WorldWideScience

Sample records for helicopter exclusion zone

  1. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    2014-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  2. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  3. Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone

    Kashparov, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.

  4. Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km"2. It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m"3), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)

  5. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  6. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    1994-01-01

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  7. Subspace exclusion zones for damage localization

    Bernal, Dionisio; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2018-01-01

    , this is exploited in the context of structural damage localization to cast the Subspace Exclusion Zone (SEZ) scheme, which locates damage by reconstructing the captured field quantity shifts from analytical subspaces indexed by postulated boundaries, the so-called exclusion zones (EZs), in a model of the structure...

  8. Definition of Exclusion Zones Using Seismic Data

    Bartal, Y.; Villagran, M.; Ben Horin, Y.; Leonard, G.; Joswig, M.

    - In verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), there is a motivation to be effective, efficient and economical and to prevent abuse of the right to conduct an On-site Inspection (OSI) in the territory of a challenged State Party. In particular, it is in the interest of a State Party to avoid irrelevant search in specific areas. In this study we propose several techniques to determine `exclusion zones', which are defined as areas where an event could not have possibly occurred. All techniques are based on simple ideas of arrival time differences between seismic stations and thus are less prone to modeling errors compared to standard event location methods. The techniques proposed are: angular sector exclusion based on a tripartite micro array, half-space exclusion based on a station pair, and closed area exclusion based on circumferential networks.

  9. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to the...

  10. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  11. Manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Mauritius

    Nath, B.N.; ShyamPrasad, M.

    The distribution of manganese nodules in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the island nation Mauritius was delineated during cruise SK-35 of ORV Sagar Kanya in 1987. The areas surveyed included Saya de Malha and Nazareth Banks, the Cargados Carajos...

  12. Multibeam mapping of the exclusive economic zone of India

    Nair, R.R.; Rao, P.S.; Kodagali, V.N.

    The seabed in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India is covered with a variety of minerals of economic interest. High resolution bathymetric maps are needed for effective utilisation and management of these resources. To assess the general...

  13. Photoindicational investigations in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    Plyuta, P.G.; Dyidukh, Ya.P.

    1996-01-01

    The whole complex of landscapes, ecotopes, types of vegetation and stages of their reestablishment in the Chernobyl exclusion zone is shown in 480 phytosociologic stand made during the years passed from the Chernobyl accident. Changes in ecological conditions of habitats in the course of demutation and syngenetic processes were estimated according to the main climatic and edaphic factors on the basis of photoindicational scales. Directions of further development of plant communities are presented. The necessity of the constant phytoecological monitoring in the exclusion zone is substantiated

  14. Epidemiological study of schizophrenia in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel

    Loganovsky, K.N.; Nyagu, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Nakane and Ohta (1986) revealed very high (6 %) prevalence rate of schizophrenia in A-bomb survivors. The goal of this study was the epidemiological investigation of schizophrenia in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel on the base of 10-years follow up study and analysis of the psychiatric archives (1986-1996). As a result the register of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has been created, including 65 staff members. According to both ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria there were 48 patients with schizophrenia. It has been revealed a statistically significant increase of the schizophrenia percentage amongst all psychoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel in comparison with the general Ukrainian population. It has been established that among 48 cases of schizophrenia there were 39 (81.2 %) of schizophrenia onset occurred in the zone. Since 1990 a significant increase (more than 4 times: 5.4 per 10,000 in the zone and 1.1 per 10,000 in Ukraine) in schizophrenia incidence has been taking place among the irradiated population of the exclusion zone in comparison with the general population. Our data testify to possibility of radiation-induced schizophrenia onset, which seem to be like stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms of these effects realization are the subject of further investigations. (author)

  15. Radiation consequences of fire in Chornobyl NPP exclusive zone

    Bogorad, V.I.; Litvinskaya, T.V.; Shevchenko, I.A.; Dybach, A.M.; Slepchenko, A.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    In April and June 2015, the population of the Kyiv region in Ukraine was alarmed by information on possible negative radiation consequences of the serious forest fires that broke out in the 30-kilometer zone of Chornobyl NPP Exclusion Zone. The paper describes analytical research related to the assessment of radiation impact of fire in contaminated territories of Chornobylska Pushcha on the public in Kyiv applying the model assessment using JRODOS and Hot Spot computer systems. The paper presents direct radiation research carried out at the same time

  16. Terrestrial invertebrate population studies in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, Ukraine

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M.; Copplestone, D.; Gilhen, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of substantial amounts of radioactivity. Precise estimates of the release vary. The USSR State Committee presented information to a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986 indicating a release of some 2.9x10 5 TBq 137 Cs and 2x10 5 TBq 90 Sr, with a total fission/activation product release of 1.7x10 6 TBq. Other commentators suggest that up to double this amount may have been released. Estimates of deposition likewise vary, although it is probable that about half the released activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of 100,000 to 150,000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, over the past fifteen years, re-colonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites established in this study exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h -1 to 140 μSv h -1 . Corresponding mean concentrations of 137 Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6.10 2 to 3.10 6 Bq kg -1 dw. This study summarises observations over the period 2001 to 2004. Sub-surface activity, as measured by bait lamina penetration, appears to be inversely correlated with concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soil. Likewise, at the very highest levels of contamination, there is some loss of invertebrate diversity; although little associated change in overall biomass. Between years, population densities and species dominance vary significantly. This does not appear to correlate

  17. 10 CFR 100.11 - Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance. 100.11 Section 100.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR... and for Testing Reactors § 100.11 Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population...

  18. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    2012-04-02

    ...-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine... Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) 5-year review, revise habitat research priority objectives, and update EFH... exclusive economic zone (EEZ, 3 to 200 nautical miles) off Alaska are managed under the FMP. The FMP was...

  19. Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, V.R.

    Distribution and abundance of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India is carried out based on zooplankton collections (on board FORV Sagar Sampada) during the period 1985-1990. The 661 samples collected...

  20. Concentration peculiarities of radionuclides by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    Gudkov, D.I.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Nazarov, A.B.; Derevets, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The results of radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in molluscs tissue of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. The age dynamics of radionuclides content in some species of Gastropoda was studied

  1. The exclusive economic zone debates in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and fisheries

    Başeren, Bayram Öztürk and Sertaç Hami; Öztürk, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delimitation and proclamations of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is important issue for several reasons for the bordering nations. The Mediterranean Sea is unique case due to geographical characteristics and some conflicts already existed on maritime delimitations among some nations. It’s a matter of fact that; all States will have to reach agreement, regarding proclamations of the delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean ...

  2. The exclusive economic zone debates in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and fisheries

    Başeren, Bayram Öztürk and Sertaç Hami

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Delimitation and proclamations of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is important issue for several reasons for the bordering nations. The Mediterranean Sea is unique case due to geographical characteristics and some conflicts already existed on maritime delimitations among some nations. It’s a matter of fact that; all States will have to reach agreement, regarding proclamations of the delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean ...

  3. Reflection of block neotectonics in geological structure of paleogene strata of Chornobyl exclusion zone

    Skvortsov, V.V.; Oleksandrova, N.V.; Khodorovs'kij, A.Ya.

    2014-01-01

    Neotectonic block differentiation of Chernobyl Exclusion zone area was fixed by the results of the geological and structure analysis of paleogene strata in complex with the space survey data interpretation. Structural plan of the latest tectonic movements had a block character; it was shown by the fracture systems, which represent the components of known regional tectonic zones of various trends and are found in the features of phanerozoic rock mass structure. The territory under study is divided into two parts - the northern one, where in the neotectonic movements are generally more intensive with manifestation practically all over the fracture zones, and the southern part, where in the newest breaks belong mainly to submeridional also to south-western regional fracture zones. The southern part of the Exclusion zone, as a whole, holds the greatest promise by comparison with the northern one in the view of neotectonic criteria regarding the geological repository siting for radioactive waste disposal

  4. Securing the Chernobyl exclusion zone against illegal movement of radioactive materials

    Bondarenko, O. O.; Proskura, M. I.; Duftschmid, K. E.; Kravchencko, N. E.

    2004-01-01

    . Within the framework of the IAEA Nuclear Security Program the technical cooperation project S trengthening Security of Nuclear Materials in Ukraine ( UKR/0/008) is aimed primarily to strengthen protection the entrance/exit checkpoints of the Chernobyl exclusion zone and adjacent State borders of Ukraine against illicit movement of radioactive materials (including nuclear materials). The particular situation of the exclusion zone presents a high risk of uncontrolled movement of radioactive materials from and into the exclusion zone. In view of the future construction of the S helter-2 a nd decommissioning of the three closed reactor blocks it is expected that the traffic through the exclusion zone will considerably increase in the next years and those large amounts of possibly contaminated metal scrap, construction material and equipment will leave the zone. There is also a risk of illegal movement of radioactive waste into the zone, possibly also through the international border, which could make the zone to an illegal dumping ground for radioactive waste. As practice shows theft of nuclear materials cannot be excluded. The general concept of the project is based on modernization of old and deployment of new vehicle (road and railway) and pedestrian monitoring equipment at all checkpoints of the exclusion zone including road checkpoints, train stations and river ports. A central station of data acquisition and management is to be located in Chernobyl. The equipment to be installed has to meet new technical requirements developed by IAEA. This includes, e.g. sensitivity of gamma and neutron detection, identification of innocent alarms caused by NORM materials or medical radioisotopes, accurate indication of the source position in the vehicle, and remote identification of license plate by advanced video systems. The implementation of the project and deployment of the equipment is expected to start in 2003 and should be completed in 2005. (Author)

  5. Satellite communication system for emergency monitoring within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Franchini, C.; Mensa, M.; Kanevsky, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A Satellite Emergency Monitoring system of the Chernobyl Exclusive Zone (SEM CEZ) was designed to provide the Ukraine authorities and the neighbouring countries with updated information when an emergency situation occurs in the Exclusion Zone. This is of particular importance when environment contamination has transboundary effect. SEM system consists of mobile and fixed sensors reporting data via a dedicated satellite communications link. Mobile sensors are fitted with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers that determine current coordinates of the sensor. Sensors data are transmitted to the Emergency Monitoring Centre equipped with PC and a satellite terminal. Both sensors data and the current position are visualized on digital maps

  6. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2010-08-10

    ... exclusion memorandum may be obtained from the Alaska Region website at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov... 680-SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 1. The authority citation for part...

  7. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  8. 76 FR 40336 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program

    2011-07-08

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program AGENCY: National Marine... individuals under the prohibited species donation (PSD) program. Salmon and halibut are caught incidentally... 29 to the BSAI and GOA FMPs, respectively, authorize a salmon donation program and were approved by...

  9. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    Geng, Jing

    2012-01-01

    During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of

  10. Transformations of humus and soil mantle in the urbanized areas of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    Tyutyunnik, Yu.G.; Bednaya, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Presented are investigations into the demutation processes of the towns plant community in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone (Pripyat, Chernobyl, Chernobyl-2). Demonstrated is the specific nature of the reduction of humus and soil mantle in the abandoned towns under the impact of the natural factors. 21 refs., 5 tab., 7 figs

  11. Biological productivity and potential resources of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of India

    Goswami, S.C.

    An assessment of the biological production and the potential fishery resources has been made based on the data collected over a period of 15 years (1976-1991). The entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), measuring 2.02 million km sup(2) was divided...

  12. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    2012-04-11

    .... 120330244-2242-01] RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY... to the Fishery Management Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of Alaska (FMP). If... Management Council's (Council's) salmon management policy and to comply with Federal law. This proposed rule...

  13. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    2012-12-21

    .... 120330244-2673-02] RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY... Plan for Salmon Fisheries in the EEZ off the Coast of Alaska (FMP). Amendment 12 comprehensively revises and updates the FMP to reflect the North Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) salmon...

  14. 75 FR 51741 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...

    2010-08-23

    ... Program to provide economic stability for the Pacific halibut and sablefish commercial fisheries and.... 0906041011-91012-01 RIN 0648-AX91 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and... designed to maintain the social character and economic benefits of the commercial, fixed-gear fisheries...

  15. 77 FR 29556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...

    2012-05-18

    ... economic stability for the Pacific halibut and sablefish commercial fisheries and improve long-term.... 0906041011-2432-02] RIN 0648-AX91 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and... maintain the social character and economic benefits of the commercial, fixed-gear fisheries that Alaskan...

  16. Disposal of low and medium level radioactive waste in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Antropov, V.M.; Zhylinsky, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The peculiarity of Chernobyl exclusion zone is the existence of constant and a lot of temporary points of radioactive waste of Chernobyl origin disposal in it. Chernobyl zone (exclusion zone) is the territory round Chernobyl NPP restricted in the results of Chernobyl accident with no inhabitants in it and where the economic activity was almost stopped. Nowadays the apparatus is developed the test and assembling of the automatic control system are conducted. All the results of the radioactive waste mass measurement brought to the PRAWD by car automatically put into the PC. The devices of radiation control are moving above the RAW surface with the help of robot-manipulator. The delivery of RAW to the PRAMW is produced by special cars in circulating or single containers or loaded in bulk in the body of lorries with the closed roofs

  17. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    2010-12-29

    .... 101006495-0498-01] RIN 0648-BA31 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion... interim final rule pertaining to Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion... Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77535), to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure...

  18. 76 FR 44699 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    2011-07-26

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts 679 and 680 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska... 0648-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of... competition among sectors and support stability in the Pacific cod fishery. This rule would also limit access...

  19. 76 FR 37763 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    2011-06-28

    ...-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska... the uncertainty regarding the distribution of Pacific cod catch, enhance stability among the sectors... available for public review and comment. The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Gulf...

  20. QELBY®-Induced Enhancement of Exclusion Zone Buildup and Seed Germination

    Abha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hydrophilic powder, QELBY, from the feldspar family of clay minerals was investigated for its ability to form structured or exclusion-zone (EZ water. We demonstrated microsphere-free zones around different fractions of the QELBY powder or its hydrated pellet. Averaging approximately 100 μm, these zones grew to a size similar to that formed in the vicinity of the Nafion standard. In the case of silica (control, only occasional microsphere-free zones of about 70 μm were found. Further, studies to investigate QELBY’s energizing effect on germination and early sapling growth in brown chickpea seeds showed at least a 2-3-fold increase in root length and/or formation of shoots. This was seen in seeds bathed in QELBY supernatants or surrounded by QELBY powder outside the vials containing the seeds. This indirect effect was observed whether the QELBY was dry or hydrated.

  1. [The main radionuclides and dose formation in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone].

    Gudkov, D I; Kaglian, A E; Kireev, S I; Nazarov, A B; Klenus, V G

    2008-01-01

    The results of the researches of spices-specificity, accumulation dynamics and distribution of 90Sr, of 137Cs and of transuranic elements in fish of the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone are analysed. The data of estimations of absorbed doze rate from incorporated radionuclides for pray fish and predatory species are given. For the fish from the lake of the left-bank floodplain of the Pripyat River the increase of 90Sr specific activity is registered which is presumably connected with the dynamics of the physical-chemical forms of the radionuclide in soils and their wash out in water bodies from the catchment basin. Now about 90% of internal dose rate of fish from closed aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone is caused by 90Sr incorporation.

  2. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone; Problemi Chornobil`s`koyi zoni vyidchuzhennya

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area.

  3. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone; Problemi Chornobil`s`koyi zoni vyidchuzhennya

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students.

  4. Specialized ecological forestry system for the management of forests in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Kuchma, N.D.; Berchij, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    Prevention of radionuclides expansion in environment is one of the most complicated tasks in the complex of problems connected with measures, to decrease consequences of accident in Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Ten years experience of work in the exclusion zone show that the most real biogeochemical barrier on the way of radionuclides transfer are forests, which occupy half of the territory and keep main part of falls in the boundaries of forest landscapes

  5. Genetic processes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Kuchma, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    As immobile organisms, plants have to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions and make use of different adaptive mechanisms to survive and reproduce successfully under stress. It is often difficult to detect the organism s or population s response to stress factors due to slow changes of environmental conditions or delayed reactions of plants. From this point of view, the investigation of reactions under extreme environmental change offer unique opportunities to study adaptation mechanisms. Areas with a strong anthropogenic impact on the environment represent ideal places for research on adaptation or selection processes. For many decades, ionizing radiation is well known as a strong damaging and stress factor. Radiation exposure causes heavy damages of the DNA. This leads to a decrease in fitness in the present generation and inheritable mutations which reveal their effects in later generations. On the other hand, radiation exposure activates adaptation processes to ensure survival. The investigation of the influence of radiation at different levels of life organization from the DNA level to the population level can help to elucidate response mechanisms to changing environments. After the accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the surrounding territories were contaminated with high amounts of radioactive material. The exclusion zone became a natural laboratory for the investigation of effects of radiation on the biocenosis. Pinus sylvestris is one of the most wildly used species in radiation research due to its very high sensitivity to radiation exposure and dominance in forest ecosystems of the exclusion zone. Nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and AFLP markers were investigated in order to study mutation rates and selection processes under the influence of radiation in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) of different age and irradiation conditions collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone and control areas. The results of this study show that a

  6. 76 FR 59064 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    2011-09-23

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA722 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by [[Page 59065

  7. Spatial datasets of radionuclide contamination in the Ukrainian Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Kashparov, Valery; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Zhurba, Marina; Protsak, Valentyn; Khomutinin, Yuri; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Chaplow, Jacqueline S.

    2018-02-01

    The dataset Spatial datasets of radionuclide contamination in the Ukrainian Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was developed to enable data collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl) and 2014 by the Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR) after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. The dataset includes results from comprehensive soil sampling across the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). Analyses include radiocaesium (134Cs and 134Cs) 90Sr, 154Eu and soil property data; plutonium isotope activity concentrations in soil (including distribution in the soil profile); analyses of hot (or fuel) particles from the CEZ (data from Poland and across Europe are also included); and results of monitoring in the Ivankov district, a region adjacent to the exclusion zone. The purpose of this paper is to describe the available data and methodology used to obtain them. The data will be valuable to those conducting studies within the CEZ in a number of ways, for instance (i) for helping to perform robust exposure estimates to wildlife, (ii) for predicting comparative activity concentrations of different key radionuclides, (iii) for providing a baseline against which future surveys in the CEZ can be compared, (iv) as a source of information on the behaviour of fuel particles (FPs), (v) for performing retrospective dose assessments and (vi) for assessing natural background dose rates in the CEZ. The CEZ has been proposed as a radioecological observatory (i.e. a radioactively contaminated site that will provide a focus for long-term, radioecological collaborative international research). Key to the future success of this concept is open access to data for the CEZ. The data presented here are a first step in this process. The data and supporting documentation are freely available from the Environmental Information Data Centre (EIDC) under the terms and conditions of the Open Government Licence: https://doi.org/10.5285/782ec845-2135-4698-8881-b38823e533bf.

  8. [Radioecological studies of freshwater mollusks in the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone].

    Gudkov, D I; Nazarov, A B; Dziubenko, E V; Kaglian, A E; Klenus, V G

    2009-01-01

    Species-specificity and dynamics of 90Sr, 137Cs and some transuranic elements accumulation in bivalve and gastropod freshwater molluscs of the Chernobyl exclusion zone during 1997-2008 was analyzed. The results of radiation dose and chromosome aberration rate estimation and the analysis of hemolymph composition of freshwater snail (Lymnaea stagnalis L.) was produced. The absorbed dose rate was registered in the range of 0.3-85.0 microGy/h. In closed water bodies the heightened chromosome aberration rate (up to 27%) in embryo tissues, and also the change of haematological indexes for the adult individuals of snails was registered.

  9. Main stages of 137Cs accumulation by mushrooms in exclusion zone after ChNPP accident

    Shatrova, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    In Chernobyl exclusion zone area the 137 Cs accumulation by mushrooms (macromycetes) of different types is investigated. The main factor influencing radiocaesium content value in mushrooms-symbiotrophes, is the depth of location in ground of the main part of mycelium of each kind. For macromycetes, whole mycelium is located in the soil in 0 - 5 or 5 - 10 cm layers, 137 Cs accumulation occurs in two stages. The first stage is characterised by gradual increase (from year to year) of 137 Cs concentration in fruit bodies of mushrooms; the second stage - abrupt decrease of radionuclide contents. The maximum 137 Cs amount in macromycetes of different kinds are marked in 1996-1998 years. In the year of 2000 on 2 zone test sites the change of the ratio of 137 Cs contents in mushrooms-symbiotrophes with different depth of mycelium's localization for first time was marked

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes of the residents of 30-km Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    Bezdrobna, Larysa; Tsyganok, Tetyana; Romanova, Olena; Tarasenko, Larysa; Tryshyn, Volodymyr; Klimkina, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    A comparative cytogenetic examination of 33 self-settlers in the 30 km ChNPP Exclusion Zone and 31 residents in villages of Yahotyn district, Kyiv region was carried out in 1998-99. The levels of soil contamination of their residential areas with "1"3"7Cs, "9"0Sr and "2"3"8","2"3"9"+"2"4"0Pu were 74–477 kBq/m"2, 33–288 kBq/m"2 and 1.5-10.0 kBq/m"2, respectively for the former, and 1.9–5.8 kBq/m"2, 0.6–2.8 kBq/m"2 and 0.01-0.05 kBq/m"2, respectively for the latter. Using various data about the radiation situation in the Exclusion Zone, the effective doses on whole-body of the self-settlers were estimated to be 30–333 mSv for the whole residing period after the accident. The mean frequencies of aberrant cells and chromosomal aberrations for the Zone self-settlers were significantly higher than those for the residents in Yahotyn district, while the values of the latter group were found to be above the spontaneous levels reported in literatures. The individual variability in the distribution of the same indices was significantly larger for the self-settlers than for the Yahotyn residents. The compared groups also differ in the distribution of aberrations in cells. A repeated examination of 20 Zone self-settlers was conducted in 2001. A significant decrease in chromosome type aberration frequency was found at the expense of fragments frequency decrease. However, the total frequency of chromosomal aberrations didn't differ in 1998-99 and in 2001. (author)

  11. Radiation ecology issues associated with murine rodents and shrews in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Maklyuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the "soil-to-plant" chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy h(-1) in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the "Red Forest"). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy h(-1), respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy h(-1), respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  12. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  13. 75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    2010-09-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery published on.... 090511911-0307-02] RIN 0648-AX89 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  14. Spatial datasets of radionuclide contamination in the Ukrainian Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    V. Kashparov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dataset Spatial datasets of radionuclide contamination in the Ukrainian Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was developed to enable data collected between May 1986 (immediately after Chernobyl and 2014 by the Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR after the Chernobyl accident to be made publicly available. The dataset includes results from comprehensive soil sampling across the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ. Analyses include radiocaesium (134Cs and 134Cs 90Sr, 154Eu and soil property data; plutonium isotope activity concentrations in soil (including distribution in the soil profile; analyses of hot (or fuel particles from the CEZ (data from Poland and across Europe are also included; and results of monitoring in the Ivankov district, a region adjacent to the exclusion zone. The purpose of this paper is to describe the available data and methodology used to obtain them. The data will be valuable to those conducting studies within the CEZ in a number of ways, for instance (i for helping to perform robust exposure estimates to wildlife, (ii for predicting comparative activity concentrations of different key radionuclides, (iii for providing a baseline against which future surveys in the CEZ can be compared, (iv as a source of information on the behaviour of fuel particles (FPs, (v for performing retrospective dose assessments and (vi for assessing natural background dose rates in the CEZ. The CEZ has been proposed as a radioecological observatory (i.e. a radioactively contaminated site that will provide a focus for long-term, radioecological collaborative international research. Key to the future success of this concept is open access to data for the CEZ. The data presented here are a first step in this process. The data and supporting documentation are freely available from the Environmental Information Data Centre (EIDC under the terms and conditions of the Open Government Licence: https://doi.org/10.5285/782ec845-2135-4698-8881-b

  15. Bioavailability of radionuclides and dose rate in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone

    Gudkov, Dmitri; Nazarov, Alexandr

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Our studies were carried out during 1997-2007 within Krasnensky flood-lands on the left bank of the Pripyat River, which is the most contaminated region of the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone. During 1991-1993 the complex of hydraulic engineering structures as flood protection dams was constructed within the Krasnensky flood-lands, which preventing washing away of radioactive substances from soils and changing a hydrological mode of flood plain flows during a high water. In its turn it was by the reason of strengthening of over-moistening and swamping processes within embankment territories. As a result - on a background of the common tendencies of increase of the mobile forms of 90 Sr in soils of catchment territories and bottom sediments of the exclusion zone, there is an increase of humic acids concentrations in waterlogged soils of Krasnensky flood-lands. It is also raises the content of the water-soluble forms of 90 Sr forming with acids the soluble complexes. Thus the increase of concentrations of the mobile radionuclide forms and their inclusion into biotic circulation of aquatic ecosystems is observed. It confirms also an increase of 90 Sr specific activity in water of lakes within Krasnensky flood-lands, against a background of stabilisation of this parameter for 137 Cs last years. Such dynamics of 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents is significantly reflected on dose rate for hydrobionts due to incorporated radionuclides. However if in running water bodies the decrease of radionuclide contents defines, accordingly, and the decrease of dose rates, in lakes of the left-bank flood-lands of the Pripyat River the situation has an absolutely other character. At rather stable internal absorbed dose rate, caused by 137 Cs during 1993-2007, the dose, caused by the 90 Sr content, has grown more than in 20 times for some species of higher aquatic plants and fish in comparison with the beginning of 1990-s. As a result the total internal dose

  16. Aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone: radioactive contamination, doses and effects

    Gudkov, D.I.; Kuzmenko, M.I.; Krot, Y.G.; Kipnis, L.S.; Mardarevich, M.G.; Ponomaryov, A.V.; Derevets, V.V.; Nazarov, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    For past 17 years after accident the character of radioactive contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has undergone essential changes. First of all it connected with realisation on a wide area of deactivation works, and also with transformation of radioactive substances in water-soil systems. Besides, during 1991-95 the complex of hydraulic engineering structures as protection dams, interfering washing away of radioactive substances from soils of the left-bank catchment basin and changed a hydrological regime of these territories during a high water, was constructed. The levels of radionuclide contamination of water objects within the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone was rather stabilised. Due to high water change rate the river bottom sediments have undergone decontamination processes (especially during floods and periods of high water) and over the years have ceased to play the essential role as a secondary source of water contamination. On the other hand, the closed reservoirs have considerably higher levels of radioactive contamination caused by limited water change and by relatively high concentration of radionuclides deposited in the bottom sediments. Therefore, for the majority of standing reservoirs the level of radionuclide content is determined mainly by the rates of mobile radionuclide forms exchange between bottom sediment and water, as well as by the external washout from the catchment basin. In this paper will be considered: (1) the latest data on radionuclide content (Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-238, Pu-239+240 and Am-241) and dynamics in water, seston, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of different trophic levels and ecological groups; (2) the peculiarities of formation of vegetative communities from lakes within embankment territory of Pripyat River flood-lands and its impact on radionuclide redistribution in aquatic ecosystems; (3) the major hydrochemical factors, which determine the behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic

  17. How best to utilize the experience of the expedition to 30-km Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Pazmandi, T.; Sagi, L.; Silye, J.; Aszodi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The only Hungarian nuclear power plant (Paks NPP) generates about 40 percent of the electrical energy of Hungary. Taking into consideration the designed lifetime, the four units should be shut down between 2012 and 2017. To extend operation of the units with twenty years can be considered as the especially important part of the life-time management. In terms of life-time extension, beside technical issues and nuclear safety, the public acceptance plays a very decisive role. The Chernobyl accident had serious impact on the public; therefore, enhancing the public confidence is a main task in respect of the future of nuclear energy. The Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (YGN), which operates within the framework of HNS, has been put already a lot of effort into it. Between 28th of May and 4th of June, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society, a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site and the surrounding exclusion zone. Most of the participants were young Hungarian nuclear experts under the leading of more experienced colleagues. The main goals of the expedition were the followings: Getting own experiences in a direct way about the actual condition of the Chernobyl Power Plant and the contamination and the dose level of its surroundings; Gathering information about the condition of the shelter built above the damaged 4th unit; Further education of young nuclear experts by performing field measurements; Communicating to the public on our experience and consequences of the accident by utilizing our authentic measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives performing wide-ranged environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. The analysis of samples has been started immediately in the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure of

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  19. Peculiarities of absorbed dose forming in some wild animals in Chornobyl exclusion zone

    V. A. Gaychenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on field researches conducted in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the years after the accident, the peculiarities are identified of formation of absorbed doses in animals of different taxonomic and ecological groups that live in conditions of radioactive contamination of ecosystems. It was shown importance of consideration of radiation features on wild animals according to their life cycle, conditions and ways of life. Data were displayed about the importance of different types of irradiation according to the period of stay of the animals in the ground, in burrows and nests. The questions were reviewed about value of external and internal radiation in absorbed dose of different types of wildlife. Results of the calculation of the absorbed dose of bird embryos from egg shell were shown.

