACT session have been taken into consideration. The results revealed a statistically significant relationship between age and a change in the form of hypoxia presentation in our subjects. Increased age reduced the amount of time before the first individual hypoxia symptom appeared (P < .000002). Although having previous hypoxia experience may help pilots to recognize their symptoms earlier, its effect was not statistically significant (P < .18). A few changes in the nature of individual symptoms were observed; however, we did not find a meaningful statistical correlation between pilot age and change in the nature of symptoms. Susceptibility ot hypoxia increases with pilot age. Copyright © 2012 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by
Psychological research on pilot training. Was--sngton, D. C.: Army Air Force Aviation Psychology Program, Research Report No. 8, 1947. Ericksen, S. C. A review...10 15 20 su m I S =. 24 S". **muz . Atars &f 300ft. of clim (Mappro&W~may 15300’) a&& at J.5W f t. Soabding P. Mmcav ad nmur4 thwouoww.c tb. &*ou 25 mvi
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot and flight attendant crewmember... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1097 Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs. (a) Each program manager must establish and maintain an approved pilot training program...
In a world where funding is limited, training for healthcare professionals is turning more and more to distance learning in an effort to maintain a knowledgeable and skilled work force. In 2010, Cicatelli Associates, Inc. began exploring the feasibility of using games and virtual worlds as an alternative means to teach skills-training in a distance-learning environment. The pilot study was conducted with six individuals familiar with general counseling and communication skills used by the healthcare industry to promote behavior change. Participants reported that the venue, although challenging at first, showed great potential for use with healthcare providers, as it allowed for more interaction and activities than traditional Webinars. However, there are significant limitations that must be overcome in order for this healthcare training modality to be utilized on a large scale. These limitations included a lack of microgestures and issues regarding the technology being used. In spite of the limitations, however, the potential use of virtual worlds for the training of healthcare providers exists and should be researched further. This article discusses the need and intended benefits of virtual world training as well as the results and conclusions of the pilot study.
...) activation in helicopter pilots who had been deprived of sleep. Six Army helicopter pilots were each exposed to two 40-hour periods of continuous wakefulness separated by one night of recovery sleep...
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due
We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance...... increase in balancing performance (DGI score: 21.3) after short-term playful training with the modular interactive tiles, whereas the control group remained with a score indicating balancing problems and risk of falling (DGI score: 16.6). The small pilot randomized controlled trial suggests...... that the playful interaction with the modular interactive tiles has a significant effect even after a very short time of play. The average total training time to obtain the statistical significant effect amounted to just 2h45m....
... category and helicopter class rating. 61.161 Section 61.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... helicopter class rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating, must have at least 1,200 hours of total time as a pilot that...
multivariate correction method (Lawley, 1943) was used for all scores except the MAB FSIQ which used the univariate ( Thorndike , 1949) method. FSIQ... Thorndike , R. L. (1949). Personnel selection. NY: Wiley. Tupes, E. C., & Christal, R. C. (1961). Recurrent personality factors based on trait ratings... Thorndike , 1949). aThe correlations for 1995 were not corrected due to the small sample size (N = 17). *p< .05 Consistency of Pilot Attributes
.... The current level of airline safety has been achieved, in part, because the airline industry and government regulatory agencies have implemented rigorous pilot training and evaluation programs...
Background: Helicopter pilots are often exposed to periods of high heat strain, especially when wearing survival suits. Therefore, a prototype of a ventilated vest was evaluated on its capability to reduce the heat strain of helicopter pilots during a 2-h simulated flight. Hypothesis: It was
... required for aircraft certification and simulation programming and validation. (b) For each maneuver or... the data necessary for programming and for validating the performance of the FTD and discuss the... the FTD during the training, testing, or checking activities. r. Problems with objective test results...
Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to deal with unpredictable environments. Could impaired performances on learning an unpredictable cue-criteria relationship in a laboratory task be associated with impaired learning of complex skills in a natural setting? We focused on a multiple-cue probability learning (MCPL laboratory task and on the natural setting of pilot training. We used data from three selection sessions and from the three corresponding selected pilot student classes of a national airline pilot selection and training system. First, applicants took an MCPL task at the selection stage (N=556; N=701; N=412. Then, pilot trainees selected from the applicant pools (N=44; N=60; N=28 followed the training for 2.5 to 3 yrs. Differences in final MCPL performance were associated with pilot training difficulties. Indeed, poor MCPL performers experienced almost twice as many pilot training difficulties as better MCPL performers (44.0% and 25.0%, respectively.
Burke, Kevin M.; VanZante, Judith Foss; Bond, Thomas H.
Over the last five years, the Aircraft Icing Project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program has developed a number of in-flight icing education and training aids to support increased awareness for pilots of the hazards associated with atmospheric icing conditions. Through the development of this work, a number of new instructional design approaches and media delivery methods have been introduced to enhance the learning experience, expand user interactivity and participation, and, hopefully, increase the learner retention rates. The goal of using these multimedia techniques is to increase the effectiveness of the training materials. This paper will describe the mutlimedia technology that has been introduced and give examples of how it was used.
Lloyd, Charles W.; Olivotto, C.; Boese, A.; Spiero, F.; Galoforo, G.; Niihori, M.
Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut is an international educational challenge focusing on fitness and nutrition as we encourage students to "train like an astronaut." Teams of students (aged 8-12) learn principles of healthy eating and exercise, compete for points by finishing training modules, and get excited about their future as "fit explorers." The 18 core exercises (targeting strength, endurance, coordination, balance, spatial awareness, and more) involve the same types of skills that astronauts learn in their training and use in spaceflight. This first-of-its-kind cooperative outreach program has allowed 14 space agencies and various partner institutions to work together to address quality health/fitness education, challenge students to be more physically active, increase awareness of the importance of lifelong health and fitness, teach students how fitness plays a vital role in human performance for exploration, and inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in STEM fields. The project was initiated in 2009 in response to a request by the International Space Life Sciences Working Group. USA, Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Colombia, Spain, and United Kingdom hosted teams for the pilot this past spring, and Japan held a modified version of the challenge. Several more agencies provided input into the preparations. Competing on 131 teams, more than 3700 students from 40 cities worldwide participated in the first round of Mission X. OUTCOMES AND BEST PRACTICES Members of the Mission X core team will highlight the outcomes of this international educational outreach pilot project, show video highlights of the challenge, provide the working group s initial assessment of the project and discuss the future potential of the effort. The team will also discuss ideas and best practices for international partnership in education outreach efforts from various agency perspectives and experiences
Demerouti, Evangelia; Veldhuis, Wouter; Coombes, Claire; Hunter, Rob
In this study among airline pilots, we aim to uncover the work characteristics (job demands and resources) and the outcomes (job crafting, happiness and simulator training performance) that are related to burnout for this occupational group. Using a large sample of airline pilots, we showed that 40% of the participating pilots experience high burnout. In line with Job Demands-Resources theory, job demands were detrimental for simulator training performance because they made pilots more exhausted and less able to craft their job, whereas job resources had a favourable effect because they reduced feelings of disengagement and increased job crafting. Moreover, burnout was negatively related to pilots' happiness with life. These findings highlight the importance of psychosocial factors and health for valuable outcomes for both pilots and airlines. Practitioner Summary: Using an online survey among the members of a European pilots' professional association, we examined the relationship between psychosocial factors (work characteristics, burnout) and outcomes (simulator training performance, happiness). Forty per cent of the participating pilots experience high burnout. Job demands were detrimental, whereas job resources were favourable for simulator training performance/happiness. Twitter text: 40% of airline pilots experience burnout and psychosocial work factors and burnout relate to performance at pilots' simulator training.
Mendoza, Jason A; Haaland, Wren; Jacobs, Maya; Abbey-Lambertz, Mark; Miller, Josh; Salls, Deb; Todd, Winifred; Madding, Rachel; Ellis, Katherine; Kerr, Jacqueline
Increasing children's cycling to school and physical activity are national health goals. The objective was to conduct an RCT of a bicycle train program to assess impact on students' school travel mode and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Pilot cluster RCT with randomization at the school level and N=54 participants. Fourth-fifth graders from four public schools serving low-income families in Seattle, WA in 2014 with analyses in 2015-2016. All participants were provided and fitted with bicycles, safety equipment (helmets, locks, and lights), and a 2- to 3-hour bicycle safety course. The intervention was a bicycle train offered daily (i.e., students volunteered to cycle with study staff to and from school). Time 1 assessments occurred prior to randomization. Time 2 assessments occurred after 3-5 weeks of the intervention (i.e., during Weeks 4-6 of the intervention period). The primary outcome was the percentage of daily commutes to school by cycling measured by validated survey. MVPA, measured by accelerometry and GPS units and processed by machine learning algorithms, was a secondary outcome. For two separate adjusted repeated measures linear mixed effects models in which students (N=54) were nested within schools (N=4), intervention participants had: (1) an absolute increase in mean percentage of daily commutes by cycling of 44.9%, (95% CI=26.8, 63.0) and (2) an increase in mean MVPA of 21.6 minutes/day, (95% CI=8.7, 34.6) from Time 1 to Time 2 compared with controls. A pilot bicycle train intervention increased cycling to school and daily MVPA in the short term among diverse, inner-city elementary school students. The bicycle train intervention appears promising and warrants further experimental trials among large, diverse samples with longer follow-up. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02006186. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leira, Enrique C; Zaheer, Asgar; Schnell, Thomas; Torner, James C; Olalde, Heena M; Pieper, Andrew A; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Nagaraja, Nandakumar; Marks, Nancy L; Adams, Harold P
Patients often suffer a stroke at a significant distance from a center capable of delivering endovascular therapy, thus requiring rapid transport by helicopter emergency medical services while receiving a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator infusion that was initiated locally. But little is known about how a helicopter flight may impact the safety and efficacy of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator-induced reperfusion and patient outcomes. To establish a new animal method to address with fidelity the safety and overall effect of helicopter emergency medical services during thrombolysis. Prospective randomized open blinded end-point study of an actual helicopter flight exposure. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were treated with a 10 mg/kg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator infusion two-hours after an embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Mice were randomized in pairs to simultaneously receive the infusion during a local helicopter flight or in a ground hangar. Eighteen mice (nine pairs) were analyzed. The paired t-test analysis showed nonsignificant smaller infarction volumes in the helicopter-assigned animals (mean pair difference 33 mm(3) , P = 0·33). The amount of hemorrhagic transformation between the helicopter and ground groups was 4·08 vs. 4·56 μl, respectively (paired t-test, P = 0·45). This study shows that helicopter emergency medical services do not have an inherent adverse effect on outcome in a mouse model of ischemic stroke with reperfusion. These results endorse the safety of the practice of using helicopter emergency medical services in stroke patients. The observed potential synergistic effect of helicopter-induced factors, such as vibration and changes in altitude, with reperfusion merits further exploration in animal experimental models and in stroke patients. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
Conclusion: This study provides an initial proof of concept for online social cognition training in schizophrenia. This form of training demonstrated feasibility and resulted in within-subject gains in social functioning and motivation. This pilot study represents a first step towards validating this training approach; randomized controlled trials, now underway, are designed to confirm and extend these findings.
STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, Jr., pilot, works with his life raft during emergency bailout training for crew members in the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). Brown will join five other astronauts for nine days aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour next month.
Mishra, Anuradha; Browning, David; Haviland, Miriam J; Jackson, Mary Lou; Luff, Donna; Meyer, Elaine C; Talcott, Katherine; Kloek, Carolyn E
To conduct a needs assessment to identify gaps in communication skills training in ophthalmology residency programs and to use these results to pilot a communication workshop that prepares residents for difficult conversations. A mixed-methods design was used to perform the needs assessment. A pre-and postsurvey was administered to workshop participants. Mass Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School (HMS), Department of Ophthalmology. HMS ophthalmology residents from postgraduate years 2-4 participated in the needs assessment and the workshop. Ophthalmology residency program directors in the United States participated in national needs assessment. Ophthalmology program directors across the United States were queried on their perception of resident communication skills training through an online survey. A targeted needs assessment in the form of a narrative exercise captured resident perspectives on communication in ophthalmology from HMS residents. A group of HMS residents participated in the pilot workshop and a pre- and postsurvey was administered to participants to assess its effectiveness. The survey of program directors yielded a response rate of 40%. Ninety percent of respondents agreed that the communication skills training in their programs could be improved. Fifteen of 24 residents (62%) completed the needs assessment. Qualitative analysis of the narrative material revealed four themes; (1) differing expectations, (2) work role and environment, (3) challenges specific to ophthalmology, and (4) successful strategies adopted. Nine residents participated in the workshop. There was a significant improvement post-workshop in resident reported scores on their ability to manage their emotions during difficult conversations (p = 0.03). There is an opportunity to improve communication skills training in ophthalmology residency through formalized curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, seated at the pilots station on the forward flight deck, reviews checklists before a flight simulation in the Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Surrounding Henricks are the seat back, the overhead panels, forward panels, and forward windows.
Larson, Douglas Andrew
A twenty-year forecast predicting significant increases in global air transportation portends a need to increase the capacity and effectiveness of initial pilot training. In addition to quantitative concerns related to the supply of new pilots, industry leaders have expressed dissatisfaction with the qualitative output of current aviation training…
Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.
This technical manual was designed to assist applicants preparing for the private, commercial, and flight instructor pilot certificates with a helicopter rating. The chapters outline general aerodynamics, aerodynamics of flight, loads and load factors, function of controls, other helicopter components and their functions, introduction to the…
The Apollo 9 prime crew participates in water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Being hoisted up to the U.S. Coast Guard helicopter in a new type of rescue net (called a Billy Pugh net) is Astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot. Sitting in the life raft awaiting their turn for helicopter pickup are Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart (on left), lunar module pilot; and James A. McDivitt, commander. A team of Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) swimmers assisted in the training exercise.
Smith, Marianne; Stolder, Mary Ellen; Jaggers, Benjamin; Liu, Megan; Haedke, Chris
Late-life depression is common among nursing home residents, but often is not addressed by nurses. Using a self-directed, CD-based depression training program, this pilot study used mixed methods to assess feasibility issues, determine nurse perceptions of training, and evaluate depression-related outcomes among residents in usual care and training conditions. Of 58 nurses enrolled, 24 completed the training and gave it high ratings. Outcomes for 50 residents include statistically significant...
Morgan, Sarah L; Palagi, Patricia M; Fernandes, Pedro L; Koperlainen, Eija; Dimec, Jure; Marek, Diana; Larcombe, Lee; Rustici, Gabriella; Attwood, Teresa K; Via, Allegra
One of the main goals of the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE project from the European Union's Horizon 2020 programme is to support a pan-European training programme to increase bioinformatics capacity and competency across ELIXIR Nodes. To this end, a Train-the-Trainer (TtT) programme has been developed by the TtT subtask of EXCELERATE's Training Platform, to try to expose bioinformatics instructors to aspects of pedagogy and evidence-based learning principles, to help them better design, develop and deliver high-quality training in future. As a first step towards such a programme, an ELIXIR-EXCELERATE TtT (EE-TtT) pilot was developed, drawing on existing 'instructor training' models, using input both from experienced instructors and from experts in bioinformatics, the cognitive sciences and educational psychology. This manuscript describes the process of defining the pilot programme, illustrates its goals, structure and contents, and discusses its outcomes. From Jan 2016 to Jan 2017, we carried out seven pilot EE-TtT courses (training more than sixty new instructors), collaboratively drafted the training materials, and started establishing a network of trainers and instructors within the ELIXIR community. The EE-TtT pilot represents an essential step towards the development of a sustainable and scalable ELIXIR TtT programme. Indeed, the lessons learned from the pilot, the experience gained, the materials developed, and the analysis of the feedback collected throughout the seven pilot courses have both positioned us to consolidate the programme in the coming years, and contributed to the development of an enthusiastic and expanding ELIXIR community of instructors and trainers.
Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars; Bopp, Micha; Hofmann, Sara; Erlacher, Daniel; Zahner, Lukas
Many accidents at construction sites are due to falls. An exercise-based workplace intervention may improve intrinsic fall risk factors. In this pilot study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of neuromuscular exercise on static and functional balance performance as well as on lower limb explosive power in construction workers. Healthy middle-aged construction workers were non-randomly assigned to an intervention [N = 20, age = 40.3 (SD 8.3) years] or a control group [N = 20, age = 41.8 (9.9) years]. The intervention group performed static and dynamic balance and strength exercises (13 weeks, 15 min each day). Before and after the intervention and after an 8-week follow-up, unilateral postural sway, backward balancing (on 3- and 4.5-cm-wide beams) as well as vertical jump height were assessed. We observed a group × time interaction for postural sway (p = 0.002) with a reduction in the intervention group and no relevant change in the control group. Similarly, the number of successful steps while walking backwards on the 3-cm beam increased only in the intervention group (p = 0.047). These effects were likely to most likely practically beneficial from pretest to posttest and to follow-up test for postural sway (+12%, standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.65 and 17%, SMD = 0.92) and backward balancing on the 3-cm beam (+58%, SMD = 0.59 and 37%, SMD = 0.40). Fifteen minutes of neuromuscular training each day can improve balance performance in construction workers and, thus, may contribute to a decreased fall risk.
Petrella, Robert J; Gill, Dawn P; Zou, Guangyong; DE Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Bartol, Cassandra; Danylchuk, Karen; Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Bunn, Christopher; Zwarenstein, Merrick
Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) is a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program. We investigated 1) feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight and obese men into a pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial and 2) potential for Hockey FIT to lead to weight loss and improvements in other outcomes at 12 wk and 12 months. Male fans of two ice hockey teams (35-65 yr; body mass index ≥28 kg·m) located in Ontario (Canada) were randomized to intervention (Hockey FIT) or comparator (wait-list control). Hockey FIT includes a 12-wk active phase (weekly, coach-led group meetings including provision of dietary information, practice of behavior change techniques, and safe exercise sessions plus incremental pedometer walking) and a 40-wk minimally supported phase (smartphone app for sustaining physical activity, private online social network, standardized e-mails, booster session/reunion). Measurement at baseline and 12 wk (both groups) and 12 months (intervention group only) included clinical outcomes (e.g., weight) and self-reported physical activity, diet, and self-rated health. Eighty men were recruited in 4 wk; trial retention was >80% at 12 wk and >75% at 12 months. At 12 wk, the intervention group lost 3.6 kg (95% confidence interval, -5.26 to -1.90 kg) more than the comparator group (P < 0.001) and maintained this weight loss to 12 months. The intervention group also demonstrated greater improvements in other clinical measures, physical activity, diet, and self-rated health at 12 wk; most sustained to 12 months. Results suggest feasible recruitment/retention of overweight and obese men in the Hockey FIT program. Results provide evidence for the potential effectiveness of Hockey FIT for weight loss and improved health in at-risk men and, thus, evidence to proceed with a definitive trial.
A computationally efficient, semiempirical noise model suitable for maneuvering flight noise prediction is used to evaluate the community noise impact of practical variations on several helicopter flight procedures typical of normal operations. Turns, "quick-stops," approaches, climbs, and combinations of these maneuvers are assessed. Relatively small variations in flight procedures are shown to cause significant changes to Sound Exposure Levels over a wide area. Guidelines are developed for helicopter pilots intended to provide effective strategies for reducing the negative effects of helicopter noise on the community. Finally, direct optimization of flight trajectories is conducted to identify low noise optimal flight procedures and quantify the magnitude of community noise reductions that can be obtained through tailored helicopter flight procedures. Physically realizable optimal turns and approaches are identified that achieve global noise reductions of as much as 10 dBA Sound Exposure Level.
STS-31 Pilot Charles F. Bolden holds three beverage containers while in front of the galley on the middeck of the fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) during a training simulation at JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. From the middeck, Bolden, wearing lightweight headset, simulates a communications link with ground controllers and fellow crewmembers.
The prime crew of the Apollo 8 mission in life raft awaiting pickup by U.S. Coast Guard helicopter during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. They had just egressed Apollo Boilerplate 1102A, at left. Inflated bags were used to upright the boilerplate. Left to right, are Astronauts William A. Anders, lunar module pilot; James A. Lovell Jr., command module pilot; and Frank Borman, commander. A team of Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) swimmers assisted with the training exercise.
Verhelst, Helena; Vander Linden, Catharine; Vingerhoets, Guy; Caeyenberghs, Karen
Computerized cognitive training programs have previously shown to be effective in improving cognitive abilities in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). These studies often focused on a single cognitive function or required expensive hardware, making it difficult to be used in a home-based environment. This pilot feasibility study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a newly developed, home-based, computerized cognitive training program for adolescents who suffered from TBI. Additionally, feasibility of study design, procedures, and measurements were examined. Case series, longitudinal, pilot, feasibility intervention study with one baseline and two follow-up assessments. Nine feasibility outcome measures and criteria for success were defined, including accessibility, training motivation/user experience, technical smoothness, training compliance, participation willingness, participation rates, loss to follow-up, assessment timescale, and assessment procedures. Five adolescent patients (four boys, mean age = 16 years 7 months, standard deviation = 9 months) with moderate to severe TBI in the chronic stage were recruited and received 8 weeks of cognitive training with BrainGames. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated to determine possible training-related effects. The new cognitive training intervention, BrainGames, and study design and procedures proved to be feasible; all nine feasibility outcome criteria were met during this pilot feasibility study. Estimates of effect sizes showed small to very large effects on cognitive measures and questionnaires, which were retained after 6 months. Our pilot study shows that a longitudinal intervention study comprising our novel, computerized cognitive training program and two follow-up assessments is feasible in adolescents suffering from TBI in the chronic stage. Future studies with larger sample sizes will evaluate training-related effects on cognitive functions and underlying brain structures.
Wiener, Earl L.; Chute, Rebecca D.; Moses, John H.
This report examines the activities of a major commercial air carrier between 1993 and late 1996 as it acquired an advanced fleet of high-technology aircraft (Boeing 757). Previously, the airline's fleet consisted of traditional (non-glass) aircraft, and this report examines the transition from a traditional fleet to a glass one. A total of 150 pilots who were entering the B-757 transition training volunteered for the study, which consisted of three query phases: (1) first day of transition training, (2) 3 to 4 months after transition training, and (3) 12 to 14 months after initial operating experience. Of these initial 150 pilots, 99 completed all three phases of the study, with each phase consisting of probes on attitudes and experiences associated with their training and eventual transition to flying the line. In addition to the three questionnaires, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted. Although the primary focus of this study was on the flight training program, additional factors such as technical support, documentation, and training aids were investigated as well. The findings generally indicate that the pilot volunteers were highly motivated and very enthusiastic about their training program. In addition, the group had low levels of apprehension toward automation and expressed a high degree of satisfaction toward their training. However, there were some concerns expressed regarding the deficiencies in some of the training aids and lack of a free-play flight management system training device.
Kristensen, Lars Askær; Grøndberg, Thomas Stig; Murray, Mike
INTRODUCTION Flight related neck and shoulder pain is a frequent problem in helicopter pilots and crew . Pain causes personnel suffering, reduces operational capabilities and incurs high financial cost due to the loss of manpower. Evidence suggests that the occupational loading such as posture...... adopted during flight and increased weight added to the mass of the head due to the helmet and night vision equipment contribute to the development of neck and shoulder pain. Strength training has among other occupational groups been found to reduce musculoskeletal pain . A 20-week exercise program...... for the neck and shoulder muscles using elastic bands has been applied for helicopter pilots and crew in the Royal Danish Air Force to prevent and reduce pain. The exercise program had an initial loading of 20RM and was increased progressively towards 12RM in the final weeks. A muscle activity >60% MVE...
Smith, Marianne; Stolder, Mary Ellen; Jaggers, Benjamin; Liu, Megan Fang; Haedtke, Chris
Late-life depression is common among nursing home residents, but often is not addressed by nurses. Using a self-directed CD-based depression training program, this pilot study used mixed methods to assess feasibility issues, determine nurse perceptions of training, and evaluate depression-related outcomes among residents in usual care and training conditions. Of 58 nurses enrolled, 24 completed the training and gave it high ratings. Outcomes for 50 residents include statistically significant reductions in depression severity over time (p Depression training is an important vehicle to improve depression recognition and daily nursing care, but diverse factors must be addressed to assure optimal outcomes.
assessing the general intelligence and neuropsychological aptitudes of USAF RPA pilot training candidates. Chappelle et al. obtained comprehensive...computer-based intelligence testing (Multidimensional Aptitude Battery-Second Edition [MAB-II]) and neuropsychological screening (MicroCog) on USAF MQ-1... schizophrenia , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders) and not on very high functioning populations such as aviators
THESIS AN EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF ISD TO P-3 PILOT TRAINING by William Allen. Snider June 1980 Thesis Advisor: J. K. Arima Approved for...also from quasi-governmental agencies such as RAND and HUMRRO, saw great potential in the use of techniques such as modelling to increase the precision...scores. The preceding discussion suggests that organizational climate , as well as experience, is strongly related to pilot performance on NATOPS
Simons, Robert Marchand
This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…
Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Ylinen, Jari; Siitonen, Simo
Fighter pilots' muscular strength and endurance are subjected to very high demands. Pilots' fatigued muscles are at higher risk for injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different training methods in reducing muscular loading during in-flight and cervical loading testing (CLT). There were 16 volunteer Finnish Air Force cadets who were divided into 2 groups: a strength training group (STG) and a trampoline training group (TTG). During the 6-wk training period, the STG performed dynamic flexion and extension and isometric rotation exercises, and the TTG performed trampoline bouncing exercises. During in-flight and CLT, muscle strain from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical erector spinae, trapezius, and thoracic erector spinae muscles was recorded with EMG. In-flight muscle strain in the STG after the training period decreased in the sternocleidomastoid 50%, cervical erector spinae 3%, trapezius 4%, and thoracic erector spinae 8%. In the TTG, the decrease was 41%, 30%, 20%, and 6%, respectively. In CLT, the results were similar. After a 3-mo follow-up period with intensive high +Gz flying, EMG during CLT was still lower than in baseline measurements. Both training methods were found to be effective in reducing muscle strain during in-flight and CLT, especially in the cervical muscles. There was no statistically significant difference between the training groups. Introduced exercises expand muscles' capacities in different ways and the authors recommend both strength and trampoline training programs to be included in fighter pilots' physical education programs.
Muharemovic, O; Troelsen, A; Thomsen, M G
INTRODUCTION: Producing x-ray images for radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a demanding technique. Suboptimal examinations result in a high percentage of exposure repetition. The aim of this pilot study was to use an experiential training approach to sharpen the skills of radiographers in acquir......INTRODUCTION: Producing x-ray images for radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a demanding technique. Suboptimal examinations result in a high percentage of exposure repetition. The aim of this pilot study was to use an experiential training approach to sharpen the skills of radiographers...
Alhassan, Munkaila; Habib, Abdallah Mohammed
Polytechnics in Ghana view Competency Based Training (CBT) as a major intervention to the perennial constraints confronting its education and training. On the basis of this, and by government policy, a pilot programme of CBT was instituted in all the 10 polytechnics of Ghana, and was pilot tested in, at least, one department. Agricultural…
training philosophy in their initial qualification unit. Later, when they implemented the same training philosophy at the operational combat units, crew...flying “the matrix,” referencing the Hollywood film portraying an extremely complex reality.6 The MQ-9’s cockpit design does not contribute to...training philosophy at the initial qualification course and operational squadrons in an attempt to improve situational awareness and decision- making
... Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R44 and R44 II helicopters equipped with emergency floats. This AD..., contact Robinson Helicopter Company, 2901 Airport Drive, Torrance, CA 90505; telephone (310) 539-0508; fax...
Wallen, Erik S; Mulloy, Karen B
Occupational diseases are a significant problem affecting public health. Safety training is an important method of preventing occupational illness. Training is increasingly being delivered by computer although theories of learning from computer-based multimedia have been tested almost entirely on college students. This study was designed to determine whether these theories might also be applied to safety training applications for working adults. Participants viewed either computer-based multimedia respirator use training with concurrent narration, narration prior to the animation, or unrelated safety training. Participants then took a five-item transfer test which measured their ability to use their knowledge in new and creative ways. Participants who viewed the computer-based multimedia trainings both did significantly better than the control group on the transfer test. The results of this pilot study suggest that design guidelines developed for younger learners may be effective for training workers in occupational safety and health although more investigation is needed.
Vugs, B.A.M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cuperus, J.M.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-based executive function (EF) training in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Ten children with SLI, ages 8 to 12 years, completed a 25-session training of visuospatial working memory, inhibition and cognitive
leadership / management theory complete with a specific vocabulary. This new vocabulary allows the graduate to be able to converse easier with...AD-AlG 9 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA F/S 5/1 LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT EDUCATION AND TRAINING (LMET) EFFECTI-ECU UNLSIID JUN 81 D L...TITLE (A~d 8ItI. )o------~. .hss COVERED Leadership and Management Education and Training 198 (LMET) Effectiveness: A Pilot-Study for 6-- . *P.W..@*.On
Wimmer, Lena; Bellingrath, Silja; von Stockhausen, Lisa
The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group), a concentration training (active control group), or no treatment (passive control group). Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004), effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility...
François de Kock
Full Text Available Pilot selection is a form of high-stakes selection due to the massive costs of training, high trainee ability requirements and costly repercussions of poor selection decisions. This criterion-related validation study investigated the predictive ability of fluid intelligence and spatial reasoning in predicting three criteria of pilot training performance, using an accumulated sample of South African Air Force pilots (N = 108. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses with training grade achieved as criterion were performed for each of the phases of training, namely practical flight training, ground school training, and officers’ formative training. Multiple correlations of 0.35 (p 0.05 and 0.23 (p > 0.05 were obtained for flight, ground school and formative training results, respectively. Spatial ability had incremental validity over fluid intelligence for predicting flight training performance.
Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Heung, Kitty
Objectives: The study reported the pilot evaluation of the Healthy Start Home Visit Program for disadvantaged Chinese parents with preschool children, delivered by trained parent assistants. Home visiting was used to make services more accessible to disadvantaged families. Method: The participants included 21 parent-child dyads. Outcome measures…
Schoemaker, M.M.; Niemeijer, A.S.; Reynders, K.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.
The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Neuromotor Task Training (NTT), recently developed for the treatment of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) by pediatric physical therapists in the Netherlands. NTT is a task-oriented treatment program based upon
Ribeiro, Mônica Medeiros; Lima, Isabela; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro; Lage, Guilherme; Pimentel, Lucia Gouvêa; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio
This study assessed the effect of the Body Rhythmics (BRIM) on actors' attentional processes. BRIM is a combination of exercises using numbers and rules that enact musical parameters in the moving body through displacements. Male actors (N = 22) participated in the study: 7 in the BRIM (Study) group and 15 in the Control group (groups were equivalent on mean Raven's IQ). The Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II) was administered before and after an intensive period of BRIM training. There was no significant difference on the CPT-II before training. Group results for before vs after training showed a significant difference for reaction time for the Study group. There was also a trend to increased errors of commission in the Study group after BRIM training.
Paddock, Michael T; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J
Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants' FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group's skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between
Hassler, Marco Ronald; Elandt, Katarzyna; Preusser, Matthias; Lehrner, Johann; Binder, Petra; Dieckmann, Karin; Rottenfusser, Andrea; Marosi, Christine
Although their neurocognitive performance is one of the major concerns of patients with high-grade gliomas (HGG) and although neurocognitive deficits have been described to be associated with negative outcome, neurocognitive rehabilitation is usually not integrated into the routine care of patients with malignant gliomas. In this pilot trial, a weekly group training session for attention, verbal, and memory skills was offered to patients with HGG with pre and post-training evaluation. Eleven patients, six with glioblastoma multiforme and five with WHO grade III gliomas, median age 50 years, with a Karnofsky performance score of 80-100 participated in ten group training sessions of 90 min. For evaluation at baseline and after the training by a neuropsychologist not involved in care or training of the patients, Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA and TMTB), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWA) were used. Comparison of mean group differences between baseline and at post-training evaluation after 12 weeks revealed improvement across all neurocognitive variables. The patients showed a great diversity in their performances, with worsening, improvement, and stabilization. However, a significant group difference was detected only for the HVLT (score 19.6 +/- 8.9 at baseline, 23.6 +/- 8.8 after 12 weeks, P = 0.04). This pilot study shows that neurocognitive training in patients with HGG is feasible as group training with weekly sessions and might be able to induce improvements in attention and memory skills.
... unsafe condition for the Bell Model 430 helicopters. Discrepancies in the processing and display of air... pilot and copilot electronic attitude direction indicators airspeed indicators; [cir] Leak testing the... and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons discussed, I certify this...
Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A.
An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed.
Vando, Stefano; Unim, Brigid; Cassarino, Salvatore A; Padulo, Johnny; Masala, Daniele
Background: the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether proprioceptive-motor training using the Wii Balance Board (WBB) might improve postural sway in healthy subjects.Methods: twenty-five healthy subjects were trained for six weeks (two sessions per week) with 5 “video games”: Wii Fit Plus (WFP) program. Before and after training: Basic Balance, Single-leg Balance, Agility, Stability and Motion (lower limb: right-left and both leg) were measured using the Wii Balance Board.Results: t...
Combs-Miller, Stephanie A; Kalpathi Parameswaran, Anu; Colburn, Dawn; Ertel, Tara; Harmeyer, Amanda; Tucker, Lindsay; Schmid, Arlene A
To compare the effects of body weight-supported treadmill training and overground walking training when matched for task and dose (duration/frequency/intensity) on improving walking function, activity, and participation after stroke. Single-blind, pilot randomized controlled trial with three-month follow-up. University and community settings. A convenience sample of participants (N = 20) at least six months post-stroke and able to walk independently were recruited. Thirty-minute walking interventions (body weight-supported treadmill training or overground walking training) were administered five times a week for two weeks. Intensity was monitored with the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale at five-minute increments to maintain a moderate training intensity. Walking speed (comfortable/fast 10-meter walk), walking endurance (6-minute walk), spatiotemporal symmetry, and the ICF Measure of Participation and ACTivity were assessed before, immediately after, and three months following the intervention. The overground walking training group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in comfortable walking speed compared with the body weight-supported treadmill training group immediately (change of 0.11 m/s vs. 0.06 m/s, respectively; p = 0.047) and three months (change of 0.14 m/s vs. 0.08 m/s, respectively; p = 0.029) after training. Only the overground walking training group significantly improved comfortable walking speed (p = 0.001), aspects of gait symmetry (p = 0.032), and activity (p = 0.003) immediately after training. Gains were maintained at the three-month follow-up (p training was more beneficial than body weight-supported treadmill training at improving self-selected walking speed for the participants in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.
Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S H; Twilhaar, E Sabrina; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Veen, Heske G; Prins, Pier J M; van Kaam, Anton H L C; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G
Attention problems are one of the most pronounced and documented consequences of very preterm birth (gestational age ≤32 weeks). However, up to now, there is no research published on suitable interventions at school age aimed to overcome these problems. Research in this population did show that executive functions (EFs) are strongly associated with inattention. BrainGame Brian is a newly developed computerized training, in which, in 25 training sessions, the core EFs, including working memory, impulse control, and cognitive flexibility, are trained. This pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of studying BrainGame Brian in very preterm-born children with attention problems. Pilot feasibility intervention study with one baseline and one follow-up assessment. Feasibility was measured by the participation rate, dropout rate, and user experiences with regard to effort, training characteristics, and recommendation to others. From a larger cohort study, 15 very preterm-born children at age 10 years with parent-reported attention problems on the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18 years were invited to participate in this pilot study. BrainGame Brian was performed for a period of 6 weeks. Training outcome measures included visual working memory, impulse control, cognitive flexibility, speed variability, and parent-rated attention, for which pre- and post-training differences were examined at the group level by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test as well as for each individual child separately by the reliable change index. Twelve of 15 children and their parents agreed to participate and 11 children successfully completed BrainGame Brian in the 6-week period. Parents were positive about training characteristics and lack of interference with schooling, but scored the effort as high. We found clinically significant changes in visual working memory and speed variability in post-training assessments. BrainGame Brian is a feasible intervention for very preterm-born children with
Alcorn, Joseph L; Pike, Erika; Stoops, William S; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R
Disrupted response inhibition and presence of drug-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals have predicted poor treatment outcomes. Inhibitory control training could help improve treatment outcomes by strengthening cognitive control. This pilot study assessed the effects of acute inhibitory control training to drug- and non-drug-related cues on response inhibition performance and cocaine-cue attentional bias in cocaine-using individuals. Participants who met criteria for a cocaine-use disorder underwent five sessions of inhibitory control training to either non-drug-related cues (i.e., rectangles) or cocaine cues (n=10/condition) in a single day. Response inhibition and attentional bias were assessed prior to and following training using the stop-signal task and visual-probe task with eye tracking, respectively. Training condition groups did not differ on demographics, inhibitory control training performance, response inhibition, or cocaine-cue attentional bias. Response inhibition performance improved as a function of inhibitory control training in both conditions. Cocaine-cue attentional bias was observed, but did not change as a function of inhibitory control training in either condition. Response inhibition in cocaine-using individuals was augmented by acute inhibitory control training, which may improve treatment outcomes through better behavioral inhibition. Future studies should investigate longer-term implementation of inhibitory control training, as well as combining inhibitory control training with other treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Name Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Development Estimate) Defense Acquisition... Helicopter (CRH) system will provide Personnel Recovery (PR) forces with a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that is quickly deployable and
Moebius, Siegurd; Bickel, Angela; Schmitt-Hannig, Annemarie; Coeck, Michele
A suitable qualification for responsible personnel in Radiation Protection (RP) must be in general a combination of theoretical knowledge, and the ability (competency) to practice RP. While the theoretical knowledge is acquired by suitable education and by attending training courses, competency and skills can only be obtained by appropriate on-the-job training (OJT) followed by a period of work experience. From the feedback of questionnaires from 30 EU countries within the framework of the EU supported ENETRAP project it can be concluded that OJT provides better chances for future job opportunities and increases international flexibility. As result we recommend covering OJT together with education and training in the Basic Safety Standards and their guidelines for implementation. OJT should be specified by its content (syllabus, learning objectives), availability of necessary facilities and infrastructures as precondition for OJT, assessment of the competence of the participant, format of certificate, recognition of OJT, and responsibilities of host organisation and trainees. OJT should remain a key element in the remodelled 'European RP Training'. Based on these recommendations a two weeks training module on 'Occupational RP: Specificities of Waste Management and Decommissioning' designed for radiation protection professionals has been compiled at the Karlsruhe Training Centre FTU. While the first week of the pilot course focuses on the theoretical knowledge ranging from waste classification to decontamination techniques and transport of radioactive materials, the second week is addressed to practical training as OJT from clearance of radioactive waste, operative RP in the Decontamination Department to RP work in a Research Reactor under decommissioning. Special emphasis is devoted to RP aspects and active involvement of the participants in workshops and case studies. The results of the pilot run with participants from 8 different European countries are reported
Hepark, S; Kan, C C; Speckens, A
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that often continues into adulthood. Stimulant medication is the common treatment for ADHD. However, there is a need for psychosocial interventions in addition to medication. To conduct a pilot study which examines the feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness training for adults with ADHD. Eleven adults with ADHD participated in a mindfulness training scheme lasting 10 weeks. ADHD symptoms, anxiety and depressive symptoms, quality of life, mindfulness skills and attentional tasks were measured before and after the period of mindfulness training. Nine participants completed the mindfulness training and were satisfied with the training. Eight of these reported improvement in their ADHD symptoms. For all participants, their quality of life, awareness of their actions and executive control had also improved. Mindfulness is a feasible treatment strategy for adults with ADHD and seems to have a positive effect on ADHD symptoms and executive control.
Maneuverability is a key factor to determine whether a helicopter could finish certain flight missions successfully or not. Inverse simulation is commonly used to calculate the pilot controls of a helicopter to complete a certain kind of maneuver flight and to assess its maneuverability. A general method for inverse simulation of maneuver flight for helicopters with the flight control system online is developed in this paper. A general mathematical describing function is established to provid...
Baltich, J; Emery, C A; Whittaker, J L; Nigg, B M
The purpose of this trial was to evaluate injury risk in novice runners participating in different strength training interventions. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Novice runners (n = 129, 18-60 years old, running experience) were block randomized to one of three groups: a "resistance" strength training group, a "functional" strength training group, or a stretching "control" group. The primary outcome was running related injury. The number of participants with complaints and the injury rate (IR = no. injuries/1000 running hours) were quantified for each intervention group. For the first 8 weeks, participants were instructed to complete their training intervention three to five times a week. The remaining 4 months was a maintenance period. NCT01900262. A total of 52 of the 129 (40%) novice runners experienced at least one running related injury: 21 in the functional strength training program, 16 in the resistance strength training program and 15 in the control stretching program. Injury rates did not differ between study groups [IR = 32.9 (95% CI 20.8, 49.3) in the functional group, IR = 31.6 (95% CI 18.4, 50.5) in the resistance group, and IR = 26.7 (95% CI 15.2, 43.2)] in the control group. Although this was a pilot assessment, home-based strength training did not appear to alter injury rates compared to stretching. Future studies should consider methods to minimize participant drop out to allow for the assessment of injury risk. Injury risk in novice runners based on this pilot study will inform the development of future larger studies investigating the impact of injury prevention interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished
Additionally, KC-10s were used to support multiple Operation PHOENIX SCORPION contingencies beginning in November 1997 and through 1998 as well. KC-10s...and ACIQ syllabi recommend for training purposes. As part of determining sources of delay, qualitative data will be used to explain what is...bare hands in that arena, because we can’t teach you to learn how to use a spear. If we do, you might cut your finger while you’re learning." And
Mattson, Marifran; Petrin, Donald A.; Young, John P.
The study of human factors has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, the entire aviation system often is not considered in researching, training, and evaluating human factors issues especially with regard to safety. In both conceptual and practical terms, we argue for the proactive management of human error from both an individual and organizational systems perspective. The results of a multidisciplinary research project incorporating survey data from professional pilots and maintenance technicians and an exploratory study integrating students from relevant disciplines are reported. Survey findings suggest that latent safety errors may occur during the maintenance discrepancy reporting process because pilots and maintenance technicians do not effectively interact with one another. The importance of interdepartmental or cross-disciplinary training for decreasing these errors and increasing safety is discussed as a primary implication.
Full Text Available Background: Reduced muscle growth may be involved in the development of contractures in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Here, we report data from a pilot study of intensive gait training in CP toddlers. Methods: Five children with CP aged 8-30 months performed activity-based gait training for one hour/day, five days/week for three consecutive months. Included children were diagnosed with spastic CP, had a Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS score of I–II, and were not epileptic. All children wore pedometers during training. Before and after the training period, kinematic and qualitative gait analysis, clinical and objective evaluation of spasticity, Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, and ultrasound of the affected medial gastrocnemius (MG muscle were performed. Two children were also tested before and after three months of receiving only standard care (SC. Results: On average 1410 steps/session were logged during 63 days of training. More steps were achieved at home than at a central facility. During training, MG muscle volume increased significantly, while it decreased for SC children. Gait improved qualitatively in all children, and GMFM-66 score improved in four of the five children. Similar improvements were seen among the SC children. Two children had pathologically increased muscle stiffness prior to training, which was reduced during training. Reflex stiffness was unchanged in all five children. Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that intensive gait training may increase muscle volume, improve walking skills and reduce passive muscle stiffness in toddlers with CP.
... Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R44 and R44 II helicopters equipped with emergency floats, which would require...
... Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that was published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R22, R22 Alpha, R22 Beta, R22 Mariner, R44, and R44 II helicopters. The paragraph reference in...
... Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) Model 412, 412EP, and 412CF helicopters. This AD requires a repetitive inspection of the...
