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Sample records for helicopter helps test

  1. Helicopter transport: help or hindrance?

    Plevin, Rebecca E; Evans, Heather L

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic injury continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the year 2011. In addition, the healthcare expenditures and lost years of productivity represent significant economic cost to the affected individuals and their communities. Helicopters have been used to transport trauma patients for the past 40 years, but there are conflicting data on the benefits of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in civilian trauma systems. Debate persists regarding the mortality benefit, cost-effectiveness, and safety of helicopter usage, largely because the studies to date vary widely in design and generalizability to trauma systems serving heterogeneous populations and geography. Strict criteria should be established to determine when HEMS transport is warranted and most likely to positively affect patient outcomes. Individual trauma systems should conduct an assessment of their resources and needs in order to most effectively incorporate helicopter transport into their triage model. Research suggests that HEMS improves mortality in certain subgroups of trauma patients, both after transport from the scene of injury and following interfacility transport. Studies examining the cost-effectiveness of HEMS had mixed results, but the majority found that it is a cost-effective tool. Safety remains an issue of contention with HEMS transport, as helicopters are associated with significant safety risk to the crew and patient. However, this risk may be justified provided there is a substantial mortality benefit to be gained. Recent studies suggest that strict criteria should be established to determine when helicopter transport is warranted and most likely to positively affect patient outcomes. Individual trauma systems should conduct an assessment of their resources and needs in order to most effectively incorporate HEMS into their triage model. This will enable regional hospitals to determine if the costs and safety risks associated with HEMS are worthwhile

  2. Helicopter Parents Help Students, Survey Finds

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Helicopter parents, notorious for hovering over their college-age children, may actually help students thrive, according to this year's National Survey of Student Engagement. Students whose parents intervene on their behalf--38 percent of freshmen and 29 percent of seniors--are more active in and satisfied with college, says the monstrous annual…

  3. Helicopter-Ship Qualification Testing

    Hoencamp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the

  4. Development of a Field-Deployable Psychomotor Vigilance Test to Monitor Helicopter Pilot Performance.

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2016-04-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill. Fatigue is a serious threat to operational safety, particularly for sustained helicopter operations involving high levels of cognitive information processing and sustained time on task. As part of ongoing research into this issue, the object of this study was to develop a field-deployable helicopter-specific psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for the purpose of daily performance monitoring of pilots. The PVT consists of a laptop computer, a hand-operated joystick, and a set of rudder pedals. Screen-based compensatory tracking task software includes a tracking ball (operated by the joystick) which moves randomly in all directions, and a second tracking ball which moves horizontally (operated by the rudder pedals). The 5-min test requires the pilot to keep both tracking balls centered. This helicopter-specific PVT's portability and integrated data acquisition and storage system enables daily field monitoring of the performance of individual helicopter pilots. The inclusion of a simultaneous foot-operated tracking task ensures divided attention for helicopter pilots as the movement of both tracking balls requires simultaneous inputs. This PVT is quick, economical, easy to use, and specific to the operational flying task. It can be used for performance monitoring purposes, and as a general research tool for investigating the psychomotor demands of helicopter operations. While reliability and validity testing is warranted, data acquired from this test could help further our understanding of the effect of various factors (such as fatigue) on helicopter pilot performance, with the potential of contributing to helicopter operational safety.

  5. Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter

    Watts, Michael E.; Snider, Royce; Greenwood, Eric; Baden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A cooperative flight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July, 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 data points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive data base of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone configurations with up to 31 microphones in each configuration were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included DGPS, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test.

  6. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised): Instrument Pilot: Helicopter.

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…

  7. Military Potential Test of the UH-2A Helicopter.

    1963-10-25

    required to fully service two engines during engine change. 3. One quart of hydr aulic fluid , MIL 5606. Used to replace spillage while disconnecting...Maryland , dated 24 January 1963. 7. Report Nr. 1, Final Report, Climatic Laboratory Environ- mental Test of the Model UH- 2A Helicopter , by US

  8. Helicopter Acoustic Flight Test with Altitude Variation and Maneuvers

    Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben; Stephenson, James; Smith, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    A cooperative flight test campaign between NASA and the U.S. Army was performed from September 2014 to February 2015. The purposes of the testing were to: investigate the effects of altitude variation on noise generation, investigate the effects of gross weight variation on noise generation, establish the statistical variability in acoustic flight testing of helicopters, and characterize the effects of transient maneuvers on radiated noise for a medium-lift utility helicopter. This test was performed at three test sites (0, 4000, and 7000 feet above mean sea level) with two aircraft (AS350 SD1 and EH-60L) tested at each site. This report provides an overview of the test, documents the data acquired and describes the formats of the stored data.

  9. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  10. Full-Scale Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter

    Littell, Justin

    2011-01-01

    A full-scale crash test was successfully conducted in March 2010 of an MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley Research Center s Landing and Impact Research Facility. The reasons for conducting this test were threefold: 1 To generate data to be used with finite element computer modeling efforts, 2 To study the crashworthiness features typically associated with a small representative helicopter, and 3 To compare aircraft response to data collected from a previously conducted MD-500 crash test, which included an externally deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept. Instrumentation on the airframe included accelerometers on various structural components of the airframe; and strain gages on keel beams, skid gear and portions of the skin. Three Anthropomorphic Test Devices and a specialized Human Surrogate Torso Model were also onboard to collect occupant loads for evaluation with common injury risk criteria. This paper presents background and results from this crash test conducted without the DEA concept. These results showed accelerations of approximately 30 to 50 g on the airframe at various locations, little energy attenuation through the airframe, and moderate to high probability of occupant injury for a variety of injury criteria.

  11. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  12. Tests with an integrated helmet system for the TIGER helicopter

    Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Evers, Carl; Stenner, K.-H.

    1998-08-01

    The TIGER helicopter is under development by the MODs of France and Germany for their armies. The initial German requirement was for anti-tank missions only. This task has been extended to support missions which resulted in an upgrade to the German 'UH-TIGER' variant. German MOD is planning to procure 212 UH-TIGER helicopters armed with TRIGAT-, HOT anti-tank missiles, STINGER air-to-air missiles, 68 mm rockets and a gun pod with a 12.7 mm gun.

  13. Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter Data Report

    Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Smith, Charles D.; Snider, Royce; Conner, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A cooperative ight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 test points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive database of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone arrays with up to 31 microphon. es in each were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included Differential Global Positioning System, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test and documents the data acquired.

  14. NASA-FAA helicopter Microwave Landing System curved path flight test

    Swenson, H. N.; Hamlin, J. R.; Wilson, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    An ongoing series of joint NASA/FAA helicopter Microwave Landing System (MLS) flight tests was conducted at Ames Research Center. This paper deals with tests done from the spring through the fall of 1983. This flight test investigated and developed solutions to the problem of manually flying curved-path and steep glide slope approaches into the terminal area using the MLS and flight director guidance. An MLS-equipped Bell UH-1H helicopter flown by NASA test pilots was used to develop approaches and procedures for flying these approaches. The approaches took the form of Straight-in, U-turn, and S-turn flightpaths with glide slopes of 6 deg, 9 deg, and 12 deg. These procedures were evaluated by 18 pilots from various elements of the helicopter community, flying a total of 221 hooded instrument approaches. Flying these curved path and steep glide slopes was found to be operationally acceptable with flight director guidance using the MLS.

  15. Computed tomography (CT) as a nondestructive test method used for composite helicopter components

    Oster, Reinhold

    1991-09-01

    The first components of primary helicopter structures to be made of glass fiber reinforced plastics were the main and tail rotor blades of the Bo105 and BK 117 helicopters. These blades are now successfully produced in series. New developments in rotor components, e.g., the rotor blade technology of the Bo108 and PAH2 programs, make use of very complex fiber reinforced structures to achieve simplicity and strength. Computer tomography was found to be an outstanding nondestructive test method for examining the internal structure of components. A CT scanner generates x-ray attenuation measurements which are used to produce computer reconstructed images of any desired part of an object. The system images a range of flaws in composites in a number of views and planes. Several CT investigations and their results are reported taking composite helicopter components as an example.

  16. Cooperative program for design, fabrication, and testing of graphite/epoxy composite helicopter shafting

    Wright, C. C.; Baker, D. J.; Corvelli, N.; Thurston, L.; Clary, R.; Illg, W.

    1971-01-01

    The fabrication of UH-1 helicopter tail rotor drive shafts from graphite/epoxy composite materials is discussed. Procedures for eliminating wrinkles caused by lack of precure compaction are described. The development of the adhesive bond between aluminum end couplings and the composite tube is analyzed. Performance tests to validate the superiority of the composite materials are reported.

  17. Comparison of Test and Finite Element Analysis for Two Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Tests

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta,Lucas G.

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analyses have been performed for two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of a composite deployable energy absorber under combined flight loads. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish the baseline loads. The use of an energy absorbing device reduced the impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to analytical results. Details of the full-scale crash tests and development of the system-integrated finite element model are briefly described along with direct comparisons of acceleration magnitudes and durations for the first full-scale crash test. Because load levels were significantly different between tests, models developed for the purposes of predicting the overall system response with external energy absorbers were not adequate under more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. Relative error comparisons were inadequate to guide model calibration. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used for the second full-scale crash test. The calibrated parameter set reduced 2-norm prediction error by 51% but did not improve impact shape orthogonality.

  18. On-land and offshore testing of a new helicopter bucket for dispersant application - response 3000D

    Brandvik, P. J.; Lewis, A.; Daling, P. S.; Strom-Kristiansen, T.; Larsen, E.

    1997-01-01

    Development of a new helicopter bucket for dispersant applications to serve the dispersant spraying needs of Norwegian oil companies was described. Testing two existing helicopter buckets and practical experience with firefighting helicopter operations provided the foundations for this developmental experiment, combined with the dispersant applications experience of SINTEF. The newly designed bucket, 3000D, has two dispersant spray systems (high and low flow rates) and a large capacity ( three cu m). It is capable of direct filling of dispersant via a suction hose while the helicopter is hovering and is equipped for remote control of all functions. It is robustly designed for use under harsh offshore conditions in the North Sea. The bucket has been subjected to extensive testing on land and offshore with experimental oil slicks. The results were fully satisfactory. 9 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs

  19. Tests to Help Plan Opportunity Moves

    2005-01-01

    Rover engineers check how a test rover moves in material chosen to simulate some difficult Mars driving conditions. The scene is inside the In-Situ Instrument Laboratory at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. These tests in early May 2005 were designed to help plan the best way for the rover Opportunity to drive off of a soft-sand dune that the rover dug itself into the previous week. The mixture of sandy and powdery material brought in for these specific tests matched the way the soil underneath Opportunity caked onto wheels, filling the spaces between the cleats on the wheels.

  20. Job Performance Tests for CH-53E Helicopter Mechanics. Volume 2: Administrative Duties and Job Knowledge Tests

    1992-01-01

    SUBTmI.E 5 FU.NDING NUMBERS Job Performance Tests for CII-53E Helicopter Miechanacs - Volume I1: Admiutstrative Duties and Job Knowlede Tests C - N...performance measures to Marine Corps personnel managers . training instructors, and interested researchers who may find them useful. This work comprises...Corps personnel managers , training instructors, and interested researchers who may find them useful. 3. This work comprises two parts: volume I

  1. LS-DYNA Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test

    Annett, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26 ft/sec and 40 ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of a system integrated LS-DYNA finite element model. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests was conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components, including a new crush tube and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined within the system integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. The objective of this paper is to summarize the finite element models developed and analyses performed, beginning with pre-test and continuing through post test validation.

  2. Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter with a Deployable Energy Absorber Concept

    Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2010-01-01

    On December 2, 2009, a full scale crash test was successfully conducted of a MD-500 helicopter at the NASA Langley Research Center Landing and Impact Research Facility . The purpose of this test was to evaluate a novel composite honeycomb deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept for attenuation of structural and crew loads during helicopter crashes under realistic crash conditions. The DEA concept is an alternative to external airbags, and absorbs impact energy through crushing. In the test, the helicopter impacted the concrete surface with 11.83 m/s (38.8 ft/s) horizontal, 7.80 m/s (25.6 ft/s) vertical and 0.15 m/s (0.5 ft/s) lateral velocities; corresponding to a resultant velocity of 14.2 m/s (46.5 ft/s). The airframe and skid gear were instrumented with accelerometers and strain gages to determine structural integrity and load attenuation, while the skin of the airframe was covered with targets for use by photogrammetry to record gross vehicle motion before, during, and after the impact. Along with the collection of airframe data, one Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD), two Hybrid II 50th percentile ATDs and a specialized human surrogate torso model (HSTM) occupant were seated in the airframe and instrumented for the collection of occupant loads. Resultant occupant data showed that by using the DEA, the loads on the Hybrid II and Hybrid III ATDs were in the Low Risk regime for the injury criteria, while structural data showed the airframe retained its structural integrity post crash. Preliminary results show that the DEA is a viable concept for the attenuation of impact loads.

  3. Flight service evaluation of composite components on the Bell Helicopter model 206L: Design, fabrication and testing

    Zinberg, H.

    1982-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing phases of a program to obtain long term flight service experience on representative helicopter airframe structural components operating in typical commercial environments are described. The aircraft chosen is the Bell Helicopter Model 206L. The structural components are the forward fairing, litter door, baggage door, and vertical fin. The advanced composite components were designed to replace the production parts in the field and were certified by the FAA to be operable through the full flight envelope of the 206L. A description of the fabrication process that was used for each of the components is given. Static failing load tests on all components were done. In addition fatigue tests were run on four specimens that simulated the attachment of the vertical fin to the helicopter's tail boom.

  4. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.

  5. Design and Testing of Flight Control Laws on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    Frost, Chad R.; Hindson, William S.; Moralez. Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Dryfoos, James B.

    2001-01-01

    Two unique sets of flight control laws were designed, tested and flown on the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The first set of control laws used a simple rate feedback scheme, intended to facilitate the first flight and subsequent flight qualification of the RASCAL research flight control system. The second set of control laws comprised a more sophisticated model-following architecture. Both sets of flight control laws were developed and tested extensively using desktop-to-flight modeling, analysis, and simulation tools. Flight test data matched the model predicted responses well, providing both evidence and confidence that future flight control development for RASCAL will be efficient and accurate.

  6. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

  7. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of the drop impact test for helicopter fuel tank.

    Yang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jialing; Sun, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    The crashworthiness of helicopter fuel tank is vital to the survivability of the passengers and structures. In order to understand and improve the crashworthiness of the soft fuel tank of helicopter during the crash, this paper investigated the dynamic behavior of the nylon woven fabric composite fuel tank striking on the ground. A fluid-structure interaction finite element model of the fuel tank based on the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method was constructed to elucidate the dynamic failure behavior. The drop impact tests were conducted to validate the accuracy of the numerical simulation. Good agreement was achieved between the experimental and numerical results of the impact force with the ground. The influences of the impact velocity, the impact angle, the thickness of the fuel tank wall and the volume fraction of water on the dynamic responses of the dropped fuel tank were studied. The results indicated that the corner of the fuel tank is the most vulnerable location during the impact with ground.

  8. Face-gear drives: Design, analysis, and testing for helicopter transmission applications

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of face-gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split-torque transmission design utilizing face-gears is described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, grinding, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. An analytical study showed that the face-gear drive is relatively insensitive to gear misalignment with respect to transmission errors, but the tooth contact is affected by misalignment. A method of localizing the bearing contact to permit operation with misalignment was explored. Two new methods for grinding of the face-gear tooth surfaces were also investigated. The proper choice of shaft stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split-torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also conducted. These tests demonstrated the feasibility of face-gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions.

  9. Inspection of helicopter rotor blades with the help of guided waves and "turning modes": Experimental and finite element analysis

    Barnard, Daniel; Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Dayal, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Modern helicopter rotor blades constructed of composite materials offer significant inspection challenges, particularly at inner structures, where geometry and differing material properties and anisotropy make placement of the probing energy difficult. This paper presents an application of Lamb waves to these structures, where mode conversion occurs at internal geometric discontinuities. These additional modes were found to successfully propagate to the targeted regions inside the rotor and back out, allowing evaluation of the structure. A finite element model was developed to simulate wave propagation and mode conversion in the structure and aid in identifying the signals received in the laboratory experiment. A good correlation between numerical and experimental results was observed.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Two Full-Scale MD-500 Helicopter Crash Tests

    Littell, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    Two full scale crash tests were conducted on a small MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley Research Center fs Landing and Impact Research Facility. One of the objectives of this test series was to compare airframe impact response and occupant injury data between a test which outfitted the airframe with an external composite passive energy absorbing honeycomb and a test which had no energy absorbing features. In both tests, the nominal impact velocity conditions were 7.92 m/sec (26 ft/sec) vertical and 12.2 m/sec (40 ft/sec) horizontal, and the test article weighed approximately 1315 kg (2900 lbs). Airframe instrumentation included accelerometers and strain gages. Four Anthropomorphic Test Devices were also onboard; three of which were standard Hybrid II and III, while the fourth was a specialized torso. The test which contained the energy absorbing honeycomb showed vertical impact acceleration loads of approximately 15 g, low risk for occupant injury probability, and minimal airframe damage. These results were contrasted with the test conducted without the energy absorbing honeycomb. The test results showed airframe accelerations of approximately 40 g in the vertical direction, high risk for injury probability in the occupants, and substantial airframe damage.

  11. Program Helps Design Tests Of Developmental Software

    Hops, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    Computer program called "A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs" (TRL) provides automatic software tool and formal language used to implement category-partition method and produce specification of test cases in testing phase of development of software. Category-partition method useful in defining input, outputs, and purpose of test-design phase of development and combines benefits of choosing normal cases having error-exposing properties. Traceability maintained quite easily by creating test design for each objective in test plan. Effort to transform test cases into procedures simplified by use of automatic software tool to create cases based on test design. Method enables rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration and facilitates review of test designs by peer groups. Written in C language.

  12. Neutron radiography and other NDE tests of main rotor helicopter blades

    Beer, F.C. de; Coetzer, M.; Fendeis, D.; Silva, A. da Costa E

    2004-01-01

    A few nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques are extensively being used worldwide to investigate aircraft structures for all types of defects. The detection of corrosion and delaminations, which are believed to be the major initiators of defects leading to aircraft structural failures, are addressed by various NDE techniques. In a combined investigation by means of visual inspection, X-ray radiography and shearography on helicopter main rotor blades, neutron radiography (NRad) at SAFARI-1 research reactor operated by Necsa, was performed to introduce this form of NDE testing to the South African aviation industry to be evaluated for applicability. The results of the shearography, visual inspection and NRad techniques are compared in this paper. The main features and advantages of neutron radiography, within the framework of these investigations, will be highlighted

  13. Design, manufacture and spin test of high contact ratio helicopter transmission utilizing Self-Aligning Bearingless Planetary (SABP)

    Folenta, Dezi; Lebo, William

    1988-01-01

    A 450 hp high ratio Self-Aligning Bearingless Planetary (SABP) for a helicopter application was designed, manufactured, and spin tested under NASA contract NAS3-24539. The objective of the program was to conduct research and development work on a high contact ratio helical gear SABP to reduce weight and noise and to improve efficiency. The results accomplished include the design, manufacturing, and no-load spin testing of two prototype helicopter transmissions, rated at 450 hp with an input speed of 35,000 rpm and an output speed of 350 rpm. The weight power density ratio of these gear units is 0.33 lb hp. The measured airborne noise at 35,000 rpm input speed and light load is 94 dB at 5 ft. The high speed, high contact ratio SABP transmission appears to be significantly lighter and quieter than comtemporary helicopter transmissions. The concept of the SABP is applicable not only to high ratio helicopter type transmissions but also to other rotorcraft and aircraft propulsion systems.

  14. Classification Analysis of Vibration Data from SH-60B Helicopter Transmission Test Facility

    Anderson, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    .... The system is referred to as the Health Usage and Monitoring Systems (HUMS). The program's objective is to develop an automated diagnostic system that can identify mechanical faults within the power train of helicopters using vibration analysis...

  15. Navigation and flight director guidance for the NASA/FAA helicopter MLS curved approach flight test program

    Phatak, A. V.; Lee, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    The navigation and flight director guidance systems implemented in the NASA/FAA helicopter microwave landing system (MLS) curved approach flight test program is described. Flight test were conducted at the U.S. Navy's Crows Landing facility, using the NASA Ames UH-lH helicopter equipped with the V/STOLAND avionics system. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the feasibility of flying complex, curved and descending approaches to a landing using MLS flight director guidance. A description of the navigation aids used, the avionics system, cockpit instrumentation and on-board navigation equipment used for the flight test is provided. Three generic reference flight paths were developed and flown during the test. They were as follows: U-Turn, S-turn and Straight-In flight profiles. These profiles and their geometries are described in detail. A 3-cue flight director was implemented on the helicopter. A description of the formulation and implementation of the flight director laws is also presented. Performance data and analysis is presented for one pilot conducting the flight director approaches.

  16. Helicopter Field Testing of NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) System fully Integrated with the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed Avionics

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Ruthishauser, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project was chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with real-time terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The ALHAT System must be capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards to enable a safe and accurate landing to within tens of meters of designated and certified landing sites anywhere on a planetary surface under any lighting conditions. This is accomplished with the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN). The NASA plan for the ALHAT technology is to perform the TRL6 closed loop demonstration on the Morpheus Vertical Test Bed (VTB). The first Morpheus vehicle was lost in August of 2012 during free-flight testing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), so the decision was made to perform a helicopter test of the integrated ALHAT System with the Morpheus avionics over the ALHAT planetary hazard field at KSC. The KSC helicopter tests included flight profiles approximating planetary approaches, with the entire ALHAT system interfaced with all appropriate Morpheus subsystems and operated in real-time. During these helicopter flights, the ALHAT system imaged the simulated lunar terrain constructed in FY2012 to support ALHAT/Morpheus testing at KSC. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest fidelity testing of a system of this kind to date. During this helicopter testing, two new Morpheus landers were under construction at the Johnson Space Center to support the objective of an integrated ALHAT/Morpheus free-flight demonstration. This paper provides an overview of this helicopter flight test activity, including results and lessons learned, and also provides an overview of recent integrated testing of ALHAT on the second

  17. Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests Send Us Your ... them through the procedure. A caring grownup can help the child cope with any physical pain or ...

  18. Advanced Airfoils Boost Helicopter Performance

    2007-01-01

    Carson Helicopters Inc. licensed the Langley RC4 series of airfoils in 1993 to develop a replacement main rotor blade for their Sikorsky S-61 helicopters. The company's fleet of S-61 helicopters has been rebuilt to include Langley's patented airfoil design, and the helicopters are now able to carry heavier loads and fly faster and farther, and the main rotor blades have twice the previous service life. In aerial firefighting, the performance-boosting airfoils have helped the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service control the spread of wildfires. In 2003, Carson Helicopters signed a contract with Ducommun AeroStructures Inc., to manufacture the composite blades for Carson Helicopters to sell

  19. Neutron radiography and other NDE tests of main rotor helicopter blades

    De Beer, FC

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available leading to aircraft structural failures, are addressed by various NDE techniques. In a combined investigation by means of visual inspection, X-ray radiography and shearography on helicopter main rotor blades, neutron radiography (NRad) at SAFARI-1 research...

  20. Flight Testing and Real-Time System Identification Analysis of a UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter with an Instrumented External Sling Load

    McCoy, Allen H.

    1998-01-01

    Helicopter external air transportation plays an important role in today's world. For both military and civilian helicopters, external sling load operations offer an efficient and expedient method of handling heavy, oversized cargo. With the ability to reach areas otherwise inaccessible by ground transportation, helicopter external load operations are conducted in industries such as logging, construction, and fire fighting, as well as in support of military tactical transport missions. Historically, helicopter and load combinations have been qualified through flight testing, requiring considerable time and cost. With advancements in simulation and flight test techniques there is potential to substantially reduce costs and increase the safety of helicopter sling load certification. Validated simulation tools make possible accurate prediction of operational flight characteristics before initial flight tests. Real time analysis of test data improves the safety and efficiency of the testing programs. To advance these concepts, the U.S. Army and NASA, in cooperation with the Israeli Air Force and Technion, under a Memorandum of Agreement, seek to develop and validate a numerical model of the UH-60 with sling load and demonstrate a method of near real time flight test analysis. This thesis presents results from flight tests of a U.S. Army Black Hawk helicopter with various external loads. Tests were conducted as the U.S. first phase of this MOA task. The primary load was a container express box (CONEX) which contained a compact instrumentation package. The flights covered the airspeed range from hover to 70 knots. Primary maneuvers were pitch and roll frequency sweeps, steps, and doublets. Results of the test determined the effect of the suspended load on both the aircraft's handling qualities and its control system's stability margins. Included were calculations of the stability characteristics of the load's pendular motion. Utilizing CIFER(R) software, a method for near

  1. X-36 Carried Aloft by Helicopter during Radio and Telemetry Tests

    1996-01-01

    A Bell UH-1 helicopter lifts the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft off the ground for radio frequency and telemetry tests above Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November 1996. The purpose of taking the X-36 aloft for the radio and telemetry system checkouts was to test the systems more realistically while airborne. More taxi and radio frequency tests were conducted before the aircraft's first flight in early 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and

  2. Civilian Helicopter Search and Rescue Accidents in the United States: 1980 Through 2013.

    Worley, Gordon H

    2015-12-01

    Helicopters are commonly used in search and rescue operations, and accidents have occurred during helicopter search and rescue (HSAR) missions. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the HSAR accident rate in the United States could be determined and whether any common contributing factors or trends could be identified. Searches were conducted of the National Transportation Safety Board aviation accident database, the records of the major search and rescue and air medical organizations, and the medical and professional literature for reports of HSAR accidents. A total of 47 civilian HSAR accidents were identified during the study. Of these, 43% involved fatal injuries, compared with a 19% fatality rate for US helicopter general aviation accidents during the same time period and a 40% rate for helicopter emergency medical services. The HSAR accidents carried a significantly higher risk of fatal outcomes when compared with helicopter general aviation accidents (2-tailed Fisher's exact test, P .05). The number of HSAR missions conducted annually could not be established, so an overall accident rate could not be calculated. Although the overall number of HSAR accidents is small, the percentage of fatal outcomes from HSAR accidents is significantly higher than that from general helicopter aviation accidents and is comparable to that seen for helicopter emergency medical services operations. Further study could help to improve the safety of HSAR flights. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Help!

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    This article presents ten time-saving ideas for teachers. One great time-saving tip is to come in an hour early once or twice a week for grading papers. It is also a great idea if teachers will not give tests on Friday in order to reduce their weekend work.

  4. Surveys of Students Challenge "Helicopter Parent" Stereotypes

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Stories of "helicopter parents" abound. But several longtime student-affairs officials agree that while helicopter parents are real, their numbers--and behaviors--have been exaggerated. Parental involvement on campus, they say, is usually more of a help than a headache, for students and colleges alike. Some officials believe colleges must do even…

  5. Helicopter Flight Test of 3-D Imaging Flash LIDAR Technology for Safe, Autonomous, and Precise Planetary Landing

    Roback, Vincent; Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Reisse, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Two flash lidars, integrated from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, are lab characterized and flight tested for determination of maximum operational range under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project (in its fourth development and field test cycle) which is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The flash lidars incorporate pioneering 3-D imaging cameras based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode (InGaAs APD) and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at 30 Hz, high pulse-energy 1.06 micrometer Nd:YAG lasers, and high performance transmitter and receiver fixed and zoom optics. The two flash lidars are characterized on the NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) Sensor Test Range, integrated with other portions of the ALHAT GN&C system from partner organizations into an instrument pod at NASA-JPL, integrated onto an Erickson Aircrane Helicopter at NASA-Dryden, and flight tested at the Edwards AFB Rogers dry lakebed over a field of human-made geometric hazards during the summer of 2010. Results show that the maximum operational range goal of 1 km is met and exceeded up to a value of 1.2 km. In addition, calibrated 3-D images of several hazards are acquired in real-time for later reconstruction into Digital Elevation Maps (DEM's).

  6. Helicopter Flight Test of a Compact, Real-Time 3-D Flash Lidar for Imaging Hazardous Terrain During Planetary Landing

    Roback, VIncent E.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Brewster, Paul F.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Kempton, Kevin S.; Reisse, Robert A.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.

    2013-01-01

    A second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled 3-D imaging Flash Lidar sensor system, developed from a number of cutting-edge components from industry and NASA, is lab characterized and helicopter flight tested under the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. The ALHAT project is seeking to develop a guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) and sensing system based on lidar technology capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The Flash Lidar incorporates a 3-D imaging video camera based on Indium-Gallium-Arsenide Avalanche Photo Diode and novel micro-electronic technology for a 128 x 128 pixel array operating at a video rate of 20 Hz, a high pulse-energy 1.06 µm Neodymium-doped: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a remote laser safety termination system, high performance transmitter and receiver optics with one and five degrees field-of-view (FOV), enhanced onboard thermal control, as well as a compact and self-contained suite of support electronics housed in a single box and built around a PC-104 architecture to enable autonomous operations. The Flash Lidar was developed and then characterized at two NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) outdoor laser test range facilities both statically and dynamically, integrated with other ALHAT GN&C subsystems from partner organizations, and installed onto a Bell UH-1H Iroquois "Huey" helicopter at LaRC. The integrated system was flight tested at the NASA-Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on simulated lunar approach to a custom hazard field consisting of rocks, craters, hazardous slopes, and safe-sites near the Shuttle Landing Facility runway starting at slant ranges of 750 m. In order to evaluate different methods of achieving hazard detection, the lidar, in conjunction with the ALHAT hazard detection and GN&C system, operates in both a narrow 1deg FOV raster

  7. Hybrid optical navigation by crater detection for lunar pin-point landing: trajectories from helicopter flight tests

    Trigo, Guilherme F.; Maass, Bolko; Krüger, Hans; Theil, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate autonomous navigation capabilities are essential for future lunar robotic landing missions with a pin-point landing requirement, since in the absence of direct line of sight to ground control during critical approach and landing phases, or when facing long signal delays the herein before mentioned capability is needed to establish a guidance solution to reach the landing site reliably. This paper focuses on the processing and evaluation of data collected from flight tests that consisted of scaled descent scenarios where the unmanned helicopter of approximately 85 kg approached a landing site from altitudes of 50 m down to 1 m for a downrange distance of 200 m. Printed crater targets were distributed along the ground track and their detection provided earth-fixed measurements. The Crater Navigation (CNav) algorithm used to detect and match the crater targets is an unmodified method used for real lunar imagery. We analyze the absolute position and attitude solutions of CNav obtained and recorded during these flight tests, and investigate the attainable quality of vehicle pose estimation using both CNav and measurements from a tactical-grade inertial measurement unit. The navigation filter proposed for this end corrects and calibrates the high-rate inertial propagation with the less frequent crater navigation fixes through a closed-loop, loosely coupled hybrid setup. Finally, the attainable accuracy of the fused solution is evaluated by comparison with the on-board ground-truth solution of a dual-antenna high-grade GNSS receiver. It is shown that the CNav is an enabler for building autonomous navigation systems with high quality and suitability for exploration mission scenarios.

  8. Helicopter Icing Review.

    1980-09-01

    helicopter (i.e. in an icing tunnel or engine test cell ) and therefore can be subjected to controlled icing where spe- cific problems can be safely...evaluation. 69 2.2.5.2 Ice Protection Systems Demonstration Many of the systems noted in 2.2.5.1 can be evaluated in icing test cells or icing wind tunnels...Figure 2-32 illustrates a typical rotor deice system control arrangement. 104 (N >4 A.dO INaH -E- C4) uo U En 9 E-1 H m I ~z O 04 04iH U 0 El4 E-f C E

  9. Lot 4 AH-64E Apache Attack Helicopter Follow-on Operational Test and Evaluation Report

    2014-12-01

    engine is tested to determine its Engine Torque Factor ( ETF ) rating.6 To meet contract specifications, a new engine must have an ETF of 1.0. The...published AH-64E operator’s manual estimates performance based on engines with an ETF of 1.0, and pilots normally plan missions anticipating the 717...pound shortfall in hover performance at KPP conditions. The Apache Program Manager reports that new engines are delivered with an average ETF of

  10. Helping Students Test Programs That Have Graphical User Interfaces

    Matthew Thornton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Within computer science education, many educators are incorporating software testing activities into regular programming assignments. Tools like JUnit and its relatives make software testing tasks much easier, bringing them into the realm of even introductory students. At the same time, many introductory programming courses are now including graphical interfaces as part of student assignments to improve student interest and engagement. Unfortunately, writing software tests for programs that have significant graphical user interfaces is beyond the skills of typical students (and many educators. This paper presents initial work at combining educationally oriented and open-source tools to create an infrastructure for writing tests for Java programs that have graphical user interfaces. Critically, these tools are intended to be appropriate for introductory (CS1/CS2 student use, and to dovetail with current teaching approaches that incorporate software testing in programming assignments. We also include in our findings our proposed approach to evaluating our techniques.

  11. Design, fabrication, and testing of an ultrasonic de-icing system for helicopter rotor blades

    Palacios, Jose Luis

    A low-power, non-thermal ultrasonic de-icing system is introduced as a possible substitute for current electro-thermal systems. The system generates delaminating ultrasonic transverse shear stresses at the interface of accreted ice. A PZT-4 disk driven at 28.5 KHz (radial resonance of the disk) instantaneously de-bonds 2 mm thick freezer ice layers. The ice layers are accreted to a 0.7 mm thick, 30.4 cm x 30.4 cm steel plate at an environment temperature of -20°C. A power input of 50 Watts is applied to the actuator (50 V, 19.6 KV/m), which translates to a de-icing power of 0.07 W/cm2. A finite element model of the actuator bonded to the isotropic plate is used to guide the design of the system, and predicts the transverse shear stresses at the ice interface. Wind tunnel icing tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed system under impact icing conditions. Both glaze ice and rime ice were generated on steel and composite plates by changing the cloud conditions of the wind tunnel. Continuous ultrasonic vibration prevented impact ice formation around the actuator location at an input power not exceeding 0.18 W/cm 2 (1.2 W/in2). As ice thickness reached a critical thickness of approximately 1.2 mm, shedding occurred on those locations where ultrasonic transverse shear stresses exceeded the shear adhesion strength of the ice. Finite element transverse shear stress predictions correlate with observed experimental impact ice de-bonding behavior. To increase the traveling distance of propagating ultrasonic waves, ultrasonic shear horizontal wave modes are studied. Wave modes providing large modal interface transverse shear stress concentration coefficients (ISCC) between the host structure (0.7 mm thick steel plate) and accreted ice (2.5 mm thick ice layer) are identified and investigated for a potential increase in the wave propagation distance. Ultrasonic actuators able to trigger these optimum wave modes are designed and fabricated. Despite

  12. Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Two Main-rotor Blade Designs for a Utility-Class Helicopter

    Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to evaluate an advanced main rotor designed for use on a utility class helicopter, specifically the U.S. Army UH-60A Blackhawk. This rotor design incorporated advanced twist, airfoil cross sections, and geometric planform. For evaluation purposes, the current UH-60A main rotor was also tested and is referred to as the baseline blade set. A total of four blade sets were tested. One set of both the baseline and the advanced rotors were dynamically scaled to represent a full scale helicopter rotor blade design. The remaining advanced and baseline blade sets were not dynamically scaled so as to isolate the effects of structural elasticity. The investigation was conducted in hover and at rotor advance ratios ranging from 0.15 to 0.4 at a range of nominal test medium densities from 0.00238 to 0.009 slugs/cu ft. This range of densities, coupled with varying rotor lift and propulsive force, allowed for the simulation of several vehicle gross weight and density altitude combinations. Performance data are presented for all blade sets without analysis; however, cross referencing of data with flight condition may be useful to the analyst for validating aeroelastic theories and design methodologies as well as for evaluating advanced design parameters.

  13. 78 FR 18224 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters

    2013-03-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R44 and R44 II helicopters equipped with emergency floats. This AD..., contact Robinson Helicopter Company, 2901 Airport Drive, Torrance, CA 90505; telephone (310) 539-0508; fax...

  14. Energy helps accuracy: electroweak precision tests at hadron colliders

    Farina, Marco

    2017-09-10

    We show that high energy measurements of Drell-Yan at the LHC can serve as electroweak precision tests. Dimension-6 operators, from the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, modify the high energy behavior of electroweak gauge boson propagators. Existing measurements of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum, from neutral current Drell-Yan at 8 TeV, have comparable sensitivity to LEP. We propose measuring the transverse mass spectrum of charged current Drell-Yan, which can surpass LEP already with 8 TeV data. The 13 TeV LHC will elevate electroweak tests to a new precision frontier.

  15. Energy helps accuracy: Electroweak precision tests at hadron colliders

    Marco Farina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that high energy measurements of Drell–Yan at the LHC can serve as electroweak precision tests. Dimension-6 operators, from the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, modify the high energy behavior of electroweak gauge boson propagators. Existing measurements of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum, from neutral current Drell–Yan at 8 TeV, have comparable sensitivity to LEP. We propose measuring the transverse mass spectrum of charged current Drell–Yan, which can surpass LEP already with 8 TeV data. The 13 TeV LHC will elevate electroweak tests to a new precision frontier.

  16. Helping Children Cope With Medical Tests and Interventions

    Lang, E.V.; Viegas, J.; Bleeker, C.P.; Bruhn, J.; Geffen, G.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Medical procedures and tests become a challenge when anxiety and pain make it difficult for the patient to cooperate or remain still when needed. Fortunately, a short intervention with hypnoidal language at the onset of a procedure induces a positive and sustained change in the way pain and anxiety

  17. Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Name Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Development Estimate) Defense Acquisition... Helicopter (CRH) system will provide Personnel Recovery (PR) forces with a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that is quickly deployable and

  18. Performance Analysis of a Utility Helicopter with Standard and Advanced Rotors

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Bousman, William G; Johnson, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Flight test measurements of the performance of the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter with both standard and advanced rotors are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive helicopter analysis CAMRAD II...

  19. 77 FR 63260 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters

    2012-10-16

    ... Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R44 and R44 II helicopters equipped with emergency floats, which would require...

  20. 77 FR 12991 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters

    2012-03-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that was published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R22, R22 Alpha, R22 Beta, R22 Mariner, R44, and R44 II helicopters. The paragraph reference in...

  1. 77 FR 68055 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) Model 412, 412EP, and 412CF helicopters. This AD requires a repetitive inspection of the...

  2. Retrieval Cues on Tests: A Strategy for Helping Students Overcome Retrieval Failure

    Gallagher, Kristel M.

    2017-01-01

    Students often struggle to recall information on tests, frequently claiming to experience a "retrieval failure" of learned information. Thus, the retrieval of information from memory may be a roadblock to student success. I propose a relatively simple adjustment to the wording of test items to help eliminate this potential barrier.…

  3. 77 FR 30232 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    2012-05-22

    ...-0530; Directorate Identifier 2011-SW-075-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter...

  4. Help-Seeking Decisions of Battered Women: A Test of Learned Helplessness and Two Stress Theories.

    Wauchope, Barbara A.

    This study tested the learned helplessness theory, stress theory, and a modified stress theory to determine the best model for predicting the probability that a woman would seek help when she experienced severe violence from a male partner. The probability was hypothesized to increase as the stress of the violence experienced increased. Data were…

  5. 77 FR 52264 - Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems...