  20. Environmental Radiation Monitoring In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - History And Results 25 Years After

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  1. Use of GIS in the rehabilitation assessment of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Arkhipov, A.; Kuchma, N.; Arkhipov, N.; Nagorsky, V.

    2002-01-01

    The main task of the Geographical Information System of the Chernobyl exclusion zone is to estimate the applicability and perform the analysis of the body of radioecological information on the basis of which the administrative decisions about the use of territories can be made. This system is rather virtual and has several logical levels: storage of the primary radioecological and land use information; the analysis of possible ways for rehabilitation of contaminated lands; the economic evaluations based primarily on the cost-benefit comparison of scenarios with use of different countermeasures and those implementing usual technologies. This includes GIS-analysis and evaluation of risks as the basis for the decision-making. The paper presents the results of application of sophisticated GIS to the practice of radioecological research and land rehabilitation. (author)

  2. Peculiarities of absorbed dose forming in some wild animals in Chornobyl,y exclusion zone

    Gaychenko, V.A.; Krainiuk, O.Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Based on field researches conducted in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the years after the accident, identified the peculiarities of formation absorbed doses in animals of different taxonomic and ecological groups that live in conditions of radioactive contamination of ecosystems. Was shown importance of consideration of radiation features on wild animals according to their life cycle, conditions and ways of life. Was displayed data about the importance of different types of irradiation according to the period of stay the animals in the ground, in burrows and nests. Was reviewed the questions about value of external and internal radiation in absorbed dose of different types of wildlife. Was shown the results of the calculation of the absorbed dose of bird embryos from egg shell

  3. Effects of chronic radiation exposure on small mammals in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Jackson, D.; Stone, D.M.; Copplestone, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986 caused the release to atmosphere of some 2 x 10 6 TBq, or more, of total fission/activation products. Estimates of deposition vary, although it is probable that about half the activity was deposited within 20 km of the release point, predominantly following two plume trajectories to the north and west. This resulted in the death of pine trees over 400 ha, the abandonment of up to 150 000 ha of agricultural land and the establishment of an exclusion zone extending to 30 km from the site. High levels of radionuclide contamination continue to prevail within the exclusion zone. Nonetheless, recolonisation has been widespread. Mixed deciduous woodlands, with a high proportion of birch (Betula spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), have become established in the forest areas, while agricultural land has succeeded to tall grassland and scrub. Field sites investigated in this study, during 2001-2003, exhibited external gamma dose rates varying from 0.1 μSv h-1 to 140 μSv h-1. Corresponding mean concentrations of 137 Cs in the top 20 cm of soil varied from about 6 x 10 2 to 3 x 10 6 Bq kg -1 dw (dry weight). Little impact is evident on populations of small mammals in these areas, either for species diversity or overall abundance, although there is a slight (not statistically significant) trend for increasing spleen weight in the bank vole with increasing levels of contamination. Previous suggestions that populations contain a preponderance of juveniles and sub-adults at the highest contaminated sites are not supported. (author)

  4. The Legality of Foreign Military Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone under UNCLOS

    Jing Geng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During negotiations for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS, military activities in another state's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ were a point of contention. Currently, the issue remains controversial in state practice. UNCLOS attempts to balance the differing interests of coastal and maritime states, but is silent or ambiguous on the legality of military operations in foreign EEZs. Coastal states seek to assert increasing control over their maritime zones while maritime states prioritize the freedom of navigation. This article examines the competing views on these issues in the context of the 2009 Impeccable incident between China and the United States that occurred in the South China Sea. The issue of military activities in the EEZ will continue to be a complex subject, without clear definitions in the nature and scope of permissible activity. As state practice evolves, the potential for hostilities is high, particularly in semi-enclosed sea areas such as the South China Sea. This article concludes that states should create dialogues and form agreements to help clarify the contours of military activity in the EEZ, focusing on mutual interests, interdependence, and coexistence rather than perceiving the ocean as a zero-sum resource. 

  5. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Kuchma, Oleksandra; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: → Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. → Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. → AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. → 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. → Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  6. Abundance of adult ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone.

    Movila, A; Deriabina, T; Morozov, A; Sitnicova, N; Toderas, I; Uspenskaia, I; Alekhnovici, A

    2012-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster resulted in contamination of vast areas in Europe. To date, there is little knowledge about the effects of radioactive contamination on tick species. We sampled ticks from vegetation and large-sized wild mammals belonging to orders Carnivora and Artiodactyla at sites with 0.76, 1.91, and 4.50 mSv/hr ionizing radiation background values in the Polesky State Radio-Ecological Reserve of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster zone in spring 2010. Altogether, 122 questing ticks were collected from vegetation. Among collected ticks, Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius) was, by far, the most abundant species (99.2%), followed by Ixodes ricnus (L.) (0.8%), which was collected only at the 0.76 mSv/hr site. The average sex ratio female∶male was 2.9∶1.0. In parallel with the present study, we examined 3 Sus scrofa (L.), 2 Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray), and 1 Alces alces (L.) at the 4.50 mSv/hr site; 96 D. reticulatus ticks were found on 2 N. procyonoides specimens. The mean density and the intensity of infestation were 16 ticks per animal and 48 ticks per infested animal, respectively. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the role of various tick vectors, vertebrate reservoirs, and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

  7. Helicopter Electromagnetic and Magnetic Surveys of the Upper and Middle Zones of the Trinity Aquifer, Uvalde and Bexar Counties, Texas

    Smith, D. V.; Blome, C. D.; Smith, B. D.; Clark, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    Detailed helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys (HEM) were conducted in northern Uvalde and Bexar Counties, Texas, as part of a geologic mapping and hydrologic study being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The aquifers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group (collectively termed the Trinity aquifer) are an important regional water source in the Hill Country of south-central Texas. Rock units comprising the middle aquifer segment are represented by the lower member of the Glen Rose Formation and the Cow Creek Limestone and Hensel Sandstone members of the Pearsall Formation. The lower Trinity hydrologic segment is composed of the Hosston and Sligo Limestones and is confined by the overlying Hammet Shale. Karst features commonly occur in the Trinity Group because of the dissolution of gypsum- and anhydrite-rich beds. Faults and fractures have not been sufficiently analyzed to evaluate the effects these structures have on inter- and intra-formational groundwater flow. The survey in the north Seco Creek area covers the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer and part of the catchment zone composed of the upper Trinity segment. These data augment the scant geologic mapping in the area by delineating faults, collapse features, and hydrostratigraphic units. The HEM survey in northern Bexar County covered the Camp Stanley Storage Activity, the Camp Bullis Training Site, parts of the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer south of the military bases, and part of Cibolo Creek to the north. Basic line spacing was 200 meters using six frequencies. In-fill lines were flown with a spacing of 100 meters in the central part of the study area to better resolve geologic structures and karst features. The data processing took into account high EM interference and cultural noise. Apparent resistivity (ρa) maps are used in interpretation of geologic structures, trends, and in the identification of electrical properties of lithologic units. The ρa maps show the

  8. Criticality detector exclusion zone in a spent-fuel hot cell

    Kim, S.S.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    generate a light pulse. The cluster is composed of three scintillator tubes bound tightly together in a lead sheath. The lead plug and sheath provide gamma radiation shielding, but unfortunately, the sheath design does not fully shield the tube axial length circumferentially. The top of the sheath is basically open and can allow SNF scatter gamma rays that penetrate the concrete wall to encounter and strike the scintillator material without attenuation. Despite the fact that the detector cluster is at the 13 ft 1 in. elevation above the IFSF floor 0 ft 0 in. elevation, the potential for this detector cluster to inadvertently alarm is real. The CAS detector has been designed with a 10,000:1 gamma rejection ratio and zero response above background in gamma radiation fields le10 rads/h. The authors solution to prevent inadvertent criticality alarms involves setting up an exclusion zone around the detectors. Individual elements or loaded canisters would be prohibited from entering the exclusion zone. Centered about the CAS and extending from the north wall into the hot cell and from the hot-cell ceiling to an elevation below the detector elevation, the exclusion zone boundaries and dimensions were determined analytically

  9. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bonzom@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hättenschwiler, Stephan [Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS–Université de Montpellier–Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier–EPHE), 1919 Route de Mende, F-34293 Montpellier (France); Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chauvet, Eric [EcoLab, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, INPT, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France); Gaschak, Sergey [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Maksimenko, Andrey [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); and others

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22–15 μGy h{sup −1}) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2–29 μGy h{sup −1}) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150 μGy h{sup −1}. This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. - Highlights: • The effects of radioactivity on

  10. Hypoxia in the central Arabian Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar during summer season

    Al-Ansari, Ebrahim M. A. S.; Rowe, G.; Abdel-Moati, M. A. R.; Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Maslamani, I.; Al-Yafei, M. A.; Al-Shaikh, I.; Upstill-Goddard, R.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most fascinating and unexpected discoveries during the Qatar University Marine Expeditions to the marine Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar in 2000-2001, was the detection of a hypoxic water layer in the central region of the Arabian Gulf in waters deeper than 50 m. Hypoxia was defined as the region where the concentration of dissolved oxygen was less than 2 mg L-1. This article presents the discovery of hypoxia in the Arabian Gulf, based on samples collected (mainly during evening or night time) from vertical profiles along transects of the EEZ of Qatar and analyzed for physico-chemical properties, nutrients and chlorophyll-a. Hypoxia occurred in the summer months caused by an interaction between physical stratification of the water column that prevents oxygen replenishment, and biological respiration that consumes oxygen. Strong south-westerly winds (the SW monsoon) from June to September drive the relatively low-salinity nutrient-rich surface water from the Arabian Sea/Arabian Gulf (Sea of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz into the central-Arabian Gulf, and this surface current penetration fertilizes the deep central-Arabian Gulf during the summer period. A strong seasonal pycnocline is formed between deeper waters at an ambient temperature of 20.9 °C and surface waters at 31.9 °C. This prevents the mixing of supersaturated O2 (>100-130%) water from the upper layer that would otherwise raise concentrations of dissolved oxygen below the thermocline, thus resulting in deep water hypoxia, i.e. dissolved oxygen levels of less than 0.86 ml L-1 at 17.3% saturation. These are the lowest values ever recorded for the Arabian Gulf. The calculated area of hypoxia is around 7220 square kilometers, and occurs in a layer about ≥15 m thick above the sea floor which extends toward the deep part of the Qatar Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The biological consequences of this hypoxia on the sea floor are yet to be investigated.

  11. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Lecomte-Pradines, C.; Bonzom, J.-M.; Della-Vedova, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Villenave, C.; Gaschak, S.; Coppin, F.; Dubourg, N.; Maksimenko, A.; Adam-Guillermin, C.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2014-01-01

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h −1 . These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h −1 . This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  12. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Lecomte-Pradines, C., E-mail: catherine.lecomte-pradines@irsn.fr [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, 6, rue Frederic Mistral, 84160 Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Villenave, C. [ELISOL Environment, Building 12, Campus de la Gaillarde, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Dubourg, N. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, GARM Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Maksimenko, A. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO, Building 186, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, Building 159, Cadarache 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance cedex (France)

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup −1}. These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H′). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h{sup −1}. This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites

  13. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22–15 μGy h −1 ) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2–29 μGy h −1 ) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150 μGy h −1 . This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. - Highlights: • The effects of radioactivity on ecosystem processes

  14. 77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    2012-02-03

    ...; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection AGENCY... Management Area (BSAI) in the Exclusive Economic Zone under the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the... Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). (a) Requirements. NMFS developed the...

  15. 76 FR 49417 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2011-08-10

    .... 100819383-0386-01] RIN 0648-BA18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited Access Privilege Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). This proposed...

  16. 78 FR 68390 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2013-11-14

    .... 130306200-3200-01] RIN 0648-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) National.... SUMMARY: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 102 to the Fishery Management Plan for...

  17. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    2012-03-09

    .... 110207103-2041-02] RIN 0648-BA80 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY: National Marine... Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection published on February 3, 2012. This...

  18. 76 FR 45219 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2011-07-28

    ...-BA18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... management plan amendment; request for comments. SUMMARY: Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP) would amend the Bering Sea and...

  19. 78 FR 65602 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2013-11-01

    ...-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of fishery management plan amendment; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted...

  20. 76 FR 68354 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2011-11-04

    .... 100819383-1652-02] RIN 0648-BA18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited Access Privilege Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries.... SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations implementing Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish...

  1. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2011-08-04

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program... program for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization... Center Web site at http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/ . For further information on the Crab Rationalization...

  2. 76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    2011-03-29

    .... 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA322 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering... allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow... subpart H of 50 CFR part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2011 initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus...

  3. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    2011-09-07

    .... 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA683 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering... retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  4. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    2011-01-12

    .... 101006495-0498-01] RIN 0648-BA31 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion... 13, 2010, to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that the Bering Sea and... existence of the western distinct population segment of Steller sea lions or adversely modify its designated...

  5. 75 FR 77535 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    2010-12-13

    ... (Steller sea lion sites). A lottery system assigned vessels to platoons that were allowed to fish inside.... 101006495-0498-01] RIN 0648-BA31 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion... sea lion protection measures to insure that the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI...

  6. 78 FR 36122 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2013-06-17

    ... the harvesting and processing sectors'' and to monitor the ``economic stability for harvesters.... 120806311-3530-02] RIN 0648-BC25 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and... Tanner Crabs (FMP). These regulations revise the annual economic data reports (EDRs) currently required...

  7. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    2011-09-28

    .... 101126521-0640-2] RIN 0648-XA733 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering... prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES...

  8. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    2013-09-17

    .... 121018563-3418-02] RIN 0648-XC872 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering... prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES...

  9. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    2010-08-19

    ... 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 rock sole TAC specified for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands ICA... Amendment 80 Allocations of The Aleutian Islands Pacific Ocean Perch, And BSAI Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, And.... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY29 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock...

  10. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    2010-06-03

    .... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XW74 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead... participating in the Amendment 80 limited access fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area... the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish'' fishery category by vessels participating...

  11. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    2011-09-07

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA680 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... fourth seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  12. 76 FR 39794 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    2011-07-07

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA539 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... species catch (PSC) sideboard limit specified for the shallow-water species fishery for catcher/processors...

  13. 77 FR 42193 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    2012-07-18

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-0648-XC112 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... third seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  14. 77 FR 33103 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    2012-06-05

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XC056 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... second seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  15. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    2012-09-06

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XC204 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... fourth seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  16. 75 FR 38938 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Catcher...

    2010-07-07

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XX31 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species fishery for... (PSC) sideboard limit specified for the shallow-water species fishery for catcher/processors subject to...

  17. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    2010-09-07

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY78 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species fishery by... apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water species fishery in the...

  18. 76 FR 57679 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    2011-09-16

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA704 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear... apportionment of the 2011 Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the trawl shallow-water species...

  19. 75 FR 56017 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Vessels Using Trawl...

    2010-09-15

    .... 0910131362-0087-02] RIN 0648-XZ06 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water Species... closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is opening directed fishing for shallow-water species by vessels using trawl gear... of the 2010 Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the trawl shallow-water species fishery...

  20. 77 FR 19146 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    2012-03-30

    .... 111207737-2141-02] RIN 0648-XB122 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species... first seasonal apportionment of the Pacific halibut bycatch allowance specified for the shallow-water...

  1. 77 FR 12213 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species by Amendment 80...

    2012-02-29

    .... 101126522-0640-02] RIN 0648-XB044 Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow- Water...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for species that comprise the shallow-water species fishery by... shallow-water species fishery by Amendment 80 vessels in the GOA has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200...

  2. Bathymetry & Geomorphology - A New Seafloor Mapping of the Israeli Exclusive Economic Zone

    Tibor, G.; Hall, J. K.; Kanari, M.; Sade, R. A.; Sade, H.; Amit, G.; Gur-Arie, L.; Ketter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recent extensive activities of oil and gas exploration and production companies in the Israeli Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) raised the need for an up-to-date baseline mapping of the seafloor to assist policy makers. The baseline mapping focused on bathymetry, geomorphology, geology, biodiversity, infauna and habitat in order to compile a sensitivity map for the Petroleum Commissioner in the Ministry of Energy in the bid for opening the sea to new natural gas and oil explorations. The Israeli EEZ covers an area of 25,950 sq. km. and reaches a maximum water depth of 2,100 m. It is located within the Levantine Basin, a zone of compression and strike-slip tectonics as Africa pushes into Eurasia. These forces operate on a half kilometer thick of Messinian evaporates and over a dozen kilometers of Pliocene and Pleistocene sediments to produce a complex seafloor morphology. The margin is cut by numerous slumps and canyons, while the basin is traversed by deep sea channels emptying into the moat around Eratosthenes Seamount farther north. The bathymetric and geomorphological mapping was done in three phases using Kongsberg and Elac multibeam sonars installed on different research vessels. The last phase (Aug.-Sept., 2016) covering depths from 1,400 to 2,100 m used the Kongsberg EM302 sonar installed on our new governmental research vessel Bat Galim. It has "state of the art" capabilities to map, sample and analyze the water column, seafloor and sub-bottom from water depths of 10m to 7,000 m. These mapping capabilities are unique in our region, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea, so we hope to promote research collaborations with our neighbors.

  3. Helicopter Operations and Personnel Safety (Helirescue Manual). Fourth Edition.

    Dalle-Molle, John

    The illustrated manual includes information on various aspects of helicopter rescue missions, including mission management roles for key personnel, safety rules around helicopters, requests for helicopter support, sample military air support forms, selection of landing zones, helicopter evacuations, rescuer delivery, passenger unloading, crash…

  4. Uav-Based Detection of Unknown Radioactive Biomass Deposits in Chernobyl's Exclusion Zone

    Briechle, S.; Sizov, A.; Tretyak, O.; Antropov, V.; Molitor, N.; Krzystek, P.

    2018-05-01

    Shortly after the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) in 1986, radioactive fall-out and contaminated trees (socalled Red Forest) were buried in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). These days, exact locations of the buried contaminated material are needed. Moreover, 3D vegetation maps are necessary to simulate the impact of tornados and forest fire. After 30 years, some of the so-called trenches and clamps are visible. However, some of them are overgrown and have slightly settled in the centimeter and decimeter range. This paper presents a pipeline that comprises 3D vegetation mapping and machine learning methods to precisely map trenches and clamps from remote sensing data. The dataset for our experiments consists of UAV-based LiDAR data, multi-spectral data, and aerial gamma-spectrometry data. Depending on the study areas overall accuracies ranging from 95.6 % to 99.0 % were reached for the classification of radioactive deposits. Our first results demonstrate an accurate and reliable UAV-based detection of unknown radioactive biomass deposits in the ChEZ.

  5. UAV-BASED DETECTION OF UNKNOWN RADIOACTIVE BIOMASS DEPOSITS IN CHERNOBYL’S EXCLUSION ZONE

    S. Briechle

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shortly after the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP in 1986, radioactive fall-out and contaminated trees (socalled Red Forest were buried in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ. These days, exact locations of the buried contaminated material are needed. Moreover, 3D vegetation maps are necessary to simulate the impact of tornados and forest fire. After 30 years, some of the so-called trenches and clamps are visible. However, some of them are overgrown and have slightly settled in the centimeter and decimeter range. This paper presents a pipeline that comprises 3D vegetation mapping and machine learning methods to precisely map trenches and clamps from remote sensing data. The dataset for our experiments consists of UAV-based LiDAR data, multi-spectral data, and aerial gamma-spectrometry data. Depending on the study areas overall accuracies ranging from 95.6 % to 99.0 % were reached for the classification of radioactive deposits. Our first results demonstrate an accurate and reliable UAV-based detection of unknown radioactive biomass deposits in the ChEZ.

  6. Checklist of Gastropods from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Morni, Wan Zabidii Wan; Rahim, Siti Akmar Khadijah Ab; Rumpet, Richard; Musel, Jamil; Hassan, Ruhana

    2017-01-01

    This study provides the first marine gastropod checklist from the Sarawak Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Gastropod samples were collected from selected stations in the Sarawak EEZ using an otter trawl net with a stretched mesh size of 38 mm at the cod end. The trawling operations were conducted more than 12 nautical miles from the coast, and the area was divided into three depth strata: I) 20-50 m, II) 50-100 m and III) 100-200 m. A total of 23 gastropod species were identified during the two-month sampling period from 16 August until 6 October 2015, representing 8 superfamilies, 15 families and 20 genera. Superfamily Tonnoidea was represented by 7 species, followed by Muricoidea (5 species), Cypraeoidea (4 species), and Buccinoidea and Conoidea (both with 2 species). Other superfamilies were represented by a single species. Only 3 species were obtained in 2 depth strata, namely Melo melo , Murex aduncospinosus and Tonna galea . In addition, 9, 13 and 4 species of gastropods were found in strata I, II and III, respectively. The information on gastropod distributions at different depth strata in the Sarawak EEZ could be useful in updating the Malaysian species diversity database.

  7. SEEKING AND EVALUATING THE REGULATIONS OF INDONESIA’S EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE

    Ida Kurnia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Regulation is the cornerstone for utilizing marine fisheries resources, and thus Indonesian Government had implemented its Constitution as basic laws and rules. Those regulations need further elaboration. Therefore, Indonesian Government established sets of laws related to the utilization of marine fisheries resources, and in its implementation, those laws and regulations should never deviate from the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. The utilization of marine fisheries resources in Indonesia’s Exclusive Economic Zone enables the possibility of cooperation and colaboration with other countries. Therefore, Indonesia is required to seek by evaluating and complementing the laws in accordance with its Constitution. Pengaturan merupakan landasan utama pemanfaatan sumber daya perikanan, Indonesia telah menyiapkan aturan dasar yaitu Landasan Konstitusional. Pengaturan tersebut perlu penjabaran lebih lanjut. Oleh karena itu Indonesia membentuk aturan-aturan yang terkait dengan pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan dan dalam implementasinya aturan tersebut tidak boleh menyimpang dari aturan yang paling dasar. Pemanfaatan sumber daya ikan di Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif adalah pemanfaatan yang memungkinkan adanya pemanfaatan berbagi dengan negara lain maka Indonesia dituntut untuk segera dapat mencari dengan cara mengevaluasi dan melengkapi aturan sesuai dengan Landasan Konstitusional.