Kaper, Marise S; Sixsmith, Jane; Koot, Jaap A R; Meijering, Louise B; van Twillert, Sacha; Giammarchi, Cinzia; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Barry, Margaret M; Doyle, Priscilla; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F
Objective: Skills to address different health literacy problems are lacking among health professionals. We sought to develop and pilot test a comprehensive health literacy communication training for various health professionals in Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands. Methods: Thirty health
Pontes, Livia M. M.; Martins, Camila B.; Napolitano, Isabel C.; Fonseca, Juliana R.; Oliveira, Graça M. R.; Iso, Sandra M. K.; Menezes, Anny K. P. M.; Vizzotto, Adriana D. B.; di Sarno, Elaine S.; Elkis, Hélio
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can massively impact functionality and quality of life, furthering the importance of cognitive training. Despite the development of the field in Europe and in the United States, no programmes have been developed and tested in developing countries. Different cultural backgrounds, budget restrictions, and other difficulties may render treatment packages created in high income countries difficult for adoption by developing nations. We performed a pilot double-...
Full Text Available Within the last years, the importance of communication skills regarding the doctor-patient-relationship received more attention. Medical school curricula for future physicians must include teaching of communication skills as well. A pilot project for training communicative basic skills at the University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf will be presented. The content of teaching was generated by employees of the Institute and Policlinics of Medical Psychology. Contents of the course will be described and experiences discussed.
Haase, Lori; May, April C.; Falahpour, Maryam; Isakovic, Sara; Simmons, Alan N.; Hickman, Steven D.; Liu, Thomas T.; Paulus, Martin P.
The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Pe...
Barnes, Deborah E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Belfor, Nataliya; Jagust, William J.; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce R.; Kramer, Joel H.
We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial of intensive, computer-based cognitive training in 47 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The intervention group performed exercises specifically designed to improve auditory processing speed and accuracy for 100 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; the control group performed more passive computer activities (reading, listening, visuospatial game) for similar amounts of time. Subjects had a mean age of 74 years and 60% were men; 7...
MAB-II scores. The univariate Case II correction ( Thorndike , 1949) was used for the NEO-PI-R scores due to a lack of sufficient data to apply the...pilot training, AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2013-0081. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air Force Research Laboratory, Decision Making Division. Thorndike , R. L...NEO domain scores were corrected using the univariate Case 2 ( Thorndike , 1949) method. Correlations in the column labeled rfc were corrected for both
Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik
OBJECTIVE: In this pilot study we have investigated the impact of coach training offered to neonatal nurses on their assessment of their ability to meet the needs of the mothers and fathers. METHODS: The effect of a 3-day coaching training offered to neonatal nurses was investigated...... significant. CONCLUSION: Coaching can improve nurses' self-efficacy in relation to meet the needs of the mothers and fathers. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Coaching could be a method that can maximize the personal and professional potential of the staff, and prepare them for the mindful being-in-relation approach...
N'zi, Amanda M; Stevens, Monica L; Eyberg, Sheila M
This pilot study used a randomized controlled trial design to examine the feasibility and explore initial outcomes of a twice weekly, 8-session Child Directed Interaction Training (CDIT) program for children living in kinship care. Participants included 14 grandmothers and great-grandmothers with their 2- to 7-year-old children randomized either to CDIT or a waitlist control condition. Training was delivered at a local, community library with high fidelity to the training protocol. There was no attrition in either condition. After training, kinship caregivers in the CDIT condition demonstrated more positive relationships with their children during behavioral observation. The caregivers in the CDIT condition also reported clinically and statistically significant decreases in parenting stress and caregiver depression, as well as fewer externalizing child behavior problems than waitlist controls. Parent daily report measures indicated significant changes in disciplining that included greater use of limit-setting and less use of critical verbal force. Results appeared stable at 3-month follow-up. Changes in child internalizing behaviors and caregiver use of non-critical verbal force were not seen until 3-month follow-up. Results of this pilot study suggest both the feasibility of conducting full scale randomized clinical trials of CDIT in the community and the promise of this approach for providing effective parent training for kinship caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pschierer, Christian; Schiefele, Jens; Lüthy, Juerg
Helicopter Emergency Medical Service missions (HEMS) impose a high workload on pilots due to short preparation time, operations in low level flight, and landings in unknown areas. The research project PILAS, a cooperation between Eurocopter, Diehl Avionics, DLR, EADS, Euro Telematik, ESG, Jeppesen, the Universities of Darmstadt and Munich, and funded by the German government, approached this problem by researching a pilot assistance system which supports the pilots during all phases of flight. The databases required for the specified helicopter missions include different types of topological and cultural data for graphical display on the SVS system, AMDB data for operations at airports and helipads, and navigation data for IFR segments. The most critical databases for the PILAS system however are highly accurate terrain and obstacle data. While RTCA DO-276 specifies high accuracies and integrities only for the areas around airports, HEMS helicopters typically operate outside of these controlled areas and thus require highly reliable terrain and obstacle data for their designated response areas. This data has been generated by a LIDAR scan of the specified test region. Obstacles have been extracted into a vector format. This paper includes a short overview of the complete PILAS system and then focus on the generation of the required high quality databases.
Cunningham, Nicola Y; Weiland, Tracey J
The objective of the present study was to determine emergency physicians' training, experience and perceptions as expert witnesses. Emergency physicians of an adult tertiary referral and teaching hospital participated in a pilot survey regarding their experiences in report writing and in court as expert witnesses. The 28-item survey also examined the amount of formalized forensic medical teaching that emergency physicians had received during their training. Of the participants, 41% (95% CI 21.6-64.1; 7/17) had never received any undergraduate or postgraduate training in forensic medicine, 11/17 (65%, 95% CI 41.2-82.8) had provided a written expert opinion for court, and 12/17 (71%, 95% CI 46.6-87.0) had attended court as an expert witness. All participants considered themselves 'skilled in attending an emergency resuscitation', whereas 3/13 (23%, 95% CI 7.5-50.9) considered themselves 'skilled in attending a courtroom trial'. Nearly 90% (95% CI 64.7-98.0; 15/17) thought that medical evidence training should be a requirement of emergency speciality training. The most commonly preferred forms of medical evidence training were mock court sessions (76%, 95% CI 52.2-91.0; 13/17) and forensic workshops (76%, 95% CI 52.2-91.0; 13/17). From 10 non-technical skills required of an EP, 'appearing in court as an expert witness' was perceived to be the second most difficult skill by most respondents. Emergency physicians in this pilot study have limited training for the role of expert witness and see it as one of the most difficult non-technical skills they have to perform. Further research is required regarding the current and future scope of forensic training.
Phillips, J. D.; Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Dugan, D. C.
In 1978 a joint NASA-FAA helicopter flight test was conducted to examine the use of weather-mapping radar for IFR guidance during landing approaches to oil rig helipads. The following navigation errors were measured: total system error, radar-range error, radar-bearing error, and flight technical error. Three problem areas were identified: (1) operational problems leading to pilot blunders, (2) poor navigation to the downwind final approach point, and (3) pure homing on final approach. Analysis of these problem areas suggests improvement in the radar equipment, approach procedure, and pilot training, and gives valuable insight into the development of future navigation aids to serve the off-shore oil industry.
Harned, Melanie S.; Dimeff, Linda A.; Woodcock, Eric A.; Skutch, Julie M.
The present study evaluated methods for training mental health providers (N=46) in exposure therapies (ETs) for anxiety disorders. A pilot randomized controlled trial compared: 1) an interactive, multimedia online training (ET OLT), 2) the ET OLT plus a brief Motivational Interviewing-based intervention (ET OLT + MI), and 3) a placebo control OLT. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-training, and one week following training. Both ET OLT and ET OLT + MI received high satisfaction rati...
Mendonca, Flavio A. C.
Analysis of bird strikes to aviation in the U.S. from 1990 to 2015 indicate that the successful mitigation efforts at airports, which must be sustained, have reduced incidents with damage and a negative effect-on-flight since 2000. However, such efforts have done little to reduce strikes outside the airport jurisdiction, such as occurred with US Airways Flight 1549 in 2009. There are basically three strategies to mitigate the risk of bird strikes: standards set by aviation authorities, technology, and actions by crewmembers. Pilots play an important role as stakeholders in the prevention of bird strikes, especially outside the airport environment. Thus, safety efforts require enhanced risk management and aeronautical decision-making training for flight crews. The purpose of this study was to determine if a safety training protocol could effectively enhance CFR Part 141 general aviation pilots' knowledge and skills to reduce the risk of bird strikes to aviation. Participants were recruited from the Purdue University professional flight program and from Purdue Aviation. The researcher of this study used a pretest posttest experimental design. Additionally, qualitative data were collected through open-ended questions in the pretest, posttest, and a follow-up survey questionnaire. The participants' pretest and posttest scores were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests. Results indicated a significant increase in the posttest scores of the experimental group. An investigation of qualitative data showed that the topic "safety management of bird hazards by pilots" is barely covered during the ground and flight training of pilots. Furthermore, qualitative data suggest a misperception of the safety culture tenets and a poor familiarity with the safety risk management process regarding bird hazards. Finally, the researcher presented recommendations for practice and future research.
Robles-García, Verónica; Corral-Bergantiños, Yoanna; Espinosa, Nelson; García-Sancho, Carlos; Sanmartín, Gabriel; Flores, Julián; Cudeiro, Javier; Arias, Pablo
Hypometria is a clinical motor sign in Parkinson's disease. Its origin likely emerges from basal ganglia dysfunction, leading to an impaired control of inhibitory intracortical motor circuits. Some neurorehabilitation approaches include movement imitation training; besides the effects of motor practice, there might be a benefit due to observation and imitation of un-altered movement patterns. In this sense, virtual reality facilitates the process by customizing motor-patterns to be observed and imitated. To evaluate the effect of a motor-imitation therapy focused on hypometria in Parkinson's disease using virtual reality. We carried out a randomized controlled pilot-study. Sixteen patients were randomly assigned in experimental and control groups. Groups underwent 4-weeks of training based on finger-tapping with the dominant hand, in which imitation was the differential factor (only the experimental group imitated). We evaluated self-paced movement features and cortico-spinal excitability (recruitment curves and silent periods in both hemispheres) before, immediately after, and two weeks after the training period. Movement amplitude increased significantly after the therapy in the experimental group for the trained and un-trained hands. Motor thresholds and silent periods evaluated with transcranial magnetic stimulation were differently modified by training in the two groups; although the changes in the input-output recruitment were similar. This pilot study suggests that movement imitation therapy enhances the effect of motor practice in patients with Parkinson's disease; imitation-training might be helpful for reducing hypometria in these patients. These results must be clarified in future larger trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chukoskie, Leanne; Westerfield, Marissa; Townsend, Jeanne
In addition to the social, communicative and behavioral symptoms that define the disorder, individuals with ASD have difficulty re-orienting attention quickly and accurately. Similarly, fast re-orienting saccadic eye movements are also inaccurate and more variable in both endpoint and timing. Atypical gaze and attention are among the earliest symptoms observed in ASD. Disruption of these foundation skills critically affects the development of higher level cognitive and social behavior. We propose that interventions aimed at these early deficits that support social and cognitive skills will be broadly effective. We conducted a pilot clinical trial designed to demonstrate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of using gaze-contingent video games for low-cost in-home training of attention and eye movement. Eight adolescents with ASD participated in an 8-week training, with pre-, mid- and post-testing of eye movement and attention control. Six of the eight adolescents completed the 8 weeks of training and all six showed improvement in attention (orienting, disengagement) and eye movement control or both. All game systems remained intact for the duration of training and all participants could use the system independently. We delivered a robust, low-cost, gaze-contingent game system for home use that, in our pilot training sample, improved the attention orienting and eye movement performance of adolescent participants in 8 weeks of training. We are currently conducting a clinical trial to replicate these results and to examine what, if any, aspects of training transfer to more real-world tasks. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 546-554, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Podubecka, J; Scheer, S; Theilig, S; Wiederer, R; Oberhoffer, R; Nowak, D A
Recovery of impaired motor functions following stroke is commonly incomplete in spite of intensive rehabilitation programmes. At 6 months following a stroke up to 60 % of affected individuals still suffer from permanent motor deficits, in particular hemiparetic gait, that are relevant for daily life. Novel innovative therapeutic strategies are needed to enhance the recovery of impaired gait function following stroke. This pilot study has investigated the effectiveness of conventional physiotherapy in comparison to an apparative cyclic movement training over a period of 4 weeks to improve (i) power during a submaximal cyclic movement training of the lower limbs, (ii) cardiac fitness, (iii) balance and gait ability, and (iv) quality of life in stroke patients. In comparison to physiotherapy apparative cyclic movement training improved power, balance, cardiac fitness and quality of life to a greater extent. However, there was a statistically significant difference between both intervention groups only for balance but not for the other parameters assessed. The present pilot study should inspire future research with larger patient cohorts to allow appropriate judgement on the effectiveness of apparative cyclic movement training in stroke rehabilitation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Barello, Serena; Graffigna, Guendalina; Pitacco, Giuliana; Mislej, Maila; Cortale, Maurizio; Provenzi, Livio
Introduction: Growing evidence recognizes that patients who are motivated to take an active role in their care can experience a range of health benefits and reduced healthcare costs. Nurses play a critical role in the effort to make patients fully engaged in their disease management. Trainings devoted to increase nurses' skills and knowledge to assess and promote patient engagement are today a medical education priority. To address this goal, we developed a program of nurse education training in patient engagement strategies (NET-PES). This paper presents pilot feasibility study and preliminary participants outcomes for NET-PES. Methods: This is a pilot feasibility study of a 2-session program on patient engagement designed to improve professional nurses' ability to engage chronic patients in their medical journey; the training mainly focused on passing patient engagement assessment skills to clinicians as a crucial mean to improve care experience. A pre-post pilot evaluation of NET-PES included 46 nurses working with chronic conditions. A course specific competence test has been developed and validated to measure patient engagement skills. The design included self-report questionnaire completed before and after the training for evaluation purposes. Participants met in a large group for didactic presentations and then they were split into small groups in which they used role-play and case discussion to reflect upon the value of patient engagement measurement in relation to difficult cases from own practice. Results: Forty-six nurses participated in the training program. The satisfaction questionnaire showed that the program met the educational objectives and was considered to be useful and relevant by the participants. Results demonstrated changes on clinicians' attitudes and skills in promoting engagement. Moreover, practitioners demonstrated increases on confidence regarding their ability to support their patients' engagement in the care process. Conclusions
Barello, Serena; Graffigna, Guendalina; Pitacco, Giuliana; Mislej, Maila; Cortale, Maurizio; Provenzi, Livio
Introduction: Growing evidence recognizes that patients who are motivated to take an active role in their care can experience a range of health benefits and reduced healthcare costs. Nurses play a critical role in the effort to make patients fully engaged in their disease management. Trainings devoted to increase nurses' skills and knowledge to assess and promote patient engagement are today a medical education priority. To address this goal, we developed a program of nurse education training in patient engagement strategies (NET-PES). This paper presents pilot feasibility study and preliminary participants outcomes for NET-PES. Methods: This is a pilot feasibility study of a 2-session program on patient engagement designed to improve professional nurses' ability to engage chronic patients in their medical journey; the training mainly focused on passing patient engagement assessment skills to clinicians as a crucial mean to improve care experience. A pre-post pilot evaluation of NET-PES included 46 nurses working with chronic conditions. A course specific competence test has been developed and validated to measure patient engagement skills. The design included self-report questionnaire completed before and after the training for evaluation purposes. Participants met in a large group for didactic presentations and then they were split into small groups in which they used role-play and case discussion to reflect upon the value of patient engagement measurement in relation to difficult cases from own practice. Results: Forty-six nurses participated in the training program. The satisfaction questionnaire showed that the program met the educational objectives and was considered to be useful and relevant by the participants. Results demonstrated changes on clinicians' attitudes and skills in promoting engagement. Moreover, practitioners demonstrated increases on confidence regarding their ability to support their patients' engagement in the care process. Conclusions
Kampel, Liyona; Klang, Eyal; Winkler, Harry; Gordon, Barak; Frenkel-Nir, Yael; Shoam, Yifat Erlich
Varicocele is quite common in the general population, affecting up to 15% of men. It is not considered disqualifying for the pilot's training program of the Israeli Air Force as long as there are no related symptoms or associated pathologies. During combat flight, increased venous pressure due to acceleration forces and anti-G straining maneuvers, used to counteract high gravitational G forces, can theoretically aggravate the venous blood pooling in varicocele, leading to rupture. We describe a case of a young fighter-jet pilot presenting with a painful inguinal hematoma extending to the scrotum a day after participating in centrifuge training. Sonographic examination demonstrated dilated spermatic veins and intratesticular varicocele along with subcutaneous thickening of the scrotal wall consistent with hematoma. The effects of high G loads on blood flow in spermatic veins, and especially in varicocele, still need to be determined. Varicocele rupture has been described in relation to increased intra-abdominal pressure and could theoretically occur during anti-G straining maneuvers. Such an acute adverse event during combat flight can be detrimental to flight safety and the pilot's well-being.
Wimmer, Lena; Bellingrath, Silja; von Stockhausen, Lisa
The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group), a concentration training (active control group), or no treatment (passive control group). Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004), effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and data-driven as opposed to schema-based information processing were predicted. These abilities were assessed in a pre-post design by means of a vigilance test, a reversible figures test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Stroop test, a visual search task, and a recognition task of prototypical faces. Results suggest that the mindfulness training specifically improved cognitive inhibition and data-driven information processing.
Full Text Available The present paper reports a pilot study which tested cognitive effects of mindfulness practice in a theory-driven approach. Thirty-four fifth graders received either a mindfulness training which was based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction approach (experimental group, a concentration training (active control group or no treatment (passive control group. Based on the operational definition of mindfulness by Bishop et al. (2004, effects on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition and data-driven as opposed to schema-based information processing were predicted. These abilities were assessed in a pre-post design by means of a vigilance test, a reversible figures test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a Stroop test, a visual search task, and a recognition task of prototypical faces. Results suggest that the mindfulness training specifically improved cognitive inhibition and data-driven information processing.
Hancock, Laura M; Bruce, Jared M; Bruce, Amanda S; Lynch, Sharon G
Between 40-65% of multiple sclerosis patients experience cognitive deficits, with processing speed and working memory most commonly affected. This pilot study investigated the effect of computerized cognitive training focused on improving processing speed and working memory. Participants were randomized into either an active or a sham training group and engaged in six weeks of training. The active training group improved on a measure of processing speed and attention following cognitive training, and data trended toward significance on measures of other domains. Results provide preliminary evidence that cognitive training with multiple sclerosis patients may produce moderate improvement in select areas of cognitive functioning.
Liu, Jia; Liu, Shan; Yan, Jin; Lee, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda
A randomized controlled experimental pilot study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of life skills training on behavior problems in left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Sixty-eight LBC were recruited from a middle school in rural China. The intervention group took a ten-week-long life skills training course. The Child Behavior…
Selby Smith, Chris; Ferrier, Fran
This project, conducted by the Centre for the Economics of Education and Training (CEET) during 2003, set out to investigate the relationship between innovation and the provision of appropriate education and training in regional Australia. The project was designed as a pilot study with two main purposes: (1) To test whether and how the issues…
Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn
Flight simulators attempt to reproduce in-flight pilot-vehicle behavior on the ground. This reproduction is challenging for helicopter simulators, as the pilot is often inextricably dependent on external cues for pilot-vehicle stabilization. One important simulator cue is platform motion; however, its required fidelity is unknown. To determine the required motion fidelity, several unique experiments were performed. A large displacement motion platform was used that allowed pilots to fly tasks with matched motion and visual cues. Then, the platform motion was modified to give cues varying from full motion to no motion. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositionings. This refutes the view that pilots estimate altitude and altitude rate in simulation solely from visual cues. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.
negotiations between President Carter and Raoul Cédras halted the combat invasion of Haiti, and the aircraft heading to Haiti were recalled .12 Middle...accomplished within a period, to equally spreading the training burden over more time allowing lessons learned and muscle memory to develop from more consistent...cost squadron level trainer that allows for advanced mission rehearsal , threat awareness training, aircraft system refreshers, emergency procedure
Mockingbird Mountains. The range would consist of two target groups, with armored personnel carrier hulks in the target groups. One Helicopter...valley between Fairview Mountain and the Mockingbird Mountains (see Figure 2-2). The range would consist of two target groups, with armored personnel...pursue, hunt, take, capture, or kill ; attempt to take, capture, or kill ; possess, offer to or sell, barter, purchase, deliver, or cause to be shipped
Park, Jin-Hee; Jung, Yong Sik; Kim, Ku Sang; Bae, Sun Hyoung
Numerous breast cancer patients experience cognitive changes during and after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment can significantly affect quality of life. This pilot study attempted to determine the effects of a compensatory cognitive training on the objective and subjective cognitive functioning of breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Fifty-four patients were assigned to either a compensatory cognitive training or waitlist condition. They were assessed at baseline (T1), the completion of the 12-week intervention (T2), and 6 months after intervention completion (T3). Outcomes were assessed using the standardized neuropsychological tests and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function (FACT-Cog), version 3. Raw data were converted to T-scores based on baseline scores, and a repeated-measures ANCOVA, adjusting for age, intelligence, depression, and treatment, was used for analysis. The effect sizes for differences in means were calculated. The intervention group improved significantly over time compared to the waitlist group on objective cognitive function. Among ten individual neuropsychological measures, immediate memory, delayed memory, verbal fluency in category, and verbal fluency in letter showed significant group × time interaction. In subjective cognitive function, scores of the waitlist group significantly decrease over time on perceived cognitive impairments, in contrast to those of the intervention group. The 12-week compensatory cognitive training significantly improved the objective and subjective cognitive functioning of breast cancer patients. Because this was a pilot study, further research using a larger sample and longer follow-up durations is necessary.
De Cino, Thomas J., II
In the aviation industry, digitally produced and presented flight, navigation, and aircraft information is commonly referred to as glass flight decks. Glass flight decks are driven by computer-based subsystems and have long been a part of military and commercial aviation sectors. Over the past 15 years, the General Aviation (GA) sector of the aviation industry has become a recent beneficiary of the rapid advancement of computer-based glass flight deck (GFD) systems. While providing the GA pilot considerable enhancements in the quality of information about the status and operations of the aircraft, training pilots on the use of glass flight decks is often delivered with traditional methods (e.g. textbooks, PowerPoint presentations, user manuals, and limited computer-based training modules). These training methods have been reported as less than desirable in learning to use the glass flight deck interface. Difficulties in achieving a complete understanding of functional and operational characteristics of the GFD systems, acquiring a full understanding of the interrelationships of the varied subsystems, and handling the wealth of flight information provided have been reported. Documented pilot concerns of poor user experience and satisfaction, and problems with the learning the complex and sophisticated interface of the GFD are additional issues with current pilot training approaches. A case study was executed to explore ways to improve training using GFD systems at a Midwestern aviation university. The researcher investigated if variations in instructional systems design and training methods for learning glass flight deck technology would affect the perceptions and attitudes of pilots of the learnability (an attribute of usability) of the glass flight deck interface. Specifically, this study investigated the effectiveness of scenario-based training (SBT) methods to potentially improve pilot knowledge and understanding of a GFD system, and overall pilot user
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...
Sarah L Morgan
Full Text Available One of the main goals of the ELIXIR-EXCELERATE project from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 programme is to support a pan-European training programme to increase bioinformatics capacity and competency across ELIXIR Nodes. To this end, a Train-the-Trainer (TtT programme has been developed by the TtT subtask of EXCELERATE’s Training Platform, to try to expose bioinformatics instructors to aspects of pedagogy and evidence-based learning principles, to help them better design, develop and deliver high-quality training in future. As a first step towards such a programme, an ELIXIR-EXCELERATE TtT (EE-TtT pilot was developed, drawing on existing ‘instructor training’ models, using input both from experienced instructors and from experts in bioinformatics, the cognitive sciences and educational psychology. This manuscript describes the process of defining the pilot programme, illustrates its goals, structure and contents, and discusses its outcomes. From Jan 2016 to Jan 2017, we carried out seven pilot EE-TtT courses (training more than sixty new instructors, collaboratively drafted the training materials, and started establishing a network of trainers and instructors within the ELIXIR community. The EE-TtT pilot represents an essential step towards the development of a sustainable and scalable ELIXIR TtT programme. Indeed, the lessons learned from the pilot, the experience gained, the materials developed, and the analysis of the feedback collected throughout the seven pilot courses have both positioned us to consolidate the programme in the coming years, and contributed to the development of an enthusiastic and expanding ELIXIR community of instructors and trainers.
Perez-Marcos, Daniel; Chevalley, Odile; Schmidlin, Thomas; Garipelli, Gangadhar; Serino, Andrea; Vuadens, Philippe; Tadi, Tej; Blanke, Olaf; Millán, José D R
Technology-mediated neurorehabilitation is suggested to enhance training intensity and therefore functional gains. Here, we used a novel virtual reality (VR) system for task-specific upper extremity training after stroke. The system offers interactive exercises integrating motor priming techniques and embodied visuomotor feedback. In this pilot study, we examined (i) rehabilitation dose and training intensity, (ii) functional improvements, and (iii) safety and tolerance when exposed to intensive VR rehabilitation. Ten outpatient stroke survivors with chronic (>6 months) upper extremity paresis participated in a ten-session VR-based upper limb rehabilitation program (2 sessions/week). All participants completed all sessions of the treatment. In total, they received a median of 403 min of upper limb therapy, with 290 min of effective training. Within that time, participants performed a median of 4713 goal-directed movements. Importantly, training intensity increased progressively across sessions from 13.2 to 17.3 movements per minute. Clinical measures show that despite being in the chronic phase, where recovery potential is thought to be limited, participants showed a median improvement rate of 5.3% in motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity; FMA-UE) post intervention compared to baseline, and of 15.4% at one-month follow-up. For three of them, this improvement was clinically significant. A significant improvement in shoulder active range of motion (AROM) was also observed at follow-up. Participants reported very low levels of pain, stress and fatigue following each session of training, indicating that the intensive VR intervention was well tolerated. No severe adverse events were reported. All participants expressed their interest in continuing the intervention at the hospital or even at home, suggesting high levels of adherence and motivation for the provided intervention. This pilot study showed how a dedicated VR system could deliver high
... helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment of the... tail rotor drive shaft free-wheel cage, which caused a pilot to experience a heavy jerk in the yaw.... That NPRM proposed to require inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment...
Hardy, Kristina K; Willard, Victoria W; Bonner, Melanie J
The objective of the current study was to pilot a computerized cognitive training program, Captain's Log, in a small sample of survivors of childhood cancer. A total of 9 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors with attention and working memory deficits were enrolled in a home-based 12-week cognitive training program. Survivors returned for follow-up assessments postintervention and 3 months later. The intervention was associated with good feasibility and acceptability. Participants exhibited significant increases in working memory and decreases in parent-rated attention problems following the intervention. Findings indicate that home-based, computerized cognitive intervention is a promising intervention for survivors with cognitive late effects; however, further study is warranted with a larger sample.
...-0530; Directorate Identifier 2011-SW-075-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter...
Full Text Available Background: the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate whether proprioceptive-motor training using the Wii Balance Board (WBB might improve postural sway in healthy subjects.Methods: twenty-five healthy subjects were trained for six weeks (two sessions per week with 5 “video games”: Wii Fit Plus (WFP program. Before and after training: Basic Balance, Single-leg Balance, Agility, Stability and Motion (lower limb: right-left and both leg were measured using the Wii Balance Board.Results: the Wilcoxon Test showed improvements at the end of the training program compared to the baseline conditions. Basic Balance increased during the WFP (33.33% and was associated with a 19.92% decrease in center of pressure (COP lenght. The Single-leg Balance results incremented after the WFP (left 29.09% vs. right 47.92% and accompanied by a decrement in COP (left 28.71% vs. right 30.45%. The values for the Agility test increased both in WFP and COP (28.57% and 58.57%, respectively. The Stability test scores increased in the WFP (66.67% along with a consequent decrease in COP (10.53%. Finally, the Motion test values increased in the WFP (73.17%, whilst COP for this test decreased (12.02%. These results indicate that 6 weeks of virtual training produced a good adaptability. Younger participants (<20 years demonstrated to be more responsive to dynamic stimulation with respect to those >20 years.Conclusions: significant improvements in all participants were observed, indicating that virtual training can influence posture and balance in healthy people. Because of its characteristics of low cost and easy availability, a portable system for balance training for everyone offers the possibility to more readily measure motor skill and to gauge improvement.
Ross, Simone J; Preston, Robyn; Lindemann, Iris C; Matte, Marie C; Samson, Rex; Tandinco, Filedito D; Larkins, Sarah L; Palsdottir, Bjorg; Neusy, Andre-Jacques
The Training for Health Equity Network (THEnet), a group of diverse health professional schools aspiring toward social accountability, developed and pilot tested a comprehensive evaluation framework to assess progress toward socially accountable health professions education. The evaluation framework provides criteria for schools to assess their level of social accountability within their organization and planning; education, research and service delivery; and the direct and indirect impacts of the school and its graduates, on the community and health system. This paper describes the pilot implementation of testing the evaluation framework across five THEnet schools, and examines whether the evaluation framework was practical and feasible across contexts for the purposes of critical reflection and continuous improvement in terms of progress towards social accountability. In this pilot study, schools utilized the evaluation framework using a mixed method approach of data collection comprising of workshops, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions, document review and collation and analysis of existing quantitative data. The evaluation framework allowed each school to contextually gather evidence on how it was meeting the aspirational goals of social accountability across a range of school activities, and to identify strengths and areas for improvement and development. The evaluation framework pilot study demonstrated how social accountability can be assessed through a critically reflective and comprehensive process. As social accountability focuses on the relationship between health professions schools and health system and health population outcomes, each school was able to demonstrate to students, health professionals, governments, accrediting bodies, communities and other stakeholders how current and future health care needs of populations are addressed in terms of education, research, and service learning.
Hoy, Damian; Durand, A Mark; Hancock, Thane; Cash, Haley L; Hardie, Kate; Paterson, Beverley; Paulino, Yvette; White, Paul; Merritt, Tony; Fitzgibbons, Dawn; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Flint, James; Edwin A Merilles, Onofre; Kashiwabara, Mina; Biaukula, Viema; Lepers, Christelle; Souares, Yvan; Nilles, Eric; Batikawai, Anaseini; Huseynova, Sevil; Patel, Mahomed; Saketa, Salanieta T; Durrheim, David; Henderson, Alden; Roth, Adam
The Pacific region has widely dispersed populations, limited financial and human resources and a high burden of disease. There is an urgent need to improve the availability, reliability and timeliness of useable health data. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme that was designed to respond to these Pacific health challenges. The pilot programme built on and further developed an existing field epidemiology training programme for Pacific health staff. The programme was delivered in country by epidemiologists working for Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network partners. The programme consisted of five courses: four one-week classroom-based courses and one field epidemiology project. Sessions were structured so that theoretical understanding was achieved through interaction and reinforced through practical hands-on group activities, case studies and other interactive practical learning methods. As of September 2016, 258 students had commenced the programme. Twenty-six course workshops were delivered and one cohort of students had completed the full five-course programme. The programme proved popular and gained a high level of student engagement. Face-to-face delivery, a low student-to-facilitator ratio, substantial group work and practical exercises were identified as key factors that contributed to the students developing skills and confidence. Close engagement of leaders and the need to quickly evaluate and adapt the curriculum were important lessons, and the collaboration between external partners was considered important for promoting a harmonized approach to health needs in the Pacific.
Giesbrecht, Edward Mark; Miller, William C; Jin, Boyang Tom; Mitchell, Ian M; Eng, Janice J
Alternative and innovative strategies such as mHealth and eLearning are becoming a necessity for delivery of rehabilitation services. For example, older adults who require a wheelchair receive little, if any, training for proficiency with mobility skills. This substantive service gap is due in part to restricted availability of clinicians and challenges for consumers to attend appointments. A research team of occupational therapists and computer scientists engaged clinicians, consumers, and care providers using a participatory action design approach. A tablet-based application, Enhancing Participation In the Community by improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels), was developed to enable in-chair home training, online expert trainer monitoring, and trainee-trainer communication via secure voice messaging. Prior to undertaking a randomized controlled trial (RCT), a pilot study was conducted to determine the acceptability and feasibility of administering an mHealth wheelchair skills training program safely and effectively with two participants of different skill levels. The findings were used to determine whether further enhancements to the program were indicated. The program included two in-person sessions with an expert trainer and four weeks of independent home training. The EPIC Wheels application included video instruction and demonstration, self-paced training activities, and interactive training games. Participants were provided with a 10-inch Android tablet, mounting apparatus, and mobile Wi-Fi device. Frequency and duration of tablet interactions were monitored and uploaded daily to an online trainer interface. Participants completed a structured evaluation survey and provided feedback post-study. The trainer provided feedback on the training protocol and trainer interface. Both participants perceived the program to be comprehensive, useful, and easily navigated. The trainer indicated usage data was comprehensive and informative for monitoring participant
Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; Moran, Lyndsey R; Peterson, A Paige; Dreessen, Anthony
ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.
Fernandez, Melanie A; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Miller, Samantha P; Areizaga, Margaret J; Gold, Dylann C; Sanchez, Amanda L; Rothschild, Sara A; Hirsch, Emily; Gudiño, Omar G
Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom to enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 students from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to receive TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students' appropriate behavior, decreased rates of negative attention to misbehavior, reported significantly less distress related to student disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-base suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Puiu, Maria
This pilot study sought to evaluate the neurofeedback training outcomes in childhood obesity management. The study involved 34 overweight and obese children, age 6-18 years (12 patients in the intervention group, 22 in the control group). Complete assessment of children was done before the intervention and 3 and 6 months after the intervention; eating behavior and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed at study start and 6 months after. All children received classic lifestyle recommendations for weight management, while the intervention group also had 20 neurofeedback sessions (infra-low-frequency training). The neurofeedback intervention was associated with less weight loss compared with classic weight management. The mean change in body-mass index standard deviation score at 3 months was -0.29 for the intervention group and -0.36 for the control group (p=0.337); after 6 months, the changes were -0.30 and -0.56, respectively (p=0.035). Quality of life improved similarly for both groups. Subjective outcomes reported by patients in the intervention were less snacking, improved satiety, enhanced attention capacity, ameliorated hyperactivity, and better sleep patterns. Larger studies, with training methods involving both the left and right cortices, should further clarify the role of neurofeedback training in obesity management.
Livia M. M. Pontes
Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can massively impact functionality and quality of life, furthering the importance of cognitive training. Despite the development of the field in Europe and in the United States, no programmes have been developed and tested in developing countries. Different cultural backgrounds, budget restrictions, and other difficulties may render treatment packages created in high income countries difficult for adoption by developing nations. We performed a pilot double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in order to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of an attention and memory training programme specially created in a developing nation. The intervention used simple, widely available materials, required minimal infrastructure, and was conducted in groups. The sample included seventeen stable Brazilians with schizophrenia. Sessions were conducted weekly during five months. The cognitive training group showed significant improvements in inhibitory control and set-shifting over time. Both groups showed improvements in symptoms, processing speed, selective attention, executive function, and long-term visual memory. Improvements were found in the control group in long-term verbal memory and concentration. Our findings reinforce the idea that cognitive training in schizophrenia can be constructed using simple resources and infrastructure, facilitating its adoption by developing countries, and it may improve cognition.
Schmerwitz, Sven; Knabl, Patrizia M.; Lueken, Thomas; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich
Helicopter operations require a well-controlled and minimal lateral drift shortly before ground contact. Any lateral speed exceeding this small threshold can cause a dangerous momentum around the roll axis, which may cause a total roll over of the helicopter. As long as pilots can observe visual cues from the ground, they are able to easily control the helicopter drift. But whenever natural vision is reduced or even obscured, e.g. due to night, fog, or dust, this controllability diminishes. Therefore helicopter operators could benefit from some type of "drift indication" that mitigates the influence of a degraded visual environment. Generally humans derive ego motion by the perceived environmental object flow. The visual cues perceived are located close to the helicopter, therefore even small movements can be recognized. This fact was used to investigate a modified drift indication. To enhance the perception of ego motion in a conformal HMD symbol set the measured movement was used to generate a pattern motion in the forward field of view close or on the landing pad. The paper will discuss the method of amplified ego motion drift indication. Aspects concerning impact factors like visualization type, location, gain and more will be addressed. Further conclusions from previous studies, a high fidelity experiment and a part task experiment, will be provided. A part task study will be presented that compared different amplified drift indications against a predictor. 24 participants, 15 holding a fixed wing license and 4 helicopter pilots, had to perform a dual task on a virtual reality headset. A simplified control model was used to steer a "helicopter" down to a landing pad while acknowledging randomly placed characters.
Brock, Katharine E; Cohen, Harvey J; Sourkes, Barbara M; Good, Julie J; Halamek, Louis P
Pediatric fellows receive little palliative care (PC) education and have few opportunities to practice communication skills. In this pilot study, we assessed (1) the relative effectiveness of simulation-based versus didactic education, (2) communication skill retention, and (3) effect on PC consultation rates. Thirty-five pediatric fellows in cardiology, critical care, hematology/oncology, and neonatology at two institutions enrolled: 17 in the intervention (simulation-based) group (single institution) and 18 in the control (didactic education) group (second institution). Intervention group participants participated in a two-day program over three months (three simulations and videotaped PC panel). Control group participants received written education designed to be similar in content and time. (1) Self-assessment questionnaires were completed at baseline, post-intervention and three months; mean between-group differences for each outcome measure were assessed. (2) External reviewers rated simulation-group encounters on nine communication domains. Within-group changes over time were assessed. (3) The simulation-based site's PC consultations were compared in the six months pre- and post-intervention. Compared to the control group, participants in the intervention group improved in self-efficacy (p = 0.003) and perceived adequacy of medical education (p < 0.001), but not knowledge (p = 0.20). Reviewers noted nonsustained improvement in four domains: relationship building (p = 0.01), opening discussion (p = 0.03), gathering information (p = 0.01), and communicating accurate information (p = 0.04). PC consultation rate increased 64%, an improvement when normalized to average daily census (p = 0.04). This simulation-based curriculum is an effective method for improving PC comfort, education, and consults. More frequent practice is likely needed to lead to sustained improvements in communication competence.
Eliyas, S; Briggs, P; Gallagher, J E
Objective To explore the experiences of primary care dentists following training to enhance endodontic skills and their views on the implications for the NHS.Design Qualitative study using anonymised free text questionnaires.Setting Primary care general dental services within the National Health Service (NHS) in London, United Kingdom.Subjects and methods Eight primary care dentists who completed this training were asked about factors affecting participant experience of the course, perceived impact on themselves, their organisation, their patients and barriers/facilitators to providing endodontic treatment in NHS primary care. Data were transferred verbatim to a spreadsheet and thematically analysed.Intervention 24-month part-time educational and service initiative to provide endodontics within the NHS, using a combination of training in simulation lab and treatment of patients in primary care.Results Positive impacts were identified at individual (gains in knowledge, skills, confidence, personal development), patient (more teeth saved, quality of care improved) and system levels (access, value for money). Suggested developments for future courses included more case discussions, teaching of practical skills earlier in the course and refinement of the triaging processes. Barriers to using the acquired skills in providing endodontic treatment in primary care within the NHS were perceived to be resources (remuneration, time, skills) and accountability. Facilitators included appropriately remunerated contracts, necessary equipment and time.Conclusion This novel pilot training programme in endodontics combining general practice experience with education/training, hands-on experience and a portfolio was perceived by participants as beneficial for extending skills and service innovation in primary dental care. The findings provide insight into primary dental care practitioners' experience with education/training and have implications for future educational initiatives in
Saboul, Damien; Balducci, Pascal; Millet, Grégoire; Pialoux, Vincent; Hautier, Christophe
Recent laboratory studies have suggested that heart rate variability (HRV) may be an appropriate criterion for training load (TL) quantification. The aim of this study was to validate a novel HRV index that may be used to assess TL in field conditions. Eleven well-trained long-distance male runners performed four exercises of different duration and intensity. TL was evaluated using Foster and Banister methods. In addition, HRV measurements were performed 5 minutes before exercise and 5 and 30 minutes after exercise. We calculated HRV index (TLHRV) based on the ratio between HRV decrease during exercise and HRV increase during recovery. HRV decrease during exercise was strongly correlated with exercise intensity (R = -0.70; p HRV changes during exercise and recovery phase are affected by both intensity and physiological impact of the exercise. Since the TLHRV formula takes into account the disturbance and the return to homeostatic balance induced by exercise, this new method provides an objective and rational TL index. However, some simplification of the protocol measurement could be envisaged for field use.
advancement of aviation drone technology has led to significant developments and improvements in the capabilities of military remotely piloted aircraft...stress; less excitement seeking and action oriented; less assertive; more socially introverted and withdrawn; more socially compliant and...to age and educational differences. Fifth, evaluations that involve selection and assessment of pilot applicants should include collateral sources of
Sellers, Morgan M; Reinke, Caroline E; Kreider, Susan; Meise, Chelsey; Nelis, Kara; Volpe, Anita; Anzlovar, Nancy; Ko, Clifford; Kelz, Rachel R
Clinical outcomes data are playing an increasingly important role in medical decision-making, reimbursement, and provider evaluation, but there are no documented programs that provide outcomes data to surgical residents as part of a structured curriculum. Our objectives were to develop a national collaborative of training programs to unify the efforts between quality and education personnel and demonstrate the feasibility of generating customized reports of patient outcomes for use in surgical education. The pool of potential hospitals was evaluated by comparing ACS NSQIP participants with the roster of clinical sites for general surgery residency programs maintained by FREIDA Online. A program and user guide was developed to generate custom reports based on institutional data, and a voluntary pilot was conducted, consisting of initial development, implementation, and feedback stages. Programs that successfully completed installation and report generation were queried for feedback on time and resources used. Of 245 general surgery residency programs, 47% had a NSQIP-affiliated sponsor institution, and an additional 31% had at least 1 NSQIP-affiliated participant institution. Sixty general surgery residency programs have expressed interest in collaboration. Seventeen pilot sites completed training and installation, and were able to independently generate custom reports. The response rate for the post-report survey was 50%. Participants reported that training and installation typically required one 2-hour phone call, and that total time devoted to the project was less than 8 hours. Collaboration between educators and quality improvement personnel from a diverse group of organizations to integrate outcomes data into surgical education is feasible. Obtaining resident and team reports from ACS NSQIP can be done with minimal effort. Future efforts will be aimed at developing a national data-centered curriculum for general surgery programs. Copyright © 2013 American
Haase, Lori; May, April C; Falahpour, Maryam; Isakovic, Sara; Simmons, Alan N; Hickman, Steven D; Liu, Thomas T; Paulus, Martin P
The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes' ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK)] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1) elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2) greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3) increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; (4) increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale identifying feelings subscale; (5) decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the right medial frontal cortex and the ACC. Taken together, this pilot study suggests that mPEAK training may lead to increased attention to bodily signals and greater neural processing during the anticipation and recovery from interoceptive perturbations. This association between attention to and processing of interoceptive afferents may result in greater adaptation during stressful situations in elite athletes.