    2012-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Hughes Helicopters Inc., and McDonnel Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate...

  6. 78 FR 18226 - Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems...

    2013-03-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... directive (AD): 2013-05-16 Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type...

  7. Automated systems help prevent operator error during [reactor] I and C [instrumentation and control] testing

    Courcoux, R.

    1989-01-01

    On a nuclear steam supply system, even a minor failure can involve actuation of the whole reactor protection system (RPS). To reduce the likelihood of human error leading to unwanted trips during the maintenance of instrumentation and control systems, Framatome has been developing and installing various automated testing systems. Such automated systems are particularly helpful when periodic tests with a potential for RPS actuation have to be carried out, or when the test is on the critical path for the refuelling outage. The Sensitive Channel Programme described is an example of the sort of work that has been done. (author)

  8. Nonlinear Feedforward Control for Wind Disturbance Rejection on Autonomous Helicopter

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan

    2010-01-01

    for the purpose. The model is inverted for the calculation of rotor collective and cyclic pitch angles given the wind disturbance. The control strategy is then applied on a small helicopter in a controlled wind environment and flight tests demonstrates the effectiveness and advantage of the feedforward controller.......This paper presents the design and verification of a model based nonlinear feedforward controller for wind disturbance rejection on autonomous helicopters. The feedforward control is based on a helicopter model that is derived using a number of carefully chosen simplifications to make it suitable...

  9. Adaptive Control System for Autonomous Helicopter Slung Load Operations

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2010-01-01

    system on the helicopter that measures the position of the slung load. The controller is a combined feedforward and feedback scheme for simultaneous avoidance of swing excitation and active swing damping. Simulations and laboratory flight tests show the effectiveness of the combined control system......This paper presents design and verification of an estimation and control system for a helicopter slung load system. The estimator provides position and velocity estimates of the slung load and is designed to augment existing navigation in autonomous helicopters. Sensor input is provided by a vision......, yielding significant load swing reduction compared to the baseline controller....

  10. Performance and Vibration Analyses of Lift-Offset Helicopters

    Jeong-In Go

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A validation study on the performance and vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter is conducted to establish techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters. This study considers the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter using a rigid coaxial rotor system as a verification model. CAMRAD II (Comprehensive Analytical Method of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics II, a comprehensive analysis code, is used as a tool for the performance, vibration, and loads analyses. A general free wake model, which is a more sophisticated wake model than other wake models, is used to obtain good results for the comprehensive analysis. Performance analyses of the XH-59A helicopter with and without auxiliary propulsion are conducted in various flight conditions. In addition, vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter configuration are conducted in the forward flight condition. The present comprehensive analysis results are in good agreement with the flight test and previous analyses. Therefore, techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters are appropriately established. Furthermore, the rotor lifts are calculated for the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter in the forward flight condition to investigate the airloads characteristics of the ABC™ (Advancing Blade Concept rotor.

  11. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 120th Scale Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    Theodore, Colin R.; Willink, Gina C.; Russell, Carl R.; Amy, Alexander R.; Pete, Ashley E.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs: NASA's Large Civil Tilt Rotor and the Army's High Efficiency Tilt Rotor. The approximately 6%-scale airframe models (unpowered) were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe were taken using the wind tunnel scale system. In addition to force and moment measurements, flow visualization using tufts, infrared thermography and oil flow were used to identify flow trajectories, boundary layer transition and areas of flow separation. The purpose of this test was to collect data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics tools, for the development of flight dynamics simulation models, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design. This paper focuses on the results for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor model in an airplane mode configuration up to 200 knots of wind tunnel speed. Results are presented with the full airframe model with various wing tip and nacelle configurations, and for a wing-only case also with various wing tip and nacelle configurations. Key results show that the addition of a wing extension outboard of the nacelles produces a significant increase in the lift-to-drag ratio, and interestingly decreases the drag compared to the case where the wing extension is not present. The drag decrease is likely due to complex aerodynamic interactions between the nacelle and wing extension that results in a significant drag benefit.

  12. High-Temperature Test of 800HT Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger in HELP

    Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Sung-Deok; Kim, Min Hwan; Shim, Jaesool

    2014-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed high-temperature Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) for a Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor and operated a very high temperature Helium Experimental LooP (HELP) to verify the performance of the high temperature heat exchanger at the component level environment. PCHE is one of the candidates for the intermediate heat exchanger in a VHTR, because its design temperature and pressure are larger than any other compact heat exchanger types. High temperature PCHEs in HELP consist of an alloy617 PCHE and an 800HT PCHE. This study presents the high temperature test of an 800HT PCHE in HELP. The experimental data include the pressure drops, the overall heat transfer coefficients, and the surface temperature distributions under various operating conditions. The experimental data are compared with the thermo-hydraulic analysis from COMSOL. In addition, the single channel tests are performed to quantify the friction factor under normal nitrogen and helium inlet conditions. (author)

  13. Structural Integrity and Aging-Related Issues of Helicopters

    2000-10-01

    inherently damage lolerant , any damage- inspection in critical locations where tests have indicated tolerant features in airframe design only enhances...required, so European Rotorcraft Forum. Marseilles, France, 15- that helicopters are equipped with such features as fly- 17 September 1998 . by-wire and...fatigue Evaluation of structural integrity issues of aging helicopters. The Structure," 29 April, 1998 . extended safe-life approach encompasses the best

  14. X-rays for industry: Non-destructive testing helps Malaysia’s competitiveness

    Plonsky, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial testing using nuclear technology has contributed to the competitiveness of Malaysia’s manufacturing sector, industry players have said. The country has also built itself an export niche in South-East Asia, offering non-destructive testing (NDT) with nuclear devices to manufacturers in neighbouring countries. “The fact that we can get NDT services of a good quality level at a very reasonable price allows us to spend more money on inspection, and thus improve our competitiveness as well as the level of safety of our plant,” said Zamaludin Ali, senior engineer at oil company PETRONAS. Before the development of a local NDT industry and accreditation system for testing services, PETRONAS and other companies in Malaysia had to rely on foreign NDT providers, or local companies hiring operators certified abroad, he explained. NDT using nuclear techniques involves the use of ionizing radiation to test the quality of finished products. It is based on the same principle as X-rays used in hospitals. Oil pipes, boilers, pressure vessels, aircraft equipment and ships are among the products whose quality is tested with the technique. The IAEA has played an important role in helping Malaysia to establish accredited training agencies and a certification system, and to promote NDT technologies such as radiographic testing. As a result of this longstanding partnership, over 50 companies in Malaysia, employing more than 2000 technicians, are certified to carry out NDT testing.

  15. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. 2014.

  16. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  17. 77 FR 64439 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters

    2012-10-22

    ... unsafe condition for the Bell Model 430 helicopters. Discrepancies in the processing and display of air... pilot and copilot electronic attitude direction indicators airspeed indicators; [cir] Leak testing the... and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons discussed, I certify this...

  18. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2009-01-01

    of swing. The design of the delayed feedback controller is presented as an optimization problem which gives the possibility of an automated design process. Simulations and flight test verifications of the control system on two different autonomous helicopters are presented and it is shown how a significant......This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems using intentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous...... helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integration with a feedforward control scheme based on input shaping for concurrent avoidance and dampening...

  19. 78 FR 1730 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. Helicopters

    2013-01-09

    ... Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) Model 205A, 205A-1, and 205B helicopters with certain starter/generator power... that may lead to a fire in the starter/generator, smoke in the cockpit that reduces visibility, and... Office, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12- 140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590...

  20. 77 FR 729 - Airworthiness Directives; Enstrom Helicopter Corporation Helicopters

    2012-01-06

    ... to the specified helicopters with a reversible trim motor, P/N 28-16621 (Ford Motor Company C1AZ... helicopters with a reversible trim motor, P/N 28-16621 (Ford Motor Company C1AZ- 14553A) or P/N AD1R-10...

  1. A 3D imaging system for the non-intrusive in-flight measurement of the deformation of an aircraft propeller and a helicopter rotor

    Stasicki, Bolesław; Boden, Fritz; Ludwikowski, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    The non-intrusive in-flight deformation measurement and the resulting local pitch of an aircraft propeller or helicopter rotor blade is a demanding task. The idea of an imaging system integrated and rotating with the air-craft propeller has already been presented at the 30th International Congress on High-Speed Imaging and Photonics (ICHSIP30) in 2012. Since then this system has been designed, constructed and tested in the laboratory as well as in-flight on the Cobra VUT100 of Evektor Aerotechnik, Kunovice (CZ). The major aim of the EU FP7 project AIM2 ("Advanced In-flight Measurement techniques 2" - contract No. 266107) was to ascertain the feasibility of this technique under extreme conditions - vibration and large centrifugal forces - to real flight testing. Based on the gained experience a new rotating system for the application on helicopter rotors has recently been constructed and tested on the whirl tower of Airbus Helicopters, Donauwoerth (D). In this paper the principle of the applied Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT), a specialized type of Digital Image Correlation (DIC), is outlined and the construction of both rotating 3D image acquisition systems dedicated to the in-flight deformation measurement of the aircraft propeller and helicopter rotor are described. Furthermore, the results of the ground and in-flight tests of these systems will be shown and discussed. The obtained results will be helpful for manufacturers in the design of their future aircrafts.

  2. 46 CFR 108.653 - Helicopter facilities.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter facilities. 108.653 Section 108.653 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.653 Helicopter facilities. (a) Each helicopter fueling facility must be marked adjacent to the fueling hose storage: “WARNING—HELICOPTER FUELING STATION—KEEP...

  3. 46 CFR 108.486 - Helicopter decks.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter decks. 108.486 Section 108.486 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.486 Helicopter decks. At least two of the accesses to the helicopter landing deck must each have a fire hydrant on the unit's...

  4. Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children With Mathematical Learning Difficulty.

    Zhang, Yiyun; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by testing using a web-based curriculum learning system. A total of 142 children with MLD were recruited; half of the children were in the experimental group (using the system), and the other half were in the control group (not using the system). The children were encouraged to use the web-based learning system at home for at least a 15-min session, at least once a week, for one and a half months. The mean accumulated time of testing on the system for children in the experimental group was 56.2 min. Children in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on their final mathematical examination compared to the control group. The results suggest that web-based curriculum learning through testing that promotes the building of knowledge structures for a mathematical course was helpful for children with MLD. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  5. World helicopter market study

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  6. The "T3 Support Centre" (Teaching, Technology and Testing - Not just another help desk

    Carol Miles

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Many faculty members embrace the challenge of responding to rising student demands for more technically advanced course supports by offering their courseware through a variety of media. However, it is often difficult for them to find the time required to become proficient in the use of the software packages, course management systems and web technologies at their disposal. These new realities of teaching point to the need for support systems for faculty members that go beyond the traditional computer services "help desk" with a more comprehensive support service that actually becomes involved in the development and modification of technology-based course materials and computerized test marking and analysis. Increasing demand for these types of services at Carleton University resulted in the establishment of the T3 (Teaching...Technology...Testing Support Centre. The service offers faculty members extended-hour phone-in and walk-in support as well as a variety of resources such as Scantron and Item Analysis service for multiple choice exams, the use of scanners and colour printers, as well as a variety of teaching publications and contacts. This paper details the planning, administration, and services offered of the T3 Service, including advice those attempting to establish a similar service. Usage statistics from the first year of operations will be delineated.

  7. High-integrity databases for helicopter operations

    Pschierer, Christian; Schiefele, Jens; Lüthy, Juerg

    2009-05-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Service missions (HEMS) impose a high workload on pilots due to short preparation time, operations in low level flight, and landings in unknown areas. The research project PILAS, a cooperation between Eurocopter, Diehl Avionics, DLR, EADS, Euro Telematik, ESG, Jeppesen, the Universities of Darmstadt and Munich, and funded by the German government, approached this problem by researching a pilot assistance system which supports the pilots during all phases of flight. The databases required for the specified helicopter missions include different types of topological and cultural data for graphical display on the SVS system, AMDB data for operations at airports and helipads, and navigation data for IFR segments. The most critical databases for the PILAS system however are highly accurate terrain and obstacle data. While RTCA DO-276 specifies high accuracies and integrities only for the areas around airports, HEMS helicopters typically operate outside of these controlled areas and thus require highly reliable terrain and obstacle data for their designated response areas. This data has been generated by a LIDAR scan of the specified test region. Obstacles have been extracted into a vector format. This paper includes a short overview of the complete PILAS system and then focus on the generation of the required high quality databases.

  8. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng

    2012-01-01

    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  9. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  10. Square tracking sensor for autonomous helicopter hover stabilization

    Oertel, Carl-Henrik

    1995-06-01

    Sensors for synthetic vision are needed to extend the mission profiles of helicopters. A special task for various applications is the autonomous position hold of a helicopter above a ground fixed or moving target. As a proof of concept for a general synthetic vision solution a restricted machine vision system, which is capable of locating and tracking a special target, was developed by the Institute of Flight Mechanics of Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (i.e., German Aerospace Research Establishment). This sensor, which is specialized to detect and track a square, was integrated in the fly-by-wire helicopter ATTHeS (i.e., Advanced Technology Testing Helicopter System). An existing model following controller for the forward flight condition was adapted for the hover and low speed requirements of the flight vehicle. The special target, a black square with a length of one meter, was mounted on top of a car. Flight tests demonstrated the automatic stabilization of the helicopter above the moving car by synthetic vision.

  11. Helicopters for the future

    Ward, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Technology needed to provide the basis for creating a widening rotary wing market include: well defined and proven design; reductions in noise, vibration, and fuel consumption; improvement of flying and ride quality; better safety; reliability; maintainability; and productivity. Unsteady transonic flow, yawed flow, dynamic stall, and blade vortex interaction are some of the problems faced by scientists and engineers in the helicopter industry with rotorcraft technology seen as an important development for future advanced high speed vehicle configurations. Such aircraft as the Boeing Vertol medium lift Model 360 composite aircraft, the Sikorsky Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) aircraft, the Bell Textron XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft, and the X-wing rotor aircraft are discussed in detail. Even though rotorcraft technology has become an integral part of the military scene, the potential market for its civil applications has not been fully developed.

  12. Helicopter Gas Turbine Engine Performance Analysis : A Multivariable Approach

    Arush, Ilan; Pavel, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Helicopter performance relies heavily on the available output power of the engine(s) installed. A simplistic single-variable analysis approach is often used within the flight-testing community to reduce raw flight-test data in order to predict the available output power under different atmospheric

  13. Helicopter fuel burn modeling in AEDT.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents work done to enhance helicopter fuel consumption modeling in the Federal Aviation : Administrations Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). Fuel consumption and flight performance data : were collected from helicopter flig...

  14. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  15. 46 CFR 109.577 - Helicopter fueling.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping... Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons to conduct helicopter fueling operations. (b) Portable tanks are handled and stowed in accordance with...

  16. School Public Relations: Helping an American Institution Pass Its Most Crucial Test

    Boyd, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    The professional discipline of strategic public relations offers many benefits to organizations. It helps them prevent and mitigate crises. It allows them to identify and manage issues that may interfere with their goals and objectives. It also leads them in building and maintaining quality relationships with strategic publics. However, can the…

  17. Characteristics, Causes, and Evaluation of Helicopter Particulate Visual Obstruction

    2012-09-10

    future full-scale testing. The thrust sources examined were a 1 in. diameter nozzle , a 4 in. diameter nozzle , and a 16 in. ducted fan. The sources...Hiller also evaluated inclining the thrust vector , and determined there was little reduction in dynamic pressure at the point of ground interaction...CHARACTERISTICS, CAUSES, AND EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER PARTICULATE VISUAL OBSTRUCTION THESIS

  18. 78 FR 38826 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Helicopter Models

    2013-06-28

    ... (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopter picked up a dummy load of 552 lbs. to conduct a ``maximum load... comply with this AD. It will take about 1 work-hour to perform the lift testing at an average labor rate... the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons...

  19. Vouchers, Tests, Loans, Privatization: Will They Help Tackle Corruption in Russian Higher Education?

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Russia is currently being reformed. A standardized computer-graded test and educational vouchers were introduced to make higher education more accessible, fund it more effectively, and reduce corruption in admissions to public colleges. The voucher project failed and the test faces furious opposition. This paper considers…

  20. Use of urodynamics prior to surgery for urinary incontinence: How helpful is preoperative testing?

    Gary E Lemack

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has not yet been definitively demonstrated that preoperative evaluation of women with stress urinary incontinence with urodynamic testing enhances presurgical counseling, more effectively models patients′ expectations or improves postoperative outcome. Nonetheless, urodynamic testing is frequently utilized in the assessment of women with stress urinary incontinence and clearly accomplishes a number of goals when utilized for this purpose. For example, there are data to suggest that the risk of voiding dysfunction can be mitigated by utilizing data obtained from urodynamic testing to identify women more likely to void ineffectively after conventional stress incontinence procedures. Furthermore, it has been suggested though not proven, that patients with more severe forms of stress incontinence as identified by urodynamic testing, might be less likely to improve after surgery compared to others with more modest degrees of incontinence. Since urodynamic testing is invasive, costly and not always available, it is imperative that the usefulness of such testing be carefully explored and its utility appropriately defined. In this review, we discuss urodynamic techniques to assess stress urinary incontinence, particularly focusing on the ability of leak point pressure testing and urethral pressure profilometry to predict which patients would most likely benefit from surgery and which might be more likely to experience adverse events following surgery.

  1. Development in helicopter tail boom strake applications in the US

    Wilson, John C.; Kelley, Henry L.; Donahue, Cynthia C.; Yenni, Kenneth R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a strake or spoiler on a helicopter tail boom to beneficially change helicopter tail boom air loads was suggested in the United States in 1975. The anticipated benefits were a change of tail boom loads to reduce required tail rotor thrust and power and improve directional control. High tail boom air loads experienced by the YAH-64 and described in 1978 led to a wind tunnel investigation of the usefullness of strakes in altering such loads on the AH-64, UH-60, and UH-1 helicopters. The wind tunnel tests of 2-D cross sections of the tail boom of each demonstrated that a strake or strakes would be effective. Several limited test programs with the U.S. Army's OH-58A, AH-64, and UH-60A were conducted which showed the effects of strakes were modest for those helicopters. The most recent flight test program, with a Bell 204B, disclosed that for the 204B the tail boom strake or strakes would provide more than a modest improvement in directional control and reduction in tail rotor power.

  2. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  3. 78 FR 9793 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    2013-02-12

    ...-numbered main rotor hub inboard strap fittings (fittings). This AD requires magnetic particle inspecting... identified in this AD, contact Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., P.O. Box 482, Fort Worth, TX 76101, telephone..., perform a magnetic particle inspection (MPI) of each fitting for a crack. If an MPI was already performed...

  4. Development and Pilot Testing of an Internet-Based Self-Help Intervention for Depression for Indian Users.

    Mehrotra, Seema; Sudhir, Paulomi; Rao, Girish; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Srikanth, T K

    2018-03-22

    There is a dearth of published research on uptake and utility of mental health apps in India, despite a rising global trend in the application of technology in the field of mental health. We describe the development and pilot testing of a self-help intervention for depression, PUSH-D (Practice and Use Self-Help for Depression) for urban Indians. This guided self-help app, with essential and optional zone sections, was developed to provide a comprehensive coverage of therapeutic strategies drawn from cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, supportive psychotherapy, and positive psychology. Pilot testing was carried out using a single group pre-, post- and follow-up design in 78 eligible participants. Participants were typically young adults with major depression or dysthymia and significant impairment in functioning. Almost two-thirds of the participants had never sought professional mental health help. Significant reductions in depression and improvement in the functioning and well-being were notedon standardized measures in participants completing all 10 essential zone sections. These gains were maintained at follow-up. The results were similar for partial completers, who completed fiveout of the 10 essential sections. PUSH-D is one of the first indigenously developed self-help apps for depression and it shows promise in reducing the treatment gap for depression in India.

  5. Development and preliminary testing of a web-based, self-help application for disaster-affected families.

    Yuen, Erica K; Gros, Kirstin; Welsh, Kyleen E; McCauley, Jenna; Resnick, Heidi S; Danielson, Carla K; Price, Matthew; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2016-09-01

    Technology-based self-help interventions have the potential to increase access to evidence-based mental healthcare, especially for families affected by natural disasters. However, development of these interventions is a complex process and poses unique challenges. Usability testing, which assesses the ability of individuals to use an application successfully, can have a significant impact on the quality of a self-help intervention. This article describes (a) the development of a novel web-based multi-module self-help intervention for disaster-affected adolescents and their parents and (b) a mixed-methods formal usability study to evaluate user response. A total of 24 adolescents were observed, videotaped, and interviewed as they used the depressed mood component of the self-help intervention. Quantitative results indicated an above-average user experience, and qualitative analysis identified 120 unique usability issues. We discuss the challenges of developing self-help applications, including design considerations and the value of usability testing in technology-based interventions, as well as our plan for widespread dissemination. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Development and Pilot Testing of an Internet-Based Self-Help Intervention for Depression for Indian Users

    Seema Mehrotra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a dearth of published research on uptake and utility of mental health apps in India, despite a rising global trend in the application of technology in the field of mental health. We describe the development and pilot testing of a self-help intervention for depression, PUSH-D (Practice and Use Self-Help for Depression for urban Indians. This guided self-help app, with essential and optional zone sections, was developed to provide a comprehensive coverage of therapeutic strategies drawn from cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, supportive psychotherapy, and positive psychology. Pilot testing was carried out using a single group pre-, post- and follow-up design in 78 eligible participants. Participants were typically young adults with major depression or dysthymia and significant impairment in functioning. Almost two-thirds of the participants had never sought professional mental health help. Significant reductions in depression and improvement in the functioning and well-being were notedon standardized measures in participants completing all 10 essential zone sections. These gains were maintained at follow-up. The results were similar for partial completers, who completed fiveout of the 10 essential sections. PUSH-D is one of the first indigenously developed self-help apps for depression and it shows promise in reducing the treatment gap for depression in India.

  7. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    Mardoian, George H.; Ezzo, Maureen B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA funded contract and Sikorsky research and development programs to evaluate structural composite components in flight service on Sikorsky Model S-76 helicopters. Selected components were removed and tested at prescribed intervals over a nine year time frame. Four horizontal stabilizers and thirteen tail rotor spars were returned from commercial service in West Palm Beach, Florida and in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana to determine the long term effects of operations in hot and humid climates on component performance. Concurrent with the flight component evaluation, panels of materials used in their fabrication were exposed to the environment in ground racks. Selected panels were tested annually to determine the effects of exposure on physical and mechanical properties. The results of 55,741 component flight hours and 911 months of field exposure are reported and compared with initial Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification data. The findings of this program have provided increased confidence in the long term durability of advanced composite materials used in helicopter structural applications.

  8. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: Helping Patients Make Informed Choices
.

    Mahon, Suzanne M

    2018-02-01

    Using direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTCGT), individuals can order a genetic test, collect and submit a saliva sample, and obtain results about their genetic risk for a variety of traits and health conditions without involving a healthcare provider. Potential benefits of DTCGT include personal control over genetic information and health management decisions, whereas potential risks include misinterpretation of results, psychosocial distress, and lack of informed consent. Oncology nurses can provide education, support, and advocacy to enable patients to truly understand the positives and negatives associated with DTCGT.
.

  9. Identification of suicidal ideations with the help of projective tests: a review.

    Kumar, Devvarta; Nizamie, S Haque; Abhishek, Priyadarshee; Prasanna, Lavanya Tumkur

    2014-12-01

    Identification of the presence of suicidal ideations in an individual is crucial for the timely intervention. However, these ideations may remain unidentified as an individual with serious intentions of self-harm may not express them explicitly. Various projective tests can provide crucial clues to clinicians about the presence of suicidal ideations in an individual's mind. The present review is intended to update clinicians working in the field of suicide prevention about salient findings on these tests which can serve as a ready reckoner for them. We also highlight the status of research in this domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  11. Smart actuation for helicopter rotorblades

    Paternoster, Alexandre; Loendersloot, Richard; de Boer, Andries; Akkerman, Remko; Berselli, G.; Vertechy, R.; Vassura, G.

    2012-01-01

    Successful rotorcrafts were only achieved when the differences between hovering flight conditions and a stable forward flight were understood. During hovering, the air speed on all helicopter blades is linearly distributed along each blade and is the same for each. However, during forward flight,

  12. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2000-01-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  13. Helicopter Approach Capability Using the Differential Global Positioning System

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1994-01-01

    The results of flight tests to determine the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the Differential mode (DGPS) to provide high accuracy, precision navigation and guidance for helicopter approaches to landing are presented. The airborne DGPS receiver and associated equipment is installed in a NASA UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The ground-based DGPS reference receiver is located at a surveyed test site and is equipped with a real-time VHF data link to transmit correction information to the airborne DGPS receiver. The corrected airborne DGPS information, together with the preset approach geometry, is used to calculate guidance commands which are sent to the aircraft's approach guidance instruments. The use of DGPS derived guidance for helicopter approaches to landing is evaluated by comparing the DGPS data with the laser tracker truth data. The errors indicate that the helicopter position based on DGPS guidance satisfies the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category 1 (CAT 1) lateral and vertical navigational accuracy requirements.

  14. Helicopter blades running elevation measurement using omnidirectional vision

    Chengtao CAI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Omnidirectional dynamic space parameters of high-speed rotating helicopter blades are precise 3D vector description of the blades. In particular, the elevation difference is directly related to the aerodynamic performance and maneuverability of the helicopter. The state of the art detection techniques based on optics and common vision have several drawbacks, such as high demands on devices but poor extensibility, limited measurement range and fixed measurement position. In this paper, a novel approach of helicopter blades running elevation measurement is proposed based on omnidirectional vision. With the advantages of panoramic visual imaging integration, 360° field of view and rotation in-variance, high-resolution images of all rotating blades positions are obtained at one time. By studying the non-linear calibration and calculation model of omnidirectional vision system, aiming at solving the problem of inaccurate visual space mapping model, the omnidirectional and full-scale measurement of the elevation difference are finalized. Experiments are carried out on our multifunctional simulation blades test system and the practical blades test tower, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that the proposed method can considerably reduce the complexity of measurement. Keywords: Full-scale measurement, Helicopter blades elevation, Non-linear calibration, Omnidirectional vision, Unified sphere model

  15. How diagnostic tests help to disentangle the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms in painful neuropathies.

    Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain, ie, pain arising directly from a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory afferent pathway, manifests with various symptoms, the commonest being ongoing burning pain, electrical shock-like sensations, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. Reliable insights into the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms come from diagnostic tests documenting and quantifying somatosensory afferent pathway damage in patients with painful neuropathies. Neurophysiological investigation and skin biopsy studies suggest that ongoing burning pain primarily reflects spontaneous activity in nociceptive-fiber pathways. Electrical shock-like sensations presumably arise from high-frequency ectopic bursts generated in demyelinated, nonnociceptive, Aβ fibers. Although the mechanisms underlying dynamic mechanical allodynia remain debatable, normally innocuous stimuli might cause pain by activating spared and sensitized nociceptive afferents. Extending the mechanistic approach to neuropathic pain symptoms might advance targeted therapy for the individual patient and improve testing for new drugs.

  16. Improving the identification accuracy of senior witnesses: do prelineup questions and sequential testing help?

    Memon, Amina; Gabbert, Fiona

    2003-04-01

    Eyewitness research has identified sequential lineup testing as a way of reducing false lineup choices while maintaining accurate identifications. The authors examined the usefulness of this procedure for reducing false choices in older adults. Young and senior witnesses viewed a crime video and were later presented with target present orabsent lineups in a simultaneous or sequential format. In addition, some participants received prelineup questions about their memory for a perpetrator's face and about their confidence in their ability to identify the culprit or to correctly reject the lineup. The sequential lineup reduced false choosing rates among young and older adults in target-absent conditions. In target-present conditions, sequential testing significantly reduced the correct identification rate in both age groups.

  17. Serological biomarker testing helps avoiding unnecessary endoscopies in obese patients before bariatric surgery

    Jaanus Suumann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the value of serological biomarker testing as a substitute for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS in pre-operative assessment of patients referred for bariatric surgery. Methods Sixty-five obese patients with a mean age of 43 years (range: 21–65 and a mean body mass index (BMI of 44 (range: 36–59 were studied. The patients were tested with a four-biomarker panel: pepsinogen I and II, gastrin-17 (basal and stimulated, and Helicobacter pylori (HP antibodies (GastroPanel®, Biohit Oyj, Finland. On the basis of the biomarker test, the patients were classified into the HS (healthy stomach group (n = 22 with the normal biomarker profile and the NHS (non-healthy stomach group (n = 43. The classification of patients into HS and NHS was evaluated against the gold standard, i.e. EGDS with biopsies. Results The concordance (Cohen’s kappa between the biomarker test and gastric histology was 0.68; 95% CI 0.504–0.854, with an overall agreement of 84.6% (95% CI 73.9–91.4%. In the NHS group, all 43 patients had biopsy-confirmed chronic gastritis: 39 non-atrophic HP-gastritis, 4 atrophic antrum gastritis (AGA of moderate severity. In the HS group only 6 patients had mild superficial H.pylori negative gastritis. Of the 22 HS subjects with the normal biomarker profile, 20 (31% of all 65 had no complaints either, while the remaining two had reflux symptoms with esophagitis. In the NHS group 10 patients had esophagitis and 8 had also reflux symptoms. Conclusions The normal biomarker profile is an excellent surrogate for healthy stomach, implicating that pre-operative EGDS could have been avoided in 31% of our asymptomatic bariatric surgery patients who had the normal biomarker profile.

  18. How the Laser Helped to Improve the Test of Special Theory of Relativity?

    Singh, Satya Pal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper of I have reviewed the test done for validating the special theory of relativity using masers and lasers in last one century. Michelson-Morley did the first experimental verification for the isotropy of space for the propagation of light in 1887. It has an accuracy of 1/100th of a fringe shift. The predicted fringe shift on the basis…

  19. Avoidance bio-assays may help to test the ecological significance of soil pollution

    Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Lors, Christine; Salmon, Sandrine; Ponge, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    We measured the short-term (100 min) avoidance of a soil heavily polluted by hydrocarbons by the soil springtail Folsomia candida, at six rates of dilution in a control, unpolluted soil. We compared the results with those of long-term (40-day) population tests. Five strains were compared, of varying geographical and ecological origin. When pure, the polluted soil was lethal in the long-term and avoided in the short-term by all strains. Avoidance tests, but not population tests, were able to discriminate between strains. Avoidance thresholds differed among strains. Two ecological consequences of the results were discussed: (i) toxic compounds may kill soil animals or deprive them from food, resulting in death of populations, (ii) pollution spots can be locally deprived of fauna because of escape movements of soil animals. Advantages and limitations of the method have been listed, together with proposals for their wider use in soil ecology and ecotoxicology. - Polluted soils are avoided by soil animals, a phenomenon which can be used as a cheap, sensitive tool for the early detection of environmental risk

  20. When interference helps: Increasing executive load to facilitate deception detection in the Concealed Information Test

    George eVisu-Petra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to enhance the detection efficiency of the Concealed Information Test (CIT by increasing executive load was investigated, using an interference design. After learning and executing a mock crime scenario, subjects underwent three deception detection tests: an RT-based CIT, an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent memory task (CITMem, and an RT-based CIT plus a concurrent set-shifting task (CITShift. The concealed information effect, consisting in increased RT and lower response accuracy for probe items compared to irrelevant items, was evidenced across all three conditions. The group analyses indicated a larger difference between RTs to probe and irrelevant items in the dual-task conditions, but this difference was not translated in a significantly increased detection efficiency at an individual level. Signal detection parameters based on the comparison with a simulated innocent group showed accurate discrimination for all conditions. Overall response accuracy on the CITMem was highest and the difference between response accuracy to probes and irrelevants was smallest in this condition. Accuracy on the concurrent tasks (Mem and Shift was high, and responses on these tasks were significantly influenced by CIT stimulus type (probes vs. irrelevants. The findings are interpreted in relation to the cognitive load/dual-task interference literature, generating important insights for research on the involvement of executive functions in deceptive behavior.

  1. Tribological Characterisation of PBT + Glass Bead Composites with the Help of Block-on-Ring Test

    C. Georgescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The materials involved in this research study were produced by diemoulding in order to obtain bone samples type 1A (SR EN ISO 527‐2:2003. These composites have a matrix of polybutylene terephthalate(PBT commercial grade Crastin 6130NC010,DuPont. The valuesfor theglass beads concentrations were established at 10 % and 20 %(wt.Block‐on‐ring tests were run in order to characterize the tribologicalbehaviour of this friction couple (PBT and PBT composites with glassbeads on steel. The block was manufactured by cutting parts from thebone samples, having the dimensions of 16.5 mm × 10 mm × 4 mm. Theother triboelement was the external ring of the tapered rolling bearing KBS 30202, having dimensions of Ø35 mm × 10 mm and was made ofsteel grade DIN 100Cr6. There were analysed the followingcharacteristics: friction coefficient (mean value over a test andscattering range, wear (wear rate. There are also presented particular aspects oftheworn surfaces, asinvestigated fromSEMimages

  2. Final assessment of vibro-acoustic source strength descriptors of helicopter gearboxes

    Ohlrich, Mogens; Rasmussen, Ulrik Møller

    1996-01-01

    Two novel measurement techniques have been developed for quantifying the vibro-aqcoustic source strength of lightweight helicopter gearboxes. The accuracy, robustness and implementation of these methods have been examined by a comprehensive investigation, including theoretical studies of simple...... multi-modal beam systems and extensive experiments with more realistic small scale models and with large, detailed 3/4-scale test structures of a medium-size helicopter. In addition, partial verification tests have been conducted with the Eurocopter BK 117 helicopter and its main rotor gearbox....... The results of this work are essential as input for any prediction code of the internal noise in a helicopter cabin, because the prediction requires knowledge of the major sources, that is, the rotors, engines and gearboxes....

  3. Study on Helicopter Antitorque Device Based on Cross-Flow Fan Technology

    Du Siliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve low-altitude flight security of single-rotor helicopter, an experimental model of a helicopter antitorque device is developed for wind tunnel test. The model is based on the flow control technology of the cross-flow fan (CFF. Wind tunnel tests show that the model can produce side force. It is concluded that the influence of the CFF rotating speed, the rotor collective pitch, and the forward flight speed on the side force of the model is great. At the same time, the numerical simulation calculation method of the model has been established. Good agreement between experimental and numerical side force and power shows that results of numerical solution are reliable. Therefore, the results in actual helicopter obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD solution are acceptable. This proves that this antitorque device can be used for a helicopter.

  4. Time domain system identification of longitudinal dynamics of single rotor model helicopter using sidpac

    Khaizer, A.N.; Hussain, I.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a time-domain approach for identification of longitudinal dynamics of single rotor model helicopter. A frequency sweep excitation input signal is applied for hover flying mode widely used for space state linearized model. A fully automated programmed flight test method provides high quality flight data for system identification using the computer controlled flight simulator X-plane. The flight test data were recorded, analyzed and reduced using the SIDPAC (System Identification Programs for Air Craft) toolbox for MATLAB, resulting in an aerodynamic model of single rotor helicopter. Finally, the identified model of single rotor helicopter is validated on Raptor 30-class model helicopter at hover showing the reliability of proposed approach. (author)

  5. Extending helicopter operations to meet future integrated transportation needs.

    Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Harvey, Catherine; Thomas, T Glyn

    2016-03-01

    Helicopters have the potential to be an integral part of the future transport system. They offer a means of rapid transit in an overly populated transport environment. However, one of the biggest limitations on rotary wing flight is their inability to fly in degraded visual conditions in the critical phases of approach and landing. This paper presents a study that developed and evaluated a Head up Display (HUD) to assist rotary wing pilots by extending landing to degraded visual conditions. The HUD was developed with the assistance of the Cognitive Work Analysis method as an approach for analysing the cognitive work of landing the helicopter. The HUD was tested in a fixed based flight simulator with qualified helicopter pilots. A qualitative analysis to assess situation awareness and workload found that the HUD enabled safe landing in degraded conditions whilst simultaneously enhancing situation awareness and reducing workload. Continued development in this area has the potential to extend the operational capability of helicopters in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing the QGSJET01 and QGSJETII-04 models with the help of atmospheric muons

    Dedenko, Leonid G.; Lukyashin, Anton V.; Roganova, Tatiana M.; Fedorova, Galina F.

    2017-06-01

    More accurate original calculations of the atmospheric vertical muon energy spectra at energies 102 - 105 GeV have been carried out in terms of the QGSJET01 and QGSJETII-04 models. The Gaisser-Honda approximations of the measured energy spectra of primary protons, helium and nitrogen nuclei have been used. The CORSIKA package has been used to simulate cascades in the standard atmosphere induced by different primary particles with various fixed energies E. Statistics of simulated cascades for secondary particles with energies (0.01 - 1) · E was increased up to 106. It has been shown that predictions of the QGSJET01 and QGSJETII-04 models for these muon fluxes are below the data of the classical experiments L3 + Cosmic, MACRO and LVD by factors of ˜ 1.7-2 at energies above 102 GeV. It has been concluded that these tested models underestimate the production of the most energetic secondary particles, namely, π-mesons and K-mesons, in interactions of primary protons and other primary nuclei with nuclei in the atmosphere by the same factors.

  7. Modernization of vertical Pelton turbines with the help of CFD and model testing

    Mack, Reiner; Gola, Bartlomiej; Smertnig, Martin; Wittwer, Bernhard; Meusburger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    model tests carried out in the hydraulic laboratory. Finally a comparison is made in between the achieved model turbine results with measurements carried out in the prototype

  8. Modernization of vertical Pelton turbines with the help of CFD and model testing

    Mack, Reiner; Gola, Bartlomiej; Smertnig, Martin; Wittwer, Bernhard; Meusburger, Peter

    2014-03-01

    model tests carried out in the hydraulic laboratory. Finally a comparison is made in between the achieved model turbine results with measurements carried out in the prototype.

  9. Helicopter Fatigue. A Review of Current Requirements and Substantiation Procedures

    1979-01-01

    stress versus cycles to failure (S/N) method of testing and verification. A mi..iimum of six test specimens is required to establish the mean curve with...Approach) A.D. Hall B.Sc., C.Eng., M.R.Ae.S. 4 Chief Stress Engineer (Dynamic Components) Westland Helicopters Limited, Yeovil, Somerset, England...airworthiness requirements concerning the fatifue strength of British milltary nelicopters are embodied in the U.K. Ministry Documents Aviation Publication

  10. Helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1992-01-01

    The period between 1 July and 31 December, 1992, was spent developing a research plan as well as a navigation system document and flight test plan to investigate helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition, all hardware and software required for the research was acquired, developed, installed, and verified on both the test aircraft and the ground-based reference station.