  8. Soil nematode assemblages as bioindicators of radiation impact in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Lecomte-Pradines, C; Bonzom, J-M; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Villenave, C; Gaschak, S; Coppin, F; Dubourg, N; Maksimenko, A; Adam-Guillermin, C; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2014-08-15

    In radioecology, the need to understand the long-term ecological effects of radioactive contamination has been emphasised. This requires that the health of field populations is evaluated and linked to an accurate estimate of received radiological dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of current radioactive contamination on nematode assemblages at sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. First, we estimated the total dose rates (TDRs) absorbed by nematodes, from measured current soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs, calculated using EDEN software) and soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). The impact of current TDRs on nematode assemblages was then evaluated. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) with external gamma dose rates, measured using radiophotoluminescent dosimeters, varying from 0.2 to 22 μGy h(-1). These values were one order of magnitude below the TDRs. A majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal-feeding nematodes and very few of the disturbance sensitive families were identified. No statistically significant association was observed between TDR values and nematode total abundance or the Shannon diversity index (H'). The Nematode Channel Ratio (which defines the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR, suggesting that radioactive contamination may influence nematode assemblages either directly or indirectly by modifying their food resources. A greater Maturity Index (MI), usually characterising better soil quality, was associated with higher pH and TDR values. These results suggest that in the CEZ, nematode assemblages from the forest sites were slightly impacted by chronic exposure at a predicted TDR of 200 μGy h(-1). This may be imputable to a dominant proportion of pollutant resistant nematodes in all sites. This might

  9. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22-15μGyh(-1)) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2-29μGyh(-1)) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150μGyh(-1). This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The infection of questing Dermacentor reticulatus ticks with Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Vichová, Bronislavá; Slivinska, Kateryna; Werszko, Joanna; Didyk, Julia; Peťko, Branislav; Stanko, Michal; Akimov, Igor

    2014-08-29

    Tick occurrence was studied in the Chernobyl exclusion zone (CEZ) during the August-October 2009-2012. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected using the flagging method and then screened for infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis by a PCR method incorporating specific primers and sequence analysis. The prevalence of infection with B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum was found to be 3.41% and 25.36%, respectively. The results present the first evidence of B. canis canis and A. phagocytophilum in questing D. reticulatus ticks from the Chernobyl exclusion zone. They also reveal the presence of tick-borne disease foci in areas with no human activity, and confirm that they can be maintained in areas after a nuclear disaster with radioactive contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi from the Chernobyl exclusion zone and their possible influence to the accumulation of radionuclides byplants

    Kripka, A.V.; Kuchma, A.N.; Sorochinskij, B.V.

    2002-01-01

    More then 30 plants species from the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been analyzed and plant samples with high level of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) colonization were selected. Spores of AM fungi have isolated from the rhizosphere of those plants, which had high accumulation abilities related to the radionuclides and were high AM colonized as well. These AM spores are used to produce inocula in order of it's forthcoming application in the phytoremediation activity

  12. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Gudkov, D I; Shevtsova, N L; Pomortseva, N A; Dzyubenko, E V; Kaglyan, A E; Nazarov, A B

    2016-01-01

    During 1998-2014 the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis) and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the adult snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) was studied. The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the EZ registered in a range from 0.25 to 420 μGy h(-1) and in the reference ones - up to 0.09 μGy h(-1). The level of chromosomal aberrations in the molluscs from the most contaminated water bodies of the EZ was registered within range of 18-27% and for the molluscs from the reference lakes this index was on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants from the contaminated lakes of the EZ was in range of 7-17% and in the plants from reference water bodies was not exceed 2.1%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snail's embryos and root meristems of higher aquatic plants in water bodies of the EZ was registered. Analysis of hemolymph structure of snails from the most contaminated water bodies showed a high rate of dead and phagocytic cells as well as decrease of the young amoebocytes quantity. Hematologic research of fish allows to determine on the one hand an insignificant changes of leukogram structure, and from the other hand a high level of red cells with different abnormalities in the peripheral blood of fishes from the water bodies with high levels of radioactive contamination. It is suppose that qualitative indexes of red cells in peripheral blood of fish are more sensitive to long-term radiation impact in comparison with elements of white blood, which can be used for conducting of the hematologic monitoring of radioactive contaminated water bodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytogenetical and haematological studies of hydrobionts within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone

    Gudkov, Dmitri; Dzyubenko, Elena; Shevtsova, Natalia; Nurgudin, Marat

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We studied the cytogenetic effects in embryo tissue of gastropod snails and in root meristem of higher aquatic plants as chromosome aberration rate and reaction of snails on unfavorable condition of environment as change of structure, level of differentiation, death and cytogenetic stability of hemo lymph cell population. Our researches were carried out during 1999-2007. The water bodies of research were Azbuchin Lake, Yanovsky Crawl, Dalekoye Lake, Glubokoye Lake as well as Uzh River and Pripyat River within the Chernobyl accident exclusion zone. The results of the analyses compared to the data received for hydrobionts from control lakes, located within the Kiev City area. The absorbed dose rate registered in range from 1.3 mGy/year to 3.4 Gy/year. The highest rate was found in Dalekoye and Glubokoye lakes, the lowest - in the Pripyat River and Uzh River. Hydrobionts from the control lakes were characterized by absorbed dose rate about 0.3 mGy/year The rate of chromosome aberration for snails from the control lakes was about 1.1-2.0 percent. About 3.3 and 5.7 % of aberrant cells was registered in snail's embryo from the Pripyat and Uzh rivers respectively. The highest rate of aberration was found in snails from lakes within the dammed territory on the left-bank flood lands of the Pripyat River (Dalekoye-1 Lake and Glubokoye Lake) - 21-23 %. In the embryo tissue of snails from Yanovsky Crawl chromosome aberration rate was about 18 % and in Azbuchin Lake - about 20 %. The highest chromosome aberrations rate in root meristems (17.8-10.8 %) were registered in plants from lakes within the left-bank flood lands of the Pripyat River, the lowest one (4.5-2.2 %) - in plants from the Pripyat and Uzh rivers. In hemo lymph of snails from Dalekoye-1 Lake, Azbuchin Lake and Glubokoye Lake the quantity of death cells averages 36.2 %, 39.2 % and 43.8 % respectively, the part of phagocytic cells averages 44.3 %, 41.2 % and 45.0 %, as well as decrease of the young

  14. Uptake of americium-241 by plants from contaminated Chernobyl exclusive zone test site soils

    Rashydov, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    Americium-241 was found to accumulate in soils and biological objects of the environment. Its concentration has increased many times after the Chernobyl disaster and can be expected to increase about 40 times in the future. This research concentrated on the contaminated exclusive Chernobyl zone polluted by trace radionuclides, their behavior and accumulation by various plant species. Special attention is devoted to the bioavailability of 241 Am to the plants Galium rivale, G. tinctorium, G. aparine, G. intermedium, Berteroa incana, Artemisia absinthium, A. vulgaris, Centaurea borysthenica, C. arenaria, Cirsium arvense, Succissa pratensis, Solidago virgaurea, Linaria vulgaris, Lepidium ruderale, Stenactis annua, Veronica maxima, Verbascum lychnitis, Euphorbia cyparissias, Genista tinctoria, Erigeron canadensis, Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur, which were collected from the Chernobyl, Kopachi, and Yanov districts. The plant samples of Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur were collected from the Yanov district, where the soil contamination by 241 Am and 137 Cs was at the level of 660 and 27 MBq/m 2 , respectively. Gamma spectroscopy and radiochemical methods were used to estimate the activity concentration of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am. The radionuclides were measured in the dry green mass of the plant samples and in the dry soils. The contamination of the Oenothera biennis, Betula pendula and Quercus robur samples by 137 Cs was (5.8±1,5)x10 6 , (7.4±1.1)x10 5 , and (2.6±0.2)x10 6 Bq/kg dry mass, respectively, and contamination by 241 Am was 47±5, 45±3 and 3.2±0.2 Bq/kg, respectively. The soil-to-plant transfer ratio for 137 Cs ranged lay within the interval of 0.2 to 0.03 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 , the the transfer ratio for 241 Am did not exceed 7x10 -5 Bq/kg : Bq/m 2 . The coefficient of the relative contents of the 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu radionuclides in the various plant samples varied from 3.2 to 8.3, while for soil from

  15. Entry into the nuclear pore complex is controlled by a cytoplasmic exclusion zone containing dynamic GLFG-repeat nucleoporin domains.

    Fiserova, Jindriska; Spink, Matthew; Richards, Shane A; Saunter, Christopher; Goldberg, Martin W

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate nucleocytoplasmic movement. The central channel contains proteins with phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeats, or variations (GLFG, glycine-leucine-phenylalanine-glycine). These are 'intrinsically disordered' and often represent weak interaction sites that become ordered upon interaction. We investigated this possibility during nuclear transport. Using electron microscopy of S. cerevisiae, we show that NPC cytoplasmic filaments form a dome-shaped structure enclosing GLFG domains. GLFG domains extend out of this structure and are part of an 'exclusion zone' that might act as a partial barrier to entry of transport-inert proteins. The anchor domain of a GLFG nucleoporin locates exclusively to the central channel. By contrast, the localisation of the GLFG domains varied between NPCs and could be cytoplasmic, central or nucleoplasmic and could stretch up to 80 nm. These results suggest a dynamic exchange between ordered and disordered states. In contrast to diffusion through the NPC, transport cargoes passed through the exclusion zone and accumulated near the central plane. We also show that movement of cargo through the NPC is accompanied by relocation of GLFG domains, suggesting that binding, restructuring and movement of these domains could be part of the translocation mechanism.

  16. Radiation-induced cytogenetic and hematologic effects on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Shevtsova, Natalia L.; Pomortseva, Natalia A.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Dzyubenko, Elena V. [G. Skovoroda Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk State Teacher Training University, Sukhomlinskogo Str. 30, UA-08401 Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsk (Ukraine); Rodionova, Natalia K. [R.E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, Vasilkovskaya Str. 45, UA-04073 Kiev (Ukraine); Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    During 1998-2013 we studied the rate of chromosomal aberrations in embryo tissues of the pond snails and root meristems of higher aquatic plants, and also hematologic indexes of mantle liquid of the snails and peripheral blood of fishes in water bodies with different levels of radioactive contamination within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ). The absorbed dose rate for hydrobionts from water bodies of the ChEZ during the period of researches registered in a range of 4.6.10{sup -3} - 3.4 Gy year{sup -1}, and in the control water bodies - up to 1.7.10{sup -3} Gy year{sup -1}. Cytogenetic analysis of embryos of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis testifies the increased level of chromosomal aberrations in the mollusks from stagnant water bodies of the ChEZ in comparison with control reservoirs. During the period of studies the highest values were registered for the snails of closed reservoirs of the ChEZ (Glubokoye Lake, Dalyokoe Lake, Azbuchin Lake etc.) where the rate of chromosomal aberrations was registered within range of 18-27%, that on the average more than in 10 times exceeds the spontaneous mutagenesis level for aquatic species. The pond snails of river ecosystems were characterized by the low level of aberrant cells - 2.5-3.5%. For the mollusks from the control lakes this index was reached on the average 1.5% with the maximal values 2.3%. The positive correlation between chromosomal aberration rate and absorbed dose rate in the pond snails' embryos in water bodies of the ChEZ was registered. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of higher aquatic plants (Phragmites australis, Stratiotes aloides, Glyceria maxima, Butomus umbellatus, Sparganium erectum and Sagittaria sagittifolia) from the most contaminated lakes of the ChEZ was in range of 7-17%. In the plants of rivers this index was on the average 3.5-5.0%, and was not exceed 2.6% in control water bodies. Thus, the rate of chromosomal aberrations in hydrobionts of the stagnant

  17. First use of soil nematode communities as bioindicator of radiation impact in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Lecomte, C.; Bonzom, J.M.; Adam-Guillermin, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LECO (France); Della-Vedova, C. [Magelis, Cadenet (France); Beaugelin-Seiller, K. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, LM2E (France); Gaschak, S. [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear safety, Radioactive waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory (Ukraine); Coppin, F. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS, L2BT (France); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS (France)

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effects of former radioactive contamination on the structure of the nematode community in sites affected by the fallout from the Chernobyl accident that occurred on 26, April 1986. Nematodes were collected in spring 2011 from 18 forest sites of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). The external gamma dose rates, measured from radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPL) varied from 0.2 to 22 μGy h{sup -1} between sites. In parallel, the Total dose rates (TDR) absorbed by nematodes were predicted from measured soil activity concentrations, Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCC, calculated by the EDEN software) and Soil-to-biota concentration ratios (from the ERICA tool database). Results showed that TDR were one order of magnitude above the external gamma dose rate measured from RPL. This is mainly due to the contribution of alpha ({sup 241}Am,{sup 238,239,240}Pu) and beta ({sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs) emitters in the external dose rate. The small size (in the order of mm) of nematodes promoted a high energy deposition throughout the organisms without fading, giving more weight to external dose rate induced by alpha-and beta-emitters, relatively to gamma-emitters. Analysis of the nematode community showed a majority of bacterial-, plant-, and fungal- feeder nematodes and almost none of the disturbance sensitive families whatever the level of radioactive contamination. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish relationships between ecological features (nematodes abundance and family diversity, indices of ecosystem structure and function) to the environmental characteristics (TDR and soil physico-chemical properties). No evidence was found that nematode total abundance and family diversity were impaired by the radiological contamination. However, the Nematode Channel Ratio (defining the relative abundance of bacterial- versus fungal-feeding nematodes) decreased significantly with increasing TDR suggesting that the radioactive

  18. Current levels and trends of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystem components in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Gudkov, Dmitri I.; Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Ganzha, Kristina D.; Klenus, Vasiliy G. [Institute of Hydrobiology, Geroyev Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA-04210 Kiev (Ukraine); Kireev, Sergey I.; Nazarov, Alexander B. [Chernobyl Specialized Enterprise, Radyanska Str. 70, UA-07270 Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The current radiation level and its composition in aquatic ecosystems within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) are conditioned, above all things, by the amount of radioactive matters released as aerosols on a water surface and adjacent territories during the period of the active phase of the accident from destroyed of the Chernobyl NPP in 1986, and also by intensity and duration of the second processes of radionuclides washout from the catchment areas and hydrodynamic processes of their transport outside of water bodies. During last 10-15 years in the soils of the ChEZ the tendency of increase of yield of the mobile bioavailable forms of radionuclides, which released into hydrological systems with surface and ground waters or localized in the closed water systems, where quickly involving in the biotic cycle is marked. On the example of lakes of the Krasnensky flood plain of the Pripyat River, which is one of the most contaminated by radionuclides territory of the ChEZ, was determined that the basic amount of radionuclides in lake ecosystem is deposited in the bottom sediments: {sup 90}Sr - 89-95%, {sup 137}Cs - 99%, transuranium elements (TUE) {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am - almost 100% of the total radionuclide amount in ecosystem. The increased migration activity of {sup 90}Sr determines its more high quantity in water (4-10%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.5-0.6%) and TUE (0.03-0.04%) and, opposite, less - in seston (0.15-0.16%) on comparison with {sup 137}Cs (0.25-0.30%). The value of {sup 90}Sr in biotic component amounts 0.25-0.61%, {sup 137}Cs - 0.14-0.47% and TUE - 0.07-0.16% of the total quantity in ecosystem. The gradual decline of radionuclide specific activity is a dominant tendency in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in water and aquatic biota of the majority of reservoirs and water flow in the ChEZ. The exception is water bodies, located on the dammed territories of the Krasnensky flood plain, where at the proceeding

  19. Effect of Buffers on Aqueous Solute-Exclusion Zones around Ion-Exchange Resins

    Zheng, Jian-ming; Wexler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Interaction between charged surfaces in aqueous solution is a fundamental feature of colloid science. Theoretically, surface potential falls to half its value at a distance equal to a Debye length, which is typically on the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers. This potential prevents colloids from aggregating. On the other hand, long-range surface effects have been frequently reported. Here we report additional long-range effects. We find that charged latex particles in buffer solutions are uniformly excluded from several-hundred-micron-thick shells surrounding ion-exchange beads. Exclusion is observed whether the beads are charged similarly or oppositely to the particles. Hence, electrostatic interactions between bead and microsphere do not cause particle exclusion. Rather, exclusion may be the consequence of water molecules re-orienting to produce a more ordered structure, which then excludes the particles. PMID:19185312

  20. The influence of background radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone on morphofunctional state and antitumor resistance of laboratory animals and their descendants

    Savin, A. O.; Sushko, S. N.; Kadukova, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the work is defined the consequences of prolonged exposure of laboratory mice Af their exposure in the Chernobyl exclusion zone on the spontaneous and chemically induced mutagenesis and changes in the blood cells. (authors)

  1. Using GIS to evaluate the impact of exclusion zones on the connection cost of wave energy to the electricity grid

    Prest, Robert; Daniell, Trevor; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2007-01-01

    An increase in the planning and environmental restrictions associated with wind energy has led to a growth in interest towards wave energy. However, as the connection cost of a wave energy development is a driving factor in the development's feasibility, existing wind farm cable-routing techniques used by renewable energy developers may not be satisfactory. A Geographical Information System (GIS) method is presented which optimises the cable route between a wave farm and the electricity network, while taking a range of exclusion zones, such as native vegetation, into account. The optimisation is presented for a South Australian study area, which subsequently showed that exclusion zones reduce the number of suitable locations for wave energy by almost 40%. The method presented also assesses the effect that each exclusion zone applied has upon the number of suitable locations within the study area. The analysis undertaken showed that National Parks and cliffs pose a significant limitation to the potential of a wave energy industry within South Australia. Allowing the transmission route to travel through a National Park, or traverse a cliff, resulted in an increase in the number of locations from which a connection could be made to the electricity grid for less than $10 million of 33% and 50%, respectively. Conservation Parks, Wilderness Areas and native vegetation also have an effect upon the number of suitable locations for wave energy within South Australia. The GIS methods developed may be of assistance to governments in setting appropriate marine renewable energy policy, and also in identifying existing policy which may require amending if the government wishes to pursue and support the development of wave energy

  2. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  3. Vertical Migration of Radionuclides in Soils on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Exclusion Zone (1987-2007)

    Jannik, G. T.; Ivanov, Y. A.; Kashparov, V. A.; Levchuk, S. E.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 1986-1987, a set of experimental sites for studies of vertical migration of radionuclides released from the ChNPP was established in the ChNPP Exclusion Zone for various fallout plumes. The sites were selected considering local terrain and geo-chemical conditions, as well as physical and chemical characteristics of the fallout. The experimental sites included grasslands, and pre-Chernobyl cultivated meadows and croplands. Vertical migration of radionuclides in the ChNPP Exclusion Zone grasslands was evaluated. Parameters of 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239,240Pu transfer were calculated and the periods during which these radionuclides reach their ecological half-life in the upper 5 cm soil layer were estimated. Migration capabilities of these radionuclides in the grassland soils tend to decrease as follows: 90Sr >137Cs ≥ 239,240Pu. A significant retardation of the 137Cs vertical migration was shown in the grasslands long after the Chernobyl accident. During the 21st year after the fallout, average Tecol values for 137Cs (the period of time it takes in the environment for 137Cs to reach half the value of its original concentration in the upper 5 cm soil layer, regardless of physical decay) are as follows: 180 - 320 years for grassland containing automorphous mineral soils of a light granulometric composition; and 90 - 100 years for grassland containing hydromorphous organogenic soils. These values are significantly higher than those estimated for the period of 6-9 years after the fallout: 60 - 150 years and 11 - 20 years, respectively. The absolute 137Cs Tecol values are by factors of 3-7 higher than 137Cs radiological decay values long after the accident. Changes in the exposure dose resulting from the soil deposited 137Cs only depend on its radiological decay. This factor should necessarily be considered for development of predictive assessments, including dose exposures for the hypothetical population in case of their re-evacuation to the exclusion areas. The obtained

  4. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  5. Distribution of 210Pb activity concentrations in marine surface sediments within East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    A sampling expedition into the East Coast Peninsula Malaysia Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was carried in June 2008. Marine surface sediment samples were taken and the activity concentrations of 210 Pb have been determined. Its distribution was plotted and the findings show that the activity concentrations decline from north to south. On the other hand, the activity concentrations are increasing from west to east right to the edge of the EEZ. The highest activity concentrations were found to be near offshore oil platforms. The 210 Pb activity concentrations were found to be in the range of 18.3 - 123.1 Bq/ kg. (author)

  6. Evaluating 90Sr and 137Cs accumulation by structural elements of exclusion zone's vegetative communities of meadow and lea land

    Paskevich, S.A.; Petrov, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Biogenic carry-over of 90 Sr and 137 Cs by structural elements of exclusion zone's meadows and lea land phytocenosis is considered. Quantitative parameters of radionuclide accumulation are evaluated in substrate and live biomass of communities growing under various ecological conditions. It was stated that accumulation levels for ground biomass of communities depends, at a significant rate, on landscape growing conditions. These values fluctuate within the range of around 100 times. For 90 Sr, significantly lower difference in carry-over values was observed totaling up to 5 times, although for single community, this radionuclide carry-over exceeds essentially 137 Cs carry-over

  7. Comparative estimation of radioecological significance of natural and technogenic objects of exclusion zone

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Kazakov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Stocks of radionuclides in natural and technogenic objects of a Zone (forests, meadows, former agricultural lands, water objects etc., object 'Shelter', Sites of Radioactive Waste Disposal (SRAWD) and Sites of Temporary Localization of Radioactive Waste (STLRAW)) are estimated. The estimations of fluxes of radionuclides both inside a Zone and out of its borders in normal conditions as well as in case of different natural and technogenic cataclysms (floods, fires, emergencies etc.) with account of probabilities of such events are discussed. The significance of the main fluxes of radionuclide migration beyond the Zone borders is estimated: a surface water flux (river Pripyat), air (wind) transfer, biogenic flux, technogenic migration. The significance of the non-radiological factors influenced on the ecological situation in a Zone (phyto-and zoosanitary, sanitary-epidemiological conditions) is discussed. The problems of irradiation of vegetation and animal organisms in terrestrial and water ecosystems, of personnel and people living on a Zone territory without permission (so called 'self-settlers') are considered. The priority directions of activities for control over the radiological and ecological situation on the territory and in objects of a Zone are formulated. (author)

  8. Trapping and exclusion zones in complex streaming patterns around a large assembly of microfluidic bubbles under ultrasound

    Combriat, Thomas; Mekki-Berrada, Flore; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Pulsating bubbles have proved to be a versatile tool for trapping and sorting particles. In this article, we investigate the different streaming patterns that can be obtained with a group of bubbles in a confined geometry under ultrasound. In the presence of an external flow strong enough to oppose the streaming velocities but not drag the trapped bubbles, we observe either the appearance of exclusion zones near the bubbles or asymmetric streaming patterns that we interpret as the superposition of a two-dimensional (2D) streaming function and of a potential flow. When studying a lattice of several bubbles, we show that the streaming pattern can be accurately predicted by superimposing the contributions of every pair of bubbles present in the lattice, thus allowing one to predict the sizes and the shapes of exclusion zones created by a group of bubbles under acoustic excitation. We suggest that such systems could be used to enhance mixing at a small scale or to catch and release chemical species initially trapped in vortices created around bubble pairs.

  9. Seasonal distribution of chlorophyll-a in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India

    Sarupria, J.S.; Bhargava, R.M.S.

    measonal distribution of chlorophyll-a (chl-a)) in the different sectors of the EEZ of India was studied based on data from 430 stations over the period from 1962 to 1988. The annual average chl-a for the entire euphotic zone of EEZ was 12.0 mg m...

  10. Airborne gamma spectrometric survey in the Chernobyl exclusion zone based on oktokopter UAV type

    Zabulonov, Yu.L.; Burtnyak, V.M.; Zolkin, I.O.

    2015-01-01

    The results of field studies of radioactive contamination condition of RWTSP ''Red Forest'' and ''Neftebaza'' in the Chernobyl zone, obtained by the authors in June 2015 are represented. The technique of detection of local inhomogeneities on the soil surface without contrasting borders by airborne gamma spectrometry from the board of oktokopter UAV type is worked through. The technique of searching and contouring of hidden burial of radioactive waste is practiced

  11. Using helicopter TEM to delineate fresh water and salt water zones in the aquifer beneath the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Kgotlhang, Lesego

    2017-09-01

    The Okavango Delta is a vast wetland wilderness in the middle of the Kalahari Desert of Botswana. It is a largely closed hydrological system with most water leaving the delta by evapotranspiration. In spite of this, the channels and swamps of the delta remain surprisingly low in salinity. To help understand the hydrological processes at work, we reanalyzed a previous inversion of data collected from a helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) survey of the entire delta and performed an inversion of a high resolution dataset recorded during the same survey. Our results show widespread infiltration of fresh water to as much as ∼200 m depth into the regional saline aquifer. Beneath the western delta, freshwater infiltration extends to only about 80 m depth. Hydrological modeling with SEAWAT confirms that this may be due to rebound of the regional saltwater-freshwater interface following the cessation of surface flooding over this part of the delta in the 1880s. Our resistivity models also provide evidence for active and inactive saltwater fingers to as much as ∼100 m beneath islands. These results demonstrate the great extent of freshwater infiltration across the delta and also show that all vegetated areas along the delta's channels and swamps are potential locations for transferring solutes from surface water to an aquifer at depth.