Perkins, R Serene; Lehner, Kathryn A; Armstrong, Randy; Gardiner, Stuart K; Karmy-Jones, Riyad C; Izenberg, Seth D; Long, William B; Wackym, P Ashley
Education and training of surgeons has traditionally focused on the development of individual knowledge, technical skills, and decision making. Team training with the surgeon's operating room staff has not been prioritized in existing educational paradigms, particularly in trauma surgery. We aimed to determine whether a pilot curriculum for surgical technicians and nurses, based on the American College of Surgeons' Advanced Trauma Operative Management (ATOM) course, would improve staff knowledge if conducted in a team-training environment. Between December 2012 and December 2014, 22 surgical technicians and nurses participated in a curriculum complementary to the ATOM course, consisting of 8 individual 8-hour training sessions designed by and conducted at our institution. Didactic and practical sessions included educational content, hands-on instruction, and alternating role play during 5 system-specific injury scenarios in a simulated operating room environment. A pre- and postcourse examination was administered to participants to assess for improvements in team members' didactic knowledge. Course participants displayed a significant improvement in didactic knowledge after working in a team setting with trauma surgeons during the ATOM course, with a 9-point improvement on the postcourse examination (83%-92%, p = 0.0008). Most participants (90.5%) completing postcourse surveys reported being "highly satisfied" with course content and quality after working in our simulated team-training setting. Team training is critical to improving the knowledge base of surgical technicians and nurses in the trauma operative setting. Improved communication, efficiency, appropriate equipment use, and staff awareness are the desired outcomes when shifting the paradigm from individual to surgical team training so that improved patient outcomes, decreased risk, and cost savings can be achieved. Determine whether a pilot curriculum for surgical technicians and nurses, based on the
Kaper, Marise S; Sixsmith, Jane; Koot, Jaap A R; Meijering, Louise B; van Twillert, Sacha; Giammarchi, Cinzia; Bevilacqua, Roberta; Barry, Margaret M; Doyle, Priscilla; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; de Winter, Andrea F
Skills to address different health literacy problems are lacking among health professionals. We sought to develop and pilot test a comprehensive health literacy communication training for various health professionals in Ireland, Italy and the Netherlands. Thirty health professionals participated in the study. A literature review focused on evidence-informed training-components. Focus group discussions (FGDs) explored perspectives from seventeen professionals on a prototype-program, and feedback from thirteen professionals following pilot-training. Pre-post questionnaires assessed self-rated health literacy communication skills. The literature review yielded five training-components to address functional, interactive and critical health literacy: health literacy education, gathering and providing information, shared decision-making, enabling self-management, and supporting behaviour change. In FGDs, professionals endorsed the prototype-program and reported that the pilot-training increased knowledge and patient-centred communication skills in addressing health literacy, as shown by self-rated pre-post questionnaires. A comprehensive training for health professionals in three European countries enhances perceived skills to address functional, interactive and critical health literacy. This training has potential for wider application in education and practice in Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Hughes Helicopters Inc., and McDonnel Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate...
... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... directive (AD): 2013-05-16 Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type...
Pawlik, Aleksandra; van Gelder, Celia W G; Nenadic, Aleksandra; Palagi, Patricia M; Korpelainen, Eija; Lijnzaad, Philip; Marek, Diana; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Hancock, John; Goble, Carole
Quality training in computational skills for life scientists is essential to allow them to deliver robust, reproducible and cutting-edge research. A pan-European bioinformatics programme, ELIXIR, has adopted a well-established and progressive programme of computational lab and data skills training from Software and Data Carpentry, aimed at increasing the number of skilled life scientists and building a sustainable training community in this field. This article describes the Pilot action, which introduced the Carpentry training model to the ELIXIR community.
PART I: Bioventing Pilot Test Work Plan for Fire Protection Training Area Site FY-03, Charleston AFB, South Carolina. PART II: Draft Interim Pilot Test Results Report for Fire Protection Training Area Site FT-03, Charleston AFB, South Carolina
This site-specific work plan presents the scope of a bioventing pilot test for in situ treatment of fuel contaminated soils at the Fire Protection Training Area designated as Site FT-O3, Charleston Air Force Base (AFB), South Carolina...
Jacobs, Jayme; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Block-Lerner, Jennifer; McMahon, Cori
Although researchers have not yet examined the applicability of mindfulness for weight-gain prevention, mindfulness training has the potential to increase an individual's awareness of factors that enable an individual to avoid weight gain caused by overconsumption. The study intended to examine the effects of 1 h of mindfulness training on state mindfulness and food consumption. The research team performed a pilot study. The study occurred at an urban, northeastern, Catholic university. Participants were 26 undergraduate, English-speaking students who were at least 18 y old (77% female, 73% Caucasian). Students with food allergies, an inability to fast, or a current or past diagnosis of an eating disorder were ineligible. Participants fasted for 4 h. Between the third and fourth hours, they attended a 1-h session of mindfulness training that integrated three experiential mindfulness exercises with group discussion. Following training, they applied the skills they learned during a silent lunch. The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS), the Awareness subscale of the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS-AW), and a modified version of the Acting with Awareness subscale of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-AW) were used preand posttraining to assess changes in state mindfulness, present-moment awareness, and mealtime awareness, respectively. A postmeal, subjective hunger/fullness Likert scale was used to assess food consumption (healthy vs unhealthy consumption). The study found a statistically significant increase in state mindfulness (P=.002). Eighty-six percent of participants engaged in healthy food consumption. No statistically significant changes occurred in either present-moment awareness (P=.617) or mealtime awareness (P=.483). Preliminary results suggest promising benefits for use of mindfulness training on weight-gain prevention in healthy individuals. More research is needed to understand the impact that mindfulness may have on long-term, weight
Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Dawson, Deirdre R; Whyte, Ellen M; Butters, Meryl A; Dew, Mary Amanda; Grattan, Emily S; Becker, James T; Holm, Margo B
To examine the feasibility of a strategy training clinical trial in a small group of adults with stroke-related cognitive impairments in inpatient rehabilitation, and to explore the impact of strategy training on disability. Non-randomized two-group intervention pilot study. Two inpatient rehabilitation units within an academic health centre. Individuals with a primary diagnosis of acute stroke, who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation and demonstrated cognitive impairments were included. Individuals with severe aphasia; dementia; major depressive disorder, bipolar, or psychotic disorder; recent drug or alcohol abuse; and anticipated length of stay less than five days were excluded. Participants received strategy training or an attention control session in addition to usual rehabilitation care. Sessions in both groups were 30-40 minutes daily, five days per week, for the duration of inpatient rehabilitation. We assessed feasibility through participants' recruitment and retention; research intervention session number and duration; participants' comprehension and engagement; intervention fidelity; and participants' satisfaction. We assessed disability at study admission, inpatient rehabilitation discharge, 3 and 6 months using the Functional Independence Measure. Participants in both groups (5 per group) received the assigned intervention (>92% planned sessions; >94% fidelity) and completed follow-up testing. Strategy training participants in this small sample demonstrated significantly less disability at six months (M (SE) = 117 (3)) than attention control participants (M(SE) = 96 (14); t 8 = 7.87, P = 0.02). It is feasible and acceptable to administer both intervention protocols as an adjunct to acute inpatient rehabilitation, and strategy training shows promise for reducing disability.
Kolko, Rachel P; Kass, Andrea E; Hayes, Jacqueline F; Levine, Michele D; Garbutt, Jane M; Proctor, Enola K; Wilfley, Denise E
This randomized pilot trial evaluated two training modalities for first-line, evidence-based pediatric obesity services (screening and goal setting) among nursing students. Participants (N = 63) were randomized to live interactive training or Web-facilitated self-study training. Pretraining, post-training, and 1-month follow-up assessments evaluated training feasibility, acceptability, and impact (knowledge and skill via simulation). Moderator (previous experience) and predictor (content engagement) analyses were conducted. Nearly all participants (98%) completed assessments. Both types of training were acceptable, with higher ratings for live training and participants with previous experience (ps pediatric obesity services. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schwenk, Michael; Grewal, Gurtej S; Honarvar, Bahareh; Schwenk, Stefanie; Mohler, Jane; Khalsa, Dharma S; Najafi, Bijan
Background Wearable sensor technology can accurately measure body motion and provide incentive feedback during exercising. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness and user experience of a balance training program in older adults integrating data from wearable sensors into a human-computer interface designed for interactive training. Methods Senior living community residents (mean age 84.6) with confirmed fall risk were randomized to an intervention (IG, n?=?17) or contro...
Garcia, Marcelo C; Kozasa, Elisa H; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M; Hachul, Helena
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of mindfulness and relaxation training for insomnia on insomnia and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years, who were not using hormone therapy, and had a diagnosis of insomnia and an apnea-hypopnea index of less than 15, were randomly assigned to two groups: a mindfulness intervention group and a control group. They were assessed before the intervention, and 8 weeks after its completion using questionnaires assessing sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), quality of life in menopause (Menopause-Specific Quality of Life), menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopausal Index), and level of attention (Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale). They were also assessed through ambulatory polysomnography. This is a pilot study and is limited by its small sample size. The results of the questionnaires showed significant differences in the group that received mindfulness training compared with the control group, namely, improvements in sleep quality, a reduction in the severity of insomnia, a better quality of life, improved attention levels, and a reduction in menopausal and vasomotor symptoms. Polysomnography results showed no differences between the groups. Eight weeks mindfulness meditation training improved sleep quality, quality of life, attention levels, and reduced vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women with insomnia.
Hutter, E; Argstatter, H; Grapp, M; Plinkert, P K
Although cochlear implant (CI) users achieve good speech comprehension, they experience difficulty perceiving music and prosody in speech. As the provision of music training in rehabilitation is limited, a novel concept of music therapy for rehabilitation of adult CI users was developed and evaluated in this pilot study. Twelve unilaterally implanted, postlingually deafened CI users attended ten sessions of individualized and standardized training. The training started about 6 weeks after the initial activation of the speech processor. Before and after therapy, psychological and musical tests were applied in order to evaluate the effects of music therapy. CI users completed the musical tests in two conditions: bilateral (CI + contralateral, unimplanted ear) and unilateral (CI only). After therapy, improvements were observed in the subjective sound quality (Hearing Implant Sound Quality Index) and the global score on the self-concept questionnaire (Multidimensional Self-Concept Scales) as well as in the musical subtests for melody recognition and for timbre identification in the unilateral condition. Discussion Preliminary results suggest improvements in subjective hearing and music perception, with an additional increase in global self-concept and enhanced daily listening capacities. The novel concept of individualized music therapy seems to provide an effective treatment option in the rehabilitation of adult CI users. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate effects in the area of prosody perception and to separate therapy effects from general learning effects in CI rehabilitation.
Thomas, Scott M; Burch, Wesley; Kuehnle, Sarah E; Flood, Robert G; Scalzo, Anthony J; Gerard, James M
To assess the effect of simulation training on pediatric residents' acquisition and retention of central venous catheter insertion skills. A secondary objective was to assess the effect of simulation training on self-confidence to perform the procedure. Prospective observational pilot study. Single university clinical simulation center. Pediatric residents, postgraduate years 1-3. Residents participated in a 60- to 90-minute ultrasound-guided central venous catheter simulation training session. Video recordings of residents performing simulated femoral central venous catheter insertions were made before (baseline), after, and at 3-month following training. Three blinded expert raters independently scored the performances using a 24-item checklist and 100-mm global rating scale. At each time point, residents rated their confidence to perform the procedure on a 100-mm scale. Twenty-six residents completed the study. Compared with baseline, immediately following training, median checklist score (54.2% [interquartile range, 40.8-68.8%] vs 83.3% [interquartile range, 70.0-91.7%]), global rating score (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 0.0-64.3 mm] vs 79.5 mm [interquartile range, 16.3-91.7 mm]), success rate (38.5% vs 80.8%), and self-confidence (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 3.8-19.0 mm] vs 52.0 mm [interquartile range, 43.5-66.5 mm]) all improved (p interquartile range, 40.8-68.8%] vs 54.2% [interquartile range, 45.8-80.4%], p = 0.47), global rating score (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 0.0-64.3 mm] vs 35.5 mm [interquartile range, 5.3-77.0], p = 0.62), and success rate (38.5% vs 65.4%, p = 0.35) were similar at 3-month follow-up. Self-confidence, however, remained above baseline at 3-month follow-up (8.0 mm [interquartile range, 3.8-19.0 mm] vs 61.0 mm [interquartile range, 31.5-71.8 mm], p < 0.01). Simulation training improved pediatric residents' central venous catheter insertion procedural skills. Decay in skills was found at 3-month follow-up. This suggests that
Moiseev, Yu B; Ignatovich, S N; Strakhov, A Yu
The article discusses anthropometric design of shockproof pilot seats for state-of-the-art helicopters. Object of the investigation was anthropometric parameters of the helicopter aviation personnel of the Russian interior troops. It was stated that the body parameters essential for designing helicopter seat dampers are mass of the body part that presses against the seat in the seating position, and eye level above the seat surface. An uncontrolled seat damper ensuring shockproof safety to 95 % helicopter crews must be designed for the body mass contacting the seat of 99.7 kg and eye level above the seat of 78.6 cm. To absorb.shock effectively, future dampers should be adjustable to pilot's body parameters. The optimal approach to anthropometric design of a helicopter seat is development of type pilot' body models with due account of pilot's the flight outfit and seat geometry. Principle criteria of type models are body mass and eye level. The authors propose a system of type body models facilitating specification of anthropometric data helicopter seat developers.
陈琼; 沈思云; 夏凌; 李交杰; 陈小萍; 陈晓健; 徐建华
目的 研究军机飞行员颈部各肌群的强度并探讨颈肌训练的方法和效果.方法 采用CME-1飞行员颈肌训练器对50例军机飞行员(运输机组、直升机组、歼强机组、轰炸机组和初教机组各10例)进行为期3周共9次颈部各肌群(前、后、左、右)的强度训练,第1、3、4、6、7和9次为等长训练模式,第2、5和8次为可变阻力和可变速度训练模式,记录第1次训练即颈肌训练前各机种以及第1(T1组)、3(T3组)、6(T6组)和9(T9组)次训练的前、后、左、右各肌群的平均颈肌强度、平均10 s最大冲量.结果 ①训练前运输机组向前、后肌群平均颈肌强度和平均10 s最大冲量值低于其他组(P＜0.05)；②第3、6和9次训练各肌群的平均颈肌强度、平均10 s最大冲量的均值较第1次均有显著提高(P＜0.05)；训练3周各肌群的平均颈肌强度均值的相对增长率分别为47.4％、42.6％、65.2％和55.5％,平均10s最大冲量均值的相对增长率分别为51.6％、41.8％、63.3％和53.9％.结论 运输机飞行员前屈和后伸肌群强度较低；CME-1飞行员颈肌训练器能有效提高军机飞行员的颈肌强度.%Objective To evaluate the strength of neck muscles of military pilots and the effects of the strength training. Methods Fifty military pilots from 5 groups, I. E. Transporter pilots group, helicopter pilots group,fighter and attacker pilots group,bomber pilots group and primary trainer pilots group, 10 in each group, received strength training in neck muscles, all together 9 times in 3 weeks. The training was carried out by CME-1 Neck Muscle Training Machine. Among the 9-time training,the 1st,3rd,4th,6th,7th and 9th were isometric exercises,the 2nd,5th and 8th were changeable velocity and resistant ( CVR) exercises. The mean of peak muscle strength and the mean of peak impulse in 10 seconds of the extension, flexion, left and right lateral bending directions of the neck muscles were
Molier, B.I.; Prange, Grada Berendina; Krabben, T.; Stienen, Arno; van der Kooij, Herman; Buurke, Jaap; Jannink, M.J.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Feedback is an important element in motor learning during rehabilitation therapy following stroke. The objective of this pilot study was to better understand the effect of position feedback during task-oriented reach training of the upper limb in people with chronic stroke. Five subjects
Blythe, John M.
This pilot study investigated the efficacy of "Phonics Alive 2: The Sound Blender", a computer-based phonological skills training program, delivered with both at-home and at-school components over a 10-week period, as a potential treatment of phonological dyslexia. Participants were 20 dyslexic primary students with an average delay of…
Vermeulen, M.I.; Tromp, F.; Zuithoff, N.P.; Pieters, R.H.; Damoiseaux, R.A.; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.
Abstract Background: Historically, semi-structured interviews (SSI) have been the core of the Dutch selection for postgraduate general practice (GP) training. This paper describes a pilot study on a newly designed competency-based selection procedure that assesses whether candidates have the
Conclusion: This pilot project proved very popular with participants and trainers. Technical issues proved frustrating at times and together with cost are likely to pose difficulties for its widespread use in EM training in Africa. It is worthwhile exploring this further.
Herbrecht, Evelyn; Poustka, Fritz; Birnkammer, Sabine; Duketis, Eftichia; Schlitt, Sabine; Schmötzer, Gabriele; Bölte, Sven
The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based intervention aiming at improving social and communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Over a period of 11 months, N = 17 children and adolescents received treatment according to the manualised Frankfurt Social Skills Training (KONTAKT). Parent, teacher, expert and blind expert ratings were assessed to judge outcome regarding peer interaction, autistic behaviours, adaptive functioning and family burden. The participants exhibited improvements pre to follow-up treatment, particularly in the area of autistic symptomatology. Effect sizes (partial eta squared) ranged from 0.02 to 0.69. Among other things, regression models showed a positive influence of IQ and language skills on gains in social skills. Findings indicate that KONTAKT might be useful for enhancing social skills and reducing autism-related psychopathology over time in different contexts. Nevertheless, controlled trials are needed to reassure its effectiveness.
Wirth, B; Ferreira, T Duarte; Mittelholzer, M; Humphreys, B K; Boutellier, U
Patients with chronic neck pain show also respiratory dysfunctions. To investigate the effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) on chronic neck pain. In this pilot study (single-subject design: 3 baseline measurements, 4 measurements during RMET), 15 neck patients (49.3 ± 13.7 years; 13 females) conducted 20 sessions of home-based RMET using a SpiroTiger® (normocapnic hyperpnoea). Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximal inspiratory (Pimax) and expiratory (Pemax) pressure were measured before and after RMET. Neck flexor endurance, cervical and thoracic mobility, forward head posture, chest wall expansion and self-assessed neck disability [Neck Disability Index (NDI), Bournemouth questionnaire] were weekly assessed. Repeated measure ANOVA (Bonferroni correction) compared the first and last baseline and the last measurement after RMET. RMET significantly increased MVV (p= 0.025), Pimax (p= 0.001) and Pemax (pneck pain. The underlying mechanisms, including blood gas analyses, need further investigation in a randomized controlled study.
McKenna, T.J.; Martin, J.A.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.
This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. Severe Reactor Accident Overview is the second in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes elementary perspectives on severe accidents and accident assesment. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text
Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.; Perkins, K.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.
This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Response is the fifth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes NRC response modes, organizations, and official positions; roles of other federal agencies are also described briefly. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text
McGuire, Rita; Honaker, Julie; Pozehl, Bunny; Hertzog, Melody
The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a multicomponent balance and resistance training intervention on physical function, balance, and falls in older (≥65 years) community-dwelling heart failure (HF) patients. Randomized, two-group repeated-measures experimental design. The intervention involved once weekly supervised group sessions with home sessions encouraged twice weekly. Focus groups held pre/post intervention. Outcome variables included measures of physical function, balance confidence, and falling risk. In a sample size of 33, the Dynamic Gait Index change from baseline to 12 weeks was significantly different in the groups (p = .029). The number of reported falls declined from 0.92 to 0.54 per participant. A supervised group session intervention can increase mobility and gait and reduce fall rate for HF patients. This study was designed to improve lower extremity strength, balance, and falls in elderly HF patients, thus reducing costs and improving quality of life for this population.
Keytsman, Charly; Hansen, Dominique; Wens, Inez; O Eijnde, Bert
High-intensity concurrent training positively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Because this was never investigated in multiple sclerosis, the present pilot study explored the impact of this training on cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Before and after 12 weeks of high-intense concurrent training (interval and strength training, 5 sessions per 2 weeks, n = 16) body composition, resting blood pressure and heart rate, 2-h oral glucose tolerance (insulin sensitivity, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose and insulin concentrations), blood lipids (high- and low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels) and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Twelve weeks of high-intense concurrent training significantly improved resting heart rate (-6%), 2-h blood glucose concentrations (-13%) and insulin sensitivity (-24%). Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipids and C-reactive protein did not seem to be affected. Under the conditions of this pilot study, 12 weeks of concurrent high-intense interval and strength training improved resting heart rate, 2-h glucose and insulin sensitivity in multiple sclerosis but did not affect blood C-reactive protein levels, blood pressure, body composition and blood lipid profiles. Further, larger and controlled research investigating the effects of high-intense concurrent training on cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis is warranted. Implications for rehabilitation High-intensity concurrent training improves cardiovascular fitness. This pilot study explores the impact of this training on cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis. Despite the lack of a control group, high-intense concurrent training does not seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis.
Palermo, Tonya M.; Law, Emily F.; Bromberg, Maggie; Fales, Jessica; Eccleston, Christopher; Wilson, Anna C.
This pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of parental problem solving skills training (PSST) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) on improving parental mental health symptoms, physical health and well-being, and parenting behaviors. Effects of parent PSST on child outcomes (pain, emotional and physical functioning) were also examined. Participants included 61 parents of children aged 10–17 years with chronic pain randomized to PSST (n = 31) or TAU (n = 30). Parents receiving PSST participated in 4–6 individual sessions of training in problem solving skills. Outcomes were assessed at pre-treatment, immediately post-treatment, and at 3-month follow up. Feasibility was determined by therapy session attendance, therapist ratings, and parent treatment acceptability ratings. Feasibility of PSST delivery in this population was demonstrated by high compliance with therapy attendance, excellent retention, high therapist ratings of treatment engagement, and high parent ratings of treatment acceptability. PSST was associated with post-treatment improvements in parental depression (d = −0.68), general mental health (d = 0.64), and pain catastrophizing (d = −0.48), as well as in child depression (d = −0.49), child general anxiety (d = −0.56), and child pain-specific anxiety (d = −0.82). Several effects were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings demonstrate that PSST is feasible and acceptable to parents of youth with chronic pain. Treatment outcome analyses show promising but mixed patterns of effects of PSST on parent and child mental health outcomes. Further rigorous trials of PSST are needed to extend these pilot results. PMID:26845525
Clark, Jane E; Aitken, Susan; Watson, Nina; McVey, Joanne; Helbert, Jan; Wraith, Anita; Taylor, Vanessa; Catesby, Sarah
National guidelines in the United Kingdom recommend training Clinical Nurse Specialists in psychological skills to improve the assessment and intervention with psychological problems experienced by people with a cancer diagnosis (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2004). This pilot study evaluated a three-day training program combined with supervision sessions from Clinical Psychologists that focused on developing skills in psychological assessment and intervention for common problems experienced by people with cancer. Questionnaires were developed to measure participants' levels of confidence in 15 competencies of psychological skills. Participants completed these prior to the program and on completion of the program. Summative evaluation was undertaken and results were compared. In addition, a focus group interview provided qualitative data of participants' experiences of the structure, process, and outcomes of the program. Following the program, participants rated their confidence in psychological assessment and skills associated with providing psychological support as having increased in all areas. This included improved knowledge of psychological theories, skills in assessment and intervention and accessing and using supervision appropriately. The largest increase was in providing psycho-education to support the coping strategies of patients and carers. Thematic analysis of interview data identified two main themes including learning experiences and program enhancements. The significance of the clinical supervision sessions as key learning opportunities, achieved through the development of a community of practice, emerged. Although this pilot study has limitations, the results suggest that a combined teaching and supervision program is effective in improving Clinical Nurse Specialists' confidence level in specific psychological skills. Participants' experiences highlighted suggestions for refinement and development of the program
Full Text Available Problem: The Pacific region has widely dispersed populations, limited financial and human resources and a high burden of disease. There is an urgent need to improve the availability, reliability and timeliness of useable health data. Context: The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learnt from a three-year pilot field epidemiology training programme that was designed to respond to these Pacific health challenges. The pilot programme built on and further developed an existing field epidemiology training programme for Pacific health staff. Action: The programme was delivered in country by epidemiologists working for Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network partners. The programme consisted of five courses: four one-week classroom-based courses and one field epidemiology project. Sessions were structured so that theoretical understanding was achieved through interaction and reinforced through practical hands-on group activities, case studies and other interactive practical learning methods. Outcome: As of September 2016, 258 students had commenced the programme. Twenty-six course workshops were delivered and one cohort of students had completed the full five-course programme. The programme proved popular and gained a high level of student engagement. Discussion: Face-to-face delivery, a low student-to-facilitator ratio, substantial group work and practical exercises were identified as key factors that contributed to the students developing skills and confidence. Close engagement of leaders and the need to quickly evaluate and adapt the curriculum were important lessons, and the collaboration between external partners was considered important for promoting a harmonized approach to health needs in the Pacific.
Yam, Kevin Kei Nang; Lo, William Tak Lam; Chiu, Rose Lai Ping; Lau, Bien Shuk Yin; Lau, Charles Ka Shing; Wu, Jen Kei Yu; Wan, Siu Man
The present study reviews the delivery of a pilot curriculum-mentorship-based peer vocational support workers training in a Hong Kong public psychiatric hospital. The present paper reports (1) on the development of a peer vocational support workers training - Job Buddies Training Program (JBTP) in Hong Kong; and (2) preliminary findings from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives. The curriculum consists of 15-session coursework, 8-session storytelling workshop and 50-hour practicum to provide Supported Employment Peer Service (SEPS) under the mentorship of occupational therapists. Six trainees were assessed using three psychosocial assessments and qualitative methods. Compared to the baseline, the Job Buddies (JB) trainees showed an increase in awareness of their own recovery progress, occupational competence and problem-solving skills at the end of the training. Their perceived level of self-stigma was also lessened. In post-training evaluation, all Job Buddies trainees said they perceived positive personal growth and discovered their own strengths. They also appreciated the help from their mentors and gained mutual support from other trainees and from exposure with various mini-projects in the training. This pilot study provides an example of incorporating peer support and manualized training into existing work rehabilitation service for our JB trainees. Further studies on the effectiveness of service provided by peer support workers and for development on the potential use of peer support workers in other clinical and rehabilitation settings with larger subjects will be fruitful. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kiluk, Brian D; Buck, Matthew B; Devore, Kathleen A; Babuscio, Theresa A; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M
Impairments in attention, working memory, and executive function are common among substance users and may adversely affect SUD treatment outcomes. The ability of cognitive remediation (CR) interventions to improve these deficits is hindered in part because levels of engagement in CR training may be inadequate to achieve benefit. This pilot study aimed to increase CR engagement and improve outcome by implementing contingency management (CM) procedures that reinforce performance improvements on CR tasks. Participants were forty individuals (50% male; 65% African American) in an outpatient substance use treatment facility with mild cognitive impairment who had ≥30-days of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. They were randomized to standard (CR-S; n=21) or CM-enhanced (CR-CM; n=19) cognitive remediation training. CR consisted of 1-hour sessions, three times per week for four weeks (12 sessions). A neuropsychological assessment battery was administered prior to and after the four-week intervention. Both groups had high rates of CR session attendance (mean CR-S=11.7, CR-CM=10.9 sessions). Performance on 8 of the 9 CR tasks significantly improved over time for both conditions, with the CR-CM condition demonstrating greater improvement on a CR Sequenced Recall task [F(1,37)=5.81, ptraining and suggest the potential value of more research in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The ability to pay close attention to the present moment can be a crucial factor for performing well in a competitive situation. Training mindfulness is one approach to potentially improve elite athletes’ ability to focus their attention on the present moment. However, virtually nothing is known about whether these types of interventions alter neural systems that are important for optimal performance. This pilot study examined whether an intervention aimed at improving mindfulness [Mindful Performance Enhancement, Awareness and Knowledge (mPEAK] changes neural activation patterns during an interoceptive challenge. Participants completed a task involving anticipation and experience of loaded breathing during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI recording. There were five main results following mPEAK training: (1 elite athletes self-reported higher levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness and lower levels of alexithymia; (2 greater insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activation during anticipation and post-breathing load conditions; (3 increased ACC activation during the anticipation condition was associated with increased scores on the describing subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; (4 increased insula activation during the post-load condition was associated with decreases in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS identifying feelings subscale; (5 decreased resting state functional connectivity between the PCC and the
Background Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. Methods The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. Results The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Conclusion Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743 PMID:23497731
Larsen, William E. (Editor); Randle, Robert J., Jr. (Editor); Bray, Richard S. (Editor); Zuk, John (Editor)
A workshop was convened by the FAA and NASA for the purpose of providing a forum at which leading designers, manufacturers, and users of helicopter simulators could initiate and participate in a development process that would facilitate the formulation of qualification standards by the regulatory agency. Formal papers were presented, special topics were discussed in breakout sessions, and a draft FAA advisory circular defining specifications for helicopter simulators was presented and discussed. A working group of volunteers was formed to work with the National Simulator Program Office to develop a final version of the circular. The workshop attracted 90 individuals from a constituency of simulator manufacturers, training organizations, the military, civil regulators, research scientists, and five foreign countries.
Laborde, Danielle J; Brannock, Kristen; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Parrish, Theodore
To support reduction of racial disparities in mental health diagnosis and treatment, mental health researchers and black community-based organization (CBO) leaders need training on how to engage in collaborative research partnerships. In this study, we pilot tested a series of partnership skills training modules for researchers and CBO leaders in a collaborative learning format. Two different sets of three modules, designed for separate training of researchers and CBO leaders, covered considering, establishing and managing mental health research partnerships and included instructions for self-directed activities and discussions. Eight CBO leaders participated in 10 sessions, and six researchers participated in eight sessions. The effectiveness of the training content and format was evaluated through standardized observations, focus group discussions, participant evaluation forms and retrospective pre-/posttests to measure perceived gains in knowledge. Participants generally were satisfied with the training experience and gained new partnership knowledge and skills. Although the CBO leaders were more engaged in the cooperative learning process, this training format appealed to both audiences. Pilot testing demonstrated that: 1) our modules can equip researchers and CBO leaders with new partnership knowledge and skills and 2) the cooperative learning format is a well-received and suitable option for mental health research partnership training.
Carson Helicopters Inc. licensed the Langley RC4 series of airfoils in 1993 to develop a replacement main rotor blade for their Sikorsky S-61 helicopters. The company's fleet of S-61 helicopters has been rebuilt to include Langley's patented airfoil design, and the helicopters are now able to carry heavier loads and fly faster and farther, and the main rotor blades have twice the previous service life. In aerial firefighting, the performance-boosting airfoils have helped the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service control the spread of wildfires. In 2003, Carson Helicopters signed a contract with Ducommun AeroStructures Inc., to manufacture the composite blades for Carson Helicopters to sell
Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Evanoff, Brad
Falls from heights account for 64% of residential construction worker fatalities and 20% of missed work days. We hypothesized that worker safety would improve with foremen training in fall prevention and safety communication. Training priorities identified through foreman and apprentice focus groups and surveys were integrated into an 8-hour training. We piloted the training with ten foremen employed by a residential builder. Carpenter trainers contrasted proper methods to protect workers from falls with methods observed at the foremen's worksites. Trainers presented methods to deliver toolbox talks and safety messages. Results from worksite observational audits (n=29) and foremen/crewmember surveys (n=97) administered before and after training were compared. We found that inexperienced workers are exposed to many fall hazards that they are often not prepared to negotiate. Fall protection is used inconsistently and worksite mentorship is often inadequate. Foremen feel pressured to meet productivity demands and some are unsure of the fall protection requirements. After the training, the frequency of daily mentoring and toolbox talks increased, and these talks became more interactive and focused on hazardous daily work tasks. Foremen observed their worksites for fall hazards more often. We observed increased compliance with fall protection and decreased unsafe behaviors during worksite audits. Designing the training to meet both foremen's and crewmembers' needs ensured the training was learner-centered and contextually-relevant. This pilot suggests that training residential foremen can increase use of fall protection, improve safety behaviors, and enhance on-the-job training and safety communication at their worksites. Construction workers' training should target safety communication and mentoring skills with workers who will lead work crews. Interventions at multiple levels are necessary to increase safety compliance in residential construction and decrease falls
Holthoff, Vjera A; Marschner, Kira; Scharf, Maria; Steding, Julius; Meyer, Shirin; Koch, Rainer; Donix, Markus
There is evidence that physical activity (PA) is of cognitive benefit to the ageing brain, but little is known on the effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present pilot study assessed the effect of a home-based PA training on clinical symptoms, functional abilities, and caregiver burden after 12 and 24 weeks. In an RCT thirty patients (aged 72.4±4.3 years) with AD (MMSE: 20.6±6.5 points) and their family caregivers were allocated to a home-based 12-week PA intervention program or the usual care group. The program changed between passive, motor-assisted or active resistive leg training and changes in direction on a movement trainer in order to combine physical and cognitive stimuli. Analysis of activities of daily living in the patients (ADCS ADL total score) revealed a significant group × time interaction effect (95% CI of the difference between both groups at T2: 5.01-10.51). The control group experienced decreases in ADL performance at week 12 and 24 whereas patients in the intervention group remained stable. Analyses of executive function and language ability revealed considerable effects for semantic word fluency with a group × time interaction (95% CI of the difference between both groups at T2: 0.18-4.02). Patients in the intervention group improved during the intervention and returned to initial performance at week 12 whereas the controls revealed continuous worsening. Analyses of reaction time, hand-eye quickness and attention revealed improvement only in the intervention group. Caregiver burden remained stable in the intervention group but worsened in the control group. This study suggests that PA in a home-based setting might be an effective and intrinsically attractive way to promote PA training in AD and modulate caregiver burden. The results demonstrate transfer benefits to ADL, cognitive and physical skill in patients with AD. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02196545.
Vjera A Holthoff
Full Text Available There is evidence that physical activity (PA is of cognitive benefit to the ageing brain, but little is known on the effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. The present pilot study assessed the effect of a home-based PA training on clinical symptoms, functional abilities, and caregiver burden after 12 and 24 weeks.In an RCT thirty patients (aged 72.4±4.3 years with AD (MMSE: 20.6±6.5 points and their family caregivers were allocated to a home-based 12-week PA intervention program or the usual care group. The program changed between passive, motor-assisted or active resistive leg training and changes in direction on a movement trainer in order to combine physical and cognitive stimuli.Analysis of activities of daily living in the patients (ADCS ADL total score revealed a significant group × time interaction effect (95% CI of the difference between both groups at T2: 5.01-10.51. The control group experienced decreases in ADL performance at week 12 and 24 whereas patients in the intervention group remained stable. Analyses of executive function and language ability revealed considerable effects for semantic word fluency with a group × time interaction (95% CI of the difference between both groups at T2: 0.18-4.02. Patients in the intervention group improved during the intervention and returned to initial performance at week 12 whereas the controls revealed continuous worsening. Analyses of reaction time, hand-eye quickness and attention revealed improvement only in the intervention group. Caregiver burden remained stable in the intervention group but worsened in the control group.This study suggests that PA in a home-based setting might be an effective and intrinsically attractive way to promote PA training in AD and modulate caregiver burden. The results demonstrate transfer benefits to ADL, cognitive and physical skill in patients with AD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02196545.
Full Text Available Maneuverability is a key factor to determine whether a helicopter could finish certain flight missions successfully or not. Inverse simulation is commonly used to calculate the pilot controls of a helicopter to complete a certain kind of maneuver flight and to assess its maneuverability. A general method for inverse simulation of maneuver flight for helicopters with the flight control system online is developed in this paper. A general mathematical describing function is established to provide mathematical descriptions of different kinds of maneuvers. A comprehensive control solver based on the optimal linear quadratic regulator theory is developed to calculate the pilot controls of different maneuvers. The coupling problem between pilot controls and flight control system outputs is well solved by taking the flight control system model into the control solver. Inverse simulation of three different kinds of maneuvers with different agility requirements defined in the ADS-33E-PRF is implemented based on the developed method for a UH-60 helicopter. The results show that the method developed in this paper can solve the closed-loop inverse simulation problem of helicopter maneuver flight with high reliability as well as efficiency. Keywords: Closed-loop, Flying quality, Helicopters, Inverse simulation, Maneuver flight
Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Harvey, Catherine; Thomas, T Glyn
Helicopters have the potential to be an integral part of the future transport system. They offer a means of rapid transit in an overly populated transport environment. However, one of the biggest limitations on rotary wing flight is their inability to fly in degraded visual conditions in the critical phases of approach and landing. This paper presents a study that developed and evaluated a Head up Display (HUD) to assist rotary wing pilots by extending landing to degraded visual conditions. The HUD was developed with the assistance of the Cognitive Work Analysis method as an approach for analysing the cognitive work of landing the helicopter. The HUD was tested in a fixed based flight simulator with qualified helicopter pilots. A qualitative analysis to assess situation awareness and workload found that the HUD enabled safe landing in degraded conditions whilst simultaneously enhancing situation awareness and reducing workload. Continued development in this area has the potential to extend the operational capability of helicopters in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Stuck, Craig; Campbell, Nioaka; Bragg, John; Moran, Robert
The authors describe an interdisciplinary training experience developed for psychiatry residents and seminary students that assessed each group's beliefs and attitudes toward the other's profession. The training was designed to enhance awareness, positive attitudes, and interaction between the disciplines. From 2005 to 2008, PGY-2 general-psychiatry residents and PGY-5 child-psychiatry residents (N=30) participated alongside psychology interns (N=13) and seminary students (N=41). The intervention consisted of two 3-hour sessions. Measurements addressed demographics, participants' spirituality, and attitudes toward mental illness, mental-health practitioners, and clergy. The psychiatry residents' knowledge regarding the training of clergy was significantly increased by the training sessions. The seminary students' attitudes and knowledge of psychiatry/psychology changed significantly in a positive direction. This pilot course had a positive impact on both groups of participants. This model could be modified for other psychiatry programs, to include clergy students of different religious faiths as relevant to the demographics of the training location.
Chandler, Melanie J; Locke, Dona E C; Duncan, Noah L; Hanna, Sherrie M; Cuc, Andrea V; Fields, Julie A; Hoffman Snyder, Charlene R; Lunde, Angela M; Smith, Glenn E
This pilot study examined the functional impact of computerized versus compensatory calendar training in cognitive rehabilitation participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fifty-seven participants with amnestic MCI completed randomly assigned calendar or computer training. A standard care control group was used for comparison. Measures of adherence, memory-based activities of daily living (mADLs), and self-efficacy were completed. The calendar training group demonstrated significant improvement in mADLs compared to controls, while the computer training group did not. Calendar training may be more effective in improving mADLs than computerized intervention. However, this study highlights how behavioral trials with fewer than 30-50 participants per arm are likely underpowered, resulting in seemingly null findings.
.... The system is referred to as the Health Usage and Monitoring Systems (HUMS). The program's objective is to develop an automated diagnostic system that can identify mechanical faults within the power train of helicopters using vibration analysis...
... Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) Model 205A, 205A-1, and 205B helicopters with certain starter/generator power... that may lead to a fire in the starter/generator, smoke in the cockpit that reduces visibility, and... Office, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12- 140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590...
... to the specified helicopters with a reversible trim motor, P/N 28-16621 (Ford Motor Company C1AZ... helicopters with a reversible trim motor, P/N 28-16621 (Ford Motor Company C1AZ- 14553A) or P/N AD1R-10...
Oliver, Emily; Cooper, Jane; McKinney, David
To explore the effect that different activities included in first aid training can have on an individual's propensity to act in a medical emergency. Additional pilot-developed activities were added to a core first aid training session to create six unique groups, including a control group where no activities were added. Participants rated their agreement to pre-identified fears following the course and scored their self-efficacy and willingness to act before, immediately after and 2 months after the course. Change values were compared between groups. Three locations in the UK (community halls, schools). 554 members of the public were recruited using advertising and community groups. A deliberately broad demographic was sought and achieved using targeted approaches where a particular demographic was deficient. Each participant attended one British Red Cross first aid course lasting 2 h. The same questionnaire was completed by all participants before and after each course. Two months later all participants were asked a series of follow-up questions. All courses showed an increase in self-efficacy and willingness to act immediately following the course. The course, which included both factual information relevant to helping in an emergency and 'helper' identity activities, produced significantly more positive responses to pre-identified fears. Activities which allow the learner to explore and discuss behaviour in an emergency situation can effectively increase the learner's propensity to act. First aid education should be expanded to support the learner to develop both the skill and the will to help. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Costa, Paulo R.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.; Okuno, Emico; Nersissian, Denise Y.; Terini, Ricardo A.
A research cooperation program was established between the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo and the King's College of London to conduct the translation to Portuguese language, adaptation and update of the X-Ray Diagnostic Radiology training module of the Emerald Program (www.emerald2.eu/cd/Emerald2/). The Emerald Program teaching material in X-Ray Diagnostic Radiology is divided in ten topics covering the basics of Diagnostic Radiology, Quality Control and Radiation Protection. The referred work, besides the translation of the texts into Portuguese, comprised the review of the previously produced material. During the review process, it was decided to update some of the training tasks and add more information related to current topics, such as digital X-ray imaging modalities, multislice computed tomography and tomosynthesis. These new additions will also be available in English. The translated or written texts have been submitted to a cross-reviewing process by the co-authors in order to standardize the language. Moreover, national radiological protection recommendations were included to assist the users of the teaching material with the Brazilian rules of radiation safety and quality control in X-ray medical applications. Part of the material was submitted to a validation and also to a practical assessment process by means of a critical analysis by experts in Medical Physics education during a workshop held in Sao Paulo in March 2014. Finally, a pilot implementation has been organized in order to do the last adjustments before making the material available to other users in Portuguese language. Further assessment and feedback procedures were planned in both London and Sao Paulo, aiming to evaluate and disseminate the final product. (author)
Schreiber, Brian T; DiSalvo, Pam; Stock, William A; Bennett, Jr., Winston
... collection methodology both before and after five days of DMO training. The Pathfinder methodology is a qualitative/quantitative method that can be used to assess if the pilots' underlying knowledge structures (i.e...
Schreiber, Brian T; DiSalvo, Pam; Stock, William A; Bennett, Jr., Winston
...) Within Simulator Training Effectiveness Baseline Study as described in Volume I, Summary Report, of AFRL-HE-AZ-TR-2006-0015, the current work examined pilots who participated in a Pathfinder data...
Sampl, Juliane; Maran, Thomas; Furtner, Marco R.
The present randomized pilot intervention study examines the effects of a mindfulness-based self-leadership training (MBSLT) specifically developed for academic achievement situations. Both mindfulness and self-leadership have a strong self-regulatory focus and are helpful in terms of stress resilience and performance enhancements. Based on several theoretical points of contact and a specific interplay between mindfulness and self-leadership, the authors developed an innovative intervention p...
Sandstad, Janne; Stensvold, Dorthe; Hoff, Mari; Nes, Bjarne M; Arbo, Ingerid; Bye, Anja
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are inflammatory diseases which involve increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High intensity interval training (HIIT) is known to be effective in improving cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 10 weeks of HIIT at 85-95% of HRmax would improve important risk factors of CVD in rheumatic patients, and if these patients would tolerate exercise intensities above today's recommendations. Seven women with RA and eleven with adult-JIA, 20-50 years, were recruited to this cross-over study. Participants performed HIIT, consisting of 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% of HRmax twice a week for 10 weeks on spinning bikes. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate recovery, blood pressure, body composition, and blood variables were measured before and after the exercise and control period. Disease activity was determined and questionnaire data were collected. HIIT resulted in 12.2% increase in VO2max and 2.9% improvement in heart rate recovery (p HIIT (p = 0.08). No changes were detected in disease activity or pain. Despite rigorous high intensity exercise, no increase was detected in disease activity or pain, indicating that HIIT was well tolerated by these patients. Furthermore, HIIT had positive effects on several CVD risk factors. In light of this pilot study, HIIT seems like a promising non-pharmacological treatment strategy for patients with RA and adult-JIA.
Lee, SoJung; Spector, Jenna; Reilly, Stephanie
Recently, there has been growing interest in high-intensity interval training (HIT) as a strategy to improve health. In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility of a 4-week low-volume HIT and its effects on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure (BP) and enjoyment in overweight and obese youth. Twelve adolescents (body mass index (BMI): 34.8 ± 3.9 kg · m ‒ 2 , 14.9 ± 1.5 years) participated in 12 sessions of HIT (10 × 60 s cycling bouts eliciting ~90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 90 s recovery, 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week) over ~4 weeks. All the participants completed the study and exercise attendance averaged 92%. Despite no changes in body weight and total fat, HIT resulted in significant (P HIT and more than half of the participants (58%) reported that HIT is a more enjoyable form of exercise compared to other types of exercises. Low-volume HIT is a useful strategy to promote exercise participation and improve cardiovascular health in overweight and obese youth.