  11. Handling "Helicopter Parents"

    Lum, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    Once upon a time, parents would help their children move into dorm rooms and apartments, then wave good-bye for the semester. Not anymore. Baby boomers have arguably been more involved in their children's educations--and their lives in general--than any preceding generation of parents, university observers say. And boomers see no reason why that…

  12. A Helicopter submarine Search Game

    1988-09-01

    Figure 3. Graphical representation of Baston and Bostock ................. 10 Figure 4. Dips and Speed Circle...dimen.ional helicopter submarine gaines studied by Meinardi [Ref. 7] and more recently by Baston and Bostock [Ref. 8]. Meinardi solves a discr,-te form of...the game while Baston and Bostock solve the continuous case. Bes.ides Danskin’s game, not much work has been done on the two dimensional case except

  13. Simulation Analysis of Helicopter Ground Resonance Nonlinear Dynamics

    Zhu, Yan; Lu, Yu-hui; Ling, Ai-min

    2017-07-01

    In order to accurately predict the dynamic instability of helicopter ground resonance, a modeling and simulation method of helicopter ground resonance considering nonlinear dynamic characteristics of components (rotor lead-lag damper, landing gear wheel and absorber) is presented. The numerical integral method is used to calculate the transient responses of the body and rotor, simulating some disturbance. To obtain quantitative instabilities, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is conducted to estimate the modal frequencies, and the mobile rectangular window method is employed in the predictions of the modal damping in terms of the response time history. Simulation results show that ground resonance simulation test can exactly lead up the blade lead-lag regressing mode frequency, and the modal damping obtained according to attenuation curves are close to the test results. The simulation test results are in accordance with the actual accident situation, and prove the correctness of the simulation method. This analysis method used for ground resonance simulation test can give out the results according with real helicopter engineering tests.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.551 - Helicopters.

    2010-07-01

    ...) Loose gear and objects. Every practical precaution shall be taken to provide for the protection of the employees from flying objects in the rotor downwash. All loose gear within 100 feet of the place of lifting... manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter. If, for any reason, the helicopter operator...

  15. 46 CFR 108.487 - Helicopter deck fueling operations.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter deck fueling operations. 108.487 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.487 Helicopter deck fueling operations. (a) Each helicopter landing deck on which fueling operations are...

  16. 46 CFR 108.489 - Helicopter fueling facilities.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling facilities. 108.489 Section 108.489... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.489 Helicopter fueling facilities. (a) Each helicopter fueling facility must have a fire protection system that...

  17. Helicopter Operations and Personnel Safety (Helirescue Manual). Fourth Edition.

    Dalle-Molle, John

    The illustrated manual includes information on various aspects of helicopter rescue missions, including mission management roles for key personnel, safety rules around helicopters, requests for helicopter support, sample military air support forms, selection of landing zones, helicopter evacuations, rescuer delivery, passenger unloading, crash…

  18. Stable Hovering Flight for a Small Unmanned Helicopter Using Fuzzy Control

    Arbab Nighat Khizer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable hover flight control for small unmanned helicopter under light air turbulent environment is presented. Intelligent fuzzy logic is chosen because it is a nonlinear control technique based on expert knowledge and is capable of handling sensor created noise and contradictory inputs commonly encountered in flight control. The fuzzy nonlinear control utilizes these distinct qualities for attitude, height, and position control. These multiple controls are developed using two-loop control structure by first designing an inner-loop controller for attitude angles and height and then by establishing outer-loop controller for helicopter position. The nonlinear small unmanned helicopter model used comes from X-Plane simulator. A simulation platform consisting of MATLAB/Simulink and X-Plane© flight simulator was introduced to implement the proposed controls. The main objective of this research is to design computationally intelligent control laws for hovering and to test and analyze this autopilot for small unmanned helicopter model on X-Plane under ideal and mild turbulent condition. Proposed fuzzy flight controls are validated using an X-Plane helicopter model before being embedded on actual helicopter. To show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy control method and its ability to cope with the external uncertainties, results are compared with a classical PD controller. Simulated results show that two-loop fuzzy controllers have a good ability to establish stable hovering for a class of unmanned rotorcraft in the presence of light turbulent environment.

  19. Helicopter overtriage in pediatric trauma.

    Michailidou, Maria; Goldstein, Seth D; Salazar, Jose; Aboagye, Jonathan; Stewart, Dylan; Efron, David; Abdullah, Fizan; Haut, Elliot R

    2014-11-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) have been designed to provide faster access to trauma center care in cases of life-threatening injury. However, the ideal recipient population is not fully characterized, and indications for helicopter transport in pediatric trauma vary dramatically by county, state, and region. Overtriage, or unnecessary utilization, can lead to additional patient risk and expense. In this study we perform a nationwide descriptive analysis of HEMS for pediatric trauma and assess the incidence of overtriage in this group. We reviewed records from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (2008-11) and included patients less than 16 years of age who were transferred from the scene of injury to a trauma center via HEMS. Overtriage was defined as patients meeting all of the following criteria: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) equal to 15, absence of hypotension, an Injury Severity Score (ISS) less than 9, no need for procedure or critical care, and a hospital length of stay of less than 24 hours. A total of 19,725 patients were identified with a mean age of 10.5 years. The majority of injuries were blunt (95.6%) and resulted from motor vehicle crashes (48%) and falls (15%). HEMS transported patients were predominately normotensive (96%), had a GCS of 15 (67%), and presented with minor injuries (ISS<9, 41%). Overall, 28 % of patients stayed in the hospital for less than 24 hours, and the incidence of overtriage was 17%. Helicopter overtriage is prevalent among pediatric trauma patients nationwide. The ideal model to predict need for HEMS must consider clinical outcomes in the context of judicious resource utilization. The development of guidelines for HEMS use in pediatric trauma could potentially limit unnecessary transfers while still identifying children who require trauma center care in a timely fashion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Towards a better understanding of helicopter external noise

    Damongeot, A.; Dambra, F.; Masure, B.

    The problem of helicopter external noise generation is studied taking into consideration simultaneously the multiple noise sources: rotor rotational-, rotor broadband -, and engine noise. The main data are obtained during flight tests of the rather quiet AS 332 Super Puma. The flight procedures settled by ICAO for noise regulations are used: horizontal flyover at 90 percent of the maximum speed, approach at minimum power velocity, take-off at best rate of climb. Noise source levels are assessed through narrow band analysis of ground microphone recordings, ground measurements of engine noise and theoretical means. With the perceived noise level unit used throughout the study, relative magnitude of noise sources is shown to be different from that obtained with linear noise unit. A parametric study of the influence of some helicopter parameters on external noise has shown that thickness-tapered, chord-tapered, and swept-back blade tips are good means to reduce the overall noise level in flyover and approach.

  1. Helping parents to motivate adolescents in mathematics and science: an experimental test of a utility-value intervention.

    Harackiewicz, Judith M; Rozek, Christopher S; Hulleman, Chris S; Hyde, Janet S

    2012-08-01

    The pipeline toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) begins to leak in high school, when some students choose not to take advanced mathematics and science courses. We conducted a field experiment testing whether a theory-based intervention that was designed to help parents convey the importance of mathematics and science courses to their high school-aged children would lead them to take more mathematics and science courses in high school. The three-part intervention consisted of two brochures mailed to parents and a Web site, all highlighting the usefulness of STEM courses. This relatively simple intervention led students whose parents were in the experimental group to take, on average, nearly one semester more of science and mathematics in the last 2 years of high school, compared with the control group. Parents are an untapped resource for increasing STEM motivation in adolescents, and the results demonstrate that motivational theory can be applied to this important pipeline problem.

  2. Operational Helicopter Aviation Medicine

    1978-12-01

    attachments through the years; and finally, the blades used the same technology as in the U.S.--aluminum extruded leading edge spar and aluminum sheet...fabric cover- ing. Subsequent models have aluminum extruded spars and aluminum pockets. The blades are electrically de-iced as is the windshield. The...x 2000 to x x x 2145 Flight x x x x x 2200 to x x x 2345 Flight x x x x x x 2400 to Snack & x 0100 Testing x x x x 22-3 TABLE 2 FLIGHT PROFILE Bad

  3. Development of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Quanser Bench-Top Helicopter

    Jafri, M. H.; Mansor, H.; Gunawan, T. S.

    2017-11-01

    Bench-top helicopter is a laboratory scale helicopter that usually used as a testing bench of the real helicopter behavior. This helicopter is a 3 Degree of Freedom (DOF) helicopter which works by three different axes wshich are elevation, pitch and travel. Thus, fuzzy logic controller has been proposed to be implemented into Quanser bench-top helicopter because of its ability to work with non-linear system. The objective for this project is to design and apply fuzzy logic controller for Quanser bench-top helicopter. Other than that, fuzzy logic controller performance system has been simulated to analyze and verify its behavior over existing PID controller by using Matlab & Simulink software. In this research, fuzzy logic controller has been designed to control the elevation angle. After simulation has been performed, it can be seen that simulation result shows that fuzzy logic elevation control is working for 4°, 5° and 6°. These three angles produce zero steady state error and has a fast response. Other than that, performance comparisons have been performed between fuzzy logic controller and PID controller. Fuzzy logic elevation control has a better performance compared to PID controller where lower percentage overshoot and faster settling time have been achieved in 4°, 5° and 6° step response test. Both controller are have zero steady state error but fuzzy logic controller is managed to produce a better performance in term of settling time and percentage overshoot which make the proposed controller is reliable compared to the existing PID controller.

  4. Autonomous formation flight of helicopters: Model predictive control approach

    Chung, Hoam

    Formation flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter formations is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter formation flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level formation management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe formations. The starting point for safe autonomous formation flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous formations, our decentralized model predictive control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a formation. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter formations comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a formation manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The formation manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the formation manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected

  5. Application of an active device for helicopter noise reduction in JAXA

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada

    2010-01-01

    Important issues in noise problems for current helicopters are described. An active tab (AT) was developed as a new active device for noise/vibration reduction under research cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Kawada Industries, Inc. The wind tunnel test was conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of the AT on the aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter. From the wind tunnel test, the capability of reducing blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise by an AT was verified. A new control law using instantaneous pressure change on a blade during BVI phenomena was introduced and applied to the wind tunnel testing. This new control law shows reasonable controllability for helicopter noise reduction. Furthermore, in order to analyze noise characteristics, the advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code named JAXA o v3d was developed in JAXA and extended to include CFD-CSD (computational structure dynamics) coupling by using the beam theory for blade deformation. (invited paper)

  6. STUDY ON SAFETY TECHNOLOGY SCHEME OF THE UNMANNED HELICOPTER

    Z. Lin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the unmanned helicopter is widely used for its' unique strongpoint, however, the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter seriously limits its further application and development. For solving the above problems, in this paper, the reasons for the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter is analyzed and the corresponding solution schemes are proposed. The main problem of the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is the aircraft engine fault, and the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is analyzed particularly. In order to improving the safety performance of unmanned helicopter system, the scheme of adding the safety parachute system to the unmanned helicopter system is proposed and introduced. These schemes provide the safety redundancy of the unmanned helicopter system and lay on basis for the unmanned helicopter applying into residential areas.

  7. Getting Help

    ... Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Getting Help Getting Help Resources from NIAAA Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding ... and find ways to make a change. Professional help Your doctor. Primary care and mental health practitioners ...

  8. Helicopter Flight Procedures for Community Noise Reduction

    Greenwood, Eric

    2017-01-01

    A computationally efficient, semiempirical noise model suitable for maneuvering flight noise prediction is used to evaluate the community noise impact of practical variations on several helicopter flight procedures typical of normal operations. Turns, "quick-stops," approaches, climbs, and combinations of these maneuvers are assessed. Relatively small variations in flight procedures are shown to cause significant changes to Sound Exposure Levels over a wide area. Guidelines are developed for helicopter pilots intended to provide effective strategies for reducing the negative effects of helicopter noise on the community. Finally, direct optimization of flight trajectories is conducted to identify low noise optimal flight procedures and quantify the magnitude of community noise reductions that can be obtained through tailored helicopter flight procedures. Physically realizable optimal turns and approaches are identified that achieve global noise reductions of as much as 10 dBA Sound Exposure Level.

  9. 29 CFR 1910.183 - Helicopters.

    2010-07-01

    ... objects. The employer shall take all necessary precautions to protect employees from flying objects in the... safety. The size and weight of loads, and the manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter shall...

  10. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program: McDonnell-Douglas Helicopter Company achievements

    Toossi, Mostafa; Weisenburger, Richard; Hashemi-Kia, Mostafa

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of some of the work performed by McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company under NASA Langley-sponsored rotorcraft structural dynamics program known as DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS). A set of guidelines which is applicable to dynamic modeling, analysis, testing, and correlation of both helicopter airframes and a large variety of structural finite element models is presented. Utilization of these guidelines and the key features of their applications to vibration modeling of helicopter airframes are discussed. Correlation studies with the test data, together with the development and applications of a set of efficient finite element model checkout procedures, are demonstrated on a large helicopter airframe finite element model. Finally, the lessons learned and the benefits resulting from this program are summarized.

  11. Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science

    1991-05-13

    ATTACK HELICOPTER OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAN CALLEN United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NC 11. TITLE (Include Socurity Classification) Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science ? 12. PERSONAL...OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Jan Callen United States Army Colonel Greg Snelgrove Project Adviser U.S

  12. Helicopter training simulators: Key market factors

    Mcintosh, John

    1992-01-01

    Simulators will gain an increasingly important role in training helicopter pilots only if the simulators are of sufficient fidelity to provide positive transfer of skills to the aircraft. This must be done within an economic model of return on investment. Although rotor pilot demand is still only a small percentage of overall pilot requirements, it will grow in significance. This presentation described the salient factors influencing the use of helicopter training simulators.

  13. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Harmonic Noise Radiation: Theory and Experiment

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ambient atmospheric conditions, air temperature and density, on rotor harmonic noise radiation are characterized using theoretical models and experimental measurements of helicopter noise collected at three different test sites at elevations ranging from sea level to 7000 ft above sea level. Significant changes in the thickness, loading, and blade-vortex interaction noise levels and radiation directions are observed across the different test sites for an AS350 helicopter flying at the same indicated airspeed and gross weight. However, the radiated noise is shown to scale with ambient pressure when the flight condition of the helicopter is defined in nondimensional terms. Although the effective tip Mach number is identified as the primary governing parameter for thickness noise, the nondimensional weight coefficient also impacts lower harmonic loading noise levels, which contribute strongly to low frequency harmonic noise radiation both in and out of the plane of the horizon. Strategies for maintaining the same nondimensional rotor operating condition under different ambient conditions are developed using an analytical model of single main rotor helicopter trim and confirmed using a CAMRAD II model of the AS350 helicopter. The ability of the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique to generalize noise measurements made under one set of ambient conditions to make accurate noise predictions under other ambient conditions is also validated.

  14. Creating a testing field where delta technology and water innovations are tested and demonstrated with the help of citizen science methods

    de Vries, Sandra; Rutten, Martine; de Vries, Liselotte; Anema, Kim; Klop, Tanja; Kaspersma, Judith

    2017-04-01

    In highly populated deltas, much work is to be done. Complex problems ask for new and knowledge driven solutions. Innovations in delta technology and water can bring relief to managing the water rich urban areas. Testing fields form a fundamental part of the knowledge valorisation for such innovations. In such testing fields, product development by start-ups is coupled with researchers, thus supplying new scientific insights. With the help of tests, demonstrations and large-scale applications by the end-users, these innovations find their way to the daily practices of delta management. More and more cities embrace the concept of Smart Cities to tackle the ongoing complexity of urban problems and to manage the city's assets - such as its water supply networks and other water management infrastructure. Through the use of new technologies and innovative systems, data are collected from and with citizens and devices - then processed and analysed. The information and knowledge gathered are keys to enabling a better quality of life. By testing water innovations together with citizens in order to find solutions for water management problems, not only highly spatial amounts of data are provided by and/or about these innovations, they are also improved and demonstrated to the public. A consortium consisting of a water authority, a science centre, a valorisation program and two universities have joined forces to create a testing field for delta technology and water innovations using citizen science methods. In this testing field, the use of citizen science for water technologies is researched and validated by facilitating pilot projects. In these projects, researchers, start-ups and citizens work together to find the answer to present-day water management problems. The above mentioned testing field tests the use of crowd-sourcing data as for example hydrological model inputs, or to validate remote sensing applications, or improve water management decisions. Currently the

  15. Design, Development, and Evaluation of the Helicopter Sling Load Rapid Aerial Delivery Equipment

    2015-09-01

    structure and release them remotely. The development and verification process included payload releases from a helicopter and a crane prior to frame...23  4.1  Lift  Provision Testing...30  4.4  Crane  Payload Deployment Tests .............................................................................................. 30  5

  16. The Differential Effect of Sustained Operations on Psychomotor Skills of Helicopter Pilots.

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2018-06-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill requiring constant control inputs from pilots. A deterioration in psychomotor performance of a helicopter pilot may be detrimental to operational safety. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychomotor performance deteriorates over time during sustained operations and that the effect is more pronounced in the feet than the hands. The subjects were helicopter pilots conducting sustained multicrew offshore flight operations in a demanding environment. The remote flight operations involved constant workload in hot environmental conditions with complex operational tasking. Over a period of 6 d 10 helicopter pilots were tested. At the completion of daily flying duties, a helicopter-specific screen-based compensatory tracking task measuring tracking accuracy (over a 5-min period) tested both hands and feet. Data were compared over time and tested for statistical significance for both deterioration and differential effect. A statistically significant deterioration of psychomotor performance was evident in the pilots over time for both hands and feet. There was also a statistically significant differential effect between the hands and the feet in terms of tracking accuracy. The hands recorded a 22.6% decrease in tracking accuracy, while the feet recorded a 39.9% decrease in tracking accuracy. The differential effect may be due to prioritization of limb movement by the motor cortex due to factors such as workload-induced cognitive fatigue. This may result in a greater reduction in performance in the feet than the hands, posing a significant risk to operational safety.McMahon TW, Newman DG. The differential effect of sustained operations on psychomotor skills of helicopter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):496-502.

  17. Integrated modeling and robust control for full-envelope flight of robotic helicopters

    La Civita, Marco

    Robotic helicopters have attracted a great deal of interest from the university, the industry, and the military world. They are versatile machines and there is a large number of important missions that they could accomplish. Nonetheless, there are only a handful of documented examples of robotic-helicopter applications in real-world scenarios. This situation is mainly due to the poor flight performance that can be achieved and---more important---guaranteed under automatic control. Given the maturity of control theory, and given the large body of knowledge in helicopter dynamics, it seems that the lack of success in flying high-performance controllers for robotic helicopters, especially by academic groups and by small industries, has nothing to do with helicopters or control theory as such. The problem lies instead in the large amount of time and resources needed to synthesize, test, and implement new control systems with the approach normally followed in the aeronautical industry. This thesis attempts to provide a solution by presenting a modeling and control framework that minimizes the time, cost, and both human and physical resources necessary to design high-performance flight controllers. The work is divided in two main parts. The first consists of the development of a modeling technique that allows the designer to obtain a high-fidelity model adequate for both real-time simulation and controller design, with few flight, ground, and wind-tunnel tests and a modest level of complexity in the dynamic equations. The second consists of the exploitation of the predictive capabilities of the model and of the robust stability and performance guarantees of the Hinfinity loop-shaping control theory to reduce the number of iterations of the design/simulated-evaluation/flight-test-evaluation procedure. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated by designing and flight testing a wide-envelope high-performance controller for the Carnegie Mellon University robotic

  18. The making of helicopters: its strategic implications for EMS helicopter operations.

    Thomas, F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide EMS helicopter personnel with an understanding of the civil helicopter manufacturing industry. Specifically, this article examines the current helicopter marketplace and how various manufactures are responding to the recent decline in new helicopter sales. This article further describes how helicopters are designed and manufactured and how global markets, international competition, and strategic considerations are influencing future helicopter design and production. Data for this paper were obtained from a literature search through the ABI-inform Telnet Services offered through the University of Utah Marriott Library. On a search of "helicopter" during the past 5 years, 566 abstracts were identified, all of which were reviewed for information related to the purpose of this article. Forty-seven articles were identified and read in detail for information that may have related to the purpose of this article. In addition, a library search to identify textbooks that describe helicopter production systems was undertaken but did not identify any written resources. Because of the lack of written resources available in writing this article, a direct interview survey of leading helicopter manufactures, associations, and industry writers was conducted. Only information that was considered "public knowledge" was available because of concerns by the various manufactures that publication of confidential information could be detrimental to their competitive advantage. Because helicopter-manufacturing plants were not located within easy travel range, no direct observation of the production facilities could be undertaken. Furthermore, information regarding production and operational management was not easily accessible because the data were not published or were considered confidential. Therefore industry analysis had to take place through direct survey interviewing technique and data obtained through an analysis of the available published

  19. [Helicopters and medical first aid units. Role of Medical First Aid Unit 94].

    Huguenard, P; Hanote, P; Metrot, J

    1975-10-01

    For the transport of injured and sick patients, the helicopter (even the mono-turbine type) offers greater advantages when compared to land vehicles: - more comfort (less vibrations, accelerations and decelerations); - a greater speed, that is to say a 61 p. 100 gain of time upon the distance and a gain from 29 up to 44 p. 100 upon the total amount of time taken up by each transport. This gain in time enables valuable specialised medical teams to be more available: - more precise time-tables than by land which namely makes it easier to receive the patients. The drawbacks are linked with the risks which are not nonexistent but rather less serious than by land. The drawbacks also depend upon the weather-conditions (although this factor does not matter much in our area), upon nuisances such as the noise (which is more important but far more transitory than by ambulance) and chiefly upon the cost of air-transport. In fact, the mean cost of a medical land transport amounts roughly to one thousand Francs, a quarter of which only does represent the actual cost of medical aid. For a similar transport, the helicopter comes to a 47 mns flight. There are several ways of making good use of a helicopter. Practical problems have been solved. The "SAMU 94" experience goes back to 1973 and includes over 500 transports by helicopter essentially with the help of the teams and the helicopters belonging to the Paris Base (Civil Protection and the Fire-Brigade). For flights over urban areas, it is to be desired in the future that only twin-turbine helicopters should be used.

  20. Long Island north shore helicopter route environmental study

    2012-02-21

    This report presents the results of the noise and emissions analysis of helicopter operations along the North Shore Helicopter Route of Long Island, New York performed by the Federal Aviation Administration, with the assistance of the Volpe Center...

  1. Analysing Blast and Fragment Penetration Effects on Composite Helicopter Structures

    van't Hof, C; Herlaar, K; Luyten, J. M; van der Jagt, M. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The last decades the threat of helicopters has increased in military circumstances. Consequently the helicopters will be exposed to weapon effects like high blast loads and fragment impact more frequently...

  2. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for

  3. Input Shaping for Helicopter Slung Load Swing Reduction

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a feedforward swing reducing control system for augmenting already existing helicopter controllers and enables slung load flight with autonomous helicopters general cargo transport. The feedforward controller is designed to avoid excitation of the lightly damped modes...

  4. 77 FR 56581 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-09-13

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice of... airworthiness directive (AD) for the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopter, which... proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop...

  5. 77 FR 23382 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-04-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the manufacturer's..., contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, Mailstop s581a, 6900...

  6. 77 FR 41889 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-07-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  7. 77 FR 49710 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-08-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A helicopters to require modifying the electric rotor brake (ERB... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  8. Effect of helicopter transport on neurological outcomes in a mouse model of embolic stroke with reperfusion: AIR-MICE pilot study.

    Leira, Enrique C; Zaheer, Asgar; Schnell, Thomas; Torner, James C; Olalde, Heena M; Pieper, Andrew A; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Nagaraja, Nandakumar; Marks, Nancy L; Adams, Harold P

    2015-10-01

    Patients often suffer a stroke at a significant distance from a center capable of delivering endovascular therapy, thus requiring rapid transport by helicopter emergency medical services while receiving a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator infusion that was initiated locally. But little is known about how a helicopter flight may impact the safety and efficacy of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator-induced reperfusion and patient outcomes. To establish a new animal method to address with fidelity the safety and overall effect of helicopter emergency medical services during thrombolysis. Prospective randomized open blinded end-point study of an actual helicopter flight exposure. Adult C57BL/6 male mice were treated with a 10 mg/kg recombinant tissue plasminogen activator infusion two-hours after an embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Mice were randomized in pairs to simultaneously receive the infusion during a local helicopter flight or in a ground hangar. Eighteen mice (nine pairs) were analyzed. The paired t-test analysis showed nonsignificant smaller infarction volumes in the helicopter-assigned animals (mean pair difference 33 mm(3) , P = 0·33). The amount of hemorrhagic transformation between the helicopter and ground groups was 4·08 vs. 4·56 μl, respectively (paired t-test, P = 0·45). This study shows that helicopter emergency medical services do not have an inherent adverse effect on outcome in a mouse model of ischemic stroke with reperfusion. These results endorse the safety of the practice of using helicopter emergency medical services in stroke patients. The observed potential synergistic effect of helicopter-induced factors, such as vibration and changes in altitude, with reperfusion merits further exploration in animal experimental models and in stroke patients. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  9. 14 CFR 136.13 - Helicopter performance plan and operations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter performance plan and operations... Helicopter performance plan and operations. (a) Each operator must complete a performance plan before each helicopter commercial air tour, or flight operated under 14 CFR 91.146 or 91.147. The pilot in command must...

  10. 14 CFR 135.207 - VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR: Helicopter surface reference... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.207 VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements. No person may operate a helicopter under VFR unless that person has visual surface reference or...

  11. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  12. Helicopter emergency medical service patient transport safe at night?

    Peters, J.H.; Wageningen, B. van; Hoogerwerf, N.; Biert, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dutch helicopter emergency medical services are available 24/7. Working without daylight brings additional challenges, both in patient care and in-flight operation. We retrospectively evaluated the safety of this nighttime helicopter transportation of patients. METHODS: Our helicopter

  13. 14 CFR 136.11 - Helicopter floats for over water.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter floats for over water. 136.11... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.11 Helicopter floats for over water. (a) A helicopter used in commercial air tours over water beyond the shoreline must...

  14. 46 CFR 132.320 - Helicopter-landing decks.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section 132.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck must...

  15. 78 FR 51123 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron

    2013-08-20

    ...-0734; Directorate Identifier 2012-SW-080-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (Bell) Model 222, 222B, 222U, 230, and 430 helicopters. The existing AD currently requires inspecting...

  16. 78 FR 44043 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-07-23

    ... lead to failure of the swashplate and subsequent loss of helicopter control. DATES: We must receive..., which may cause failure of MRH parts and loss of control of the helicopter. The EASA AD requires..., Section 2.3 Flight Envelope, Item 2 Temperature Limits, of the helicopter's Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM...

  17. Nondestructive evaluation of helicopter rotor blades using guided Lamb modes.

    Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel; Dayal, Vinay

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an application for turning and direct modes in a complex composite laminate structure. The propagation and interaction of turning modes and fundamental Lamb modes are investigated in the skin, spar and web sections of a helicopter rotor blade. Finite element models were used to understand the various mode conversions at geometric discontinuities such as web-spar joints. Experimental investigation was carried out with the help of air coupled ultrasonic transducers. The turning and direct modes were confirmed with the help of particle displacements and velocities. Experimental B-Scans were performed on damaged and undamaged samples for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the structure. A strong correlation between the numerical and experimental results was observed and reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multilevel Analysis of Continuous AE from Helicopter Gearbox

    Chlada, Milan; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Heřmánek, Jan; Krofta, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/755 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : structural health monitoring (SHM) * signal processing * acoustic emission (AE) * diagnostics of helicopter gearbox * wavelet analysis * continuous acoustic emission Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/630_Chlada_Rev1.pdf

  19. CAA modeling of helicopter main rotor in hover

    Kusyumov Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers. Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW–H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.

  20. CAA modeling of helicopter main rotor in hover

    Kusyumov, Alexander N.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Batrakov, Andrey S.; Kusyumov, Sergey A.; Barakos, George

    In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers). Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW-H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.

  1. Helicopter industry - early beginnings to now; an outlook on the helicopter market and its major players in the rotorcraft industry

    Spranger, L.

    2013-01-01

    The helicopter is probably the most flexible aircraft that we know today. Although its history dates back to around 1500, the first practical helicopter wasn’t manufactured until the 1940s, roughly three decades after the Wright brothers’ first powered human flight. Today, helicopters fulfil a wide

  2. Simulation of Flow around Isolated Helicopter Fuselage

    Garipov A.O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Low fuselage drag has always been a key target of helicopter manufacturers. Therefore, this paper focuses on CFD predictions of the drag of several components of a typical helicopter fuselage. In the first section of the paper, validation of the obtained CFD predictions is carried out using wind tunnel measurements. The measurements were carried out at the Kazan National Research Technical University n.a. A. Tupolev. The second section of the paper is devoted to the analysis of drag contributions of several components of the ANSAT helicopter prototype fuselage using the RANS approach. For this purpose, several configurations of fuselages are considered with different levels of complexity including exhausts and skids. Depending on the complexity of the considered configuration and CFD mesh both the multi-block structured HMB solver and the unstructured commercial tool Fluent are used. Finally, the effect of an actuator disk on the predicted drag is addressed.

  3. Minimum-complexity helicopter simulation math model

    Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A.

    1988-01-01

    An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed.

  4. RESULTS OF THE FIRST MI-171A2 FLYING LABORATORY TEST PHASE

    V. A. Ivchin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present publication describes the results of the first stage of the flying laboratory (Mi-171 helicopter flight tests performed at Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant, JSC facilities. Main rotor components with blades made of polymer composite materials and X-type tail rotor were tested on the Mi-171 № 14987, flying laboratory, under Mi-171A Helicopter Retrofit Program.

  5. RESULTS OF THE FIRST MI-171A2 FLYING LABORATORY TEST PHASE

    V. A. Ivchin; K. Y. Samsonov

    2014-01-01

    The present publication describes the results of the first stage of the flying laboratory (Mi-171 helicopter) flight tests performed at Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant, JSC facilities. Main rotor components with blades made of polymer composite materials and X-type tail rotor were tested on the Mi-171 № 14987, flying laboratory, under Mi-171A Helicopter Retrofit Program.

  6. Helicopter trajectory planning using optimal control theory

    Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.

  7. Impact of exercise programs among helicopter pilots with transient LBP.

    Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter

    2017-06-20

    Flight related low back pain (LBP) among helicopter pilots is frequent and may influence flight performance. Prolonged confined sitting during flights seems to weaken lumbar trunk (LT) muscles with associated secondary transient pain. Aim of the study was to investigate if structured training could improve muscular function and thus improve LBP related to flying. 39 helicopter pilots (35 men and 4 women), who reported flying related LBP on at least 1 of 3 missions last month, were allocated to two training programs over a 3-month period. Program A consisted of 10 exercises recommended for general LBP. Program B consisted of 4 exercises designed specifically to improve LT muscular endurance. The pilots were examined before and after the training using questionnaires for pain, function, quality of health and tests of LT muscular endurance as well as ultrasound measurements of the contractility of the lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM). Approximately half of the participants performed the training per-protocol. Participants in this subset group had comparable baseline characteristics as the total study sample. Pre and post analysis of all pilots included, showed participants had marked improvement in endurance and contractility of the LMM following training. Similarly, participants had improvement in function and quality of health. Participants in program B had significant improvement in pain, function and quality of health. This study indicates that participants who performed a three months exercise program had improved muscle endurance at the end of the program. The helicopter pilots also experienced improved function and quality of health. Identifier: NCT01788111 Registration date; February 5th, 2013, verified April 2016.

  8. Monitoring of surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions with help of ionospheric radio-sounding above test site

    Krasnov, V.M.; Drobzheva, Ya.V.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of ionospheric method to monitor surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions. The ionosphere is 'an apparatus' for the infra-sound measurements immediately above the test site. Using remote radio sounding of the ionosphere you can obtain that information. So you carry out the inspection at the test site. The main disadvantage of the ionospheric method is the necessity to sound the ionosphere with radio waves. (author)

  9. Inverse modelling of aquifer parameters in basaltic rock with the help of pumping test method using MODFLOW software

    Kanak Moharir

    2017-11-01

    The present study of estimation of aquifer factors such as transmissivity (T and storativity (S are vital for the evaluation of groundwater resources. There are several methods to estimate the accurate aquifer parameters (i.e. hydrograph analysis, pumping test, etc.. In initial days, these parameters are projected either by means of in-situ test or execution test on aquifer well samples carried in the laboratory. The simultaneous information on the hydraulic behavior of the well (borehole that provides on this method, the reservoir and the reservoir boundaries, are important for efficient aquifer and well data management and analysis. The most common in-situ test is pumping test performed on wells, which involves the measurement of the fall and increase of groundwater level with respect to time. The alteration in groundwater level (drawdown/recovery is caused due to pumping of water from the well. Theis (1935 was first to propose method to evaluate aquifer parameters from the pumping test on a bore well in a confined aquifer. It is essential to know the transmissivity (T = Kb, where b is the aquifer thickness; pumping flow rate, Q = TW (dh/dl flow through an aquifer and storativity (confined aquifer: S = bSs, unconfined: S = Sy, for the characterization of the aquifer parameters in an unknown area so as to predict the rate of drawdown of the groundwater table/potentiometric surface throughout the pumping test of an aquifer. The determination of aquifer's parameters is an important basis for groundwater resources evaluation, numerical simulation, development and protection as well as scientific management. For determining aquifer's parameters, pumping test is a main method. A case study shows that these techniques have been fast speed and high correctness. The results of parameter's determination are optimized so that it has important applied value for scientific research and geology engineering preparation.

  10. Search Help

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  11. The Counterproductive Effects of Helicopter Universities

    Von Bergen, C. W.; Bressler, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    Perhaps universities have gone too far in their attempts to provide the best learning experience for our students? We have heard of helicopter parents who hover over their sons and daughters, removing all obstacles their student might face and solve problems for them. Have colleges and universities adopted this same kind of behavior in their…

  12. Helicopter Parents Can Be a Good Thing

    Hiltz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter parents get a bad rap. Teachers and administrators should view them as a resource--not a nuisance. By encouraging open communication, teachers can begin to understand the motivations of these parents and find creative ways to connect them with opportunities to promote their students' academic success and the school's overall…

  13. Feasibility of Helicopter Support Seek Frost.

    1980-05-01

    the allowable maximum weight can be used as the payload. The payload is a variable. Small helicopters with full fuel and auxillary tanks can fly...equipment, that the program to obtain icing approval on the S-76 will be finalized for management evaluation, and a decision can be made at that time to

  14. Performance Measurement in Helicopter Training and Operations.

    Prophet, Wallace W.

    For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…

  15. Helicopter noise footprint prediction in unsteady maneuvers

    Gennaretti, Massimo; Bernardini, Giovanni; Serafini, Jacopo; Anobile, A.; Hartjes, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates different methodologies for the evaluation of the acoustic disturbance emitted by helicopter’s main rotors during unsteady maneuvers. Nowadays, the simulation of noise emitted by helicopters is of great interest to designers, both for the assessment of the acoustic impact

  16. Optimal control of helicopters following power failure. Helicopter no engine koshoji no saiteki hiko seigyo

    Okuno, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the optimal control of helicopters, the control procedures following power failure were theoretically investigated by applying nonlinear optimal control theory to the following four optimization problems. The first was minimization of the touchdown speed following power failure. Comparisons between the calculated optimal solutions and the empirical flight test results showed that pilots used nonoptimal controls, especially in the timing and amplitude of the collective flare before touchdowns. The second was prediction of the height-velocity (H-V) boundaries. The calculated H-V boundaries showed good correlation with the flight test results. The third was optimization of the takeoff procedures for category A STOL operation following power failure. The results showed that the required takeoff distance using the normal takeoff procedure can be significantly reduced. The fourth was evaluation of the takeoff performance for category A VTOL operation. The calculating method of the maximum takeoff weight was confirmed, and possibility of allowing the payload to be increased was shown. 38 refs., 53 figs.

  17. Multicenter observational prehospital resuscitation on helicopter study.

    Holcomb, John B; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Greene, Thomas J; Fox, Erin E; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri N; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E

    2017-07-01

    Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets, and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from January to November 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs, whereas the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high-risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared with patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. Twenty-five thousand one hundred eighteen trauma patients were admitted, 2,341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1,058 (45%) met the highest-risk criteria. Five hundred eighty-five of 1,058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and Glasgow Coma Scale (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, whereas median Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 hours (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 hours (12.6% vs 8.9%), and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). Twenty-four percent of eligible patients received a PHT. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs, and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality

  18. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    Beard, L P

    2000-01-01

    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  19. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    Beard, Les P.; Mogaard, John Olav

    2000-07-01

    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  20. A spoon full of studies helps the comparison go down: A comparative analysis of Tulving’s spoon test

    Damian eScarf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental time travel refers to the ability to cast one’s mind back in time to re-experience a past event and forward in time to pre-experience events that may occur in the future. Endel Tulving (2005, an authority on mental time travel, holds that this ability is unique to humans. Anticipating that comparative psychologists would challenge this claim, Tulving (2005 proposed his spoon test, a test specifically designed to assess whether nonhuman animals are capable of mental time travel. A number of studies have now employed the spoon test to assess mental time travel in nonhuman animals. Here, we review the evidence for mental time travel in primates. To provide a benchmark, we also review studies that have employed the spoon test with preschool children. The review demonstrates that if we compare the performance of great apes to that of preschool children, and hold them to the same criteria, the data suggest mental travel is present but not ubiquitous in great apes.

  1. Do soil tests help forecast nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa on fine-textured soils?

    Improved methods of predicting grain yield response to fertilizer N for first-year corn (Zea mays L.) following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on fine-textured soils are needed. Data from 21 site-years in the North Central Region were used to (i) determine how Illinois soil nitrogen test (ISNT) and pr...

  2. IMPLEMENTATION AND VALIDATION OF STATISTICAL TESTS IN RESEARCH'S SOFTWARE HELPING DATA COLLECTION AND PROTOCOLS ANALYSIS IN SURGERY.

    Kuretzki, Carlos Henrique; Campos, Antônio Carlos Ligocki; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Soares, Sandramara Scandelari Kusano de Paula; Tenório, Sérgio Bernardo; Timi, Jorge Rufino Ribas

    2016-03-01

    The use of information technology is often applied in healthcare. With regard to scientific research, the SINPE(c) - Integrated Electronic Protocols was created as a tool to support researchers, offering clinical data standardization. By the time, SINPE(c) lacked statistical tests obtained by automatic analysis. Add to SINPE(c) features for automatic realization of the main statistical methods used in medicine . The study was divided into four topics: check the interest of users towards the implementation of the tests; search the frequency of their use in health care; carry out the implementation; and validate the results with researchers and their protocols. It was applied in a group of users of this software in their thesis in the strict sensu master and doctorate degrees in one postgraduate program in surgery. To assess the reliability of the statistics was compared the data obtained both automatically by SINPE(c) as manually held by a professional in statistics with experience with this type of study. There was concern for the use of automatic statistical tests, with good acceptance. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Fisher and t-Student were considered as tests frequently used by participants in medical studies. These methods have been implemented and thereafter approved as expected. The incorporation of the automatic SINPE (c) Statistical Analysis was shown to be reliable and equal to the manually done, validating its use as a research tool for medical research.