  12. Complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    Bondarenko, Oleg; Fadeev, Mykhaylo; Kireev, Serhiy; Proskura, Mykola

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this work a general procedure of establishment the criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of alone areas of the Chornobyl exclusion zone is represented by the following three stages, namely: 1) Justification of the dose criterion of complete release by applying the fundamental approaches of regulating the prolonged exposure of the public on a basement of ICRP Publication No. 82; 2) Justification of a procedure for establishment of dose constraint through evaluation of the statistical distribution of a controlled radiation value through determination of the high boundary of the confidence interval; 3) Generalization of conversion coefficients (via the density of radioactive contamination of soil) and coverage coefficients for the dose forming factors of the public (inhalation intake of transuranium radionuclides both at natural and technogenic dust resuspension, peroral intake of 137 Cs and 90 Sr via food stuff, external exposure from 137 Cs); on a basis of these coefficients average doses and dose constraint of a critical group of the public are calculated. As it is shown in the work, the generalized criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone can be defined by dividing the recommended ICRP dose clearance level for situation of the post-accidental prolonged exposure of a critical group of the public, namely, 0.3 mSv·year -1 to the dose conversion coefficient (i.e. transfer from the superficial soil contamination of radioactivity to the dose constraint for the Chornobyl exclusion zone), namely, 12.9 μSv·year -1 /((kBq·M -2 ). Thus, a level of the density of radioactive contamination of soil, that provides the complete release from regulatory control makes 23.3 kBq·M -2 . For completion of the work on justification of the criterion of complete territory release in the conditions of

  13. Feeding of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident in the territory of Ukraine

    Petrov, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations of seasonal feed choice of a wild boar have been carried out during a 3-year period on the basis of the stomach content. Results of the investigations are given. A list of forage plants and forage animals is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is evaluated. Main plant assemblages of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident are analyzed for their significance in the diet of a wild boar. Special attention is paid to the role of underground forage (35% of average annual forage), and to consumption of Oenotera biennis roots comprising 26% of average annual forage. Recent state of the forage base and of the wild boar population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  14. The taxation jurisdiction of the ISSQN in the exclusive economic zone; A competencia tributaria do ISSQN na zona economica exclusiva

    Raposo, Rodrigo Luis Keller [Keller Raposo Escritorio Juridico, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The oil and natural gas exploitation in the Exclusive Economic Zone will propel the economy of the country, states and municipalities, due to tax revenues, jobs creation. It will also attract new businesses needed to support all the demand created by the main service and correlates. The Tax Service, under the municipal jurisdiction, is a major source of revenue. As the services are performed on the high seas and there is no law to regulate the territorial extent of each municipality, it can be argued that certain Artificial Island (oil platform, for example) is located within the extension of municipal sovereignty, which will allow the ISS taxation, problems will arise. This paper addresses these problems. (author)

  15. Basis for a valuation of the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea: Rationale and quest for tools

    Jan Marcin Węsławski

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current knowledge of goods and servicesin the Polish Exclusive Economic Zone of the Baltic Sea ecosystem.It reviews specific properties of the Baltic that could be usedfor economic valuation. Goods and services range from the familiarresources of fish and minerals, which were valued with the ProductivityMethod, to less obvious services provided by the ecosystem suchas biofiltration in coastal sands, valued with either the ReplacementCost or Damage Cost Avoided methods. Disservices to the marineecosystem are also considered, e.g. erosion and coastal flooding,including the costs of planned mitigating measures. This paperemphasises the importance of using valuation methods to helpmake better-educated decisions for the sustainability of theBaltic Sea.

  16. Development of the complex atlas of cartographic materials for the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Davydchuk, V.S.; Nagorsky, V.A.; Proskura, N.I.; Holosha, V.I.; Rudenko, Y.F.; Onischenko, I.P.; Francevych, L.I.

    1997-01-01

    Chernobyl alienated zone (ChAZ) at present and in the visible future, being potentially dangerous territory for the inhabitants of Ukraine, still more or less actively utilized for industrial needs, and represents itself the unique polygon for the accomplishment of the complex diverse investigations aiming at the studies in different media of the processes and regularities, caused by the nuclear accident and by cessation of the intense economical utilization of the territory, as well as at the development of various measures concerning rehabilitation of different objects, areas, biosphere and a man himself. The maps are one of the most effective and systematically organized methods of depicting accumulated knowledge about the structure and processes in separate media. The complex cartographic analysis of these consequences could be properly accomplished only on the basis of revealing and regarding the environmental elements structure regularities and processes intrinsic for them and for the medium as a whole

  17. Delimitation of the continental shelf and exclusive economic Zone the Sea Border between Romania and Ukraine

    Mihai Mereuţă

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision I.C.J. from The Hague, since 3rd February 2009, in the case of “Romania vs. Ukraine - the maritime delimitation in the Black Sea”, has an important role in bilateral relations and regional plans of the riparian states and thus also eliminating a potential factor of instability at the sea border between the two countries and in the Black Sea. Drawing a line of demarcation equitable maritime economic zone and continental shelf between the two countries was an example of dispute settlement in the wider Black Sea area. Snake Island was not considered relevant in substantiating the court decision, because the I.C.J. has not declared it a rock, giving it a length of 12 nautical miles territorial sea and has not ruled on the nature of this formation, in accordance with the provisions of art. 121 of the Montego Bay Convention of 1982.

  18. Feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident

    Petrov, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Seasonal feed choice of a roe deer for a 3-year period has been investigated on the basis of the rumen content analysis. Results of the investigation are given. A list of 125 species of forage plants is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is characterized. Significance of main plant assemblages of the evacuated zone of Chernobyl in the diet of the animal population is elucidated. Special attention is paid to the role of the above-ground parts of Oenotera biennis that comprise 34% of the average annual forage of roe deer and are consumed by the animal during 9-10 months. Recent state of the forage base of the population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  19. Radioactivity in the Exclusive Economic Zone of east coast Peninsular Malaysia. Distribution trends of 137Cs in surface seawater

    Zaharudin Ahmad; Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Hidayah Shahar; Mei Wo Yii; Ahmad Sanadi Abu Bakar

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected from thirty locations in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the east coast Peninsular Malaysia on June 2008 to study the activity concentrations of 137 Cs. The results will serve as additional information to the existing baseline data and is very useful for monitoring fresh input of anthropogenic radionuclide into Malaysian marine environment. In this study, the activity concentrations of 137 Cs were determined using co-precipitation technique, followed by Gamma Spectrometry measurement. The mean activity concentration of 137 Cs ranged between 3.40 and 5.89 Bq/m 3 . Higher activity concentrations were observed at the coastal and towards the south of Peninsular Malaysia and were aligned with the high turbidity. These may due to the rapid diffusion of 137 Cs from suspended particulates and fine sediments into surface seawater. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs observed in this study were slightly higher than the concentrations reported in seawater at the Straits of Malacca, Vietnam and Philippines. This might be because the study area received more input of 137 Cs that originated from global fallout and then deposited on land which later being transported subsequently into the coastal zone due to siltation and erosion processes. It could also be attributed to the intrusion of river waters containing higher concentrations of 137 Cs. (author)

  20. Sexual function of male rats exposed to the factors of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Karpenko, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Using sexually active rats for experiments the influence of chronic combined internal and external irradiation at low doses on sexual behavior and fertility of sexual active animals keeping within the 30-km Chernobyl external zone studied. After the 1.5 month consumption of drinking water containing radionuclides of natural Chernobyl spectrum the decrease in proportion of sexually active animals and suppression sexual motivation and erection were observed. This deviations resulted in the reducing of the inseminated females number. Dependence between the magnitude of total absorbed dose and the function of the sexual behavior regulatory mechanisms was obtained. In addition, the reduction of rat fertility took place because of the increase of preimplantation, but not post-implantation death in clean females coupled with irradiated males. Irradiation of males at total absorbed dose to gonads 0.23 c Gy decreased the fertility because of sexual behavior disturbance, and this effect was intensified by negative influence of ionizing radiation in the range of 0.7-7.0 c Gy on male gametes [ru

  1. Scenarios of radiological impacts in the long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste disposal at the Vector Site located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Rybalka, N.; Mykolaichuk, O. [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Alekseeva, Z.; Kondratiev, S.; Nikolaev, E. [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine, at the Vector site in the Chernobyl exclusion zone, it is planned to dispose of large amounts of radioactive wastes, including those of Chernobyl origin, containing transuranium elements. The paper analyzes the main possible scenarios of radiological impacts of the Vector site for a long-term period after expiration of its active administrative control taking into account location of the Vector site in the exclusion zone. In the paper, assessment of total activities that can be disposed of on site is demonstrated, based on non-exceeding of admissible radiological impacts. (orig.)

  2. Expedition to the 30-km Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and the Utilization of its Experience in Education and Communication

    Aszodi, Attila; Yamaji, Bogdan; Silye, Judit; Pazmandi, Tamas

    2006-01-01

    Between May 28 - June 4, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (HYGN) - which operates within the framework of the HNS - a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the surrounding exclusion zone. The participants were young Hungarian nuclear professionals supervised by more experienced experts. The main scientific goals of the expedition were the followings: Get personal experiences in a direct way about the current status of the Chernobyl Power Plant and its surroundings, the contamination of the environment and about the doses. Gather information about the state of the shut down power plant and the shelter built above the damaged 4. unit. Training of young nuclear experts by performing on site measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives by performing wide-range of environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. Within the 30-km exclusion zone the influence of the accident occurred 20 years ago still could be measured clearly; however the level of the radioactivity is manageable in most places. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure occurred among the members of the expedition. The analysis of samples has been started at the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. During the expedition not only environmental sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out but it was also well documented with photos and video recordings for educational, training and PR purposes. A documentary TV film was recorded during the expedition. The first-hand knowledge acquired during the expedition helps the authentic communication of the accident and its present-day consequences, which is especially important in 2006, 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since Ukraine and Hungary are neighbor countries the media constantly discuss the accident, the consequences and the risks of

  3. Incidental catches of pelagic megafauna by the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the years 1999 - 2003

    Hofstede, ter R.; Zeeberg, J.J.; Haan, de D.; Couperus, A.S.; Mantingh, I.T.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents all registered catches of pelagic megafauna by the Dutch pelagic fleet in the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone during the years 1999-2003. ‘By-catches’ incidentally include large species, notably cetaceans, sea turtles, sharks, rays, and some large pelagic fish such as

  4. Effects of radionuclide contamination on forest trees in the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Takano, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary survey was performed for forest areas within the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, for radionuclide contamination levels and radiation effects on trees during the first year after the March 2011 accident. Even in the most contaminated forest, approximately 3 km west of the power plant, no externally visible symptoms of radiation damage—including yellowing, malformation, and early withering of leaves—were observed in trees, indicating that massive radiation damage did not occur in the surrounding forests after the accident. Radiosensitive coniferous plants were, however, heavily contaminated by the deposition of radionuclides in reproductive organs such as cones, which could cause the exposure of developing seeds. The level of radionuclides in the cones of Japanese cedar trees changed, depending on the contamination level of the forest, which was approximately given by an ambient dose rate. The dose rate of internal exposure in the cones of the most contaminated forest, which was calculated to include exposure from the radionuclides deposited in the organs, was found to be within the criteria dose rate of 4-40 μGy/h selected for pine trees by the ICRP in Publication 108. This raises the necessity of performing more detailed analyses of the cytogenetic and reproductive damage to forest trees in the area. (author)

  5. Effects of radionuclide contamination on forest trees in the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Takano, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary survey was performed for forest areas within the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, for radionuclide contamination levels and radiation effects on trees during the first year after the March 2011 accident. Even in the most contaminated forest, approximately 3 km west of the power plant, no externally visible symptoms of radiation damage—including yellowing, malformation, and early withering of leaves—were observed in trees, indicating that massive radiation damage did not occur in the surrounding forests after the accident. Radiosensitive coniferous plants were, however, heavily contaminated by the deposition of radionuclides in reproductive organs such as cones, which could cause the exposure of developing seeds. The level of radionuclides in the cones of Japanese cedar trees changed, depending on the contamination level of the forest, which was approximately given by an ambient dose rate. The dose rate of internal exposure in the cones of the most contaminated forest, which was calculated to include exposure from the radionuclides deposited in the organs, was found to be within the criteria dose rate of 4-40 μGy/h selected for pine trees by the ICRP in Publication 108. This raises the necessity of performing more detailed analyses of the cytogenetic and reproductive damage to forest trees in the area. (author)

  6. Microevolutionary shifts in insect populations of Chornobyl exclusion zone and their potential consequences for agrocenoses of adjacent areas

    Gajchenko, V.A.; Chajka, V.M.; Krajnyuk, O.Yu.; Buntova, O.G.

    2016-01-01

    Changes of faunal composition of insects-hortobionts and longterm dynamics of species diversity in the Chernobyl exclusion zone biotopes is studied. It is shown that on despite of the continuing fluctuations in species diversity, which may be associated with the process of long-term dynamics of the number of species, there was a clear trend to increasing abundance of species of insects. In evolutionary terms the settlement of harmful populations in natural habitats should be considered as the primary groupings as opposed to the secondary - on agricultural crops. For these groupings there are different vectors of selection: in the first case - naturally, in the second - artificial under the influence of anthropogenic factors. Different types of selection lead to the formation of different structures of phenotypic groupings and, accordingly, of their physiological characteristics. With the competitive process, biological regulation, nutrition by plants with natural resistance, the primary groupings acquire the genetic diversity, generalized type of nutrition and high viability. In secondary groupings, the vector of selection is aimed at high reproductive potential, due to the specialized type of nutrition by cultural plants that have much higher energy value than natural.

  7. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  8. Biology of Incidental Catch Sea Star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea, from Malaysian Borneo Exclusive Economic Zone

    Ruhana Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents morphological characters and diet of the sea star, besides providing brief descriptions of the habitats based on particle size analysis and vessel log data sheet. A total of 217 individuals had been examined throughout this study. Fragments of flora and fauna were found in the gut including Mollusca (gastropod, bivalves, and scaphopods, sponge seagrass, and seaweed as well as benthic Foraminifera. Stellaster childreni were found at depth of 45 m to 185 m in the South China Sea off Sarawak Malaysia, with various sea bottom substrata. Approximately 41% of S. childreni were found at a mixture of sandy and muddy substratum, followed by mixture of sandy and coral (19.3%, muddy substratum (17.5%, coral substratum (11.5%, and sandy areas (10.6%. The widely distributed sea star on different types of sea beds suggested healthy deep sea ecosystem; thus Malaysia should explore further potential fisheries resources in the EEZ off Sarawak coast.

  9. Biology of Incidental Catch Sea Star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea), from Malaysian Borneo Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Hassan, Ruhana; Lee, Suet Yee; Morni, Wan Zabidii Wan

    2017-01-01

    Sea star (class Asteroidea, phylum Echinodermata) is one of the most successful marine organisms inhabiting a wide range of habitats. As one of the key stone species, sea stars are responsible for maintaining much of the local diversity of species within certain communities. Malaysian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Resource Survey had been carried out from 16th Aug to 6th Nov 2015 and one of the invertebrate by-catch organisms is sea star Stellaster childreni Gray, 1840. This study documents morphological characters and diet of the sea star, besides providing brief descriptions of the habitats based on particle size analysis and vessel log data sheet. A total of 217 individuals had been examined throughout this study. Fragments of flora and fauna were found in the gut including Mollusca (gastropod, bivalves, and scaphopods), sponge seagrass, and seaweed as well as benthic Foraminifera. Stellaster childreni were found at depth of 45 m to 185 m in the South China Sea off Sarawak Malaysia, with various sea bottom substrata. Approximately 41% of S. childreni were found at a mixture of sandy and muddy substratum, followed by mixture of sandy and coral (19.3%), muddy substratum (17.5%), coral substratum (11.5%), and sandy areas (10.6%). The widely distributed sea star on different types of sea beds suggested healthy deep sea ecosystem; thus Malaysia should explore further potential fisheries resources in the EEZ off Sarawak coast.

  10. Age, maturation, and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones

    LIU Bilin; CHEN Xinjun; CHEN Yong; TIAN Siquan; LI Jianhua; FANG Zhou; YANG Mingxia

    2013-01-01

    Age,maturation and population structure of the Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas were studied based on random sampling of the Chinese jigging fishery off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) during 2008-2010.Estimated ages ranged from 144 to 633 days,confirming that the squid is a short-lived species with longevity no longer than 2 years.Occurrence of mature females and hatching in each month indicated that Humboldt squid spawned year-round.Back-calculated hatching dates for the samples were from January 22nd,2008 to April 22nd,2010 with a peak between January and March.Two size-based and two hatching date-based populations could be defined from mantle length (ML) at maturity and back-calculated hatching dates,respectively.Females matured at a larger size than males,and there was a significant difference in ML at maturity between the two hatching groups (P<0.05).The waters adjacent to 11°S off the Peruvian EEZ may be a potential spawning ground.This study shows the complexity of the population structure and large variability in key life history parameters in the Humboldt squid off the Peruvian EEZ,which should be considered in the assessment and management of this important resource.

  11. Microevolutionary shifts in insect populations of Chornobyl exclusion zone and their potential consequences for agrocenoses of adjacent areas

    V. A. Gaychenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes of faunal composition of insects-hortobionts and long-term dynamics of species diversity in the Chernobyl exclusion zone biotopes is studied. It is shown that despite of the continuing fluctuations in species diversity, which may be associated with the process of long-term dynamics of the number of species, there was a clear trend to increasing abundance of species of insects. In evolutionary terms the settlement of harmful populations in natural habitats should be considered as the primary groupings as opposed to the secondary – on agricultural crops. For these groupings there are different vectors of selection: in the first case – natural, in the second – artificial under the influence of anthropogenic factors. Different types of selection lead to the formation of different structures of phenotypic groupings and, accordingly, of their physiological characteristics. With the competitive process, biological regulation, nutrition by plants with natural resistance, the primary groupings acquire the genetic diversity, generalized type of nutrition and high viability. In secondary groupings, the vector of selection is aimed at high reproductive potential, due to the specialized type of nutrition by cultural plants that have much higher energy value than natural.

  12. Transcriptional Upregulation of DNA Damage Response Genes in Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus Inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Toni Jernfors

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR from radionuclides released into the environment can damage DNA. An expected response to exposure to environmental radionuclides, therefore, is initiation of DNA damage response (DDR pathways. Increased DNA damage is a characteristic of many organisms exposed to radionuclides but expression of DDR genes of wildlife inhabiting an area contaminated by radionuclides is poorly understood. We quantified expression of five central DDR genes Atm, Mre11, p53, Brca1, and p21 in the livers of the bank vole Myodes glareolus that inhabited areas within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ that differed in levels of ambient radioactivity, and also from control areas outside the CEZ (i.e., sites with no detectable environmental radionuclides in Ukraine. Expression of these DDR genes did not significantly differ between male and female bank voles, nor among sites within the CEZ. We found a near two-fold upregulation in the DDR initiators Mre11 and Atm in animals collected from the CEZ compared with samples from control sites. As Atm is an important regulator of oxidative stress, our data suggest that antioxidant activity may be a key component of the defense against exposure to environmental radioactivity.

  13. Concentration, composition and sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Qatar, Arabian Gulf.

    Soliman, Y S; Al Ansari, E M S; Wade, T L

    2014-08-30

    Surface sediments were collected from sixteen locations in order to assess levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Qatar exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Samples were analyzed for 16 parent PAHs, 18 alkyl homologs and for dibenzothiophenes. Total PAHs concentration (∑PAHs) ranged from 2.6 ng g(-1) to 1025 ng g(-1). The highest PAHs concentrations were in sediments in and adjacent to harbors. Alkylated PAHs predominated most of the sampling locations reaching up to 80% in offshore locations. Parent PAHs and parent high molecular weight PAHs dominated location adjacent to industrial activities and urban areas. The origin of PAHs sources to the sediments was elucidated using ternary plot, indices, and molecular ratios of specific compounds such as (Ant/Phe+Ant), (Flt/Flt+Pyr). PAHs inputs to most coastal sites consisted of mixture of petroleum and combustion derived sources. However, inputs to the offshore sediments were mainly of petroleum origin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of long-term radiation exposure on aquatic biota within the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 30 years after accident

    Gudkov, D.I.; Pomortseva, N.A.; Shevtsova, N.L.; Dzyubenko, E.V.; Nazarov, A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Self-purification of closed water bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (EZ) is an extremely slow process. Therefore, ecosystems of the majority of lakes, dead channels and crawls possess high levels of radionuclide contamination of all components. Along with natural decontamination processes in aquatic ecosystems such as physical decay of radionuclides and their water transport outside the EZ, there is a change of physical and chemical forms of radioactive substances in soils of catchment areas, their transformation and transition in the mobile and bioavailable state, washout to the closed aquatic ecosystems and accumulation by hydrobionts. This essentially deteriorates the radiation situation in closed aquatic ecosystems, which are some kind of 'storage system' of radioactive substances in the EZ and results in increase of radiation dose to aquatic species and manifests in a variety of radiation effects at different levels of biological systems. We established dose-related effects in hydrobionts of lakes within the EZ which indicates a damage of biological systems at subcellular, cellular, tissue, organ, organism and population levels as a result of chronic exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. The rate of chromosomal aberrations in cells of aquatic species, many-a-times exceeds the level of spontaneous mutagenesis level to aquatic biota. Increased levels of chromosome damages may be a manifestation of radiation-induced genetic instability, which is one of the main mechanisms for the protection of living organisms from exposure to stressors with subsequent implementation at higher levels of organization of biological systems. (author)

  15. The Case for Tetrahedral Oxy-subhydride (TOSH Structures in the Exclusion Zones of Anchored Polar Solvents Including Water

    Klaus Oehr

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize a mechanistic model of how negatively-charged exclusion zones (EZs are created. While the growth of EZs is known to be associated with the absorption of ambient photonic energy, the molecular dynamics giving rise to this process need greater elucidation. We believe they arise due to the formation of oxy-subhydride structures (OH−(H2O4 with a tetrahedral (sp3 (OH−(H2O3 core. Five experimental data sets derived by previous researchers were assessed in this regard: (1 water-derived EZ light absorbance at specific infrared wavelengths, (2 EZ negative potential in water and ethanol, (3 maximum EZ light absorbance at 270 nm ultraviolet wavelength, (4 ability of dimethyl sulphoxide but not ether to form an EZ, and (5 transitory nature of melting ice derived EZs. The proposed tetrahedral oxy-subhydride structures (TOSH appear to adequately account for all of the experimental evidence derived from water or other polar solvents.

  16. Marine Biogeochemistry of Particulate Trace Elements in the Exclusive Economic Zone (eez) of the State of Qatar

    Yigiterhan, O.; Al-Ansari, I. S.; Abdel-Moati, M.; Murray, J. W.; Al-Ansi, M.

    2016-02-01

    We focus on the trace element geochemistry of particulate matter in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar. A main goal of this research was to analyze a complete suite of trace elements on particulate matter samples from the water column from different oceanographic biogeochemical zones of the EEZ around Qatar. The sample set also includes plankton samples which are the main source of biogenic particles, dust samples which are a source of abiological particles to surface seawater and surface sediments which can be a source of resuspended particles and a sink for settling particles. The 15 metals and 2 non-metals analyzed in this study will be Al, Ti, V, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo, Ag, Ba, U and P, N. Many factors control the composition of trace elements in marine particles. Most of these are important in the EEZ of Qatar, including:1. Natural sources: These are rivers, atmospheric dust, sediment resuspension and leaks from oil beds. However, due to very limited rainfall rivers play no major role in Qatar but resuspension of shallow carbonate rich sediments and input of atmospheric dust are important due to strong currents and surrounding deserts.2. Adsorption/desorption: These chemical processes occur everywhere in the ocean and transfer metals between particles and the solution phase.3. Biological uptake: This process is likewise a universal ocean process and results in transport of metals from the solution phase to biological particles.4. Redox conditions: These are important chemical reactions in the oxic, suboxic and anoxic zones. This can be the dominant controlling mechanism in the northeastern hypoxic deeper waters of the Qatar EEZ.5. Anthropogenic sources: The eastern part of the Qatar contains numerous industrial sites, petroleum/gas platforms and refineries. There are numerous industrial sources but the main hot spots are the port of Doha and the industrial cities of Mesaieed, Khor Al-Odaid, and Ras Laffan. We aimed to determine the

  17. A key to the adult Costa Rican "helicopter" damselflies (Odonata: Pseudostigmatidae with notes on their phenology and life zone preferences

    Ingemar Hedström

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a key to the Costa Rican species of Pseudostigmatidae, comprising three genera with the following species: Megaloprepus caerulatus, Mecistogaster linearis, M. modesta, M. ornata and Pseudostigma aberrans. Pseudostigma accedens, which may occur in the region, is also included. For each species we give a brief account of morphology, phenology and life zone preferences, including distributional maps based on more than 270 records. These are not all of the known specimens from the area, but a high enough number to give a relatively good picture of the distribution and status of the species. We found M. caerulatus to be active during the first half of the year in seasonal, tropical semidry lowland forest and tropical moist forest at mid-elevation, but like M. linearis, M. caerulatus was active all year round in non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and tropical moist forest at mid-elevation. Mecistogaster modesta also flew year round in non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and tropical moist evergreen forest at mid-elevation, and likewise in seasonal and non-seasonal, tropical premontane moist forest. Only a few findings, however, have been made of M. modesta in seasonal, tropical semi-dry decidu-ous forest and seasonal, tropical moist evergreen forest. Mecistogaster ornata was missing entirely from non-sea-sonal, tropical wet lowland forest and non-seasonal, tropical moist forest at mid- elevation, while this species was active year round in seasonal, tropical dry lowland forest and tropical semi-dry forest, as well as in seasonal, tropical moist evergreen forest and tropical premontane moist forest, both at mid-elevation. Pseudostigma aberrans has so far been found too few times in Costa Rica for any indication of flight time preferenceSe presenta una clave de las especies de Pseudostigmatidae de Costa Rica. Esta familia está representada en este país por tres géneros con las siguientes especies: Megaloprepus caerulatus

  18. Radionuclide transfer to wildlife at a 'Reference site' in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and resultant radiation exposures.