Crevenna, Richard; Krammer, Christine; Keilani, Mohammad
This pilot study aimed to investigate feasibility, acceptance, and effects of biofeedback-assisted mental training in a population of fifteen 10-year-old pupils in an Austrian elementary school. Participants were instructed in relaxation techniques by using biofeedback. Before intervention, after 6 weeks with active mental training and with regular instructions by the teacher, and after a further time period of 6 weeks without instructions, attention and concentration improved. The results indicate feasibility, good acceptance, and beneficial effects of biofeedback-assisted mental techniques in Austrian elementary school pupils.
Jha, V; Winterbottom, A; Symons, J; Thompson, Z; Quinton, N; Corrado, O J; Melville, C; Watt, I; Torgerson, D; Wright, J
Training in patient safety is an important element of medical education. Most educational interventions on patient safety training adopt a 'health-professional lens' with limited consideration on the impact of safety lapses on the patient and their families and little or no involvement of patients in the design or delivery of the training. This paper describes a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a patient-led educational intervention to facilitate safety training amongst newly qualified doctors. Patients and/or carers who had experienced harm during their care shared narratives of their stories with trainees; this was followed by a focused discussion on patient safety issues exploring the causes and consequences of safety incidents and lessons to be learned from these. The intervention, which will be further tested in an NIHR-funded randomised controlled trial (RCT), was successfully implemented into an existing training programme and found acceptance amongst the patients and trainees. The pilot study proved to be a useful step in refining the intervention for the RCT including identifying appropriate outcome measures and highlighting organisational issues.
Cudia, Paola; Weis, Luca; Baba, Alfonc; Kiper, Pawel; Marcante, Andrea; Rossi, Simonetta; Angelini, Corrado; Piccione, Francesco
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a new rehabilitative approach that combines electrical stimulation with a functional task. This pilot study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of FES lower extremity training in myotonic dystrophy type 1. This is a controlled pilot study that enrolled 20 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 over 2 years. Eight patients (age, 39-67 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four participants performed FES cycling training for 15 days (one daily session of 30 minutes for 5 days a week). A control group, matched for clinical and genetic variables, who had contraindications to electrical stimulation, performed 6 weeks of conventional resistance and aerobic training. The modified Medical Research Council Scale and functional assessments were performed before and after treatment. Cohen d effect size was used for statistical analysis. Functional electrical stimulation induced lower extremity training was well tolerated and resulted in a greater improvement of tibialis anterior muscle strength (d = 1,583), overall muscle strength (d = 1,723), and endurance (d = 0,626) than conventional training. Functional electrical stimulation might be considered a safe and valid tool to improve muscle function, also in muscles severely compromised in which no other restorative options are available. Confirmation of FES efficacy through further clinical trials is strongly advised.
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter facilities. 108.653 Section 108.653 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.653 Helicopter facilities. (a) Each helicopter fueling facility must be marked adjacent to the fueling hose storage: “WARNING—HELICOPTER FUELING STATION—KEEP...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter decks. 108.486 Section 108.486 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.486 Helicopter decks. At least two of the accesses to the helicopter landing deck must each have a fire hydrant on the unit's...
Dellinges, Mark A; Curtis, Donald A
Faculty members are expected to write high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in order to accurately assess dental students' achievement. However, most dental school faculty members are not trained to write MCQs. Extensive faculty development programs have been used to help educators write better test items. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if a short workshop would result in improved MCQ item-writing by dental school faculty at one U.S. dental school. A total of 24 dental school faculty members who had previously written MCQs were randomized into a no-intervention group and an intervention group in 2015. Six previously written MCQs were randomly selected from each of the faculty members and given an item quality score. The intervention group participated in a training session of one-hour duration that focused on reviewing standard item-writing guidelines to improve in-house MCQs. The no-intervention group did not receive any training but did receive encouragement and an explanation of why good MCQ writing was important. The faculty members were then asked to revise their previously written questions, and these were given an item quality score. The item quality scores for each faculty member were averaged, and the difference from pre-training to post-training scores was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference between pre-training and post-training MCQ difference scores for the intervention group (p=0.04). This pilot study provides evidence that the training session of short duration was effective in improving the quality of in-house MCQs.
Kodra, Yllka; Kondili, Loreta A; Ferraroni, Alessia; Serra, Maria Antonietta; Caretto, Flavia; Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Taruscio, Domenica
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia during the neonatal period and the first two years of life, the onset of hyperphagia with a risk of obesity during infancy and adulthood, learning difficulties and behavioral or severe psychiatric problems. This complex disease has severe consequences and difficult management issues also for patients' families. Parents of children with PWS need appropriate psychoeducational intervention in order to better manage their children with PWS. The purpose of this study was the implementation and evaluation of a PWS psychoeducational parent training program. The Italian National Center for Rare Diseases implemented a pilot parent training program offered to parents of children with PWS. The intervention's effects was evaluated using questionnaires comprised of 11 items rated on a 7 point Likert scale. The intervention was offered to 43 parents. The behavior problems management, dietary restrictions, autonomy and relationships were indicated by parents as the priority topics which needed to be addressed. Evaluations, immediately post-intervention and after 6 months, were reported by parents, fulfilling specific questionnaires. 90% of parents involved in the study, appreciated the methodology, 86% felt more informed about PWS, 47-62% felt more capable to better approach behaviour's problems, 20-25% felt better about the child's health situation and future expectations. Feeling more capable to help the child autonomy and relationships were reported in 62% and 63% of parents respectively, which decreased significantly (p < 0.05) according to the evaluation 6 months after the intervention. Younger age of parents (< 44 years of age) was significantly correlated with better understanding on how to help the child's autonomy (OR: 0.05; CI: 0.04-0.8) and to better collaborate with the child's teachers (OR: 0.02; CI: 0.001-0.9). Parent training is a promising intervention for parents of children
Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C
The present pilot study sought to compare a compassion-focused therapy (CFT)-based self-help intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) to a behaviourally based intervention. Forty-one individuals with BED were randomly assigned to 3 weeks of food planning plus self-compassion exercises; food planning plus behavioural strategies; or a wait-list control condition. Participants completed weekly measures of binge eating and self-compassion; pre- and post-intervention measures of eating disorder pathology and depressive symptoms; and a baseline measure assessing fear of self-compassion. Results showed that: (1) perceived credibility, expectancy, and compliance did not differ between the two interventions; (2) both interventions reduced weekly binge days more than the control condition; (3) the self-compassion intervention reduced global eating disorder pathology, eating concerns, and weight concerns more than the other conditions; (4) the self-compassion intervention increased self-compassion more than the other conditions; and (5) participants low in fear of self-compassion derived significantly more benefits from the self-compassion intervention than those high in fear of self-compassion. Findings offer preliminary support for the usefulness of CFT-based interventions for BED sufferers. Results also suggest that for individuals to benefit from self-compassion training, assessing and lowering fear of self-compassion will be crucial. Individuals with BED perceive self-compassion training self-help interventions, derived from CFT, to be as credible and as likely to help as behaviourally based interventions. The cultivation of self-compassion may be an effective approach for reducing binge eating, and eating, and weight concerns in individuals with BED. Teaching individuals with BED CFT-based self-help exercises may increase their self-compassion levels over a short period of time. It may be important for clinicians to assess and target clients' fear of self
Full Text Available Abstract Background As more integrative medicine educational content is integrated into conventional family medicine teaching, the need for effective evaluation strategies grows. Through the Integrative Family Medicine program, a six site pilot program of a four year residency training model combining integrative medicine and family medicine training, we have developed and tested a set of competency-based evaluation tools to assess residents' skills in integrative medicine history-taking and treatment planning. This paper presents the results from the implementation of direct observation and treatment plan evaluation tools, as well as the results of two Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs developed for the program. Methods The direct observation (DO and treatment plan (TP evaluation tools developed for the IFM program were implemented by faculty at each of the six sites during the PGY-4 year (n = 11 on DO and n = 8 on TP. The OSCE I was implemented first in 2005 (n = 6, revised and then implemented with a second class of IFM participants in 2006 (n = 7. OSCE II was implemented in fall 2005 with only one class of IFM participants (n = 6. Data from the initial implementation of these tools are described using descriptive statistics. Results Results from the implementation of these tools at the IFM sites suggest that we need more emphasis in our curriculum on incorporating spirituality into history-taking and treatment planning, and more training for IFM residents on effective assessment of readiness for change and strategies for delivering integrative medicine treatment recommendations. Focusing our OSCE assessment more narrowly on integrative medicine history-taking skills was much more effective in delineating strengths and weaknesses in our residents' performance than using the OSCE for both integrative and more basic communication competencies. Conclusion As these tools are refined further they will be of value both in improving
In this setting, short in-service training interventions are a pragmatic attempt at improving ... education. A pragmatic approach to training these nurses is to provide in- service .... outcomes.1 The need for quality training interventions and trained ...
Klarod, Kultida; Philippe, Marc; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin
This pilot study aimed (a) to evaluate the effects of eccentric exercise training at low and moderate altitudes on physical fitness in pre-diabetic men and (b) to establish whether or not oxidative stress levels and antioxidant status were associated with performance improvements. In this crossover trial, five pre-diabetic men conducted nine downhill walking sessions (3 days/week, 3 consecutive weeks) at low altitude (from 1360 to 850 m) and one year later at moderate altitude (from 2447 to 2000 m). Exercise testing and the determination of parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity were performed pre- and post-training. The biological antioxidant activity of plasma (BAP) increased after eccentric training at moderate altitude ( p training at moderate-altitude training ( p = 0.009). Maximum power output improved after training at low altitude and the changes were significantly related to baseline BAP/dROMs ratio ( r = 0.90). No decrease was seen for fasting plasma glucose. Eccentric exercise training in pre-diabetic men improved performance only when performed at low altitude and this improvement was positively related to the baseline BAP/dROMs ratio. In contrast, 3 weeks of eccentric exercise training increased BAP levels and the BAP/dROMs ratio only at moderate altitude without improving the performance. Thus, one might speculate that the BAP/dROMs ratio has to increase before performance improvements occur at moderate altitude.
Kim, H-J; Lee, H-J; So, B; Son, J S; Yoon, D; Song, W
The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on circulating irisin levels and their associations with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Twenty eight overweight/obese adults (BMI>23 kg/m(2)) were included in this study and compared before and after 8 weeks of exercise program (60 min/day, 5 times in a week). The subjects, in both aerobic and resistance training, showed significant improvement in anthropometric parameters and exercise capacities including maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength. Interestingly, the circulating irisin was significantly increased in resistance training group (p=0.002) but not in aerobic training (p=0.426) compared to control group. In addition, we found the positive correlation between change of the circulating irisin and muscle mass (r=0.432, p=0.022) and the negative correlation between change of the circulating irisin and fat mass (r=-0.407, p=0.031). In the present pilot study, we found that circulating irisin level was increased by 8 weeks of resistance training in overweight/obese adults, suggesting that resistance training could be the efficient exercise type in overweight/obese considering positive change of body composition concomitant with increase of irisin levels.
Hall, Alison K.; Lund, P. Kay
Clinician–investigators, also called physician–scientists, offer critical knowledge and perspectives that benefit research on basic science mechanisms, improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, population and outcomes medicine, health policy, and health services, yet few clinically trained health professionals pursue a research career. Sustaining this workforce requires attention to the unique challenges faced by investigators who must achieve clinical and research competence during training and their careers. These challenges include the duration of required clinical training, limited or discontinuous research opportunities, high levels of educational debt, balancing the dual obligations and rewards of clinical care and research, competition for research funding, and the need for leadership development after training. Women and individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups comprise a small percentage of this workforce. The authors summarize the recent literature on training for clinician–investigators, emphasizing approaches with encouraging outcomes that warrant broader implementation. Using this overview as background, they convened three workshops at the National Institutes of Health in 2016 to identify and refine key priorities for potential new pilot programs to recruit and retain the clinician–investigator workforce. From these workshops emerged three priorities for future pilot programs: (1) support for research in residency, (2) new research on-ramps for health professionals at multiple career stages, and (3) national networks to diversify and sustain clinician–investigator faculty. Implementation of any pilot program will require coordinated commitment from academic health centers, medical licensing/certification boards, professional societies, and clinician–investigators themselves, in addition to support from the National Institutes of Health. PMID:28767499
Hall, Alison K; Mills, Sherry L; Lund, P Kay
Clinician-investigators, also called physician-scientists, offer critical knowledge and perspectives that benefit research on basic science mechanisms, improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, population and outcomes medicine, health policy, and health services, yet few clinically trained health professionals pursue a research career. Sustaining this workforce requires attention to the unique challenges faced by investigators who must achieve clinical and research competence during training and their careers. These challenges include the duration of required clinical training, limited or discontinuous research opportunities, high levels of educational debt, balancing the dual obligations and rewards of clinical care and research, competition for research funding, and the need for leadership development after training. Women and individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups comprise a small percentage of this workforce.The authors summarize the recent literature on training for clinician-investigators, emphasizing approaches with encouraging outcomes that warrant broader implementation. Using this overview as background, they convened three workshops at the National Institutes of Health in 2016 to identify and refine key priorities for potential new pilot programs to recruit and retain the clinician-investigator workforce. From these workshops emerged three priorities for future pilot programs: (1) support for research in residency, (2) new research on-ramps for health professionals at multiple career stages, and (3) national networks to diversify and sustain clinician-investigator faculty. Implementation of any pilot program will require coordinated commitment from academic health centers, medical licensing/certification boards, professional societies, and clinician-investigators themselves, in addition to support from the National Institutes of Health.
Full Text Available Shu-Yu Tai,1–4 Chia-Ling Hsu,5 Shu-Wan Huang,5 Tzu-Chiao Ma,6,7 Wen-Chien Hsieh,8,9 Yuan-Han Yang5,7,10,11 1Department of Family Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 2Department of Family Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 3Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 4Research Center for Environmental Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, 5Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 6Graduate Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 7Mentality Protection Center, Fo Guang Shan Compassion Foundation, 8Department of Social Work, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 9Department of Sociology and Social Work, Kaohsiung Medical University, 10Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, 11Department of and Master’s Program in Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of multiple training modalities on cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms, caregivers’ burden, and quality of life in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Patients and methods: This intervention study was conducted in 24 patients with AD aged ≥65 years with a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR score of 0.5–1. The patients were assigned to receive multiple training modalities (1 hour for each training: Tai Chi, calligraphy, and drawing over a 6-week period in either the experimental group (n=14 or the comparison group (n=10. A series of neuropsychological tests – namely the Traditional Chinese version Mini-Mental Status Examination, Cognitive Assessment Screening Instrument (CASI, Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale, and the Clinical Dementia
Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.
The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.
helicopter (i.e. in an icing tunnel or engine test cell ) and therefore can be subjected to controlled icing where spe- cific problems can be safely...evaluation. 69 126.96.36.199 Ice Protection Systems Demonstration Many of the systems noted in 188.8.131.52 can be evaluated in icing test cells or icing wind tunnels...Figure 2-32 illustrates a typical rotor deice system control arrangement. 104 (N >4 A.dO INaH -E- C4) uo U En 9 E-1 H m I ~z O 04 04iH U 0 El4 E-f C E
Shane, Nancy R.
The purpose of this study was to determine how a pilot's educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience relate to their performance during initial training at a regional airline. Results show that variables in pilots' educational background, aeronautical experience and recency of experience do predict performance in training. The most significant predictors include years since graduation from college, multi-engine time, total time and whether or not a pilot had military flying experience. Due to the pilot shortage, the pilots entering regional airline training classes since August 2013 have varied backgrounds, aeronautical experience and recency of experience. As explained by Edward Thorndike's law of exercise and the law of recency, pilots who are actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit strong performance in those areas and pilots who have not been actively using their aeronautical knowledge and exercising their flying skills should exhibit degraded performance in those areas. Through correlation, chi-square and multiple regression analysis, this study tests this theory as it relates to performance in initial training at a regional airline.
Sundar, Swetha J; Healy, Andrew T; Kshettry, Varun R; Mroz, Thomas E; Schlenk, Richard; Benzel, Edward C
OBJECTIVE Pedicle and lateral mass screw placement is technically demanding due to complex 3D spinal anatomy that is not easily visualized. Neurosurgical and orthopedic surgery residents must be properly trained in such procedures, which can be associated with significant complications and associated morbidity. Current training in pedicle and lateral mass screw placement involves didactic teaching and supervised placement in the operating room. The objective of this study was to assess whether teaching residents to place pedicle and lateral mass screws using navigation software, combined with practice using cadaveric specimens and Sawbones models, would improve screw placement accuracy. METHODS This was a single-blinded, prospective, randomized pilot study with 8 junior neurosurgical residents and 2 senior medical students with prior neurosurgery exposure. Both the study group and the level of training-matched control group (each group with 4 level of training-matched residents and 1 senior medical student) were exposed to a standardized didactic education regarding spinal anatomy and screw placement techniques. The study group was exposed to an additional pilot program that included a training session using navigation software combined with cadaveric specimens and accessibility to Sawbones models. RESULTS A statistically significant reduction in overall surgical error was observed in the study group compared with the control group (p = 0.04). Analysis by spinal region demonstrated a significant reduction in surgical error in the thoracic and lumbar regions in the study group compared with controls (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). The study group also was observed to place screws more optimally in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions (p = 0.02, p = 0.04, and p = 0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Surgical resident education in pedicle and lateral mass screw placement is a priority for training programs. This study demonstrated that compared with a
Hildebrand, Deana A; Blevins, Priscilla; Carl, Lillian; Brown, Barbara; Betts, Nancy M; Poe, Tiffany
Use the Community Readiness Model (CRM) to develop and evaluate a contextually appropriate pilot culinary training program for school nutrition staff members. Mixed methods to guide intervention development. Six school districts in rural and urban areas of a southwestern state. School nutrition staff (n = 36; female; 20 years' experience). Pre- and post-training assessments used the CRM. Findings from the pre-assessment were used to develop the pilot culinary training intervention. Readiness to integrate new food preparation methods into existing practices. The researchers used t and Wilcoxon tests to compare overall readiness and dimension scores (P ≤ .05). Thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the discussion component of the assessments. Overall readiness increased from vague awareness to preparation (P = .02). Improved dimensions were knowledge of efforts (P = .004), leadership (P = .05), and knowledge of issues (P = .04). Themes included barriers, leadership, and motivation. The CRM was useful for developing and evaluating a contextually appropriate and effective culinary training program for school nutrition staff. Future efforts should address the provision of additional resources such as on-site chefs, small equipment grants, and engaging school stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rufer, M; Schnyder, U; Schirlo, C; Wengle, H; Gerke, W
Problem-based learning (PBL) emphasizes the student's individual needs, their ability to solve complex clinical problems, and a professional attitude that facilitates communication among colleagues. Thus, PBL appears to provide a perfectly suitable didactic format for postgraduate training of medical specialties. To date, it is only rarely used in this area though. In a pilot project, we implemented PBL into the curriculum of postgraduate training in psychiatry and psychotherapy, and evaluated the program over a period of 12 months, using structured questionnaires. A total of 41 PBL courses were held, with 447 residents participating. Participants as well as tutors assessed 19 of 21 aspects as good or very good (5-point Likert scale, mean value >4). Overall, PBL was rated as highly suitable for advanced training (participants: 4.5±0.8; tutors: 5.0±0.2). The results of this pilot project suggest that PBL might be a useful element of multifaceted advanced training programs, strengthening their practical component and the applicability of knowledge in the daily clinical routine.
Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Wai Wang Chau1, Kenneth SL Yuen1,3, Anita YM Wong4, Jessie CY Li1, Rebecca YY Shiu4, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong KongAbstract: Diverse effects of memory training were observed in the literature. One possible factor is the amount of concurrent cognitive training received during the training program. In this pilot study, we recruited 24 elderly adults with or without concurrent cognitive stimulations to attend a memory-training program. Findings suggested that elderly people without concurrent cognitive stimulation could benefit from a memory-training program in the form of improved initiation and memory functioning. Self-rated quality of life measure also showed improvements alongside the cognitive benefits. Elderly people with regular concurrent cognitive stimulation, on the other hand, seemed to plateau in their level of performance and did not show any significant change. Our preliminary findings suggested nonlinear concurrent cognitive stimulation in the elderly.Keywords: memory training, cognitive training, dementia, Chinese, elderly
Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Giladi, Nir; Brozgol, Marina; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M
Impairments in the ability to perform another task while walking (ie, dual tasking [DT]) are associated with an increased risk of falling. Here we describe a program we developed specifically to improve DT performance while walking based on motor learning principles and task-specific training. We examined feasibility, potential efficacy, retention, and transfer to the performance of untrained tasks in a pilot study among 7 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Seven patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage, 2.1±0.2) were evaluated before, after, and 1 month after 4 weeks of DT training. Gait speed and gait variability were measured during usual walking and during 4 DT conditions. The 4-week program of one-on-one training included walking while performing several distinct cognitive tasks. Gait speed and gait variability during DT significantly improved. Improvements were also seen in the DT conditions that were not specifically trained and were retained 1 month after training. These initial findings support the feasibility of applying a task-specific DT gait training program for patients with PD and suggest that it positively affects DT gait, even in untrained tasks. The present results are also consistent with the possibility that DT gait training enhances divided attention abilities during walking. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Łyp, Marek; Stanisławska, Iwona; Witek, Bożena; Olszewska-Żaczek, Ewelina; Czarny-Działak, Małgorzata; Kaczor, Ryszard
This study deals with the use of a robot-assisted body-weight-supported treadmill training in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with gait dysfunction. Twenty MS patients (10 men and 10 women) of the mean of 46.3 ± 8.5 years were assigned to a six-week-long training period with the use of robot-assisted treadmill training of increasing intensity of the Lokomat type. The outcome measure consisted of the difference in motion-dependent torque of lower extremity joint muscles after training compared with baseline before training. We found that the training uniformly and significantly augmented the torque of both extensors and flexors of the hip and knee joints. The muscle power in the lower limbs of SM patients was improved, leading to corrective changes of disordered walking movements, which enabled the patients to walk with less effort and less assistance of care givers. The torque augmentation could have its role in affecting the function of the lower extremity muscle groups during walking. The results of this pilot study suggest that the robot-assisted body-weight-supported treadmill training may be a potential adjunct measure in the rehabilitation paradigm of 'gait reeducation' in peripheral neuropathies.
Bollig, Georg; Myklebust, Anne G; Østringen, Kristin
Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management) correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten. © 2011 Bollig et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Enns, Russell; Mossman, David C.
In the face of shrinking defense budgets, survival of the United States rotorcraft industry is becoming increasingly dependent on increased sales in a highly competitive civil helicopter market. As a result, only the most competitive rotorcraft manufacturers are likely to survive. A key ingredient in improving our competitive position is the ability to produce more versatile, high performance, high quality, and low cost of ownership helicopters. Fiber optic technology offers a path of achieving these objectives. Also, adopting common components and architectures for different helicopter models (while maintaining each models' uniqueness) will further decrease design and production costs. Funds saved (or generated) by exploiting this commonality can be applied to R&D used to further improve the product. In this paper, we define a fiber optics based avionics architecture which provides the pilot a fly-by-light / digital flight control system which can be implemented in both civilian and military helicopters. We then discuss the advantages of such an architecture.
V. V. Yurasov
Full Text Available The article explains the use of modifications the classical method PSO to optimize the training pilots task on aircraft simulators. Model is based on the identification of the specific guarantee of safety in the task of training pilots of the features of simulation with the use of modern optimization models for long-term quantitative forecast of random processes. The author proved that the classical optimization techniques to aircraft supporting function, the input and output variables, and classes of equations defined by the model author. These circumstances lead to the fact that the obtained models do not have sufficient flexibility that in turn affects their behavior when adding new data points. The increased accuracy and the introduction of additional variables in the optimization problem of security is solved based on the methodology PSO. On the basis of mathematical simulation shows the potential of the PSO for the identification of quality indicators of a new level for the purpose of guaranteeing flight safety. The method of group accounting of arguments presents an original method for solving problems that require structural and parametric identification of models. The author's approach to the problem of optimization consists in taking into account qualitative indicators in terms of aviation events at the gym. On the basis of the mathematical apparatus created a dynamic model based on the classical method PSO. The results obtained are of high precision in compliance with international regulations guaranteeing flight safety and pilot training ICAO and SHEL. Therefore, the method of group accounting of arguments will be effective mathematical tool to build the model and training procedures.
Full Text Available In order to overcome the drawbacks in artificial horizon indicator (HI of inside-in type (a view from an aircraft (A/C, where pilots produce mistakes in maintenance of attitude orientation most of all, the authors offer a novel training method. The method is based on the hypothesis that the manipulative ability of a human visual system can be trained. A mathematical model for the data accumulation during the corresponding training procedure has been proposed. Construction, design and results of the model evaluation are presented in the article. The experimental results revealed the increase of the probability of faultless operation by the test group of up to 0,892, whereas the faultless operation probability of a control group was 0,726. Thus, the trainee-students have statistically increased the reliability for the maintenance of attitude orientation thanks to the proposed method, and the hypothesis was confirmed.
A survey was conducted concerning helicopter operating environments and the trends of related technologies in Japan and abroad, and the needs and seeds were grasped. Research was made to study technical problems and measures to solve them for the development of a safe, low-noise, and low-cost next-generation advanced safety helicopter (ASH). A market research was conducted on traffic systems in the future, state of aviation-related infrastructures and their future, current state of people's daily life which centers about locomotion, and the effect that ASH would impose on society. A technical research was carried out relative to flight safety, which involved EVS (enhanced vision system), information display system for helicopters, collision avoidance advisory for pilots, air collision prevention system/surveillance system for helicopters, obstacle detection/warning system for helicopters, blade deicing system for helicopters, and so forth. Detailed investigations were also conducted for technologies for reduction in the manufacturing, maintenance, and development costs, and for reduction in noise. (NEDO)
homa pilots are representative of u.S. pilots in general. Presumably, they are similar but, so far, this has not been directly investigated. Since...1 Training Product 2 Control Combined group n Age FH % IR n Age FH % IR n Age FH % IR N Age FH % IR Phase 1 16 39 280 53 16 38 235.5 47 18 42 262.5 50 50
Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng
Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...
Mudie, M H; Winzeler-Mercay, U; Radwan, S; Lee, L
To determine (1) the most effective of three treatment approaches to retrain seated weight distribution long-term after stroke and (2) whether improvements could be generalized to weight distribution in standing. Inpatient rehabilitation unit. Forty asymmetrical acute stroke subjects were randomly allocated to one of four groups in this pilot study. Changes in weight distribution were compared between the 10 subjects of each of three treatment groups (task-specific reach, Bobath, or Balance Performance Monitor [BPM] feedback training) and a no specific treatment control group. One week of measurement only was followed by two weeks of daily training sessions with the treatment to which the subject was randomly allocated. Measurements were performed using the BPM daily before treatment sessions, two weeks after cessation of treatment and 12 weeks post study. Weight distribution was calculated in terms of mean balance (percentage of total body weight) or the mean of 300 balance points over a 30-s data run. In the short term, the Bobath approach was the most effective treatment for retraining sitting symmetry after stroke (p = 0.004). Training with the BPM and no training were also significant (p = 0.038 and p = 0.035 respectively) and task-specific reach training failed to reach significance (p = 0.26). At 12 weeks post study 83% of the BPM training group, 38% of the task-specific reach group, 29% of the Bobath group and 0% of the untrained group were found to be distributing their weight to both sides. Some generalization of symmetry training in sitting to standing was noted in the BPM training group which appeared to persist long term. Results should be treated with caution due to the small group sizes. However, these preliminary findings suggest that it might be possible to restore postural symmetry in sitting in the early stages of rehabilitation with therapy that focuses on creating an awareness of body position.
The State of Alabama does not currently require certification for the pilot car drivers who escort : oversize/overweight vehicles. The Alabama Department of Transportation contracted with The University : Transportation Center for Alabama (UTCA) to i...
Of the 169 accidents that involved the major airlines and that were : investigated and reported on in detail by the National Transportation : Safety Board from 1983 through 1995, about 30 percent were caused in : part by the pilots performance, ac...
Swenson, H. N.; Hamlin, J. R.; Wilson, G. W.
An ongoing series of joint NASA/FAA helicopter Microwave Landing System (MLS) flight tests was conducted at Ames Research Center. This paper deals with tests done from the spring through the fall of 1983. This flight test investigated and developed solutions to the problem of manually flying curved-path and steep glide slope approaches into the terminal area using the MLS and flight director guidance. An MLS-equipped Bell UH-1H helicopter flown by NASA test pilots was used to develop approaches and procedures for flying these approaches. The approaches took the form of Straight-in, U-turn, and S-turn flightpaths with glide slopes of 6 deg, 9 deg, and 12 deg. These procedures were evaluated by 18 pilots from various elements of the helicopter community, flying a total of 221 hooded instrument approaches. Flying these curved path and steep glide slopes was found to be operationally acceptable with flight director guidance using the MLS.
Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks.The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20, equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014. After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5 mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04. Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0 %, between-group difference (p = 0.08. Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4 pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04. There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group.High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot
Almenning, Ida; Rieber-Mohn, Astrid; Lundgren, Kari Margrethe; Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Moholdt, Trine
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks. The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20), equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014). After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5) mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04). Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0) %, between-group difference (p = 0.08). Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4) pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group. High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot study
Ward, J. F.
Technology needed to provide the basis for creating a widening rotary wing market include: well defined and proven design; reductions in noise, vibration, and fuel consumption; improvement of flying and ride quality; better safety; reliability; maintainability; and productivity. Unsteady transonic flow, yawed flow, dynamic stall, and blade vortex interaction are some of the problems faced by scientists and engineers in the helicopter industry with rotorcraft technology seen as an important development for future advanced high speed vehicle configurations. Such aircraft as the Boeing Vertol medium lift Model 360 composite aircraft, the Sikorsky Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) aircraft, the Bell Textron XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft, and the X-wing rotor aircraft are discussed in detail. Even though rotorcraft technology has become an integral part of the military scene, the potential market for its civil applications has not been fully developed.
PRESSURE INDICATOR 43 TURN A N D SLIP INDICATOR 21 ENGINE AND SDG OIL IN TEMPERATURE INDICATOR 44 COURSE INDICATOR 22 RADIO MAGNETIC COMPASS INDICATOR... compass seemed to present a problem to several H-l series pilots In that It was poorly located and should be moved. Possible locations Included...the UH-lNs standby compass . Both H/L and L/L pilots agreed that internal, white light was the best system currently in use. INDIVIDUAL DISPLAYS
Kundu, Anjana; Dolan-Oves, Rebecca; Dimmers, Martha A.; Towle, Cara B.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.
To explore the feasibility of a Reiki therapy-training program for the caregivers of pediatric medical or oncology inpatients, at a large pediatric hospital, a series of Reiki training classes were offered by a Reiki Master. At completion of the training, an interview was conducted to elicit participant’s feedback regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the training program. Seventeen of the 18 families agreed to participate. Most families (65%) attended three Reiki training sessions, ...
Aldehag, Anna; Jonsson, Hans; Lindblad, Jan; Kottorp, Anders; Ansved, Tor; Kierkegaard, Marie
To investigate the effects of a hand-training programme on grip, pinch and wrist force, manual dexterity and activities of daily living, in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). In this randomised controlled trial with a crossover design, 35 adults with DM1 were, after stratification for grip force, assigned by lot to two groups. Group A started with 12 weeks of hand training, while group B had no intervention. After a wash-out period of 12 weeks, where none received training, the order was reversed. The Grippit® was used as primary outcome measure and the hand-held Microfet2™ myometer, the Purdue Pegboard, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) were secondary outcome measures. Assessments were performed before and after training and control periods, i.e. four times altogether. Ten persons dropped out and 13 had acceptable adherence. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant intervention effects for isometric wrist flexor force (p = 0.048), and for COPM performance (p = 0.047) and satisfaction (p = 0.027). On an individual level, improvements were in general showed after a training period. The hand-training programme had positive effects on wrist flexor force and self-perception of occupational performance, and of satisfaction with performance. No evident detrimental effects were shown. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a slowly progressive neuromuscular disease characterised by myotonia and muscle weakness and wasting. People with DM1 are often concerned about their ability to carry out ADL and to participate in, e.g. work, sports and hobbies when they gradually become weaker. This pilot study showed that a hand-training programme improved wrist flexor force and self-perception and satisfaction of occupational performance. Resistance training of hand muscles with a silicon-based putty can be a therapy option for people with DM1 in clinical practise.
Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pollard-Thomas, Paula; Pagano, William; Levitt, Nathan; Lopez, Evelyn I; Golub, Sarit A; Radix, Asa E
Purpose: Transgender individuals (TGI), who identify their gender as different from their sex assigned at birth, continue facing widespread discrimination and mistreatment within the healthcare system. Providers often lack expertise in adequate transgender (TG) care due to limited specialized training. In response to these inadequacies, and to increase evidence-based interventions effecting TG-affirmative healthcare, we implemented and evaluated a structural-level intervention in the form of a comprehensive Provider Training Program (PTP) in TG health within a New York City-based outpatient clinic serving primarily individuals of color and of low socioeconomic status. This pilot intervention aimed to increase medical staff knowledge of TG health and needs, and to support positive attitudes toward TGI. Methods: Three 2-h training sessions were delivered to 35 clinic staff across 4 months by two of the authors experienced in TG competency training; the training sessions included TG-related identity and barriers to healthcare issues, TG-specialized care, and creating TG-affirmative environments, medical forms, and billing procedures. We evaluated changes through pre-post intervention surveys by trainees. Results: Compared to pre-training scores, post-training scores indicated significant (1) decreases in negative attitudes toward TGI and increases in TG-related clinical skills, (2) increases in staff's awareness of transphobic practices, and (3) increases in self-reported readiness to serve TGI. The clinic increased its representation of general LGBT-related images in the waiting areas, and the staff provided highly positive training evaluations. Conclusion: This PTP in TG health shows promise in leading to changes in provider attitudes and competence, as well as clinic systems, especially with its incorporation in continuing education endeavors, which can, in turn, contribute to health disparities reductions among TG groups.
Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Allison, Craig K
Flight within degraded visual conditions is a great challenge to pilots of rotary-wing craft. Environmental cues typically used to guide interpretation of speed, location and approach can become obscured, forcing the pilots to rely on data available from in-cockpit instrumentation. To ease the task of flight during degraded visual conditions, pilots require easy access to flight critical information. The current study examined the effect of 'Highways in the Sky' symbology and a conformal virtual pad for landing presented using a Head Up Display (HUD) on pilots' workload and situation awareness for both clear and degraded conditions across a series of simulated rotary-wing approach and landings. Results suggest that access to the HUD lead to significant improvements to pilots' situation awareness, especially within degraded visual conditions. Importantly, access to the HUD facilitated pilot awareness in all conditions. Results are discussed in terms of future HUD development. Practitioner Summary: This paper explores the use of a novel Heads Up Display, to facilitate rotary-wing pilots' situation awareness and workload for simulated flights in both clear and degraded visual conditions. Results suggest that access to HUD facilitated pilots' situation awareness, especially when flying in degraded conditions.
Esculier, Jean-Francois; Vaudrin, Joanie; Bériault, Patrick; Gagnon, Karine; Tremblay, Louis E
To evaluate the effects of a home-based balance training programme using visual feedback (Nintendo Wii Fit game with balance board) on balance and functional abilities in subjects with Parkinson's disease, and to compare the effects with a group of paired healthy subjects. Ten subjects with moderate Parkinson's disease and 8 healthy elderly subjects. Subjects participated in a 6-week home-based balance training programme using Nintendo Wii Fit and balance board. Baseline measures were taken before training for the Sit-to-Stand test (STST), Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG), Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA), 10-m walk test, Community Balance and Mobility assessment (CBM), Activities-specific Balance and Confidence scale (ABC), unipodal stance duration, and a force platform. All measurements were taken again after 3 and 6 weeks of training. The Parkinson's disease group significantly improved their results in TUG, STST, unipodal stance, 10-m walk test, CBM, POMA and force platform at the end of the 6-week training programme. The healthy subjects group significantly improved in TUG, STST, unipodal stance and CBM. This pilot study suggests that a home-based balance programme using Wii Fit with balance board could improve static and dynamic balance, mobility and functional abilities of people affected by Parkinson's disease.
... engine rotary variable differential transformer (RVDT) control box assemblies to determine if the control... assembly, loss of manual control of the engine throttle, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter...-pilot control box assemblies for correct positioning of the engine RVDT control gear locking pin and...
... inspecting the pilot and copilot engine rotary variable differential transformer (RVDT) control box... prevent failure of an RVDT control box assembly, loss of manual control of the engine throttle, and... manual control of the engine throttle, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. The European...
Heerkens, Johannes M.G.
The Boeing Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche helicopter has been in development for some 20 years. Threats have evolved that today cast doubts on its design philosophy . Its fly-by-wire control system provides unprecedented flight efficiency, agility, handling qualities, flight safety and reduction in pilot
Lebacqz, J. V.
A sequence of ground and flight simulation experiments was conducted as part of a joint NASA/FAA program to investigate helicopter instrument flight rules (IFR) airworthiness criteria. The first six of these experiments are described and the results summarized. Five of the experiments were conducted on large amplitude motion base simulators; V/STOLAND UH-1H variable stability helicopter was used in the flight experiment. Airworthiness implications of selected variables that were investigated across all of the experiments are discussed, including the level of longitudinal static stability, the type of stability and control augmentation, the addition of flight director displays, and the type of instrument approach task. Among the specific results reviewed are the adequacy of neutral longitudinal statics for dual pilot approaches and the requirement for pitch and roll attitude stabilization in the stability and control augmentation system to achieve flying qualities evaluated as satisfactory.
Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne
Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition
Bouhabel, Sarah; Kay-Rivest, Emily; Nhan, Carol; Bank, Ilana; Nugus, Peter; Fisher, Rachel; Nguyen, Lily Hp
Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS) residents face a variety of difficult, high-stress situations, which may occur early in their training. Since these events occur infrequently, simulation-based learning has become an important part of residents' training and is already well established in fields such as anesthesia and emergency medicine. In the domain of OTL-HNS, it is gradually gaining in popularity. Crisis Resource Management (CRM), a program adapted from the aviation industry, aims to improve outcomes of crisis situations by attempting to mitigate human errors. Some examples of CRM principles include cultivating situational awareness; promoting proper use of available resources; and improving rapid decision making, particularly in high-acuity, low-frequency clinical situations. Our pilot project sought to integrate CRM principles into an airway simulation course for OTL-HNS residents, but most important, it evaluated whether learning objectives were met, through use of a novel error identification model.
Hughes, Christine A.; Bauer, Mark C.; Horazdovsky, Bruce F.; Garrison, Edward R.; Patten, Christi A.; Petersen, Wesley O.; Bowman, Clarissa N.; Vierkant, Robert A.
The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center and Diné College received funding for a 4-year collaborative P20 planning grant from the National Cancer Institute in 2006. The goal of the partnership was to increase Navajo undergraduates’ interest in and commitment to biomedical coursework and careers, especially in cancer research. This paper describes the development, pilot testing and evaluation of Native CREST (Cancer Research Experience & Student Training), a 10-week cancer research training program providing mentorship in a Mayo Clinic basic science or behavioral cancer research lab for Navajo undergraduate students. Seven Native American undergraduate students (5 females, 2 males) were enrolled during the summers of 2008 - 2011. Students reported the program influenced their career goals and was valuable to their education and development. These efforts may increase the number of Native American career scientists developing and implementing cancer research, which will ultimately benefit the health of Native American people. PMID:23001889
Hughes, Christine A; Bauer, Mark C; Horazdovsky, Bruce F; Garrison, Edward R; Patten, Christi A; Petersen, Wesley O; Bowman, Clarissa N; Vierkant, Robert A
The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center and Diné College received funding for a 4-year collaborative P20 planning grant from the National Cancer Institute in 2006. The goal of the partnership was to increase Navajo undergraduates' interest in and commitment to biomedical coursework and careers, especially in cancer research. This paper describes the development, pilot testing, and evaluation of Native CREST (Cancer Research Experience and Student Training), a 10-week cancer research training program providing mentorship in a Mayo Clinic basic science or behavioral cancer research lab for Navajo undergraduate students. Seven Native American undergraduate students (five females, two males) were enrolled during the summers of 2008-2011. Students reported the program influenced their career goals and was valuable to their education and development. These efforts may increase the number of Native American career scientists developing and implementing cancer research, which will ultimately benefit the health of Native American people.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few research in multiple sclerosis (MS has focused on physical rehabilitation of upper limb dysfunction, though the latter strongly influences independent performance of activities of daily living. Upper limb rehabilitation technology could hold promise for complementing traditional MS therapy. Consequently, this pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of an 8-week mechanical-assisted training program for improving upper limb muscle strength and functional capacity in MS patients with evident paresis. Methods A case series was applied, with provision of a training program (3×/week, 30 minutes/session, supplementary on the customary maintaining care, by employing a gravity-supporting exoskeleton apparatus (Armeo Spring. Ten high-level disability MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale 7.0-8.5 actively performed task-oriented movements in a virtual real-life-like learning environment with the affected upper limb. Tests were administered before and after training, and at 2-month follow-up. Muscle strength was determined through the Motricity Index and Jamar hand-held dynamometer. Functional capacity was assessed using the TEMPA, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT. Results Muscle strength did not change significantly. Significant gains were particularly found in functional capacity tests. After training completion, TEMPA scores improved (p = 0.02, while a trend towards significance was found for the 9HPT (p = 0.05. At follow-up, the TEMPA as well as ARAT showed greater improvement relative to baseline than after the 8-week intervention period (p = 0.01, p = 0.02 respectively. Conclusions The results of present pilot study suggest that upper limb functionality of high-level disability MS patients can be positively influenced by means of a technology-enhanced physical rehabilitation program.
Tran, Susan T; Thomas, Staci; DiCesare, Christopher; Pfeiffer, Megan; Sil, Soumitri; Ting, Tracy V; Williams, Sara E; Myer, Gregory D; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita
Adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) tend to be very sedentary and avoid participation in physical activity. A prior study suggested that JFM patients show altered biomechanics compared to healthy adolescents which may make them more prone to pain/injury during exercise. A new intervention combining well established cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) techniques with specialized neuromuscular exercise -Fibromyalgia Integrative Training for Teens (FIT Teens) was developed and shown to be promising in improving functioning in adolescents with JFM. In contrast to traditional exercise programs such as aerobic or resistance training, neuromuscular training is a tailored approach which targets gait, posture, balance and movement mechanics which form the foundation for safe exercise participation with reduced risk for injury or pain (and hence more tolerable by JFM patients). The aim of this pilot feasibility study was to establish whether objective biomechanical assessment including sophisticated 3-D motion analysis would be useful in measuring improvements in strength, balance, gait, and functional performance after participation in the 8-week FIT Teens program. Eleven female participants with JFM (ages 12-18 years) completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of biomechanics, including walking gait analysis, lower extremity strength assessment, functional performance, and dynamic postural stability. Descriptive data indicated that mechanics of walking gait and functional performance appeared to improve after treatment. Hip abduction strength and dynamic postural control also demonstrated improvements bilaterally. Overall, the results of this pilot study offer initial evidence for the utility of biomechanical assessment to objectively demonstrate observable changes in biomechanical performance after an integrated training intervention for youth with JFM. If replicated in larger controlled studies, findings would suggest that through the FIT Teens intervention
This report documents work done to enhance helicopter fuel consumption modeling in the Federal Aviation : Administrations Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). Fuel consumption and flight performance data : were collected from helicopter flig...