  3. Evaluation of graphite composite materials for bearingless helicopter rotor application

    Ulitchny, M. G.; Lucas, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Small scale combined load fatigue tests were conducted on twelve unidirectional graphite-glass scrim-epoxy composite specimens. The specimens were 1 in. (2.54 cm) wide by 0.1 in. (.25 cm) thick by 5 in. (12.70 cm) long. The fatigue data was developed for the preliminary design of the spar for a bearingless helicopter main rotor. Three loading conditions were tested. Combinations of steady axial, vibratory torsion, and vibratory bending stresses were chosen to simulate the calculated stresses which exist at the root and at the outboard end of the pitch change section of the spar. Calculated loads for 150 knots (77.1 m/sec) level flight were chosen as the baseline condition. Test stresses were varied up to 4.4 times the baseline stress levels. Damage resulted in reduced stiffness; however, in no case was complete fracture of the specimen experienced.

  4. Helicopter noise in hover: Computational modelling and experimental validation

    Kopiev, V. F.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Vorontsov, V. I.; Karabasov, S. A.; Anikin, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter rotor are calculated by a new method, to assess its applicability in assessing rotor performance in hovering. Direct solution of the Euler equations in a noninertial coordinate system is used to calculate the near-field flow around the spinning rotor. The far-field noise field is calculated by the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) method using permeable control surfaces that include the blade. For a multiblade rotor, the signal obtained is duplicated and shifted in phase for each successive blade. By that means, the spectral characteristics of the far-field noise may be obtained. To determine the integral aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor, software is written to calculate the thrust and torque characteristics from the near-field flow solution. The results of numerical simulation are compared with experimental acoustic and aerodynamic data for a large-scale model of a helicopter main rotor in an open test facility. Two- and four-blade configurations of the rotor are considered, in different hover conditions. The proposed method satisfactorily predicts the aerodynamic characteristics of the blades in such conditions and gives good estimates for the first harmonics of the noise. That permits the practical use of the proposed method, not only for hovering but also for forward flight.

  5. Helicopter Control Energy Reduction Using Moving Horizontal Tail

    Oktay, Tugrul; Sal, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter moving horizontal tail (i.e., MHT) strategy is applied in order to save helicopter flight control system (i.e., FCS) energy. For this intention complex, physics-based, control-oriented nonlinear helicopter models are used. Equations of MHT are integrated into these models and they are together linearized around straight level flight condition. A specific variance constrained control strategy, namely, output variance constrained Control (i.e., OVC) is utilized for helicopter FCS. Control energy savings due to this MHT idea with respect to a conventional helicopter are calculated. Parameters of helicopter FCS and dimensions of MHT are simultaneously optimized using a stochastic optimization method, namely, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (i.e., SPSA). In order to observe improvement in behaviors of classical controls closed loop analyses are done. PMID:26180841

  6. Helicopter Control Energy Reduction Using Moving Horizontal Tail

    Tugrul Oktay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicopter moving horizontal tail (i.e., MHT strategy is applied in order to save helicopter flight control system (i.e., FCS energy. For this intention complex, physics-based, control-oriented nonlinear helicopter models are used. Equations of MHT are integrated into these models and they are together linearized around straight level flight condition. A specific variance constrained control strategy, namely, output variance constrained Control (i.e., OVC is utilized for helicopter FCS. Control energy savings due to this MHT idea with respect to a conventional helicopter are calculated. Parameters of helicopter FCS and dimensions of MHT are simultaneously optimized using a stochastic optimization method, namely, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (i.e., SPSA. In order to observe improvement in behaviors of classical controls closed loop analyses are done.

  7. Navier-Stokes Simulation of a Heavy Lift Slowed-Rotor Compound Helicopter Configuration

    Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Hallissy, Jim B.; Harris, Jerome; Noonan, Kevin W.; Wong, Oliver D.; Jones, Henry E.; Malovrh, Brendon D.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Time accurate numerical simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver OVERFLOW for a heavy lift, slowed-rotor, compound helicopter configuration, tested at the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The primary purpose of these simulations is to provide support for the development of a large field of view Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) flow measurement technique supported by the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) project under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics program. These simulations provide a better understanding of the rotor and body wake flows and helped to define PIV measurement locations as well as requirements for validation of flow solver codes. The large field PIV system can measure the three-dimensional velocity flow field in a 0.914m by 1.83m plane. PIV measurements were performed upstream and downstream of the vertical tail section and are compared to simulation results. The simulations are also used to better understand the tunnel wall and body/rotor support effects by comparing simulations with and without tunnel floor/ceiling walls and supports. Comparisons are also made to the experimental force and moment data for the body and rotor.

  8. Tried and tested automation system helps to reduce air pollution. Ausgereifte Automatisierung hilft beim Reduzieren schaedlicher Emissionen

    Haack, R. (Still Otto GmbH, Bochum (Germany, F.R.)); Schreiter, K.D. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Bereich Anlagentechnik)

    An important step in the coking process is the cooling of the red hot coke. This is mainly done by dowsing with water. The result is the emission of pollutant gases and the waste of heat energy. Disadvantages of this kind can be reduced by the use of a coke drying and cooling plant. This requires, however, because of its complex technology, a tried and tested automation system. A homogeneous solution to the problems faced by the automation system is found in the SIMATIC S5-150U automation unit which was delivered with the coke drying and cooling plant for Pohang (Korea) from the firm Still Otto GmbH in Bochum. This is the largest of its kind. (orig.).

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Helicopter Options to Support Tunisian Counterterrorism Operations

    2016-04-27

    helicopters from Sikorsky to fulfill a number of roles in counterterrorism operations. Rising costs and delays in delivery raised the question of...whether other cost-effective options exist to meet Tunisia’s helicopter requirement. Approach Our team conducted a preliminary assessment of...alternative helicopters for counterterrorism air assault missions. Any decision to acquire an aircraft must consider many factors, including technical

  10. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems usingintentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integra...

  11. An anthropometric analysis of Korean male helicopter pilots for helicopter cockpit design.

    Lee, Wonsup; Jung, Kihyo; Jeong, Jeongrim; Park, Jangwoon; Cho, Jayoung; Kim, Heeeun; Park, Seikwon; You, Heecheon

    2013-01-01

    This study measured 21 anthropometric dimensions (ADs) of 94 Korean male helicopter pilots in their 20s to 40s and compared them with corresponding measurements of Korean male civilians and the US Army male personnel. The ADs and the sample size of the anthropometric survey were determined by a four-step process: (1) selection of ADs related to helicopter cockpit design, (2) evaluation of the importance of each AD, (3) calculation of required sample sizes for selected precision levels and (4) determination of an appropriate sample size by considering both the AD importance evaluation results and the sample size requirements. The anthropometric comparison reveals that the Korean helicopter pilots are larger (ratio of means = 1.01-1.08) and less dispersed (ratio of standard deviations = 0.71-0.93) than the Korean male civilians and that they are shorter in stature (0.99), have shorter upper limbs (0.89-0.96) and lower limbs (0.93-0.97), but are taller on sitting height, sitting eye height and acromial height (1.01-1.03), and less dispersed (0.68-0.97) than the US Army personnel. The anthropometric characteristics of Korean male helicopter pilots were compared with those of Korean male civilians and US Army male personnel. The sample size determination process and the anthropometric comparison results presented in this study are useful to design an anthropometric survey and a helicopter cockpit layout, respectively.

  12. Helicopter fuselage drag - combined computational fluid dynamics and experimental studies

    Batrakov, A.; Kusyumov, A.; Mikhailov, S.; Pakhov, V.; Sungatullin, A.; Valeev, M.; Zherekhov, V.; Barakos, G.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, wind tunnel experiments are combined with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) aiming to analyze the aerodynamics of realistic fuselage configurations. A development model of the ANSAT aircraft and an early model of the AKTAI light helicopter were employed. Both models were tested at the subsonic wind tunnel of KNRTU-KAI for a range of Reynolds numbers and pitch and yaw angles. The force balance measurements were complemented by particle image velocimetry (PIV) investigations for the cases where the experimental force measurements showed substantial unsteadiness. The CFD results were found to be in fair agreement with the test data and revealed some flow separation at the rear of the fuselages. Once confidence on the CFD method was established, further modifications were introduced to the ANSAT-like fuselage model to demonstrate drag reduction via small shape changes.

  13. Automatic guidance and control laws for helicopter obstacle avoidance

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Lam, T.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the implementation of a full-function guidance and control system for automatic obstacle avoidance in helicopter nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. The guidance function assumes that the helicopter is sufficiently responsive so that the flight path can be readily adjusted at NOE speeds. The controller, basically an autopilot for following the derived flight path, was implemented with parameter values to control a generic helicopter model used in the simulation. Evaluation of the guidance and control system with a 3-dimensional graphical helicopter simulation suggests that the guidance has the potential for providing good and meaningful flight trajectories.

  14. NASA/FAA helicopter simulator workshop

    Larsen, William E. (Editor); Randle, Robert J., Jr. (Editor); Bray, Richard S. (Editor); Zuk, John (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A workshop was convened by the FAA and NASA for the purpose of providing a forum at which leading designers, manufacturers, and users of helicopter simulators could initiate and participate in a development process that would facilitate the formulation of qualification standards by the regulatory agency. Formal papers were presented, special topics were discussed in breakout sessions, and a draft FAA advisory circular defining specifications for helicopter simulators was presented and discussed. A working group of volunteers was formed to work with the National Simulator Program Office to develop a final version of the circular. The workshop attracted 90 individuals from a constituency of simulator manufacturers, training organizations, the military, civil regulators, research scientists, and five foreign countries.

  15. Evaluation of composite components on the Bell 206L and Sikorsky S-76 helicopters

    Baker, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    Progress on two programs to evaluate structural composite components in flight service on Bell 206L and Sikorsky S-76 commercial helicopters is described. Forty ship sets of composite components that include the litter door, baggage door, forward fairing, and vertical fin have been installed on Bell Model 206L helicopters that are operating in widely different climates. Component installation started in 1981 and selected components were removed and tested at prescribed intervals over a ten year evaluation. Four horizontal stabilizers and eleven tail rotor spars that are production components on the S-76 helicopter were tested after prescribed periods of service to determine the effects of the operating environment on their performance. Concurrent with the flight evaluation, materials used to fabricate the components were exposed in ground racks and tested at specified intervals to determine the effects of outdoor environments. Results achieved from 123,000 hours of accumulated service on the Bell 206L components and 53,000 hours on the Sikorsky S-76 components are reported. Seventy-eight Bell 206L components were removed and tested statically. Results of seven years of ground exposure of materials used to fabricate the Bell 206L components are presented. Results of tests on four Sikorsky S-76 horizontal stabilizers and eleven tail rotor spars are also presented. Panels of material used to fabricate the Sikorsky S-76 components that were exposed for six years were tested and results are presented.

  16. Study protocol: the development of a randomised controlled trial testing a postcard intervention designed to reduce suicide risk among young help-seekers

    McGorry Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicidal behaviour and deliberate self harm are common among adolescents. Limited evidence exists regarding interventions that can reduce risk; however research indicates that maintaining contact either via letter or postcard with at-risk adults following discharge from services can reduce risk. The aim of the study is to test a postcard intervention among people aged 15-24 who presented to mental health services but are not accepted, yet are at risk of suicide. Methods/design The study is a 3-year randomised controlled trial conducted at Orygen Youth Health Research Centre in Melbourne Australia. Participants are young help-seekers aged 15-24 who are at risk of suicide. Participants will be recruited over a 12 month period. The intervention comprises a regular postcard to be sent monthly for 12 months. The postcard enquires after their well being and includes information regarding individual sources of help and evidence-based self help strategies. Participants are assessed at baseline, 12 and 18 months. Discussion This paper describes the development of a study which aims to reduce suicide risk in a sample of young help-seekers. If effective, this intervention could have significant clinical and research implications for a population who can be hard to treat and difficult to research. Trial Registration The study was registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry; number: ACTRN012606000274572.

  17. Sensor selection of helicopter transmission systems based on physical model and sensitivity analysis

    Lyu Kehong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the helicopter transmission systems, it is important to monitor and track the tooth damage evolution using lots of sensors and detection methods. This paper develops a novel approach for sensor selection based on physical model and sensitivity analysis. Firstly, a physical model of tooth damage and mesh stiffness is built. Secondly, some effective condition indicators (CIs are presented, and the optimal CIs set is selected by comparing their test statistics according to Mann–Kendall test. Afterwards, the selected CIs are used to generate a health indicator (HI through sen slop estimator. Then, the sensors are selected according to the monotonic relevance and sensitivity to the damage levels. Finally, the proposed method is verified by the simulation and experimental data. The results show that the approach can provide a guide for health monitoring of helicopter transmission systems, and it is effective to reduce the test cost and improve the system’s reliability.

  18. Autonomous vertical autorotation for unmanned helicopters

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are considered the stepping stone for the integration of civil unmanned vehicles in the National Airspace System (NAS) because of their low cost and risk. Such systems are aimed at a variety of applications including search and rescue, surveillance, communications, traffic monitoring and inspection of buildings, power lines and bridges. Amidst these systems, small helicopters play an important role because of their capability to hold a position, to maneuver in tight spaces and to take off and land from virtually anywhere. Nevertheless civil adoption of such systems is minimal, mostly because of regulatory problems that in turn are due to safety concerns. This dissertation examines the risk to safety imposed by UAS in general and small helicopters in particular, focusing on accidents resulting in a ground impact. To improve the performance of small helicopters in this area, the use of autonomous autorotation is proposed. This research goes beyond previous work in the area of autonomous autorotation by developing an on-line, model-based, real-time controller that is capable of handling constraints and different cost functions. The approach selected is based on a non-linear model-predictive controller, that is augmented by a neural network to improve the speed of the non-linear optimization. The immediate benefit of this controller is that a class of failures that would otherwise result in an uncontrolled crash and possible injuries or fatalities can now be accommodated. Furthermore besides simply landing the helicopter, the controller is also capable of minimizing the risk of serious injury to people in the area. This is accomplished by minimizing the kinetic energy during the last phase of the descent. The presented research is designed to benefit the entire UAS community as well as the public, by allowing for safer UAS operations, which in turn also allow faster and less expensive integration of UAS in the NAS.

  19. Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality

    2006-06-01

    PROCESS Blue screening involving human filming usually employs a blue or green backdrop, since skin contains little blue or green hue. These backdrops...Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality 27 - 10 RTO-MP-HFM-136 a. b. c. d. e. f. Figure 13: Frames Showing Physical Object ( witch ... filming . However, when a user’s hands disrupt the light from a helmet-mounted light source, the shadows cast onto the distant background are diffuse and

  20. Learning Basic Mechatronics through Helicopter Workshop

    Adzly Anuar; Maryam Huda Ahmad Phesal; Azrul Abidin Zakaria; Goh Chin Hock; Sivadass Thiruchelvam; Dickson Neoh Tze How; Muhammad Fahmi Abdul Ghani; Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, technologies related to mechatronics and robotics is available even to elementary level students. It is now common to see schools in Malaysia using Lego Mindstorm as a tool for active learning on mechatronics and robotics. A new yet interesting way of learning mechatronics and robotics is introduced by Dr. Dan Barry, a former astronaut and his son Andrew Barry during their visit to Malaysia. The kits used are based on a 4-channel RC helicopter, Arduino Uno microcontroller, IR...

  1. Physiological effects of stress related to helicopter travel in Federal Emergency Management Agency search-and-rescue canines.

    Perry, E; Gulson, N; Liu Cross, T-W; Swanson, K S

    2017-01-01

    Working canines are deployed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as part of a National Disaster Response Plan. Stress associated with helicopter flight and the resulting physical effects on the dog are unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that (1) helicopter travel affects the physiology and faecal microbiota of working canines, but that (2) physiological consequences of helicopter travel will not negatively affect their work performance. A total of nine FEMA canines were loaded onto helicopters and flown for 30 min in July 2015. Rectal temperature, behavioural stress indicators and saliva swabs (for cortisol) were collected at baseline, loading, mid-flight and post-flight. After flight, canines completed a standardised search exercise to monitor work performance. Faecal samples were collected for microbial DNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. All canines were on a standardised diet (CANIDAE ® Grain Free PURE Land ® ) for 3 weeks prior to the study. Visible indicators of stress were observed at loading and at mid-flight and corresponded with an increase ( P  travel did not affect search performance ( P  > 0·05). We found that α- and β-diversity measures of faecal microbiota were not affected ( P  > 0·05). Our data suggest that although helicopter travel may cause physiological changes that have been associated with stress in working dogs, it does not make an impact on their search performance or the stability of faecal microbiota.

  2. Numerical simulation of turbulent flows past the RoBin helicopter with a four-bladed rotor

    Xu, H.; Mamou, M.; Khalid, M. [National Research Council, Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Hongyi.Xu@nrc.ca

    2003-07-01

    The current paper presents a turbulent flow simulation study past a generic helicopter RoBin with a four-bladed rotor using the Chimera moving grid approach. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor blades and their interactions with the RoBin fuselage are investigated using the k - {omega} SST turbulence model contained in the WIND code. The rotor is configured as a Chimera moving grid in a quasisteady flow field. The rotor blades are rectangular, untapered, linearly twisted and are made from NACA 0012 airfoil profile. The blade motion (rotation and cyclic pitching) schedule is specified in the NASA wind tunnel testing of a generic helicopter RoBin. The aerodynamic radial load distributions in the rotor plane are generated by integrating the pressure on each blade surfaces along the blade chordwise direction. The rotor flow interacts strongly with the flow coming off from the fuselage and thus has a significant impact on helicopter aerodynamic performance. (author)

  3. Effects of Control-Response Characteristics on the Capability of Helicopter for Use as a Gun Platform

    Pegg, Robert J.; Connor, Andrew B.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation with a variable-stability helicopter was undertaken to ascertain the steadiness and ability to "hold on" to the target of a helicopter employed as a gun platform. Simulated tasks were per formed under differing flight conditions with the control-response characteristics of the helicopter varied for each task. The simulated gun-platform mission included: Variations of headings with respect to wind, constant altitude and "swing around" to a wind heading of 0 deg, and increases in altitude while performing a swing around to a wind heading of 0 deg. The results showed that increases in control power and damping increased pilot ability to hold on to the target with fewer yawing oscillations and in a shorter time. The results also indicated that wind direction must be considered in accuracy assessment. Greatest accuracy throughout these tests was achieved by aiming upwind.

  4. Control-Oriented Modeling and System Identification for Nonlinear Trajectory Tracking Control of a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    Pourrezaei Khaligh, Sepehr

    Model-based control design of small-scale helicopters involves considerable challenges due to their nonlinear and underactuated dynamics with strong couplings between the different degrees-of-freedom (DOFs). Most nonlinear model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control approaches require the dynamic model of the system to be affine-in-control and fully actuated. Since the existing formulations for helicopter nonlinear dynamic model do not meet these requirements, these MIMO approaches cannot be applied for control of helicopters and control designs in the literature mostly use the linearized model of the helicopter dynamics around different trim conditions instead of directly using the nonlinear model. The purpose of this thesis is to derive the 6-DOF nonlinear model of the helicopter in an affine-in-control, non-iterative and square input-output formulation to enable many nonlinear control approaches, that require a control-affine and square model such as the sliding mode control (SMC), to be used for control design of small-scale helicopters. A combination of the first-principles approach and system identification is used to derive this model. To complete the nonlinear model of the helicopter required for the control design, the inverse kinematics of the actuating mechanisms of the main and tail rotors are also derived using an approach suitable for the real-time control applications. The parameters of the new control-oriented formulation are identified using a time-domain system identification strategy and the model is validated using flight test data. A robust sliding mode control (SMC) is then designed using the new formulation of the helicopter dynamics and its robustness to parameter uncertainties and wind disturbances is tested in simulations. Next, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testbed is designed to allow for the control implementation and gain tuning as well as testing the robustness of the controller to external disturbances in a controlled

  5. Non-invasive dynamic measurement of helicopter blades

    Serafini, J.; Bernardini, G.; Mattioni, L.; Vezzari, V.; Ficuciello, C.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the development and the application on helicopter blades of a measurement system based on FBG strain gauges. Here, the main goal is the structural characterization of the main rotor blades, with the aim of showing the potentialities of such a system in blades quality check applications, as well as in the development of structural health monitoring and rotor state feedback devices. The device has been used in both non-rotating and rotating tests, and does not require the presence of slip rings or optical joint since it is completely allocated in the rotating system. It has been successfully applied to characterize the frequency response of blades lead-lag, flap and torsion deformations, up to 250 Hz.

  6. Kinetic analysis of elastomeric lag damper for helicopter rotors

    Liu, Yafang; Wang, Jidong; Tong, Yan

    2018-02-01

    The elastomeric lag dampers suppress the ground resonance and air resonance that play a significant role in the stability of the helicopter. In this paper, elastomeric lag damper which is made from silicone rubber is built. And a series of experiments are conducted on this elastomeric lag damper. The stress-strain curves of elastomeric lag dampers employed shear forces at different frequency are obtained. And a finite element model is established based on Burgers model. The result of simulation and tests shows that the simple, linear model will yield good predictions of damper energy dissipation and it is adequate for predicting the stress-strain hysteresis loop within the operating frequency and a small-amplitude oscillation.

  7. Spectral Analysis of the Wake behind a Helicopter Rotor Hub

    Petrin, Christopher; Reich, David; Schmitz, Sven; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48" Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. LDV and PIV measurements in the far-wake consistently showed a six-per-revolution flow structure, in addition to stronger two- and four-per-revolution structures. These six-per-revolution structures persisted into the far-field, and have no direct geometric counterpart on the hub model. The current study will examine the Reynolds number dependence of these structures and present higher-order statistics of the turbulence within the wake. In addition, current activity using the EFPL Large Water Tunnel at Oklahoma State University will be presented. This effort uses a more canonical configuration to identify the source for these six-per-revolution structures, which are assumed to be a non-linear interaction between the two- and four-per-revolution structures.

  8. Finite element analysis using NASTRAN applied to helicopter transmission vibration/noise reduction

    Howells, R. W.; Sciarra, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A finite element NASTRAN model of the complete forward rotor transmission housing for the Boeing Vertol CH-47 helicopter was developed and applied to reduce transmission vibration/noise at its source. In addition to a description of the model, a technique for vibration/noise prediction and reduction is outlined. Also included are the dynamic response as predicted by NASTRAN, test data, the use of strain energy methods to optimize the housing for minimum vibration/noise, and determination of design modifications which will be manufactured and tested. The techniques presented are not restricted to helicopters but are applicable to any power transmission system. The transmission housing model developed can be used further to evaluate static and dynamic stresses, thermal distortions, deflections and load paths, fail-safety/vulnerability, and composite materials.

  9. Evaluation of speech recognizers for use in advanced combat helicopter crew station research and development

    Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army Crew Station Research and Development Facility uses vintage 1984 speech recognizers. An evaluation was performed of newer off-the-shelf speech recognition devices to determine whether newer technology performance and capabilities are substantially better than that of the Army's current speech recognizers. The Phonetic Discrimination (PD-100) Test was used to compare recognizer performance in two ambient noise conditions: quiet office and helicopter noise. Test tokens were spoken by males and females and in isolated-word and connected-work mode. Better overall recognition accuracy was obtained from the newer recognizers. Recognizer capabilities needed to support the development of human factors design requirements for speech command systems in advanced combat helicopters are listed.

  10. Flight service evaluation of composite components on Bell 206L and Sikorsky S-76 helicopters

    Baker, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Progress on two programs to evaluate composite structural components in flight service on commercial helicopters is described. Thirty-six ship sets of composite components that include the litter door, baggage door, forward fairing, and vertical fin were installed on Bell Model 206L helicopters that are operating in widely different climatic areas. Four horizontal stabilizers and ten tail rotor spars that are production components on the S-76 helicopter were tested after prescribed periods of service to determine the effects of the operating environment on their performance. Concurrent with the flight evaluation, specimens from materials used to fabricate the components were exposed in ground racks and tested at specified intervals to determine the effects of outdoor environments. Results achieved from 14,000 hours of accumulated service on the 206L components, tests on a S-76 horizontal stabilizer after 1600 hours of service, tests on a S-76 tail rotor spar after 2300 hours service, and two years of ground based exposure of material coupons are reported.

  11. Physiological and behavioral reactions elicited by simulated and real-life visual and acoustic helicopter stimuli in dairy goats

    2011-01-01

    Background Anecdotal reports and a few scientific publications suggest that flyovers of helicopters at low altitude may elicit fear- or anxiety-related behavioral reactions in grazing feral and farm animals. We investigated the behavioral and physiological stress reactions of five individually housed dairy goats to different acoustic and visual stimuli from helicopters and to combinations of these stimuli under controlled environmental (indoor) conditions. The visual stimuli were helicopter animations projected on a large screen in front of the enclosures of the goats. Acoustic and visual stimuli of a tractor were also presented. On the final day of the study the goats were exposed to two flyovers (altitude 50 m and 75 m) of a Chinook helicopter while grazing in a pasture. Salivary cortisol, behavior, and heart rate of the goats were registered before, during and after stimulus presentations. Results The goats reacted alert to the visual and/or acoustic stimuli that were presented in their room. They raised their heads and turned their ears forward in the direction of the stimuli. There was no statistically reliable rise of the average velocity of moving of the goats in their enclosure and no increase of the duration of moving during presentation of the stimuli. Also there was no increase in heart rate or salivary cortisol concentration during the indoor test sessions. Surprisingly, no physiological and behavioral stress responses were observed during the flyover of a Chinook at 50 m, which produced a peak noise of 110 dB. Conclusions We conclude that the behavior and physiology of goats are unaffected by brief episodes of intense, adverse visual and acoustic stimulation such as the sight and noise of overflying helicopters. The absence of a physiological stress response and of elevated emotional reactivity of goats subjected to helicopter stimuli is discussed in relation to the design and testing schedule of this study. PMID:21496239

  12. Heat stress reduction of helicopter crew wearing a ventilated vest

    Reffeltrath, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Helicopter pilots are often exposed to periods of high heat strain, especially when wearing survival suits. Therefore, a prototype of a ventilated vest was evaluated on its capability to reduce the heat strain of helicopter pilots during a 2-h simulated flight. Hypothesis: It was

  13. Basic Helicopter Handbook, Revised. AC 61-13A.

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This technical manual was designed to assist applicants preparing for the private, commercial, and flight instructor pilot certificates with a helicopter rating. The chapters outline general aerodynamics, aerodynamics of flight, loads and load factors, function of controls, other helicopter components and their functions, introduction to the…

  14. Small-Scale Helicopter Automatic Autorotation : Modeling, Guidance, and Control

    Taamallah, S.

    2015-01-01

    Our research objective consists in developing a, model-based, automatic safety recovery system, for a small-scale helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in autorotation, i.e. an engine OFF flight condition, that safely flies and lands the helicopter to a pre-specified ground location. In pursuit

  15. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: effects, costs and benefits

    A.N. Ringburg (Akkie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced prehospital medical care with air transport was introduced in the Netherlands in May 1995. The fi rst helicopter Mobile Medical Team, also called Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) was a joint venture initiative of the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam and the Algemene

  16. 78 FR 52407 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-08-23

    ... prevent failure of float and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter during an emergency water... requirements were intended to prevent failure of float and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter during... in the float becoming punctured, failure of the float to inflate, and subsequent loss of control of...

  17. The Helicopter Parent: Research toward a Typology (Part I)

    Somers, Patricia; Settle, Jim

    2010-01-01

    With 117,000 hits on a recent Google[TM] search, the phenomenon of helicopter parenting has been widely reported in the popular press. Yet the scholarly literature is anemic on the topic. This article, part one of a two-part series, presents the small body of research on helicopter parenting and describes a qualitative study of 190 participants…

  18. The Helicopter Parent (Part 2): International Arrivals and Departures

    Somers, Patricia; Settle, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of helicopter parenting has been widely reported, yet the research literature is anemic on the topic. Based on interviews and focus groups involving 190 academic and student services professionals, this article continues by discussing the social, psychological, economic, and cultural factors that influence helicoptering; exploring…

  19. Power harvesting using piezoelectric materials: applications in helicopter rotors

    de Jong, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The blades of helicopters are heavily loaded and are critical components. Failure of any one blade will lead to loss of the aircraft. Currently, the technical lifespan of helicopter blades is calculated using a worst-case operation scenario. The consequence is that a blade that may be suitable for,

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Helicopter Model in Ground Resonance

    Tang, D. M.; Dowell, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate theoretical method is presented which determined the limit cycle behavior of a helicopter model which has one or two nonlinear dampers. The relationship during unstable ground resonance oscillations between lagging motion of the blades and fuselage motion is discussed. An experiment was carried out on using a helicopter scale model. The experimental results agree with those of the theoretical analysis.

  1. Vision Aided State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design and verification of a state estimator for a helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to augment the IMU driven estimator found in many helicopter UAV s and uses vision based updates only. The process model used for the estimator is a simple 4...

  2. Sleep and Alertness in North Sea Helicopter Operations

    Simons, M.; Wilschut, E.S.; Valk, P.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction : Dutch North Sea helicopter operations are characterized by multiple sector flights to offshore platforms under difficult environmental conditions. In the context of a Ministry of Transport program to improve safety levels of helicopter operations, we assessed effects of pre-duty

  3. 78 FR 15277 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-03-11

    ... the ASB as mandatory. Costs of Compliance We estimate that this AD affects three helicopters of U.S... of the helicopter's bottom structure. AD 2006- 0152 requires compliance with Eurocopter Alert Service... with France, EASA, its technical representative, has notified us of the unsafe condition described in...

  4. Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten

    and simulating different slung load suspension types. It further includes detection and response to wire slacking and tightening, it models the aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load, and can be used for multilift systems with any combination of multiple helicopters and multiple loads...

  5. 77 FR 68057 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This AD requires installing an improved... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  6. 78 FR 23698 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-04-22

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward firewall center... Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street...

  7. 78 FR 60656 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main...

  8. 77 FR 68061 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  9. 77 FR 18969 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-03-29

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by a bird-strike to.... For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn...

  10. 77 FR 28328 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-05-14

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters, which requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R) pylon for a... service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  11. 77 FR 21402 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the discovery of tail... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  12. Validation of vision-based obstacle detection algorithms for low-altitude helicopter flight

    Suorsa, Raymond; Sridhar, Banavar

    1991-01-01

    A validation facility being used at the NASA Ames Research Center is described which is aimed at testing vision based obstacle detection and range estimation algorithms suitable for low level helicopter flight. The facility is capable of processing hundreds of frames of calibrated multicamera 6 degree-of-freedom motion image sequencies, generating calibrated multicamera laboratory images using convenient window-based software, and viewing range estimation results from different algorithms along with truth data using powerful window-based visualization software.

  13. Stress analysis of advanced attack helicopter composite main rotor blade root end lug

    Baker, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Stress analysis of the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) composite main rotor blade root end lug is described. The stress concentration factor determined from a finite element analysis is compared to an empirical value used in the lug design. The analysis and test data indicate that the stress concentration is primarily a function of configuration and independent of the range of material properties typical of Kevlar-49/epoxy and glass epoxy.

  14. Full State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    This paper presents the design of a state estimator system for a generic helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to deliver full rigid body state information for both helicopter and load and is based on the unscented Kalman filter. Two different approaches are investigated......: One based on a parameter free kinematic model and one based on a full aerodynamic helicopter and slung load model. The kinematic model approach uses acceleration and rate information from two Inertial Measurement Units, one on the helicopter and one on the load, to drive a simple kinematic model....... A simple and effective virtual sensor method is developed to maintain the constraints imposed by the wires in the system. The full model based approach uses a complex aerodynamical model to describe the helicopter together with a generic rigid body model. This rigid body model is based on a redundant...

  15. Full State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a state estimator system for a generic helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to deliver full rigid body state information for both helicopter and load and is based on the unscented Kalman filter. Two different approaches are investigated......: One based on a parameter free kinematic model and one based on a full aerodynamic helicopter and slung load model. The kinematic model approach uses acceleration and rate information from two Inertial Measurement Units, one on the helicopter and one on the load, to drive a simple kinematic model....... A simple and effective virtual sensor method is developed to maintain the constraints imposed by the wires in the system. The full model based approach uses a complex aerodynamical model to describe the helicopter together with a generic rigid body model. This rigid body model is based on a redundant...

  16. 75 FR 62639 - Air Ambulance and Commercial Helicopter Operations, Part 91 Helicopter Operations, and Part 135...

    2010-10-12

    ... helicopter air ambulance operators implement a safety management system program that includes sound risk... partially address NTSB Safety Recommendation A-09-89 regarding the implementation of sound risk management... documents. Authority for This Rulemaking The FAA's authority to issue rules on aviation safety is found in...

  17. Using Discrete Event Simulation To Analyze Personnel Requirements For The Malaysian Armys New Utility Helicopter Fleet

    2016-06-01

    HELICOPTER FLEET Hasnan bin Mohamad Rais Major, Malaysian Army B.S., University Technology of Malaysia , 2000 Submitted in partial...HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE POLICY B. The objective of MAA helicopter maintenance activities is to preserve helicopter safety and mission reliability to

  18. 14 CFR 29.71 - Helicopter angle of glide: Category B.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter angle of glide: Category B. 29... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.71 Helicopter angle of glide: Category B. For each category B helicopter, except multiengine helicopters meeting the...

  19. 33 CFR 149.655 - What are the requirements for helicopter fueling facilities?

    2010-07-01

    ... helicopter fueling facilities? 149.655 Section 149.655 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Helicopter Fueling Facilities § 149.655 What are the requirements for helicopter fueling facilities? Helicopter fueling facilities must comply with 46 CFR 108.489 or an equivalent...

  20. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    Cheng-xiong, Pan; Jing-zhou, Zhang; Yong, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  1. Application of Vibration and Oil Analysis for Reliability Information on Helicopter Main Rotor Gearbox

    Murrad, Muhamad; Leong, M. Salman

    Based on the experiences of the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF), failure of the main rotor gearbox (MRGB) was one of the major contributing factors to helicopter breakdowns. Even though vibration and oil analysis are the effective techniques for monitoring the health of helicopter components, these two techniques were rarely combined to form an effective assessment tool in MAF. Results of the oil analysis were often used only for oil changing schedule while assessments of MRGB condition were mainly based on overall vibration readings. A study group was formed and given a mandate to improve the maintenance strategy of S61-A4 helicopter fleet in the MAF. The improvement consisted of a structured approach to the reassessment/redefinition suitable maintenance actions that should be taken for the MRGB. Basic and enhanced tools for condition monitoring (CM) are investigated to address the predominant failures of the MRGB. Quantitative accelerated life testing (QALT) was considered in this work with an intent to obtain the required reliability information in a shorter time with tests under normal stress conditions. These tests when performed correctly can provide valuable information about MRGB performance under normal operating conditions which enable maintenance personnel to make decision more quickly, accurately and economically. The time-to-failure and probability of failure information of the MRGB were generated by applying QALT analysis principles. This study is anticipated to make a dramatic change in its approach to CM, bringing significant savings and various benefits to MAF.

  2. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations?

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone

    2013-01-01

    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  3. Heavy Class Helicopter Fuselage Model Drag Reduction by Active Flow Control Systems

    De Gregorio, F.

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive experimental investigation of helicopter blunt fuselage drag reduction using active flow control is being carried out within the European Clean Sky program. The objective is to demonstrate the capability of several active flow technologies to decrease fuselage drag by alleviating the flow separation occurring in the rear area of some helicopters. The work is performed on a simplified blunt fuselage at model-scale. Two different flow control actuators are considered for evaluation: steady blowing, unsteady blowing (or pulsed jets). Laboratory tests of each individual actuator are first performed to assess their performance and properties. The fuselage model is then equipped with these actuators distributed in 3 slots located on the ramp bottom edge. This paper addresses the promising results obtained during the wind-tunnel campaign, since significant drag reductions are achieved for a wide range of fuselage angles of attack and yaw angles without detriment of the other aerodynamic characteristics.

  4. Design of a Stability Augmentation System for an Unmanned Helicopter Based on Adaptive Control Techniques

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The task of control of unmanned helicopters is rather complicated in the presence of parametric uncertainties and measurement noises. This paper presents an adaptive model feedback control algorithm for an unmanned helicopter stability augmentation system. The proposed algorithm can achieve a guaranteed model reference tracking performance and speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, even when the plant parameters vary rapidly. Moreover, the model feedback strategy in the algorithm further contributes to the improvement in the control quality of the stability augmentation system in the case of low signal to noise ratios, mainly because the model feedback path is noise free. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated through a series of tests.

  5. Direct CFD Predictions of Low Frequency Sounds Generated by a Helicopter Main Rotor

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark A.; Conner, Dave A.; Conner, Dave A.; Watts, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of CFD to directly predict helicopter main rotor noise is shown to be quite promising as an alternative mean for low frequency source noise evaluation. Results using existing state-of-the-art grid structures and finite-difference schemes demonstrated that small perturbation pressures, associated with acoustics radiation, can be extracted with some degree of fidelity. Accuracy of the predictions are demonstrated via comparing to predictions from conventional acoustic analogy-based models, and with measurements obtained from wind tunnel and flight tests for the MD-902 helicopter at several operating conditions. Findings show that the direct CFD approach is quite successfully in yielding low frequency results due to thickness and steady loading noise mechanisms. Mid-to-high frequency contents, due to blade-vortex interactions, are not predicted due to CFD modeling and grid constraints.

  6. Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise

    Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.

  7. Helicopter TEM parameters analysis and system optimization based on time constant

    Xiao, Pan; Wu, Xin; Shi, Zongyang; Li, Jutao; Liu, Lihua; Fang, Guangyou

    2018-03-01

    Helicopter transient electromagnetic (TEM) method is a kind of common geophysical prospecting method, widely used in mineral detection, underground water exploration and environment investigation. In order to develop an efficient helicopter TEM system, it is necessary to analyze and optimize the system parameters. In this paper, a simple and quantitative method is proposed to analyze the system parameters, such as waveform, power, base frequency, measured field and sampling time. A wire loop model is used to define a comprehensive 'time constant domain' that shows a range of time constant, analogous to a range of conductance, after which the characteristics of the system parameters in this domain is obtained. It is found that the distortion caused by the transmitting base frequency is less than 5% when the ratio of the transmitting period to the target time constant is greater than 6. When the sampling time window is less than the target time constant, the distortion caused by the sampling time window is less than 5%. According to this method, a helicopter TEM system, called CASHTEM, is designed, and flight test has been carried out in the known mining area. The test results show that the system has good detection performance, verifying the effectiveness of the method.

  8. The NASA/industry Design Analysis Methods for Vibrations (DAMVIBS) program : Bell Helicopter Textron accomplishments

    Cronkhite, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate vibration prediction for helicopter airframes is needed to 'fly from the drawing board' without costly development testing to solve vibration problems. The principal analytical tool for vibration prediction within the U.S. helicopter industry is the NASTRAN finite element analysis. Under the NASA DAMVIBS research program, Bell conducted NASTRAN modeling, ground vibration testing, and correlations of both metallic (AH-1G) and composite (ACAP) airframes. The objectives of the program were to assess NASTRAN airframe vibration correlations, to investigate contributors to poor agreement, and to improve modeling techniques. In the past, there has been low confidence in higher frequency vibration prediction for helicopters that have multibladed rotors (three or more blades) with predominant excitation frequencies typically above 15 Hz. Bell's findings under the DAMVIBS program, discussed in this paper, included the following: (1) accuracy of finite element models (FEM) for composite and metallic airframes generally were found to be comparable; (2) more detail is needed in the FEM to improve higher frequency prediction; (3) secondary structure not normally included in the FEM can provide significant stiffening; (4) damping can significantly affect phase response at higher frequencies; and (5) future work is needed in the areas of determination of rotor-induced vibratory loads and optimization.