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Gashchak, S; Maksimenko, A; Guliaichenko, E; Wood, M D; Izquierdo, M

    2018-02-27

    This study addresses a significant data deficiency in the developing environmental protection framework of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, namely a lack of radionuclide transfer data for some of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). It is also the first study that has sampled such a wide range of species (invertebrates, plants, amphibians and small mammals) from a single terrestrial site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ). Samples were collected in 2014 from the 0.4 km 2 sampling site, located 5 km west of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power complex. We report radionuclide ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 241 Am and Pu-isotopes) and stable element concentrations in wildlife and soil samples and use these to determine whole organism-soil concentration ratios and absorbed dose rates. Increasingly, stable element analyses are used to provide transfer parameters for radiological models. The study described here found that for both Cs and Sr the transfer of the stable element tended to be lower than that of the radionuclide; this is the first time that this has been demonstrated for Sr, though it is in agreement with limited evidence previously reported for Cs. Studies reporting radiation effects on wildlife in the CEZ generally relate observations to ambient dose rates determined using handheld dose meters. For the first time, we demonstrate that ambient dose rates may underestimate the actual dose rate for some organisms by more than an order of magnitude. When reporting effects studies from the CEZ, it has previously been suggested that the area has comparatively low natural background dose rates. However, on the basis of data reported here, dose rates to wildlife from natural background radionuclides within the CEZ are similar to those in many areas of Europe. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Fishery biology of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean waters

    Bilin Liu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas is widely distributed in the eastern Pacific Ocean and supports an important fishery. Although many studies have been carried out on the biology of this species, limited biological information is available in the waters outside the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile (EEZ (20°S-41°S and 74°30’W-84°W. Three surveys were conducted in this area by the Chinese squid jigging vessels during the period from April 2006 to May 2008. The majority of the catch in the survey was from the two areas defined by 37°30’-41°S and 78°30’-80°W and by 25°-30°S and 76°-77°30’W. The sex ratio (M: F of the catch was 1: 2.48. The mean mantle length (ML was 376 mm for males with a range of 257-721 mm and 388.7 mm for females with a range of 236-837 mm. Two distinguished size classes, medium- and large-sized groups, were identified in this study with the medium-sized group (350-450 mm ML consisting of 89% of the total catch. The sizes at first sexual maturity were 638 mm ML for females and 565 mm ML for males. This study suggests that all the individuals examined were hatched from March 2007 to February 2008, indicating that D. gigas might spawn all year around with a peak spawning time from November 2007 to January 2008. Most of the stomachs analyzed had food remains. The preys included three major groups: fish (mainly lanternfish, cephalopods and crustaceans, but D. gigas was the dominant species in the stomach contents, showing strong evidence of cannibalism. The information obtained from this study improves our understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off Chile.

  20. Comparative studies on control systems for a two-blade variable-speed wind turbine with a speed exclusion zone

    Yang, Jian; Song, Dongran; Dong, Mi; Chen, Sifan; Zou, Libing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    To avoid the coincidence between the tower nature frequency and rotational excitation frequency, a SEZ (speed exclusion zone) must be built for a two-blade wind turbine with a full rated converter. According to the literature, two methods of SEZ-crossing could be adopted. However, none of them have been studied in industrial applications, and their performance remains unclear. Moreover, strategies on power regulation operation are not covered. To fully investigate them, this paper develops two control systems for a two-blade WT (wind turbines) with a SEZ. Because control systems play vital roles in determining the performance of the WT, this paper focuses on comparative studies on their operation strategies and performance. In these strategies, optimal designs are introduced to improve existing SEZ algorithms. Moreover, to perform power regulation outside the SEZ, two operation modes are divided in the proposed down power regulation solutions. The developed control systems’ performance is confirmed by simulations and field tests. Two control systems present similar capabilities of power production and SEZ-bridging. Nevertheless, at the cost of significantly increased tower loads, one captures 1% more energy than the other. Overall consideration must be made for the control system selection for a WT with a SEZ. - Highlights: • Two control systems are developed for a two-blade WT with a SEZ. • Three strategies, that is, power optimization, power limitation and power regulation, are discussed. • Optimal designs are adopted to enhance the WT's SEZ-bridging capability. • Simple but effective power regulation solutions are presented. • Simulation and field test results show that Control System 2 produces 1% more energy at the cost of increased tower loads.

  1. A review of possible origins of the uranium 'plume' in the aquifer under the EPIC site in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Simonucci, C.; Van Meir, N.; Courbet, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Roux, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LETIS, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Le Gal La Salle, C.; Verdoux, P.; Lancelot, J.C. [Nimes University, Laboratoire de Geochimie Isotopique (GIS), 150 rue George Besse, 30035 Nimes (France); Ruas, A. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Bassot, S. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PRP-DGE/SRTG/LAME, POB 17, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Bugai, D. [Institute of Geological Sciences, 55-b, Gonchara Str., Kiev 01054 (Ukraine); Levchuk, S.; Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, UIAR NUBiP of Ukraine, Mashinobudivnykiv str. 7, Chabany, Kyiv-Svjatoshin (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    The uniqueness of the Chernobyl accident lies in the fact that so much radioactive material was discharged to the atmosphere as solid fuel particles from the reactor core. Between the 26 April and the 6 May 1986 more than 6 tons of small particles of highly radioactive uranium oxide fuel were discharged to the atmosphere and were responsible for more than 75 % of the radioactive contamination on the ground in the exclusion zone. In 1987, about 800 trenches had been dug in the exclusion zone to prevent re-suspension and to protect workers from contamination. In 1999, the IRSN, in collaboration with IGS and UIAR, equipped trench 22 (CPS) in order to monitor radionuclide migration in the environment (water, soil, plants). At the EPIC site high uranium concentrations were observed in the groundwater downstream from trench 22. We discuss the possible origins of this uranium 'plume'. (authors)

  2. Development of integrated system of spatial coordinates for inputting cartographic information obtained as result of scientific researches at exclusion zone area

    Mazur, A.B.; Ermolenko, A.I.; Shaptala, D.V.; Postil, S.D.; Yachmenev, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Integrated system of spatial coordinates was developed for modeling of diverse processes occurring in the exclusion zone. Technology of joint use of CAD and geoinformation system was worked out,which resulted in the 'Ukryttia' object fixing to the topographic base in accordance with geographic coordinates, editing of nomenclative sheets of the area adjacent to the ChNPP and renovation of its relief, as well as conversion of the files made in AutoCad to Arc View format files was performed

  3. Impact of radionuclide spatial variability on groundwater quality downstream from a shallow waste burial in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    Nguyen, H. L.; de Fouquet, C.; Courbet, C.; Simonucci, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of spatial variability of hydraulic parameters and initial groundwater plume localization on the possible extent of groundwater pollution plumes have already been broadly studied. However, only a few studies, such as Kjeldsen et al. (1995), take into account the effect of source term spatial variability. We explore this question with the 90Sr migration modeling from a shallow waste burial located in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to the underlying sand aquifer. Our work is based upon groundwater sampled once or twice a year since 1995 until 2015 from about 60 piezometers and more than 3,000 137Cs soil activity measurements. These measurements were taken in 1999 from one of the trenches dug after the explosion of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the so-called "T22 Trench", where radioactive waste was buried in 1987. The geostatistical analysis of 137Cs activity data in soils from Bugai et al. (2005) is first reconsidered to delimit the trench borders using georadar data as a covariable and to perform geostatistical simulations in order to evaluate the uncertainties of this inventory. 90Sr activity in soils is derived from 137Cs/154Eu and 90Sr/154Eu activity ratios in Chernobyl hot fuel particles (Bugai et al., 2003). Meanwhile, a coupled 1D non saturated/3D saturated transient transport model is constructed under the MELODIE software (IRSN, 2009). The previous 90Sr transport model developed by Bugai et al. (2012) did not take into account the effect of water table fluctuations highlighted by Van Meir et al. (2007) which may cause some discrepancies between model predictions and field observations. They are thus reproduced on a 1D vertical non saturated model. The equiprobable radionuclide localization maps produced by the geostatistical simulations are selected to illustrate different heterogeneities in the radionuclide inventory and are implemented in the 1D model. The obtained activity fluxes from all the 1D vertical models are then injected in a 3D

  4. Effects of long-term radiation exposure on the higher aquatic plants in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Shevtsova, N.; Gudkov, D. [Institute of Hydrobiology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    From the earliest years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 the radioecological study on freshwater plant communities in the water-bodies within the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) has been held. At first stages it was the research on plant species collection and radionuclide contamination of aquatic ecosystems. Now, it is the seasonal monitoring with several groups of data deals with different areas of plant communities investigation: (1) the data characterized the level of radionuclides contamination of the abiotic and biotic components of phyto-coenosis and connected absorbed dose rates for various species of aquatic plants; (2) indexes of plant reproduction, including productivity, sterility, seed germination indexes and different abnormalities of ontogenesis; (3) indexes of morphological deviations (radiomorphoses) of aquatic plant's reproduction organs such as panicle and seeds; (4) cytogenetic indexes including the rate and spectrum of chromosome aberrations in cells of apical root meristem of air-aquatic plants; (5) the group of indexes, connected with plant's immunity. The calculated absorbed dose rate for littoral emergent plants in sampling water bodies was varied from 0.7 to 1.4 Gy/year in dependence of radioactive contamination of bottom sediments, plant tissues and level of gamma-background. There were registered rather low rate of plant productivity (hundred times lower than normal), high percentage of sterility (20-80%), low germinating ability (14-48 %) and germinating power (40-50%) of seeds from all sampling water bodies within the ChEZ. Against the general suppressed background the effect of relative stimulation of more affected seeds was observed. With increase of internal absorbed dose in range of 0.2-5.3 mGy/year the number of germinated seeds was increased. At the same time the number of different abnormalities of seeds was increased as well. The highest rate of the morphological damages (up to 25 % of the total number of

  5. Distribution and abundance of carangidae (Teleostei, Perciformes associated with oceanographic factors along the northeast brazilian exclusive economic zone

    Christiane Sampaio de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the distribution and abundance of the Carangidae larvae and to analyze the influence of the hydrological (temperature and salinity and biological factors (phytoplanktonic biomass and zooplanktonic biomass, on the space and temporal distribution of the larvae. Ichthyoplankton was collected during four expeditions from the Northeast Exclusive Economic Zone. Six species (Trachurus lathami, Decapterus punctatus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Selene setapinnis, Selene vomer and Elagatis bipinnulata and Caranx- Carangoides complex were identified. D. punctatus was the species most abundant (52% of the total, with higher abundance during the Period 3, while the Period 2 was the period of low abundance. C. chrysurus was the second species in abundance representing 30% of the total of carangid. This species had higher abundance during the Period 2 and the Period 1. However, in Period 3 abundance were lesser. The third species in abundance was T. lathami that corresponded 8% of the total of carangid larvae. S. setapinnis, S. vomer and E. bipinnulata were the species less abundant, representing together 2% of the total identified larvae. The larvae of Caranx- Carangoides complex represented 9% of the carangid total.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a distribuição e abundância das larvas de Carangidae, foi analisada também a influência de fatores hidrológicos (temperatura e salinidade e biológicos (biomassa fitoplanctônica e biomassa zooplanctônica, sobre a distribuição espacial e temporal dessas larvas. O ictioplâncton foi coletado durante quatro expedições: Período 1 (Agosto Outubro 1995, Período 2 (Janeiro Abril 1997, Período 3 (Abril Julho 1998 e Período 4 (Setembro Dezembro 2000, realizadas na Zona Econômica Exclusiva do nordeste. Em um total de 313 larvas foram identificadas 6 espécies (Trachurus lathami, Decapterus punctatus, Chloroscombrus chrysurus, Selene setapinnis, Selene vomer e

  6. Groundwater monitoring and modelling of the “Vector” site for near-surface radioactive waste disposal in the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    D. Bugai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of purposeful groundwater monitoring and modelling studies are presented, which were carried out in order to better understand groundwater flow patterns from the “Vector” site for near-surface radioactive waste disposal and storage in the Chornobyl exclusion zone towards river network. Both data of observations at local-scale monitoring well network at “Vector” site carried out in 2015 - 2016 and modelling analyses using the regional groundwater flow model of Chornobyl exclusion zone suggest that the groundwater discharge contour for water originating from “Vector” site is Sakhan River, which is the tributary to Pripyat River. The respective groundwater travel time is estimated at 210 - 340 years. The travel times in subsurface for 90Sr, 137Cs, and transuranium radionuclides (Pu isotopes, 241Am are estimated respectively at thousands, tenths of thousands, hundreds of thousands – million of years. These results, as well as presented data of analyses of lithological properties of the geological deposits of the unsaturated zone at “Vector” site, provide evidence for good protection of surface water resources from radioactivity sources (e.g., radioactive wastes to be disposed in the near-sursface facilities at “Vector” site.

  7. 78 FR 18224 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters

    2013-03-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R44 and R44 II helicopters equipped with emergency floats. This AD..., contact Robinson Helicopter Company, 2901 Airport Drive, Torrance, CA 90505; telephone (310) 539-0508; fax...

  8. Inhalation exposure control problems in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Problemy kontrolya ingalyatsionnogo oblucheniya v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Sukhoruchkin, A K; Kazakov, S V; Marchenko, V I [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Space-time inequality of air contamination and rare high-active fuel aerosol causes different exposure of personnel. An increased content of {sup 137} Cs in the organism of people working in the 30 km zone restricts the possibility to detect incorporated transuranium nuclides by means of a whole-body radiation spectrometer.

  9. Nucleotide diversity and gene expression of Catalase and Glutathione peroxidase in irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Vornam, Barbara; Arkhipov, Andrey; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    In the Chernobyl exclusion zone forest trees have to tolerate and to adapt to ionizing radiation, therefore the molecular basis of their adaptive responses is of the utmost interest. Based on SNP analysis and real time PCR nucleotide diversity and expression profiles of gene fragments of catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which are known as radical scavenging genes, were analysed in the needles of irradiated pine trees of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In acutely and chronically irradiated trees (50 years old) planted before the accident a higher nucleotide diversity of Cat and more somatic mutations were found compared to their control. Chronically irradiated trees (20 years old) planted after the accident showed a similar nucleotide diversity of Cat compared to their control and in both collectives one somatic mutation was found. The nucleotide diversity of GPx was higher in all analysed trees compared to Cat. No somatic mutation events were found in GPx. For both gene fragments, no association between the received dose in a tree and the nucleotide diversity and mutation events was detected. The expression profiles of Cat and GPx in acutely and chronically and in chronically irradiated trees were similar. Compared to their corresponding control collectives, Cat was up-regulated and GPx slightly down-regulated.

  10. Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-479 Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...Name Combat Rescue Helicopter (CRH) DoD Component Air Force Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Development Estimate) Defense Acquisition... Helicopter (CRH) system will provide Personnel Recovery (PR) forces with a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft that is quickly deployable and

  11. Biological indication of production condition influence on the staff of State Specialized Enterprise for radioactive waste management and desactivation "Complex" in Chornobyl exclusion zone

    L. V. Tarasenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of comparative cytogenetical examination of two groups are presented. First group is staff from two workshops (RAW management and RAW deactivation of SJE “Complex” in Chornobyl exclusion zone. Second group consists of the persons who had no mutagenic factors influence during their professional activity (condi-tional control. Classical chromosome analysis method was used. It was found chromosome damages frequency in staff is significantly higher than spontaneous level in conditional control group. Professional experience dura-tion and external exposure integral doses of both workshops staff do not differ. Staff of RAW deactivation work-shop, who is additionally influenced by chemical and physical factors, has significantly higher chromosome ab-erration frequency, particularly due to specific cytogenetical markers of exposure. Correlation between external exposure integral doses and total chromosome aberration frequency, chromosome type aberration frequency, stabile interchromosomal exchanges frequency was found.

  12. The transfer of (137)Cs, Pu isotopes and (90)Sr to bird, bat and ground-dwelling small mammal species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Beresford, N A; Gaschak, S; Maksimenko, Andrey; Wood, M D

    2016-03-01

    Protected species are the focus of many radiological environmental assessments. However, the lack of radioecological data for many protected species presents a significant international challenge. Furthermore, there are legislative restrictions on destructive sampling of protected species to obtain such data. Where data are not available, extrapolations are often made from 'similar' species but there has been little attempt to validate this approach. In this paper we present what, to our knowledge, is the first study purposefully designed to test the hypothesis that radioecological data for unprotected species can be used to estimate conservative radioecolgical parameters for protected species; conservatism being necessary to ensure that there is no significant impact. The study was conducted in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Consequently, we are able to present data for Pu isotopes in terrestrial wildlife. There has been limited research on Pu transfer to terrestrial wildlife which contrasts with the need to assess radiation exposure of wildlife to Pu isotopes around many nuclear facilities internationally. Our results provide overall support for the hypothesis that data for unprotected species can be used to adequately assess the impacts for ionising radiation on protected species. This is demonstrated for a range of mammalian and avian species. However, we identify one case, the shrew, for which data from other ground-dwelling small mammals would not lead to an appropriately conservative assessment of radiation impact. This indicates the need to further test our hypothesis across a range of species and ecosystems, and/or ensure adequate conservatism within assessments. The data presented are of value to those trying to more accurately estimate the radiation dose to wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, helping to reduce the considerable uncertainty in studies reporting dose-effect relationships for wildlife. A video abstract for this paper is available from

  13. 77 FR 63260 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters

    2012-10-16

    ... Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R44 and R44 II helicopters equipped with emergency floats, which would require...

  14. 77 FR 12991 - Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters

    2012-03-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Robinson Helicopter Company Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) that was published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to Robinson Helicopter Company (Robinson) Model R22, R22 Alpha, R22 Beta, R22 Mariner, R44, and R44 II helicopters. The paragraph reference in...

  15. 77 FR 68055 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) Model 412, 412EP, and 412CF helicopters. This AD requires a repetitive inspection of the...

  16. Validation of the global model for 90SR migration from the waste burial in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Dewiere, L.; Bugai, D.; Kashparov, V.; Barthes, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has managed (1999-2003) the Chernobyl Pilot Site Project (CPS project) in collaboration with the Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), the Institute of Geological Sciences (IGS) and the Tracer Application Section (CEA/SAT). The special focus of the CPS project was environmental behavior and radionuclide release mechanisms from dispersed nuclear fuel particles, forming radionuclide migration source-term. So, the contaminated environment was used as an open-sky laboratory to develop site characterization techniques, better understand and model processes of radionuclides migration in soils and geological environment. The CPS project resulted in detailed characterization of site geology structure, hydrogeology regime, hydro-dispersion regime in the aquifer and unsaturated zone, radionuclide inventory and distribution in trench no.22, focused at 137 Cs and 90 Sr. The special research program using scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction analytical techniques was devoted to characterization of fuel particles and quantification of their dissolution behavior. It was established that Chernobyl radionuclides are associated with uranium oxide matrix particles of different degree of oxidation, characterized by different dissolution rates, as well as with non-dissolvable zirconium containing matrix particles. The multi-component fuel particles dissolution model with empirical dissolution rate constants was developed to describe the source-term. The methodology for radionuclide transport was based on application of the classical advection-diffusion equation and utilization of effective transport parameters. The developed so far modeling methodology is mostly suited for producing spatially averaged parameter values (such as radionuclide concentrations in trench porous solution, and/or integral radionuclide release to aquifer), and for long-term predictions on a scale of years and

  17. Mapping distribution of Rastrelliger kanagurta in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Malaysia using maximum entropy modeling approach

    Yusop, Syazwani Mohd; Mustapha, Muzzneena Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    The coupling of fishing locations for R. kanagurta obtained from SEAFDEC and multi-sensor satellite imageries of oceanographic variables; sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and chl-a concentration (chl-a) were utilized to evaluate the performance of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) models for R. kanagurta fishing ground for prediction. Besides, this study was conducted to identify the relative percentage contribution of each environmental variable considered in order to describe the effects of the oceanographic factors on the species distribution in the study area. The potential fishing grounds during intermonsoon periods; April and October 2008-2009 were simulated separately and covered the near-coast of Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and Johor. The oceanographic conditions differed between regions by the inherent seasonal variability. The seasonal and spatial extents of potential fishing grounds were largely explained by chl-a concentration (0.21-0.99 mg/m3 in April and 0.28-1.00 mg/m3 in October), SSH (77.37-85.90 cm in April and 107.60-108.97 cm in October) and SST (30.43-33.70 °C in April and 30.48-30.97 °C in October). The constructed models were applicable and therefore they were suitable for predicting the potential fishing zones of R. kanagurta in EEZ. The results from this study revealed MaxEnt's potential for predicting the spatial distribution of R. kanagurta and highlighted the use of multispectral satellite images for describing the seasonal potential fishing grounds.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Exploited Groundfish Species Assemblages Faced to Environmental and Fishing Forcings: Insights from the Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Saïkou Oumar Kidé

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and human activities can have strong impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. This study investigates how, from a quantitative point of view, simultaneously both environmental and anthropogenic factors affect species composition and abundance of exploited groundfish assemblages (i.e. target and non-target species at large spatio-temporal scales. We aim to investigate (1 the spatial and annual stability of groundfish assemblages, (2 relationships between these assemblages and structuring factors in order to better explain the dynamic of the assemblages' structure. The Mauritanian Exclusive Economic Zone (MEEZ is of particular interest as it embeds a productive ecosystem due to upwelling, producing abundant and diverse resources which constitute an attractive socio-economic development. We applied the multi-variate and multi-table STATICO method on a data set consisting of 854 hauls collected during 14-years (1997-2010 from scientific trawl surveys (species abundance, logbooks of industrial fishery (fishing effort, sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration as environmental variables. Our results showed that abiotic factors drove four main persistent fish assemblages. Overall, chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature mainly influenced the structure of assemblages of coastal soft bottoms and those of the offshore near rocky bottoms where upwellings held. While highest levels of fishing effort were located in the northern permanent upwelling zone, effects of this variable on species composition and abundances of assemblages were relatively low, even if not negligible in some years and areas. The temporal trajectories between environmental and fishing conditions and assemblages did not match for all the entire time series analyzed in the MEEZ, but interestingly for some specific years and areas. The quantitative approach used in this work may provide to stakeholders, scientists and fishers a

  19. Exclusion of mRNPs and ribosomal particles from a thin zone beneath the nuclear envelope revealed upon inhibition of transport

    Kylberg, Karin; Bjoerk, Petra; Fomproix, Nathalie; Ivarsson, Birgitta; Wieslander, Lars; Daneholt, Bertil

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the nucleocytoplasmic transport of a specific messenger RNP (mRNP) particle, named Balbiani ring (BR) granule, and ribosomal RNP (rRNP) particles in the salivary glands of the dipteran Chironomus tentans. The passage of the RNPs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) was inhibited with the nucleoporin-binding wheat germ agglutinin, and the effects were examined by electron microscopy. BR mRNPs bound to the nuclear basket increased in number, while BR mRNPs translocating through the central channel decreased, suggesting that the initiation of translocation proper had been inhibited. The rRNPs accumulated heavily in nucleoplasm, while no or very few rRNPs were recorded within nuclear baskets. Thus, the transport of rRNPs had been blocked prior to the entry into the baskets. Remarkably, the rRNPs had been excluded both from baskets and the space in between the baskets. We propose that normally basket fibrils move freely and repel RNPs from the exclusion zone unless the particles have affinity for and bind to nucleoporins within the baskets.

  20. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  1. The functional state of cellular antioxidant defence system of shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to the chronic ionizing radiation in the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    Morozova, V.S.; Kashparov, V.A.; Levchuk, S.Ye.; Umanska, A.O.; Bishchuk, Ye.V.; Otreshko, L.M

    2016-01-01

    The functional state of the cellular antioxidant defence system of shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that grow in natural conditions in the areas of the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone with the values of the external dose rate of 0.45, 0.61, 1.05, 4.81 and 6.80 .Gy/h was evaluated. The decrease of the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds in the shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana was revealed under the external dose rate of 4.81 and 6.80 .Gy/h by 38 and 48 %, respectively, compared to this parameter value under the external dose rate of 0.45 .Gy/h. In the investigated samples the capacity of guaiacol peroxidase increases, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase decreases significantly with the increase of the external dose rate from 0.45 to 6.80 .Gy/h. Probably, revealed changes in the functional state of the cellular antioxidant defence system of the shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana in the conditions of radioactive contamination are adaptive in nature.

  2. Offshore wind power system in the Exclusive Economic Zone. Applicability of German property law; Offshore-Windenergieanlagen in der AWZ. Anwendbarkeit des deutschen Sachenrechts

    Schulz, Thomas; Glaesner, Michael [Linklaters LLP, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The present article shows how a lack of regulation has led to a certain degree of legal uncertainty as to whether offshore wind power plants located in the German Exclusive Economic Zone are amenable to German property law. For practical purposes this has made it necessary to negotiate project contracts such that the transfer of ownership of individual components is effected while these are still on shore, even if the purchase price has yet to be fully paid. The financing banks have a policy in place of demanding the establishment of a subsidiary which is to receive ownership of the assets. This makes the structure of such contracts a great deal more complicated in terms of corporations law and tax law. The present article summarises the experiences gained by lawyers in these matters, giving an overview of the different legal positions taken on them to date. It shows that the applicability of German property law follows from the law now in force. Aside from this the authors advocate amendments to the relevant IPR norm as a means of reinforcing legal certainty in practice and make a concrete proposal for a clause to this end.

  3. Spatial distributions of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in surface seawater within the Exclusive Economic Zone of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia.