McNab, Duncan; McKay, John; Bowie, Paul
Small-scale quality improvement projects are expected to make a significant contribution towards improving the quality of healthcare. Enabling doctors-in-training to design and lead quality improvement projects is important preparation for independent practice. Participation is mandatory in speciality training curricula. However, provision of training and ongoing support in quality improvement methods and practice is variable. We aimed to design and deliver a quality improvement training package to core medical and general practice specialty trainees and evaluate impact in terms of project participation, completion and publication in a healthcare journal. A quality improvement training package was developed and delivered to core medical trainees and general practice specialty trainees in the west of Scotland encompassing a 1-day workshop and mentoring during completion of a quality improvement project over 3 months. A mixed methods evaluation was undertaken and data collected via questionnaire surveys, knowledge assessment, and formative assessment of project proposals, completed quality improvement projects and publication success. Twenty-three participants attended the training day with 20 submitting a project proposal (87%). Ten completed quality improvement projects (43%), eight were judged as satisfactory (35%), and four were submitted and accepted for journal publication (17%). Knowledge and confidence in aspects of quality improvement improved during the pilot, while early feedback on project proposals was valued (85.7%). This small study reports modest success in training core medical trainees and general practice specialty trainees in quality improvement. Many gained knowledge of, confidence in and experience of quality improvement, while journal publication was shown to be possible. The development of educational resources to aid quality improvement project completion and mentoring support is necessary if expectations for quality improvement are to be
Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Afzal, Taimoor; Berliner, Jeffrey; Francisco, Gerard E
Robotic wearable exoskeletons have been utilized as a gait training device in persons with spinal cord injury. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of offering exoskeleton-assisted gait training (EGT) on gait in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) in preparation for a phase III RCT. The objective was to assess treatment reliability and potential efficacy of EGT and conventional physical therapy (CPT). Forty-four individuals were screened, and 13 were eligible to participate in the study. Nine participants consented and were randomly assigned to receive either EGT or CPT with focus on gait. Subjects received EGT or CPT, five sessions a week (1 h/session daily) for 3 weeks. American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and gait characteristics including stride and step length, cadence and stance, and swing phase durations were assessed at the pre- and immediate post- training. Mean difference estimates with 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze the differences. After training, improvement was observed in the 6MWT for the EGT group. The CPT group showed significant improvement in the TUG test. Both the EGT and the CPT groups showed significant increase in the right step length. EGT group also showed improvement in the stride length. EGT could be applied to individuals with iSCI to facilitate gait recovery. The subjects were able to tolerate the treatment; however, exoskeleton size range may be a limiting factor in recruiting larger cohort of patients. Future studies with larger sample size are needed to investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of exoskeleton-assisted gait training as single gait training and combined with other gait training strategies. Clinicaltrials.org, NCT03011099, retrospectively registered on January 3, 2017.
Szilassy, Eszter; Drinkwater, Jess; Hester, Marianne; Larkins, Cath; Stanley, Nicky; Turner, William; Feder, Gene
We describe the development of an evidence-based training intervention on domestic violence and child safeguarding for general practice teams. We aimed - in the context of a pilot study - to improve knowledge, skills, attitudes and self-efficacy of general practice clinicians caring for families affected by domestic violence. Our evidence sources included: a systematic review of training interventions aiming to improve professional responses to children affected by domestic violence; content mapping of relevant current training in England; qualitative assessment of general practice professionals' responses to domestic violence in families; and a two-stage consensus process with a multi-professional stakeholder group. Data were collected between January and December 2013. This paper reports key research findings and their implications for practice and policy; describes how the research findings informed the training development and outlines the principal features of the training intervention. We found lack of cohesion and co-ordination in the approach to domestic violence and child safeguarding. General practice clinicians have insufficient understanding of multi-agency work, a limited competence in gauging thresholds for child protection referral to children's services and little understanding of outcomes for children. While prioritising children's safety, they are more inclined to engage directly with abusive parents than with affected children. Our research reveals uncertainty and confusion surrounding the recording of domestic violence cases in families' medical records. These findings informed the design of the RESPONDS training, which was developed in 2014 to encourage general practice clinicians to overcome barriers and engage more extensively with adults experiencing abuse, as well as responding directly to the needs of children. We conclude that general practice clinicians need more support in managing the complexity of this area of practice. We need to
Access to affordable and effective flight-simulation training devices (FSTDs) is critical to safely train airline crews in aviating, navigating, communicating, making decisions, and managing flight-deck and crew resources. This paper provides an over...
Kottapalli, Sesi; Malki, Heidar A.; Langari, Reza
Adaptive neuro-fuzzy relationships have been developed to model the UH-60A Black Hawk pilot floor vertical vibration. A 200 point database that approximates the entire UH-60A helicopter flight envelope is used for training and testing purposes. The NASA/Army Airloads Program flight test database was the source of the 200 point database. The present study is conducted in two parts. The first part involves level flight conditions and the second part involves the entire (200 point) database including maneuver conditions. The results show that a neuro-fuzzy model can successfully predict the pilot vibration. Also, it is found that the training phase of this neuro-fuzzy model takes only two or three iterations to converge for most cases. Thus, the proposed approach produces a potentially viable model for real-time implementation.
Conclusion: It was shown that angular velocity is important in isokinetic training, and that training at high angular velocities provides strength increases at lower angular velocities, but would not increase strength at angular velocities above the training level. For this reason, it is thought that in the preparation of an isokinetic strength training protocol, angular velocities need to be taken into account. For any athlete, the force at the angular velocity required in her/his sports branch needs to be considered.
Ichikawa, Kayoko; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ando, Masahiko; Anme, Tokie; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Yamaguchi, Hinako; Nakayama, Takeo
Although social skills training programs for people with high-functioning autism (HFA) are widely practiced, the standardization of curricula, the examination of clinical effectiveness, and the evaluation of the feasibility of future trials have yet to be done in Asian countries. To compensate for this problem, a Japanese pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH)-based group social skills training for children with HFA and their mothers was conducted. Eleven children with HFA, aged 5-6 years, and their mothers were randomly assigned to the TEACCH program (n=5) or a waiting-list control group (n=6). The program involved comprehensive group intervention and featured weekly 2-hour sessions, totaling 20 sessions over six months. The adaptive behaviors and social reciprocity of the children, parenting stress, and parent-child interactions were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II), and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS). Through this pilot trial, the intervention and evaluation of the program has been shaped. There were no dropouts from the program and the mothers' satisfaction was high. The outcome measurements improved more in the program group than in the control group, with moderate effect sizes (SDQ, 0.71; PSI, 0.58; BDI-II, 0.40; and IRS, 0.69). This pilot trial also implied that this program is more beneficial for high IQ children and mothers with low stress than for those who are not. We have standardized the TEACCH program, confirmed the feasibility of a future trial, and successfully estimated the positive effect size. These findings will contribute to a larger trial in the future and to forthcoming systematic reviews with meta-analyses. UMIN000004560.
... the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program and in appendix E to... holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program that are capable of being performed in... flight training. 121.424 Section 121.424 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...
Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Baker, Susan P; Shanahan, Dennis F; Haaland, Wren L
According to 40 yr of data, the fatality rate for a helicopter crash into water is approximately 25%. Does warning time and the final position of the helicopter in the water influence the survival rate? The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was queried to identify helicopter crashes into water between 1981 and 2011 in the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii. Fatality rate, amount of warning time prior to the crash, and final position of the helicopter were identified. There were 133 helicopters that crashed into water with 456 crew and passengers. Of these, 119 occupants (26%) did not survive; of those who did survive, 38% were injured. Twelve died after making a successful escape from the helicopter. Crashes with 1 min. However, more than half of fatalities (57%) came from crashes for which the warning time could not be determined. Lack of warning time and how to survive in the water after the crash should be a topic for study in all marine survival/aircraft ditching courses. Investigators should be trained to provide estimates of warning time when investigating helicopter crashes into water.
Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping... Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons to conduct helicopter fueling operations. (b) Portable tanks are handled and stowed in accordance with...
Friedman Joseph H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease characterized by gait abnormalities. Freezing of gait (FOG, an episodic inability to generate effective stepping, is reported as one of the most disabling and distressing parkinsonian symptoms. While there are no specific therapies to treat FOG, some external physical cues may alleviate these types of motor disruptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of continuous physical cueing using robot-assisted sensorimotor gait training on reducing FOG episodes and improving gait. Methods Four individuals with Parkinson's disease and FOG symptoms received ten 30-minute sessions of robot-assisted gait training (Lokomat to facilitate repetitive, rhythmic, and alternating bilateral lower extremity movements. Outcomes included the FOG-Questionnaire, a clinician-rated video FOG score, spatiotemporal measures of gait, and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 quality of life measure. Results All participants showed a reduction in FOG both by self-report and clinician-rated scoring upon completion of training. Improvements were also observed in gait velocity, stride length, rhythmicity, and coordination. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that robot-assisted gait training may be a feasible and effective method of reducing FOG and improving gait. Videotaped scoring of FOG has the potential advantage of providing additional data to complement FOG self-report.
Tamara J. Somers
Full Text Available Psychosocial pain management interventions are efficacious for cancer pain but are underutilized. Recent advances in mobile health (mHealth technologies provide new opportunities to decrease barriers to access psychosocial pain management interventions. The objective of this study was to gain information about the accessibility and efficacy of mobile pain coping skills training (mPCST intervention delivered to cancer patients with pain compared to traditional in-person pain coping skills training intervention. This study randomly assigned participants (N=30 to receive either mobile health pain coping skills training intervention delivered via Skype or traditional pain coping skills training delivered face-to-face (PCST-trad. This pilot trial suggests that mPCST is feasible, presents low burden to patients, may lead to high patient engagement, and appears to be acceptable to patients. Cancer patients with pain in the mPCST group reported decreases in pain severity and physical symptoms as well as increases in self-efficacy for pain management that were comparable to changes in the PCST-trad group (p’s < 0.05. These findings suggest that mPCST, which is a highly accessible intervention, may provide benefits similar to an in-person intervention and shows promise for being feasible, acceptable, and engaging to cancer patients with pain.
Lloyd, Charles W.
Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut is an international educational challenge focusing on fitness and nutrition as we encourage students to "train like an astronaut." Teams of students (aged 8-12) learn principles of healthy eating and exercise, compete for points by finishing training modules, and get excited about their future as "fit explorers." The 18 core exercises (targeting strength, endurance, coordination, balance, spatial awareness, and more) involve the same types of skills that astronauts learn in their training and use in spaceflight. This first-of-its-kind cooperative outreach program has allowed 11 space agencies and various partner institutions to work together to address quality health/fitness education, challenge students to be more physically active, increase awareness of the importance of lifelong health and fitness, teach students how fitness plays a vital role in human performance for exploration, and to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. The project was initiated in 2009 in response to a request by the International Space Life Sciences Working Group. USA, Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Colombia, Spain, Belgium, Czech Republic and United Kingdom hosted teams for the pilot in the spring of 2010, and Japan held a modified version of the challenge. Several more agencies provided input into the preparations. Competing in 137 teams, more than 4000 students from over 40 cities worldwide participated in the first round of Mission X.
Kundu, Anjana; Dolan-Oves, Rebecca; Dimmers, Martha A; Towle, Cara B; Doorenbos, Ardith Z
To explore the feasibility of a Reiki therapy-training program for the caregivers of pediatric medical or oncology inpatients, at a large pediatric hospital, a series of Reiki training classes were offered by a Reiki Master. At completion of the training, an interview was conducted to elicit participant's feedback regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the training program. Seventeen of the 18 families agreed to participate. Most families (65%) attended three Reiki training sessions, reporting that Reiki benefitted their child by improving their comfort (76%), providing relaxation (88%), and pain relief (41%). All caregivers identified becoming an active participant in their child's care as a major gain from participation in the Reiki training. A hospital-based Reiki training program for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients is feasible and can positively impact patients and their families. More rigorous research regarding the benefits of Reiki in the pediatric population is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kundu, Anjana; Dolan-Oves, Rebecca; Dimmers, Martha A.; Towle, Cara B.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.
To explore the feasibility of a Reiki therapy-training program for the caregivers of pediatric medical or oncology inpatients, at a large pediatric hospital, a series of Reiki training classes were offered by a Reiki Master. At completion of the training, an interview was conducted to elicit participant’s feedback regarding the effectiveness and feasibility of the training program. Seventeen of the 18 families agreed to participate. Most families (65%) attended three Reiki training sessions, reporting that Reiki benefitted their child by improving their comfort (76%), providing relaxation (88%), and pain relief (41%). All caregivers identified becoming an active participant in their child’s care as a major gain from participation in the Reiki training. A hospital-based Reiki training program for caregivers of hospitalized pediatric patients is feasible and can positively impact patients and their families. More rigorous research regarding the benefits of Reiki in the pediatric population is needed. PMID:23337565
Kong, G.; Larsen, H.; Cavallo, D.A.; Becker, D.; Cousijn, J.; Salemink, E.; Collot D'Escury-Koenigs, A.L.; Morean, M.E.; Wiers, R.W.; Krishnan-Sarin, S.
Background: This pilot study conducted a preliminary examination of whether Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a computerized task to retrain cognitive-approach biases towards smoking stimuli (a) changed approach bias for cigarettes, and (b) improved smoking cessation outcomes in adolescent smokers.
... communication procedures; (7) Visual cues before and during descent below DA/DH or MDA; (8) ETOPS, if applicable... necessary to ensure the pilot's competence. (b) For each aircraft type— (1) A general description; (2) Performance characteristics; (3) Engines and propellers; (4) Major components; (5) Major aircraft systems (i.e...
...) Normal and emergency communication procedures; (7) Visual cues before and during descent below Decision Altitude or MDA; and (8) Other instructions necessary to ensure the pilot's competence. (b) For each aircraft type— (1) A general description; (2) Performance characteristics; (3) Engines and propellers; (4...
Hepark, S.; Kan, C.C.; Speckens, A.E.M.
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder that often continues into adulthood. Stimulant medication is the common treatment for ADHD. However, there is a need for psychosocial interventions in addition to medication. AIM: To conduct a pilot study which
called the Automated Pilot Examination System, or "APEX") during the preliminary validation reserach . The current version of the ASTB includes subtests... methodology described in this report will be used to produce a scientifically sound instrument to predict the likelihood that individuals will successfully
Astronaut candidate (ASCAN) Ellen Ochoa reviews T-38A flight procedures with a NASA staff pilot while standing on an Ellington Field runway. Later, Ochoa, along with classmates from the Group 13 1990 Astronaut class, took a T-38A familiarization flight. Ellington Field is located near JSC.
Schabrun, Siobhan M; Lamont, Robyn M; Brauer, Sandra G
To investigate the feasibility and safety of a combined anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and dual task gait training intervention in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and to provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present. A pilot, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled parallel group trial with 12 week follow-up. A university physiotherapy department. Sixteen participants diagnosed with PD received nine dual task gait training sessions over 3 weeks. Participants were randomized to receive either active or sham tDCS applied for the first 20 minutes of each session. The primary outcome was gait speed while undertaking concurrent cognitive tasks (word lists, counting, conversation). Secondary measures included step length, cadence, Timed Up and Go, bradykinesia and motor speed. Gait speed, step length and cadence improved in both groups, under all dual task conditions. This effect was maintained at follow-up. There was no difference between the active and sham tDCS groups. Time taken to perform the TUGwords also improved, with no difference between groups. The active tDCS group did however increase their correct cognitive response rate during the TUGwords and TUGcount. Bradykinesia improved after training in both groups. Three weeks of dual task gait training resulted in improved gait under dual task conditions, and bradykinesia, immediately following training and at 12 weeks follow-up. The only parameter enhanced by tDCS was the number of correct responses while performing the dual task TUG. tDCS applied to M1 may not be an effective adjunct to dual task gait training in PD. Australia-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001093774.
Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Geroin, Christian; Tomelleri, Christopher; Maddalena, Isacco; Kirilova Dimitrova, Eleonora; Picelli, Alessandro; Smania, Nicola; Waldner, Andreas
So far, the development of robotic devices for the early lower limb mobilization in the sub-acute phase after stroke has received limited attention. To explore the feasibility of a newly robotic-stationary gait training in sub-acute stroke patients. To report the training effects on lower limb function and muscle activation. A pilot study. Rehabilitation ward. Two sub-acute stroke inpatients and ten age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Healthy controls served as normative data. Patients underwent 10 robot-assisted training sessions (20 minutes, 5 days/week) in alternating stepping movements (500 repetitions/session) on a hospital bed in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Feasibility outcome measures were compliance, physiotherapist time, and responses to self-report questionnaires. Efficacy outcomes were bilateral lower limb muscle activation pattern as measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), Motricity Index (MI), Medical Research Council (MRC) grade, and Ashworth Scale (AS) scores before and after training. No adverse events occurred. No significant differences in sEMG activity between patients and healthy controls were observed. Post-training improvement in MI and MRC scores, but no significant changes in AS scores, were recorded. Post-treatment sEMG analysis of muscle activation patterns showed a significant delay in rectus femoris offset (P=0.02) and prolonged duration of biceps femoris (P=0.04) compared to pretreatment. The robot-assisted training with our device was feasible and safe. It induced physiological muscle activations pattern in both stroke patients and healthy controls. Full-scale studies are needed to explore its potential role in post-stroke recovery. This robotic device may enrich early rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients by inducing physiological muscle activation patterns. Future studies are warranted to evaluate its effects on promoting restorative mechanisms involved in lower limb recovery after stroke.
Morgan, Kerri A; Tucker, Susan M; Klaesner, Joseph W; Engsberg, Jack R
Developing an evidence-based approach to teaching wheelchair skills and proper propulsion for everyday wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is important to their rehabilitation. The purpose of this project was to pilot test manual wheelchair training based on motor learning and repetition-based approaches for new manual wheelchair users with an SCI. A repeated measures within-subject design was used with participants acting as their own controls. Six persons with an SCI requiring the use of a manual wheelchair participated in wheelchair training. The training included nine 90-minute sessions. The primary focus was on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics with a secondary focus on wheelchair skills. During Pretest 1, Pretest 2, and Posttest, wheelchair propulsion biomechanics were measured using the Wheelchair Propulsion Test and a Video Motion Capture system. During Pretest 2 and Posttest, propulsion forces using the WheelMill System and wheelchair skills using the Wheelchair Skills Test were measured. Significant changes in area of the push loop, hand-to-axle relationship, and slope of push forces were found. Changes in propulsion patterns were identified post-training. No significant differences were found in peak and average push forces and wheelchair skills pre- and post-training. This project identified trends in change related to a repetition-based motor learning approach for propelling a manual wheelchair. The changes found were related to the propulsion patterns used by participants. Despite some challenges associated with implementing interventions for new manual wheelchair users, such as recruitment, the results of this study show that repetition-based training can improve biomechanics and propulsion patterns for new manual wheelchair users.
Truszczynski, Olaf; Skibniewski, Franciszek; Dziuda, Lukasz; Gacek, Adam; Krej, Mariusz; Sobotnicki, Aleksander; Rajchel, Jan; Bylinka, Marek; Burek, Michal
The authors present a new system for examining the behaviour of the human body and cerebral circulation in conditions of ischemic hypoxia and orthostatic stress that can cause orthostatic hypotension. Ischemic hypoxia affects mainly pilots of highly manoeuvrable aircraft, where long-lasting G forces not seldom reach 6-8 +Gz and can exceed the gravitational acceleration by ten times or more. Additionally, pilots are subjected to orthostatic hypotension in which abnormally low blood pressure is caused by pressure adjustment disorder and decreased stroke volume when changing body position rapidly. For several decades, these effects have been deeply investigated using human centrifuges or lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chambers. The latter method involves significantly less financial resources to carry out experiments and training, whereas the effects exerted on pilots, and the results of the training can be comparable. A group of researchers from the Military Institute of Aviation Medicine, Warszawa, Poland, and the Institute of Medical Technology and Equipment ITAM, Zabrze, Poland, are developing the innovative ORTHO-LBNP device based on the cradle principle and the LBNP method. The system will be implemented in a modern programme for training cadets of the Polish Air Force Academy, Dęblin, Poland. Together with other equipment such as a high-G centrifuge, pressure chambers, flight and spatial disorientation simulators as well as gymnastic training equipment for pilots (GTEP), the ORTHO-LBNP apparatus will be an element of the selection system of candidates for aviation. It is expected that the experimental studies will result in developing new indicators providing an objective assessment, whether examined persons possess the traits necessary for performing tasks related to the job of a pilot. It is highly probable that those indicators can be incorporated into routine checks for pilots, which in turn, can lead to improving the safety of flight operations and
Iliya V Ivanov
Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training
Milot, Marie-Hélène; Spencer, Steven J; Chan, Vicky; Allington, James P; Klein, Julius; Chou, Cathy; Bobrow, James E; Cramer, Steven C; Reinkensmeyer, David J
To date, the limited degrees of freedom (DOF) of most robotic training devices hinders them from providing functional training following stroke. We developed a 6-DOF exoskeleton ("BONES") that allows movement of the upper limb to assist in rehabilitation. The objectives of this pilot study were to evaluate the impact of training with BONES on function of the affected upper limb, and to assess whether multijoint functional robotic training would translate into greater gains in arm function than single joint robotic training also conducted with BONES. Twenty subjects with mild to moderate chronic stroke participated in this crossover study. Each subject experienced multijoint functional training and single joint training three sessions per week, for four weeks, with the order of presentation randomized. The primary outcome measure was the change in Box and Block Test (BBT). The secondary outcome measures were the changes in Fugl-Meyer Arm Motor Scale (FMA), Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and quantitative measures of strength and speed of reaching. These measures were assessed at baseline, after each training period, and at a 3-month follow-up evaluation session. Training with the robotic exoskeleton resulted in significant improvements in the BBT, FMA, WMFT, MAL, shoulder and elbow strength, and reaching speed (p robotic training programs. However, for the BBT, WMFT and MAL, inequality of carryover effects were noted; subsequent analysis on the change in score between the baseline and first period of training again revealed no difference in the gains obtained between the types of training. Training with the 6 DOF arm exoskeleton improved motor function after chronic stroke, challenging the idea that robotic therapy is only useful for impairment reduction. The pilot results presented here also suggest that multijoint functional robotic training is not decisively superior to single joint robotic training. This challenges the idea that
Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric
A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.
Pilot training effectiveness and flying safety of a seasonal tour flight company are described. The change from single pilot to two pilot operated twin otters is examined. The use of the ATC 810 training device, its possibilities and training capacity is outlined. Problem areas which may arise, emergency system and pilot/passenger interaction are analyzed.
Chastonay, Philippe; Klohn, Axel Max; Zesiger, Véronique; Freigburghaus, Franziska; Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele
The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy.The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test the feasibility of a training program through a pilot test. Ultimately the project aims to implement a health and human rights training program most appropriate to the African context. Needs assessment was done according to four approaches: Revue of available data on health and human rights in the targeted countries; Country visits by one of the authors meeting key institutions; Focus group discussions with key-informants in each country; A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals and human rights activists.Pilot training program: an interactive e-learning pilot program was developed integrating training needs expressed by partner institutions and potential trainees. Needs assessment showed high public health and human rights challenges that the target countries have to face. It also showed precise demands of partner institutions in regard to a health and human rights training program. It further allowed defining training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future students as well as specific training contents.A pilot program allowed testing the motivation of students, the feasibility of an interactive educational approach and identifying potential difficulties. In combining various approaches our study was able to show that training needs concentrate around tools allowing the identification of basic human rights violations in the health system, the analysis of their causes and coordinated responses through specific intervention projects.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of human rights education has widely been recognized as one of the strategies for their protection and promotion of health. Yet training programs have not always taken into account neither local needs, nor public health relevance, nor pedagogical efficacy. The objectives of our study were to assess, in a participative way, educational needs in the field of health and human rights among potential trainees in six French-speaking African countries and to test the feasibility of a training program through a pilot test. Ultimately the project aims to implement a health and human rights training program most appropriate to the African context. Methods Needs assessment was done according to four approaches: Revue of available data on health and human rights in the targeted countries; Country visits by one of the authors meeting key institutions; Focus group discussions with key-informants in each country; A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals and human rights activists. Pilot training program: an interactive e-learning pilot program was developed integrating training needs expressed by partner institutions and potential trainees. Results Needs assessment showed high public health and human rights challenges that the target countries have to face. It also showed precise demands of partner institutions in regard to a health and human rights training program. It further allowed defining training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future students as well as specific training contents. A pilot program allowed testing the motivation of students, the feasibility of an interactive educational approach and identifying potential difficulties. Conclusion In combining various approaches our study was able to show that training needs concentrate around tools allowing the identification of basic human rights violations in the health system, the analysis of their causes and
Full Text Available The purposes of the present study were to investigate if a shuttle-run sprint training performed in a normobaric hypoxia chamber of limited size (4.75x2.25m is feasible, in terms of producing the same absolute training load, when compared to training in normoxia, and b if such training improves the repeated sprint ability (RSA and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (YYIR test outcome in young elite soccer players. Players of an elite soccer training Centre (age: 15.3 ± 0.5 years, height: 1.73 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 62.6 ± 6.6 kg were randomly assigned to a hypoxia or a normoxia training group. Within a 5-week period, players, who were not informed about the hypoxia intervention, performed at least 7 sessions of identical shuttle-run sprint training either in a normal training room (FiO2 = 20.95% or in a hypoxic chamber (FiO2 = 14.8%; approximately 3300m, both equipped with the same floor. Each training session comprised 3 series of 5x10s back and forth sprints (4.5m performed at maximal intensity. Recovery time between repetitions was 20s and between series 5min. Before and after the training period the RSA (6 x 40m shuttle sprint with 20 s rest between shuttles and the YYIR test were performed. The size of the chamber did not restrict the training intensity of the sprint training (both groups performed approximately 8 shuttles during 10s. Training in hypoxia resulted in a lower fatigue slope which indicates better running speed maintenance during the RSA test (p = 0.024. YYIR performance increased over time (p = 0.045 without differences between groups (p > 0.05. This study showed that training intensity of the shuttle-run sprint training was not restricted in a hypoxic chamber of limited size which indicates that such training is feasible. Furthermore, hypoxia compared to normoxia training reduced the fatigue slope during the RSA test in youth soccer players.
Reygan, Finn C G
OBJECTIVE: The international literature points to the specific cancer risks and palliative care needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) populations. However, with the exception of a programme in the USA, there is a lack of training internationally for health and social care professionals providing oncological and palliative care to LGB patients. In Ireland, a training project funded by the Irish Cancer Society, the Irish Hospice Foundation and the Health Service Executive developed a training pilot programme for health and social care professionals providing oncological and palliative care to LGB patients. METHODS: Over 200 (N = 201) oncology and palliative care staff participated in 17 brief, 50-min trainings in pilot sites. Evaluation of the training included self-report questionnaires at the end of each training and an evaluation interview with one participant from each of the four sites. RESULTS: The majority of participants reported that they would recommend the training to their colleagues, were interested in further training in the area and found the training useful for their practice. They also reported becoming more familiar with LGB-related language and terminology, became more knowledgeable of LGB health issues and reported becoming more confident in providing care to LGB patients. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are that the training be made available across the health services in Ireland and included in postgraduate courses for trainee health and social care professionals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Quality training in computational skills for life scientists is essential to allow them to deliver robust, reproducible and cutting-edge research. A pan-European bioinformatics programme, ELIXIR, has adopted a well-established and progressive programme of computational lab and data skills training from Software and Data Carpentry, aimed at increasing the number of skilled life scientists and building a sustainable training community in this field. This article describes the Pilot action, which introduced the Carpentry training model to the ELIXIR community.
Jeunet , Camille; Cellard , Alison; Subramanian , Sriram; Hachet , Martin; N'Kaoua , Bernard; Lotte , Fabien
International audience; While being very promising, brain-computer interfaces (BCI) remain barely used outside laboratories because they are not reliable enough. It has been suggested that current training approaches may be partly responsible for the poor reliability of BCIs as they do not satisfy recommendations from psychology and are thus inadequate. To determine to which extent such BCI training approaches (i.e., feedback and training tasks) are suitable to learn a skill, we used them in ...
Bieryla, Kathleen A
Falls are a leading cause of injury and death for old adults, with one risk factor for falls being balance deficits. The low cost (balance intervention tools. To investigate the feasibility of using the Xbox Kinect for training to improve clinical measures of balance in old adults and retain improvements after a period of time. Thirteen healthy old adults (aged 70+ years) were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group completed Kinect training three times a week for 3 weeks while the control group continued with normal activities. Four clinical measures of balance were assessed before training, 1 week and 1 month after training: Berg balance scale (BBS), Fullerton advanced balance (FAB) scale, functional reach (FR), and timed up and go (TUG). The ability to implement the training program was successful. The experimental group significantly increased their BBS and FAB after training while the control group did not. There was no significant change for either groups with FR and TUG. A training program using the Kinect with commercially available games was feasible with old adults. Kinect training may be an inexpensive way for old adults to receive helpful feedback encouraging them to continue with balance training program in their home.
Zahiri, Mohsen; Booton, Ryan; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun
This article presents a hardware/software simulation environment suitable for anytime/anywhere surgical skills training. It blends the advantages of physical hardware and task analogs with the flexibility of virtual environments. This is further enhanced by a web-based implementation of training feedback accessible to both trainees and trainers. Our training system provides a self-paced and interactive means to attain proficiency in basic tasks that could potentially be applied across a spectrum of trainees from first responder field medical personnel to physicians. This results in a powerful training tool for surgical skills acquisition relevant to helping injured warfighters.
DeGutis, Joseph; Grosso, Mallory; VanVleet, Thomas; Esterman, Michael; Pistorino, Laura; Cronin-Golomb, Alice
Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly demonstrate lateralized spatial biases, which affect daily functioning. Those with PD with initial motor symptoms on the left body side (LPD) have reduced leftward attention, whereas PD with initial motor symptoms on the right side (RPD) may display reduced rightward attention. We investigated whether a sustained attention training program could help reduce these spatial biases. Four non-demented individuals with PD (2 LPD, 2 RPD) performed a visual search task before and after 1 month of computer training. Before training, all participants showed a significant spatial bias and after training, all participants' spatial bias was eliminated.
Johnstone, Stuart J; Roodenrys, Steven; Phillips, Elise; Watt, Annele J; Mantz, Sharlene
Building on recent favourable outcomes using working memory (WM) training, this study examined the behavioural and physiological effect of concurrent computer-based WM and inhibition training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). Using a double-blind active-control design, 29 children with AD/HD completed a 5-week at-home training programme and pre- and post-training sessions which included the assessment of overt behaviour, resting EEG, as well as task performance, skin conductance level and event-related potentials (ERPs) during a Go/Nogo task. Results indicated that after training, children from the high-intensity training condition showed reduced frequency of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms. Although there were trends for improved Go/Nogo performance, increased arousal and specific training effects for the inhibition-related N2 ERP component, they failed to reach standard levels of statistical significance. Both the low- and high-intensity conditions showed resting EEG changes (increased delta, reduced alpha and theta activity) and improved early attention alerting to Go and Nogo stimuli, as indicated by the N1 ERP component, post-training. Despite limitations, this preliminary work indicates the potential for cognitive training that concurrently targets the interrelated processes of WM and inhibition to be used as a treatment for AD/HD.
Plevin, Rebecca E; Evans, Heather L
Traumatic injury continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the year 2011. In addition, the healthcare expenditures and lost years of productivity represent significant economic cost to the affected individuals and their communities. Helicopters have been used to transport trauma patients for the past 40 years, but there are conflicting data on the benefits of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in civilian trauma systems. Debate persists regarding the mortality benefit, cost-effectiveness, and safety of helicopter usage, largely because the studies to date vary widely in design and generalizability to trauma systems serving heterogeneous populations and geography. Strict criteria should be established to determine when HEMS transport is warranted and most likely to positively affect patient outcomes. Individual trauma systems should conduct an assessment of their resources and needs in order to most effectively incorporate helicopter transport into their triage model. Research suggests that HEMS improves mortality in certain subgroups of trauma patients, both after transport from the scene of injury and following interfacility transport. Studies examining the cost-effectiveness of HEMS had mixed results, but the majority found that it is a cost-effective tool. Safety remains an issue of contention with HEMS transport, as helicopters are associated with significant safety risk to the crew and patient. However, this risk may be justified provided there is a substantial mortality benefit to be gained. Recent studies suggest that strict criteria should be established to determine when helicopter transport is warranted and most likely to positively affect patient outcomes. Individual trauma systems should conduct an assessment of their resources and needs in order to most effectively incorporate HEMS into their triage model. This will enable regional hospitals to determine if the costs and safety risks associated with HEMS are worthwhile
Kemp, Christopher G; de Kadt, Julia; Pillay, Erushka; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Naidoo, Evasen; Grignon, Jessica; Weaver, Marcia R
Prevention interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS are an important component of HIV programs. We report the results of a pilot evaluation of a four-hour, clinic-based training for healthcare providers in South Africa on HIV prevention assessments and messages. This pre/post pilot evaluation examined whether the training was associated with providers delivering more prevention messages. Seventy providers were trained at four public primary care clinics with a high volume of HIV patients. Pre- and post-training patient exit surveys were conducted using Audio-Computer Assisted Structured Interviews. Seven provider appropriate messaging outcomes and one summary provider outcome were compared pre- and post-training using Poisson regression. Four hundred fifty-nine patients pre-training and 405 post-training with known HIV status were interviewed, including 175 and 176 HIV positive patients respectively. Among HIV positive patients, delivery of all appropriate messages by providers declined post-training. The summary outcome decreased from 56 to 50%; adjusted rate ratio 0.92 (95% CI = 0.87-0.97). Sensitivity analyses adjusting for training coverage and time since training detected fewer declines. Among HIV negative patients the summary score was stable at 32% pre- and post-training; adjusted rate ratio 1.05 (95% CI = 0.98-1.12). Surprisingly, this training was associated with a decrease in prevention messages delivered to HIV positive patients by providers. Limited training coverage and delays between training and post-training survey may partially account for this apparent decrease. A more targeted approach to prevention messages may be more effective.
Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Hays, Arnaud; Vettoretti, Fabrice; Brisswalter, Jeanick
To assess the impact of between-training-sessions recovery strategies (passive [PAS], active [ACT], cold-water immersion [CWI], and ingestion of a recovery drink [NUTR]) on maximal cycling performance, perceptions of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and fatigue in world-class BMX riders. Eleven elite BMX athletes, members of the French national team (top country in the 2011 international ranking, 4 medals at the 2012 World Championships, top European country), participated in the study, which involved standardized training periods. Athletes performed 3 maximal-sprint power tests: the first day of the week before the training session and before and after training on the third day of the week (D3). The recovery strategy was randomly assigned to each participant on day 2 immediately after the last training period of the day. Perceptions of DOMS and general fatigue were recorded on D3. After training on D3, the decrease in maximal-sprint power (Pmax) was significantly greater for PAS than with CWI (P=.02) and NUTR (P=.018). Similar results were found with ACT (vs CWI P=.044, and vs NUTR P=.042). Self-reported DOMS and fatigue were significantly greater after PAS than after other strategies. For elite BMX riders, between training days, nutritional and/or CWI recovery strategies appear to be best for reducing muscle fatigue and increasing the capacity to withstand the training schedule.
intervention carrier training was successfully presented as a poster at the Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) annual conference...other non-periodical, one-time publications Nothing to report -Other publications, conference papers, and presentations Poster abstract titled...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0146 TITLE: A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating
Department of Population Health , NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY. ****Department of Physical Therapy, Naval Medical Center Portsmouth...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0146 TITLE: A Pilot Study to Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating...Test the Efficacy of Psychologically Based Physical Therapy Training for Treating Deployed U.S. Sailors and Marines with Musculoskeletal Injuries 5b
Straudi, S; Benedetti, M G; Venturini, E; Manca, M; Foti, C; Basaglia, N
Gait disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and lead to a progressive reduction of function and quality of life. Test the effects of robot-assisted gait rehabilitation in MS subjects through a pilot randomized-controlled study. We enrolled MS subjects with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores within 4.5-6.5. The experimental group received 12 robot-assisted gait training sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received the same amount of conventional physiotherapy. Outcomes measures were both biomechanical assessment of gait, including kinematics and spatio-temporal parameters, and clinical test of walking endurance (six-minute walk test) and mobility (Up and Go Test). 16 subjects (n = 8 experimental group, n = 8 control group) were included in the final analysis. At baseline the two groups were similar in all variables, except for step length. Data showed walking endurance, as well as spatio-temporal gait parameters improvements after robot-assisted gait training. Pelvic antiversion and reduced hip extension during terminal stance ameliorated after aforementioned intervention. Robot-assisted gait training seems to be effective in increasing walking competency in MS subjects. Moreover, it could be helpful in restoring the kinematic of the hip and pelvis.
ap Dafydd D
Full Text Available Derfel ap Dafydd,1 Ruth Williamson,2 Philip Blunt,3 Dominic M Blunt4 1Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, 2Imaging Department, Royal Bornemouth Hospital, Bornemouth, 3Savernake IT Ltd, Marlborough, 4Imaging Department, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Abstract: The difficulties of producing useful, bespoke, and affordable information technology systems for large health care organizations are well publicized, following several high-profile endeavors in the UK. This article describes the experience of a small group of clinical radiologists and their collaborators in producing an information technology system – from conception to piloting. This system, called Trainee Tracker, enables automated target date recalculation of trainee milestones, depending on their work patterns and other individual circumstances. It utilizes an automated email alert system to notify the educational supervisors and trainees of approaching and elapsed target dates, in order to identify trainees in difficulty early and address their training needs accordingly. The challenges and advantages, both common to and contrasting with larger-scale projects, are also considered. The benefits of the development team’s “agile” approach to software development and the lessons learned will be of interest to medical educators, particularly those with expertise in e-portfolios and other training-related software. Keywords: training, appraisal, ARCP, Annual Review of Clinical Progression, portfolio, trainer
Antonio J del-Ama
Full Text Available Locomotor training has proved to provide beneficial effect in terms of mobility in incomplete paraplegic patients. Neuroprosthetic technology can contribute to increase the efficacy of a training paradigm in the promotion of a locomotor pattern. Robotic exoskeletons can be used to manage the unavoidable loss of performance of artificially-driven muscles. Hybrid exoskeletons blend complementary robotic and neuro-prosthetic technologies. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effects of hybrid gait training in three case studies with persons with incomplete spinal cord injury in terms of locomotion performance during assisted gait, patient-robot adaptations, impact on ambulation and assessment of lower limb muscle strength and spasticity. Participants with incomplete Spinal Cord Injury (SCI received interventions with a hybrid bilateral exoskeleton for 4 days. Assessment of gait function revealed that patients improved the 6 minutes and 10 meters walking tests after the intervention, and further improvements were observed one week after the intervention. Muscle examination revealed improvements in knee and hip sagittal muscle balance scores and decreased score in ankle extensor balance. It is concluded that improvements in biomechanical function of the knee joint after the tested overground hybrid gait trainer are coherent with improvements in gait performance.
Del-Ama, Antonio J; Gil-Agudo, Angel; Pons, José L; Moreno, Juan C
Locomotor training has proved to provide beneficial effect in terms of mobility in incomplete paraplegic patients. Neuroprosthetic technology can contribute to increase the efficacy of a training paradigm in the promotion of a locomotor pattern. Robotic exoskeletons can be used to manage the unavoidable loss of performance of artificially driven muscles. Hybrid exoskeletons blend complementary robotic and neuro-prosthetic technologies. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effects of hybrid gait training in three case studies with persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) in terms of locomotion performance during assisted gait, patient-robot adaptations, impact on ambulation and assessment of lower limb muscle strength and spasticity. Participants with iSCI received interventions with a hybrid bilateral exoskeleton for 4 days. Assessment of gait function revealed that patients improved the 6 min and 10 m walking tests after the intervention, and further improvements were observed 1 week after the intervention. Muscle examination revealed improvements in knee and hip sagittal muscle balance scores and decreased score in ankle extensor balance. It is concluded that improvements in biomechanical function of the knee joint after the tested overground hybrid gait trainer are coherent with improvements in gait performance.
Xina Henry Quadros
Full Text Available Introduction: Sitting balance is a prerequisite to upper extremity function, standing and walking, which is affected in various neurological diseases. It is important to attain a good level of sitting balance before one can proceed to standing. In recent years, virtual reality game training has gained a widespread application. Aim: This pilot study aimed to examine the role of additional virtual reality sitting balance training using a commercial interactive virtual reality system- Xbox Kinect™ in patients with neurological disorders. Materials and Methods: Four patients with sitting balance impairments following neurological disorders received two weeks of virtual reality based therapy along with the conventional physiotherapy. Sitting balance was evaluated using FIST (Function In Sitting Test scores at baseline, one week and after two weeks of intervention. Results: All four patients showed clinically significant improvement in FIST score between the pre and post intervention. Percentage of improvement in FIST score was approximately 27% with a minimum change of 10 points in the FIST score Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID=6.5. Conclusion: Additional virtual reality training may improve sitting balance control in neurological patients with balance impairments. It can be used as an adjunct in routine neurorehabilitation.
Drigny, Joffrey; Gremeaux, Vincent; Dupuy, Olivier; Gayda, Mathieu; Bherer, Louis; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil
To assess the effect of a 4-month high-intensity interval training programme on cognitive functioning, cerebral oxygenation, central haemodynamic and cardiometabolic parameters and aerobic capacity in obese patients. Cognitive functioning, cerebral oxygenation, central haemodynamic, cardiometabolic and exercise para-meters were measured before and after a 4-month high-intensity interval training programme in 6 obese patients (mean age 49 years (standard deviation 8), fat mass percentage 31 ± 7%). Body composition (body mass, total and trunk fat mass, waist circumference) and fasting insulin were improved after the programme (p attention and processing speed, was significantly improved after training (p training (p training programme in obese patients improved both cognitive functioning and cere-bral oxygen extraction, in association with improved exercise capacity and body composition.
...-numbered main rotor hub inboard strap fittings (fittings). This AD requires magnetic particle inspecting... identified in this AD, contact Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., P.O. Box 482, Fort Worth, TX 76101, telephone..., perform a magnetic particle inspection (MPI) of each fitting for a crack. If an MPI was already performed...