  9. Helicopter approach capability using the differential global positioning system. M.S. Thesis

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1993-01-01

    The results of flight tests to determine the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the differential mode (DGPS) to provide high accuracy, precision navigation, and guidance for helicopter approaches to landing are presented. The airborne DGPS receiver and associated equipment is installed in a NASA UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The ground-based DGPS reference receiver is located at a surveyed test site and is equipped with a real-time VHF data link to transmit correction information to the airborne DGPS receiver. The corrected airborne DGPS information, together with the preset approach geometry, is used to calculate guidance commands which are sent to the aircraft's approach guidance instruments. The use of DGPS derived guidance for helicopter approaches to landing is evaluated by comparing the DGPS data with the laser tracker truth data. Both standard (3 deg) and steep (6 deg and 9 deg) glideslope straight-in approaches were flown. DGPS positioning accuracy based on a time history analysis of the entire approach was 0.2 m (mean) +/- 1.8 m (2 sigma) laterally and -2.0 m (mean) +/- 3.5 m (2 sigma) vertically for 3 deg glideslope approaches, -0.1 m (mean) +/- 1.5 m (2 sigma) laterally and -1.1 m (mean) +/- 3.5 m (2 sigma) vertically for 6 deg glideslope approaches and 0.2 m (mean) +/- 1.3 m (2 sigma) laterally and -1.0 m (mean) +/- 2.8 m (2 sigma) vertically for 9 deg glideslope approaches. DGPS positioning accuracy at the 200 ft decision height (DH) on a standard 3 deg slideslope approach was 0.3 m (mean) +/- 1.5 m (2 sigma) laterally and -2.3 m (mean) +/- 1.6 m (2 sigma) vertically. These errors indicate that the helicopter position based on DGPS guidance satisfies the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category 1 (CAT 1) lateral and vertical navigational accuracy requirements.

  10. Terrain and Radiation Mapping in Post-Disaster Environments Using an Autonomous Helicopter

    Kevin Kochersberger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent events have highlighted the need for unmanned remote sensing in dangerous areas, particularly where structures have collapsed or explosions have occurred, to limit hazards to first responders and increase their efficiency in planning response operations. In the case of the Fukushima nuclear reactor explosion, an unmanned helicopter capable of obtaining overhead images, gathering radiation measurements, and mapping both the structural and radiation content of the environment would have given the response team invaluable data early in the disaster, thereby allowing them to understand the extent of the damage and areas where dangers to personnel existed. With this motivation, the Unmanned Systems Lab at Virginia Tech has developed a remote sensing system for radiation detection and aerial imaging using a 90 kg autonomous helicopter and sensing payloads for the radiation detection and imaging operations. The radiation payload, which is the sensor of focus in this paper, consists of a scintillating type detector with associated software and novel search algorithms to rapidly and effectively map and locate sources of high radiation intensity. By incorporating this sensing technology into an unmanned aerial vehicle system, crucial situational awareness can be gathered about a post-disaster environment and response efforts can be expedited. This paper details the radiation mapping and localization capabilities of this system as well as the testing of the various search algorithms using simulated radiation data. The various components of the system have been flight tested over a several-year period and a new production flight platform has been built to enhance reliability and maintainability. The new system is based on the Aeroscout B1-100 helicopter platform, which has a one-hour flight endurance and uses a COFDM radio system that gives the helicopter an effective range of 7 km.

  11. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  12. Evaluation of an oil-debris monitoring device for use in helicopter transmissions

    Lewicki, David G.; Blanchette, Donald M.; Biron, Gilles

    1992-01-01

    Experimental tests were performed on an OH-58A helicopter main-rotor transmission to evaluate an oil-debris monitoring device (ODMD). The tests were performed in the NASA 500-hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. Five endurance tests were run as part of a U.S. Navy/NASA/Army advanced lubricants program. The tests were run at 100 percent design speed, 117-percent design torque, and 121 C (250 F) oil inlet temperature. Each test lasted between 29 and 122 hr. The oils that were used conformed to MIL-L-23699 and DOD-L-85734 specifications. One test produced a massive sun-gear fatigue failure; another test produced a small spall on one sun-gear tooth; and a third test produced a catastrophic planet-bearing cage failure. The ODMD results were compared with oil spectroscopy results. The capability of the ODMD to detect transmission component failures was not demonstrated. Two of the five tests produced large amounts of debris. For these two tests, two separate ODMD sensors failed, possibly because of prolonged exposure to relatively high oil temperatures. One test produced a small amount of debris and was not detected by the ODMD or by oil spectroscopy. In general, the ODMD results matched the oil spectroscopy results. The ODMD results were extremely sensitive to oil temperature and flow rate.

  13. Airborne radiation monitoring using a manned helicopter

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Ishizaki, Azusa; Urabe, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 generated a series of large tsunami waves that caused serious damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station, following which a large amount of radioactive material was discharged from the nuclear power plant into the environment. Airborne radiation measurements using a manned helicopter were applied to measure the radiation distribution immediately after accident as technique to quickly measure the radiation distribution over a wide area. In Japan, this technique was researched and developed in the 1980s. However, this technique and system were not applied immediately after the accident because standardization of analysis was not established and the Japanese system became deteriorated. This technique is important for post-accident studies at a nuclear facility. We summarized the methods of the airborne radiation measurement using a manned helicopter. In addition, measurement results of the dose rate distribution at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station are given in this paper. (author)

  14. Compound cycle engine for helicopter application

    Castor, Jere G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded, ultra-high power density, light-weight diesel engine. The turbomachinery is similar to a moderate pressure ratio, free power turbine engine and the diesel core is high speed and a low compression ratio. This engine is considered a potential candidate for future military light helicopter applications. This executive summary presents cycle thermodynamic (SFC) and engine weight analyses performed to establish general engine operating parameters and configuration. An extensive performance and weight analysis based on a typical two hour helicopter (+30 minute reserve) mission determined final conceptual engine design. With this mission, CCE performance was compared to that of a T-800 class gas turbine engine. The CCE had a 31% lower-fuel consumption and resulted in a 16% reduction in engine plus fuel and fuel tank weight. Design SFC of the CCE is 0.33 lb-HP-HR and installed wet weight is 0.43 lbs/HP. The major technology development areas required for the CCE are identified and briefly discussed.

  15. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy and mechanisms of Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy

    Schuurmans Josien

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in adolescence, youngsters are not inclined to seek help in regular healthcare. Therapy through the Internet, however, has been found to appeal strongly to young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine the efficacy of preventive Internet-based guided self-help problem-solving therapy with adolescents reporting depressive and anxiety symptoms. A secondary objective is to test potential mediating and moderating variables in order to gain insight into how the intervention works and for whom it works best. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial with an intervention condition group and a wait-list control group. The intervention condition group receives Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy. Support is provided by a professional and delivered through email. Participants in the wait-list control group receive the intervention four months later. The study population consists of adolescents (12-18-year-olds from the general population who report mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms and are willing to complete a self-help course. Primary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, social anxiety, and cost-effectiveness. The following variables are examined for their moderating role: demographics, motivation, treatment credibility and expectancy, externalizing behaviour, perceived social support from parents and friends, substance use, the experience of important life events, physical activity, the quality of the therapeutic alliance, and satisfaction. Mediator variables include problem-solving skills, worrying, mastery, and self-esteem. Data are collected at baseline and at 3 weeks, 5 weeks, 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months after baseline. Both intention-to-treat and completer analyses will be conducted. Discussion This study evaluates the efficacy and mechanisms of

  16. Model Reference Sliding Mode Control of Small Helicopter X.R.B based on Vision

    Wei Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents autonomous control for indoor small helicopter X.R.B. In case of natural disaster like earthquake, a MAV (Micro Air Vehicle which can fly autonomously will be very effective for surveying the site and environment in dangerous area or narrow space, where human cannot access safely. In addition, it will be helpful to prevent secondary disaster. This paper describes vision based autonomous hovering control, guidance control for X.R.B by model reference sliding mode control.

  17. Simulating effectiveness of helicopter evasive manoeuvres to RPG attack

    Anderson, D.; Thomson, D. G.

    2010-04-01

    The survivability of helicopters under attack by ground troops using rocket propelled grenades has been amply illustrated over the past decade. Given that an RPG is unguided and it is infeasible to cover helicopters in thick armour, existing optical countermeasures are ineffective - the solution is to compute an evasive manoeuvre. In this paper, an RPG/helicopter engagement model is presented. Manoeuvre profiles are defined in the missile approach warning sensor camera image plane using a local maximum acceleration vector. Required control inputs are then computed using inverse simulation techniques. Assessments of platform survivability to several engagement scenarios are presented.

  18. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  19. Integral Twist Actuation of Helicopter Rotor Blades for Vibration Reduction

    Shin, SangJoon; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.

    2001-01-01

    Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework is developed to examine integrally-twisted blades and their aeroelastic response during different flight conditions: frequency domain analysis for hover, and time domain analysis for forward flight. Both stem from the same three-dimensional electroelastic beam formulation with geometrical-exactness, and axe coupled with a finite-state dynamic inflow aerodynamics model. A prototype Active Twist Rotor blade was designed with this framework using Active Fiber Composites as the actuator. The ATR prototype blade was successfully tested under non-rotating conditions. Hover testing was conducted to evaluate structural integrity and dynamic response. In both conditions, a very good correlation was obtained against the analysis. Finally, a four-bladed ATR system is built and tested to demonstrate its concept in forward flight. This experiment was conducted at NASA Langley Tansonic Dynamics Tunnel and represents the first-of-a-kind Mach-scaled fully-active-twist rotor system to undergo forward flight test. In parallel, the impact upon the fixed- and rotating-system loads is estimated by the analysis. While discrepancies are found in the amplitude of the loads under actuation, the predicted trend of load variation with respect to its control phase correlates well. It was also shown, both experimentally and numerically, that the ATR blade design has the potential for hub vibratory load reduction of up to 90% using individual blade control actuation. Using the numerical framework, system identification is performed to estimate the harmonic transfer functions. The linear time-periodic system can be represented by a linear time-invariant system under the three modes of blade actuation: collective, longitudinal cyclic, and lateral cyclic. A vibration

  20. The Application of Helicopter Rotor Defect Detection Using Wavelet Analysis and Neural Network Technique

    Jin-Li Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When detect the helicopter rotor beam with ultrasonic testing, it is difficult to realize the noise removing and quantitative testing. This paper used the wavelet analysis technique to remove the noise among the ultrasonic detection signal and highlight the signal feature of defect, then drew the curve of defect size and signal amplitude. Based on the relationship of defect size and signal amplitude, a BP neural network was built up and the corresponding estimated value of the simulate defect was obtained by repeating training. It was confirmed that the wavelet analysis and neural network technique met the requirements of practical testing.

  1. Helicopter Rotor Blade Computation in Unsteady Flows Using Moving Overset Grids

    Ahmad, Jasim; Duque, Earl P. N.

    1996-01-01

    An overset grid thin-layer Navier-Stokes code has been extended to include dynamic motion of helicopter rotor blades through relative grid motion. The unsteady flowfield and airloads on an AH-IG rotor in forward flight were computed to verify the methodology and to demonstrate the method's potential usefulness towards comprehensive helicopter codes. In addition, the method uses the blade's first harmonics measured in the flight test to prescribe the blade motion. The solution was impulsively started and became periodic in less than three rotor revolutions. Detailed unsteady numerical flow visualization techniques were applied to the entire unsteady data set of five rotor revolutions and exhibited flowfield features such as blade vortex interaction and wake roll-up. The unsteady blade loads and surface pressures compare well against those from flight measurements. Details of the method, a discussion of the resulting predicted flowfield, and requirements for future work are presented. Overall, given the proper blade dynamics, this method can compute the unsteady flowfield of a general helicopter rotor in forward flight.

  2. Robust Navier-Stokes method for predicting unsteady flowfield and aerodynamic characteristics of helicopter rotor

    Qijun ZHAO

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A robust unsteady rotor flowfield solver CLORNS code is established to predict the complex unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of rotor flowfield. In order to handle the difficult problem about grid generation around rotor with complex aerodynamic shape in this CFD code, a parameterized grid generated method is established, and the moving-embedded grids are constructed by several proposed universal methods. In this work, the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations with Spalart-Allmaras are selected as the governing equations to predict the unsteady flowfield of helicopter rotor. The discretization of convective fluxes is accomplished by employing the second-order central difference scheme, third-order MUSCL-Roe scheme, and fifth-order WENO-Roe scheme. Aimed at simulating the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of helicopter rotor, the dual-time scheme with implicit LU-SGS scheme is employed to accomplish the temporal discretization. In order to improve the computational efficiency of hole-cells and donor elements searching of the moving-embedded grid technology, the “disturbance diffraction method” and “minimum distance scheme of donor elements method” are established in this work. To improve the computational efficiency, Message Passing Interface (MPI parallel method based on subdivision of grid, local preconditioning method and Full Approximation Storage (FAS multi-grid method are combined in this code. By comparison of the numerical results simulated by CLORNS code with test data, it is illustrated that the present code could simulate the aerodynamic loads and aerodynamic noise characteristics of helicopter rotor accurately. Keywords: Aerodynamic characteristics, Helicopter rotor, Moving-embedded grid, Navier-Stokes equations, Upwind schemes

  3. Helicopter type and accident severity in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services missions.

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Schwalbe, Mandy; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Spelten, Oliver; Neuhaus, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    Whereas accident rates and fatal accident rates for Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) were investigated sufficiently, resulting consequences for the occupants remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to classify HEMS accidents in Germany to prognosticate accident severity with regard to the helicopter model used. German HEMS accidents (1 Sept. 1970-31 Dec. 2009) were gathered as previously reported. Accidents were categorized in relation to the most severe injury, i.e., (1) no; (2) slight; (3) severe; and (4) fatal injuries. Only helicopter models with at least five accidents were analyzed to retrieve representative data. Prognostication was estimated by the relative percentage of each injury type compared to the total number of accidents. The model BO105 was most often involved in accidents (38 of 99), followed by BK117 and UH-1D. OfN = 99 accidents analyzed, N = 63 were without any injuries (63.6%), N = 8 resulted in minor injuries of the occupants (8.1%), and N = 9 in major injuries (9.1%). Additionally, N = 19 fatal accidents (19.2%) were registered. EC135 and BK1 17 had the highest incidence of uninjured occupants (100% vs. 88.2%) and the lowest percentage of fatal injuries (0% vs. 5.9%; all P > 0.05). Most fatal accidents occurred with the models UH-1D, Bell 212, and Bell 412. Use of the helicopter models EC135 and BK117 resulted in a high percentage of uninjured occupants. In contrast, the fatality rate was highest for the models Bell UH-I D, Bell 222, and Bell 412. Data from the present study allow for estimating accident risk in HEMS missions and prognosticating resulting fatalities, respectively.

  4. High Fidelity Multidisciplinary Tool Development for Helicopter Quieting

    Chen, Chung-Lung; Chen, Ya-Chi; Chen, Bing; Jain, Rohit; Lund, Tom; Zhao, Hongwu; Wang, Z.-J; Sun, Yuzhi; Saberi, Hossein; Shih, T.-H

    2007-01-01

    .... The problem is indeed multidisciplinary. Current helicopter blade designers use computational models, which depend heavily on experimental data and cannot be used to predict any novel design, which is a significant departure from existing designs...

  5. Numerical investigation of turbulent flow past a four-bladed helicopter rotor using k - ω SST model

    Xu, H.; Khalid, M.

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study of the laminar flow over a four-bladed helicopter rotor, abnormal Cp distributions were observed on the upper surfaces of the blades. To address this problem, the aerodynamic performance of the same rotor is investigated using the k - ω SST turbulence model, as contained in the WIND code. The rotor is configured as a Chimera moving grid in a quasi-steady flow field. The rotor rotation schedule and the blade twisting are implemented as specified in the wind tunnel testing of a RoBin generic helicopter. More realistic Cp distributions on the blade surfaces are thus obtained. The aerodynamic load distributions in the radial direction of the rotor plane are generated by integrating the pressure on each blade surfaces along the blade chordwise direction. The analyses of these load distributions in the azmuthal direction provide a critical insight into the rotor model, which is based on the actuator-disc assumption. Also, some preliminary results for the flow past a full helicopter configuration, including the rotor and the RoBin fuselage, are presented. The current paper demonstrates the Chimera grid topologies and the Chimera grid generation technique for both blade and fuselage configuration. This would provide a powerful tool to simulate flow past an entire helicopter and to study the rotor-fuselage flow interaction. (author)

  6. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part One. Preliminary Design

    1974-08-30

    the cost of prime interest being life-cycle cost, climate that is hot or cold, in atmosphere that is humid Chapter 3 discusses helicopter performance...required to satisfy 8-3.2 ENGINE INSTALLATION LOSSES varying climatic and environmental factors. For in- stance, maintenance of the helicopter should be...thammable h aulic , asytem l at mhtproidtem a considering the overall flight mission in segments, dur- source of flammable fluids, as well as electrical

  7. VH-92A Presidential Helicopter (VH-92A)

    2015-12-01

    provide safe, reliable, and timely transportation for the President, Vice President, Foreign Heads of State, and other official parties as directed by...the Director of the White House Military Office. Presidential helicopter transportation requirements are executed by Marine Helicopter Squadron One...Review Jul 2016 Jul 2016 Jan 2017 Jul 2016 Milestone C Jan 2019 Jan 2019 Jul 2019 Jan 2019 IOT &E Complete Mar 2020 Mar 2020 Sep 2020 Mar 2020 IOC Jul

  8. Study of Helicopter Performance and Terminal Instrument Procedures

    1980-06-01

    possible employment of decelerating or other innovative approaches to be discussed in Section 3 and may be employed to advantage in reviewing missed...330J Puma is a 19 passenger medium helicopter manufactured by Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale of Marignane, France and marketed in the...for use by the French and British armed forces. It is manufactured by the Helicopter Divison of Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale of Marignane

  9. Active vibration suppression of helicopter horizontal stabilizers

    Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.

  10. Idiopathic Syringomyelia in a Military Helicopter Pilot.

    Schiemer, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, including limb weakness and back pain. Incidental finding of syringomyelia provides a challenge for clinicians due to the wide variety of possible symptoms. In military aviation, neurological findings in pilots can result in extensive investigation that can lead to potentially invasive management. Conversely, the potential for chronic progression of a spinal syrinx and subsequent neurological deterioration makes early identification critical. Ultimately, the discovery of a lesion may have implications for flying status and operational capability. A 25-yr-old man working as a navy Seahawk helicopter pilot presented with episodes of right arm paraesthesia and pain between the scapulae. On at least one occasion, these symptoms woke him at night. Upon magnetic resonance imaging, dilatation of the central canal in a syrinx-like pattern in the lower cervical region was noted. Neurology review suggested the finding was persistent and unlikely to be responsible for his symptoms. No surgical input was recommended. His symptoms were attributed to mild cervical spondylosis, which resolved with ongoing physiotherapy, and he was returned to flying status. This case highlights several issues involved with the incidental finding of a syringomyelia. Surgical intervention has been known to worsen symptoms. Conversely, studies have identified minimal radiological progression in cases of idiopathic syringomyelia, with fewer individuals displaying neurological deterioration. For aircrew, potentially unnecessary neurosurgical intervention poses risks to a flying career and overall operational capability.Schiemer A. Idiopathic syringomyelia in a military helicopter pilot. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):962-965.

  11. Helicopter flight simulation motion platform requirements

    Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn

    Flight simulators attempt to reproduce in-flight pilot-vehicle behavior on the ground. This reproduction is challenging for helicopter simulators, as the pilot is often inextricably dependent on external cues for pilot-vehicle stabilization. One important simulator cue is platform motion; however, its required fidelity is unknown. To determine the required motion fidelity, several unique experiments were performed. A large displacement motion platform was used that allowed pilots to fly tasks with matched motion and visual cues. Then, the platform motion was modified to give cues varying from full motion to no motion. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositionings. This refutes the view that pilots estimate altitude and altitude rate in simulation solely from visual cues. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.

  12. Aerodynamic design of the Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter

    Larwood, Scott; Saiki, Neal

    1990-01-01

    This paper will discuss the methodology used in designing the rotor and drive propellers for the third generation Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter. The rotor was designed using a lifting surface, uniform inflow hover analysis code and the propeller was designed using a minimum induced-loss method. Construction, geometry, and operating considerations are discussed as they impact the designs. Optimization of the design performance is also explained. The propellers were tested in a wind tunnel and results are compared with theoretical data. Successful flight tests of the Da Vinci III are discussed.

  13. Amplifying the helicopter drift in a conformal HMD

    Schmerwitz, Sven; Knabl, Patrizia M.; Lueken, Thomas; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich

    2016-05-01

    Helicopter operations require a well-controlled and minimal lateral drift shortly before ground contact. Any lateral speed exceeding this small threshold can cause a dangerous momentum around the roll axis, which may cause a total roll over of the helicopter. As long as pilots can observe visual cues from the ground, they are able to easily control the helicopter drift. But whenever natural vision is reduced or even obscured, e.g. due to night, fog, or dust, this controllability diminishes. Therefore helicopter operators could benefit from some type of "drift indication" that mitigates the influence of a degraded visual environment. Generally humans derive ego motion by the perceived environmental object flow. The visual cues perceived are located close to the helicopter, therefore even small movements can be recognized. This fact was used to investigate a modified drift indication. To enhance the perception of ego motion in a conformal HMD symbol set the measured movement was used to generate a pattern motion in the forward field of view close or on the landing pad. The paper will discuss the method of amplified ego motion drift indication. Aspects concerning impact factors like visualization type, location, gain and more will be addressed. Further conclusions from previous studies, a high fidelity experiment and a part task experiment, will be provided. A part task study will be presented that compared different amplified drift indications against a predictor. 24 participants, 15 holding a fixed wing license and 4 helicopter pilots, had to perform a dual task on a virtual reality headset. A simplified control model was used to steer a "helicopter" down to a landing pad while acknowledging randomly placed characters.

  14. Development of Helicopter Capabilities in the U.S. Army During the Korean and Vietnam Wars

    2016-06-10

    28. 14 and could land almost in any place bigger than its rotor diameter. It demonstrated the nature of the helicopter . Nevertheless, rotorcraft of... composition of airmobile units, and 67 methodology of helicopter use on the battlefield. The study seems to cover a broad spectrum of knowledge and...can be focused on the one of several aspects: employment of armored helicopters , land mobility vs helicopter mobility, composition of airmobile units

  15. Experimental Investigation of a Helicopter Rotor Hub Wake

    Reich, David; Elbing, Brian; Schmitz, Sven

    2013-11-01

    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48'' Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. The main objectives of the experiment were to understand the spatial- and temporal content of the unsteady wake downstream of a rotor hub up to a distance corresponding to the empennage. Primary measurements were the total hub drag and velocity measurements at three nominal downstream locations. Various flow structures were identified and linked to geometric features of the hub model. The most prominent structures were two-per-revolution (hub component: scissors) and four-per-revolution (hub component: main hub arms) vortices shed by the hub. Both the two-per-revolution and four-per-revolution structures persisted far downstream of the hub, but the rate of dissipation was greater for the four-per-rev structures. This work provides a dataset for enhanced understanding of the fundamental physics underlying rotor hub flows and serves as validation data for future CFD analyses.

  16. Flow Structures within a Helicopter Rotor Hub Wake

    Elbing, Brian; Reich, David; Schmitz, Sven

    2015-11-01

    A scaled model of a notional helicopter rotor hub was tested in the 48'' Garfield Thomas Water Tunnel at the Applied Research Laboratory Penn State. The measurement suite included total hub drag and wake velocity measurements (LDV, PIV, stereo-PIV) at three downstream locations. The main objective was to understand the spatiotemporal evolution of the unsteady wake between the rotor hub and the nominal location of the empennage (tail). Initial analysis of the data revealed prominent two- and four-per-revolution fluid structures linked to geometric hub features persisting into the wake far-field. In addition, a six-per-revolution fluid structure was observed in the far-field, which is unexpected due to the lack of any hub feature with the corresponding symmetry. This suggests a nonlinear interaction is occurring within the wake to generate these structures. This presentation will provide an overview of the experimental data and analysis with particular emphasis on these six-per-revolution structures.

  17. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 27 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter... Appendix B to Part 27—Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight I. General. A normal category helicopter may not be type certificated for operation under the instrument flight rules (IFR) of this chapter...

  18. 14 CFR 61.161 - Aeronautical experience: Rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating.

    2010-01-01

    ... category and helicopter class rating. 61.161 Section 61.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... helicopter class rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating, must have at least 1,200 hours of total time as a pilot that...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 29 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter... Appendix B to Part 29—Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight I. General. A transport category helicopter may not be type certificated for operation under the instrument flight rules (IFR) of...

  20. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency medical....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... certificate holder may assign a helicopter flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an...

  1. Differences in physical workload between military helicopter pilots and cabin crew

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    The 1-year prevalence of regular or continuous neck pain in military helicopter pilots of the Dutch Defense Helicopter Command (DHC) is 20%, and physical work exposures have been suggested as risk factors. Pilots and cabin crew perform different tasks when flying helicopters. The aims of the current

  2. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks. ...

  3. U.S. Army Primary Helicopter School Training Program Performance Norms.

    Barnes, John A.; Statham, Flavous D.

    The Helicopter Pilot Training Program of the Army differs from those of the other services in concept. It takes nonpilot servicemen and trains them to fly helicopters. The study provides normative performance data for a pilot trainee in an army light-observation helicopter as a first step toward establishing normative data for pilot performance in…

  4. 46 CFR 131.950 - Placard on lifesaving signals and helicopter recovery.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placard on lifesaving signals and helicopter recovery... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.950 Placard on lifesaving signals and helicopter recovery..., Chapter V, of SOLAS 74/83; and (2) In helicopter recovery. (b) The signals must be employed by vessels or...

  5. 78 FR 40055 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters

    2013-07-03

    .... We also estimate that it would take about 3 work-hours per helicopter to rework the top cable cutter... helicopter to rework the top cable cutter assembly, $9,085 per helicopter to replace the top cable cutter... installing a WSPS upper installation, P/N 4G9540A00111, either: (i) Rework the top cable cutter assembly, P/N...

  6. 77 FR 52270 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters

    2012-08-29

    ... would take about three work- hours per helicopter to rework the top cable-cutter assembly, one work... would be $255 per helicopter to rework the top cable-cutter assembly, $9,085 per helicopter to replace... 4G9540A00111, either: (i) Rework the top cable cutter assembly, P/N 423-83001-1, in accordance with the...

  7. Helicopter Parenting: The Effect of an Overbearing Caregiving Style on Peer Attachment and Self-Efficacy

    van Ingen, Daniel J.; Freiheit, Stacy R.; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Moore, Linda L.; Wimer, David J.; Knutt, Adelle D.; Scapinello, Samantha; Roberts, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter parenting, an observed phenomenon on college campuses, may adversely affect college students. The authors examined how helicopter parenting is related to self-efficacy and peer relationships among 190 undergraduate students ages 16 to 28 years. Helicopter parenting was associated with low self-efficacy, alienation from peers, and a lack…

  8. High fidelity medical simulation in the difficult environment of a helicopter: feasibility, self-efficacy and cost

    Holland Carolyn

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the feasibility, self-efficacy and cost of providing a high fidelity medical simulation experience in the difficult environment of an air ambulance helicopter. Methods Seven of 12 EM residents in their first postgraduate year participated in an EMS flight simulation as the flight physician. The simulation used the Laerdal SimMan™ to present a cardiac and a trauma case in an EMS helicopter while running at flight idle. Before and after the simulation, subjects completed visual analog scales and a semi-structured interview to measure their self-efficacy, i.e. comfort with their ability to treat patients in the helicopter, and recognition of obstacles to care in the helicopter environment. After all 12 residents had completed their first non-simulated flight as the flight physician; they were surveyed about self-assessed comfort and perceived value of the simulation. Continuous data were compared between pre- and post-simulation using a paired samples t-test, and between residents participating in the simulation and those who did not using an independent samples t-test. Categorical data were compared using Fisher's exact test. Cost data for the simulation experience were estimated by the investigators. Results The simulations functioned correctly 5 out of 7 times; suggesting some refinement is necessary. Cost data indicated a monetary cost of $440 and a time cost of 22 hours of skilled instructor time. The simulation and non-simulation groups were similar in their demographics and pre-hospital experiences. The simulation did not improve residents' self-assessed comfort prior to their first flight (p > 0.234, but did improve understanding of the obstacles to patient care in the helicopter (p = 0.029. Every resident undertaking the simulation agreed it was educational and it should be included in their training. Qualitative data suggested residents would benefit from high fidelity simulation in other

  9. Helicopter-based lidar system for monitoring the upper ocean and terrain surface

    Lee, Kwi Joo; Park, Youngsik; Bunkin, Alexey; Pershin, Serguei; Voliak, Konstantin; Nunes, Raul

    2002-01-01

    A compact helicopter-based lidar system is developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. It is shown that the lidar can measure concentrations of chlorophyll a and dissolved organic matter at the surface of water bodies, detect fluorescence spectra of ground vegetation at a distance of up to 530 m, and determine the vertical profile of light-scattering particle concentration in the upper ocean. The possibilities of the lidar system are demonstrated by detection of polluted areas at the ocean surface, by online monitoring of three-dimensional distribution of light-scattering layers, and by recognition of plant types and physiological states

  10. Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits

    Stephen H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.

  11. Piezoelectric actuation of helicopter rotor blades

    Lieven, Nicholas A. J.

    2001-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the application of embedded piezo-electric actuators in model helicopter rotor blades. The paper outlines techniques to define the optimal location of actuators to excite particular modes of vibration whilst the blade is rotating. Using composite blades the distribution of strain energy is defined using a Finite Element model with imposed rotor-dynamic and aerodynamics loads. The loads are specified through strip theory to determine the position of maximum bending moment and thus the optimal location of the embedded actuators. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on a 1/4 scale fixed cyclic pitch rotor head. Measurement of the blade displacement is achieved by using strain gauges. In addition a redundant piezo-electric actuator is used to measure the blades' response characteristics. The addition of piezo-electric devices in this application has been shown to exhibit adverse aeroelastic effects, such as counter mass balancing and increased drag. Methods to minimise these effects are suggested. The outcome of the paper is a method for defining the location and orientation of piezo-electric devices in rotor-dynamic applications.

  12. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    1994-06-01

    Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system dynamics and performance of a split torque gearbox that uses a balance beam mechanism for load sharing. The Lagrange method was applied to develop a system of equations of motion. The mathematical model includes time-varying gear mesh stiffness, friction, and manufacturing errors. Cornell's method for calculating the stiffness of spur gear teeth was extended and applied to helical gears. The phenomenon of sidebands spaced at shaft frequencies about gear mesh fundamental frequencies was simulated by modeling total composite gear errors as sinusoid functions. Although the gearbox has symmetric geometry, the loads and motions of the two power paths differ. Friction must be considered to properly evaluate the balance beam mechanism. For the design studied, the balance beam is not an effective device for load sharing unless the coefficient of friction is less than 0.003. The complete system stiffness as represented by the stiffness matrix used in this analysis must be considered to precisely determine the optimal tooth indexing position.

  13. Laser Obstacle Detection System Flight Testing

    Davis, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    ...). The Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) was contracted to mount the HELLAS sensor on the nose of a UH-60L Blackhawk helicopter and to conduct flight tests to evaluate the HELLAS obstacle detection sensor...

  14. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy and mechanisms of Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy

    Hoek, N.W.; Schuurmans, J.; Koot, H.M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Even though depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in adolescence, youngsters are not inclined to seek help in regular healthcare. Therapy through the Internet, however, has been found to appeal strongly to young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine the efficacy

  15. Helicopter Pilot Performance for Discrete-maneuver Flight Tasks

    Heffley, R. K.; Bourne, S. M.; Hindson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a current study of several basic helicopter flight maneuvers. The data base consists of in-flight measurements from instrumented helicopters using experienced pilots. The analysis technique is simple enough to apply without automatic data processing, and the results can be used to build quantitative matah models of the flight task and some aspects of the pilot control strategy. In addition to describing the performance measurement technqiue, some results are presented which define the aggressiveness and amplitude of maneuvering for several lateral maneuvers including turns and sidesteps.

  16. Helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity - Some key ideas and insights

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    Four important current topics in helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity are discussed: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities in rotary-wing aeroelasticity; (2) structural modeling, free vibration, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage areomechanical problems and their active control; and (4) use of higher-harmonic control for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors in forward flight. The discussion attempts to provide an improved fundamental understanding of the current state of the art. In this way, future research can be focused on problems which remain to be solved instead of producing marginal improvements on problems which are already understood.

  17. CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-390 CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...December 2015 SAR March 4, 2016 10:04:18 UNCLASSIFIED 4 Col Henry Vanderborght PMA-261 Heavy Lift Helicopters Program Executive Office - Air, Anti...757-5780 Fax: 301-757-5109 DSN Phone: 757-5780 DSN Fax: 757-5109 Date Assigned: May 29, 2014 Program Information Program Name CH-53K Heavy Lift

  18. Robust Helicopter Stabilization in the Face of Wind Disturbance

    A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan; Leth, John-Josef; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2010-01-01

    When a helicopter is required to hover with minimum deviations from a desired position without measurements of an affecting persistent wind disturbance, a robustly stabilizing control action is vital. In this paper, the stabilization of the position and translational velocity of a nonlinear...... controller is then designed based on nonlinear adaptive output regulations and robust stabilization of a chain of integrators by a saturated feedback. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the control design in the stabilization of helicopter motion and the built-in robustness of the controller...

  19. Conceptual Design and Performance Analysis for a Large Civil Compound Helicopter

    Russell, Carl; Johnson, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a large civil compound helicopter is presented. The objective is to determine how a compound helicopter performs when compared to both a conventional helicopter and a tiltrotor using a design mission that is shorter than optimal for a tiltrotor and longer than optimal for a helicopter. The designs are generated and analyzed using conceptual design software and are further evaluated with a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. Multiple metrics are used to determine the suitability of each design for the given mission. Plots of various trade studies and parameter sweeps as well as comprehensive analysis results are presented. The results suggest that the compound helicopter examined for this study would not be competitive with a tiltrotor or conventional helicopter, but multiple possibilities are identified for improving the performance of the compound helicopter in future research.

  20. Flying control of small-type helicopter by detecting its in-air natural features

    Chinthaka Premachandra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Control of a small type helicopter is an interesting research area in unmanned aerial vehicle development. This study aims to detect a more typical helicopter unequipped with markers as a means by which to resolve the various issues of the prior studies. Accordingly, we propose a method of detecting the helicopter location and pose through using an infrastructure camera to recognize its in-air natural features such as ellipse traced by the rotation of the helicopter's propellers. A single-rotor system helicopter was used as the controlled airframe in our experiments. Here, helicopter location is measured by detecting the main rotor ellipse center and pose is measured following relationship between the main rotor ellipse and the tail rotor ellipse. Following these detection results we confirmed the hovering control possibility of the helicopter through experiments.

  1. Self-administered physical exercise training as treatment of neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew-members, and pain may influence individual health and work performance. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise intervention could reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members. METHODS: Thirty......-one pilots and thirty-eight crew-members were randomized to either an exercise-training-group (n = 35) or a reference-group (n = 34). The exercise-training-group received 20-weeks of specific neck/shoulder training. The reference-group received no training. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Intensity of neck pain previous 3......-to-treat and per-protocol. Students t-test was performed (p 

  2. The assessment of toxic emission from the engines of the W-3 helicopter in the preflight engine run

    Cur Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicopters are used in a variety of tasks like sea, mountain and land search and rescue, civil transportation or military operations. Their amount is growing, their ceiling is usually low, however, the exhaust emission from their engines is not restricted by any directive. That is why an attempt was made to determine the real exhaust emission. The research was done on the W-3 helicopter during the preflight engine run. Based on the results set the standard was created which reflects the working conditions of the engines during the test cycle. The research allowed to establish the unit emission of toxic gasses and then the influence on environment of the engines.

  3. The effect of introducing a helicopter trauma team to assist accident victims : a summary with conclusions and recommendations for further study. On behalf of the National Health Insurance Council.

    de Charro, F.T. & Oppe, S.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment involving the sending of emergency medical help by helicopter was started in The Netherlands on 1 May 1995. The SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research and the Centre for Health Policy and Law (CGBR) of the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, have investigated the effectiveness of a

  4. Design, Test, and Acceptance Criteria for Helicopter Transparent Enclosures

    1978-11-01

    measured in the all-glass laminate with rigid edge treatment were approximately 1100 psi when a 500)O-lb load was applied to the post section...clamped 0 .25 CA2 Ball 1289 clamped 0 .25 CA3 Ball 1075 clamped 0 .25 CA4 AP 1432 clamped 0 .25 CAS*** Ball 1155 clamped 0 .50 CA6 Ball 1066 clamped 0...0 0 CA3 1-1/2 0 0 CA4 1 0 0 CA5* -, round diameter 0 0 CA6 1 0 0 PCI smaller than round 0 0 PC2 smaller than round 0 0 PC3 smaller than round 0 0 PC4

  5. Going Online: Helping Technical Communicators Help Translators.

    Flint, Patricia; Lord van Slyke, Melanie; Starke-Meyerring, Doreen; Thompson, Aimee

    1999-01-01

    Explains why technical communicators should help translators. Offers tips for creating "translation-friendly" documentation. Describes the research and design process used by the authors to create an online tutorial that provides technical communicators at a medical technology company the information they need to help them write and…

  6. Neck Pain in Military Helicopter Pilots: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; de Loose, Veerle; Meeuwsen, Ted; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Our aim is to estimate the self-reported one-year prevalence of neck pain in military helicopter pilots and to compare work-related, individual, and health-related factors in the pilots with (neck pain group) and without (reference group) regular or continuous neck pain. A questionnaire was

  7. At Issue: Helicopter Parents and Millennial Students, an Annotated Bibliography

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2008-01-01

    Technological advances have made it easy for parents and children--many of them students--to communicate instantaneously. Devices and technologies such as cell phones, laptops, texting, and e-mail all enable various forms of instant communication. "Helicopter parents" are regarded as very overprotective and overly involved in the affairs of their…

  8. Leadership Styles in United States Marine Corps Transport Helicopter Squadrons

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as

  9. 78 FR 63429 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-10-24

    ... Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery: Deliver to the ``Mail'' address between 9 a... rotor control turnbuckle ruptured because of corrosion. The damage was discovered during a flight... corrosion or a crack. The delivery date is the date the helicopter left Eurocopter's manufacturing plant in...

  10. 78 FR 23686 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-04-22

    ...-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery: Deliver to the ``Mail... during a scheduled maintenance check, a helicopter was discovered to have interference between the...) Inspect the right and left attachment points of the TGB forward attachment to measure the dimension for a...