    Ahmad, Zaharudin; Mei-Wo, Yii; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi; Shahar, Hidayah

    2010-09-01

    The studies of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu distributions in surface seawater at South China Sea within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peninsular Malaysia were carried out in June 2008. The analysis results will serve as additional information to the expanded baseline data for Malaysia's marine environment. Thirty locations from extended study area were identified in the EEZ from which large volumes of surface seawater samples were collected. Different co-precipitation techniques were employed to concentrate cesium and plutonium separately. A known amount of (134)Cs and (242)Pu tracers were used as yield determinant. The precipitate slurry was collected and oven dried at 60(o)C for 1-2 days. Cesium precipitate was fine-ground and counted using gamma-ray spectrometry system at 661.62keV, while plutonium was separated from other radionuclides using anion exchange, electrodeposited and counted using alpha spectrometry. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu were in the range of 3.40-5.89Bq/m(3) and 2.3-7.9mBq/m(3), respectively. The (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios indicate that there are no new inputs of these radionuclides into the area.

  4. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  5. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part II. Modeling the transport process

    Yoschenko, V.I.; Kashparov, V.A.; Levchuk, S.E.; Glukhovskiy, A.S.; Khomutinin, Yu.V.; Protsak, V.P.; Lundin, S.M.; Tschiersch, J.

    2006-01-01

    To predict parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires, several model modules were developed and adapted. Experimental data of controlled burning of prepared experimental plots in the Chernobyl exclusion zone have been used to evaluate the prognostic power of the models. The predicted trajectories and elevations of the plume match with those visually observed during the fire experiments in the grassland and forest sites. Experimentally determined parameters could be successfully used for the calculation of the initial plume parameters which provide the tools for the description of various fire scenarios and enable prognostic calculations. In summary, the model predicts a release of some per mille from the radionuclide inventory of the fuel material by the grassland fires. During the forest fire, up to 4% of 137 Cs and 9 Sr and up to 1% of the Pu isotopes can be released from the forest litter according to the model calculations. However, these results depend on the parameters of the fire events. In general, the modeling results are in good accordance with the experimental data. Therefore, the considered models were successfully validated and can be recommended for the assessment of the resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in contaminated territories

  6. 78 FR 55687 - Notice of Intent To Grant an Exclusive, Partially Exclusive or Non-Exclusive License of the...

    2013-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent To Grant an Exclusive, Partially..., 2012 Entitled ''Tie-Down and Jack Fitting Assembly for Helicopter'' AGENCY: Department of the Army, [email protected]us.army.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The patent application relates to the aviation platforms...

  7. 77 FR 30232 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    2012-05-22

    ...-0530; Directorate Identifier 2011-SW-075-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter...

  8. A comparison of fishery biology of jumbo flying squid,Dosidicus gigas outside three Exclusive Economic Zones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    LIU Bilin; CHEN Xinjun; YI Qian

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies on the fishery biology of jumbo flying squid,Dosidicus gigas,have been conducted in the coastal areas within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of various countries due to its commercial and ecological importance,limited biological information is available from waters outside these EEZs.In this paper,we examined D.gigas fishery biology from waters outside Chilean,Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs,based on the fishery data collected by Chinese jigging vessels during 2006 to 2010.The dominant mantle lengths of D.gigas were 350-450 mm,250-400 mm and 250-350 mm outside Chilean,Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs,respectively.Size structure analysis show that a medium-sized group existed mostly in the waters outside the Chilean and Peruvian EEZs,whereas a small-sized group occurred mainly in the waters outside the Costa Rican EEZ.The longevity of the squid outside the Costa Rican EEZ was less than 10 months,while most of those outside Chilean and Peruvian EEZs were about 1-1.5 years and very few large individuals were 1.5-2 years old.A higher percentage of mature individuals existed outside Costa Rican EEZ implying the region as a potential spawning ground,while lower proportions of mature squid outside the Peruvian and Chilean EEZs indicated that spawning may be occurring outside our study area.Spatial differences in sizes at maturity of the squid are thought to be result from different environmental factors especially different temperature and nutrition among the three areas.Stomach-content analysis showed that cannibalism was important in the diet of D.gigas.Stress generated by jigging may increase the incidence of cannibalism.

  9. 77 FR 52264 - Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems...

    2012-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... Airworthiness Directive (AD): Hughes Helicopters Inc., and McDonnel Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate...

  10. 78 FR 18226 - Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems...

    2013-03-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type Certificate... directive (AD): 2013-05-16 Hughes Helicopters, Inc., and McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (Type...

  11. Composition and structure of solid-phase carriers of activity in soils of the exclusion zone.; Stroenie i sostav tverdofaznykh nositelej aktivnosti v pochvakh Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Bondarenko, G N; Dolin, V V; Val` ter, A A; Tikhanov, Eh K [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov; [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    From four different soils in the exclusion Chernobyl zone 35 << hot >> particles were picked out, their radionuclide and substance composition was investigated. To estimate a specific quantity of solid-phase carriers of activity we have calculated a ratio of activities of {sup 144} Ce and {sup 137} Cs in soils to the particles. Substance composition of the << hot >> particles investigated by the methods of electronic microscopy.

  12. Bacterial biodiversity analysis of a contaminated soil from the Chernobyl exclusion zone and characterization of the committed interaction of a Microbacterium strain with uranium

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear power plants accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima demonstrate the importance of the understanding of the transfer of the radioactive contamination in the environment and its ecological consequences. Although certain studies have been realized on superior organisms of the food chain, studies on telluric bacterial communities are scarce. The latter play nevertheless an essential role in the mobility of contaminants in soils by decreasing or improving their transfer towards other compartments (water, vegetables and animals). Moreover radionuclides (RNs) can have toxic effects on bacteria, leading to an inhibition of their participation in such transfer. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the impact of the radioactive contamination on bacterial communities belonging to a soil of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (trench T22) and (2) to study the uranium-bacteria interactions of a resistant strain, isolated from this soil. The various techniques used to characterize the bacterial diversity (culture of bacteria, DGGE, 454 pyro-sequencing) all testified of the multiplicity and the abundance of the bacterial communities in spite of the contamination. An impact on the community structure was difficult to assess by DGGE or cultural approach, but was nevertheless highlighted by the use of pyro-sequencing, suggesting the presence of species more adapted to the contaminated soil conditions. A specific molecular tool dedicated to the search of bacteria affiliated to the known radiation resistant Deinococcus-Thermus phylum (for example the Deinococcus radiodurans specie survives after an irradiation of several kGy) was developed. However it did not reveal the presence of bacteria affiliated to such a phylum in the studied soil. In parallel to the study of the bacterial biodiversity, about fifty culturable bacteria were isolated from this site and were used as a support to select a species (Microbacterium) capable to survive strong U(VI) concentrations. The

  13. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface

  14. Advanced Airfoils Boost Helicopter Performance

    2007-01-01

    Carson Helicopters Inc. licensed the Langley RC4 series of airfoils in 1993 to develop a replacement main rotor blade for their Sikorsky S-61 helicopters. The company's fleet of S-61 helicopters has been rebuilt to include Langley's patented airfoil design, and the helicopters are now able to carry heavier loads and fly faster and farther, and the main rotor blades have twice the previous service life. In aerial firefighting, the performance-boosting airfoils have helped the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service control the spread of wildfires. In 2003, Carson Helicopters signed a contract with Ducommun AeroStructures Inc., to manufacture the composite blades for Carson Helicopters to sell

  15. Fishes of water bodies within the Ukrainian part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone: current levels of radioactive contamination and absorbed dose rate

    Kaglyan, Alexander Ye.; Gudkov, Dmitri I. [Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAS of Ukraine, Geroyiv Stalingrada Ave. 12, UA- 04210, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    The results of studies of radioactive contamination of ichthyofauna of water bodies of the Chernobyl exclusion zone (ChEZ) during 2012-2013 are presented. The fish sampled from water bodies with different hydrological mode was used: (1) stagnant lakes (Vershyna, Glyboke, Azbuchyn, Daleke); (2) reservoir with slow water exchange (cooling pond of the Chernobyl NPP); (3) conditionally stagnant water bodies (separated from the main riverbed of the Pripyat River - Yanovsky and Novoshepelichesky Crawls and part of the Krasnensky former river bed); (4) semi-flowing water body (Krasnensky former river bed located outside of the dammed territory); (5) open crawls of the Pripyat river ('Schepochka' and Chernobylsky) and (6) waterway (riverbed sites of the Pripyat River). The highest levels of radionuclide concentrations were determined in fish of the stagnant water objects - 937-25907 Bq/kg (w.w.) of {sup 137}Cs and 1845-101220 Bq/kg of {sup 90}Sr. In fish of cooling pond the concentration of {sup 137}Cs registered in range 750-4200 and {sup 90}Sr - 41-512 Bq/kg. In ichthyofauna of water bodies which concern to the third group, specific activity of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr fluctuated accordingly within range of 520-3385 and 722-6210, and in a semi-flowing reservoir - 573-2948 and 97-4484 Bq/kg. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in fish of the fifth and sixth groups were accordingly 25-159 and 11-224 as well as {sup 90}Sr - 36-174 and 3-14 Bq/kg. The ratio of specific activity of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 137}Cs for pray fish from all studied groups of water bodies, except the second and the sixth ones, was in range 1.5-39.7. Thus intensity of water exchange is one of the defining factors, influencing on level of radionuclide specific activity in fish, especially {sup 90}Sr - the higher the flow age, the lower the level of radioactive contamination of fish inhabiting it. Calculation of the absorbed dose rate has shown that highest radiation dose was in fish inhabiting lake

  16. 78 FR 1730 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. Helicopters

    2013-01-09

    ... Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) Model 205A, 205A-1, and 205B helicopters with certain starter/generator power... that may lead to a fire in the starter/generator, smoke in the cockpit that reduces visibility, and... Office, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12- 140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590...

  17. 77 FR 729 - Airworthiness Directives; Enstrom Helicopter Corporation Helicopters

    2012-01-06

    ... to the specified helicopters with a reversible trim motor, P/N 28-16621 (Ford Motor Company C1AZ... helicopters with a reversible trim motor, P/N 28-16621 (Ford Motor Company C1AZ- 14553A) or P/N AD1R-10...

  18. Distribution of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs in vertical soil sections of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.; Raspredelenie form nakhozhdeniya {sup 90} Sr i {sup 137} Cs po vertikal`nym pochvennym razrezam Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Bondarenko, G N; Kononenko, L.V. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geokhimii i Fiziki Mineralov

    1994-12-31

    Water-soluble, exchangeable and acid-soluble (IM HCI) forms of {sup 90} Sr and {sup 137} Cs were determined in 15 layer-by-layer (1 cm) samples of podzolis and peaty soils from the Chernobyl exclusion zone taken in 1991 and 1992. Positions of centers of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 90} Sr supply as well as their water-soluble and exchangeable forms were estimated. The data obtained testify to deceleration of vertical migration of {sup 137} Cs in soils till the early 90th. The conclusion is made on evolution of dominating mechanisms of vertical migration of radionuclides. It consists in a decrease of the lessivage significance.

  19. 46 CFR 108.653 - Helicopter facilities.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter facilities. 108.653 Section 108.653 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.653 Helicopter facilities. (a) Each helicopter fueling facility must be marked adjacent to the fueling hose storage: “WARNING—HELICOPTER FUELING STATION—KEEP...

  20. 46 CFR 108.486 - Helicopter decks.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter decks. 108.486 Section 108.486 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.486 Helicopter decks. At least two of the accesses to the helicopter landing deck must each have a fire hydrant on the unit's...

  1. Helicopter pilots' views of air traffic controller responsibilities: a mismatch.

    Martin, Daniel; Nixon, Jim

    2018-02-21

    Controllers and pilots must work together to ensure safe and efficient helicopter flight within the London control zone. Subjective ratings of pilot perception of controller responsibility for five key flight tasks were obtained from thirty helicopter pilots. Three types of airspace were investigated. Results indicate that there is variation in pilot understanding of controller responsibility compared to the formal regulations that define controller responsibility. Significant differences in the perception of controller responsibility were found for the task of aircraft separation in class D airspace and along helicopter routes. Analysis of the patterns of response suggests that task type rather than the airspace type may be the key factor. Results are framed using the concept of a shared mental model. This research demonstrates that pilots flying in complex London airspace have an expectation of controller responsibility for certain flight tasks, in certain airspace types that is not supported by aviation regulation. Practitioner Summary: The responsibility for tasks during flight varies according to the flight rules used and airspace type. Helicopter pilots may attribute responsibility to controllers for tasks when controllers have no responsibility as defined by regulation. This variation between pilot perceptions of controller responsibility could affect safety within the London control zone.

  2. World helicopter market study

    Cleary, B.; Pearson, R. W.; Greenwood, S. W.; Kaplan, L.

    1978-01-01

    The extent of the threat to the US helicopter industry posed by a determined effort by foreign manufacturers, European companies in particular, to supply their own domestic markets and also to penetrate export markets, including the USA is assessed. Available data on US and world markets for civil and military uses are collated and presented in both graphic and tabular form showing the past history of production and markets and, where forecasts are available, anticipated future trends. The data are discussed on an item-by-item basis and inferences are drawn in as much depth as appears justified.

  3. Helicopter Icing Review.

    1980-09-01

    helicopter (i.e. in an icing tunnel or engine test cell ) and therefore can be subjected to controlled icing where spe- cific problems can be safely...evaluation. 69 2.2.5.2 Ice Protection Systems Demonstration Many of the systems noted in 2.2.5.1 can be evaluated in icing test cells or icing wind tunnels...Figure 2-32 illustrates a typical rotor deice system control arrangement. 104 (N >4 A.dO INaH -E- C4) uo U En 9 E-1 H m I ~z O 04 04iH U 0 El4 E-f C E

  4. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng

    2012-01-01

    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  5. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  6. Helicopters for the future

    Ward, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Technology needed to provide the basis for creating a widening rotary wing market include: well defined and proven design; reductions in noise, vibration, and fuel consumption; improvement of flying and ride quality; better safety; reliability; maintainability; and productivity. Unsteady transonic flow, yawed flow, dynamic stall, and blade vortex interaction are some of the problems faced by scientists and engineers in the helicopter industry with rotorcraft technology seen as an important development for future advanced high speed vehicle configurations. Such aircraft as the Boeing Vertol medium lift Model 360 composite aircraft, the Sikorsky Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) aircraft, the Bell Textron XV-15 Tilt Rotor Aircraft, and the X-wing rotor aircraft are discussed in detail. Even though rotorcraft technology has become an integral part of the military scene, the potential market for its civil applications has not been fully developed.

  7. Cytohematological indices of cattle adaptation to the chronic radiation effect in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP.; Tsitogematologicheskie pokazateli adaptatsii u krupnogo rogatogo skota pri khronicheskom radiatsionnom vozdejstvii v Zone otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

    Panchenko, N A; Filimonov, I S; Zagorujko, E E; Gashchak, S P; Korisheva, A P [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine); [Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoe Ob` ` edinenie Pripyat` , Chernobyl (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Peripheral blood cells have been examined in cattle from the experimental farm in the 10 km zone of the Chernobyl NPP. With that aim 25 animals of different age groups and generations were investigation. Appearance of heteropholic granulocytes and << specific >> basophilic cells which heterogeneity is explained by their morphological and functional attribution has been observed.

  8. Helicopter fuel burn modeling in AEDT.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents work done to enhance helicopter fuel consumption modeling in the Federal Aviation : Administrations Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). Fuel consumption and flight performance data : were collected from helicopter flig...

  9. The estimation of 137Cs and 90Sr location in the biomass of the macrophytes from the Yenisei river (Krasnoyarsky region, Russia) and Glubokoe lake (Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, Ukraine)

    Zotina, T.A.; Bolsunovskiy, A.Ya.; Klenus, V.G.; Gudkov, D.I.; Belyaev, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of cesium and strontium as well as their chemical analogs potassium and calcium in the biomass of aquatic plants collected in zone of radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River and in Glubokoe Lake, in Chernobyl accident exclusion zone, was investigated with chemical fractionation technique. Despite of the essential difference in activity concentration in the biomass of the plants from the two water bodies, the distribution of 137 Cs among the biomass fractions was similar. 90 Sr was recorded in the biomass in more mobile form, than 137 Cs. The distribution of cesium in the biomass of plants essentially differed from the distribution of it's chemical analog, potassium. The distribution of elements - analogs, 90 S and Ca, in the biomass of the plants was similar. More than half of cesium concentration in the samples of plants from the Yenisei River was associated with particles of seston, bound to the surface of the plants. The results obtained should be considered while interpret the data of radioecological monitoring and modeling of the migration of radionuclides in the water bodies.

  10. Investigating Flight with a Toy Helicopter

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Flight fascinates people of all ages. Recent advances in battery technology have extended the capabilities of model airplanes and toy helicopters. For those who have never outgrown a childhood enthusiasm for the wonders of flight, it is possible to buy inexpensive, remotely controlled planes and helicopters. A toy helicopter offers an opportunity…

  11. 46 CFR 109.577 - Helicopter fueling.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling. 109.577 Section 109.577 Shipping... Miscellaneous § 109.577 Helicopter fueling. (a) The master or person in charge shall designate persons to conduct helicopter fueling operations. (b) Portable tanks are handled and stowed in accordance with...

  12. Helicopter transport: help or hindrance?

    Plevin, Rebecca E; Evans, Heather L

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic injury continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the year 2011. In addition, the healthcare expenditures and lost years of productivity represent significant economic cost to the affected individuals and their communities. Helicopters have been used to transport trauma patients for the past 40 years, but there are conflicting data on the benefits of helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in civilian trauma systems. Debate persists regarding the mortality benefit, cost-effectiveness, and safety of helicopter usage, largely because the studies to date vary widely in design and generalizability to trauma systems serving heterogeneous populations and geography. Strict criteria should be established to determine when HEMS transport is warranted and most likely to positively affect patient outcomes. Individual trauma systems should conduct an assessment of their resources and needs in order to most effectively incorporate helicopter transport into their triage model. Research suggests that HEMS improves mortality in certain subgroups of trauma patients, both after transport from the scene of injury and following interfacility transport. Studies examining the cost-effectiveness of HEMS had mixed results, but the majority found that it is a cost-effective tool. Safety remains an issue of contention with HEMS transport, as helicopters are associated with significant safety risk to the crew and patient. However, this risk may be justified provided there is a substantial mortality benefit to be gained. Recent studies suggest that strict criteria should be established to determine when helicopter transport is warranted and most likely to positively affect patient outcomes. Individual trauma systems should conduct an assessment of their resources and needs in order to most effectively incorporate HEMS into their triage model. This will enable regional hospitals to determine if the costs and safety risks associated with HEMS are worthwhile

  13. 78 FR 9793 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Helicopters

    2013-02-12

    ...-numbered main rotor hub inboard strap fittings (fittings). This AD requires magnetic particle inspecting... identified in this AD, contact Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc., P.O. Box 482, Fort Worth, TX 76101, telephone..., perform a magnetic particle inspection (MPI) of each fitting for a crack. If an MPI was already performed...

  14. A dose rate causes no fluctuating asymmetry indexes changes in silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    Kashparova, Elena; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Morozova, Valeriia; Kashparov, Valery

    2018-06-04

    The assessment of the fluctuating asymmetry based on measurement of the parameters of left and right parts of silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and relative sizes of pairs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) was carried out. Twelve samples of both birch leaves and pairs of needles were collected from 10 trees at 5 sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and also at one control site located outside the ChEZ. Values of gamma dose rate in the air varied between the sites from 0.1 to 40 μGy h -1 . Activity concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the birch leaves varied over the range of 0.9÷2460 kBq kg -1 and 0.1÷339 kBq·kg -1 (DW), respectively. In addition to the above, in the Scots pine needles, these ranges were 0.7 ÷1970 kBq kg -1 f for 90 Sr and 0.1÷78 kBq kg -1 (DW) for 137 Cs. From the values of the radionuclides activity concentrations in the plants, the internal dose rate is estimated to be in the range of 0.1 ÷ 274 μGy h -1 . The main sources of the internal dose rate were radiation of 90 Sr and 90 Y. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch leaves and Scots pine needles varied over the range of 0.048 ± 0.007 ÷ 0.060 ± 0.009 and 0.014 ± 0.002 ÷ 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively, and did not statistically differ for all experimental sites. The indices also did not depend on the external or internal dose rate of ionizing radiation for plants. The above findings seem to be consistent with other research effort in terms of understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long-term effects of large scale nuclear accidents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Helicopter-Ship Qualification Testing

    Hoencamp, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop a novel test methodology which can be used for optimizing cost and time efficiency of helicopter-ship qualification testing without reducing safety. For this purpose, the so-called “SHOL-X” test methodology has been established, which includes the

  16. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  17. Smart actuation for helicopter rotorblades

    Paternoster, Alexandre; Loendersloot, Richard; de Boer, Andries; Akkerman, Remko; Berselli, G.; Vertechy, R.; Vassura, G.

    2012-01-01

    Successful rotorcrafts were only achieved when the differences between hovering flight conditions and a stable forward flight were understood. During hovering, the air speed on all helicopter blades is linearly distributed along each blade and is the same for each. However, during forward flight,

  18. Helicopter detection and classification demonstrator

    Koersel, A.C. van

    2000-01-01

    A technology demonstrator that detects and classifies different helicopter types automatically, was developed at TNO-FEL. The demonstrator is based on a PC, which receives its acoustic input from an all-weather microphone. The demonstrator uses commercial off-the-shelf hardware to digitize the

  19. Origin of microbial life hypothesis: a gel cytoplasm lacking a bilayer membrane, with infrared radiation producing exclusion zone (EZ) water, hydrogen as an energy source and thermosynthesis for bioenergetics.

    Trevors, J T; Pollack, G H

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis is proposed that pre-biotic bacterial cell(s) and the first cells capable of growth/division did not require a cytoplasmic membrane. A gel-like microscopic structure less than a cubic micrometer may have had a dual role as both an ancient pre-cytoplasm and a boundary layer to the higher-entropy external environment. The gel pre-cytoplasm exposed to radiant energy, especially in the infrared (IR) region of the EM spectrum resulted in the production of an exclusion zone (EZ) with a charge differential (-100 to -200 mV) and boundary that may have been a possible location for the latter organization of the first cytoplasmic membrane. Pre-biotic cells and then-living cells may have used hydrogen as the universal energy source, and thermosynthesis in their bioenergetic processes. These components will be discussed as to how they are interconnected, and their hypothesized roles in the origin of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A Helicopter submarine Search Game

    1988-09-01

    Figure 3. Graphical representation of Baston and Bostock ................. 10 Figure 4. Dips and Speed Circle...dimen.ional helicopter submarine gaines studied by Meinardi [Ref. 7] and more recently by Baston and Bostock [Ref. 8]. Meinardi solves a discr,-te form of...the game while Baston and Bostock solve the continuous case. Bes.ides Danskin’s game, not much work has been done on the two dimensional case except

  1. Surveys of Students Challenge "Helicopter Parent" Stereotypes

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Stories of "helicopter parents" abound. But several longtime student-affairs officials agree that while helicopter parents are real, their numbers--and behaviors--have been exaggerated. Parental involvement on campus, they say, is usually more of a help than a headache, for students and colleges alike. Some officials believe colleges must do even…

  2. 29 CFR 1926.551 - Helicopters.

    2010-07-01

    ...) Loose gear and objects. Every practical precaution shall be taken to provide for the protection of the employees from flying objects in the rotor downwash. All loose gear within 100 feet of the place of lifting... manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter. If, for any reason, the helicopter operator...

  3. 46 CFR 108.487 - Helicopter deck fueling operations.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter deck fueling operations. 108.487 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.487 Helicopter deck fueling operations. (a) Each helicopter landing deck on which fueling operations are...

  4. 46 CFR 108.489 - Helicopter fueling facilities.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter fueling facilities. 108.489 Section 108.489... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Protection for Helicopter Facilities § 108.489 Helicopter fueling facilities. (a) Each helicopter fueling facility must have a fire protection system that...

  5. Helicopter overtriage in pediatric trauma.

    Michailidou, Maria; Goldstein, Seth D; Salazar, Jose; Aboagye, Jonathan; Stewart, Dylan; Efron, David; Abdullah, Fizan; Haut, Elliot R

    2014-11-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) have been designed to provide faster access to trauma center care in cases of life-threatening injury. However, the ideal recipient population is not fully characterized, and indications for helicopter transport in pediatric trauma vary dramatically by county, state, and region. Overtriage, or unnecessary utilization, can lead to additional patient risk and expense. In this study we perform a nationwide descriptive analysis of HEMS for pediatric trauma and assess the incidence of overtriage in this group. We reviewed records from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (2008-11) and included patients less than 16 years of age who were transferred from the scene of injury to a trauma center via HEMS. Overtriage was defined as patients meeting all of the following criteria: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) equal to 15, absence of hypotension, an Injury Severity Score (ISS) less than 9, no need for procedure or critical care, and a hospital length of stay of less than 24 hours. A total of 19,725 patients were identified with a mean age of 10.5 years. The majority of injuries were blunt (95.6%) and resulted from motor vehicle crashes (48%) and falls (15%). HEMS transported patients were predominately normotensive (96%), had a GCS of 15 (67%), and presented with minor injuries (ISS<9, 41%). Overall, 28 % of patients stayed in the hospital for less than 24 hours, and the incidence of overtriage was 17%. Helicopter overtriage is prevalent among pediatric trauma patients nationwide. The ideal model to predict need for HEMS must consider clinical outcomes in the context of judicious resource utilization. The development of guidelines for HEMS use in pediatric trauma could potentially limit unnecessary transfers while still identifying children who require trauma center care in a timely fashion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. STUDY ON SAFETY TECHNOLOGY SCHEME OF THE UNMANNED HELICOPTER

    Z. Lin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the unmanned helicopter is widely used for its' unique strongpoint, however, the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter seriously limits its further application and development. For solving the above problems, in this paper, the reasons for the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter is analyzed and the corresponding solution schemes are proposed. The main problem of the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is the aircraft engine fault, and the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is analyzed particularly. In order to improving the safety performance of unmanned helicopter system, the scheme of adding the safety parachute system to the unmanned helicopter system is proposed and introduced. These schemes provide the safety redundancy of the unmanned helicopter system and lay on basis for the unmanned helicopter applying into residential areas.