Full Text Available Background: Stroke has been considered to be the most common cause of neurological disability with very high prevalence rate. The recovery of independence following stroke is a complex process requiring the reacquisition of many skills. Since controlling the body’s position in space is essential part of functional skills, restoration of balance is a critical part of the recovery of ability after stroke. Most of the work done regarding balance training in stroke subjects has focused on task-oriented activities and training under varied sensory input and found them to be effective. Studies have also compared the effect of stable and unstable surfaces on balance in stroke subjects and found that balance training on unstable surfaces is more effective in improving static and dynamic balance. There has not been any study till date investigating the effectiveness of balance training program on rocker board which is specific for stroke subjects who have difficulty in standing. Since balance training on rocker board in sitting has proved to be effective in improving balance in subjects with spinal cord injury who have difficulty in standing, there is a need to find out if similar balance training program on rocker board in sitting is also effective for improving balance of stroke subjects. Method: A Pilot study was performed on 10 stroke subjects selected through purposive sampling. Subjects were divided into two groups by randomization as control (CG and experimental group (EG. EG received balance training on a rocker board along with conventional physiotherapy program. The CG received only conventional physiotherapy program. Results: Post-intervention Berg balance scale score of EG and the CG was statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both the groups as compared to pre-treatment depicted through Wilcoxon signed rank analysis within the groups. Greater improvement was observed in the EG compared to the CG post-treatment, analysed through Mann
Schwenk, Michael; Grewal, Gurtej S; Honarvar, Bahareh; Schwenk, Stefanie; Mohler, Jane; Khalsa, Dharma S; Najafi, Bijan
Wearable sensor technology can accurately measure body motion and provide incentive feedback during exercising. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness and user experience of a balance training program in older adults integrating data from wearable sensors into a human-computer interface designed for interactive training. Senior living community residents (mean age 84.6) with confirmed fall risk were randomized to an intervention (IG, n = 17) or control group (CG, n = 16). The IG underwent 4 weeks (twice a week) of balance training including weight shifting and virtual obstacle crossing tasks with visual/auditory real-time joint movement feedback using wearable sensors. The CG received no intervention. Outcome measures included changes in center of mass (CoM) sway, ankle and hip joint sway measured during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) balance test at baseline and post-intervention. Ankle-hip postural coordination was quantified by a reciprocal compensatory index (RCI). Physical performance was quantified by the Alternate-Step-Test (AST), Timed-up-and-go (TUG), and gait assessment. User experience was measured by a standardized questionnaire. After the intervention sway of CoM, hip, and ankle were reduced in the IG compared to the CG during both EO and EC condition (p = .007-.042). Improvement was obtained for AST (p = .037), TUG (p = .024), fast gait speed (p = . 010), but not normal gait speed (p = .264). Effect sizes were moderate for all outcomes. RCI did not change significantly. Users expressed a positive training experience including fun, safety, and helpfulness of sensor-feedback. Results of this proof-of-concept study suggest that older adults at risk of falling can benefit from the balance training program. Study findings may help to inform future exercise interventions integrating wearable sensors for guided game-based training in home- and community environments. Future studies should evaluate the
Dreicer, M; Anzelon, G; Essner, J; Dougan, A; Doyle, J; Boyer, B; Hypes, P; Sokova, E; Wehling, F
Key component of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) launched by the National Nuclear Security Administration is the development of human capital to meet present and future challenges to the safeguards regime. An effective university-level education in safeguards and related disciplines is an essential element in a layered strategy to rebuild the safeguards human resource capacity. Two pilot programs at university level, involving 44 students, were initiated and implemented in spring-summer 2008 and linked to hands-on internships at LANL or LLNL. During the internships, students worked on specific safeguards-related projects with a designated Laboratory Mentor to provide broader exposure to nuclear materials management and information analytical techniques. The Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management pilot program was a collaboration between the Texas A&M University (TAMU), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It included a 16-lecture course held during a summer internship program. The instructors for the course were from LANL together with TAMU faculty and LLNL experts. The LANL-based course was shared with the students spending their internship at LLNL via video conference. A week-long table-top (or hands-on) exercise on was also conducted at LANL. The student population was a mix of 28 students from a 12 universities participating in a variety of summer internship programs held at LANL and LLNL. A large portion of the students were TAMU students participating in the NGSI pilot. The International Nuclear Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis pilot program was implemented at the Monterey Institute for International Studies (MIIS) in cooperation with LLNL. It included a two-week intensive course consisting of 20 lectures and two exercises. MIIS, LLNL, and speakers from other U.S. national laboratories (LANL, BNL) delivered lectures for the audience of 16 students. The majority of students were
Dreicer, M.; Anzelon, G.; Essner, J.; Dougan, A.; Doyle, J.; Boyer, B.; Hypes, P.; Sokova, E.; Wehling, F.
Key component of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) launched by the National Nuclear Security Administration is the development of human capital to meet present and future challenges to the safeguards regime. An effective university-level education in safeguards and related disciplines is an essential element in a layered strategy to rebuild the safeguards human resource capacity. Two pilot programs at university level, involving 44 students, were initiated and implemented in spring-summer 2008 and linked to hands-on internships at LANL or LLNL. During the internships, students worked on specific safeguards-related projects with a designated Laboratory Mentor to provide broader exposure to nuclear materials management and information analytical techniques. The Safeguards and Nuclear Material Management pilot program was a collaboration between the Texas A and M University (TAMU), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It included a 16-lecture course held during a summer internship program. The instructors for the course were from LANL together with TAMU faculty and LLNL experts. The LANL-based course was shared with the students spending their internship at LLNL via video conference. A week-long table-top (or hands-on) exercise on was also conducted at LANL. The student population was a mix of 28 students from a 12 universities participating in a variety of summer internship programs held at LANL and LLNL. A large portion of the students were TAMU students participating in the NGSI pilot. The International Nuclear Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis pilot program was implemented at the Monterey Institute for International Studies (MIIS) in cooperation with LLNL. It included a two-week intensive course consisting of 20 lectures and two exercises. MIIS, LLNL, and speakers from other U.S. national laboratories (LANL, BNL) delivered lectures for the audience of 16 students. The majority of students
Brookman-Frazee, Lauren I.; Drahota, Amy; Stadnick, Nicole
Research on moving evidence-based practice (EBP) intervention strategies to community service settings for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is urgently needed. The current pilot study addresses this need by examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary outcomes of training therapists practicing in community mental health…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Lerner, Matthew D.; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; McGrath, Alison; Calhoun, Casey D.
We report findings from a pilot intervention that trained parents to be "friendship coaches" for their children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Parents of 62 children with ADHD (ages 6-10; 68% male) were randomly assigned to receive the parental friendship coaching (PFC) intervention, or to be in a no-treatment control group.…
Brewer, Judson A; Sinha, Rajita; Chen, Justin A; Michalsen, Ravenna N; Babuscio, Theresa A; Nich, Charla; Grier, Aleesha; Bergquist, Keri L; Reis, Deidre L; Potenza, Marc N; Carroll, Kathleen M; Rounsaville, Bruce J
Stress is important in substance use disorders (SUDs). Mindfulness training (MT) has shown promise for stress-related maladies. No studies have compared MT to empirically validated treatments for SUDs. The goals of this study were to assess MT compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in substance use and treatment acceptability, and specificity of MT compared to CBT in targeting stress reactivity. Thirty-six individuals with alcohol and/or cocaine use disorders were randomly assigned to receive group MT or CBT in an outpatient setting. Drug use was assessed weekly. After treatment, responses to personalized stress provocation were measured. Fourteen individuals completed treatment. There were no differences in treatment satisfaction or drug use between groups. The laboratory paradigm suggested reduced psychological and physiological indices of stress during provocation in MT compared to CBT. This pilot study provides evidence of the feasibility of MT in treating SUDs and suggests that MT may be efficacious in targeting stress.
De Valladares, M.R. [M.R.S. Enterprises LLC, Bethesda, MD (United States)
More than 300 New York State high school science and technology teachers participated at the New HOPE (Hydrogen Outreach Program for Education) workshops hosted by New York Energy Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), New York Power Authority (NYPA) and the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). These teachers will impact approximately 150,000 students over the next 5 years. The teacher training was provided by M.R.S. Enterprises, LLC and its HOPE team. The workshops featured hands-on activities, such as construction of a fuel cell vehicle from everyday materials. Workshop topics ranged from hydrogen production, storage, distribution and utilization, and fuel cells. Teachers received the New HOPE Pilot TM, a user friendly curriculum with lesson plans along with 2 kits, namely a fuel cell and car chassis kit, and a HOPEMobileTM materials kit with which to continue the design and engineering process in the classroom.
Martin, J.A. Jr.; McKenna, T.J.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.
This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. Public Protective Actions - Predetermined Criteria and Initial Actions is the fourth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume reviews public protective action criteria and objectives, their bases and implementation, and the expected public response. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text
Full Text Available Gait disturbances are one of the principal and most incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD. In addition, walking economy is impaired in PD patients and could contribute to excess fatigue in this population. An important number of studies have shown that treadmill training can improve kinematic parameters in PD patients. However, the effects of treadmill and overground walking on the walking economy remain unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the walking economy changes in response to a treadmill and an overground training program, as well as the differences in the walking economy during treadmill and overground walking. 22 mild PD patients were randomly assigned to a treadmill or overground training group. The training program consisted of 5 weeks (3 sessions/week. We evaluated the energy expenditure of overground walking, before and after each of the training programs. The energy expenditure of treadmill walking (before the program was also evaluated. The treadmill, but not the overground training program, lead to an improvement in the walking economy (the rate of oxygen consumed per distance, during overground walking at a preferred speed in PD patients. In addition, walking on a treadmill required more energy expenditure compared with overground walking at the same speed. This study provides evidence that in mild PD patients, treadmill training is more beneficial compared with that of walking overground, leading to a greater improvement in the walking economy. This finding is of clinical importance for the therapeutic administration of exercise in Parkinson’s disease.
Optale, Gabriele; Urgesi, Cosimo; Busato, Valentina; Marin, Silvia; Piron, Lamberto; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gamberini, Luciano; Capodieci, Salvatore; Bordin, Adalberto
Memory decline is a prevalent aspect of aging but may also be the first sign of cognitive pathology. Virtual reality (VR) using immersion and interaction may provide new approaches to the treatment of memory deficits in elderly individuals. The authors implemented a VR training intervention to try to lessen cognitive decline and improve memory functions. The authors randomly assigned 36 elderly residents of a rest care facility (median age 80 years) who were impaired on the Verbal Story Recall Test either to the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG underwent 6 months of VR memory training (VRMT) that involved auditory stimulation and VR experiences in path finding. The initial training phase lasted 3 months (3 auditory and 3 VR sessions every 2 weeks), and there was a booster training phase during the following 3 months (1 auditory and 1 VR session per week). The CG underwent equivalent face-to-face training sessions using music therapy. Both groups participated in social and creative and assisted-mobility activities. Neuropsychological and functional evaluations were performed at baseline, after the initial training phase, and after the booster training phase. The EG showed significant improvements in memory tests, especially in long-term recall with an effect size of 0.7 and in several other aspects of cognition. In contrast, the CG showed progressive decline. The authors suggest that VRMT may improve memory function in elderly adults by enhancing focused attention.
Maytin, Melanie; Daily, Thomas P; Carillo, Roger G
It is estimated that the demand for transvenous lead extraction (TLE) has reached an annual extraction rate of nearly 24,000 patients worldwide. Despite technologic advances, TLE still has the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Complication rates with TLE directly parallel operator experience. However, obtaining adequate training during and postfellowship can be difficult. Given the potential for catastrophic complications and the steep learning curve (up to 300 cases) associated with this procedure, we sought to validate a virtual reality (VR) lead extraction simulator as an innovative training and evaluation tool for physicians new to TLE. We randomized eight electrophysiology fellows to VR simulator versus conventional training. We compared procedural skill competency between the groups using simulator competency, tactile measurements, markers of proficiency and attitudes, and cognitive abilities battery. Practical skills and simulator complications differed significantly between the VR simulator and conventional training groups. The VR simulator group executed patient preparation and procedure performance better than the conventional group (P training experienced a simulator complication (two superior vena cava [SVC] tears, three right ventricle [RV] avulsions) versus one fellow in the VR simulator group (one SVC tear) (P = 0.02). Tactile measurements revealed a trend toward excess pushing versus pulling forces among the conventionally trained group. The time for lead removal was also significantly higher in the conventional training group (12.46 minutes vs 5.54 minutes, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in baseline or posttraining cognitive ability. We contend that the implementation of alternative training tools such as a VR simulation model will improve physician training and allow for an innovative pathway to assess the achievement of competency. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kobak, Kenneth A; Lipsitz, Joshua D; Markowitz, John C; Bleiberg, Kathryn L
Training mental health professionals to deliver evidence-based therapy (EBT) is now required by most academic accreditation bodies, and evaluating the effectiveness of such training is imperative. However, shortages of time, money, and trained EBT clinician teachers make these challenges daunting. New technologies may help. The authors have developed the first empirically evaluated comprehensive Internet therapist training program for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). The aim of this study was to examine whether (1) the training protocol would increase clinicians' knowledge of IPT concepts and skills and (2) clinicians would deem the training feasible as measured by satisfaction and utility ratings. A total of 26 clinicians enrolled in the training, consisting of (1) a Web-based tutorial on IPT concepts and techniques; (2) live remote training via videoconference, with trainees practicing IPT techniques in a role-play using a case vignette; and (3) a Web-based portal for therapists posttraining use to help facilitate implementation of IPT and maintain adherence over time. Trainees' knowledge of IPT concepts and skills improved significantly (Ptraining component enhanced their professional expertise. Mean rating of applied learning was 3.9 (scale range from 1=very little to 5=a great deal). Overall satisfaction rating was 3.5 (range from 1=very dissatisfied to 4=very satisfied). Results support the efficacy and feasibility of this technology in training clinicians in EBTs and warrant further empirical evaluation. ©Kenneth A Kobak, Joshua D Lipsitz, John C Markowitz, Kathryn L Bleiberg. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 17.07.2017.
Caminiti, Giuseppe; Volterrani, Maurizio; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Cerrito, Anna; Massaro, Rosalba; Sposato, Barbara; Arisi, Arianna; Rosano, Giuseppe
To assess if Hydrotherapy (HT) added to endurance training (ET) is more effective than ET alone in order to improve exercise tolerance of elderly male patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Twenty-one male CHF patients, age 68+/-7 (mean+/-DS) years; ejection fraction 32+/-9. NYHA II-III were enrolled. Eleven pts were randomized to combined training (CT) group performing HT+ET and 10 patients to ET group (ET only). At baseline and after 24 weeks all patients underwent: 6-minute walking test (6MWT), assessment of quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and peak torque (PT), blood pressure and heart rate (HR), echocardiography and non-invasive hemodynamic evaluation. HT was performed 3 times/week in upright position at up to the xyphoid process at a temperature of 31°C. ET was performed 3 times/week. Exercise was well tolerated. No patients had adverse events. Distance at 6MWT improved in both groups (CT group: 150+/-32 m; ET group:105+/-28 m) with significant intergroup differences (p 0.001). On land diastolic BP and HR significantly decreased in the CT group while remained unchanged in the ET group (-11 mmHg+/-2, p 0.04; e - 12 bpm, p 0.03; respectively) CO and SV had a relative despite no significant increase in CT group TPR on land significantly decreased in CT group (-23+/-3 mmHg/l/m; p 0.01) while remained unchanged in ET group. Patients of CT group had no significant higher increase of both MVC and PT than ET group. CT training, significantly improves exercise tolerance and hemodynamic profile of patients with CHF. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Bromberg, Maggie; Fales, Jessica; Eccleston, Christopher; Wilson, Anna C
This pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of parental problem-solving skills training (PSST) compared with treatment as usual on improving parental mental health symptoms, physical health and well-being, and parenting behaviors. Effects of parent PSST on child outcomes (pain, emotional, and physical functioning) were also examined. Participants included 61 parents of children aged 10 to 17 years with chronic pain randomized to PSST (n = 31) or treatment as usual (n = 30) groups. Parents receiving PSST participated in 4 to 6 individual sessions of training in problem-solving skills. Outcomes were assessed at pretreatment, immediately after treatment, and at a 3-month follow-up. Feasibility was determined by therapy session attendance, therapist ratings, and parent treatment acceptability ratings. Feasibility of PSST delivery in this population was demonstrated by high compliance with therapy attendance, excellent retention, high therapist ratings of treatment engagement, and high parent ratings of treatment acceptability. PSST was associated with posttreatment improvements in parental depression (d = -0.68), general mental health (d = 0.64), and pain catastrophizing (d = -0.48), as well as in child depression (d = -0.49), child general anxiety (d = -0.56), and child pain-specific anxiety (d = -0.82). Several effects were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. Findings demonstrate that PSST is feasible and acceptable to parents of youths with chronic pain. Treatment outcome analyses show promising but mixed patterns of effects of PSST on parent and child mental health outcomes. Further rigorous trials of PSST are needed to extend these pilot results.
Vermeulen, Margit I; Tromp, Fred; Zuithoff, Nicolaas P A; Pieters, Ron H M; Damoiseaux, Roger A M J; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M
Abstract Background: Historically, semi-structured interviews (SSI) have been the core of the Dutch selection for postgraduate general practice (GP) training. This paper describes a pilot study on a newly designed competency-based selection procedure that assesses whether candidates have the competencies that are required to complete GP training. The objective was to explore reliability and validity aspects of the instruments developed. The new selection procedure comprising the National GP Knowledge Test (LHK), a situational judgement tests (SJT), a patterned behaviour descriptive interview (PBDI) and a simulated encounter (SIM) was piloted alongside the current procedure. Forty-seven candidates volunteered in both procedures. Admission decision was based on the results of the current procedure. Study participants did hardly differ from the other candidates. The mean scores of the candidates on the LHK and SJT were 21.9 % (SD 8.7) and 83.8% (SD 3.1), respectively. The mean self-reported competency scores (PBDI) were higher than the observed competencies (SIM): 3.7(SD 0.5) and 2.9(SD 0.6), respectively. Content-related competencies showed low correlations with one another when measured with different instruments, whereas more diverse competencies measured by a single instrument showed strong to moderate correlations. Moreover, a moderate correlation between LHK and SJT was found. The internal consistencies (intraclass correlation, ICC) of LHK and SJT were poor while the ICC of PBDI and SIM showed acceptable levels of reliability. Findings on content validity and reliability of these new instruments are promising to realize a competency based procedure. Further development of the instruments and research on predictive validity should be pursued.
Chesters, Adam; Grieve, Philip H; Hodgetts, Timothy J
The use of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) has increased significantly in the UK since 1987. To date there has been no research that addresses HEMS pilots and medical crews' own ideas on the risks that they view as inherent in their line of work and how to mitigate these risks. The aim of this survey is to describe and compare the attitudes and perceptions towards risk in HEMS operations of these staff. A questionnaire was administered electronically to a representative selection of HEMS doctors, paramedics and pilots in the UK. A number of questions were grouped into common themes, and presented as Likert scales and ranking where appropriate. Descriptive and comparative results were presented and statistically analysed. The target sample of 100 consecutive respondents was achieved. All questionnaires were entirely completed. Respondents attributed the most risk to night HEMS operations without the use of night vision goggles, commercial pressure and mechanical aircraft failure. There was no statistical difference in overall perception of safety and years of experience (p=0.58) or between professions (p=0.08). Those who had experienced a crash were more likely to believe that HEMS operations are not inherently safe (p=0.05). We have surveyed a cross-section of the HEMS operational community in the UK in order to describe their perceptions of safety and risk within their professional life. Two-thirds of respondents believed that HEMS operations were inherently safe. Those who did not seemed to be influenced by personal experience of a crash or serious incident. We support increased operational training for clinical crewmembers, an increased emphasis on incident reporting and a culture of safety, and careful attention to minimum training and equipment requirements for all HEMS missions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available In the last decade robotic devices have been applied in rehabilitation to overcome walking disability in neurologic diseases with promising results. Robot assisted gait training (RAGT using the Lokomat seems not only to improve gait parameters but also the perception of well-being. Data on the psychosocial patient-robot impact are limited, in particular in the real-world of RAGT, in the rehabilitation setting. During rehabilitation training, the Lokomat can be considered an "assistive device for movement". This allowed the use of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale- PIADS to describe patient interaction with the Lokomat. The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of the Lokomat in an in-patient rehabilitation setting using the PIADS; secondary aims were to assess whether the psychosocial impact of RAGT is different between pathological sub-groups and if the Lokomat influenced functional variables (Functional Independence Measure scale-FIM and parameters provided by the Lokomat itself. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (69% males, 54.0±18.0 years eligible for Lokomat training, with etiologically heterogeneous walking disabilities (Parkinson's Disease, n = 10; Spinal Cord Injury, n = 21; Ictus Event, n = 8 were enrolled. Patients were assessed with the FIM before and after rehabilitation with Lokomat, and the PIADS was administered after the rehabilitative period with Lokomat. Overall the PIADS score was positive (35.8±21.6, as well as the three sub-scales, pertaining to "ability", "adaptability" and "self-esteem" (17.2±10.4, 8.9±5.5 and 10.1±6.6 respectively with no between-group differences. All patients significantly improved in gait measure and motor FIM scale (difference after-before treatment values: 11.7±9.8 and 11.2±10.3 respectively, increased treadmill speed (0.4 ± 0.2m/s, reduced body weight support (-14.0±9.5% and guidance force (-13.1 ± 10.7%. This pilot study indicates that
The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the
A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)
Paternoster, Alexandre; Loendersloot, Richard; de Boer, Andries; Akkerman, Remko; Berselli, G.; Vertechy, R.; Vassura, G.
Successful rotorcrafts were only achieved when the differences between hovering flight conditions and a stable forward flight were understood. During hovering, the air speed on all helicopter blades is linearly distributed along each blade and is the same for each. However, during forward flight,
Koersel, A.C. van
A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the
Seyedeh Ameneh Motalebi
Conclusion: It was concluded that the use of a simple and inexpensive strength training program may improve leg muscle strength and consequently dynamic balance and mobility in elderly people and make them independent in their daily activities.
Smith Chad E.; Lyons Brian; Hannon James C.
Purpose. Complex training (CT) involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the...
Oberholtzer, G.R.; Acuff, J.T.
Increased environmental awareness and the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 required an increased level of expertise by the American Public in the field of oil spill prevention and control. The National Spill Control School was created at Corpus Christi State University to help meet this need. Drawing on the talents of a nationwide sample of experts in this field, the project team created a unique management oriented course. A review of the origination and experiences of two years of classes of this pilot program is provided in this report.
Park, Shin-Kyu; Kim, Sung-Jin; Yoon, Tak Yong; Lee, Suk-Min
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of circular gait training on balance and balance confidence in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen patients with stroke were randomly divided into either the circular gait training (CGT) group (n=8) or the straight gait training (SGT) group (n=7). Both groups had conventional therapy that adhered to the neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT) approach, for 30 min. In addition, the CGT group performed circular gait training, and the SGT group practiced straight gait training for 30 min. Each intervention was applied for 1 h, 5 days a week, for 2 weeks. Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale were used to test balance and balance confidence. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significant increases in balance and balance confidence. Significant improvements in the balance of the CGT group compared with the SGT group were observed at post-assessment. [Conclusion] This study showed that circular gait training significantly improves balance in patients with stroke.
Toubasi, Samar; Alosta, Mohammed R; Darawad, Muhammad W; Demeh, Waddah
Providing efficient basic life support (BLS) training is crucial for practicing nurses who provide direct patient care. Nevertheless, data addressing the impact of BLS courses on the skills and performance of Jordanian nurses are scarce. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a BLS simulation training on Jordanian nurses' skill improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A prospective quasi-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design was used to study the effect of BLS simulation; using a 9-item checklist; on the spot training; American Heart Association, on a group of Jordanian nurses. A pre-test was conducted following a CPR scenario to test the skills using 9-item checklist extrapolated from the American Heart Association guidelines. After debriefing, an interactive on spot training was provided. Later, participants undertook an unscheduled post-test after four weeks that included the same nine items. Thirty registered nurses with a mean clinical experience of 6.1years participated in the study. Comparing pre-test (M=4.6, SD=2.9, range=0 to 9) with post-test results (M=7.5, SD=1.7, range=4 to 9) showed an overall improvement in skills and BLS scores after the simulation training program (t=7.4, df=29, pskills and performance among Jordanian nurses. A refreshment BLS training session for nurses is highly recommended to guarantee nurses' preparedness in actual CPR scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Araujo, Simone; Cohen, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence
Core stability training (CST) has increased in popularity among athletes and the general fitness population despite limited evidence CST programmes alone lead to improved athletic performance. In female athletes, neuromuscular training combining balance training and trunk and hip/pelvis dominant CST is suggested to reduce injury risk, and specifically peak vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) in a drop jump landing task. However, the isolated effect of trunk dominant core stability training on vGRF during landing in female athletes had not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate landing kinetics during a drop jump test following a CST intervention in female capoeira athletes. After giving their informed written consent, sixteen female capoeira athletes (mean ± SD age, stature, and body mass of 27.3 ± 3.7 years, 165.0 ± 4.0 cm, and 59.7 ± 6.3 kg, respectively) volunteered to participate in the training program which consisted of static and dynamic CST sessions, three times per week for six weeks. The repeated measures T-test revealed participants significantly reduced relative vGRF from pre- to post-intervention for the first (3.40 ± 0.78 vs. 2.85 ± 0.52 N·NBW-1, respectively [pcore stability training improves landing kinetics without improving jump height, and may reduce lower extremity injury risk in female athletes.
Guimond, Synthia; Lepage, Martin
Available cognitive remediation interventions have a significant but relatively small to moderate impact on episodic memory in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a brief novel episodic memory training targeting the self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies. To select patients with such deficits, 28 participants with schizophrenia performed our Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) that provides a measure of self-initiated semantic encoding strategies. This task identified a deficit in 13 participants who were then offered two 60-minute training sessions one week apart. After the training, patients performed an alternate version of the SEMT. The CVLT-II (a standardised measure of semantic encoding strategies) and the BVMT-R (a control spatial memory task) were used to quantify memory pre- and post-training. After the training, participants were significantly better at self-initiating semantic encoding strategies in the SEMT (p = .004) and in the CVLT-II (p = .002). No significant differences were found in the BVMT-R. The current study demonstrates that a brief and specific training in memory strategies can help patients to improve a deficient memory process in schizophrenia. Future studies will need to test this intervention further using a randomised controlled trial, and to explore its functional impact.
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the newly develop course prepared for the employees working in the forest and mountain environment Methodology 31 people participated in the course. They were employees of Roztocze National Park and the Forestry Commission Lutowiska. A diagnostic survey was implemented in a form of a questionnaire. The respondents were provided with two original questionnaires and a telephone survey. Surveys were anonymous and voluntary. Findings The average assessment of First Aid knowledge before the workshop was 2.48 and majority of participants assesed First Aid as difficult. After the workshop, the respondents assessed the knowledge on average as 3.87 and as much as 58% declared that definitely would provide First Aid to a stranger; 81% to a close person. Over 80% of respondents noticed the need of regular training in First Aid. Research implication The analysis showed that regular improvement of First Aid skills is required by the participants. The training should be adjusted to the group’s needs in terms of the program, teaching techniques and the place of training. There is a need to implement such training on a wider scale among forestry and mountain workers. Originality Uncovering the gaps in First Aid training in mountain and forest workers in their professional training.
Broyles, Lauren M; Gordon, Adam J; Rodriguez, Keri L; Hanusa, Barbara H; Kengor, Caroline; Kraemer, Kevin L
Alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a set of clinical strategies for reducing the burden of alcohol-related injury, disease, and disability. SBIRT is typically considered a physician responsibility but calls for interdisciplinary involvement requiring basic SBIRT knowledge and skills training for all healthcare disciplines. The purpose of this pilot study was to design, implement, and evaluate a theory-driven SBIRT training program for nurses in inpatient settings (RN-SBIRT) that was developed through an interdisciplinary collaboration of nursing, medical, and public health professionals and tailored for registered nurses in the inpatient setting. In this three-phase study, we evaluated (1) RN-SBIRT's effectiveness for changing nurses' alcohol-related knowledge, clinical practice, and attitudes and (2) the feasibility of implementing the inpatient curriculum. In a quasi-experimental design, two general medical units at our facility were randomized to receive RN-SBIRT or a self-directed Web site on alcohol-related care. We performed a formative evaluation of RN-SBIRT, guided by the RE-AIM implementation framework. After training, nurses in the experimental condition had significant increases in Role Adequacy for working with drinkers and reported increased performance and increased competence for a greater number of SBIRT care tasks. Despite some scheduling challenges for the nurses to attend RN-SBIRT, nurse stakeholders were highly satisfied with RN-SBIRT. Results suggest that with adequate training and ongoing role support, nurses in inpatient settings could play active roles in interdisciplinary initiatives to address unhealthy alcohol use among hospitalized patients.
Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Veling, Harm; Kemps, Eva; Lawrence, Natalia S
Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie food images have been found to predict future weight gain. These findings suggest that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory control region response to such foods might reduce overeating. We conducted a randomized pilot experiment that tested the hypothesis that a multi-faceted food response and attention training with personalized high- and low-calorie food images would produce changes in behavioral and neural responses to food images and body fat compared to a control training with non-food images among community-recruited overweight/obese adults. Compared to changes observed in controls, completing the intervention was associated with significant reductions in reward and attention region response to high-calorie food images (Mean Cohen's d = 1.54), behavioral evidence of learning, reductions in palatability ratings and monetary valuation of high-calorie foods (p = 0.009, d's = 0.92), and greater body fat loss over a 4-week period (p = 0.009, d = 0.90), though body fat effects were not significant by 6-month follow-up. Results suggest that this multifaceted response and attention training intervention was associated with reduced reward and attention region responsivity to food cues, and a reduction in body fat. Because this implicit training treatment is both easy and inexpensive to deliver, and does not require top-down executive control that is necessary for negative energy balance obesity treatment, it may prove useful in treating obesity if future studies can determine how to create more enduring effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chomiak, Taylor; Watts, Alexander; Meyer, Nicole; Pereira, Fernando V; Hu, Bin
Deficits in motor movement automaticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially during multitasking, are early and consistent hallmarks of cognitive function decline, which increases fall risk and reduces quality of life. This study aimed to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a wearable sensor-enabled technological platform designed for an in-home music-contingent stepping-in-place (SIP) training program to improve step automaticity during dual-tasking (DT). This was a 4-week prospective intervention pilot study. The intervention uses a sensor system and algorithm that runs off the iPod Touch which calculates step height (SH) in real-time. These measurements were then used to trigger auditory (treatment group, music; control group, radio podcast) playback in real-time through wireless headphones upon maintenance of repeated large amplitude stepping. With small steps or shuffling, auditory playback stops, thus allowing participants to use anticipatory motor control to regain positive feedback. Eleven participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (Trial Number: ISRCTN06023392). Fear of falling (FES-I), general cognitive functioning (MoCA), self-reported freezing of gait (FOG-Q), and DT step automaticity were evaluated. While we found no significant effect of training on FES-I, MoCA, or FOG-Q, we did observe a significant group (music vs podcast) by training interaction in DT step automaticity (Ptraining to increase motor automaticity for people living with PD. The training approach described here can be implemented at home to meet the growing demand for self-management of symptoms by patients.
Prosperini, Luca; Fortuna, Deborah; Giannì, Costanza; Leonardi, Laura; Marchetti, Maria Rita; Pozzilli, Carlo
To evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based rehabilitation of balance using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board System (WBBS) in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). In this 24-week, randomized, 2-period crossover pilot study, 36 patients having an objective balance disorder were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 2 counterbalanced arms. Group A started a 12-week period of home-based WBBS training followed by a 12-week period without any intervention; group B received the treatment in reverse order. As endpoints, we considered the mean difference (compared with baseline) in force platform measures (i.e., the displacement of body center of pressure in 30 seconds), 4-step square test (FSST), 25-foot timed walking test (25-FWT), and 29-item MS Impact Scale (MSIS-29), as evaluated after 12 weeks and at the end of the 24-week study period. The 2 groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. Repeated-measures analyses of variance showed significant time × treatment effects, indicating that WBBS was effective in ameliorating force platform measures (F = 4.608, P = .016), FSST (F = 3.745, P = .034), 25-FWT (F = 3.339, P = .048), and MSIS-29 (F = 4.282, P = .023). Five adverse events attributable to the WBSS training (knee or low back pain) were recorded, but only 1 patient had to retire from the study. A home-based WBBS training might potentially provide an effective, engaging, balance rehabilitation solution for people with MS. However, the risk of WBBS training-related injuries should be carefully balanced with benefits. Further studies, including cost-effectiveness analyses, are warranted to establish whether WBBS may be useful in the home setting.
Full Text Available This paper presents the design of an autonomous unmanned helicopter system for low-altitude remote sensing. The proposed concepts and methods are generic and not limited to a speciﬁc helicopter. The development was driven by the need for a dependable, modular, and affordable system with sufﬁcient payload capacity suitable for both research and real-world deployment. The helicopter can be safely operated without a backup pilot in a contained area beyond visual range. This enables data collection in inaccessible or dangerous areas. Thanks to its terrain following and obstacle avoidance capability, the system does not require a priori information about terrain elevation and obstacles. Missions are speciﬁed in state diagrams and ﬂight plans. We present performance characteristics of our system and show results of its deployment in real-world scenarios. We have successfully completed several dozen infrastructure inspection missions and crop monitoring missions facilitating plant phenomics studies.
Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Paxton, Susan J
Eating disorders cause significant burden that may be reduced by early and appropriate help-seeking. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, very few individuals with eating disorders seek treatment. Training in mental health first aid is known to be effective in increasing mental health literacy and supportive behaviours, in the social networks of individuals with mental health problems. Increases in these domains are thought to improve the likelihood that effective help is sought. However, the efficacy of mental health first aid for eating disorders has not been evaluated. The aim of this research was to examine whether specific training in mental health first aid for eating disorders was effective in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards people with eating disorders. A repeated measures, uncontrolled trial was conducted to establish proof of concept and provide guidance on the future design of a randomised controlled trial. Self-report questionnaires, administered at baseline, post-training and 6-month follow-up, assessed the effectiveness of the 4-hour, single session, mental health first aid training. 73 participants completed the training and all questionnaires. The training intervention was associated with statistically significant increases in problem recognition and knowledge of appropriate mental health first aid strategies, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Sustained significant changes in attitudes and behaviours were less clear. 20 participants reported providing assistance to someone with a suspected eating disorder, seven of whom sought professional help as a result of the first aid interaction. Results provided no evidence of a negative impact on participants or the individuals they provided assistance to. This research provides preliminary evidence for the use of training in mental health first aid as a suitable intervention for increasing community knowledge of and support for people with eating
Forrester, Larry W; Roy, Anindo; Hafer-Macko, Charlene; Krebs, Hermano I; Macko, Richard F
An unsettled question in the use of robotics for post-stroke gait rehabilitation is whether task-specific locomotor training is more effective than targeting individual joint impairments to improve walking function. The paretic ankle is implicated in gait instability and fall risk, but is difficult to therapeutically isolate and refractory to recovery. We hypothesize that in chronic stroke, treadmill-integrated ankle robotics training is more effective to improve gait function than robotics focused on paretic ankle impairments. Participants with chronic hemiparetic gait were randomized to either six weeks of treadmill-integrated ankle robotics (n = 14) or dose-matched seated ankle robotics (n = 12) videogame training. Selected gait measures were collected at baseline, post-training, and six-week retention. Friedman, and Wilcoxon Sign Rank and Fisher's exact tests evaluated within and between group differences across time, respectively. Six weeks post-training, treadmill robotics proved more effective than seated robotics to increase walking velocity, paretic single support, paretic push-off impulse, and active dorsiflexion range of motion. Treadmill robotics durably improved gait dorsiflexion swing angle leading 6/7 initially requiring ankle braces to self-discarded them, while their unassisted paretic heel-first contacts increased from 44 % to 99.6 %, versus no change in assistive device usage (0/9) following seated robotics. Treadmill-integrated, but not seated ankle robotics training, durably improves gait biomechanics, reversing foot drop, restoring walking propulsion, and establishing safer foot landing in chronic stroke that may reduce reliance on assistive devices. These findings support a task-specific approach integrating adaptive ankle robotics with locomotor training to optimize mobility recovery. NCT01337960. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01337960?term=NCT01337960&rank=1.
Verbeken, Sandra; Braet, Caroline; Naets, Tiffany; Houben, Katrijn; Boendermaker, Wouter
Obesity is a widespread problem that starts from an early age. Previous studies suggest that obese youngsters have an attentional bias and an automatic approach tendency towards high-calorie food and display difficulties inhibiting impulses, which may result in a higher intake of (high-calorie) food. An interesting idea for improvement of the current obesity treatment is adding a program that enables to train their difficulties. Subjects were 36 youngsters aged 9-15 years old from an inpatient treatment program for obesity, randomized over a training group and an active control group. The training consisted of six training sessions with cognitive tasks aimed at enhancing inhibition towards unhealthy food items (with a go/no-go task), as well as decreasing a food approach bias (using an approach/avoidance task) and a food attentional bias (using a dot-probe task). The current study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability and initial effectiveness of the training and explores if these characteristics helps obese youngsters to maintain weight-loss once they return home at the end of their inpatient treatment program. Results on the cognitive performances were investigated during two measurement sessions, spread over 5 weeks while weight evolution was followed over 13 weeks. Results showed that the training program was feasible and acceptable to the majority of participants and clinicians. Furthermore, the preliminary findings suggest that the training tasks used were ineffective in this group of obese children. Lessons learned and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Kissane, David; Loughland, Carmel
Mental health clinicians can experience difficulties communicating diagnostic information to patients and their families/carers, especially about distressing psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. There is evidence for the effectiveness of communication skills training (CST) for improving diagnostic discussions, particularly in specialties such as oncology, but only limited evidence exists about CST for psychiatry. This study evaluated a CST program specifically developed for psychiatry residents called ComPsych that focuses on conveying diagnostic and prognostic information about schizophrenia. The ComPsych program consists of an introductory lecture, module booklets for trainees, and exemplary skills videos, followed by small group role-plays with simulated patients (SPs) led by a trained facilitator. A standardized patient assessment (SPA) was digitally recorded pre- and post-training with a SP using a standardized scenario in a time-limited (15 min) period. Recorded SPAs were independently rated using a validated coding system (ComSkil) to identify frequency of skills used in five skills categories (agenda setting, checking, questioning, information organization, and empathic communication). Thirty trainees (15 males and 15 females; median age = 32) undertaking their vocational specialty training in psychiatry participated in ComPsych training and pre- and post-ComPsych SPAs. Skills increased post-training for agenda setting (d = -0.82), while questioning skills (d = 0.56) decreased. There were no significant differences in any other skills grouping, although checking, information organization, and empathic communication skills tended to increase post-training. A dose effect was observed for agenda setting, with trainees who attended more CST sessions outperforming those attending fewer. Findings support the generalization and translation of ComPsych CST to psychiatry.
Mawjee, Karizma; Woltering, Steven; Lai, Nathan; Gotlieb, Howell; Kronitz, Reena; Tannock, Rosemary
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a shortened-length session of CogMed Working Memory Training (CWMT) would be a suitable active control group and evaluate study protocol to aid in design refinements for a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT). Thirty-eight post-secondary students diagnosed with ADHD were randomized into 25 sessions of standard (45 min/session) or shortened (15 min/session) CWMT, or into a waitlist control group. There was no significant difference in completion rate or training index score between the standard- and shortened-length groups indicating that both groups showed improvement and put forth good effort during training. Preliminary findings suggest that shorter training sessions may induce similar levels of engagement, motivation, and expectancy of improvement in participants. We conclude that a larger scale RCT that utilizes shortened-length training as an active control group is warranted, but that a few modifications to the study protocol will be required.
Jimenez-Morales, R M; Herrera-Jimenez, L F; Macias-Delgado, Y; Perez-Medinilla, Y T; Diaz-Diaz, S M; Forn, C
The scientific evidences associated to the effectiveness of different techniques of cognitive rehabilitation are still contradictory. To compare a program of combined training (physical and cognitive) in front of a program of physical training and to observe their effectiveness about the optimization of the cognitive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It was carried out an experimental study in 32 patients with MS. The patients were distributed in two groups: 16 to the experimental group (combined cognitive training with aerobic exercises) and 16 patients to the control group (aerobic exercises). The intervention was planned for six weeks combining cognitive tasks by means of a game of dynamic board of cubes and signs (TaDiCS ®) and a program of aerobic exercises. The Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test and the Stroop Test were applied to evaluate the cognitive yield. Also, the Beck Depression Inventory was administered. There were found significant differences in the intergrupal analysis after the intervention in the variable learning and visuoespacial long term memory (p = 0.000), attention (p = 0.026) and inhibitory control (p = 0.007). Also, in the intragroup analysis there were found significant differences in these variables and information processing speed in the group that received the combined training. These patients also showed a significant improvement in the emotional state (p = 0.043). The cognitive training combined with the aerobic exercises is effective to improve the cognitive performance.
Angelotti, Marietta; Bliss, Kathryn; Schiffman, Dana; Weaver, Erin; Graham, Laura; Lemme, Thomas; Pryor, Veronica; Gesten, Foster C
Training in patient-centered medical home (PCMH) settings may prepare new physicians to measure quality of care, manage the health of populations, work in teams, and include cost information in decision making. Transforming resident clinics to PCMHs requires funding for additional staff, electronic health records, training, and other resources not typically available to residency programs. Describe how a 1115 Medicaid waiver was used to transform the majority of primary care training sites in New York State to the PCMH model and improve the quality of care provided. The 2013-2014 Hospital Medical Home Program provided awards to 60 hospitals and 118 affiliated residency programs (training more than 5000 residents) to transform outpatient sites into PCMHs and provide high-quality, coordinated care. Site visits, coaching calls, resident surveys, data reporting, and feedback were used to promote and monitor change in resident continuity and quality of care. Descriptive analyses measured improvements in these areas. A total of 156 participating outpatient sites (100%) received PCMH recognition. All sites enhanced resident education using PCMH principles through patient empanelment, development of quality dashboards, and transforming resident scheduling and training. Clinical quality outcomes showed improvement across the demonstration, including better performance on colorectal and breast cancer screening rates (rate increases of 13%, P≤.001, and 11%, P=.011, respectively). A 1115 Medicaid waiver is a viable mechanism for states to transform residency clinics to reflect new primary care models. The PCMH transformation of 156 sites led to improvements in resident continuity and clinical outcomes.
Jirikowic, Tracy; Westcott McCoy, Sarah; Price, Robert; Ciol, Marcia A; Hsu, Lin-Ya; Kartin, Deborah
To examine the effects of Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement, and Learning (STABEL), a virtual reality system to train sensory adaptation for balance control, for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Twenty-three children with FASDs received STABEL training in a university laboratory, or home, or were controls. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd edition (MABC-2) and Pediatric Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction for Balance-2 (P-CTSIB-2) were analyzed by group (lab, home, and control), session (pre-STABEL, 1 week post-STABEL, and 1 month post-STABEL), and group-by-session interaction. Significant effects were group and session for MABC-2 Balance and interaction for MABC-2 Total Motor and P-CTSIB-2. Preliminary results support improved sensory adaptation, balance, and motor performance post-STABEL, which warrant further study with a larger, randomized sample.
La Marca, Jeffry P; Cruz, Daniel; Fandino, Jennifer; Cacciaguerra, Fabiana R; Fresco, Joseph J; Guerra, Austin T
This double-blind study examined the effect of electromyographical (EMG) artifacts, which contaminate electroencephalographical (EEG) signals, by comparing artifact-corrected (AC) and non-artifact-corrected (NAC) neurofeedback (NF) training procedures. 14 unmedicated college students were randomly assigned to two groups: AC (n = 7) or NAC (n = 7). Both groups received 12 sessions of NF and were trained using identical NF treatment protocols to reduce their theta/beta power ratios (TBPR). Outcomes on a continuous performance test revealed that the AC group had statistically significant increases across measures of auditory and visual attention. The NAC group showed smaller gains that only reached statistical significance on measures of visual attention. Only the AC group reduced their TBPR, the NAC group did not. AC NF appears to play an important role during training that leads to improvements in both auditory and visual attention. Additional research is required to confirm the results of this study.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older individuals. Twenty-nine men and women participated to this study. Subjects were randomized in 2 groups: (1 control (n=13 and (2 resistance training (n=16. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects were submitted to a blood sample to determine their hematological profile (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width. At baseline, no difference was observed between groups. Moreover, we found no significant difference after the intervention on any of these markers. A 6-month resistance program in healthy older individuals seems to have no beneficial nor deleterious effects on hematological blood parameters. However, resistance training was well tolerated and should be recommended for other health purposes. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in a large population.
Juntorn, Sutinun; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Munkhetvit, Peeraya
Learning disabilities (LD) can be associated with problems in the four stages of information processing used in learning: input, throughput, output, and feedback. These problems affect the child's ability to learn and perform activities in daily life, especially during academic activities. This study is a pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of information processing strategy training using a combination of two approaches that address the ability to apply processing strategies during academic activities in children with LD. The two approaches are the Perceive, Recall, Plan, and Perform (PRPP) System of Intervention, which is a strategy training intervention, and the Four-Quadrant Model (4QM) of Facilitated Learning approach, which is a systematic facilitator technique. Twenty children with LD were assigned to two groups: the experimental group ( n = 10) and the control group ( n = 10). Children in the experimental group received the intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Each treatment session took approximately 50 minutes. Children in the control group received traditional intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. The results indicated that the combination of the PRPP System of Intervention and the 4QM may improve the participants' ability to apply information processing strategies during academic activities.