  11. Enhancing Public Helicopter Safety as a Component of Homeland Security

    2016-12-01

    Risk Assessment Tool GPS Global Positioning System IFR instrument flight rules ILS instrument landing system IMC instrument meteorological...daily operations. Additionally, the effectiveness of the standards is evaluated by determining if these standards would have prevented the accidents...trends, such as human behavior and lack of standards, that are common in public safety helicopter accidents. Public safety aviation agencies can use this

  12. Organizing a Ground Crew for Today's Helicopter Parents

    Coburn, Karen Levin

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between college students and their parents is far closer than it was when most of today's educators were in school. Tapping into the upside and managing the potential drawbacks of highly involved parents is taking on great importance on an increasing number of campuses. Whether people call them "helicopter parents" or…

  13. 77 FR 70360 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2012-11-26

    ... helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment of the... tail rotor drive shaft free-wheel cage, which caused a pilot to experience a heavy jerk in the yaw.... That NPRM proposed to require inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment...

  14. 78 FR 76984 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-12-20

    ... inspecting each jettisonable emergency exit window panel (window) for sealant, and removing any sealant that... prevent failure of the windows to jettison, so helicopter occupants can exit the aircraft during an... Office, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590...

  15. 78 FR 37156 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-06-20

    ... inspecting each jettisonable emergency exit window panel (window) for sealant, and removing any sealant that... prevent failure of the windows to jettison, so helicopter occupants can exit the aircraft during an... comments to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor...

  16. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  17. Helicopter pilots' views of air traffic controller responsibilities: a mismatch.

    Martin, Daniel; Nixon, Jim

    2018-02-21

    Controllers and pilots must work together to ensure safe and efficient helicopter flight within the London control zone. Subjective ratings of pilot perception of controller responsibility for five key flight tasks were obtained from thirty helicopter pilots. Three types of airspace were investigated. Results indicate that there is variation in pilot understanding of controller responsibility compared to the formal regulations that define controller responsibility. Significant differences in the perception of controller responsibility were found for the task of aircraft separation in class D airspace and along helicopter routes. Analysis of the patterns of response suggests that task type rather than the airspace type may be the key factor. Results are framed using the concept of a shared mental model. This research demonstrates that pilots flying in complex London airspace have an expectation of controller responsibility for certain flight tasks, in certain airspace types that is not supported by aviation regulation. Practitioner Summary: The responsibility for tasks during flight varies according to the flight rules used and airspace type. Helicopter pilots may attribute responsibility to controllers for tasks when controllers have no responsibility as defined by regulation. This variation between pilot perceptions of controller responsibility could affect safety within the London control zone.

  18. 78 FR 20234 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-04-04

    ... prompted by flight crew reports of deviations between the displayed attitude on the attitude display screen... screens occurred simultaneously during flight on several helicopters equipped with the GV76-1 vertical... of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) by inserting a copy of this AD into the RFM or by pen and ink...

  19. 77 FR 58971 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    2012-09-25

    ... prompted by flight crew reports of deviations between the displayed attitude on the attitude display screen... screens occurred simultaneously during flight on several helicopters equipped with the GV76-1 vertical... of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) by inserting a copy of this AD into the RFM or by pen and ink...

  20. 77 FR 30230 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland Helicopters

    2012-05-22

    ... September 30, 2011. (g) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2436: DC Generator Control... Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters with certain Generator Control Units (GCU) installed. This..., West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand...

  1. 77 FR 69556 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland Helicopters

    2012-11-20

    ..., 2011. (h) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2436: DC Generator Control Unit. Issued... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters with certain Generator Control Units (GCU) installed... Ground Floor, Room W12- 140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  2. Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations

    Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.

    This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a

  3. 77 FR 5418 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-02-03

    ...) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2800, Fuel system. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on... aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with a 10 micron fuel filter element. This proposed AD... AD for the Sikorsky Model S-61A, D, E, L, N, NM, R, and V helicopters with a fuel system 40 micron...

  4. 78 FR 17591 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-03-22

    ... aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with a 10 micron nominal (40 micron absolute) fuel... helicopters with a fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element, part number (P/N) 52-0505-2 or 52-01064-1. That NPRM proposed to require replacing each forward and aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with...

  5. 78 FR 58256 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-09-23

    ... revising the RFM to reduce the Velocity Never Exceed (V NE ) indicated airspeed (IAS) limitation. It also... (IAS). EAD 2012-0217-E retains some of the requirements of EAD 2012-0207-E, removes the airspeed... Model AS550C3 helicopters (EASB 01.00.65). EASB 01.00.65 is Revision 3, dated February 4, 2013. EASB 01...

  6. Numerical simulation of helicopter engine plume in forward flight

    Dimanlig, Arsenio C. B.; Vandam, Cornelis P.; Duque, Earl P. N.

    1994-01-01

    Flowfields around helicopters contain complex flow features such as large separated flow regions, vortices, shear layers, blown and suction surfaces and an inherently unsteady flow imposed by the rotor system. Another complicated feature of helicopters is their infrared signature. Typically, the aircraft's exhaust plume interacts with the rotor downwash, the fuselage's complicated flowfield, and the fuselage itself giving each aircraft a unique IR signature at given flight conditions. The goal of this project was to compute the flow about a realistic helicopter fuselage including the interaction of the engine air intakes and exhaust plume. The computations solve the Think-Layer Navier Stokes equations using overset type grids and in particular use the OVERFLOW code by Buning of NASA Ames. During this three month effort, an existing grid system of the Comanche Helicopter was to be modified to include the engine inlet and the hot engine exhaust. The engine exhaust was to be modeled as hot air exhaust. However, considerable changes in the fuselage geometry required a complete regriding of the surface and volume grids. The engine plume computations have been delayed to future efforts. The results of the current work consists of a complete regeneration of the surface and volume grids of the most recent Comanche fuselage along with a flowfield computation.

  7. Using Paper Helicopters to Teach Statistical Process Control

    Johnson, Danny J.

    2011-01-01

    This hands-on project uses a paper helicopter to teach students how to distinguish between common and special causes of variability when developing and using statistical process control charts. It allows the student to experience a process that is out-of-control due to imprecise or incomplete product design specifications and to discover how the…

  8. Transformation of Helicopter PinS Procedures for Airplanes

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibility to use existing helicopter Point in Space procedures with minor changes for airplanes. The basis is to find parts of PinS procedures that need to be changed, suggest these changes, and then determine whether the revised procedures could be usable and could bring the benefits for airplane operations.

  9. The need for a dedicated public service helicopter design

    Morrison, R.

    1984-01-01

    The need to provide the necessary funding to research, design and contract the building of an advanced technology rotorcraft that will meet the mission demands of public service (fire, police, paramedics and rescue) operators is discussed. Noise and cost factors, the greatest objections on the part of many police and public adminstrators are addressed. The growth of helicopter utilization in public service is documented.

  10. 77 FR 68058 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M... after receipt. For service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation...

  11. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Materials and methods Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. Results During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. Discussion These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance. PMID:22153688

  12. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components.

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance.

  13. Automatic Censoring CFAR Detector Based on Ordered Data Difference for Low-Flying Helicopter Safety

    Wen Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Being equipped with a millimeter-wave radar allows a low-flying helicopter to sense the surroundings in real time, which significantly increases its safety. However, nonhomogeneous clutter environments, such as a multiple target situation and a clutter edge environment, can dramatically affect the radar signal detection performance. In order to improve the radar signal detection performance in nonhomogeneous clutter environments, this paper proposes a new automatic censored cell averaging CFAR detector. The proposed CFAR detector does not require any prior information about the background environment and uses the hypothesis test of the first-order difference (FOD result of ordered data to reject the unwanted samples in the reference window. After censoring the unwanted ranked cells, the remaining samples are combined to form an estimate of the background power level, thus getting better radar signal detection performance. The simulation results show that the FOD-CFAR detector provides low loss CFAR performance in a homogeneous environment and also performs robustly in nonhomogeneous environments. Furthermore, the measured results of a low-flying helicopter validate the basic performance of the proposed method.

  14. Automatic Censoring CFAR Detector Based on Ordered Data Difference for Low-Flying Helicopter Safety

    Jiang, Wen; Huang, Yulin; Yang, Jianyu

    2016-01-01

    Being equipped with a millimeter-wave radar allows a low-flying helicopter to sense the surroundings in real time, which significantly increases its safety. However, nonhomogeneous clutter environments, such as a multiple target situation and a clutter edge environment, can dramatically affect the radar signal detection performance. In order to improve the radar signal detection performance in nonhomogeneous clutter environments, this paper proposes a new automatic censored cell averaging CFAR detector. The proposed CFAR detector does not require any prior information about the background environment and uses the hypothesis test of the first-order difference (FOD) result of ordered data to reject the unwanted samples in the reference window. After censoring the unwanted ranked cells, the remaining samples are combined to form an estimate of the background power level, thus getting better radar signal detection performance. The simulation results show that the FOD-CFAR detector provides low loss CFAR performance in a homogeneous environment and also performs robustly in nonhomogeneous environments. Furthermore, the measured results of a low-flying helicopter validate the basic performance of the proposed method. PMID:27399714

  15. Detection of Sensor Faults in Small Helicopter UAVs Using Observer/Kalman Filter Identification

    Guillermo Heredia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is a critical issue in navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs since there is no human pilot that can react to any abnormal situation. Due to size and cost limitations, redundant sensor schemes and aeronautical-grade navigation sensors used in large aircrafts cannot be installed in small UAVs. Therefore, other approaches like analytical redundancy should be used to detect faults in navigation sensors and increase reliability. This paper presents a sensor fault detection and diagnosis system for small autonomous helicopters based on analytical redundancy. Fault detection is accomplished by evaluating any significant change in the behaviour of the vehicle with respect to the fault-free behaviour, which is estimated by using an observer. The observer is obtained from input-output experimental data with the Observer/Kalman Filter Identification (OKID method. The OKID method is able to identify the system and an observer with properties similar to a Kalman filter, directly from input-output experimental data. Results are similar to the Kalman filter, but, with the proposed method, there is no need to estimate neither system matrices nor sensor and process noise covariance matrices. The system has been tested with real helicopter flight data, and the results compared with other methods.

  16. Proposed health state awareness of helicopter blades using an artificial neural network strategy

    Lee, Andrew; Habtour, Ed; Gadsden, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    Structural health prognostics and diagnosis strategies can be classified as either model or signal-based. Artificial neural network strategies are popular signal-based techniques. This paper proposes the use of helicopter blades in order to study the sensitivity of an artificial neural network to structural fatigue. The experimental setup consists of a scale aluminum helicopter blade exposed to transverse vibratory excitation at the hub using single axis electrodynamic shaker. The intent of this study is to optimize an algorithm for processing high-dimensional data while retaining important information content in an effort to select input features and weights, as well as health parameters, for training a neural network. Data from accelerometers and piezoelectric transducers is collected from a known system designated as healthy. Structural damage will be introduced to different blades, which they will be designated as unhealthy. A variety of different tests will be performed to track the evolution and severity of the damage. A number of damage detection and diagnosis strategies will be implemented. A preliminary experiment was performed on aluminum cantilever beams providing a simpler model for implementation and proof of concept. Future work will look at utilizing the detection information as part of a hierarchical control system in order to mitigate structural damage and fatigue. The proposed approach may eliminate massive data storage on board of an aircraft through retaining relevant information only. The control system can then employ the relevant information to intelligently reconfigure adaptive maneuvers to avoid harmful regimes, thus, extending the life of the aircraft.

  17. 3D Vision Based Landing Control of a Small Scale Autonomous Helicopter

    Zhenyu Yu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous landing is a challenging but important task for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV to achieve high level of autonomy. The fundamental requirement for landing is the knowledge of the height above the ground, and a properly designed controller to govern the process. This paper presents our research results in the study of landing an autonomous helicopter. The above-the-ground height sensing is based on a 3D vision system. We have designed a simple plane-fitting method for estimating the height over the ground. The method enables vibration free measurement with the camera rigidly attached on the helicopter without using complicated gimbal or active vision mechanism. The estimated height is used by the landing control loop. Considering the ground effect during landing, we have proposed a two-stage landing procedure. Two controllers are designed for the two landing stages respectively. The sensing approach and control strategy has been verified in field flight test and has demonstrated satisfactory performance.

  18. Signal Separation of Helicopter Radar Returns Using Wavelet-Based Sparse Signal Optimisation

    2016-10-01

    helicopter from the composite radar returns. The received signal consists of returns from the rotating main and tail rotor blades, the helicopter body...is used to separate the main and tail rotor blade components of a helicopter from the composite radar returns. The received signal consists of returns...Two algorithms are presented in the report to separately extract main rotor blade returns and tail rotor blade returns from the composite signal

  19. The Use of Commercial Remote Sensing Systems in Predicting Helicopter Brownout Conditions

    2009-09-01

    REFERENCES Anthoni, J. F. (2000). Soil Erosion and Conservation – Part 2. Retrieved 15 August 2009, from http://www.seafriends.org.nz/ enviro / soil ... soils susceptible to helicopter brownout. Helicopter brownout occurs when downwash disturbs the dust and sand beneath the aircraft during takeoff...destruction, as well as personnel injury or death. The likelihood of helicopter brownout is related to soil moisture content, particle size distribution, and

  20. A general method for closed-loop inverse simulation of helicopter maneuver flight

    Wei WU

    2017-01-01

    Maneuverability is a key factor to determine whether a helicopter could finish certain flight missions successfully or not. Inverse simulation is commonly used to calculate the pilot controls of a helicopter to complete a certain kind of maneuver flight and to assess its maneuverability. A general method for inverse simulation of maneuver flight for helicopters with the flight control system online is developed in this paper. A general mathematical describing function is established to provid...

  1. Large multi-centre pilot randomized controlled trial testing a low-cost, tailored, self-help smoking cessation text message intervention for pregnant smokers (MiQuit).

    Naughton, Felix; Cooper, Sue; Foster, Katharine; Emery, Joanne; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Sutton, Stephen; Jones, Matthew; Ussher, Michael; Whitemore, Rachel; Leighton, Matthew; Montgomery, Alan; Parrott, Steve; Coleman, Tim

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of pregnancy smoking cessation support delivered by short message service (SMS) text message and key parameters needed to plan a definitive trial. Multi-centre, parallel-group, single-blinded, individual randomized controlled trial. Sixteen antenatal clinics in England. Four hundred and seven participants were randomized to the intervention (n = 203) or usual care (n = 204). Eligible women were 5 pre-pregnancy), were able to receive and understand English SMS texts and were not already using text-based cessation support. All participants received a smoking cessation leaflet; intervention participants also received a 12-week programme of individually tailored, automated, interactive, self-help smoking cessation text messages (MiQuit). Seven smoking outcomes, including validated continuous abstinence from 4 weeks post-randomization until 36 weeks gestation, design parameters for a future trial and cost-per-quitter. Using the validated, continuous abstinence outcome, 5.4% (11 of 203) of MiQuit participants were abstinent versus 2.0% (four of 204) of usual care participants [odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-9.35]. The Bayes factor for this outcome was 2.23. Completeness of follow-up at 36 weeks gestation was similar in both groups; provision of self-report smoking data was 64% (MiQuit) and 65% (usual care) and abstinence validation rates were 56% (MiQuit) and 61% (usual care). The incremental cost-per-quitter was £133.53 (95% CI = -£395.78 to 843.62). There was some evidence, although not conclusive, that a text-messaging programme may increase cessation rates in pregnant smokers when provided alongside routine NHS cessation care. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Helicopter Fuselage Active Flow Control in the Presence of a Rotor

    Martin, Preston B; Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Wilson, Jacob S.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2014-01-01

    This work extends previous investigations of active flow control for helicopter fuselage drag and download reduction to include the effects of the rotor. The development of the new wind tunnel model equipped with fluidic oscillators is explained in terms of the previous test results. Large drag reductions greater than 20% in some cases were measured during powered testing without increasing, and in some cases decreasing download in forward flight. As confirmed by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), the optimum actuator configuration that provided a decrease in both drag and download appeared to create a virtual (fluidic) boat-tail fairing instead of attaching flow to the ramp surface. This idea of a fluidic fairing shifts the focus of 3D separation control behind bluff bodies from controlling/reattaching surface boundary layers to interacting with the wake flow.

  3. Tensile behavior of humid aged advanced composites for helicopter external fuel tank development

    Condruz Mihaela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of humid aging on tensile properties of two polymeric composites was studied. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the suitability of the materials for a naval helicopter external fuel tank. Due to the application, the humid environment was kerosene and saline solution to evaluate the sea water effect on the composite tensile strength. The composite samples were immersed in kerosene for 168 hours, respective 1752 hours and in saline solution for 168 hours. Tensile tests were performed after the immersion. The composite sample tensile tests showed that kerosene and saline solution had no influence on the elastic modulus of the materials, but it was observed a slight improvement of the tensile strength of the two polymeric composites.

  4. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Help Teens Manage Diabetes Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to make good decisions when it ...

  5. Help prevent hospital errors

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  6. Direct Self-Repairing Control for Quadrotor Helicopter Attitude Systems

    Huiliao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadrotor helicopter with uncertain actuator faults, such as loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place, is studied in this paper. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller based on direct self-repairing control is designed for such nonlinear system to track the desired output signal, when any actuator of this quadrotor helicopter is loss of effectiveness or stuck at some place. Moreover, using the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the whole system and the convergence of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Finally, the availability of the proposed method is verified by simulation on 3-DOF hover to ensure that the system performance under faulty conditions can be quickly recovered to its normal level. And this proposed method is also proved to be better than that of LQR through simulation.

  7. NASA/FAA experiments concerning helicopter IFR airworthiness criteria

    Lebacqz, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    A sequence of ground and flight simulation experiments was conducted as part of a joint NASA/FAA program to investigate helicopter instrument flight rules (IFR) airworthiness criteria. The first six of these experiments are described and the results summarized. Five of the experiments were conducted on large amplitude motion base simulators; V/STOLAND UH-1H variable stability helicopter was used in the flight experiment. Airworthiness implications of selected variables that were investigated across all of the experiments are discussed, including the level of longitudinal static stability, the type of stability and control augmentation, the addition of flight director displays, and the type of instrument approach task. Among the specific results reviewed are the adequacy of neutral longitudinal statics for dual pilot approaches and the requirement for pitch and roll attitude stabilization in the stability and control augmentation system to achieve flying qualities evaluated as satisfactory.

  8. A Maneuvering Flight Noise Model for Helicopter Mission Planning

    Greenwood, Eric; Rau, Robert; May, Benjamin; Hobbs, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A new model for estimating the noise radiation during maneuvering flight is developed in this paper. The model applies the Quasi-Static Acoustic Mapping (Q-SAM) method to a database of acoustic spheres generated using the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique. A method is developed to generate a realistic flight trajectory from a limited set of waypoints and is used to calculate the quasi-static operating condition and corresponding acoustic sphere for the vehicle throughout the maneuver. By using a previously computed database of acoustic spheres, the acoustic impact of proposed helicopter operations can be rapidly predicted for use in mission-planning. The resulting FRAME-QS model is applied to near-horizon noise measurements collected for the Bell 430 helicopter undergoing transient pitch up and roll maneuvers, with good agreement between the measured data and the FRAME-QS model.

  9. Application of Face-Gear Drives in Helicopter Transmissions

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.

  10. Development and Validity Testing of the Worksite Health Index: An Assessment Tool to Help and Improve Korean Employees' Health-Related Outcome.

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Lim, Ye Jin; Lim, Cheol Il; Kang, Sung-Choon; Kang, Joon-Ho; Park, Jun Dong; Noh, Dong Young

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the Worksite Health Index (WHI) and validate its psychometric properties. The development of the WHI questionnaire included item generation, item construction, and field testing. To assess the instrument's reliability and validity, we recruited 30 different Korean worksites. We developed the WHI questionnaire of 136 items categorized into five domains, namely Governance and Infrastructure, Need Assessment and Planning, Health Prevention and Promotion Program, Occupational Safety, and Monitoring and Feedback. All WHI domains demonstrated a high reliability with good internal consistency. The total WHI scores differentiated worksite groups effectively according to firm size. Each domain was associated significantly with employees' health status, absence, and financial outcome. The WHI can assess comprehensive worksite health programs. This tool is publicly available for addressing the growing need for worksite health programs.

  11. Testing decision rules for categorizing species' extinction risk to help develop quantitative listing criteria for the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Regan, Tracey J; Taylor, Barbara L; Thompson, Grant G; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Ralls, Katherine; Runge, Michael C; Merrick, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Lack of guidance for interpreting the definitions of endangered and threatened in the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) has resulted in case-by-case decision making leaving the process vulnerable to being considered arbitrary or capricious. Adopting quantitative decision rules would remedy this but requires the agency to specify the relative urgency concerning extinction events over time, cutoff risk values corresponding to different levels of protection, and the importance given to different types of listing errors. We tested the performance of 3 sets of decision rules that use alternative functions for weighting the relative urgency of future extinction events: a threshold rule set, which uses a decision rule of x% probability of extinction over y years; a concave rule set, where the relative importance of future extinction events declines exponentially over time; and a shoulder rule set that uses a sigmoid shape function, where relative importance declines slowly at first and then more rapidly. We obtained decision cutoffs by interviewing several biologists and then emulated the listing process with simulations that covered a range of extinction risks typical of ESA listing decisions. We evaluated performance of the decision rules under different data quantities and qualities on the basis of the relative importance of misclassification errors. Although there was little difference between the performance of alternative decision rules for correct listings, the distribution of misclassifications differed depending on the function used. Misclassifications for the threshold and concave listing criteria resulted in more overprotection errors, particularly as uncertainty increased, whereas errors for the shoulder listing criteria were more symmetrical. We developed and tested the framework for quantitative decision rules for listing species under the U.S. ESA. If policy values can be agreed on, use of this framework would improve the implementation of the ESA by

  12. Help with Hives

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Help With Hives KidsHealth / For Kids / Help With Hives What's in this article? What Are ... about what happened. The doctor can try to help figure out what might be causing your hives, ...

  13. A helping hand

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Inger Plaisier; Peggy Schyns

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Hulp geboden   The help provided to people with a care need is about to undergo major changes in the Netherlands. People who need help will be expected to rely more on help from members of their network. What are the opportunities for informal carers and volunteers, and where

  14. Helping for Change

    Neuringer, Allen; Oleson, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    In "Helping for Change," Allen Neuringer and Kathryn Oleson describe another strategy that individuals can use to achieve their green goals. You might ask, "How can helping someone else help me change when I'm in the habit of not fulfilling my own promises?" The authors answer that question by explaining how the social reinforcement in a helping…

  15. INVESTINGATION DOWNWARD WIND PRESSURE ON A SMALL QUADROTOR HELICOPTER

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Small rotary-wing UAVs are susceptible to gusts and other environmental disturbances that affect inflow at their rotors. Inflow variations cause unexpected aerodynamic forces through changes in thrust conditions and unmodeled blade-flapping dynamics. This pa­per introduces an onboard, pressure-based flow measurement system developed for a small quadrotor helicopter. The probe-based instrumentation package provides spatially dis­tributed airspeed measurements along each of the aircra...

  16. Conservative Management of Mechanical Neck Pain in a Helicopter Pilot.

    Alagha, Babak

    2015-10-01

    Acute and chronic spinal symptoms such as neck pain may limit flying performance significantly and disqualify the pilot from flight duty. Mechanical neck pain is very common among pilots because of their exposure to vibration, +GZ forces, helmet weight, poor neck posture during air combat maneuvers, previous neck injuries, and poor treatment plans for such injuries. Successful treatment of such injuries requires appropriate therapeutic procedures as well as an aeromedical assessment. The aim of this case study was to demonstrate the benefits of conservative procedures such as spinal manipulation and mobilization therapy (SMMT) and exercise therapy (ET) in treating chronic mechanical neck pain in an Iranian commercial helicopter pilot. A 36-yr-old male patient presented to the clinic with moderate, intermittent nonradicular chronic neck pain and limited range of motion over a 2-yr period. The patient was treated with cervical and upper thoracic SMMT followed by home ET for 5 wk. After this period, the patient reported significant recovery and improvement in range of motion in his neck. Mechanical neck pain is very common among helicopter pilots. Although Air Force and Navy waiver guides recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications as well as SMMT and ET, there are currently very few published studies that examine the benefits of manual and exercise therapy for treating mechanical neck pain in commercial and military pilots. Based on the results of this study, it seems that SMMT and ET may be a safe and effective in treatment of uncomplicated mechanical neck pain in helicopter pilots. Alagha B. Conservative management of mechanical neck pain in a helicopter pilot.

  17. Exploration of Configuration Options for a Large Civil Compound Helicopter

    Russell, Carl; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Multiple compound helicopter configurations are designed using a combination of rotorcraft sizing and comprehensive analysis codes. Results from both the conceptual design phase and rotor comprehensive analysis are presented. The designs are evaluated for their suitability to a short-to-medium-haul civil transport mission carrying a payload of 90 passengers. Multiple metrics are used to determine the best configuration, with heavy emphasis placed on minimizing fuel burn.

  18. 78 FR 25365 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-05-01

    ... this AD, do not install any of the following parts on any helicopter: (i) Left-hand sliding door, part number (P/N) 350A25-0030-00XX, 350A25-0120-00XX, and 350AMR-0227-0052; (ii) Right-hand sliding door, P/N... following a case of total failure and a case of a crack discovered on the support shaft of the sliding door...

  19. Failure Analysis of a Helicopter External Fuel-Tank Pylon

    Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Lindenberg, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    An eight-inch-long (0.2 m) crack was found in an external fuel-tank pylon of a U.S. Coast Guard HH-60 helicopter. The damaged pylon was removed from service and destructively examined at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to determine the cause of the crack. Results of the analysis revealed that crack initiation occurred at corrosion pits in a fastener hole and crack propagation was a result of cyclic loading.

  20. Recurrent and Transient Spinal Pain Among Commercial Helicopter Pilots.

    Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information on the occurrence of spinal pain, i.e., low back and neck pain, among commercial helicopter pilots, along with possible associations between pain and anthropometric and demographic factors and flying exposure. Data were collected through a subjective and retrospective survey among all the 313 (294 men, 19 women) full-time pilots employed by two helicopter companies. A questionnaire was used to assess the extent of spinal complaints in a transient and recurrent pain pattern along with information on physical activities, occupational flying experience, and airframes. The survey had 207 responders (194 men, 13 women). The pilots had extensive flying experience. Spinal pain was reported by 67%. Flying-related transient pain was reported among 50%, whereas recurrent spinal pain, not necessarily associated with flying, was reported by 52%. Women experienced more pain, but sample size prevented further conclusions. Male pilots reporting any spinal pain flew significantly more hours last year (median 500 h, IQR 400-650) versus men with no pain (median 445 h, IQR 300-550). Male pilots with transient or recurrent spinal pain did not differ from nonaffected male colleagues in the measured parameters. Spinal pain is a frequent problem among male and female commercial helicopter pilots. For men, no significant associations were revealed for transient or recurrent spinal pain with age, flying experience in years, total hours, annual flying time, type of aircraft, or anthropometric factors except for any spinal pain related to hours flown in the last year.

  1. Understanding clinician attitudes towards implementation of guided self-help cognitive behaviour therapy for those who hear distressing voices: using factor analysis to test normalisation process theory.

    Hazell, Cassie M; Strauss, Clara; Hayward, Mark; Cavanagh, Kate

    2017-07-24

    The Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) has been used to understand the implementation of physical health care interventions. The current study aims to apply the NPT model to a secondary mental health context, and test the model using exploratory factor analysis. This study will consider the implementation of a brief cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) intervention. Mental health clinicians were asked to complete a NPT-based questionnaire on the implementation of a brief CBTp intervention. All clinicians had experience of either working with the target client group or were able to deliver psychological therapies. In total, 201 clinicians completed the questionnaire. The results of the exploratory factor analysis found partial support for the NPT model, as three of the NPT factors were extracted: (1) coherence, (2) cognitive participation, and (3) reflexive monitoring. We did not find support for the fourth NPT factor (collective action). All scales showed strong internal consistency. Secondary analysis of these factors showed clinicians to generally support the implementation of the brief CBTp intervention. This study provides strong evidence for the validity of the three NPT factors extracted. Further research is needed to determine whether participants' level of seniority moderates factor extraction, whether this factor structure can be generalised to other healthcare settings, and whether pre-implementation attitudes predict actual implementation outcomes.

  2. The Effects of Modafinil on Aviator Performance During 40 Hours of Continuous Wakefulness: A UH-60 Helicopter Simulator Study

    Caidwell, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) activation in helicopter pilots who had been deprived of sleep. Six Army helicopter pilots were each exposed to two 40-hour periods of continuous wakefulness separated by one night of recovery sleep...

  3. A maximal incremental effort alters tear osmolarity depending on the fitness level in military helicopter pilots.

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Madinabeitia, Iker; Masiulis, Nerijus; Cárdenas, David

    2017-10-01

    Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill. A tear sample was collected before and after physical effort to determine the exercise-induced changes on Tosm. The Bayesian statistical analysis demonstrated that Tosm significantly increased from 303.72 ± 6.76 to 310.56 ± 8.80 mmol/L after performance of a maximal incremental test. However, while the untrained group showed an acute Tosm rise (12.33 mmol/L of increment), the trained group experienced a stable Tosm physical effort (1.45 mmol/L). There was a significant positive linear association between fat indices and Tosm changes (correlation coefficients [r] range: 0.77-0.89), whereas the Tosm changes displayed a negative relationship with the cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2 max; r = -0.75) and performance parameters (r = -0.75 for velocity, and r = -0.67 for time to exhaustion). The findings from this study provide evidence that fitness level is a major determinant of Tosm response to maximal incremental physical effort, showing a fairly linear association with several indices related to fitness level. High fitness level seems to be beneficial to avoid Tosm changes as consequence of intense exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maryland's Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Experience From 2001 to 2011: System Improvements and Patients' Outcomes.

    Hirshon, Jon Mark; Galvagno, Samuel M; Comer, Angela; Millin, Michael G; Floccare, Douglas J; Alcorta, Richard L; Lawner, Benjamin J; Margolis, Asa M; Nable, Jose V; Bass, Robert R

    2016-03-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (EMS) has become a well-established component of modern trauma systems. It is an expensive, limited resource with potential safety concerns. Helicopter EMS activation criteria intended to increase efficiency and reduce inappropriate use remain elusive and difficult to measure. This study evaluates the effect of statewide field trauma triage changes on helicopter EMS use and patient outcomes. Data were extracted from the helicopter EMS computer-aided dispatch database for in-state scene flights and from the state Trauma Registry for all trauma patients directly admitted from the scene or transferred to trauma centers from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2011. Computer-aided dispatch flights were analyzed for periods corresponding to field triage protocol modifications intended to improve system efficiency. Outcomes were separately analyzed for trauma registry patients by mode of transport. The helicopter EMS computer-aided dispatch data set included 44,073 transports. There was a statewide decrease in helicopter EMS usage for trauma patients of 55.9%, differentially affecting counties closer to trauma centers. The Trauma Registry data set included 182,809 patients (37,407 helicopter transports, 128,129 ambulance transports, and 17,273 transfers). There was an increase of 21% in overall annual EMS scene trauma patients transported; ground transports increased by 33%, whereas helicopter EMS transports decreased by 49%. Helicopter EMS patient acuity increased, with an attendant increase in patient mortality. However, when standardized with W statistics, both helicopter EMS- and ground-transported trauma patients showed sustained improvement in mortality. Modifications to state protocols were associated with decreased helicopter EMS use and overall improved trauma patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design, fabrication, installation and flight service evaluation of a composite cargo ramp skin on a model CH-53 helicopter

    Lowry, D. W.; Rich, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The installation of a composite skin panel on the cargo ramp of a CH-530 marine helicopter is discussed. The composite material is of Kevlar/Epoxy (K/E) which replaces aluminum outer skins on the aft two bays of the ramp. The cargo ramp aft region was selected as being a helicopter airframe surface subjected to possible significant field damage and would permit an evaluation of the long term durability of the composite skin panel. A structural analysis was performed and the skin shears determined. Single lap joints of K/E riveted to aluminum were statically tested. The joint tests were used to determine bearing allowables and the required K/E skin gage. The K/E skin panels riveted to aluminum edge members were tested in a shear fixture to confirm the allowable shear and bearing strengths. Impact tests were conducted on aluminum skin panels to determine energy level and damage relationship. The K/E skin panels of various ply orientations and laminate thicknesses were then impacted at similar energy levels. The results of the analysis and tests were used to determine the required K/E skin gages in each of the end two bays of the ramp.

  6. Experimental evaluation of a perspective tunnel display for three-dimensional helicopter approaches

    Grunwald, A. J.; Robertson, J. B.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-generated perspective tunnel display for a steep and strongly curved three-dimensional helicopter approach is studied. The necessary control variables for following a curved trajectory are analyzed, the effectiveness of superimposed predictor symbology is investigated, and a suitable predictor law is formulated. The theoretical considerations are validated by an extensive fixed-base simulator program. The tunnel display with a superimposed predictor symbol is shown to outperform conventional-type displays in its abilities to follow a curved trajectory in the presence of gust disturbances, to enter the trajectory from an unknown position outside this trajectory, as well as to monitor automatic approaches. The feasibility of the tunnel display for operation in actual flight has been demonstrated in an exploratory flight test.

  7. Navigation errors encountered using weather-mapping radar for helicopter IFR guidance to oil rigs

    Phillips, J. D.; Bull, J. S.; Hegarty, D. M.; Dugan, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978 a joint NASA-FAA helicopter flight test was conducted to examine the use of weather-mapping radar for IFR guidance during landing approaches to oil rig helipads. The following navigation errors were measured: total system error, radar-range error, radar-bearing error, and flight technical error. Three problem areas were identified: (1) operational problems leading to pilot blunders, (2) poor navigation to the downwind final approach point, and (3) pure homing on final approach. Analysis of these problem areas suggests improvement in the radar equipment, approach procedure, and pilot training, and gives valuable insight into the development of future navigation aids to serve the off-shore oil industry.

  8. Rule Extracting based on MCG with its Application in Helicopter Power Train Fault Diagnosis

    Wang, M; Hu, N Q; Qin, G J

    2011-01-01

    In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.

  9. Rule Extracting based on MCG with its Application in Helicopter Power Train Fault Diagnosis

    Wang, M; Hu, N Q; Qin, G J, E-mail: hnq@nudt.edu.cn, E-mail: wm198063@yahoo.com.cn [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, Hunan, 410073 (China)

    2011-07-19

    In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.

  10. Robust 1D inversion and analysis of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) data

    Tølbøll, R.J.; Christensen, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    but can resolve layer boundary to a depth of more than 100 m. Modeling experiments also show that the effect of altimeter errors on the inversion results is serious. We suggest a new interpretation scheme for HEM data founded solely on full nonlinear 1D inversion and providing layered-earth models...... of test flights were performed using a frequency-domain, helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) system. We perform a theoretical examination of the resolution capabilities of the applied system. Quantitative model parameter analyses show that the system only weakly resolves conductive, near-surface layers...... supported by datamisfit parameters and a quantitative model-parameter analysis. The backbone of the scheme is the removal of cultural coupling effects followed by a multilayer inversion that in turn provides reliable starting models for a subsequent few-layer inversion. A new procedure for correlation...

  11. A helicopter that flaps its wings : The Ornicopter flaps its wings like a bird to get into the air

    Van Holten, T.; Mols, B.

    2003-01-01

    No other type of aircraft is as manoeuvrable as a helicopter. Reverse in full flight, rotate in the air, hover at a standstill, the helicopter can do it all. The police, fire services, medical services, military and civil aviation all use the helicopter for the freedom of flight it offers. However,

  12. 76 FR 53315 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA-365N and SA-365N1 Helicopters

    2011-08-26

    ... of compliance. (d) The Joint Aircraft System/Component Code is 2897: Fuel System Wiring. (e) The... helicopters. This action requires you to disconnect the high level fuel switches in the fuel tanks on the affected helicopters. In addition, for helicopters without a crossfeed between the fuel filler necks, you...

  13. Toddlers Help a Peer.

    Hepach, Robert; Kante, Nadine; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Toddlers are remarkably prosocial toward adults, yet little is known about their helping behavior toward peers. In the present study with 18- and 30-month-old toddlers (n = 192, 48 dyads per age group), one child needed help reaching an object to continue a task that was engaging for both children. The object was within reach of the second child who helped significantly more often compared to a no-need control condition. The helper also fulfilled the peer's need when the task was engaging only for the child needing help. These findings suggest that toddlers' skills and motivations of helping do not depend on having a competent and helpful recipient, such as an adult, but rather they are much more flexible and general. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Joint Ordnance Test Procedure (JOTP)-010 Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing for Shoulder Launched Munitions

    2016-05-09

    A. BACKGROUND/RATIONALE. ANNEX 1. ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS. A.1-16 TABLE A-4. HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR PARAMETERS HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR ...3.1.2.3.2 A.1-15 C.2-4.1.2 C.2-6 Helicopter Cargo Transportation Vibration A.1-3.1.2.3.3 A.1-15 C.2-4.2 C.2-7 Parachute Delivery A.1-3.1.2.3.4 A.1-16...inspection. This is typified by destructive inspection assessing the chemical ( composition , hazard properties, etc.) and physical (tensile, hardness, etc

  15. Aerial remote sensing surveys progress report: Helicopter geophysical survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.; King, A.D.; Bell, D.T.; Holladay, J.S.; Labson, V.F.; Pellerin, L.

    1993-03-01

    The 35,252 acre Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in the western portion of the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province in Tennessee, has been a nuclear production and development facility for50 years. Contaminants in the many waste sites on the ORR include a wide variety of radioactive isotopes as well as many organic and inorganic compounds. The locations, geometry, and contents of many of these waste sites are reasonably well known, while others are poorly known or unknown. To better characterize the reasonably well known sites and search for additional potentially environmentally hazardous sites, a two-phase aerial survey of the ORR was developed. Phase I began in March 1992 and consisted of aerial radiation, multispectral scanner, and photographic (natural color and color infrared) surveys. Phase II began in November 1992 and is described in this report. Phase II consisted of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM), magnetic, and gamma radiation surveys. Targets of the survey included both man-made (drums, trench boundaries, burn pits, well heads) and geologic (fractures, faults, karst features, geologic contacts) features. The Phase II survey has three components: testing, reconnaissance, and high-resolution data acquisition. To date, the testing and reconnaissance data acquisition have been completed, and some of the data have been processed. They indicate that: (1) magnetic and HEM data are complementary and do not always highlight the same anomaly; (2) under favorable circumstances, helicopter magnetometer systems are capable of detecting groups of four or more 55-gal drums at detector altitudes of 15 m or less; (3) HEM data provide data that compare favorably with surface data collected over burial trenches, (4) well casings may be related to magnetic monopole anomalies, as would be expected; and (5) changes in HEM and magnetic anomaly character are related to lithologic changes and may be used to track contacts between known outcrops

  16. Aeroelasticity and mechanical stability report, 0.27 Mach scale model of the YAH-64 advanced attack helicopter

    Straub, F. K.; Johnston, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    A 27% dynamically scaled model of the YAH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter main rotor and hub has been designed and fabricated. The model will be tested in the NASA Langley Research Center V/STOL wind tunnel using the General Rotor Model System (GRMS). This report documents the studies performed to ensure dynamic similarity of the model with its full scale parent. It also contains a preliminary aeroelastic and aeromechanical substantiation for the rotor installation in the wind tunnel. From the limited studies performed no aeroelastic stability or load problems are projected. To alleviate a projected ground resonance problem, a modification of the roll characteristics of the GRMS is recommended.