  7. Helicopter Flight Procedures for Community Noise Reduction

    Greenwood, Eric

    2017-01-01

    A computationally efficient, semiempirical noise model suitable for maneuvering flight noise prediction is used to evaluate the community noise impact of practical variations on several helicopter flight procedures typical of normal operations. Turns, "quick-stops," approaches, climbs, and combinations of these maneuvers are assessed. Relatively small variations in flight procedures are shown to cause significant changes to Sound Exposure Levels over a wide area. Guidelines are developed for helicopter pilots intended to provide effective strategies for reducing the negative effects of helicopter noise on the community. Finally, direct optimization of flight trajectories is conducted to identify low noise optimal flight procedures and quantify the magnitude of community noise reductions that can be obtained through tailored helicopter flight procedures. Physically realizable optimal turns and approaches are identified that achieve global noise reductions of as much as 10 dBA Sound Exposure Level.

  8. 29 CFR 1910.183 - Helicopters.

    2010-07-01

    ... objects. The employer shall take all necessary precautions to protect employees from flying objects in the... safety. The size and weight of loads, and the manner in which loads are connected to the helicopter shall...

  9. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  10. Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science

    1991-05-13

    ATTACK HELICOPTER OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAN CALLEN United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release...TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NC 11. TITLE (Include Socurity Classification) Attack Helicopter Operations: Art or Science ? 12. PERSONAL...OPERATIONS: ART OR SCIENCE ? AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY PROJECT by Lieutenant Colonel Jan Callen United States Army Colonel Greg Snelgrove Project Adviser U.S

  11. Helicopter training simulators: Key market factors

    Mcintosh, John

    1992-01-01

    Simulators will gain an increasingly important role in training helicopter pilots only if the simulators are of sufficient fidelity to provide positive transfer of skills to the aircraft. This must be done within an economic model of return on investment. Although rotor pilot demand is still only a small percentage of overall pilot requirements, it will grow in significance. This presentation described the salient factors influencing the use of helicopter training simulators.

  12. Using Helicopter Electromagnetic Surveys to Identify Potential Hazards at Mine Waste Impoundments

    Hammack, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    In July 2003, helicopter electromagnetic surveys were conducted at 14 coal waste impoundments in southern West Virginia. The purpose of the surveys was to detect conditions that could lead to impoundment failure either by structural failure of the embankment or by the flooding of adjacent or underlying mine works. Specifically, the surveys attempted to: 1) identify saturated zones within the mine waste, 2) delineate filtrate flow paths through the embankment or into adjacent strata and receiving streams, and 3) identify flooded mine workings underlying or adjacent to the waste impoundment. Data from the helicopter surveys were processed to generate conductivity/depth images. Conductivity/depth images were then spatially linked to georeferenced air photos or topographic maps for interpretation. Conductivity/depth images were found to provide a snapshot of the hydrologic conditions that exist within the impoundment. This information can be used to predict potential areas of failure within the embankment because of its ability to image the phreatic zone. Also, the electromagnetic survey can identify areas of unconsolidated slurry in the decant basin and beneath the embankment. Although shallow, flooded mineworks beneath the impoundment were identified by this survey, it cannot be assumed that electromagnetic surveys can detect all underlying mines. A preliminary evaluation of the data implies that helicopter electromagnetic surveys can provide a better understanding of the phreatic zone than the piezometer arrays that are typically used.

  13. Integrated flight path planning system and flight control system for unmanned helicopters.

    Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM).

  14. Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters

    Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM). PMID:22164029

  15. Environmental Assessment: Apalachicola National Forest Helicopter Landing Zones Florida

    2003-12-01

    wilderness area is limited to primitive recreational uses. Permanent improvements or human habitation including grazing, mining, timber cutting ...Ruellia noctiflora/White-Flowered Wild Petunia Both Schisandra glabra/Bay starvine Both Schoenolirion albiflorum!White sunnybells Both Silphium

  16. On-line coupling of size-exclusion chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis via a reversed-phase C18 trapping column for the determination of peptides in biological samples

    Stroink, T.; Schravendijk, P.; Wiese, G.; Teeuwsen, J.; Lingeman, H.; Waterval, J.C.M.; Bult, A.; de Jong, G.T.; Underberg, W.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Since biologically active peptides usually exhibit their effects in low concentrations, the development of sensitive analytical methods has become a challenge. In this paper, a multidimensional system is presented, consisting of a size-exclusion chromatographic (SEC) separation followed by a

  17. The making of helicopters: its strategic implications for EMS helicopter operations.

    Thomas, F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide EMS helicopter personnel with an understanding of the civil helicopter manufacturing industry. Specifically, this article examines the current helicopter marketplace and how various manufactures are responding to the recent decline in new helicopter sales. This article further describes how helicopters are designed and manufactured and how global markets, international competition, and strategic considerations are influencing future helicopter design and production. Data for this paper were obtained from a literature search through the ABI-inform Telnet Services offered through the University of Utah Marriott Library. On a search of "helicopter" during the past 5 years, 566 abstracts were identified, all of which were reviewed for information related to the purpose of this article. Forty-seven articles were identified and read in detail for information that may have related to the purpose of this article. In addition, a library search to identify textbooks that describe helicopter production systems was undertaken but did not identify any written resources. Because of the lack of written resources available in writing this article, a direct interview survey of leading helicopter manufactures, associations, and industry writers was conducted. Only information that was considered "public knowledge" was available because of concerns by the various manufactures that publication of confidential information could be detrimental to their competitive advantage. Because helicopter-manufacturing plants were not located within easy travel range, no direct observation of the production facilities could be undertaken. Furthermore, information regarding production and operational management was not easily accessible because the data were not published or were considered confidential. Therefore industry analysis had to take place through direct survey interviewing technique and data obtained through an analysis of the available published

  18. Long Island north shore helicopter route environmental study

    2012-02-21

    This report presents the results of the noise and emissions analysis of helicopter operations along the North Shore Helicopter Route of Long Island, New York performed by the Federal Aviation Administration, with the assistance of the Volpe Center...

  19. Analysing Blast and Fragment Penetration Effects on Composite Helicopter Structures

    van't Hof, C; Herlaar, K; Luyten, J. M; van der Jagt, M. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The last decades the threat of helicopters has increased in military circumstances. Consequently the helicopters will be exposed to weapon effects like high blast loads and fragment impact more frequently...

  20. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for

  1. Input Shaping for Helicopter Slung Load Swing Reduction

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a feedforward swing reducing control system for augmenting already existing helicopter controllers and enables slung load flight with autonomous helicopters general cargo transport. The feedforward controller is designed to avoid excitation of the lightly damped modes...

  2. 77 FR 56581 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-09-13

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice of... airworthiness directive (AD) for the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopter, which... proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop...

  3. 77 FR 23382 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-04-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the manufacturer's..., contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, Mailstop s581a, 6900...

  4. 77 FR 41889 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-07-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  5. 77 FR 49710 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-08-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76A helicopters to require modifying the electric rotor brake (ERB... service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  6. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  7. 14 CFR 136.13 - Helicopter performance plan and operations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter performance plan and operations... Helicopter performance plan and operations. (a) Each operator must complete a performance plan before each helicopter commercial air tour, or flight operated under 14 CFR 91.146 or 91.147. The pilot in command must...

  8. 14 CFR 135.207 - VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR: Helicopter surface reference... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.207 VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements. No person may operate a helicopter under VFR unless that person has visual surface reference or...

  9. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  10. Helicopter emergency medical service patient transport safe at night?

    Peters, J.H.; Wageningen, B. van; Hoogerwerf, N.; Biert, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dutch helicopter emergency medical services are available 24/7. Working without daylight brings additional challenges, both in patient care and in-flight operation. We retrospectively evaluated the safety of this nighttime helicopter transportation of patients. METHODS: Our helicopter

  11. 14 CFR 136.11 - Helicopter floats for over water.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter floats for over water. 136.11... TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.11 Helicopter floats for over water. (a) A helicopter used in commercial air tours over water beyond the shoreline must...

  12. 46 CFR 132.320 - Helicopter-landing decks.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Helicopter-landing decks. 132.320 Section 132.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS FIRE-PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 132.320 Helicopter-landing decks. Each vessel with a helicopter-landing deck must...

  13. 78 FR 51123 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron

    2013-08-20

    ...-0734; Directorate Identifier 2012-SW-080-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter...). SUMMARY: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Bell Helicopter Textron (Bell) Model 222, 222B, 222U, 230, and 430 helicopters. The existing AD currently requires inspecting...

  14. 78 FR 44043 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-07-23

    ... lead to failure of the swashplate and subsequent loss of helicopter control. DATES: We must receive..., which may cause failure of MRH parts and loss of control of the helicopter. The EASA AD requires..., Section 2.3 Flight Envelope, Item 2 Temperature Limits, of the helicopter's Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM...

  15. Helicopter industry - early beginnings to now; an outlook on the helicopter market and its major players in the rotorcraft industry

    Spranger, L.

    2013-01-01

    The helicopter is probably the most flexible aircraft that we know today. Although its history dates back to around 1500, the first practical helicopter wasn’t manufactured until the 1940s, roughly three decades after the Wright brothers’ first powered human flight. Today, helicopters fulfil a wide

  16. Simulation of Flow around Isolated Helicopter Fuselage

    Garipov A.O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Low fuselage drag has always been a key target of helicopter manufacturers. Therefore, this paper focuses on CFD predictions of the drag of several components of a typical helicopter fuselage. In the first section of the paper, validation of the obtained CFD predictions is carried out using wind tunnel measurements. The measurements were carried out at the Kazan National Research Technical University n.a. A. Tupolev. The second section of the paper is devoted to the analysis of drag contributions of several components of the ANSAT helicopter prototype fuselage using the RANS approach. For this purpose, several configurations of fuselages are considered with different levels of complexity including exhausts and skids. Depending on the complexity of the considered configuration and CFD mesh both the multi-block structured HMB solver and the unstructured commercial tool Fluent are used. Finally, the effect of an actuator disk on the predicted drag is addressed.

  17. Minimum-complexity helicopter simulation math model

    Heffley, Robert K.; Mnich, Marc A.

    1988-01-01

    An example of a minimal complexity simulation helicopter math model is presented. Motivating factors are the computational delays, cost, and inflexibility of the very sophisticated math models now in common use. A helicopter model form is given which addresses each of these factors and provides better engineering understanding of the specific handling qualities features which are apparent to the simulator pilot. The technical approach begins with specification of features which are to be modeled, followed by a build up of individual vehicle components and definition of equations. Model matching and estimation procedures are given which enable the modeling of specific helicopters from basic data sources such as flight manuals. Checkout procedures are given which provide for total model validation. A number of possible model extensions and refinement are discussed. Math model computer programs are defined and listed.

  18. Helicopter trajectory planning using optimal control theory

    Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for optimal trajectory planning, useful in the nap-of-the-earth guidance of helicopters, is presented. This approach uses an adjoint-control transformation along with a one-dimensional search scheme for generating the optimal trajectories. In addition to being useful for helicopter nap-of-the-earth guidance, the trajectory planning solution is of interest in several other contexts, such as robotic vehicle guidance and terrain-following guidance for cruise missiles and aircraft. A distinguishing feature of the present research is that the terrain constraint and the threat envelopes are incorporated in the equations of motion. Second-order necessary conditions are examined.

  19. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    Social exclusion anxiety is a term which builds on a social-psychological concept of human beings as existentially dependent on social embeddedness. This entry explores the concept in relation to bullying among children, which is a widespread and serious problem in schools and institutions. Social...... exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...... psychological condition. Social exclusion anxiety instead points to a distributed affect which circulates and smolders in all social groups. This is the result of an ever-present risk of someone being judged unworthy to belong to, or deemed not a legitimate participant in, a social group. Such anxiety may...

  20. The Counterproductive Effects of Helicopter Universities

    Von Bergen, C. W.; Bressler, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    Perhaps universities have gone too far in their attempts to provide the best learning experience for our students? We have heard of helicopter parents who hover over their sons and daughters, removing all obstacles their student might face and solve problems for them. Have colleges and universities adopted this same kind of behavior in their…

  1. Helicopter Parents Can Be a Good Thing

    Hiltz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter parents get a bad rap. Teachers and administrators should view them as a resource--not a nuisance. By encouraging open communication, teachers can begin to understand the motivations of these parents and find creative ways to connect them with opportunities to promote their students' academic success and the school's overall…

  2. Helicopter Parents Help Students, Survey Finds

    Lipka, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Helicopter parents, notorious for hovering over their college-age children, may actually help students thrive, according to this year's National Survey of Student Engagement. Students whose parents intervene on their behalf--38 percent of freshmen and 29 percent of seniors--are more active in and satisfied with college, says the monstrous annual…

  3. Feasibility of Helicopter Support Seek Frost.

    1980-05-01

    the allowable maximum weight can be used as the payload. The payload is a variable. Small helicopters with full fuel and auxillary tanks can fly...equipment, that the program to obtain icing approval on the S-76 will be finalized for management evaluation, and a decision can be made at that time to

  4. Performance Measurement in Helicopter Training and Operations.

    Prophet, Wallace W.

    For almost 15 years, HumRRO Division No. 6 has conducted an active research program on techniques for measuring the flight performance of helicopter trainees and pilots. This program addressed both the elemental aspects of flying (i.e., maneuvers) and the mission- or goal-oriented aspects. A variety of approaches has been investigated, with the…

  5. Helicopter noise footprint prediction in unsteady maneuvers

    Gennaretti, Massimo; Bernardini, Giovanni; Serafini, Jacopo; Anobile, A.; Hartjes, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates different methodologies for the evaluation of the acoustic disturbance emitted by helicopter’s main rotors during unsteady maneuvers. Nowadays, the simulation of noise emitted by helicopters is of great interest to designers, both for the assessment of the acoustic impact

  6. Multicenter observational prehospital resuscitation on helicopter study.

    Holcomb, John B; Swartz, Michael D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Greene, Thomas J; Fox, Erin E; Stein, Deborah M; Bulger, Eileen M; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Goodman, Michael; Schreiber, Martin A; Zielinski, Martin D; O'Keeffe, Terence; Inaba, Kenji; Tomasek, Jeffrey S; Podbielski, Jeanette M; Appana, Savitri N; Yi, Misung; Wade, Charles E

    2017-07-01

    Earlier use of in-hospital plasma, platelets, and red blood cells (RBCs) has improved survival in trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. Retrospective studies have associated improved early survival with prehospital blood product transfusion (PHT). We hypothesized that PHT of plasma and/or RBCs would result in improved survival after injury in patients transported by helicopter. Adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma centers were prospectively observed from January to November 2015. Five helicopter systems had plasma and/or RBCs, whereas the other four helicopter systems used only crystalloid resuscitation. All patients meeting predetermined high-risk criteria were analyzed. Patients receiving PHT were compared with patients not receiving PHT. Our primary analysis compared mortality at 3 hours, 24 hours, and 30 days, using logistic regression to adjust for confounders and site heterogeneity to model patients who were matched on propensity scores. Twenty-five thousand one hundred eighteen trauma patients were admitted, 2,341 (9%) were transported by helicopter, of which 1,058 (45%) met the highest-risk criteria. Five hundred eighty-five of 1,058 patients were flown on helicopters carrying blood products. In the systems with blood available, prehospital median systolic blood pressure (125 vs 128) and Glasgow Coma Scale (7 vs 14) was significantly lower, whereas median Injury Severity Score was significantly higher (21 vs 14). Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in the systems with blood products available, at 3 hours (8.4% vs 3.6%), 24 hours (12.6% vs 8.9%), and 30 days (19.3% vs 13.3%). Twenty-four percent of eligible patients received a PHT. A median of 1 unit of RBCs and plasma were transfused prehospital. Of patients receiving PHT, 24% received only plasma, 7% received only RBCs, and 69% received both. In the propensity score matching analysis (n = 109), PHT was not significantly associated with mortality

  7. 75 FR 51945 - Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD

    2010-08-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... of the St. Mary's River, a tributary of the Potomac River. This action is necessary to provide for.... Navy helicopter located near St. Inigoes, Maryland. This safety zone is intended to protect the...

  8. Helicopter Control Energy Reduction Using Moving Horizontal Tail

    Oktay, Tugrul; Sal, Firat

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter moving horizontal tail (i.e., MHT) strategy is applied in order to save helicopter flight control system (i.e., FCS) energy. For this intention complex, physics-based, control-oriented nonlinear helicopter models are used. Equations of MHT are integrated into these models and they are together linearized around straight level flight condition. A specific variance constrained control strategy, namely, output variance constrained Control (i.e., OVC) is utilized for helicopter FCS. Control energy savings due to this MHT idea with respect to a conventional helicopter are calculated. Parameters of helicopter FCS and dimensions of MHT are simultaneously optimized using a stochastic optimization method, namely, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (i.e., SPSA). In order to observe improvement in behaviors of classical controls closed loop analyses are done. PMID:26180841

  9. Helicopter Control Energy Reduction Using Moving Horizontal Tail

    Tugrul Oktay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicopter moving horizontal tail (i.e., MHT strategy is applied in order to save helicopter flight control system (i.e., FCS energy. For this intention complex, physics-based, control-oriented nonlinear helicopter models are used. Equations of MHT are integrated into these models and they are together linearized around straight level flight condition. A specific variance constrained control strategy, namely, output variance constrained Control (i.e., OVC is utilized for helicopter FCS. Control energy savings due to this MHT idea with respect to a conventional helicopter are calculated. Parameters of helicopter FCS and dimensions of MHT are simultaneously optimized using a stochastic optimization method, namely, simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (i.e., SPSA. In order to observe improvement in behaviors of classical controls closed loop analyses are done.

  10. Development and evaluation of a helicopter-borne water-quality monitoring system

    Wallace, J. W.; Jordan, R. A.; Flynn, J.; Thomas, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A small, helicopter-borne water-quality monitoring package is being developed by the NASA/EPA using a combination of basic in situ water quality sensors and physical sample collector technology. The package is a lightweight system which can be carried and operated by one person as a passenger in a small helicopter typically available by rental at commercial airports. Real-time measurements are made by suspending the water quality monitoring package with a cable from the hovering helicopter. Designed primarily for use in rapidly assessing hazardous material spills in inland and coastal zone water bodies, the system can survey as many as 20 data stations up to 1.5 kilometers apart in 1 hour. The system provides several channels of sensor data and allows for the addition of future sensors. The system will also collect samples from selected sites with sample collection on command. An EPA Spill Response Team member can easily transport, deploy, and operate the water quality monitoring package to determine the distribution, movement, and concentration of the spilled material in the water body.

  11. Preliminary Analysis of Helicopter Options to Support Tunisian Counterterrorism Operations

    2016-04-27

    helicopters from Sikorsky to fulfill a number of roles in counterterrorism operations. Rising costs and delays in delivery raised the question of...whether other cost-effective options exist to meet Tunisia’s helicopter requirement. Approach Our team conducted a preliminary assessment of...alternative helicopters for counterterrorism air assault missions. Any decision to acquire an aircraft must consider many factors, including technical

  12. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems usingintentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integra...

  13. An anthropometric analysis of Korean male helicopter pilots for helicopter cockpit design.

    Lee, Wonsup; Jung, Kihyo; Jeong, Jeongrim; Park, Jangwoon; Cho, Jayoung; Kim, Heeeun; Park, Seikwon; You, Heecheon

    2013-01-01

    This study measured 21 anthropometric dimensions (ADs) of 94 Korean male helicopter pilots in their 20s to 40s and compared them with corresponding measurements of Korean male civilians and the US Army male personnel. The ADs and the sample size of the anthropometric survey were determined by a four-step process: (1) selection of ADs related to helicopter cockpit design, (2) evaluation of the importance of each AD, (3) calculation of required sample sizes for selected precision levels and (4) determination of an appropriate sample size by considering both the AD importance evaluation results and the sample size requirements. The anthropometric comparison reveals that the Korean helicopter pilots are larger (ratio of means = 1.01-1.08) and less dispersed (ratio of standard deviations = 0.71-0.93) than the Korean male civilians and that they are shorter in stature (0.99), have shorter upper limbs (0.89-0.96) and lower limbs (0.93-0.97), but are taller on sitting height, sitting eye height and acromial height (1.01-1.03), and less dispersed (0.68-0.97) than the US Army personnel. The anthropometric characteristics of Korean male helicopter pilots were compared with those of Korean male civilians and US Army male personnel. The sample size determination process and the anthropometric comparison results presented in this study are useful to design an anthropometric survey and a helicopter cockpit layout, respectively.

  14. The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...

  15. Exclusive Production at CMS

    Walczak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    I briefly introduce so-called central exclusive production. I mainly focus on the example analyses that have been performed in the CMS experiment at CERN. I conclude with ideas and perspectives for future work that will be done during Run 2 of the LHC. I pay special attention to the ultraperipheral collisions.

  16. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  17. Social exclusion of children

    Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This

  18. Automatic guidance and control laws for helicopter obstacle avoidance

    Cheng, Victor H. L.; Lam, T.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the implementation of a full-function guidance and control system for automatic obstacle avoidance in helicopter nap-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. The guidance function assumes that the helicopter is sufficiently responsive so that the flight path can be readily adjusted at NOE speeds. The controller, basically an autopilot for following the derived flight path, was implemented with parameter values to control a generic helicopter model used in the simulation. Evaluation of the guidance and control system with a 3-dimensional graphical helicopter simulation suggests that the guidance has the potential for providing good and meaningful flight trajectories.

  19. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. 2014.

  20. NASA/FAA helicopter simulator workshop

    Larsen, William E. (Editor); Randle, Robert J., Jr. (Editor); Bray, Richard S. (Editor); Zuk, John (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A workshop was convened by the FAA and NASA for the purpose of providing a forum at which leading designers, manufacturers, and users of helicopter simulators could initiate and participate in a development process that would facilitate the formulation of qualification standards by the regulatory agency. Formal papers were presented, special topics were discussed in breakout sessions, and a draft FAA advisory circular defining specifications for helicopter simulators was presented and discussed. A working group of volunteers was formed to work with the National Simulator Program Office to develop a final version of the circular. The workshop attracted 90 individuals from a constituency of simulator manufacturers, training organizations, the military, civil regulators, research scientists, and five foreign countries.

  1. Autonomous vertical autorotation for unmanned helicopters

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are considered the stepping stone for the integration of civil unmanned vehicles in the National Airspace System (NAS) because of their low cost and risk. Such systems are aimed at a variety of applications including search and rescue, surveillance, communications, traffic monitoring and inspection of buildings, power lines and bridges. Amidst these systems, small helicopters play an important role because of their capability to hold a position, to maneuver in tight spaces and to take off and land from virtually anywhere. Nevertheless civil adoption of such systems is minimal, mostly because of regulatory problems that in turn are due to safety concerns. This dissertation examines the risk to safety imposed by UAS in general and small helicopters in particular, focusing on accidents resulting in a ground impact. To improve the performance of small helicopters in this area, the use of autonomous autorotation is proposed. This research goes beyond previous work in the area of autonomous autorotation by developing an on-line, model-based, real-time controller that is capable of handling constraints and different cost functions. The approach selected is based on a non-linear model-predictive controller, that is augmented by a neural network to improve the speed of the non-linear optimization. The immediate benefit of this controller is that a class of failures that would otherwise result in an uncontrolled crash and possible injuries or fatalities can now be accommodated. Furthermore besides simply landing the helicopter, the controller is also capable of minimizing the risk of serious injury to people in the area. This is accomplished by minimizing the kinetic energy during the last phase of the descent. The presented research is designed to benefit the entire UAS community as well as the public, by allowing for safer UAS operations, which in turn also allow faster and less expensive integration of UAS in the NAS.

  2. Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality

    2006-06-01

    PROCESS Blue screening involving human filming usually employs a blue or green backdrop, since skin contains little blue or green hue. These backdrops...Helicopter Aircrew Training Using Fused Reality 27 - 10 RTO-MP-HFM-136 a. b. c. d. e. f. Figure 13: Frames Showing Physical Object ( witch ... filming . However, when a user’s hands disrupt the light from a helmet-mounted light source, the shadows cast onto the distant background are diffuse and

  3. Learning Basic Mechatronics through Helicopter Workshop

    Adzly Anuar; Maryam Huda Ahmad Phesal; Azrul Abidin Zakaria; Goh Chin Hock; Sivadass Thiruchelvam; Dickson Neoh Tze How; Muhammad Fahmi Abdul Ghani; Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, technologies related to mechatronics and robotics is available even to elementary level students. It is now common to see schools in Malaysia using Lego Mindstorm as a tool for active learning on mechatronics and robotics. A new yet interesting way of learning mechatronics and robotics is introduced by Dr. Dan Barry, a former astronaut and his son Andrew Barry during their visit to Malaysia. The kits used are based on a 4-channel RC helicopter, Arduino Uno microcontroller, IR...