Full Text Available Learning disabilities (LD can be associated with problems in the four stages of information processing used in learning: input, throughput, output, and feedback. These problems affect the child’s ability to learn and perform activities in daily life, especially during academic activities. This study is a pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of information processing strategy training using a combination of two approaches that address the ability to apply processing strategies during academic activities in children with LD. The two approaches are the Perceive, Recall, Plan, and Perform (PRPP System of Intervention, which is a strategy training intervention, and the Four-Quadrant Model (4QM of Facilitated Learning approach, which is a systematic facilitator technique. Twenty children with LD were assigned to two groups: the experimental group (n=10 and the control group (n=10. Children in the experimental group received the intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Each treatment session took approximately 50 minutes. Children in the control group received traditional intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. The results indicated that the combination of the PRPP System of Intervention and the 4QM may improve the participants’ ability to apply information processing strategies during academic activities.
Full Text Available Introduction. Several studies in pediatric trauma care have demonstrated substantial deficits in both prehospital and emergency department management. Methods. In February 2015 the PAEDSIM collaborative conducted a one and a half day interdisciplinary, simulation based team-training course in a simulated pediatric emergency department. 14 physicians from the medical fields of pediatric surgery, pediatric intensive care and emergency medicine, and anesthesia participated, as well as four pediatric nurses. After a theoretical introduction and familiarization with the simulator, course attendees alternately participated in six simulation scenarios and debriefings. Each scenario incorporated elements of pediatric trauma management as well as Crew Resource Management (CRM educational objectives. Participants completed anonymous pre- and postcourse questionnaires and rated the course itself as well as their own medical qualification and knowledge of CRM. Results. Participants found the course very realistic and selected scenarios highly relevant to their daily work. They reported a feeling of improved medical and nontechnical skills as well as no uncomfortable feeling during scenarios or debriefings. Conclusion. To our knowledge this pilot-project represents the first successful implementation of a simulation-based team-training course focused on pediatric trauma care in German-speaking countries with good acceptance.
Heinrich, K M; Becker, C; Carlisle, T; Gilmore, K; Hauser, J; Frye, J; Harms, C A
This pilot study investigated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a high-intensity functional training (HIFT) group-exercise programme among adult cancer survivors within 5 years of last cancer treatment. Eight participants were assigned to a 5-week, 3 days/week HIFT intervention with four testing sessions and 12 workouts along with mobility and stretching exercises. Feasibility was assessed by initiation, adherence, and acceptability. Efficacy was determined by changes from baseline to post-test in health-related quality of life, body composition and functional movement. The recruitment rate was 80% and the adherence rate was 75%. Significant improvements were found for emotional functioning (P = 0.042) and body composition (lean mass +3.8 ± 2.1 kg, P = 0.008; fat mass -3.3 ± 1.0 kg, P = 0.001; body fat percentage -4.7 ± 1.2%, P body strength and power (P = 0.009), aerobic capacity and endurance (P = 0.039), and perceived difficulty for flexibility (P = 0.012). Five weeks of HIFT training was well-received and feasible for most cancer survivors, and effective for improving emotional functioning, body composition and functional movement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hardy, Kristina K; Willard, Victoria W; Allen, Taryn M; Bonner, Melanie J
Survivors of pediatric brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for neurocognitive deficits, but few empirically supported treatment options exist. We examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a home-based, computerized working memory training program, CogmedRM, with survivors of childhood cancer. Survivors of brain tumors or ALL (n = 20) with identified deficits in attention and/or working memory were randomized to either the success-adapted computer intervention or a non-adaptive, active control condition. Specifically, children in the adaptive condition completed exercises that became more challenging with each correct trial, whereas those in the non-adaptive version trained with exercises that never increased in difficulty. All participants were asked to complete 25 training sessions at home, with weekly, phone-based coaching support. Brief assessments were completed pre-intervention and post-intervention; outcome measures included both performance-based and parent-report measures of working memory and attention. Eighty-five percent of survivors were compliant with the intervention, with no adverse events reported. After controlling for baseline intellectual functioning, survivors who completed the intervention program evidenced significant post-training improvements in their visual working memory and in parent-rated learning problems compared with those in the active control group. No differences in verbal working memory functioning were evident between groups, however. Home-based, computerized cognitive training demonstrates good feasibility and acceptability in our sample. Children with higher intellectual functioning at baseline appeared to benefit more from the training, although further study is needed to clarify the strength, scope, and particularly the generalizability of potential treatment effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Alessandro Carvalho,1,2 Dannyel Barbirato,1 Narahyana Araujo,1 Jose Vicente Martins,3 Jose Luiz Sá Cavalcanti,3 Tony Meireles Santos,4 Evandro S Coutinho,5 Jerson Laks,1,2 Andrea C Deslandes1 1Centro de Doença de Alzheimer e Outros Transtornos da Velhice, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Centro de Estudo de Pesquisa do Envelhecimento, Instituto Vital Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 3Instituto de Neurologia Deolindo Couto, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 4Departamento de Educação Física da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil; 5Departamento de Epidemiologia e Métodos Quantitativos em Saúde. Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública-FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Introduction: Physical rehabilitation is commonly used in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD to improve their health and alleviate the symptoms. Objective: We compared the effects of three programs, strength training (ST, aerobic training (AT, and physiotherapy, on motor symptoms, functional capacity, and electroencephalographic (EEG activity in PD patients. Methods: Twenty-two patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: AT (70% of maximum heart rate, ST (80% of one repetition maximum, and physiotherapy (in groups. Subjects participated in their respective interventions twice a week for 12 weeks. The assessments included measures of disease symptoms (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS], functional capacity (Senior Fitness Test, and EEG before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results: The PD motor symptoms (UPDRS-III in the group of patients who performed ST and AT improved by 27.5% (effect size [ES]=1.25, confidence interval [CI]=-0.11, 2.25 and 35% (ES=1.34, CI=-0.16, 2.58, respectively, in contrast to the physiotherapy group, which showed a 2.9% improvement (ES=0.07, CI=-0.85, 0.99. Furthermore, the functional capacity of all three groups
Houck, J. A.
The initial phase of a training program for the Terminal Configured Vehicle Electronic Situation indicator (EHSI) is presented. The EHSI and its symbology is introduced and interpretation of the symbols is explained. Basic symbols shown on the display at all times are first presented. Additional optional symbols to be used as appropriate during different portions of a flight are then introduced and various display configurations interpreted. The upper half of each page is a reproduction of the EHSI display or other pertinent instructional material and the bottom half contains explanatory text, simplifying production of an audiovisual package for use with large training classes. Two quizzes on the course material are included.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the feasibility of a humor training for a subclinical sample suffering from increased stress, depressiveness, or anxiety. Based on diagnostic interviews, 35 people were invited to participate in a 7-week humor training. Evaluation measures were filled in prior training, after training, and at a 1-month follow-up including humor related outcomes (coping humor and cheerfulness and mental health-related outcomes (perceived stress, depressiveness, anxiety, and well-being. Outcomes were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVAs. Within-group comparisons of intention-to-treat analysis showed main effects of time with large effect sizes on all outcomes. Post hoc tests showed medium to large effect sizes on all outcomes from pre to post and results remained stable until follow-up. Satisfaction with the training was high, attrition rate low (17.1%, and participants would highly recommend the training. Summarizing the results, the pilot study showed promising effects for people suffering from subclinical symptoms. All outcomes were positively influenced and showed stability over time. Humor trainings could be integrated more into mental health care as an innovative program to reduce stress whilst promoting also positive emotions. However, as this study was a single-arm pilot study, further research (including also randomized controlled trials is still needed to evaluate the effects more profoundly.
George, Mathew; Prawira, Amy
Background Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with continuous advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Therefore, it is important that medical students are provided with the knowledge and experience required to care for oncology patients and enable them to diagnose and manage toxicities of novel therapeutic agents. Objective This study was performed to understand the medical students’ perspective of the oncology education provided in universities across Australia and identify areas of education that could potentially be modified or improved to ultimately attract more students to a career in oncology. Methods This pilot cross-sectional study consisted of an 18-question survey that was submitted online to medical students in their final year and interns rotating to the Tamworth Hospital. Results The survey was completed by 94 fifth-year medical students and interns. Oncology was taught both theoretically and clinically for 68% (63/93) of participants, and 48% (44/92) had an exclusive oncology rotation. Both theoretical and clinical oncology assessments were conducted for only 21% (19/92) of participants. Overall, 42% (38/91) of participants were satisfied with their oncology education, and 78% (40/51) were dissatisfied with the number of oncology teaching hours. The importance of a career in oncology was rated as low by 46% (41/90) of participants. Conclusions This pilot study indicates that there are potential areas to improve oncology teaching in Australian universities. The majority of surveyed students were dissatisfied with the number of teaching hours they receive in oncology. More global assessment of students and/or interns from other Australian institutes may yield further useful information. PMID:29233799
Wiest, Dudley J.; Wong, Eugene H.; Minero, Laura P.; Pumaccahua, Tessy T.
Working memory has been well documented as a significant predictor of academic outcomes (e.g., reading and math achievement as well as general life outcomes). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training to improve both working memory and encoding abilities in a school setting. Thirty students…
Wang, Chun-Hua; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Chung, Kian Fan; Kuo, Han-Pin
Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines. Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group. A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019).
Ingersoll, Brooke R; Wainer, Allison L
This study investigated the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a parenting training program designed for early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ESCE) programs serving students with autistic spectrum disorders. Thirteen teachers representing three intermediate school districts implemented the intervention with 27…
Bielick, Stacey; Cronen, Stephanie; Stone, Celeste; Montaquila, Jill M.; Roth, Shelley Brock
Education and training beyond high school are important for securing opportunities for high-wage jobs in the United States. Academic degrees awarded by institutions of higher education represent a key component of the post-high-school credentials available to the American labor force. Other credentials, such as industry-recognized certifications,…
Vitale, Jacopo Antonino; Bjoerkesett, Eva; Campana, Andrea; Panizza, Giacomo; Weydahl, Andi
An individual's chronotype influences his or her physiological rhythms. Some studies have looked at the effect of time of day on the responses to exercise, but studies on the effect of long-term training are lacking. To report the effects of an 8-week training period during the polar night in non-athletes of different chronotypes living at 70°N. In all, 10 morning (M), 10 neither (N) and 10 evening (E) types were recruited, and their aerobic capacity (VO 2max ), strength, flexibility and balance before and after the training period were tested. 3 E-types, 5 N-types and 6 M-types completed the protocol. An increase in VO 2max and strength was observed for the whole group. The best negative correlation (r=-0.5287) was found between the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) score and the increase in VO2max, and the best positive correlation (r=0.4395) was found between MEQ and the increase in strength. Changes in balance and flexibility did not show any clear trends. In an environment with no outdoor daylight, it seems that the response to 8 weeks of aerobic training is larger in the E- than in the M-types, although the M-types showed a larger improvement in strength.
Goebel, Ruben; Haddad, Monoem; Kleinöder, Heinz; Yue, Zengyuan; Heinen, Thomas; Mester, Joachim
The aim of the study was to determine whether a combination of strength training (ST) and local vibration (LV) improved the isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. ST was applied to the left arm of the subjects; LV was applied to the right arm of the same subjects. The main aim was to examine the effect of LV during a dumbbell biceps curl (Scott Curl) on isometric maximum force of the opposite muscle among the same subjects. It is hypothesized, that the intervention with LV produces a greater gain in isometric force of the arm flexors than ST. Twenty-seven collegiate students participated in the study. The training load was 70% of the individual 1 RM. Four sets with 12 repetitions were performed three times per week during four weeks. The right arm of all subjects represented the vibration trained body side (VS) and the left arm served as the traditional trained body side (TTS). A significant increase of isometric maximum force in both body sides (Arms) occurred. VS, however, significantly increased isometric maximum force about 43% in contrast to 22% of the TTS. The combined intervention of ST and LC improves isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. III.
van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Nauta, Maaike H.; van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.
There is great variability in the degree to which children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve through behavioral treatments. This study investigates the influence of the dopamine transporter gene (SCL6A3/DAT1) on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT). Study subjects
Syed, Ehsan Ullah; Hussein, Sajida Abdul
Objectives: ADHD affects 3% to 5% of school-age children. Clinical and community based epidemiological studies in Pakistan have shown a high prevalence of ADHD among school going children. A thorough review of literature shows that no studies of teachers' training programs regarding ADHD have been published in Pakistani research literature. The…
van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Nauta, M.H.; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A.J.; van der Veen-Mulders, L.; Sytema, S.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.
There is great variability in the degree to which children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve through behavioral treatments. This study investigates the influence of the dopamine transporter gene (SCL6A3/DAT1) on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT). Study subjects
Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio
The foot provides the only direct contact with supporting surfaces and therefore plays an important role in all postural tasks. Changes in the musculoskeletal and neurological characteristics of the foot with advancing age can alter plantar loading patterns and postural balance. Several studies have reported that exercise training improves postural performance in elderly individuals. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of a dynamic balance training protocol performed for 5 weeks on the support surface, percentage distribution of load in both feet, and body balance performance in healthy elderly women. Ten subjects (68.67±5.50 yrs old; 28.17±3.35 BMI) were evaluated with a monopodalic performance test and baropodometric analyses before and after the training period. We found a significant improvement in balance unipedal performance times on left and right foot by 20.18% and 26.23% respectively (p0.05). The increased support surface and equal redistribution of body weight on both feet obtained in response to our training protocol may be postural adaptations sufficient to improve static balance in elderly women.
Dysterheft, Jennifer L; Rice, Ian M; Rice, Laura A
Ten full-time adolescent wheelchair users (ages 13-18) completed a total of three propulsion trials on carpet and tile surfaces, at a self-selected velocity, and on a concrete surface, at a controlled velocity. All trials were performed in their personal wheelchair with force and moment sensing wheels attached bilaterally. The first two trials on each surface were used as pre-intervention control trials. The third trial was performed after receiving training on proper propulsion technique. Peak resultant force, contact angle, stroke frequency, and velocity were recorded during all trials for primary analysis. Carpet and tile trials resulted in significant increases in contact angle and peak total force with decreased stroke frequency after training. During the velocity controlled trials on concrete, significant increases in contact angle occurred, as well as decreases in stroke frequency after training. Overall, the use of a training video and verbal feedback may help to improve short-term propulsion technique in adolescent wheelchair users and decrease the risk of developing upper limb pain and injury.
Heaton, Samuel R; Little, Zoe; Akhtar, Kash; Ramachandran, Manoj; Lee, Joshua
To enhance non-technical skills and to analyse participant's experience of a course tailored for orthopaedic surgeons. A Delphi technique was used to develop a course in human factors specific to orthopaedic residents. Twenty-six residents (six per course) participated in total with seven course facilitators all trained in Crisis Resource Management providing structured feedback. Six scenarios recreated challenging real-life situations using high-fidelity mannequins and simulated patients. Environments included a simulated operating suite, clinic room and ward setting. All were undertaken in a purpose built simulation suite utilising actors, mock operating rooms, mock clinical rooms and a high fidelity adult patient simulator organised through a simulation control room. Participants completed a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire (strongly disagree to strongly agree) before and after the course. This assessed their understanding of non-technical skills, scenario validity, relevance to orthopaedic training and predicted impact of the course on future practice. A course evaluation questionnaire was also completed to assess participants' feedback on the value and quality of the course itself. Twenty-six orthopaedic residents participated (24 male, 2 female; post-graduation 5-10 years), mean year of residency program 2.6 out of 6 years required in the United Kingdom. Pre-course questionnaires showed that while the majority of candidates recognised the importance of non-technical (NT) skills in orthopaedic training they demonstrated poor understanding of non-technical skills and their role. This improved significantly after the course (Likert score 3.0-4.2) and the perceived importance of these skills was reported as good or very good in 100%. The course was reported as enjoyable and provided an unthreatening learning environment with the candidates placing particular value on the learning opportunity provided by reflecting on their performance. All agreed that the
Smith Chad E.
Full Text Available Purpose. Complex training (CT involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the inclusion of a power exercise instead of a strength exercise as the first exercise in CT would produce differences in lower body power. Methods. Thirty-six recreationally-trained men and women aged 20 to 29 years attending a college physical education course were randomly assigned to one of three groups: squat and countermovement squat jumps (SSJ, kettlebell swings and countermovement squat jumps (KSJ, and a control (CON. Training involving CT lasted 6 weeks. All participants were pre- and posttested for vertical jump performance in order to assess lower body power. Results. Vertical jump scores improved for all groups (p < 0.01. The results also indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between group scores across time (p = 0.215. The statistical power for this analysis was low (0.312, most likely due to the small sample size. However, the results did reveal a trend suggesting that the training improvements were greater for both the SSJ and KSJ groups compared with the CON (by 171% and 107%, respectively although significance was not reached. Conclusions. Due to the observed trend, a replication of this study with a greater number of participants over a longer period of time is warranted.
Fournier, Sara B; Donley, David A; Bonner, Daniel E; Devallance, Evan; Olfert, I Mark; Chantler, Paul D
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with threefold increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, which is partly due to a blunted CV reserve capacity, reflected by a reduced peak exercise left ventricular (LV) contractility and aerobic capacity and a blunted peak arterial-ventricular coupling. To date, no study has examined whether aerobic exercise training in MetS can reverse peak exercise CV dysfunction. Furthermore, examining how exercise training alters CV function in a group of individuals with MetS before the development of diabetes and/or overt CV disease can provide insights into whether some of the pathophysiological CV changes can be delayed/reversed, lowering their CV risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 8 wk of aerobic exercise training in individuals with MetS on resting and peak exercise CV function. Twenty participants with MetS underwent either 8 wk of aerobic exercise training (MetS-ExT, n = 10) or remained sedentary (MetS-NonT, n = 10) during this period. Resting and peak exercise CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange. Exercise training did not alter resting LV diastolic or systolic function and arterial-ventricular coupling in MetS. In contrast, at peak exercise, an increase in LV contractility (40%, P < 0.01), cardiac output (28%, P < 0.05), and aerobic capacity (20%, P < 0.01), but a reduction in vascular resistance (30%, P < 0.05) and arterial-ventricular coupling (27%, P < 0.01), were noted in the MetS-ExT but not in the MetS-NonT group. Furthermore, an improvement in lifetime risk score was also noted in the MetS-ExT group. These findings have clinical importance because they provide insight that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved and can lower the risk of CV disease.
Schoenrath, Felix; Markendorf, Susanne; Brauchlin, Andreas Emil; Frank, Michelle; Wilhelm, Markus Johannes; Saleh, Lanja; Riener, Robert; Schmied, Christian Marc; Falk, Volkmar
The objective of this study was assess robot-assisted gait therapy with the Lokomat® system in heart failure patients. Patients (n = 5) with stable heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 45% completed a four-week aerobic training period with three trainings per week and an integrated dynamic resistance training of the lower limbs. Patients underwent testing of cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers. A cardiopulmonary exercise test, a quality of life score and an evaluation of the muscular strength by measuring the peak quadriceps force was performed. No adverse events occurred. The combined training resulted in an improvement in peak work rate (range: 6% to 36%) and peak quadriceps force (range: 3% to 80%) in all participants. Peak oxygen consumption (range: –3% to + 61%) increased in three, and oxygen pulse (range: –7% to + 44%) in four of five patients. The quality of life assessment indicated better well-being in all participants. NT-ProBNP (+233 to –733 ng/ml) and the inflammatory biomarkers (hsCRP and IL6) decreased in four of five patients (IL 6: +0.5 to –2 mg/l, hsCRP: +0.2 to –6.5 mg/l). Robot-assisted gait therapy with the Lokomat® System is feasible in heart failure patients and was safe in this trial. The combined aerobic and resistance training intervention with augmented feedback resulted in benefits in exercise capacity, muscle strength and quality of life, as well as an improvement of cardiac (NT-ProBNP) and inflammatory (IL6, hsCRP) biomarkers. Results can only be considered as preliminary and need further validation in larger studies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT 02146196)
Kozak, Agnessa; Freitag, Sonja; Nienhaus, Albert
The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate metrologically the effectiveness of a training program on the reduction of stressful trunk postures in geriatric nursing professions. A training program, consisting of instruction on body postures in nursing, practical ergonomic work methods at the bedside or in the bathroom, reorganization of work equipment, and physical exercises, was conducted in 12 wards of 6 nursing homes in Germany. The Computer-Assisted Recording and Long-Term Analysis of Musculoskeletal Loads (CUELA) measurement system was used to evaluate all movements and trunk postures adopted during work before and 6 months after the training program. In total, 23 shifts were measured. All measurements were supported by video recordings. A specific software program (WIDAAN 2.75) was used to synchronize the measurement data and video footage. The median proportion of time spent in sagittal inclinations at an angle of >20° was significantly reduced (by 29%) 6 months after the intervention [from 35.4% interquartile range (27.6-43.1) to 25.3% (20.7-34.1); P 4 s [4.4% (3.0-6.7) to 3.6% (2.5-4.5); P ergonomic measures were implemented properly, either at the bedside or in the bathroom. Stressful trunk postures could be significantly reduced by raising awareness of the physical strains that frequently occur during a shift, by changes in work practices and by redesigning the work environment. Workplace interventions aimed at preventing or reducing low back pain in nursing personnel would probably benefit from sensitizing employees to their postures during work. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.
Brockmeyer, Timo; Ingenerf, Katrin; Walther, Stephan; Wild, Beate; Hartmann, Mechthild; Herzog, Wolfgang; Bents, Hinrich; Friederich, Hans-Christoph
Inefficient cognitive flexibility is considered a neurocognitive trait marker involved in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) is a specific treatment targeting this cognitive style. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy (by estimating the effect size) of specifically tailored CRT for AN, compared to non-specific cognitive training. A prospective, randomized controlled, superiority pilot trial was conducted. Forty women with AN receiving treatment as usual (TAU) were randomized to receive either CRT or non-specific neurocognitive therapy (NNT) as an add-on. Both conditions comprised 30 sessions of computer-assisted (21 sessions) and face-to-face (9 sessions) training over a 3-week period. CRT focused specifically on cognitive flexibility. NNT was comprised of tasks designed to improve attention and memory. The primary outcome was performance on a neuropsychological post-treatment assessment of cognitive set-shifting. Data available from 25 treatment completers were analyzed. Participants in the CRT condition outperformed participants in the NNT condition in cognitive set-shifting at the end of the treatment (p = 0.027; between-groups effect size d = 0.62). Participants in both conditions showed high treatment acceptance. This study confirms the feasibility of CRT for AN, and provides a first estimate of the effect size that can be achieved using CRT for AN. Furthermore, the present findings corroborate that neurocognitive training for AN should be tailored to the specific cognitive inefficiencies of this patient group. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reljic, Dejan; Wittmann, Felix; Fischer, Joachim E
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as an effective and time-efficient exercise strategy for health promotion. However, most HIIT studies are conducted in laboratory settings and evidence regarding the efficacy of time-efficient "low-volume" HIIT is based mainly on demanding "all-out" protocols. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of two low-volume (≤ 30 min time-effort/week), non-all-out HIIT protocols, performed 2 ×/week over 8 weeks in a community-based fitness centre. Thirty-four sedentary men and women were randomised to either 2 × 4-min HIIT (2 × 4-HIIT) or 5 × 1-min HIIT (5 × 1-HIIT) at 85-95% maximal heart rate (HR max ), or an active control group performing moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, 76 min/week) at 65-75% HR max . The exercise protocols were well tolerated and no adverse events occurred. 2 × 4-HIIT and 5 × 1-HIIT exhibited lower dropout rates (17 and 8 vs. 30%) than MICT. All training modes improved VO 2max (2 × 4-HIIT: + 20%, P HIIT: + 27%, P HIIT protocols required 60% less time commitment. Both HIIT protocols and MICT had positive impact on cholesterol profiles. Only 5 × 1-HIIT significantly improved waist circumference (P HIIT can be feasibly implemented in a community-based setting. Moreover, our data suggest that practical (non-all-out) HIIT that requires as little as 30 min/week, either performed as 2 × 4-HIIT or 5 × 1-HIIT, may induce significant improvements in VO 2max and cardiometabolic risk markers.
Rolf J. Bye
Full Text Available The accident levels in helicopter transportation vary between geographical regions and types of operations. In this paper, we develop some hypotheses regarding the factors that may explain this variation. The aim of this paper is to improve safety in helicopter transportation through better understanding of the causes leading to fatal accidents. We provide an analysis of three segments of helicopter transportation in Norway (i.e., offshore transportation; onshore ambulance/police, and onshore transportation. This analysis refers to international research on helicopter accidents. The number of fatal accidents per million flight hours in Norwegian offshore helicopter transportation was 2.8 in 1990–1999 and zero in 2000–2015. In Norwegian onshore helicopter transportation, the fatal accident rate was 13.8 in the period 2000–2012. Twenty-three onshore helicopters crashed to the ground; seven of these crashes were fatal, killing 16 people. It is reasonable to question why there is such a significant difference in accident rates between offshore and onshore helicopter transportation. We have approached this question by comparing how the different segments of helicopter transportation are organized and managed. Our analysis shows that there are major differences both at the “sharp” end (i.e., in actual operations and the “blunt” end (i.e., rules, regulations and organization. This includes differences in regulations, market conditions, work organization (i.e., training, employment conditions, and qualifications of the crews, operations and technology. A central argument is that differences in the market conditions and requirements stipulated by the users explain some of these differences. The same differences can be found internationally. If we use best practice and expert judgments, there is an opportunity to improve helicopter safety through improving the socio-technical system (i.e., organizational issues, improved design, improved
Maschio, Marta; Dinapoli, Loredana; Fabi, Alessandra; Giannarelli, Diana; Cantelmi, Tonino
The aim of this pilot observational study was to evaluate effect of cognitive rehabilitation training (RehabTr) on cognitive performances in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) and cognitive disturbances. Medical inclusion criteria: patients (M/F) ≥ 18 years ≤ 75 with symptomatic seizures due to primary brain tumors or brain metastases in stable treatment with antiepileptic drugs; previous surgical resection or biopsy; >70 Karnofsky Performance Status; stable oncological disease. Eligible patients recruited from 100 consecutive patients with BTRE at first visit to our Center from 2011 to 2012. All recruited patients were administered battery of neuropsychological tests exploring various cognitive domains. Patients considered to have a neuropsychological deficit were those with at least one test score for a given domain indicative of impairment. Thirty patients out of 100 showed cognitive deficits, and were offered participation in RehabTr, of which 16 accepted (5 low grade glioma, 4 high grade glioma, 2 glioblastoma, 2 meningioma and 3 metastases) and 14 declined for various reasons. The RehabTr consisted of one weekly individual session of 1 h, for a total of 10 weeks, carried out by a trained psychologist. The functions trained were: memory, attention, visuo-spatial functions, language and reasoning by means of Training NeuroPsicologico (TNP(®)) software. To evaluate the effect of the RehabTr, the same battery of tests was administered directly after cognitive rehabilitation (T1), and at six-month follow-up (T2). Statistical analysis with Student T test for paired data showed that short-term verbal memory, episodic memory, fluency and long term visuo-spatial memory improved immediately after the T1 and remained stable at T2. At final follow-up all patients showed an improvement in at least one domain that had been lower than normal at baseline. Our results demonstrated a positive effect of rehabilitative training at different times, and, for
Hill, Valerie; Dunn, Leah; Dunning, Kari; Page, Stephen J
Stroke is the leading cause of disability. A need exists for an effective intervention to enhance upper extremity (UE) motor abilities and activities of daily living (ADL) performance. The objectives of this pilot study were to (1) determine the feasibility of adding Interactive Metronome (IM) to an occupational therapy (OT) program; and (2) determine changes in UE impairments, function, quality of life, and perceived physical performance ability and satisfaction using a combined IM + OT regimen compared with OT alone for adults with chronic stroke. This pilot study (n=10) used a 2-group (OT or IM+OT) pretest-posttest design. The intervention involved 60 minutes of IM + OT or OT alone, 3 days a week for 10 weeks. Outcome measures included the UE Fugl-Meyer (impairment), the Arm Motor Ability Test (function), the Box and Block Test (function), Stroke Impact Scale (quality of life), and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (perceived performance ability and satisfaction). It was feasible to add IM to OT. The IM+OT group demonstrated decreased impairment and increased quality of life. However, the OT-alone group demonstrated greater gains in function, perceived physical performance ability, and satisfaction. These findings suggest that rhythm and timing training using the IM is a feasible intervention to consider as part of therapy treatment. However, IM may fit best for prefunctional treatment, as it seemed to primarily decrease impairment. It may also serve as a supplement before or after treatment in order to maximize rehabilitation potential. Clinical implications and suggestions for future studies are provided.
Muller, Jasmin; Handlin, Linda; Harlén, Mikael; Lindmark, Ulrika; Ekström, Anette
eight (p=0.049) and also in the control group between the second and third data collection (p=0.014). The massage and mental training group showed a significant decrease in "Stress Susceptibility" between week four and week eight (p=0.022). The pause group showed a significant increase in the subscale "Detachment" (p=0.044). There were no significant differences between the five study groups for any of the traits studied. However, when looking at each individual group separately, positive effects in their levels of "Anxiety", "Stress Susceptibility" and "Detachment" could be seen. Although the results from this pilot study indicate some positive effects, mechanical chair massage and mental training programmes used in order to increase employee's ability to recover, needs to be evaluated further as tools to increase the employees ability to recover. ACTRN12615000020583 , Date of registration: 15/01/2015.
... Airworthiness Directives; EUROCOPTER FRANCE Model SA330F, SA330G, and SA330J Helicopters AGENCY: Federal... system and the pedals rocking forward. After investigation, it was determined that the Loctite bond on the ``tall pilot'' stop nut was damaged, most likely due to aging of the adhesive. The nut came loose...
.... This finding suggested that the differences of crewstation design needed to be examined. To identify significant differences, this study assessed pilots' attitudes toward traditional and glass cockpit designs in the AH-64 Apache helicopter...
Nowiński, Adam; Romański, Emil; Bieleń, Przemysław; Bednarek, Michał; Puścińska, Elżbieta; Goljan-Geremek, Anna; Pływaczewski, Robert; Śliwinski, Paweł
Office spirometry has been widely used in recent years by general practitioners in primary care setting, thus the need for stricter monitoring of the quality of spirometry has been recognized. A spirometry counseling network of outpatients clinics was created in Poland using portable spirometer Spirotel. The spirometry data were transferred to counseling centre once a week. The tests sent to the counseling centre were analyzed by doctors experienced in the analysis of spirometric data. In justified cases they sent their remarks concerning performed tests to the centres via e-mail. We received 878 records of spirometry tests in total. Data transmission via the telephone was 100% effective. The quality of spirometry tests performed by outpatients clinics was variable. The use of spirometers with data transfer for training purposes seems to be advisable. There is a need to proper face-to-face training of spirometry operators before an implementation of any telemedicine technology.
Ghosh, Anarta; Ameling, Stefan; Zhou, Jiang; Lacey, Gerard; Creamer, Eilish; Dolan, Anthony; Sherlock, Orla; Humphreys, Hilary
A novel artificial intelligence (AI) system (SureWash; GLANTA, Dublin, Ireland) was placed on a ward with 45 staff members for two 6-day periods to automatically assess hand hygiene technique and the potential effectiveness of the automated training system. Two human reviewers assessed videos from 50 hand hygiene events with an interrater reliability (IIR) of 88% (44/50). The IIR was 88% (44/50) for the human reviewers and 80% (40/50) for the software. This study also investigated the poses missed and the impact of feedback on participation (+113%), duration (+11%), and technique (+2.23%). Our findings showed significant correlation between the human raters and the computer, demonstrating for the first time in a clinical setting the potential use of this type of AI technology in hand hygiene training. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Giesbrecht, Edward Mark; Miller, William C; Jin, Boyang Tom; Mitchell, Ian M; Eng, Janice J
Background Alternative and innovative strategies such as mHealth and eLearning are becoming a necessity for delivery of rehabilitation services. For example, older adults who require a wheelchair receive little, if any, training for proficiency with mobility skills. This substantive service gap is due in part to restricted availability of clinicians and challenges for consumers to attend appointments. A research team of occupational therapists and computer scientists engaged clinicians, consu...
progress through training. The Japan study reviewed literature [3-8] and found high-G neck injuries to include the rare compression fractures , herniated... fractures at C7 and C5, widening of the C6-7 interspinous ligament, herniated disc at C5-6 and C6-7, myofascial pain syndrome, and fracture of the C7...Medicine and Rehabilitation , Osteopathic, Chiropractic, Aerospace Medicine Primary, Residency in Aerospace Medicine, and the SUPT, as well as the
DeGutis, Joseph; Grosso, Mallory; VanVleet, Thomas; Esterman, Michael; Pistorino, Laura; Cronin-Golomb, Alice
Individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) commonly demonstrate lateralized spatial biases, which affect daily functioning. Those with PD with initial motor symptoms on the left body side (LPD) have reduced leftward attention whereas PD with initial motor symptoms on the right side (RPD) may display reduced rightward attention. We investigated whether a sustained attention training program could help reduce these spatial biases. Four non-demented individuals with PD (2 LPD/2 RPD) performed a v...
Mailänder, Eva; Mühre, Lea; Barsties, Ben
The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a 3-week training program with the voice therapy "Lax Vox" for teachers. Four healthy female teachers participated as volunteers for the study. Several voice measurements of perception, acoustics, aerodynamics, and self-evaluation were investigated. Furthermore, a survey to rate the applicability of Lax Vox was also part of the study. To assess the treatment effects of the Lax Vox training, an effect size analysis (d unb ) was conducted. After 3 weeks of training, medium and large improvements were found in some parameters of perceptual and acoustic voice quality assessments (d unb >0.50 and d unb >0.80, respectively). Furthermore, medium improvements were revealed in some parameters of self-evaluation (ie, physical and total scale of the Voice Handicap Index) and aerodynamic (ie, maximum phonation time) assessments (all d unb >0.50). Additionally, acoustic measures of vocal function showed an expansion in the upper contour of voice range profiles after training. Particularly, the main improvements in the voice range profile was found in the modal and the beginning of the falsetto voice registers. There was an increase of the intensity levels of about 4.6 dB. No changes were revealed in some acoustic measures of the voice range profile, self-evaluation measurements, and the perception of breathy voice quality (all d unb teachers appears to improve select measures of voice quality, maximum phonation time, vocal function, self-evaluation, and perceived applicability. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hassan, Muhammad Abul; Fraser, Matthew; Conway, Bernard A; Allan, David B; Vuckovic, Aleksandra
Central neuropathic pain has a prevalence of 40% in patients with spinal cord injury. Electroencephalography (EEG) studies showed that this type of pain has identifiable signatures, that could potentially be targeted by a neuromodulation therapy. The aim of the study was to investigate the putative mechanism of neurofeedback training on central neuropathic pain and its underlying brain signatures in patients with chronic paraplegia. Patients' EEG activity was modulated from the sensory-motor cortex, electrode location C3/Cz/C4/P4 in up to 40 training sessions Results. Six out of seven patients reported immediate reduction of pain during neurofeedback training. Best results were achieved with suppressing Ɵ and higher β (20-30 Hz) power and reinforcing α power at C4. Four patients reported clinically significant long-term reduction of pain (>30%) which lasted at least a month beyond the therapy. EEG during neurofeedback revealed a wide spread modulation of power in all three frequency bands accompanied with changes in the coherence most notable in the beta band. The standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis of EEG before and after neurofeedback therapy showed the statistically significant reduction of power in beta frequency band in all tested patients. Areas with reduced power included the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and the Insular Cortex. Neurofeedback training produces both immediate and longer term reduction of central neuropathic pain that is accompanied with a measurable short and long term modulation of cortical activity. Controlled trials are required to confirm the efficacy of this neurofeedback protocol on treatment of pain. The study is a registered UKCRN clinical trial Nr 9824.
Schachten, Tobias; Jansen, Petra
Stroke is the most common neurological disease and the primary cause of lifelong disability in industrialized countries. Because of this it is important to investigate any kind of successful therapy. From the 24 recruited stroke patients who were between 23 and 72 years old, 14 patients were separated either in a golf training group (EG), or a social communication meeting (CG). Both groups met for one hour sessions, twice a week, for ten weeks. All participants completed assessment tests before and after the experimental period: cognitive tests measuring attention (Go/No-Go task), visual-spatial memory (Block-Tapping test) and mental rotation performance (MRT); a balance test (Berg Balance Scale), and an emotional well-being test (CES-D-Scale). The results show that both groups improved in the CES Scale, the block-tapping test and the balance test. In addition, stroke patients who received a golf training showed a significant improvement in the MRT comparing to the control group (CG). It is indicated that golf training can improve visual imagery ability in stroke patients, even late after stroke.
Bristowe, Katherine; Shepherd, Kate; Bryan, Liz; Brown, Heather; Carey, Irene; Matthews, Beverley; O'Donoghue, Donal; Vinen, Katie; Murtagh, Fliss E M
In recent years, the End-Stage Kidney Disease population has increased and is ever more frail, elderly and co-morbid. A care-focused approach needs to be incorporated alongside the disease focus, to identify those who are deteriorating and improve communication about preferences and future care. Yet many renal professionals feel unprepared for such discussions. To develop and pilot a REnal specific Advanced Communication Training (REACT) programme to address the needs of End-Stage Kidney Disease patients and renal professionals. Two-part study: (1) development of the REnal specific Advanced Communication Training programme informed by multi-professional focus group and patient survey and (2) piloting of the programme. The REnal specific Advanced Communication Training programme was piloted with 16 participants (9 renal nurses/health-care assistants and 7 renal consultants) in two UK teaching hospitals. The focus group identified the need for better information about end-of-life phase, improved awareness of patient perspectives, skills to manage challenging discussions, 'hands on' practice in a safe environment and follow-up to discuss experiences. The patient survey demonstrated a need to improve communication about concerns, treatment plans and decisions. The developed REnal specific Advanced Communication Training programme was acceptable and feasible and was associated with a non-significant increase in confidence in communicating about end-of-life issues (pre-training: 6.6/10, 95% confidence interval: 5.7-7.4; post-training: 6.9/10, 95% confidence interval: 6.1-7.7, unpaired t-test - p = 0.56), maintained at 3 months. There is a need to improve end-of-life care for End-Stage Kidney Disease patients, to enable them to make informed decisions about future care. Challenges include prioritising communication training among service providers.
Figure 3. Graphical representation of Baston and Bostock ................. 10 Figure 4. Dips and Speed Circle...dimen.ional helicopter submarine gaines studied by Meinardi [Ref. 7] and more recently by Baston and Bostock [Ref. 8]. Meinardi solves a discr,-te form of...the game while Baston and Bostock solve the continuous case. Bes.ides Danskin’s game, not much work has been done on the two dimensional case except
Kraemer, Kristen M; Luberto, Christina M; O'Bryan, Emily M; Mysinger, Erica; Cotton, Sian
Medical students face rigorous and stressful work environments, resulting in high rates of psychological distress. However, there has been a dearth of empirical work aimed at modifying risk factors for psychopathology among this at-risk group. Distress tolerance, defined as the ability to withstand emotional distress, is one factor that may be important in promoting psychological well-being in medical students. Thus, the aim of the current mixed-methods study was (a) to describe changes in facets of distress tolerance (i.e., emotional tolerance, absorption, appraisal, regulation) for medical students who completed a mind-body skills training group, and a no-intervention control group of students; (b) to examine the relationship between changes in psychological variables and changes in distress tolerance; and (c) to report students' perceptions of the mind-body group, with an emphasis on how the group may have affected personal and professional functioning due to improvements in distress tolerance. The mind-body program was an 11-week, 2-hour skills training group that focused on introducing, practicing, and processing mind-body skills such as biofeedback, guided imagery, relaxation, several forms of meditation (e.g., mindfulness), breathing exercises, and autogenic training. Participants were 52 first- and second-year medical students (62.7% female, Mage = 23.45, SD = 1.51) who participated in a mind-body group or a no-intervention control group and completed self-report measures before and after the 11-week period. Students in the mind-body group showed a modest improvement in all distress tolerance subscales over time (ΔM = .42-.53, p = .01-.03, d = .44-.53), whereas the control group showed less consistent changes across most subscales (ΔM = .11-.42, p = .10-.65, d = .01-.42). Students in the mind-body group qualitatively reported an improved ability to tolerate affective distress. Overall, improvements in psychological symptoms were associated with
Groener, J B; Neus, I; Kopf, S; Hartmann, M; Schanz, J; Kliemank, E; Wetekam, B; Kihm, L; Fleming, T; Herzog, W; Nawroth, P P
Comprehensive diabetes treatment has been shown to reduce quality of life in diabetic patients. However, there is evidence to suggest that group singing can have positive effects on quality of life in various clinical settings. In this randomized controlled pilot study, the effect of singing as a therapy to reduce stress and improve quality of life was investigated in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, undergoing a lifestyle intervention program. Patients from the singing group felt less discontented following treatment. This effect, however, was lost after 3 months. No effect on serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels could be seen when comparing the singing group with the control group, although reduced levels of ACTH and cortisol 3 days after treatment could be found and were still present after 3 months within the group of patients who undertook singing as a therapy. Singing led to an increase in bodyweight, which interestingly had no effect on glucose control or methylglyoxal levels. Therefore, singing during a lifestyle intervention program for insulin-dependent diabetic patients had a short lasting and weak effect on patients' mood without affecting glucose control, but no significant effect on stress related hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoarthritis (OA of the hip is one of the major causes of pain and disability in the older population. Although exercise is an effective treatment for knee OA, there is lack of evidence regarding hip OA. The aim of this trial was to test the safety and feasibility of a specifically designed exercise program in relieving hip pain and improving function in hip OA participants and to evaluate various methods to measure changes in their physical functioning. Materials and Methods. 13 women aged ≥ 65 years with hip OA were recruited in this 12-week pilot study. Results. Pain declined significantly over 30% from baseline, and joint function and health-related quality of life improved slightly. Objective assessment of physical functioning showed statistically significant improvement in the maximal isometric leg extensor strength by 20% and in the hip extension range of motion by 30%. Conclusions. The exercise program was found to be safe and feasible. The present evidence indicates that the exercise program is effective in the short term. However, adequate powered RCTs are needed to determine effects of long-term exercise therapy on pain and progression of hip OA.
Dold, Simone K; Schmölzer, Georg M; Kelm, Marcus; Davis, Peter G; Schmalisch, Gerd; Roehr, Charles Christoph
Effective neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) requires 3:1 coordinated manual inflations (MI) and chest compressions (CC). We hypothesized that playing a musical prompt would help coordinate CC and MI during CPR. In this pilot trial we studied the effect the "Radetzkymarsch" (110 beats per minute) on neonatal CPR. Thirty-six medical professionals performed CPR on a neonatal manikin. CC and MI were recorded with and without the music played, using a respiratory function monitor and a tally counter. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon test. Without music, the median (interquartile range) rate of CC was 115 (100 to 129) per minute and the rate of MI was 38 (32 to 42) per minute. When listening to the auditory prompt, the rate of CC decreased significantly to 96 (96 to 100) per minute (p = 0.002) and the rate of MI to 32 (30 to 34) per minute (p = 0.001). The interquartile range of interoperator variability decreased up to 86%. Listening to an auditory prompt improved compliance with the recommended delivery rates of CC and MI during neonatal CPR. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
.... In order to reinforce instruction in spatial disorientation (SD) within the environment in which they operate, British Army Air Corps helicopter pilots also receive an airborne demonstration of the limitations of their orientation senses...