  17. FlyTact : A tactile display improves a helicopter pilot's landing performance in degraded visual environments

    Jansen, C.; Wennemers, A.S.; Vos, W.K.; Groen, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Helicopter landings are more challenging in 'brownout' conditions, in which sand and dust is stirred up by the rotary wing aircraft, obscuring visibility. Safe brownout landings require new sensor and display technologies to provide the pilot with information on helicopter motion. In this respect

  18. Who's in Charge Here? Cooperative Work and Authority Negotiation in Police Helicopter Missions.

    Linde, Charlotte

    A study of collaboration and the ongoing negotiation of authority in police helicopter work focused on inflight communication in one helicopter during two weeks of operation. Data were drawn from audio and video recordings of internal and external communications obtained inflight and from observation and physiological indicators of stress and…

  19. 76 FR 52593 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Canada Ltd. Model BO 105 LS A-3 Helicopters

    2011-08-23

    ... fatigue failure of a TT strap, loss of a blade, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES... failure of a TT strap, loss of a blade, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. Since issuing... ASB also describes and contains a graph for determining the revised life limit, and provides various...

  20. 78 FR 44050 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    2013-07-23

    ..., and subsequent loss of helicopter control. DATES: We must receive comments on this proposed AD by... could result in failure of an engine, loss of engine power, and subsequent loss of helicopter control... corrosion, leaking grease, condensation, or water. This proposed AD is prompted by metallic debris from an...

  1. A Novel Emergent State Control Law for an Integrated Helicopter/Turboshaft Engine System

    Zhang, H.; Li, Y.; Deng, S.

    2014-01-01

    A two-layer robust control scheme is proposed to get a better response ability for emergency maneuvers of helicopter. Note that the power used in ascending flight is the main coupling between helicopter and its turboshaft engines; therefore vertical flight control is separated from conventional

  2. 76 FR 37261 - Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    2011-06-27

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...) structure and designates two helicopter RNAV routes (TK-routes) in the northeast corridor between the... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish two helicopter RNAV routes in Northeast United States...

  3. Quad-Rotor Helicopter Autonomous Navigation Based on Vanishing Point Algorithm

    Jialiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quad-rotor helicopter is becoming popular increasingly as they can well implement many flight missions in more challenging environments, with lower risk of damaging itself and its surroundings. They are employed in many applications, from military operations to civilian tasks. Quad-rotor helicopter autonomous navigation based on the vanishing point fast estimation (VPFE algorithm using clustering principle is implemented in this paper. For images collected by the camera of quad-rotor helicopter, the system executes the process of preprocessing of image, deleting noise interference, edge extracting using Canny operator, and extracting straight lines by randomized hough transformation (RHT method. Then system obtains the position of vanishing point and regards it as destination point and finally controls the autonomous navigation of the quad-rotor helicopter by continuous modification according to the calculated navigation error. The experimental results show that the quad-rotor helicopter can implement the destination navigation well in the indoor environment.

  4. Handi Helps, 1985

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  5. Performance characterization of active fiber-composite actuators for helicopter rotor blade applications

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh K.; Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    2002-07-01

    The primary objective of this work was to characterize the performance of the Active Fiber Composite (AFC) actuator material system for the Boeing Active Material Rotor (AMR) blade application. The AFCs were a new structural actuator system consisting of piezoceramic fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes to orient the driving electric field in the fiber direction to use the primary piezoelectric effect. These actuators were integrated directly into the blade spar laminate as active plies within the composite structure to perform structural actuation for vibration control in helicopters. Therefore, it was necessary to conduct extensive electromechanical material characterization to evaluate AFCs both as actuators and as structural components of the rotor blade. The characterization tests designed to extract important electromechanical properties under simulated blade operating conditions included stress-strain tests, free strain tests and actuation under tensile load tests. This paper presents the test results as well as the comprehensive testing process developed to evaluate the relevant AFC material properties. The results from this comprehensive performance characterization of the AFC material system supported the design and operation of the Boeing AMR blade scheduled for hover and forward flight wind tunnel tests.

  6. Fiscal 2000 pioneering research report on the research on advanced safety helicopter; 2000 nendo advanced safety helicopter no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted concerning helicopter operating environments and the trends of related technologies in Japan and abroad, and the needs and seeds were grasped. Research was made to study technical problems and measures to solve them for the development of a safe, low-noise, and low-cost next-generation advanced safety helicopter (ASH). A market research was conducted on traffic systems in the future, state of aviation-related infrastructures and their future, current state of people's daily life which centers about locomotion, and the effect that ASH would impose on society. A technical research was carried out relative to flight safety, which involved EVS (enhanced vision system), information display system for helicopters, collision avoidance advisory for pilots, air collision prevention system/surveillance system for helicopters, obstacle detection/warning system for helicopters, blade deicing system for helicopters, and so forth. Detailed investigations were also conducted for technologies for reduction in the manufacturing, maintenance, and development costs, and for reduction in noise. (NEDO)

  7. Injury severity and seating position in accidents with German EMS helicopters.

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Spelten, Oliver; Neuhaus, Christopher; Hinkelbein, Mandy; Özgür, Enver; Wetsch, Wolfgang A

    2013-10-01

    Accident rates and fatality rates for Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) missions have been investigated recently, but none of these studies considered the influence of the seating position in the helicopter. The aim of the present descriptive and observational study was to analyze injury severity depending on the seating position during HEMS accidents in Germany. Data from the German Federal Agency for Flight Accident Investigation was gathered for a period of 40 years (from 1970 to 2009). The seating position in the aircraft during the accident and the resulting injury severity (i.e., 1=no; 2=slight; 3=severe; and 4=fatal) were recorded. Injury severity was compared using the Fisher's exact test. P values accidents were investigated (n=61 accidents did not lead to any injuries in the occupants, n=7 accidents resulted in minor, and n=6 in severe injuries, and lethal injuries resulted from n=15 accidents). The occupant in the "patient" position was most likely to suffer from deadly injuries (44.9%), followed by the HEMS crew member rear seat (25.0%), compared to lower lethality rates in the other seating positions (9.4-11.2%). Sitting on the HEMS crew member rear seat also was associated with the highest percentage of severe and minor injuries (12.5% each). In HEMS accidents, the patients' position and the HEMS crew member rear seat were found to be at the highest risk for fatal or severe injuries. These results support the urgent requirement of a large international data base for HEMS accidents as a basis for further studies to improve the safety in HEMS missions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Investigation of a Helicopter Rotor Hub Flow

    Reich, David

    The rotor hub system is by far the largest contributor to helicopter parasite drag and a barrier to increasing helicopter forward-flight speed and range. Additionally, the hub sheds undesirable vibration- and instability-inducing unsteady flow over the empennage. The challenges associated with rotor hub flows are discussed, including bluff body drag, interactional aerodynamics, and the effect of the turbulent hub wake on the helicopter empennage. This study was conducted in three phases to quantify model-scale rotor hub flows in water tunnels at The Pennsylvania State University Applied research lab. The first phase investigated scaling and component interaction effects on a 1:17 scale rotor hub model in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Effects of Reynolds number, advance ratio, and hub geometry configuration on the drag and wake shed from the rotor hub were quantified using load cell measurements and particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The second phase focused on flow visualization and measurement on a rotor hub and rotor hub/pylon geometry in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Stereo PIV was conducted in a cross plane downstream of the hub and flow visualization was conducted using oil paint and fluorescent dye. The third phase concentrated on high accuracy load measurement and prediction up to full-scale Reynolds number on a 1:4.25 scale model in the 48-inch diameter water tunnel. Measurements include 6 degree of freedom loads on the hub and two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry in the wake. Finally, results and conclusions are discussed, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  9. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part Two. Detail Design

    1976-01-01

    lubrication, the splines and the monoball oc- ge’~ll ar pity -agd stac mt uis brekawy snip v casionzily require lubricationforce. F6 , A~sj, the di~aphiag tc 5v...being stowed ian aminimum volum, so as Hap sad daue co a be Wooatd in accas *.m M~ to isseff-a with the traosport of cor.. wi& MaL4T.5M= so that the men...helicopter to If lubrication is required, fittings must be located placement of modules - limited piece-part replace- where accas is possible using

  10. Model Predictive Control for a Small Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    Jianfu Du

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinematical and dynamical equations of a small scale unmanned helicoper are presented in the paper. Based on these equations a model predictive control (MPC method is proposed for controlling the helicopter. This novel method allows the direct accounting for the existing time delays which are used to model the dynamics of actuators and aerodynamics of the main rotor. Also the limits of the actuators are taken into the considerations during the controller design. The proposed control algorithm was verified in real flight experiments where good perfomance was shown in postion control mode.

  11. Reporting Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Major Incidents

    Fattah, Sabina; Johnsen, Anne Siri; Sollid, Stephen J M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in major incidents is predominately based on case descriptions reported in a heterogeneous fashion. Uniform data reported with a consensus-based template could facilitate the collection, analysis, and exchange of experiences...... variables were determined by consensus. These variables were formatted in a template with 4 main categories: HEMS background information, the major incident characteristics relevant to HEMS, the HEMS response to the major incident, and the key lessons learned. CONCLUSION: Based on opinions from European...

  12. Hooked on Helping

    Longhurst, James; McCord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teens presenting at a symposium on peer-helping programs describe how caring for others fosters personal growth and builds positive group cultures. Their individual thoughts and opinions are expressed.

  13. Divorce: Helping Children Cope.

    Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean

    1982-01-01

    Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)

  14. Association Between Helicopter vs Ground Emergency Medical Services and Survival for Adults With Major Trauma

    Galvagno, Samuel M.; Haut, Elliott R.; Zafar, S. Nabeel; Millin, Michael G.; Efron, David T.; Koenig, George J.; Baker, Susan P.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Haider, Adil H.

    2012-01-01

    Context Helicopter emergency medical services and their possible effect on outcomes for traumatically injured patients remain a subject of debate. Because helicopter services are a limited and expensive resource, a methodologically rigorous investigation of its effectiveness compared with ground emergency medical services is warranted. Objective To assess the association between the use of helicopter vs ground services and survival among adults with serious traumatic injuries. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study involving 223 475 patients older than 15 years, having an injury severity score higher than 15, and sustaining blunt or penetrating trauma that required transport to US level I or II trauma centers and whose data were recorded in the 2007–2009 versions of the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank. Interventions Transport by helicopter or ground emergency services to level I or level II trauma centers. Main Outcome Measures Survival to hospital discharge and discharge disposition. Results A total of 61 909 patients were transported by helicopter and 161 566 patients were transported by ground. Overall, 7813 patients (12.6%) transported by helicopter died compared with 17 775 patients (11%) transported by ground services. Before propensity score matching, patients transported by helicopter to level I and level II trauma centers had higher Injury Severity Scores. In the propensity score–matched multivariable regression model, for patients transported to level I trauma centers, helicopter transport was associated with an improved odds of survival compared with ground transport (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.14–1.17; P<.001; absolute risk reduction [ARR], 1.5%). For patients transported to level II trauma centers, helicopter transport was associated with an improved odds of survival (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.13–1.17; P < .001; ARR, 1.4%). A greater proportion (18.2%) of those transported to level I trauma centers

  15. Measurement of acoustic properties of the composite materials constituting the main rotor hub of the Agusta-Westland helicopter EH-101 (civil version)

    Tenti, L.; Denis, R.; Lakestani, F.

    1991-10-01

    The acoustic properties of the EH-101 helicopter rotor hub are tested by characterizing the ultrasonic propagation phenomena in the main directions of the composite materials. The carbon fiber and epoxy resin that make up the rotor hub are measured to determine the attenuation coefficient, phase propagation at normal incidence, and phase propagation as a function of angle of incidence. The speeds are measured for external box and filler samples, and strap samples are discussed separately because of their anisotropic nature and structural importance. Deviations angles of 5 deg cause refraction angles of 10 deg in the deviation of the phase propagation; therefore planar defects with an angle of 10 deg relative to the fiber direction can be easily detected. The method presented is useful in characterizing and locating defects in the composite materials that make up the main rotor hub of helicopters.

  16. Helicopter crashes into water: warning time, final position, and other factors affecting survival.

    Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Baker, Susan P; Shanahan, Dennis F; Haaland, Wren L

    2014-04-01

    According to 40 yr of data, the fatality rate for a helicopter crash into water is approximately 25%. Does warning time and the final position of the helicopter in the water influence the survival rate? The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was queried to identify helicopter crashes into water between 1981 and 2011 in the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii. Fatality rate, amount of warning time prior to the crash, and final position of the helicopter were identified. There were 133 helicopters that crashed into water with 456 crew and passengers. Of these, 119 occupants (26%) did not survive; of those who did survive, 38% were injured. Twelve died after making a successful escape from the helicopter. Crashes with 1 min. However, more than half of fatalities (57%) came from crashes for which the warning time could not be determined. Lack of warning time and how to survive in the water after the crash should be a topic for study in all marine survival/aircraft ditching courses. Investigators should be trained to provide estimates of warning time when investigating helicopter crashes into water.

  17. Reliability model for helicopter main gearbox lubrication system using influence diagrams

    Rashid, H.S.J.; Place, C.S.; Mba, D.; Keong, R.L.C.; Healey, A.; Kleine-Beek, W.; Romano, M.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of oil from a helicopter main gearbox (MGB) leads to increased friction between components, a rise in component surface temperatures, and subsequent mechanical failure of gearbox components. A number of significant helicopter accidents have been caused due to such loss of lubrication. This paper presents a model to assess the reliability of helicopter MGB lubricating systems. Safety risk modeling was conducted for MGB oil system related accidents in order to analyse key failure mechanisms and the contributory factors. Thus, the dominant failure modes for lubrication systems and key contributing components were identified. The Influence Diagram (ID) approach was then employed to investigate reliability issues of the MGB lubrication systems at the level of primary causal factors, thus systematically investigating a complex context of events, conditions, and influences that are direct triggers of the helicopter MGB lubrication system failures. The interrelationships between MGB lubrication system failure types were thus identified, and the influence of each of these factors on the overall MGB lubrication system reliability was assessed. This paper highlights parts of the HELMGOP project, sponsored by the European Aviation Safety Agency to improve helicopter main gearbox reliability. - Highlights: • We investigated methods to optimize helicopter MGB oil system run-dry capability. • Used Influence Diagram to assess design and maintenance factors of MGB oil system. • Factors influencing overall MGB lubrication system reliability were identified. • This globally influences current and future helicopter MGB designs

  18. The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly

    2000-01-01

    The X-40 sub-scale technology demonstrator and its U.S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter mothership fly over a dry lakebed runway during a captive-carry test flight from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-40 is attached to a sling which is suspended from the CH-47 by a 110-foot-long cable during the tests, while a small parachute trails behind to provide stability. The captive carry flights are designed to verify the X-40's navigation and control systems, rigging angles for its sling, and stability and control of the helicopter while carrying the X-40 on a tether. Following a series of captive-carry flights, the X-40 made free flights from a launch altitude of about 15,000 feet above ground, gliding to a fully autonomous landing. The X-40 is an unpowered 82 percent scale version of the X-37, a Boeing-developed spaceplane designed to demonstrate various advanced technologies for development of future lower-cost access to space vehicles. The X-37 will be carried into space aboard a space shuttle and then released to perform various maneuvers and a controlled re-entry through the Earth's atmosphere to an airplane-style landing on a runway, controlled entirely by pre-programmed computer software.

  19. Experimental tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) helps in determination the new operational limits for gravel packing; Testes experimentais e simulacoes em fluidodinamica computacional (CFD) auxiliam na determinacao de novos limites operacionais para o gravel packing

    Magalhaes, Joao Vicente Martins de [PETROBRAS, Santos, SP (Brazil). E e P Construcao de Pocos Maritimos. Construcao e Manutencao de Pocos], e-mail: jvmm@petrobras.com.br; Calderon, Agostinho [PETROBRAS, rj (bRAZIL). E e P Construcao de Pocos Maritimos. Construcao e Manutencao de Pocos], e-mail: agoscal@petrobras.com.br; Leal, Rafael Amorim Ferreira [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES), RJ (Brazil). P e D em Geoengenharia e Engenharia de Poco. Gerencia de Perfuracao e Completacao de Pocos], e-mail: rafaelleal@petrobras.com.br; Miranda, Daniel Bonavides [Halliburton Energy Services (Brazil)], e-mail: daniel.miranda@halliburton.com; Simoes, Bruno Campos; Nunes, Mauro Jose de Souza Custodio [Halliburton Brasil. Setor de Estimulacao e Controle de Areia (Brazil)], e-mails: bruno.simoes@halliburton.com, mauro.nunes@halliburton.com; Barbosa, Diego Paiva [Halliburton Brasil. Coordenador de Servicos de Campo (Brazil)], e-mail: diego.barbosa@halliburton.com; Souza, Jairo Zago de [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software - ESSS (Brazil)], e-mail: jairo@esss.com.br

    2010-06-15

    Open hole Gravel Packing was the sand control strategy adopted by PETROBRAS while developing Campos Basin fields. One of the big problems in the oil industry is based on stems from the fact of that all the whole operations are carried out many thousands of feet in the underground, without direct visualization supervision. All the controls used in the operations are based upon direct and/or indirect measurements, but without, however, the necessary visual aid. This was the motivator for the construction of an experimental device that could simulate both the open well and the rat-hole allowing the study of how the deposition of Gravel occurs around the screens. Such experimental apparatus was built with casing pipes it which common rat-hole/open-hole inside diameters (12 1/'' and 8 1/2''). For the tests representativeness the simulator was equipped with real screens and wash pipes, reproducing the real operation dynamics. In the apparatus it was possible: to see Gravel settling through acrylic windows, to test new low-cost proppants and new concentrations, to define new minimal pump operational rates, as well as to record by filming the turbulent structures that occurs at the rat-hole/open-hole contraction zone. This paper treats of these results release and show CFD results used to enlarge test matrix. (author)

  20. Helping Behavior in Executives' Global Networks

    Miller, Stewart; Mors, Marie Louise; McDonald, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on research on helping behavior in networks at the upper echelons, we develop and test theory about helping behavior in senior executive networks. We examine the location and relational dependence of the network contact. Our results reveal that executives are more likely to perceive...... insiders in their network to be helpful, but geographic location has no effect on expectations of receiving help. With regards to relational dependence: executives who are more dependent on their contacts are more likely to perceive them to be helpful. We also look at whether perceived helpfulness affects...... an executive’s willingness to engage in risky new business development -- an important performance indicator - and indeed find that those executives that perceive their networks to be helpful are more likely to be willing to take risky decisions. We test these arguments using primary data on 1845 relationships...

  1. Prehospital helicopter transport and survival of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Bekelis, Kimon; Missios, Symeon; Mackenzie, Todd A

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association of helicopter transport with survival of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), in comparison with ground emergency medical services (EMS). Helicopter utilization and its effect on the outcomes of TBI remain controversial. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients with TBI who were registered in the National Trauma Data Bank between 2009 and 2011. Regression techniques with propensity score matching were used to investigate the association of helicopter transport with survival of patients with TBI, in comparison with ground EMS. During the study period, there were 209,529 patients with TBI who were registered in the National Trauma Data Bank and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 35,334 were transported via helicopters and 174,195 via ground EMS. For patients transported to level I trauma centers, 2797 deaths (12%) were recorded after helicopter transport and 8161 (7.8%) after ground EMS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association of helicopter transport with increased survival [OR (odds ratio), 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.81-2.10; absolute risk reduction (ARR), 6.37%]. This persisted after propensity score matching (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.74-2.03; ARR, 5.93%). For patients transported to level II trauma centers, 1282 deaths (10.6%) were recorded after helicopter transport and 5097 (7.3%) after ground EMS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association of helicopter transport with increased survival (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.64-2.00; ARR 5.17%). This again persisted after propensity score matching (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.55-1.94; ARR, 4.69). Helicopter transport of patients with TBI to level I and II trauma centers was associated with improved survival, in comparison with ground EMS.

  2. Requirements for a Hydrogen Powered All-Electric Manned Helicopter

    Datta, Anubhav

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to set propulsion system targets for an all-electric manned helicopter of ultra-light utility class to achieve performance comparable to combustion engines. The approach is to begin with a current two-seat helicopter (Robinson R 22 Beta II-like), design an all-electric power plant as replacement for its existing piston engine, and study performance of the new all-electric aircraft. The new power plant consists of high-pressure Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells, hydrogen stored in 700 bar type-4 tanks, lithium-ion batteries, and an AC synchronous permanent magnet motor. The aircraft and the transmission are assumed to remain the same. The paper surveys the state of the art in each of these areas, synthesizes a power plant using best available technologies in each, examines the performance achievable by such a power plant, identifies key barriers, and sets future technology targets to achieve performance at par with current internal combustion engines.

  3. A helicopter emergency medical service may allow faster access to highly specialised care

    Afzali, Monika; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Centralization of the hospital system entails longer transport for some patients. A physician-staffed helicopter may provide effective triage, advanced management and fast transport to highly specialized treatment for time-critical patients. The aim of this study was to describe activity and poss......Centralization of the hospital system entails longer transport for some patients. A physician-staffed helicopter may provide effective triage, advanced management and fast transport to highly specialized treatment for time-critical patients. The aim of this study was to describe activity...... and possible beneficial effect of a physician-staffed helicopter in a one-year trial period in eastern Denmark....

  4. Conference on Helicopter Structures Technology, Moffett Field, Calif., November 16-18, 1977, Proceedings

    1978-01-01

    Work on advanced concepts for helicopter designs is reported. Emphasis is on use of advanced composites, damage-tolerant design, and load calculations. Topics covered include structural design flight maneuver loads using PDP-10 flight dynamics model, use of 3-D finite element analysis in design of helicopter mechanical components, damage-tolerant design of the YUH-61A main rotor system, survivability of helicopters to rotor blade ballistic damage, development of a multitubular spar composite main rotor blade, and a bearingless main rotor structural design approach using advanced composites.

  5. Prediction of helicopter rotor noise in hover

    Kusyumov A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mathematical models are used in this work to estimate the acoustics of a hovering main rotor. The first model is based on the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations using the formulation of Farassat. An analytical approach is followed for this model, to determine the thickness and load noise contributions of the rotor blade in hover. The second approach allows using URANS and RANS CFD solutions and based on numerical solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations. The employed test cases correspond to a model rotor available at the KNRTUKAI aerodynamics laboratory. The laboratory is equipped with a system of acoustic measurements, and comparisons between predictions and measurements are to be attempted as part of this work.

  6. Prediction of helicopter rotor noise in hover

    Kusyumov, A. N.; Mikhailov, S. A.; Garipova, L. I.; Batrakov, A. S.; Barakos, G.

    2015-05-01

    Two mathematical models are used in this work to estimate the acoustics of a hovering main rotor. The first model is based on the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations using the formulation of Farassat. An analytical approach is followed for this model, to determine the thickness and load noise contributions of the rotor blade in hover. The second approach allows using URANS and RANS CFD solutions and based on numerical solution of the Ffowcs Williams-Howkings equations. The employed test cases correspond to a model rotor available at the KNRTUKAI aerodynamics laboratory. The laboratory is equipped with a system of acoustic measurements, and comparisons between predictions and measurements are to be attempted as part of this work.

  7. Evaluation of MEMS-Based Wireless Accelerometer Sensors in Detecting Gear Tooth Faults in Helicopter Transmissions

    Lewicki, David George; Lambert, Nicholas A.; Wagoner, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostics capability of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based rotating accelerometer sensors in detecting gear tooth crack failures in helicopter main-rotor transmissions was evaluated. MEMS sensors were installed on a pre-notched OH-58C spiral-bevel pinion gear. Endurance tests were performed and the gear was run to tooth fracture failure. Results from the MEMS sensor were compared to conventional accelerometers mounted on the transmission housing. Most of the four stationary accelerometers mounted on the gear box housing and most of the CI's used gave indications of failure at the end of the test. The MEMS system performed well and lasted the entire test. All MEMS accelerometers gave an indication of failure at the end of the test. The MEMS systems performed as well, if not better, than the stationary accelerometers mounted on the gear box housing with regards to gear tooth fault detection. For both the MEMS sensors and stationary sensors, the fault detection time was not much sooner than the actual tooth fracture time. The MEMS sensor spectrum data showed large first order shaft frequency sidebands due to the measurement rotating frame of reference. The method of constructing a pseudo tach signal from periodic characteristics of the vibration data was successful in deriving a TSA signal without an actual tach and proved as an effective way to improve fault detection for the MEMS.

  8. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  9. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  10. Help with Hearing

    ... be placed early to help speech and language development. If your child needs “tubes” (see below), they can be put ... example, instead of saying the sound /t/, your child may always substitute the sound /k/. The words “toy” and "truck” then come out as “kay” and “ ...

  11. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    ... world around them, preteens also may worry about world events or issues they hear about on the news or at ... the news. Parents can help by discussing these issues, offering accurate ... and stress about a world event that's beyond your control, kids are likely ...

  12. Helping Them Grow.

    Kreidler, William J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three articles present suggestions to help elementary teachers promote student development. The first describes games that encourage a sense of community. The second deals with making parent teacher conferences a positive experience. The third discusses how to give confused children who are involved in custody battles an alternative to acting out.…

  13. Helping Struggling Teachers.

    Tucker, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    About 5 to 15 percent of teachers in 2.7 million public-education classrooms are marginal or incompetent. Assistance plans offer structure, purpose, and remedial help. Plans have six components: definition of the problem, statement of objectives, intervention strategies, a timeline, data-collection procedures, and final judgment. (MLH)

  14. Human Factors Assessment of the UH-60M Crew Station During the Limited User Test (LUT)

    Havir, Thomas J; Durbin, David B; Frederick, Lorraine J; Hicks, Jamison S

    2006-01-01

    The utility helicopter (UH)-60M Product Manager requested the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Human Research and Engineering Directorate to participate in the Limited User Test for the UH-60M Black Hawk...

  15. The impact of parental accompaniment in paediatric trauma: a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) perspective.

    Cowley, Alan; Durge, Neal

    2014-05-13

    Major trauma remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in young people and adolescents throughout the western world. Both the physical and psychological consequences of trauma are well documented and it is shown that peri-traumatic factors play a large part in the emotional recovery of children involved in trauma. Indeed, parental anxiety levels may play one of the biggest roles. There are no publically available guidelines on pre-hospital accompaniment, and where research has been done on parental presence it often focuses primarily on the parents or staff, rather than the child themselves. Whilst acknowledging the impact on parents and staff, the importance of the emotional wellbeing of the child should be reinforced, to reduce the likelihood of developing symptoms in keeping with post-traumatic stress disorder. This non-systematic literature review, aims to examine the impact of parental accompaniment to hospital, following paediatric trauma, and to help pre-hospital clinicians decide whether accompaniment would be of benefit to their patient population. The lack of published data does not enable a formal recommendation of parental accompaniment in the helicopter to be mandated, though it should be the preference in land based conveyance. Future research is needed into the emotional recovery of children after trauma, as well as the experiences of patient, parent and staff during conveyance.

  16. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Emissions characteristics of Military Helicopter Engines Fueled with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel

    Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Klingshirn, Christopher D.; Striebich, Richard; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in aviation activities and more stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have increased concerns regarding aircraft emissions, due to their harmful health and environmental impacts, especially in the vicinity of airports and military bases. In this study, the gaseous and particulate-matter emissions of two General Electric T701C engines and one T700 engine were evaluated. The T700 series engines power the U.S. Army's Black Hawk and Apache helicopters. The engines were fueled with standard military JP-8 fuel and were tested at three power settings. In addition, one of the T701C engines was operated on a natural-gas-derived Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene jet fuel. Test results show that the T701C engine emits significantly lower particulate-matter emissions than the T700 for all conditions tested. Particulate-matter mass emission indices ranged from 0.2-1.4 g/kg fuel for the T700 and 0.2-0.6 g/kg fuel for the T701C. Slightly higher NOx and lower CO emissions were observed for the T701C compared with the T700. Operation of the T701C with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel rendered dramatic reductions in soot emissions relative to operation on JP-8, due primarily to the lack of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch fuel also produced smaller particles and slight reductions in CO emissions.

  18. Investigation of a bearingless helicopter rotor concept having a composite primary structure

    Bielawa, R. L.; Cheney, M. C., Jr.; Novak, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to evaluate a bearingless helicopter rotor concept (CBR) made possible through the use of the specialized nonisotropic properties of composite materials. The investigation was focused on four principal areas which were expected to answer important questions regarding the feasibility of this concept. First, an examination of material properties was made to establish moduli, ultimate strength, and fatigue characteristics of unidirectional graphite/epoxy, the composite material selected for this application. The results confirmed the high bending modulus and strengths and low shear modulus expected of this material, and demonstrated fatigue properties in torsion which make this material ideally suited for the CBR application. Second, a dynamically scaled model was fabricated and tested in the low speed wind tunnel to explore the aeroelastic characteristics of the CBR and to explore various concepts relative to the method of blade pitch control. Two basic control configurations were tested, one in which pitch flap coupling could occur and another which eliminated all coupling. It was found that both systems could be operated successfully at simulated speeds of 180 knots; however, the configuration with coupling present revealed a potential for undesirable aeroelastic response. The uncoupled configuration behaved generally as a conventional hingeless rotor and was stable for all conditions tested.

  19. Direct CFD Predictions of Low Frequency Sounds Generated by Helicopter Main Rotors

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Conner, Dave; Watts, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This proposed paper will highlight the application of a CSD/CFD methodology currently inuse by the US Army Aerfolightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) to assess the feasibility and fidelity of directly predicting low frequency sounds of helicopter rotors.

  20. Prehospital interventions before and after implementation of a physician-staffed helicopter

    Sonne, Asger; Wulffeld, Sandra; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Implementation of a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in eastern Denmark was associated with increased survival for severely injured patients. This study aimed to assess the potential impact of advanced prehospital interventions by comparing the proportion...

  1. Maximizing commonality between military and general aviation fly-by-light helicopter system designs

    Enns, Russell; Mossman, David C.

    1995-05-01

    In the face of shrinking defense budgets, survival of the United States rotorcraft industry is becoming increasingly dependent on increased sales in a highly competitive civil helicopter market. As a result, only the most competitive rotorcraft manufacturers are likely to survive. A key ingredient in improving our competitive position is the ability to produce more versatile, high performance, high quality, and low cost of ownership helicopters. Fiber optic technology offers a path of achieving these objectives. Also, adopting common components and architectures for different helicopter models (while maintaining each models' uniqueness) will further decrease design and production costs. Funds saved (or generated) by exploiting this commonality can be applied to R&D used to further improve the product. In this paper, we define a fiber optics based avionics architecture which provides the pilot a fly-by-light / digital flight control system which can be implemented in both civilian and military helicopters. We then discuss the advantages of such an architecture.

  2. An Interactive Virtual Environment for Training Map-Reading Skill in Helicopter Pilots

    McLean, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    .... The helicopter does not stop until the tape is over, hence, the training evolution quickly becomes useless because students usually make mistakes during the first minute of the tape and are unable...

  3. American Joint Helicopter Command: Addressing a Lack of Operational Control of Rotary Assets

    Marsowicz, Brandon

    2007-01-01

    ... to achieve unity of effort. Based on the tenets of operational command and control by Milan Vego, across all services, the United States helicopter forces fare lacking operational command and control...

  4. Methods of evaluating dynamic characteristics of the helicopter with suspension mode vysinnya

    В.Г. Вовк

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  The new estimating method of stochastic parameters of the complex moving object (helicopter with cargo suspension is suggested for the structured problem identification of the object and optimal stabilizing system synthesis as well.

  5. A kinesthetic-tactual display concept for helicopter-pilot workload reduction

    Gilson, R. D.; Dunn, R. S.; Sun, P.

    1977-01-01

    A kinesthetic-tactual (K-T) display concept is now under research and development (R & D) at the Ohio State University. It appears to offer considerable promise for useful application in helicopters by conveying control information via the sense of touch. This is a review of the overall R & D program including the original K-T display design, initial studies in automobile and fixed-wing vehicles, and feasibility experiments in a helicopter simulator. In addition to investigations of control and potential workload reduction, present efforts are directed toward establishing optimal design requirements for K-T helicopter displays. Potential applications, modes of usage, and the kinds of information that may be displayed in helicopter applications are discussed along with a brief forecast of future R & D. A brief description of the latest multi-axis laboratory prototype K-T display is also provided.

  6. An Assessment of Luminance Imbalance with ANVIS at an Army Helicopter Training Airfield

    McLean, William

    1997-01-01

    One of the casual factors listed in a 1996 mid-air collision between two Australian Army helicopters in formation was a speculation of possible luminance imbalance between the right and left channels...

  7. Addressing Differences in Safety Influencing Factors—A Comparison of Offshore and Onshore Helicopter Operations

    Rolf J. Bye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The accident levels in helicopter transportation vary between geographical regions and types of operations. In this paper, we develop some hypotheses regarding the factors that may explain this variation. The aim of this paper is to improve safety in helicopter transportation through better understanding of the causes leading to fatal accidents. We provide an analysis of three segments of helicopter transportation in Norway (i.e., offshore transportation; onshore ambulance/police, and onshore transportation. This analysis refers to international research on helicopter accidents. The number of fatal accidents per million flight hours in Norwegian offshore helicopter transportation was 2.8 in 1990–1999 and zero in 2000–2015. In Norwegian onshore helicopter transportation, the fatal accident rate was 13.8 in the period 2000–2012. Twenty-three onshore helicopters crashed to the ground; seven of these crashes were fatal, killing 16 people. It is reasonable to question why there is such a significant difference in accident rates between offshore and onshore helicopter transportation. We have approached this question by comparing how the different segments of helicopter transportation are organized and managed. Our analysis shows that there are major differences both at the “sharp” end (i.e., in actual operations and the “blunt” end (i.e., rules, regulations and organization. This includes differences in regulations, market conditions, work organization (i.e., training, employment conditions, and qualifications of the crews, operations and technology. A central argument is that differences in the market conditions and requirements stipulated by the users explain some of these differences. The same differences can be found internationally. If we use best practice and expert judgments, there is an opportunity to improve helicopter safety through improving the socio-technical system (i.e., organizational issues, improved design, improved

  8. Optimization of helicopter hub locations and fleet composition in the Brazilian pre-salt fields

    Norddal, Ida Kristine

    2013-01-01

    When implementing oil and gas operations in the Santos Basin pre-salt fields, Brazilian energy corporation Petróleo Brasileiro S.A (Petrobras) faces some significant challenges. One of these is the large distance from shore: exceeding 300 km at the most, it is about three times the distance to oil fields explored in the past. This has great impact on the company's offshore helicopter operations. In its current form, helicopters transport employees directly between onshore airport bases and of...

  9. Helicopter Parenting and Related Issues: Psychological Well Being, Basic Psychological Needs and Depression on University Students

    OKRAY, Zihniye

    2016-01-01

    Helicopter parenting is not a new dimension of parenting but it is a parenting that involves hovering parents who are potentially over-involved in the lives of their child. (Padilla-Walker, Nelson, 2012) Helicopter parenting is a unique phenomenon (Odenweller et al, 2014) and unique form of parental control (Willoughby et al., 2013) which can be described as highly involved, intensive, a hands-on method. (Schiffrin et al, 2014) In this study, university students examined about their parental ...

  10. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Rotor Source Noise Modeling

    Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.

  11. 78 FR 44042 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters (Type Certificate Currently Held By...

    2013-07-23

    ... helicopters. All of the BTs are dated October 3, 2012. The BTs specify a one-time inspection of each rod end assembly, P/Ns M004-01H007-041 and M004-01H007-045, to determine its serial number. The BTs then require... rod ends in these batches. According to the BTs, no one was injured in the helicopters and no...

  12. Incomplete Faraday cage effect of helicopters used in platform live-line maintenance

    Cameron, G.W.; Bodger, P.S.; Woudberg, J.J. [University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The use of helicopters for maintenance on live overhead transmission lines has become a realistic option. The helicopter blades, body and working platform can be seen as creating an incomplete Faraday cage which may be an enhancement to live-line worker safety. This paper simulates the condition using a Faraday cage which can be dismantled in a controlled laboratory environment, to ascertain the effectiveness of apparatus. (author)

  13. Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain

    2014-01-01

    Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain by Kelsen E. LaBerge, Eric C. Ames, and Brian D. Dykas...5066 ARL-TR-6795 January 2014 Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain Kelsen E. LaBerge...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kelsen E. LaBerge, Eric C. Ames, and Brian D. Dykas 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

  14. Pipes's distribution by helicopter in Amazonian forest

    Barbosa, Gilberto R.; Machado, Otto L.M.; Gomes, Antonio E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The innumerable logistical problems encountered during the implementation of the gas pipeline Urucu - Coari - Manaus, located in the Amazon forest, connecting the Base Operations Geologist Pedro de Moura in Urucu to the refinery Isaac Sabba - Reman, in the city of Manaus, contributed considerably for PETROBRAS to seek non conventional solutions in the construction and assembly of pipelines in our country. Among these solutions, there is the technique of distributing pipes through cargo helicopters. The need for the usage of this technique, innovative in Brazil, comes from the lack and/or insufficiency of land access from Solimoes River to the gas pipeline main route, and the large quantities of flooded areas and/or flood plain, and also the type of soil, that together with the high index of rainfall in the region, makes the soil fully inappropriate to the traffic of heavy equipment. (author)

  15. Nonlinear Characteristics of Helicopter Rotor Blade Airfoils: An Analytical Evaluation

    Constantin Rotaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some results are presented about the study of airloads of the helicopter rotor blades, the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil sections, the physical features, and the techniques for modeling the unsteady effects found on airfoil operating under nominally attached flow conditions away from stall. The unsteady problem was approached on the basis of Theodorsen's theory, where the aerodynamic response (lift and pitching moment is considered as a sum of noncirculatory and circulatory parts. The noncirculatory or apparent mass accounts for the pressure forces required to accelerate the fluid in the vicinity of the airfoil. The apparent mass contributions to the forces and pitching moments, which are proportional to the instantaneous motion, are included as part of the quasi-steady result.

  16. Distribution of Acoustic Power Spectra for an Isolated Helicopter Fuselage

    Kusyumov A.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The broadband aerodynamic noise can be studied, assuming isotropic flow, turbulence and decay. Proudman’s approach allows practical calculations of noise based on CFD solutions of RANS or URANS equations at the stage of post processing and analysis of the solution. Another aspect is the broadband acoustic spectrum and the distribution of acoustic power over a range of frequencies. The acoustic energy spectrum distribution in isotropic turbulence is non monotonic and has a maximum at a certain value of Strouhal number. In the present work the value of acoustic power peak frequency is determined using a prescribed form of acoustic energy spectrum distribution presented in papers by S. Sarkar and M. Y. Hussaini and by G. M. Lilley. CFD modelling of the flow around isolated helicopter fuselage model was considered using the HMB CFD code and the RANS equations.

  17. A model for helicopter guidance on spiral trajectories

    Mendenhall, S.; Slater, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A point mass model is developed for helicopter guidance on spiral trajectories. A fully coupled set of state equations is developed and perturbation equations suitable for 3-D and 4-D guidance are derived and shown to be amenable to conventional state variable feedback methods. Control variables are chosen to be the magnitude and orientation of the net rotor thrust. Using these variables reference controls for nonlevel accelerating trajectories are easily determined. The effects of constant wind are shown to require significant feedforward correction to some of the reference controls and to the time. Although not easily measured themselves, the controls variables chosen are shown to be easily related to the physical variables available in the cockpit.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Recommended Development Path

    Koenke, Edmund J.; Williams, Larry; Calafa, Caesar

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project in cooperation with the Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (VNTSC) contracted with the System Resources Corporation (SRC) for the evaluation of the existing environment and the identification of user and service provider needs in the Gulf of Mexico low-altitude Offshore Sector. The results of this contractor activity are reported in the Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Engineering Needs Assessment. A recommended system design and transition strategy was then developed to satisfy the identified needs within the constraints of the environment. This work, also performed under contract to NASA, is the subject of this report.

  19. Nonlinear analysis of composite thin-walled helicopter blades

    Kalfon, J. P.; Rand, O.

    Nonlinear theoretical modeling of laminated thin-walled composite helicopter rotor blades is presented. The derivation is based on nonlinear geometry with a detailed treatment of the body loads in the axial direction which are induced by the rotation. While the in-plane warping is neglected, a three-dimensional generic out-of-plane warping distribution is included. The formulation may also handle varying thicknesses and mass distribution along the cross-sectional walls. The problem is solved by successive iterations in which a system of equations is constructed and solved for each cross-section. In this method, the differential equations in the spanwise directions are formulated and solved using a finite-differences scheme which allows simple adaptation of the spanwise discretization mesh during iterations.

  20. Durability of commercial aircraft and helicopter composite structures

    Dexter, H.B.

    1982-01-01

    The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified

  1. Durability of commercial aircraft and helicopter composite structures

    Dexter, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The development of advanced composite technology during the past decade is discussed. Both secondary and primary components fabricated with boron, graphite, and Kevlar composites are evaluated. Included are spoilers, rudders, and fairings on commercial transports, boron/epoxy reinforced wing structure on C-130 military transports, and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on commercial helicopters. The development of composite structures resulted in advances in design and manufacturing technology for secondary and primary composite structures for commercial transports. Design concepts and inspection and maintenance results for the components in service are reported. The flight, outdoor ground, and controlled laboratory environmental effects on composites were also determined. Effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, aircraft fuels and fluids, and sustained tensile stress are included. Critical parameters affecting the long term durability of composite materials are identified.

  2. Subjective assessment of simulated helicopter blade-slap noise

    Lawton, B. W.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of several characteristics of helicopter blade slap upon human annoyance are examined. Blade slap noise was simulated by using continuous and impulsive noises characterized by five parameters: The number of sine waves in a single impulse; the frequency of the sine waves; the impulse repetition frequency; the sound pressure level (SPL) of the continuous noise; and the idealized crest factor of the impulses. Ten second samples of noise were synthesized with each of the five parameters at representative levels. The annoyance of each noise was judged by 40 human subjects. Analysis of the subjective data indicated that each of the five parameters had a statistically significant effect upon the annoyance judgments. The impulse crest factor and SPL of the continuous noise had very strong positive relationships with annoyance. The other parameters had smaller, but still significant, effects upon the annoyance judgments.

  3. Advances in transitional flow modeling applications to helicopter rotors

    Sheng, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of numerical methods and validation processes for predicting transitional flows based on the Langtry–Menter local correlation-based transition model, integrated with both one-equation Spalart–Allmaras (S–A) and two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models. A comparative study is presented to combine the respective merits of the two coupling methods in the context of predicting the boundary-layer transition phenomenon from fundamental benchmark flows to realistic helicopter rotors. The book will of interest to industrial practitioners working in aerodynamic design and the analysis of fixed-wing or rotary wing aircraft, while also offering advanced reading material for graduate students in the research areas of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), turbulence modeling and related fields.

  4. Simulation Based Training Improves Airway Management for Helicopter EMS Teams

    Dhindsa, Harinder S.; Reid, Renee; Murray, David; Lovelady, James; Powell, Katie; Sayles, Jeff; Stevenson, Christopher; Baker, Kathy; Solada, Brian; Carroll, Scott; hide

    2011-01-01

    The use of paralytic medications in the performance of RSI intubation is a high risk intervention used by many HEMS crews. There is no margin for error in RSI intubation as the results can be fatal. Operating room access for airway management training has become more difficult, and is not representative of the environment in which HEMS crews typically function. LifeEvac of Virginia designed and implemented an SST airway management program to provide a realistic, consistent training platform. The dynamic program incorporates standardized scenarios, and real life challenging cases that this and other programs have encountered. SST is done in a variety of settings including the helicopter, back of ambulances, staged car crashes and simulation centers. The result has been the indoctrination of a well defined, consistent approach to every airway management intervention. The SST program facillitates enhancement of technical skills. as well as team dynamics and communication.

  5. Smart helicopter rotors optimization and piezoelectric vibration control

    Ganguli, Ranjan; Viswamurthy, Sathyamangalam Ramanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the properties of piezoelectric materials to minimize vibration in rotor-blade actuators, this book demonstrates the potential of smart helicopter rotors to achieve the smoothness of ride associated with jet-engined, fixed-wing aircraft. Vibration control is effected using the concepts of trailing-edge flaps and active-twist. The authors’ optimization-based approach shows the advantage of multiple trailing-edge flaps and algorithms for full-authority control of dual trailing-edge-flap actuators are presented. Hysteresis nonlinearity in piezoelectric stack actuators is highlighted and compensated by use of another algorithm. The idea of response surfaces provides for optimal placement of trailing-edge flaps. The concept of active twist involves the employment of piezoelectrically induced shear actuation in rotating beams. Shear is then demonstrated for a thin-walled aerofoil-section rotor blade under feedback-control vibration minimization. Active twist is shown to be significant in reducing vibra...

  6. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FLIGHT PERSONNEL FOR DESIGNING DAMPERS FOR SHOCKPROOF SEATS OF HELICOPTER CREWS.

    Moiseev, Yu B; Ignatovich, S N; Strakhov, A Yu

    The article discusses anthropometric design of shockproof pilot seats for state-of-the-art helicopters. Object of the investigation was anthropometric parameters of the helicopter aviation personnel of the Russian interior troops. It was stated that the body parameters essential for designing helicopter seat dampers are mass of the body part that presses against the seat in the seating position, and eye level above the seat surface. An uncontrolled seat damper ensuring shockproof safety to 95 % helicopter crews must be designed for the body mass contacting the seat of 99.7 kg and eye level above the seat of 78.6 cm. To absorb.shock effectively, future dampers should be adjustable to pilot's body parameters. The optimal approach to anthropometric design of a helicopter seat is development of type pilot' body models with due account of pilot's the flight outfit and seat geometry. Principle criteria of type models are body mass and eye level. The authors propose a system of type body models facilitating specification of anthropometric data helicopter seat developers.

  7. A general method for closed-loop inverse simulation of helicopter maneuver flight

    Wei WU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maneuverability is a key factor to determine whether a helicopter could finish certain flight missions successfully or not. Inverse simulation is commonly used to calculate the pilot controls of a helicopter to complete a certain kind of maneuver flight and to assess its maneuverability. A general method for inverse simulation of maneuver flight for helicopters with the flight control system online is developed in this paper. A general mathematical describing function is established to provide mathematical descriptions of different kinds of maneuvers. A comprehensive control solver based on the optimal linear quadratic regulator theory is developed to calculate the pilot controls of different maneuvers. The coupling problem between pilot controls and flight control system outputs is well solved by taking the flight control system model into the control solver. Inverse simulation of three different kinds of maneuvers with different agility requirements defined in the ADS-33E-PRF is implemented based on the developed method for a UH-60 helicopter. The results show that the method developed in this paper can solve the closed-loop inverse simulation problem of helicopter maneuver flight with high reliability as well as efficiency. Keywords: Closed-loop, Flying quality, Helicopters, Inverse simulation, Maneuver flight

  8. Ten years of helicopter emergency medical services in Germany: do we still need the helicopter rescue in multiple traumatised patients?

    Andruszkow, Hagen; Hildebrand, Frank; Lefering, Rolf; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Schweigkofler, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) has been established in the preclinical treatment of multiple traumatised patients despite an ongoing controversy towards the potential benefit. Celebrating the 20th anniversary of TraumaRegister DGU(®) of the German Trauma Society (DGU) the presented study intended to provide an overview of HEMS rescue in Germany over the last 10 years analysing the potential beneficial impact of a nationwide helicopter rescue in multiple traumatised patients. We analysed TraumaRegister DGU(®) including multiple traumatised patients (ISS ≥ 16) between 2002 and 2012. In-hospital mortality was defined as main outcome. An adjusted, multivariate regression with 13 confounders was performed to evaluate the potential survival benefit. 42,788 patients were included in the present study. 14,275 (33.4%) patients were rescued by HEMS and 28,513 (66.6%) by GEMS. Overall, 66.8% (n=28,569) patients were transported to a level I trauma centre and 28.2% (n=12,052) to a level II trauma centre. Patients rescued by HEMS sustained a higher injury severity compared to GEMS (ISS HEMS: 29.5 ± 12.6 vs. 27.5 ± 11.8). Helicopter rescue teams performed more on-scene interventions, and mission times were increased in HEMS rescue (HEMS: 77.2 ± 28.7 min. vs. GEMS: 60.9 ± 26.9 min.). Linear regression analysis revealed that the frequency of HEMS rescue has decreased significantly between 2002 and 2012. In case of transportation to level I trauma centres a decrease of 1.7% per year was noted (p<0.001) while a decline of 1.6% per year (p<0.001) was measured for level II trauma centre admissions. According to multivariate logistic regression HEMS was proven a positive independent survival predictor between 2002 and 2012 (OR 0.863; 95%-CI 0.800-0.930; Nagelkerkes-R(2) 0.539) with only little differences between each year. This study was able to prove an independent survival benefit of HEMS in multiple traumatised patients during the last 10 years. Despite this

  9. Detection of helicopter landing sites in unprepared terrain

    Peinecke, Niklas

    2014-06-01

    The primary usefulness of helicopters shows in missions where regular aircraft cannot be used, especially HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Services). This might be due to requirements for landing in unprepared areas without dedicated runway structures, and an extended exibility to y to more than one previously unprepared target. One example of such missions are search and rescue operations. An important task of such a mission is to locate a proper landing spot near the mission target. Usually, the pilot would have to evaluate possible landing sites by himself, which can be time-intensive, fuel-costly, and generally impossible when operating in degraded visual environments. We present a method for pre-selecting a list of possible landing sites. After specifying the intended size, orientation and geometry of the site, a choice of possibilities is presented to the pilot that can be ordered by means of wind direction, terrain constraints like maximal slope and roughness, and proximity to a mission target. The possible choices are calculated automatically either from a pre-existing terrain data base, or from sensor data collected during earlier missions, e.g., by collecting data with radar or laser sensors. Additional data like water-body maps and topological information can be taken into account to avoid landing in dangerous areas under adverse view conditions. In case of an emergency turnaround the list can be re-ordered to present alternative sites to the pilot. We outline the principle algorithm for selecting possible landing sites, and we present examples of calculated lists.

  10. Corona helps curb losses

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  11. Foundation helps refurbish buildings

    Camenzind, B.

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at the activities of the Swiss 'Climate-Cent' foundation, which is helping support the energetic refurbishment of building envelopes. The conditions which have to be fulfilled to receive grants are explained. Work supported includes the replacement of windows and the insulation of roofs and attics as well as outside walls. Details on the financial support provided and examples of projects supported are given. The source of the finance needed to provide such support - a voluntary levy on petrol - and further support provided in certain Swiss cantons is commented on

  12. Bearings fault detection in helicopters using frequency readjustment and cyclostationary analysis

    Girondin, Victor; Pekpe, Komi Midzodzi; Morel, Herve; Cassar, Jean-Philippe

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a vibration-based automated framework dealing with local faults occurring on bearings in the transmission of a helicopter. The knowledge of the shaft speed and kinematic computation provide theoretical frequencies that reveal deteriorations on the inner and outer races, on the rolling elements or on the cage. In practice, the theoretical frequencies of bearing faults may be shifted. They may also be masked by parasitical frequencies because the numerous noisy vibrations and the complexity of the transmission mechanics make the signal spectrum very profuse. Consequently, detection methods based on the monitoring of the theoretical frequencies may lead to wrong decisions. In order to deal with this drawback, we propose to readjust the fault frequencies from the theoretical frequencies using the redundancy introduced by the harmonics. The proposed method provides the confidence index of the readjusted frequency. Minor variations in shaft speed may induce random jitters. The change of the contact surface or of the transmission path brings also a random component in amplitude and phase. These random components in the signal destroy spectral localization of frequencies and thus hide the fault occurrence in the spectrum. Under the hypothesis that these random signals can be modeled as cyclostationary signals, the envelope spectrum can reveal that hidden patterns. In order to provide an indicator estimating fault severity, statistics are proposed. They make the hypothesis that the harmonics at the readjusted frequency are corrupted with an additive normally distributed noise. In this case, the statistics computed from the spectra are chi-square distributed and a signal-to-noise indicator is proposed. The algorithms are then tested with data from two test benches and from flight conditions. The bearing type and the radial load are the main differences between the experiences on the benches. The fault is mainly visible in the

  13. Simulator Investigation of Pilot Aids for Helicopter Terminal Area Operations with One Engine Inoperative

    Iseler, Laura; Chen, Robert; Dearing, Munro; Decker, William; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Two recent piloted simulation experiments have investigated advanced display concepts applied to civil transport helicopter terminal area operations. Civil Category A helicopter operations apply to multi-engine helicopters wherein a safe recovery (land or fly out) is required in the event of a single engine failure. The investigation used the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator, which has a full six degrees of freedom, to simulate the flight task as closely as possible. The goal of these experiments was to use advanced cockpit displays to improve flight safety and enhance the mission performance of Category A terminal area operations in confined areas. The first experiment investigated the use of military display formats to assist civil rotorcraft in performing a Category A takeoff in confined terminal areas. Specifically, it addressed how well a difficult hovering backup path could be followed using conventional instruments in comparison to panel mounted integrated displays. The hovering backup takeoff, which enables pilots to land back to the confined area pad in the event of an engine failure, was chosen since it is a difficult task to perform. Seven NASA and Army test pilots participated in the experiment. Evaluations, based on task performance and pilot workload, showed that an integrated display enabled the pilot to consistently achieve adequate or desired performance with reasonable pilot workload. Use of conventional instruments, however, frequently resulted in unacceptable performance (poor flight path tracking), higher pilot workload, and poor situational awareness. Although OEI landbacks were considered a visual task, the improved performance on the backup portion, in conjunction with increased situational awareness resulting from use of integrated displays, enabled the pilots to handle an engine failure and land back safely. In contrast, use of conventional instruments frequently led to excessive rates of sink at touchdown. A second

  14. Application of a Broadband Active Vibration Control System to a Helicopter Trim Panel

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Simon, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses testing of a broadband active vibration control concept on an interior trim panel in a helicopter cabin mockup located at ONERA's Centre de Toulouse. The control system consisted of twelve diamond-shaped piezoelectric actuators distributed around a 1.2m x 1.2m trim panel. Accelerometers were mounted at the four vertices of each diamond. The aspect ratio of the diamond was based on the dielectric constants of the piezoelectric material in order to create an actuator-sensor pair that was collocated over a broad frequency range. This allowed robust control to be implemented using simple, low power analog electronics. Initial testing on a thick acrylic window demonstrated the capability of the controller, but actuator performance was less satisfactory when mounted on a composite sandwich trim panel. This may have been due to the orthotropic nature of the trim panel, or due to its much higher stiffness relative to the acrylic window. Insights gained from a finite element study of the actuator-sensor-structural system are discussed.

  15. Helicopter model rotor-blade vortex interaction impulsive noise: Scalability and parametric variations

    Splettstoesser, W. R.; Schultz, K. J.; Boxwell, D. A.; Schmitz, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic data taken in the anechoic Deutsch-Niederlaendischer Windkanal (DNW) have documented the blade vortex interaction (BVI) impulsive noise radiated from a 1/7-scale model main rotor of the AH-1 series helicopter. Averaged model scale data were compared with averaged full scale, inflight acoustic data under similar nondimensional test conditions. At low advance ratios (mu = 0.164 to 0.194), the data scale remarkable well in level and waveform shape, and also duplicate the directivity pattern of BVI impulsive noise. At moderate advance ratios (mu = 0.224 to 0.270), the scaling deteriorates, suggesting that the model scale rotor is not adequately simulating the full scale BVI noise; presently, no proved explanation of this discrepancy exists. Carefully performed parametric variations over a complete matrix of testing conditions have shown that all of the four governing nondimensional parameters - tip Mach number at hover, advance ratio, local inflow ratio, and thrust coefficient - are highly sensitive to BVI noise radiation.

  16. Technology for helping people

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    The first THE Port hackathon problem-solving workshop was held at CERN from 31 October to 2 November in the framework of the 60th anniversary celebrations. The aim of the event was to develop technological projects that can help to solve the day-to-day needs of people living in areas of the planet that experience conflicts or natural disasters.   Collage of shots from THE Port hackathon. Credit: THE Port association The event was dedicated to humanitarian and social topics inspired by members of non-governmental organisations‬. “There is plenty of room for technology to help in humanitarian fields. That’s why we came up with the idea of bringing people together to work on these topics,” explains Ines Knäpper, Project Manager of THE Port hackathon. “We started six months ago setting up THE Port association.* The success of the event was only possible because of the joint effort of a team of roughly twenty people. They were inspired by the aim...

  17. Hovering and Low-Speed Performance and Control Characteristics of the Kaman Helicopter Rotor System as Determined on the Langley Helicopter Tower. TED No. NACA DE 205

    Carpenter, Paul J.; Paulnock, Russell S.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted with the Langley helicopter tower to obtain basic performance and control characteristics of the Raman rotor system. Blade-pitch control is obtained in this configuration by utilizing an auxiliary flap to twist the blades. Rotor thrust and power required were measured for the hovering condition and over a range of wind velocities from 0 to 30 miles per hour. The control characteristics and the transient response of the rotor to various control movements were also measured. The hovering-performance data are presented as a survey of the wake velocities and the variation of torque coefficient with thrust coefficient. The power required for the test rotor to hover at a thrust of 1350 pounds and a rotor speed of 240 rpm is approximately 6.5 percent greater than that estimated for a conventional rotor of the same diameter and solidity. It is believed that most of this difference is caused by th e flap servomechanism. The reduction in total power required for sustentation of the single-rotor configuration tested at various wind velocities and at the normal operating rotor thrust was found to be similar to the theoretical and experimental results for ro tors with conventionally actuated pitch. The control effectiveness was determined as a function of rotor speed. Sufficient control was available to give a thrust range of 0 to 1500 pounds and a rotor tilt of plus or minus 7 degrees. The time lag between flap motion and blade-pitch response is approximately 0.02 to 0.03 second. The response of the rotor following the blade-pitch response is similar to that of a rotor with conventionally actuated pitch changes. The over-all characteristics of the rotor investigated indicate that satisfactory performance and control characteristics were obtained.

  18. Anticipated Guilt for Not Helping and Anticipated Warm Glow for Helping Are Differently Impacted by Personal Responsibility to Help

    Erlandsson, Arvid; Jungstrand, Amanda Å.; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One important motivation for people behaving prosocially is that they want to avoid negative and obtain positive emotions. In the prosocial behavior literature however, the motivations to avoid negative emotions (e.g., guilt) and to approach positive emotions (e.g., warm glow) are rarely separated, and sometimes even aggregated into a single mood-management construct. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticipated guilt if not helping and anticipated warm glow if helping are influenced similarly or differently when varying situational factors related to personal responsibility to help. Helping scenarios were created and pilot tests established that each helping scenario could be formulated both in a high-responsibility version and in a low-responsibility version. In Study 1 participants read high-responsibility and low-responsibility helping scenarios, and rated either their anticipated guilt if not helping or their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., separate evaluation). Study 2 was similar but here participants rated both their anticipated guilt if not helping and their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., joint evaluation). Anticipated guilt was clearly higher in the high-responsibility versions, but anticipated warm glow was unaffected (in Studies 1a and 1b), or even higher in the low-responsibility versions (Study 2). In Studies 3 (where anticipated guilt and warm glow were evaluated separately) and 4 (where they were evaluated jointly), personal responsibility to help was manipulated within-subjects. Anticipated guilt was again constantly higher in the high-responsibility versions but for many types of responsibility-manipulations, anticipated warm glow was higher in the low-responsibility versions. The results suggest that we anticipate guilt if not fulfilling our responsibility but that we anticipate warm glow primarily when doing over and beyond our responsibility. We argue that future studies investigating motivations for helping

  19. Neck and shoulder muscle activity and posture among helicopter pilots and crew-members during military helicopter flight.

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling; Boyle, Eleanor; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members is common. This study quantified the physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles using electromyography (EMG) measures during helicopter flight. Nine standardized sorties were performed, encompassing: cruising from location A to location B (AB) and performing search and rescue (SAR). SAR was performed with Night Vision Goggles (NVG), while AB was performed with (AB+NVG) and without NVG (AB-NVG). EMG was recorded for: trapezius (TRA), upper neck extensors (UNE), and sternocleido-mastoid (SCM). Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) were performed for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from pre- (0.7±1.3) to post-sortie (1.6±1.9) for pilots (p=0.028). If sustained, UNE activity of ∼10% MVE is high, and implies a risk for neck disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. NDT detection and quantification of induced defects on composite helicopter rotor blade and UAV wing sections

    Findeis, Dirk; Gryzagoridis, Jasson; Musonda, Vincent

    2008-09-01

    Digital Shearography and Infrared Thermography (IRT) techniques were employed to test non-destructively samples from aircraft structures of composite material nature. Background information on the techniques is presented and it is noted that much of the inspection work reviewed in the literature has focused on qualitative evaluation of the defects rather than quantitative. There is however, need to quantify the defects if the threshold rejection criterion of whether the component inspected is fit for service has to be established. In this paper an attempt to quantify induced defects on a helicopter main rotor blade and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) composite material is presented. The fringe patterns exhibited by Digital Shearography were used to quantify the defects by relating the number of fringes created to the depth of the defect or flaw. Qualitative evaluation of defects with IRT was achieved through a hot spot temperature indication above the flaw on the surface of the material. The results of the work indicate that the Shearographic technique proved to be more sensitive than the IRT technique. It should be mentioned that there is "no set standard procedure" tailored for testing of composites. Each composite material tested is more likely to respond differently to defect detection and this depends generally on the component geometry and a suitable selection of the loading system to suit a particular test. The experimental procedure that is reported in this paper can be used as a basis for designing a testing or calibration procedure for defects detection on any particular composite material component or structure.

  1. Does access to a colorectal cancer screening website and/or a nurse-managed telephone help line provided to patients by their family physician increase fecal occult blood test uptake?: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Clouston Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal occult blood test screening in Canada is sub-optimal. Family physicians play a central role in screening and are limited by the time constraints of clinical practice. Patients face multiple barriers that further reduce completion rates. Tools that support family physicians in providing their patients with colorectal cancer information and that support uptake may prove useful. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a patient decision aid (nurse-managed telephone support line and/or colorectal cancer screening website distributed by community-based family physicians, in improving colorectal cancer screening rates. Secondary objectives include evaluation of (disincentives to patient FOBT uptake and internet use among 50 to 74 year old males and females for health-related questions. Challenges faced by family physicians in engaging in collaborative partnerships with primary healthcare researchers will be documented. Methods/design A pragmatic, two-arm, randomized cluster controlled trial conducted in 22 community-based family practice clinics (36 clusters with 76 fee-for-service family physicians in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Each physician will enroll 30 patients attending their periodic health examination and at average risk for colorectal cancer. All physicians will follow their standard clinical practice for screening. Intervention group physicians will provide a fridge magnet to each patient that contains information facilitating access to the study-specific colorectal cancer screening decision aids (telephone help-line and website. The primary endpoint is patient fecal occult blood test completion rate after four months (intention to treat model. Multi-level analysis will include clinic, physician and patient level variables. Patient Personal Health Identification Numbers will be collected from those providing consent to facilitate analysis of repeat screening behavior. Secondary outcome

  2. Test

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  3. 78 FR 23114 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Helicopters

    2013-04-18

    .... Discrepancies in the processing and display of air data were revealed when testing at low temperatures to minus..., or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the..., remove the decal, P/N 430-075-070-101, from above the pilot and copilot electronic attitude direction...

  4. Hybrid surrogate-model-based multi-fidelity efficient global optimization applied to helicopter blade design

    Ariyarit, Atthaphon; Sugiura, Masahiko; Tanabe, Yasutada; Kanazaki, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    A multi-fidelity optimization technique by an efficient global optimization process using a hybrid surrogate model is investigated for solving real-world design problems. The model constructs the local deviation using the kriging method and the global model using a radial basis function. The expected improvement is computed to decide additional samples that can improve the model. The approach was first investigated by solving mathematical test problems. The results were compared with optimization results from an ordinary kriging method and a co-kriging method, and the proposed method produced the best solution. The proposed method was also applied to aerodynamic design optimization of helicopter blades to obtain the maximum blade efficiency. The optimal shape obtained by the proposed method achieved performance almost equivalent to that obtained using the high-fidelity, evaluation-based single-fidelity optimization. Comparing all three methods, the proposed method required the lowest total number of high-fidelity evaluation runs to obtain a converged solution.

  5. A Comparison of Computed and Experimental Flowfields of the RAH-66 Helicopter

    vanDam, C. P.; Budge, A. M.; Duque, E. P. N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares and evaluates numerical and experimental flowfields of the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. The numerical predictions were obtained by solving the Thin-Layer Navier-Stokes equations. The computations use actuator disks to investigate the main and tail rotor effects upon the fuselage flowfield. The wind tunnel experiment was performed in the 14 x 22 foot facility located at NASA Langley. A suite of flow conditions, rotor thrusts and fuselage-rotor-tail configurations were tested. In addition, the tunnel model and the computational geometry were based upon the same CAD definition. Computations were performed for an isolated fuselage configuration and for a rotor on configuration. Comparisons between the measured and computed surface pressures show areas of correlation and some discrepancies. Local areas of poor computational grid-quality and local areas of geometry differences account for the differences. These calculations demonstrate the use of advanced computational fluid dynamic methodologies towards a flight vehicle currently under development. It serves as an important verification for future computed results.

  6. Genetic fuzzy system for online structural health monitoring of composite helicopter rotor blades

    Pawar, Prashant M.; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2007-07-01

    A structural health monitoring (SHM) methodology is developed for composite rotor blades. An aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades based on the finite element method in space and time and with implanted matrix cracking and debonding/delamination damage is used to obtain measurable system parameters such as blade response, loads and strains. A rotor blade with a two-cell airfoil section and [0/±45/90]s family of laminates is used for numerical simulations. The model based measurements are contaminated with noise to simulate real data. Genetic fuzzy systems (GFS) are developed for global online damage detection using displacement and force-based measurement deviations between damaged and undamaged conditions and for local online damage detection using strains. It is observed that the success rate of the GFS depends on number of measurements, type of measurements and training and testing noise level. The GFS work quite well with noisy data and is recommended for online SHM of composite helicopter rotor blades.

  7. Classification of defects in honeycomb composite structure of helicopter rotor blades

    Balasko, M.; Svab, E.; Molnar, Gy.; Veres, I.

    2005-01-01

    The use of non-destructive testing methods to qualify the state of rotor blades with respect to their expected flight hours, with the aim to extend their lifetime without any risk of breakdown, is an important financial demand. In order to detect the possible defects in the composite structure of Mi-8 and Mi-24 type helicopter rotor blades used by the Hungarian Army, we have performed combined neutron- and X-ray radiography measurements at the Budapest Research Reactor. Several types of defects were detected, analysed and typified. Among the most frequent and important defects observed were cavities, holes and or cracks in the sealing elements on the interface of the honeycomb structure and the section boarders. Inhomogeneities of the resin materials (resin-rich or starved areas) at the core-honeycomb surfaces proved to be an other important point. Defects were detected at the adhesive filling, and water percolation was visualized at the sealing interfaces of the honeycomb sections. Corrosion effects, and metal inclusions have also been detected

  8. Classification of defects in honeycomb composite structure of helicopter rotor blades

    Balaskó, M.; Sváb, E.; Molnár, Gy.; Veres, I.

    2005-04-01

    The use of non-destructive testing methods to qualify the state of rotor blades with respect to their expected flight hours, with the aim to extend their lifetime without any risk of breakdown, is an important financial demand. In order to detect the possible defects in the composite structure of Mi-8 and Mi-24 type helicopter rotor blades used by the Hungarian Army, we have performed combined neutron- and X-ray radiography measurements at the Budapest Research Reactor. Several types of defects were detected, analysed and typified. Among the most frequent and important defects observed were cavities, holes and/or cracks in the sealing elements on the interface of the honeycomb structure and the section boarders. Inhomogeneities of the resin materials (resin-rich or starved areas) at the core-honeycomb surfaces proved to be an other important point. Defects were detected at the adhesive filling, and water percolation was visualized at the sealing interfaces of the honeycomb sections. Corrosion effects, and metal inclusions have also been detected.

  9. The Direct Georeferencing Application and Performance Analysis of Uav Helicopter in Gcp-Free Area

    Lo, C. F.; Tsai, M. L.; Chiang, K. W.; Chu, C. H.; Tsai, G. J.; Cheng, C. K.; El-Sheimy, N.; Ayman, H.

    2015-08-01

    There are many disasters happened because the weather changes extremely in these years. To facilitate applications such as environment detection or monitoring becomes very important. Therefore, the development of rapid low cost systems for collecting near real-time spatial information is very critical. Rapid spatial information collection has become an emerging trend for remote sensing and mapping applications. This study develops a Direct Georeferencing (DG) based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) helicopter photogrammetric platform where an Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) integrated Positioning and Orientation System (POS) system is implemented to provide the DG capability of the platform. The performance verification indicates that the proposed platform can capture aerial images successfully. A flight test is performed to verify the positioning accuracy in DG mode without using Ground Control Points (GCP). The preliminary results illustrate that horizontal DG positioning accuracies in the x and y axes are around 5 meter with 100 meter flight height. The positioning accuracy in the z axis is less than 10 meter. Such accuracy is good for near real-time disaster relief. The DG ready function of proposed platform guarantees mapping and positioning capability even in GCP free environments, which is very important for rapid urgent response for disaster relief. Generally speaking, the data processing time for the DG module, including POS solution generalization, interpolation, Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOP) generation, and feature point measurements, is less than 1 hour.

  10. Polyspectral signal analysis techniques for condition based maintenance of helicopter drive-train system

    Hassan Mohammed, Mohammed Ahmed

    For an efficient maintenance of a diverse fleet of air- and rotorcraft, effective condition based maintenance (CBM) must be established based on rotating components monitored vibration signals. In this dissertation, we present theory and applications of polyspectral signal processing techniques for condition monitoring of critical components in the AH-64D helicopter tail rotor drive train system. Currently available vibration-monitoring tools are mostly built around auto- and cross-power spectral analysis which have limited performance in detecting frequency correlations higher than second order. Studying higher order correlations and their Fourier transforms, higher order spectra, provides more information about the vibration signals which helps in building more accurate diagnostic models of the mechanical system. Based on higher order spectral analysis, different signal processing techniques are developed to assess health conditions of different critical rotating-components in the AH-64D helicopter drive-train. Based on cross-bispectrum, quadratic nonlinear transfer function is presented to model second order nonlinearity in a drive-shaft running between the two hanger bearings. Then, quadratic-nonlinearity coupling coefficient between frequency harmonics of the rotating shaft is used as condition metric to study different seeded shaft faults compared to baseline case, namely: shaft misalignment, shaft imbalance, and combination of shaft misalignment and imbalance. The proposed quadratic-nonlinearity metric shows better capabilities in distinguishing the four studied shaft settings than the conventional linear coupling based on cross-power spectrum. We also develop a new concept of Quadratic-Nonlinearity Power-Index spectrum, QNLPI(f), that can be used in signal detection and classification, based on bicoherence spectrum. The proposed QNLPI(f) is derived as a projection of the three-dimensional bicoherence spectrum into two-dimensional spectrum that

  11. Multi-Scale Modeling of an Integrated 3D Braided Composite with Applications to Helicopter Arm

    Zhang, Diantang; Chen, Li; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yifan; Qian, Kun

    2017-10-01

    A study is conducted with the aim of developing multi-scale analytical method for designing the composite helicopter arm with three-dimensional (3D) five-directional braided structure. Based on the analysis of 3D braided microstructure, the multi-scale finite element modeling is developed. Finite element analysis on the load capacity of 3D five-directional braided composites helicopter arm is carried out using the software ABAQUS/Standard. The influences of the braiding angle and loading condition on the stress and strain distribution of the helicopter arm are simulated. The results show that the proposed multi-scale method is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical properties of 3D braided composites, validated by the comparison the stress-strain curves of meso-scale RVCs. Furthermore, it is found that the braiding angle is an important factor affecting the mechanical properties of 3D five-directional braided composite helicopter arm. Based on the optimized structure parameters, the nearly net-shaped composite helicopter arm is fabricated using a novel resin transfer mould (RTM) process.

  12. Burnout: need help?

    Sari Azade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout syndrome is a psychological situation induced with working, especially in high-risk parts of the hospitals that affects the physical and mental conditions of the staff. The aim is to identify the characteristics of the staff related to Burnout Syndrome in the Emergency Department (ED. Methods The study includes the Maslach Burnout Inventory and other new individual research questions. The responders were the volunteers and comprised physicians, nurses, nurses' aides from EDs of all urban state hospitals of Adana (43.3%. Burnout scores were analyzed with regard to individual characteristics; supplementary work, marital status, the number of children, occupation, salary, career satisfaction, satisfaction in private life. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall-Wallis test were performed using SPSS 15.00. Results There were no relation between Burnout scores and supplementary work, marital status, number of children, occupation, salary, private life satisfaction, except for career satisfaction. Conclusion Presence and severity of Burnout syndrome were linked to career satisfaction without personal features and salaries. All branches of healthcare occupations in ED seem to have been affected by Burnout Syndrome similarly.

  13. Burnout: need help?

    Gulalp, Betul; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Sari, Azade; Koseoglu, Zikret

    2008-12-05

    Burnout syndrome is a psychological situation induced with working, especially in high-risk parts of the hospitals that affects the physical and mental conditions of the staff. The aim is to identify the characteristics of the staff related to Burnout Syndrome in the Emergency Department (ED). The study includes the Maslach Burnout Inventory and other new individual research questions. The responders were the volunteers and comprised physicians, nurses, nurses' aides from EDs of all urban state hospitals of Adana (43.3%). Burnout scores were analyzed with regard to individual characteristics; supplementary work, marital status, the number of children, occupation, salary, career satisfaction, satisfaction in private life. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall-Wallis test were performed using SPSS 15.00. There were no relation between Burnout scores and supplementary work, marital status, number of children, occupation, salary, private life satisfaction, except for career satisfaction. Presence and severity of Burnout syndrome were linked to career satisfaction without personal features and salaries. All branches of healthcare occupations in ED seem to have been affected by Burnout Syndrome similarly.

  14. COMPUTING EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSMENT OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATE ELEMENTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE FUSELAGE OF A HELICOPTER

    V. A. Ivchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present publication describes the calculation of helicopter fuselage aerodynamic characteristics and its separate elements, by computing experiment. On the basis of program commercial package CFX ANSYS the technique has been mastered and longitudinal and lateral characteristics of the helicopter fuselage on the various flight modes are calculated.

  15. Black Hawk Down?: Establishing Helicopter Parenting as a Distinct Construct from Other Forms of Parental Control during Emerging Adulthood

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Nelson, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to establish a measure of helicopter parenting that was distinct from other forms of parental control, and to examine parental and behavioral correlates of helicopter parenting. Participants included 438 undergraduate students from four universities in the United States (M[subscript age] = 19.65, SD = 2.00,…

  16. A study of helicopter gust response alleviation by automatic control

    Saito, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two control schemes designed to alleviate gust-induced vibration are analytically investigated for a helicopter with four articulated blades. One is an individual blade pitch control scheme. The other is an adaptive blade pitch control algorithm based on linear optimal control theory. In both controllers, control inputs to alleviate gust response are superimposed on the conventional control inputs required to maintain the trim condition. A sinusoidal vertical gust model and a step gust model are used. The individual blade pitch control, in this research, is composed of sensors and a pitch control actuator for each blade. Each sensor can detect flapwise (or lead-lag or torsionwise) deflection of the respective blade. The acturator controls the blade pitch angle for gust alleviation. Theoretical calculations to predict the performance of this feedback system have been conducted by means of the harmonic method. The adaptive blade pitch control system is composed of a set of measurements (oscillatory hub forces and moments), an identification system using a Kalman filter, and a control system based on the minimization of the quadratic performance function.

  17. Training Presentation for NASA Civil Helicopter Safety Website

    Iseler, Laura

    2002-01-01

    NASA civil helicopter safety News & Updates include the following: Mar. 2002. The Air Medical Operations Survey has been completed! Check it out! Also accessible via the Mission pages under Air Medical Mission. Air Medical and Law Enforcement Mission pages have been added. They are accessible via the Mission pages. The Public Use, Personal, Offshore, Law Enforcement, External Load, Business and Gyro accident pages (accessable via the Mission page) have been updated. Feb. 2002. A Words of Wisdom section has been added. You can access it by clicking the Library button. A link to a Corporate Accident Response Plan has been added to the Accident page. The AMs, Aerial Application and Instruction accident pages (accessable via the Mission page) have been updated. Jan. 2002. A new searchable safety article database has been added. You can access it by clicking the Library button. The 2001 accident summaries have been updated and the statistics have been compiled - check it out by clicking the accident tab to the left. Dec. 2001. Please read the FAA Administrator's memo regarding the latest FBI warning. 3ee the FAA column - Fall 2001 Read it now!

  18. Gulf of Mexico Helicopter Offshore System Technologies Engineering Needs Assessment

    Koenke, Edmund J.; Carpenter, Elisabeth J.; Williams, Larry; Caiafa, Caesar

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is conducting a research and development program to modernize the National Airspace System (NAS). The mission of NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) project is to develop advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts and decision support tools for eventual deployment and implementation by the FAA and the private sector. One major objective of the NASA AATT project is to understand and promote the needs of all user classes. The Gulf of Mexico (GoMex) airspace has unique needs. A large number of helicopters operate in this area with only limited surveillance and sometimes-severe environmental conditions. Thunderstorms are the most frequent weather hazard during the spring, summer, and fall. In winter, reduced hours of daylight, low ceilings, strong winds, and icing conditions may restrict operations. Hurricanes impose the most severe weather hazard. The hurricane season, from June through October, normally requires at least one mass evacuation of all offshore platforms.

  19. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Approaches Practice Helicopter

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  20. The Airbag as a Supplement to Standard Restraint Systems in the AH-1 and AH-64 Attack Helicopters and Its Role in Reducing Head Strikes of the Copilot/ Gunner. Volume 1

    1991-01-01

    shelf and locally available automotive airbag system was selected for the tests. The system was a driver’s side airbag designed by Honda Motor Company...allowance for hardware redesign or modifi- cation. Despite these limitations, the study succeeded in demonstrating a problem exists and a supplemental airbag ...JSAARL Repqrt No. 91-8 AD-A233 349 Volume’ I(3 The Airbag as a Supplement to Standard Restraint Systems in the AH-1 and AH-64 Attack Helicopters and