NASA test pilot Don Mallick, in full pressure suit, stands in front of the YF-12A (60-6935). Don is ready for a flight across the Western United States. Donald L. Mallick joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics' Langley Aeronautical Laboratory at Hampton, Virginia, as a research pilot, in June 1957. He transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in February 1963. Mallick attended Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, for the period 1948-1949, studying Mechanical Engineering before entering the U.S. Navy for pilot training. Don served during the Korean War period, 1950-1954, flying F2H-2 Banshee jets from the carriers, USS F.D. Roosevelt and the USS Wasp. Later in 1954 he returned to school at the University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, graduating with Honors in June 1957 and earning his degree in aeronautical engineering. Don joined the Naval Reserves and served in almost all categories of Reserve operations before retiring in 1970 as a Lieutenant Commander. As a research pilot at NACA-NASA Langley Don flew quantitative stability-&-control and handling-qualities tests on modified helicopters. On the Vertol VZ-2 Vertical Short Take-off and Landing research aircraft, he performed qualitative evaluation flights. Other aircraft flown for flight tests were: F2H-1 Banshee, F-86D, F9F-2 and F8U-3, F11F-1 Tigercat, and F-100C. Don also flew support and photo flights. In his capacity as research pilot at the NASA Flight Research Center Don was assigned to NASA's Lockheed Jetstar General Purpose Airborne Simulator (GPAS). He flew all of the tests, with the majority being as project pilot. Mallick made a flight in the lightweight M2-F1 lifting body on January 30, 1964. In 1964, Don was assigned to and completed the USAF Test pilot school, Class 64A. Later in 1964, he flew as the co-project pilot on the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle (LLRV) making over seventy
Alber, Raimund; Moser, Hermann; Gall, Carolin; Sabel, Bernhard A
Visual field defects after posterior cerebral artery stroke can be improved by vision restoration training (VRT), but when combined with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which alters brain excitability, vision recovery can be potentiated in the chronic stage. To date, the combination of VRT and tDCS has not been evaluated in postacute stroke rehabilitation. To determine whether combined tDCS and VRT can be effectively implemented in the early recovery phase following stroke, and to explore the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an early intervention. Open-label pilot study including a case series of 7 tDCS/VRT versus a convenience sample of 7 control patients (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02935413). Rehabilitation center. Patients with homonymous visual field defects following a posterior cerebral artery stroke. Seven homonymous hemianopia patients were prospectively treated with 10 sessions of combined tDCS (2.mA, 10 daily sessions of 20 minutes) and VRT at 66 (±50) days on average poststroke. Visual field recovery was compared with the retrospective data of 7 controls, whose defect sizes and age of lesions were matched to those of the experimental subjects and who had received standard rehabilitation with compensatory eye movement and exploration training. All 7 patients in the treatment group completed the treatment protocol. The safety and acceptance were excellent, and patients reported occasional skin itching beneath the electrodes as the only minor side effect. Irrespective of their treatment, both groups (treatment and control) showed improved visual fields as documented by an increased mean sensitivity threshold in decibels in standard static perimetry. Recovery was significantly greater (P stroke was demonstrated to be safe, with excellent applicability and acceptance of the treatment. Preliminary effectiveness calculations show that tDCS/VRT may be superior to standard vision training procedures. A confirmatory, larger-sample, controlled
Grote, Silvie; Almstedt, Hawley C; Tarleton, Heather P
To explore the feasibility of combined aerobic and resistance training (CART) as a safe method of improving cardiometabolic health among cancer survivors. . Descriptive and longitudinal pilot study for exercise intervention. . University campus in Los Angeles, California. . A multiethnic population of cancer survivors (N = 11) was recruited by convenience sampling and physician referral. . Consenting participants were prescribed CART for one hour per day, three days per week for 13 weeks. . Components of cardiometabolic health were measured, including resting heart rate (HRrest), blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, and android fat percentage at baseline and after 13 weeks of training. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein (CRP) also were assessed at baseline and after 13 weeks of training. . More than half of the participants reported living with at least two other chronic diseases or conditions in addition to a cancer diagnosis. Five of six African American and Hispanic participants reported the presence of at least two risk factors for metabolic syndrome, compared to one of five Caucasian participants. After 13 weeks of training, participants experienced an average decrease in waist circumference. Decrease in waist circumference was associated with a decrease in CRP. A relationship also was suggested between number of exercise sessions attended and improvement in HRrest. . A CART intervention among cancer survivors should continue to be explored in a larger sample to establish efficacy and effectiveness at improving cardiometabolic health. Because of the higher risk of comorbidity among cancer survivors in comparison to cancer-free adults, improving cardiometabolic health is as important as monitoring cancer recurrence. A need exists for increased attention to the post-treatment cardiometabolic health of cancer survivors and also for examining
Full Text Available This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO 2 max: 57.7±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1 and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB, Reaction Time index (RTI and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP tests and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG were assessed: before Ramadan (BR, in the 1st week (RA1 and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4, and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR. Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE method and wellness (Hooper index were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4, together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East.
Chamari, K; Briki, W; Farooq, A; Patrick, T; Belfekih, T; Herrera, C P
This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO2max: 57.7±5.6 ml kg(-1)·min(-1)) and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Reaction Time index (RTI) and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) tests) and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG) were assessed: before Ramadan (BR), in the 1st week (RA1) and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4), and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR). Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL) by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method and wellness (Hooper index) were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4), together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index) reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East.
Stanton, Rosalyn; Ada, Louise; Dean, Catherine M; Preston, Elisabeth
The ability to stand up is reduced following stroke. Traditional biofeedback is effective in improving the performance of lower limb activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of and potential for information feedback from a simple inexpensive device to improve the ability to stand up from a chair in people following stroke. A single-group study with pre-post measures design was used. Twenty people with hemiplegic stroke in inpatient rehabilitation received 10 sessions over 2 weeks of information feedback about foot placement during training of standing up. Progression involved increasing repetitions, increasing difficulty and fading feedback. Feasibility was determined by adherence, time taken, acceptability and safety. Clinical outcomes were the time taken to stand up, quality and foot position measured using the 5-Times-Sit-To-Stand-Test and carryover into daily activities measured by covert observation. The study was feasible with 97% of sessions completed, taking 19 (SD 6) to 25 (SD 10) minutes. Participants understood (4.6/5), found useful (4.6/5), challenging (4.4/5) and would recommend (4.7/5) the training. The time to stand up 5 times decreased by 24 (95% CI -48 to -1) s, and the quality of standing improved by 1.0/10.0 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.8). Carryover of the correct foot placement occurred to real life, with the beginning foot position correct 2.1/3.0 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.6) and end foot position correct 1.8/3.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.4) occasions. The training is feasible and has the potential to improve the ability to stand up.
Full Text Available Sechang Oh,1 Takashi Shida,1 Akemi Sawai,1 Tsuyoshi Maruyama,2 Kiyoshi Eguchi,2 Tomonori Isobe,1 Yoshikazu Okamoto,3 Noriko Someya,4 Kiyoji Tanaka,4 Emi Arai,1 Akiko Tozawa,5 Junichi Shoda1 1Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 2Department of Rehabilitation, Tsukuba University Hospital, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 5Protea Japan Co Ltd, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan Background: While aerobic training is generally recommended as therapeutic exercise in guidelines, the effectiveness of resistance training has recently been reported in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Acceleration training (AT is a new training method that provides a physical stimulation effect on skeletal muscles by increasing gravitational acceleration with vibration. AT has recently been indicated as a component of medicine. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of AT in the management of NAFLD in obese subjects.Methods: A total of 18 obese patients with NAFLD who had no improvement in liver function test abnormalities and/or steatosis grade after 12 weeks of lifestyle counseling were enrolled in an AT program. These patients attended a 20-minute session of AT twice a week for 12 consecutive weeks.Results: During the AT program, the NAFLD patients showed a modest increase in the strength (+12.6% and cross-sectional area (+3.1% of the quadriceps, coupled with a significant reduction in intramyocellular lipids (−26.4%. Notably, they showed a modest reduction in body weight (−1.9%, abdominal visceral fat area (−3.4%, and hepatic fat content (−8.7%, coupled with a significant reduction in levels of aminotransferase (−15.7%, γ-glutamyltransferase (−14.4%, leptin (−9.7%, interleukin-6 (−26.8%, and tumor necrosis factor-α (−17.9%, and a significant increase of adiponectin (+8.7%. On a health
Levinger, Pazit; Dunn, Jeremy; Bifera, Nancy; Butson, Michael; Elias, George; Hill, Keith D
The number of falls experienced by people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is almost double the number experienced by people with no OA. The neuromuscular elements required to arrest a fall are more impaired in people with knee OA compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. Therefore, these elements may need to be incorporated into an exercise intervention to reduce the risk of falling. The aim of this study will be to examine the feasibility, safety and patient satisfaction of a high-speed resistance-training program, with and without balance exercises, in people with knee OA compared to a control group. The effect of these exercise programs on lower-limb muscle strength and physiological and functional risk factors for falls will also be examined. This study will be a pilot randomized controlled trial with a pre- and post-intervention design (outcome assessments at baseline and 8 weeks after participation commencement) comparing three groups: a control group (no intervention), a high-speed resistance-training group and a high-speed resistance-training plus balance exercises group. Thirty people with knee osteoarthritis aged 60-90 years will be recruited and randomized to one of the three groups. Feasibility and safety will be assessed by examining adherence to the exercise program, dropout rate, pain level during and following exercise, number of exercises stopped due to pain, and any adverse event or any incident that prevents the participant from completing the prescribed exercise. Secondary measures of lower-limb strength, physical function, self-reported pain and function, fear of falls, and executive function and quality of life will also be assessed. To determine statistical trends of effectiveness and hence to inform sample size for a fully powered study, analyses of the secondary outcomes will be performed to assess the changes within and between groups over time (pre-post) using repeated measure ANOVA. The results of this study will improve understanding
Brook, Christopher D; Platt, Michael P; Russell, Kimberly; Grillone, Gregory A; Aliphas, Avner; Noordzij, J Pieter
To determine the progression of flexible transnasal laryngoscopy reliability and competency in otolaryngology residency training. Prospective case control study. Academic otolaryngology department. Medical students, otolaryngology residents, and otolaryngology attending physicians. Fourteen otolaryngology residents from PGY-1 to PGY-5 and 3 attending otolaryngologists viewed 25 selected and digitally recorded flexible transnasal laryngoscopies. The evaluators were asked to rate 13 items relating to abnormalities in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and subglottis. The level of concern and level of comfort with the diagnosis were assessed. Intraclass correlations were calculated for each topic and by level of training to determine reliability within each class and compare competency versus attending interpretations. Intraclass correlation of residents compared to attending physicians demonstrated significant improvements by year for left and right vocal fold immobility, subglottic stenosis, laryngeal mass, left and right vocal cord abnormalities, and level of concern. Additionally, pooled vocal cord mobility and pooled results in categories with good attending reliability demonstrated stepwise improvement as well. For these categories, resident reliability was found to be statistically similar to attending physicians in all categories by PGY-3. There were no trends for base of tongue abnormalities, pharyngeal abnormalities, and pharyngeal and hypopharyngeal masses. Resident competency for flexible transnasal laryngoscopy progresses during residency to reliability with attending otolaryngologists by the PGY-3 year over key facets of the examination. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Full Text Available Maarit Virta1,2, Anita Salakari1, Mervi Antila1, Esa Chydenius1, Markku Partinen1, Markus Kaski1, Risto Vataja3, Hely Kalska2, Matti Iivanainen11Rinnekoti Research Centre, Espoo, Finland; 2Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland; 3Kellokoski Hospital, Kellokoski, FinlandAbstract: In clinical practice, a growing need exists for effective non-pharmacological treatments of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Here, we present the results of a pilot study of 10 adults with ADHD participating in short-term individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, 9 adults participating in cognitive training (CT, and 10 controls. Self-report questionnaires, independent evaluations, and computerized neurocognitive testing were collected before and after the treatments to evaluate change. There were distinctive pre-hypotheses regarding the treatments, and therefore the statistical comparisons were conducted in pairs: CBT vs control, CT vs control, and CBT vs CT. In a combined ADHD symptom score based on self-reports, 6 participants in CBT, 2 in CT and 2 controls improved. Using independent evaluations, improvement was found in 7 of the CBT participants, 2 of CT participants and 3 controls. There was no treatment-related improvement in cognitive performance. Thus, in the CBT group, some encouraging improvement was seen, although not as clearly as in previous research with longer interventions. In the CT group, there was improvement in the trained tasks but no generalization of the improvement to the tasks of the neurocognitive testing, the self-report questionnaires, or the independent evaluations. These preliminary results warrant further studies with more participants and with more elaborate cognitive testing.Keywords: CBT, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, cognitive testing, non-pharmacological treatments
Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Lee, Sangwoo; Wang, Chien-Chun; Lee, Po-Fu; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang
Background Aging is associated with decreased balance, which increases falling risk. The objective of the current study was to determine the feasibility and effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on knee extensor muscle power, limits of stability, and sit-to-stand performance among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults in the United States. Methods A randomized pilot study with participant blinding was conducted. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment and compliance rate....
Mikami, Amori Yee; Lerner, Matthew D.; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; McGrath, Alison; Calhoun, Casey D.
We report findings from a pilot intervention that trained parents to be “friendship coaches” for their children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Parents of 62 children with ADHD (ages 6–10; 68% male) were randomly assigned to receive the parental friendship coaching (PFC) intervention, or to be in a no-treatment control group. Families of 62 children without ADHD were included as normative comparisons. PFC was administered in eight, 90-minute sessions to parents; there wa...
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major, and increasing, global problem. However, it has been shown that, through good management of blood glucose levels (BGLs, the associated and costly complications can be reduced significantly. In this pilot study, Elman recurrent artificial neural networks (ANNs were used to make BGL predictions based on a history of BGLs, meal intake, and insulin injections. Twenty-eight datasets (from a single case scenario were compiled from the freeware mathematical diabetes simulator, AIDA. It was found that the most accurate predictions were made during the nocturnal period of the 24 hour daily cycle. The accuracy of the nocturnal predictions was measured as the root mean square error over five test days (RMSE5 day not used during ANN training. For BGL predictions of up to 1 hour a RMSE5 day of (±SD 0.15±0.04 mmol/L was observed. For BGL predictions up to 10 hours, a RMSE5 day of (±SD 0.14±0.16 mmol/L was observed. Future research will investigate a wider range of AIDA case scenarios, real-patient data, and data relating to other factors influencing BGLs. ANN paradigms based on real-time recurrent learning will also be explored to accommodate dynamic physiology in diabetes.
Stories of "helicopter parents" abound. But several longtime student-affairs officials agree that while helicopter parents are real, their numbers--and behaviors--have been exaggerated. Parental involvement on campus, they say, is usually more of a help than a headache, for students and colleges alike. Some officials believe colleges must do even…
...) Loose gear and objects. Every practical precaution shall be taken to provide for the protection of the employees from flying objects in the rotor downwash. All loose gear within 100 feet of the place of lifting... manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter. If, for any reason, the helicopter operator...
McKenna, T.J.; Martin, J.A. Jr.; Giitter, J.G.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Watkins
Overview and Summary of Major Points is the first in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes elementary perspectives on severe accidents and accident assessment. Other volumes in the series are: Volume 2-Severe Reactor Accident Overview; Volume 3- Response of Licensee and State and Local Officials; Volume 4-Public Protective Actions-Predetermined Criteria and Initial Actions; Volume 5 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. The volumes have been organized into these training modules to accommodate the scheduling and duty needs of participating NRC staff. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material
Forrester, Larry W; Roy, Anindo; Krywonis, Amanda; Kehs, Glenn; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F
BACKGROUND. Modular lower extremity robotics may offer a valuable avenue for restoring neuromotor control after hemiparetic stroke. Prior studies show that visually guided and visually evoked practice with an ankle robot (anklebot) improves paretic ankle motor control that translates into improved overground walking. To assess the feasibility and efficacy of daily anklebot training during early subacute hospitalization poststroke. Thirty-four inpatients from a stroke unit were randomly assigned to anklebot (n = 18) or passive manual stretching (n = 16) treatments. All suffered a first stroke with residual hemiparesis (ankle manual muscle test grade 1/5 to 4/5), and at least trace muscle activation in plantar- or dorsiflexion. Anklebot training employed an "assist-as-needed" approach during >200 volitional targeted paretic ankle movements, with difficulty adjusted to active range of motion and success rate. Stretching included >200 daily mobilizations in these same ranges. All sessions lasted 1 hour and assessments were not blinded. Both groups walked faster at discharge; however, the robot group improved more in percentage change of temporal symmetry (P = .032) and also of step length symmetry (P = .038), with longer nonparetic step lengths in the robot (133%) versus stretching (31%) groups. Paretic ankle control improved in the robot group, with increased peak (P ≤ .001) and mean (P ≤ .01) angular speeds, and increased movement smoothness (P ≤ .01). There were no adverse events. Though limited by small sample size and restricted entry criteria, our findings suggest that modular lower extremity robotics during early subacute hospitalization is well tolerated and improves ankle motor control and gait patterning. © The Author(s) 2014.
Forrester, Larry W.; Roy, Anindo; Krywonis, Amanda; Kehs, Glenn; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F.
Background Modular lower extremity (LE) robotics may offer a valuable avenue for restoring neuromotor control after hemiparetic stroke. Prior studies show that visually-guided and visually-evoked practice with an ankle robot (anklebot) improves paretic ankle motor control that translates into improved overground walking. Objective Assess the feasibility and efficacy of daily anklebot training during early sub-acute hospitalization post-stroke. Methods Thirty-four inpatients from a stroke unit were randomly assigned to anklebot (N=18) or passive manual stretching (N=16) treatments. All suffered a first stroke with residual hemiparesis (ankle manual muscle test grade 1/5 to 4/5), and at least trace muscle activation in plantar- or dorsiflexion. Anklebot training employed an “assist-as-needed” approach during > 200 volitional targeted paretic ankle movements, with difficulty adjusted to active range of motion and success rate. Stretching included >200 daily mobilizations in these same ranges. All sessions lasted 1 hour and assessments were not blinded. Results Both groups walked faster at discharge, however the robot group improved more in percent change of temporal symmetry (p=0.032) and also of step length symmetry (p=0.038), with longer nonparetic step lengths in the robot (133%) vs. stretching (31%) groups. Paretic ankle control improved in the robot group, with increased peak (p≤ 0.001) and mean (p≤ 0.01) angular speeds, and increased movement smoothness (p≤ 0.01). There were no adverse events. Conclusion Though limited by small sample size and restricted entry criteria, our findings suggest that modular lower extremity robotics during early sub-acute hospitalization is well tolerated and improves ankle motor control and gait patterning. PMID:24515923
Brandon, Thomas H; Unrod, Marina; Drobes, David J; Sutton, Steven K; Hawk, Larry W; Simmons, Vani N; Brandon, Karen O; Roetzheim, Richard G; Meltzer, Lauren R; Miller, Ralph R; Cahill, Shawn P
Varenicline reduces smoking satisfaction during the pre-cessation run-in period, which may contribute to extinction of cravings and smoking behavior. Research indicates that efficacy is enhanced when the run-in period is increased from 1 to 4 weeks, providing a longer extinction opportunity. We hypothesized that efficacy could be further enhanced by harnessing basic and applied research on extinction. We developed a pre-cessation extinction-facilitating intervention and tested its feasibility in a pilot trial. The Facilitated Extinction (FE) intervention comprised brief counseling and a workbook recommending strategies to maximize extinction processes during the run-in, including instructions to smoke at a normal rate across contexts and cues, and use of an extinction cue to enhance generalization. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 varenicline interventions: standard (1-week run-in), extended (4-week run-in), and extended + FE. Interventions were delivered prior to the target quit date (TQD). Assessments were conducted in weeks 1 and 4 pre-TQD and 1 and 3 months post-TQD, with focus on feasibility indices. Recruitment and retention goals were met (N=58). Treatment satisfaction was high across groups. The majority of FE participants adhered to instructions and maintained their usual smoking rate during the run-in period. Greater decreases in craving and smoking satisfaction were observed among participants in both extended groups versus the standard group (p's<.005). Feasibility was demonstrated. Participants adhered to the FE intervention, thereby optimizing the number and variety of extinction trials. Findings support testing the novel FE smoking cessation intervention in a fully-powered trial. This study expands the research on the clinical benefits of extending the pre-cessation run-in period of varenicline. It introduces the hypothesis that further benefit might be achieved by translating basic behavioral research, as well as cue-exposure research
Bukowska, Anna A; Krężałek, Piotr; Mirek, Elżbieta; Bujas, Przemysław; Marchewka, Anna
Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive condition with gait disturbance and balance disorder as the main symptoms. Previous research studies focused on the application of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) in PD gait rehabilitation. The key hypothesis of this pilot study, however, assumes the major role of the combination of all three Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) sensorimotor techniques in improving spatio-temporal gait parameters, and postural stability in the course of PD. The 55 PD-diagnosed subjects invited to the study were divided into two groups: 30 in the experimental and 25 in the control group. Inclusion criteria included Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 or 3, the ability to walk independently without any aid and stable pharmacological treatment for the duration of the experiment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the chosen therapy procedure the following measures were applied: Optoelectrical 3D Movement Analysis, System BTS Smart for gait, and Computerized Dynamic Posturography CQ Stab for stability and balance. All measures were conducted both before and after the therapy cycle. The subjects from the experimental group attended music therapy sessions four times a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP), Pattern Sensory Enhancement (PSE) and RAS were used in every 45-min session for practicing daily life activities, balance, pre-gait, and gait pattern. Percussion instruments, the metronome and rhythmic music were the basis for each session. The subjects from the control group were asked to stay active and perform daily life activities between the measures. The research showed that the combination of the three NMT sensorimotor techniques can be used to improve gait and other rhythmical activities in PD rehabilitation. The results demonstrated significant improvement in the majority of the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. In the stability tests with eyes
Held, Philip; Owens, Gina P
The present pilot study examined the effects of a 4-week-long self-administered self-compassion training on trauma-related guilt and compared it to a stress inoculation control group. A total of 47 homeless male veterans who were living in transitional housing facilities volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to either a self-compassion (N = 13) or a stress inoculation (N = 14) group and were asked to complete pre-, mid-, and postintervention assessments measuring changes in self-compassion, trauma-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress disorder severity. Participants in both interventions reported increased levels of self-compassion and equal reductions in trauma-related guilt. No other significant changes were noted. The results from this pilot study provide preliminary evidence for the use of self-compassion and stress inoculation trainings as effective interventions for trauma-related guilt. The findings also suggest that self-administered trainings in the form of workbooks may be a viable, cost-effective form of intervention for disadvantaged populations, such as homeless veterans in transitional housing, who may lack resources or access to professionals or paraprofessionals. The effects of both self-compassion training and stress inoculation training on the study variables and directions for future research on self-compassion and trauma-related guilt are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter deck fueling operations. 108.487 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.487 Helicopter deck fueling operations. (a) Each helicopter landing deck on which fueling operations are...
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling facilities. 108.489 Section 108.489... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.489 Helicopter fueling facilities. (a) Each helicopter fueling facility must have a fire protection system that...
The illustrated manual includes information on various aspects of helicopter rescue missions, including mission management roles for key personnel, safety rules around helicopters, requests for helicopter support, sample military air support forms, selection of landing zones, helicopter evacuations, rescuer delivery, passenger unloading, crash…
The primary usefulness of helicopters shows in missions where regular aircraft cannot be used, especially HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Services). This might be due to requirements for landing in unprepared areas without dedicated runway structures, and an extended exibility to y to more than one previously unprepared target. One example of such missions are search and rescue operations. An important task of such a mission is to locate a proper landing spot near the mission target. Usually, the pilot would have to evaluate possible landing sites by himself, which can be time-intensive, fuel-costly, and generally impossible when operating in degraded visual environments. We present a method for pre-selecting a list of possible landing sites. After specifying the intended size, orientation and geometry of the site, a choice of possibilities is presented to the pilot that can be ordered by means of wind direction, terrain constraints like maximal slope and roughness, and proximity to a mission target. The possible choices are calculated automatically either from a pre-existing terrain data base, or from sensor data collected during earlier missions, e.g., by collecting data with radar or laser sensors. Additional data like water-body maps and topological information can be taken into account to avoid landing in dangerous areas under adverse view conditions. In case of an emergency turnaround the list can be re-ordered to present alternative sites to the pilot. We outline the principle algorithm for selecting possible landing sites, and we present examples of calculated lists.
V. K. Hohlov
Full Text Available The article concerns the adaptation of a neural tract that recognizes a helicopter from the aerodynamic and ground objects by its acoustic radiation to the helicopter flight speed. It uses non-centered informative signs-indications of estimating signal spectra, which correspond to the local extremes (maximums and minimums of the power spectrum of input signal and have the greatest information when differentiating the helicopter signals from those of tracked vehicles. The article gives justification to the principle of the neural network (NN adaptation and adaptation block structure, which solves problems of blade passage frequency estimation when capturing the object and track it when tracking a target, as well as forming a signal to control the resonant filter parameters of the selection block of informative signs. To create the discriminatory characteristics of the discriminator are used autoregressive statistical characteristics of the quadrature components of signal, obtained through the discrete Hilbert Converter (DGC that perforMathematical modeling of the tracking meter using the helicopter signals obtained in real conditions is performed. The article gives estimates of the tracking parameter when using a tracking meter with DGC by sequential records of realized acoustic noise of the helicopter. It also shows a block-diagram of the adaptive NN. The scientific novelty of the work is that providing the invariance of used informative sign, the counts of local extremes of power spectral density (PSD to changes in the helicopter flight speed is reached due to adding the NN structure and adaptation block, which is implemented as a meter to track the apparent passage frequency of the helicopter rotor blades using its relationship with a function of the autoregressive acoustic signal of the helicopter.Specialized literature proposes solutions based on the use of training classifiers with different parametric methods of spectral representations
Novakovic-Agopian, Tatjana; Chen, Anthony J-W; Rome, Scott; Abrams, Gary; Castelli, Holli; Rossi, Annemarie; McKim, Ryan; Hills, Nancy; D'Esposito, Mark
To assess feasibility and effects of training in goal-oriented attentional self-regulation for patients with brain injury and chronic executive dysfunction. Sixteen individuals with chronic brain injury and mild to moderate executive dysfunction. Participants were divided into 2 groups: one group completed goal-oriented attentional self-regulation training during the first 5 weeks, followed by a brief (2-hour) educational instruction session as a control midway through the second 5 weeks; the other group participated in reverse order. Neuropsychological and functional performance assessed at baseline and at weeks 5 and 10. Participants found training in goal-oriented attentional self-regulation engaging, incorporated some trained strategies into daily life, and reported subjective improvements in personal functioning. At week 5, participants who completed goals training significantly improved on tests of attention and executive function and had fewer functional task failures, while performance did not change after educational instruction. At week 10, participants who crossed over from educational instruction to goals training also significantly improved on attention and executive function tests. Participants who crossed from goals training to educational instruction maintained their week 5 gains. Training in goal-oriented attentional self-regulation is theoretically driven and feasible in a research setting. Pilot results suggest improvements in cognitive and functional domains targeted by the intervention.
Reddick, H. K., Jr.
The safe-life and damage-tolerant design approaches discussed apply to both metallic and fibrous composite helicopter structures. The application of these design approaches to fibrous composite structures is emphasized. Safe-life and damage-tolerant criteria are applied to all helicopter flight critical components, which are generally categorized as: dynamic components with a main and tail rotor system, which includes blades, hub and rotating controls, and drive train which includes transmission, and main and interconnecting rotor shafts; and the airframe, composed of the fuselage, aerodynamic surfaces, and landing gear.
Hopper, Calvin Mitchell
In May 1973 the University of New Mexico conducted the first nationwide criticality safety training and education week-long short course for nuclear criticality safety engineers. Subsequent to that course, the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) developed very successful 'hands-on' subcritical and critical training programs for operators, supervisors, and engineering staff. Since the inception of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCT and SP) in 1983, the DOE has stimulated contractor facilities and laboratories to collaborate in the furthering of nuclear criticality as a discipline. That effort included the education and training of nuclear criticality safety engineers (NCSEs). In 1985 a textbook was written that established a path toward formalizing education and training for NCSEs. Though the NCT and SP went through a brief hiatus from 1990 to 1992, other DOE-supported programs were evolving to the benefit of NCSE training and education. In 1993 the DOE established a Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) and undertook a comprehensive development effort to expand the extant LACEF 'hands-on' course specifically for the education and training of NCSEs. That successful education and training was interrupted in 2006 for the closing of the LACEF and the accompanying movement of materials and critical experiment machines to the Nevada Test Site. Prior to that closing, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was commissioned by the US DOE NCSP to establish an independent hands-on NCSE subcritical education and training course. The course provided an interim transition for the establishment of a reinvigorated and expanded two-week NCSE education and training program in 2011. The 2011 piloted two-week course was coordinated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and jointly conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) classroom education and facility training, the Sandia National
Karl, M; Franz, M; Grobecker-Karl, T; Scheib, M
Rapid developments in CAD/CAM technology necessitate the adaptation of curriculum content. Limited resources hinder institutions in holding state of the art equipment available for student training. A workshop given by an industry partner was organised as part of the final pre-clinical course in prosthodontics for the academic years 2015 and 2016. The workshop on dental ceramics and CAD/CAM technology comprised of lectures and practical demonstrations. Multiple-choice examinations prior to and after the workshop as well as questionnaires were used for assessing effectiveness and students' perception. The test scores and evaluation results were compared using Fisher's exact test of homogeneity (α = 0.05). The workshop improved students' performance in the written examination. With the exception of 1 question, students having attended the workshop performed significantly better (P sales promotion. The students were undecided on whether or not competitor companies should be invited to present on the same topic and whether or not more industry-supported courses would be beneficial. Industry-supported education appears to be a necessity in the field of CAD/CAM dentistry, but care has to be taken to select adequate partners, and the content of courses has to be controlled. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Based on available evidence, muscle strengthening and cardiovascular exercises can help maintain function and not adversely affect the progression of disease in patients with ALS. However, this evidence is not sufficiently detailed to recommend a specific exercise prescription. The purpose of this project was to assess clinical outcomes of a combined exercise programme to increase knowledge of rehabilitation in ALS patients. 38 ALS patients were assigned randomly to two groups: one group underwent a specific exercise programme (ALS-EP based on a moderate aerobic workout and isometric contractions, and the second group followed a standard neuromotor rehabilitation treatment. Objective evaluation consisted of cardiovascular measures, muscle strength and fatigue. Some positive effects of physical activity on ALS patients were found. Among the benefits, an overall improvement of functional independence in all patients, independently of the type of exercise conducted was seen. In addition, improvements in muscle power, oxygen consumption and fatigue were specifically observed in the ALS-EP group, all hallmarks of a training effect for the specific exercises. In conclusion, moderate intensity exercise is beneficial in ALS, helping in avoiding deconditioning and muscle atrophy resulting from progressive inactivity.
Wu, Lisa M; Amidi, Ali; Tanenbaum, Molly L; Winkel, Gary; Gordon, Wayne A; Hall, Simon J; Bovbjerg, Katrin; Diefenbach, Michael A
Prostate cancer patients who have undergone androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may experience cognitive impairment, yet there is an unmet need for nonpharmacological interventions to address cognitive impairment in this population. This study examines the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a home-based computerized cognitive training (CCT) program to treat cancer-related cognitive impairment. Sixty men who had received ≥ 3 months of ADT were screened for at least mild cognitive or neurobehavioral impairment and randomized to 8 weeks of CCT or usual care. Follow-up assessments occurred immediately post-intervention or equivalent (T2) and 8 weeks later (T3). The acceptability of CCT was also assessed. Feasibility:A priori feasibility thresholds were partially met (i.e., randomization rate > 50%, retention rate > 70% excluding CCT drop-outs, but cognitive functioning, neurobehavioral functioning, nor quality of life. This study provides tentative support for the feasibility and acceptability of CCT to treat mild cognitive impairment in ADT patients. CCT had a beneficial effect on reaction time, but temporarily suppressed memory. CCT's benefits may be limited to a narrow area of functioning. Larger-scale studies are needed.
Duppen, Nienke; Geerdink, Lianne M; Kuipers, Irene M; Bossers, Sjoerd S M; Koopman, Laurens P; van Dijk, Arie P J; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; De Korte, Chris L; Helbing, Willem A; Kapusta, Livia
Public-health guidelines recommend patients with congenital heart disease to exercise. Studies have shown that patients with congenital heart disease can improve physical exercise capacity. The effect of training on regional ventricular performance has hardly been studied. We performed a pilot study to assess whether an exercise training program would result in adverse changes of regional ventricular performance in patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot. Multicenter prospective randomized controlled pilot study in patients with tetralogy of Fallot aged 10 to 25 years. A 12-week standardized aerobic dynamic exercise training program (3 one-hour sessions per week) was used. Pre- and post-training cardiopulmonary exercise tests, MRI, and echocardiography, including tissue-Doppler imaging, were performed. Patients were randomized to the exercise group (n=28) or control group (n=20). One patient in the exercise group dropped out. Change in tissue-Doppler imaging parameters was similar in the exercise group and control group (change in right ventricle free wall peak velocity E' exercise group, 0.8±2.6 cm/s; control group, 0.9±4.1; peak velocity A' exercise group, 0.4±2.4 m/s; control group 4.6±18.1 cm/s). This randomized controlled pilot study provides preliminary data suggesting that regional ventricular performance is well maintained during 3-month aerobic dynamic exercise training in children and young adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. This information might help patients adhere to current public-health guidelines. URL: http//:www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR2731. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Michailidou, Maria; Goldstein, Seth D; Salazar, Jose; Aboagye, Jonathan; Stewart, Dylan; Efron, David; Abdullah, Fizan; Haut, Elliot R
Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) have been designed to provide faster access to trauma center care in cases of life-threatening injury. However, the ideal recipient population is not fully characterized, and indications for helicopter transport in pediatric trauma vary dramatically by county, state, and region. Overtriage, or unnecessary utilization, can lead to additional patient risk and expense. In this study we perform a nationwide descriptive analysis of HEMS for pediatric trauma and assess the incidence of overtriage in this group. We reviewed records from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (2008-11) and included patients less than 16 years of age who were transferred from the scene of injury to a trauma center via HEMS. Overtriage was defined as patients meeting all of the following criteria: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) equal to 15, absence of hypotension, an Injury Severity Score (ISS) less than 9, no need for procedure or critical care, and a hospital length of stay of less than 24 hours. A total of 19,725 patients were identified with a mean age of 10.5 years. The majority of injuries were blunt (95.6%) and resulted from motor vehicle crashes (48%) and falls (15%). HEMS transported patients were predominately normotensive (96%), had a GCS of 15 (67%), and presented with minor injuries (ISS<9, 41%). Overall, 28 % of patients stayed in the hospital for less than 24 hours, and the incidence of overtriage was 17%. Helicopter overtriage is prevalent among pediatric trauma patients nationwide. The ideal model to predict need for HEMS must consider clinical outcomes in the context of judicious resource utilization. The development of guidelines for HEMS use in pediatric trauma could potentially limit unnecessary transfers while still identifying children who require trauma center care in a timely fashion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hawkins, H. L.
The Army's light scout-attack helicopters (LHXs), planned for deployment in the 1990's, will fly nap-of-the-earth (NOE) missions in high threat environments, often under poor visibility and adverse atmospheric conditions, and probably with a one man crew. A procedure for the analysis of pilot workload that will identify and explicate the main characteristics of those LHX mission components holding overload potential is described. A principled, in-depth, explication of the cognitive demans of LHX piloting is essential to any effective effort to address the human factors issues. A task-analytic procedure that will yield the detail and organizstion needed to achieve these goals is examined.
Nascimento, Felipe A.C.; Majumdar, Arnab; Ochieng, Washington Y.; Jarvis, Steve R.
When visibility is poor offshore helicopter operations are prone to accidents. Given that a significant increase in night-time activities is predicted in the near future, this paper proposes a systemic approach to account for all the factors underlying such accidents. It presents the results of accident analysis and interviews of pilots from five different scenarios using cognitive task analysis, followed by rigorous application of Grounded Theory and Template Analysis to the narratives. The results are used to compile a comprehensive list of the factors that affect the ability of pilots to fly at night. These factors should form the basis for future data collection and safety interventions.
Nascimento, Felipe A.C., E-mail: email@example.com [Imperial College London, The Lloyd' s Register Educational Trust Transport Risk Management Centre, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Majumdar, Arnab [Imperial College London, The Lloyd' s Register Educational Trust Transport Risk Management Centre, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ochieng, Washington Y., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Imperial College London, Centre for Transport Studies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jarvis, Steve R., E-mail: email@example.com [Cranfield University, Cranfield Centre for Aviation Human Factors, Department of Air Transport, School of Engineering, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)
When visibility is poor offshore helicopter operations are prone to accidents. Given that a significant increase in night-time activities is predicted in the near future, this paper proposes a systemic approach to account for all the factors underlying such accidents. It presents the results of accident analysis and interviews of pilots from five different scenarios using cognitive task analysis, followed by rigorous application of Grounded Theory and Template Analysis to the narratives. The results are used to compile a comprehensive list of the factors that affect the ability of pilots to fly at night. These factors should form the basis for future data collection and safety interventions.
Bennett, Joel B; Neeper, Michael; Linde, Brittany D; Lucas, Gale M; Simone, Lindsay
The majority of resilience interventions focus on the individual. Workplace resilience is a growing field of research. Given the ever-increasing interconnectedness in businesses, teamwork is a guarantee. There is also growing recognition that resilience functions at the team level. The objective of our work was to address three shortcomings in the study of workplace resilience interventions: lack of interventions focusing on group-level or team resilience, the need for brief interventions, and the need for more theoretical precision in intervention studies. The authors took an established evidence-based program (Team Resilience) and modified it based on these needs. A working model for brief intervention evaluation distinguishes outcomes that are proximal (perceptions that the program improved resilience) and distal (dispositional resilience). A total of 7 hypotheses tested the model and program efficacy. Two samples (n=118 and n=181) of engineering firms received the Web-based training and provided immediate reactions in a posttest-only design. The second sample also included a control condition (n=201). The findings support the model and program efficacy. For example, workplace resilience was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. Other findings suggest social dissemination effects, equal outcomes for employees at different stress levels, and greater benefit for females. This preliminary research provides evidence for the capabilities of e-learning modules to effectively promote workplace resilience and a working model of team resilience. ©Joel B Bennett, Michael Neeper, Brittany D Linde, Gale M Lucas, Lindsay Simone. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 02.05.2018.
Borriello, Adriana; Balbi, Andrea; Menichincheri, Renato Maria; Mirabella, Fiorino
The present study evaluates the outcome of cognitive training as part of Brenner's Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT) in two groups of individuals with a schizophrenic spectrum disorder (F20-F24 ICD-10). 28 participants were divided into either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group was composed of 13 individuals (46%) with a mean age of 21.2 years and a mean duration of illness (since their first episode of psychosis FEP) of 15.6 months. The control group included 15 individuals (54%) with a mean age of 25.6 years and a mean duration of illness of 74.4 months (beyond the critical period). Participants underwent an assessment of cognitive functioning which focused on attention, memory, executive functioning and cognitive flexibility as measured by the WCST (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Each individual was tested pre- and 6-month post-intervention. The original IPT method was altered by reducing the frequency of sessions to once a week and by limiting our sessions to 2-3 individuals per group. Cognitive flexibility (pattention, short-term memory and verbal fluency improved in both groups (from ptraining, when delivered in the early stages of psychosis (within 18 months from FEP), seems to be particularly effective in improving cognitive flexibility and long-term memory. We did not see improvements in those who had a longer duration of illness who also underwent the same treatment. Cognitive flexibility is linked to clinical insight and social cognition. Therefore, improving this function may lead to a better outcome for patients.
Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Shaw, Robert B; Stork, Matthew J; Battalova, Alfiya; McBride, Christopher B
Experimental, pragmatic design. (1) To determine the effects of a transformational leadership (TFL) training program on spinal cord injury (SCI) peer mentors and their mentees; (2) To document characteristics of mentorship within a community-based SCI peer mentor program. In total 23 SCI peer mentors (70% male; M age = 47.4 ± 12.1) were randomly allocated to an Experimental or Control condition. Experimental condition mentors received a half-day TFL workshop and bi-weekly emailed information on using TFL in SCI peer mentorship. Sixteen SCI mentees (50% male; M age = 49.1 ± 12.9) enrolled in the study and 9 completed measures of self-efficacy and their mentors' use of TFL and supportiveness at 3 and 6-months. Mentors completed monthly reports of mentorship activities. Community-based peer mentorship program in British Columbia, Canada. There were no between-groups differences in mentee self-efficacy, mentor use of TFL or mentor supportiveness. In the Experimental condition only, total mentorship time and sessions were positively correlated with mentors' use of TFL and supportiveness. Mentorship occurred in-person, by phone, text, and email and mentors discussed an average of 11 topics. The intervention did not increase SCI peer mentors' use of TFL relative to a Control condition. Nevertheless, there may be merit in coaching SCI peer mentors to use TFL given the positive correlations between mentorship time and sessions, TFL use, and perceived supportiveness of the mentor. Although inherently challenging, research involving community-based SCI peer mentorship programs provides opportunities for scientists and community organizations to extend knowledge of peer mentorship beyond the context of hospital-based programs. Research supported by a SSHRC Partnership Development Grant.
Heggelund, Jørn; Morken, Gunnar; Helgerud, Jan; Nilsberg, Geir E; Hoff, Jan
Patients with schizophrenia frequently have disabling gait deficits. The net mechanical efficiency of walking (ϵnet) is an accurate measure often used to evaluate walking performance. Patients with gait deficits have a reduced ϵnet with excessive energy expenditure during sub-maximal walking. Maximal strength training (MST) improves ϵnet in healthy individuals and is associated with reduced risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MST improves ϵnet in patients with schizophrenia. Patients (ICD-10 schizophrenia, schizotypal or delusional disorders (F20-F29)) were included in a non-randomized trial. Patients were assigned to one of two groups: 1) MST consisting of 4x4 repetitions at 85-90% one repetition maximum (1RM) performed in a leg press apparatus or 2) playing computer games (CG). Both groups carried out their activity three days per week for eight weeks. 1RM, ϵnet at 60 watt walking, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 36-items short form (SF-36) were measured pre and post intervention. The baseline ϵnet was 17.3 ± 1.2% and 19.4 ± 3.0% in the MST (n = 6) and CG groups (n = 7), respectively, which is categorized as mechanical inefficiency. The MST group improved 1RM by 79 kg (p = 0.006) and ϵnet by 3.4% (p = 0.046) more than the CG group. The MST group improved 1RM and ϵnet, by a mean of 83 kg (p = 0.028) and 3.4% (p = 0.028), respectively. VO2peak at baseline was 34.2 ± 10.2 and 38.3 ± 9.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 in the MST and CG groups, respectively, and did not change (p > 0.05). No change was observed in PANSS or SF-36 (p > 0.05). MST improves 1RM and ϵnet in patients with schizophrenia. MST could be used as a therapeutic intervention for patients with schizophrenia to normalize their reduced ϵnet.
Chee, Yewlin E; Newman, Lori R; Loewenstein, John I; Kloek, Carolyn E
To design and implement a teaching skills curriculum that addressed the needs of an ophthalmology residency training program, to assess the effect of the curriculum, and to present important lessons learned. A teaching skills curriculum was designed for the Harvard Medical School (HMS) Residency Training Program in Ophthalmology. Results of a needs assessment survey were used to guide curriculum objectives. Overall, 3 teaching workshops were conducted between October 2012 and March 2013 that addressed areas of need, including procedural teaching. A postcurriculum survey was used to assess the effect of the curriculum. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, a tertiary care institution in Boston, MA. Overall, 24 residents in the HMS Residency Training Program in Ophthalmology were included. The needs assessment survey demonstrated that although most residents anticipated that teaching would be important in their future career, only one-third had prior formal training in teaching. All residents reported they found the teaching workshops to be either very or extremely useful. All residents reported they would like further training in teaching, with most residents requesting additional training in best procedural teaching practices for future sessions. The pilot year of the resident-as-teacher curriculum for the HMS Residency Training Program in Ophthalmology demonstrated a need for this curriculum and was perceived as beneficial by the residents, who reported increased comfort in their teaching skills after attending the workshops. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
precalculus level, which is already a requirement for many college majors. Often the pilot can satisfy the four hours of elective credit required for the minor...with precalculus mathematics courses. Pilots who have taken precalculus mathematics often take four hours of MTR 421, Forecasting Laboratory, to