  4. High-integrity databases for helicopter operations

    Pschierer, Christian; Schiefele, Jens; Lüthy, Juerg

    2009-05-01

    Helicopter Emergency Medical Service missions (HEMS) impose a high workload on pilots due to short preparation time, operations in low level flight, and landings in unknown areas. The research project PILAS, a cooperation between Eurocopter, Diehl Avionics, DLR, EADS, Euro Telematik, ESG, Jeppesen, the Universities of Darmstadt and Munich, and funded by the German government, approached this problem by researching a pilot assistance system which supports the pilots during all phases of flight. The databases required for the specified helicopter missions include different types of topological and cultural data for graphical display on the SVS system, AMDB data for operations at airports and helipads, and navigation data for IFR segments. The most critical databases for the PILAS system however are highly accurate terrain and obstacle data. While RTCA DO-276 specifies high accuracies and integrities only for the areas around airports, HEMS helicopters typically operate outside of these controlled areas and thus require highly reliable terrain and obstacle data for their designated response areas. This data has been generated by a LIDAR scan of the specified test region. Obstacles have been extracted into a vector format. This paper includes a short overview of the complete PILAS system and then focus on the generation of the required high quality databases.

  5. Exclusive processes in QCD

    Mueller, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this talk I concentrate on purely exclusive processes. In Sec. II form factors and exclusive decays of heavy quarkonium states will be discussed. In Sec. III elastic wide angle elastic scattering will be considered with emphasis placed on the energy dependence for a fixed angle. The x → 1 limit of structure functions is discussed in Sec. IV. This is a limit which matches on, in a rather complicated way, with transition form factors. In Sec. V the idea of intrinsic charm is considered, mostly from a conceptual viewpoint as to its definition and possible existence. In Sec. VI there is a brief discussion of calculations of matrix elements which occur in deeply inelastic scattering by use of a bag model. In Sec. VII wee parton cancellations and Sudakov corrections for μ-pair production are considered. Sec. VIII concerns soft particle production and the mutliplicity of hadrons in a jet. (orig./HSI)

  6. The psychology of exclusivity

    Troy Jollimore

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.

  7. Landing Zone and Drop Zone Criteria

    2017-05-01

    Points of Impact (RPI) ............................................................................................. 75 6.5.5 Multiple Points of Impact ...Helicopter IFR runway (UFC 3-260-01, Fig. 4-2) ....................................................................... 48 11 IFR airspace imaginary...surfaces: IFR Helicopter runways and helipad (UFC 3- 260-01, Fig. 4-3

  8. Heat stress reduction of helicopter crew wearing a ventilated vest

    Reffeltrath, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Helicopter pilots are often exposed to periods of high heat strain, especially when wearing survival suits. Therefore, a prototype of a ventilated vest was evaluated on its capability to reduce the heat strain of helicopter pilots during a 2-h simulated flight. Hypothesis: It was

  9. Basic Helicopter Handbook, Revised. AC 61-13A.

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This technical manual was designed to assist applicants preparing for the private, commercial, and flight instructor pilot certificates with a helicopter rating. The chapters outline general aerodynamics, aerodynamics of flight, loads and load factors, function of controls, other helicopter components and their functions, introduction to the…

  10. Small-Scale Helicopter Automatic Autorotation : Modeling, Guidance, and Control

    Taamallah, S.

    2015-01-01

    Our research objective consists in developing a, model-based, automatic safety recovery system, for a small-scale helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in autorotation, i.e. an engine OFF flight condition, that safely flies and lands the helicopter to a pre-specified ground location. In pursuit

  11. Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: effects, costs and benefits

    A.N. Ringburg (Akkie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced prehospital medical care with air transport was introduced in the Netherlands in May 1995. The fi rst helicopter Mobile Medical Team, also called Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) was a joint venture initiative of the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam and the Algemene

  12. 78 FR 52407 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-08-23

    ... prevent failure of float and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter during an emergency water... requirements were intended to prevent failure of float and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter during... in the float becoming punctured, failure of the float to inflate, and subsequent loss of control of...

  13. The Helicopter Parent: Research toward a Typology (Part I)

    Somers, Patricia; Settle, Jim

    2010-01-01

    With 117,000 hits on a recent Google[TM] search, the phenomenon of helicopter parenting has been widely reported in the popular press. Yet the scholarly literature is anemic on the topic. This article, part one of a two-part series, presents the small body of research on helicopter parenting and describes a qualitative study of 190 participants…

  14. The Helicopter Parent (Part 2): International Arrivals and Departures

    Somers, Patricia; Settle, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of helicopter parenting has been widely reported, yet the research literature is anemic on the topic. Based on interviews and focus groups involving 190 academic and student services professionals, this article continues by discussing the social, psychological, economic, and cultural factors that influence helicoptering; exploring…

  15. Power harvesting using piezoelectric materials: applications in helicopter rotors

    de Jong, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The blades of helicopters are heavily loaded and are critical components. Failure of any one blade will lead to loss of the aircraft. Currently, the technical lifespan of helicopter blades is calculated using a worst-case operation scenario. The consequence is that a blade that may be suitable for,

  16. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Helicopter Model in Ground Resonance

    Tang, D. M.; Dowell, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate theoretical method is presented which determined the limit cycle behavior of a helicopter model which has one or two nonlinear dampers. The relationship during unstable ground resonance oscillations between lagging motion of the blades and fuselage motion is discussed. An experiment was carried out on using a helicopter scale model. The experimental results agree with those of the theoretical analysis.

  17. Vision Aided State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design and verification of a state estimator for a helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to augment the IMU driven estimator found in many helicopter UAV s and uses vision based updates only. The process model used for the estimator is a simple 4...

  18. Sleep and Alertness in North Sea Helicopter Operations

    Simons, M.; Wilschut, E.S.; Valk, P.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction : Dutch North Sea helicopter operations are characterized by multiple sector flights to offshore platforms under difficult environmental conditions. In the context of a Ministry of Transport program to improve safety levels of helicopter operations, we assessed effects of pre-duty

  19. 78 FR 15277 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-03-11

    ... the ASB as mandatory. Costs of Compliance We estimate that this AD affects three helicopters of U.S... of the helicopter's bottom structure. AD 2006- 0152 requires compliance with Eurocopter Alert Service... with France, EASA, its technical representative, has notified us of the unsafe condition described in...

  20. Modeling, Estimation, and Control of Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten

    and simulating different slung load suspension types. It further includes detection and response to wire slacking and tightening, it models the aerodynamic coupling between the helicopter and the load, and can be used for multilift systems with any combination of multiple helicopters and multiple loads...

  1. 77 FR 68057 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This AD requires installing an improved... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  2. 78 FR 23698 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-04-22

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward firewall center... Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street...

  3. 78 FR 60656 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters to require modifying the No. 1 engine forward... Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main...

  4. 77 FR 68061 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R... Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support, mailstop s581a, 6900 Main Street, Stratford, CT...

  5. 77 FR 18969 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-03-29

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-76C helicopters. This proposed AD is prompted by a bird-strike to.... For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn...

  6. 77 FR 28328 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-05-14

    ... Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters, which requires inspecting the tail rotor (T/R) pylon for a... service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager...

  7. 77 FR 21402 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A helicopters. This AD was prompted by the discovery of tail... identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Attn: Manager, Commercial Technical Support...

  8. Full State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    This paper presents the design of a state estimator system for a generic helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to deliver full rigid body state information for both helicopter and load and is based on the unscented Kalman filter. Two different approaches are investigated......: One based on a parameter free kinematic model and one based on a full aerodynamic helicopter and slung load model. The kinematic model approach uses acceleration and rate information from two Inertial Measurement Units, one on the helicopter and one on the load, to drive a simple kinematic model....... A simple and effective virtual sensor method is developed to maintain the constraints imposed by the wires in the system. The full model based approach uses a complex aerodynamical model to describe the helicopter together with a generic rigid body model. This rigid body model is based on a redundant...

  9. Full State Estimation for Helicopter Slung Load System

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a state estimator system for a generic helicopter based slung load system. The estimator is designed to deliver full rigid body state information for both helicopter and load and is based on the unscented Kalman filter. Two different approaches are investigated......: One based on a parameter free kinematic model and one based on a full aerodynamic helicopter and slung load model. The kinematic model approach uses acceleration and rate information from two Inertial Measurement Units, one on the helicopter and one on the load, to drive a simple kinematic model....... A simple and effective virtual sensor method is developed to maintain the constraints imposed by the wires in the system. The full model based approach uses a complex aerodynamical model to describe the helicopter together with a generic rigid body model. This rigid body model is based on a redundant...

  10. 75 FR 62639 - Air Ambulance and Commercial Helicopter Operations, Part 91 Helicopter Operations, and Part 135...

    2010-10-12

    ... helicopter air ambulance operators implement a safety management system program that includes sound risk... partially address NTSB Safety Recommendation A-09-89 regarding the implementation of sound risk management... documents. Authority for This Rulemaking The FAA's authority to issue rules on aviation safety is found in...

  11. 77 FR 64439 - Airworthiness Directives; Bell Helicopter Textron Canada (Bell) Model Helicopters

    2012-10-22

    ... unsafe condition for the Bell Model 430 helicopters. Discrepancies in the processing and display of air... pilot and copilot electronic attitude direction indicators airspeed indicators; [cir] Leak testing the... and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons discussed, I certify this...

  12. Using Discrete Event Simulation To Analyze Personnel Requirements For The Malaysian Armys New Utility Helicopter Fleet

    2016-06-01

    HELICOPTER FLEET Hasnan bin Mohamad Rais Major, Malaysian Army B.S., University Technology of Malaysia , 2000 Submitted in partial...HELICOPTER MAINTENANCE POLICY B. The objective of MAA helicopter maintenance activities is to preserve helicopter safety and mission reliability to

  13. 14 CFR 29.71 - Helicopter angle of glide: Category B.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter angle of glide: Category B. 29... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.71 Helicopter angle of glide: Category B. For each category B helicopter, except multiengine helicopters meeting the...

  14. 33 CFR 149.655 - What are the requirements for helicopter fueling facilities?

    2010-07-01

    ... helicopter fueling facilities? 149.655 Section 149.655 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Helicopter Fueling Facilities § 149.655 What are the requirements for helicopter fueling facilities? Helicopter fueling facilities must comply with 46 CFR 108.489 or an equivalent...

  15. Exclusion and authorization

    Cooper, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    'Everyone in the world is exposed to radiation from natural and artificial sources. Any realistic system of radiological protection must have a clearly defined scope if it is not to apply to the whole of mankind's activities'. This quote, from ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP, 1991), remains apposite. The main tool for defining scope is the concept of exclusion: situations, sources or exposures that are excluded from the system of radiological protection are, to all intents and purposes, ignored. Sources and exposures that are not excluded are within the scope of the system of protection and by inference within regulatory systems implementing ICRP recommendations. These sources and exposures should be subject to appropriate authorization by the relevant regulatory authority. In order to avoid excessive regulatory procedures, however, provisions should be made for granting an exemption in cases where it is clear that regulatory provisions are unnecessary. Exemption is a regulatory tool intended to facilitate efficient use of regulatory resources. Nevertheless, the regulatory act of granting exemptions is, in itself, a form of authorization and the material or situation so exempted remains within the regulatory system. This distinction between exclusion and exemption is an important one. Historically, the concept of exclusion has been applied to sources or exposures that are essentially unamenable to control because of their widespread nature. The usually quoted examples are cosmic radiation at ground level and 40 K in the body. Clearly, many exposures from natural sources could fall into this category. The challenges are firstly to establish a sound basis for deciding which should be excluded and which should be controlled, and secondly to see if the concept could or should be applied to artificial sources and exposures. These two questions are the subject of this paper. (author)

  16. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    Cheng-xiong, Pan; Jing-zhou, Zhang; Yong, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  17. Social exclusion anxiety

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces......’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually...

  18. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations?

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone

    2013-01-01

    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  19. Social exclusion and education

    Jokić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.

  20. Performance and Vibration Analyses of Lift-Offset Helicopters

    Jeong-In Go

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A validation study on the performance and vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter is conducted to establish techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters. This study considers the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter using a rigid coaxial rotor system as a verification model. CAMRAD II (Comprehensive Analytical Method of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics II, a comprehensive analysis code, is used as a tool for the performance, vibration, and loads analyses. A general free wake model, which is a more sophisticated wake model than other wake models, is used to obtain good results for the comprehensive analysis. Performance analyses of the XH-59A helicopter with and without auxiliary propulsion are conducted in various flight conditions. In addition, vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter configuration are conducted in the forward flight condition. The present comprehensive analysis results are in good agreement with the flight test and previous analyses. Therefore, techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters are appropriately established. Furthermore, the rotor lifts are calculated for the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter in the forward flight condition to investigate the airloads characteristics of the ABC™ (Advancing Blade Concept rotor.

  1. Airborne radiation monitoring using a manned helicopter

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Ishizaki, Azusa; Urabe, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on 11 March 2011 generated a series of large tsunami waves that caused serious damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station, following which a large amount of radioactive material was discharged from the nuclear power plant into the environment. Airborne radiation measurements using a manned helicopter were applied to measure the radiation distribution immediately after accident as technique to quickly measure the radiation distribution over a wide area. In Japan, this technique was researched and developed in the 1980s. However, this technique and system were not applied immediately after the accident because standardization of analysis was not established and the Japanese system became deteriorated. This technique is important for post-accident studies at a nuclear facility. We summarized the methods of the airborne radiation measurement using a manned helicopter. In addition, measurement results of the dose rate distribution at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station are given in this paper. (author)

  2. Compound cycle engine for helicopter application

    Castor, Jere G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded, ultra-high power density, light-weight diesel engine. The turbomachinery is similar to a moderate pressure ratio, free power turbine engine and the diesel core is high speed and a low compression ratio. This engine is considered a potential candidate for future military light helicopter applications. This executive summary presents cycle thermodynamic (SFC) and engine weight analyses performed to establish general engine operating parameters and configuration. An extensive performance and weight analysis based on a typical two hour helicopter (+30 minute reserve) mission determined final conceptual engine design. With this mission, CCE performance was compared to that of a T-800 class gas turbine engine. The CCE had a 31% lower-fuel consumption and resulted in a 16% reduction in engine plus fuel and fuel tank weight. Design SFC of the CCE is 0.33 lb-HP-HR and installed wet weight is 0.43 lbs/HP. The major technology development areas required for the CCE are identified and briefly discussed.

  3. Flight service evaluation of composite helicopter components

    Mardoian, George H.; Ezzo, Maureen B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a NASA funded contract and Sikorsky research and development programs to evaluate structural composite components in flight service on Sikorsky Model S-76 helicopters. Selected components were removed and tested at prescribed intervals over a nine year time frame. Four horizontal stabilizers and thirteen tail rotor spars were returned from commercial service in West Palm Beach, Florida and in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana to determine the long term effects of operations in hot and humid climates on component performance. Concurrent with the flight component evaluation, panels of materials used in their fabrication were exposed to the environment in ground racks. Selected panels were tested annually to determine the effects of exposure on physical and mechanical properties. The results of 55,741 component flight hours and 911 months of field exposure are reported and compared with initial Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification data. The findings of this program have provided increased confidence in the long term durability of advanced composite materials used in helicopter structural applications.

  4. Simulating effectiveness of helicopter evasive manoeuvres to RPG attack

    Anderson, D.; Thomson, D. G.

    2010-04-01

    The survivability of helicopters under attack by ground troops using rocket propelled grenades has been amply illustrated over the past decade. Given that an RPG is unguided and it is infeasible to cover helicopters in thick armour, existing optical countermeasures are ineffective - the solution is to compute an evasive manoeuvre. In this paper, an RPG/helicopter engagement model is presented. Manoeuvre profiles are defined in the missile approach warning sensor camera image plane using a local maximum acceleration vector. Required control inputs are then computed using inverse simulation techniques. Assessments of platform survivability to several engagement scenarios are presented.

  5. Nonlinear Feedforward Control for Wind Disturbance Rejection on Autonomous Helicopter

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan

    2010-01-01

    for the purpose. The model is inverted for the calculation of rotor collective and cyclic pitch angles given the wind disturbance. The control strategy is then applied on a small helicopter in a controlled wind environment and flight tests demonstrates the effectiveness and advantage of the feedforward controller.......This paper presents the design and verification of a model based nonlinear feedforward controller for wind disturbance rejection on autonomous helicopters. The feedforward control is based on a helicopter model that is derived using a number of carefully chosen simplifications to make it suitable...

  6. Adaptive Control System for Autonomous Helicopter Slung Load Operations

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2010-01-01

    system on the helicopter that measures the position of the slung load. The controller is a combined feedforward and feedback scheme for simultaneous avoidance of swing excitation and active swing damping. Simulations and laboratory flight tests show the effectiveness of the combined control system......This paper presents design and verification of an estimation and control system for a helicopter slung load system. The estimator provides position and velocity estimates of the slung load and is designed to augment existing navigation in autonomous helicopters. Sensor input is provided by a vision......, yielding significant load swing reduction compared to the baseline controller....

  7. Ed radionuclides soils the exclusive of the Chernobyl zone

    Rashydov, N.M.; Berezhnaya, V.V.; Grodzinsky, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The highest Relative Biological Efficiency is intrinsic to the emitters of alpha radiation and Americium-241 belongs to this category of emitters. The aims of this study are: to fit methods Americium-241 estimation to biological objects of different types; to elucidate the pathways of Americium-241 migration along the trophic chains; to carry out forestall investigations of the early and late effects of Americium-241; to develop means for preventing absorption of Americium-241 in tissue of different organisms and stimulation of recovery processes in damaged cells. Mechanisms of biological action of Americium-241 on the levels of molecule, membrane, genome, cells, tissue and organ are suggested to be investigated when this radionuclide is accumulated by organisms through gastro-intestinal system or inhalation of as 'hot particles'. An investigation into the intercellular localization of Americium-241 in this case was determinated for plants. Study physical, chemical, transport, enzymatic peculiarities and peroxide modifications of membranes in their relation to deterioration of metabolic processes in damaged organism. Moreover, the main indexes of blood and hemopoietic tissue directly concerned with radiation injury under the effect of Americium-241 will be revealed. An assessment of the impact of Americium-241 on immune system in animals will be elucidated as well. Investigations of the membrane bounding and complexion properties of Americium-241 will provide a possibility to find substances capable of inhibition of the Americium-241 absorption or increasing the rate of its re-sorption. At the time, cytogenetic effects resulted from injuries of genetic apparatus of cell and their role in induction of genome instability and increasing of the rate of translocations connected with cancerogenesis was studied. The results of our investigations will form the basis for elaboration of the proposals concerned the preventive and therapeutic means aimed at decreasing of negative effects of Americium-241 on organisms which are inhabited on territories contaminated with Americium-241 and plutonium 241 or in the event of an nuclear emergency

  8. Helicopter type and accident severity in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services missions.

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Schwalbe, Mandy; Wetsch, Wolfgang A; Spelten, Oliver; Neuhaus, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    Whereas accident rates and fatal accident rates for Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) were investigated sufficiently, resulting consequences for the occupants remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to classify HEMS accidents in Germany to prognosticate accident severity with regard to the helicopter model used. German HEMS accidents (1 Sept. 1970-31 Dec. 2009) were gathered as previously reported. Accidents were categorized in relation to the most severe injury, i.e., (1) no; (2) slight; (3) severe; and (4) fatal injuries. Only helicopter models with at least five accidents were analyzed to retrieve representative data. Prognostication was estimated by the relative percentage of each injury type compared to the total number of accidents. The model BO105 was most often involved in accidents (38 of 99), followed by BK117 and UH-1D. OfN = 99 accidents analyzed, N = 63 were without any injuries (63.6%), N = 8 resulted in minor injuries of the occupants (8.1%), and N = 9 in major injuries (9.1%). Additionally, N = 19 fatal accidents (19.2%) were registered. EC135 and BK1 17 had the highest incidence of uninjured occupants (100% vs. 88.2%) and the lowest percentage of fatal injuries (0% vs. 5.9%; all P > 0.05). Most fatal accidents occurred with the models UH-1D, Bell 212, and Bell 412. Use of the helicopter models EC135 and BK117 resulted in a high percentage of uninjured occupants. In contrast, the fatality rate was highest for the models Bell UH-I D, Bell 222, and Bell 412. Data from the present study allow for estimating accident risk in HEMS missions and prognosticating resulting fatalities, respectively.

  9. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2009-01-01

    of swing. The design of the delayed feedback controller is presented as an optimization problem which gives the possibility of an automated design process. Simulations and flight test verifications of the control system on two different autonomous helicopters are presented and it is shown how a significant......This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems using intentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous...... helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integration with a feedforward control scheme based on input shaping for concurrent avoidance and dampening...

  10. High Fidelity Multidisciplinary Tool Development for Helicopter Quieting

    Chen, Chung-Lung; Chen, Ya-Chi; Chen, Bing; Jain, Rohit; Lund, Tom; Zhao, Hongwu; Wang, Z.-J; Sun, Yuzhi; Saberi, Hossein; Shih, T.-H

    2007-01-01

    .... The problem is indeed multidisciplinary. Current helicopter blade designers use computational models, which depend heavily on experimental data and cannot be used to predict any novel design, which is a significant departure from existing designs...

  11. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part One. Preliminary Design

    1974-08-30

    the cost of prime interest being life-cycle cost, climate that is hot or cold, in atmosphere that is humid Chapter 3 discusses helicopter performance...required to satisfy 8-3.2 ENGINE INSTALLATION LOSSES varying climatic and environmental factors. For in- stance, maintenance of the helicopter should be...thammable h aulic , asytem l at mhtproidtem a considering the overall flight mission in segments, dur- source of flammable fluids, as well as electrical

  12. Structural Integrity and Aging-Related Issues of Helicopters

    2000-10-01

    inherently damage lolerant , any damage- inspection in critical locations where tests have indicated tolerant features in airframe design only enhances...required, so European Rotorcraft Forum. Marseilles, France, 15- that helicopters are equipped with such features as fly- 17 September 1998 . by-wire and...fatigue Evaluation of structural integrity issues of aging helicopters. The Structure," 29 April, 1998 . extended safe-life approach encompasses the best

  13. VH-92A Presidential Helicopter (VH-92A)

    2015-12-01

    provide safe, reliable, and timely transportation for the President, Vice President, Foreign Heads of State, and other official parties as directed by...the Director of the White House Military Office. Presidential helicopter transportation requirements are executed by Marine Helicopter Squadron One...Review Jul 2016 Jul 2016 Jan 2017 Jul 2016 Milestone C Jan 2019 Jan 2019 Jul 2019 Jan 2019 IOT &E Complete Mar 2020 Mar 2020 Sep 2020 Mar 2020 IOC Jul

  14. Study of Helicopter Performance and Terminal Instrument Procedures

    1980-06-01

    possible employment of decelerating or other innovative approaches to be discussed in Section 3 and may be employed to advantage in reviewing missed...330J Puma is a 19 passenger medium helicopter manufactured by Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale of Marignane, France and marketed in the...for use by the French and British armed forces. It is manufactured by the Helicopter Divison of Societe Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale of Marignane

  15. Active vibration suppression of helicopter horizontal stabilizers

    Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.

  16. Surveying glacier bedrock topography with a helicopter-borne dual-polarization ground-penetrating radar system

    Langhammer, L.; Rabenstein, L.; Schmid, L.; Bauder, A.; Schaer, P.; Maurer, H.

    2017-12-01

    Glacier mass estimations are crucial for future run-off projections in the Swiss Alps. Traditionally, ice thickness modeling approaches and ground-based radar transects have been the tools of choice for estimating glacier volume in high mountain areas, but these methods either contain high uncertainties or are logistically expensive and offer mostly only sparse subsurface information. We have developed a helicopter-borne dual-polarization ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system, which enhances operational feasibility in rough, high-elevation terrain and increases the data output per acquisition campaign significantly. Our system employs a prototype pulseEKKO device with two broadside 25-MHz antenna pairs fixed to a helicopter-towed wooden frame. Additionally attached to the system are a laser altimeter for measuring the flight height above ground, three GPS receivers for accurate positioning and a GoPro camera for obtaining visual images of the surface. Previous investigations have shown the significant impact of the antenna dipole orientation on the detectability of the bedrock reflection. For optimal results, the dipoles of the GPR should be aligned parallel to the strike direction of the surrounding mountain walls. In areas with a generally unknown bedrock topography, such as saddle areas or diverging zones, a dual-polarization system is particularly useful. This could be demonstrated with helicopter-borne GPR profiles acquired on more than 25 glaciers in the Swiss Alps. We observed significant differences in ice-bedrock interface visibility depending on the orientation of the antennas.

  17. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  18. Idiopathic Syringomyelia in a Military Helicopter Pilot.

    Schiemer, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, including limb weakness and back pain. Incidental finding of syringomyelia provides a challenge for clinicians due to the wide variety of possible symptoms. In military aviation, neurological findings in pilots can result in extensive investigation that can lead to potentially invasive management. Conversely, the potential for chronic progression of a spinal syrinx and subsequent neurological deterioration makes early identification critical. Ultimately, the discovery of a lesion may have implications for flying status and operational capability. A 25-yr-old man working as a navy Seahawk helicopter pilot presented with episodes of right arm paraesthesia and pain between the scapulae. On at least one occasion, these symptoms woke him at night. Upon magnetic resonance imaging, dilatation of the central canal in a syrinx-like pattern in the lower cervical region was noted. Neurology review suggested the finding was persistent and unlikely to be responsible for his symptoms. No surgical input was recommended. His symptoms were attributed to mild cervical spondylosis, which resolved with ongoing physiotherapy, and he was returned to flying status. This case highlights several issues involved with the incidental finding of a syringomyelia. Surgical intervention has been known to worsen symptoms. Conversely, studies have identified minimal radiological progression in cases of idiopathic syringomyelia, with fewer individuals displaying neurological deterioration. For aircrew, potentially unnecessary neurosurgical intervention poses risks to a flying career and overall operational capability.Schiemer A. Idiopathic syringomyelia in a military helicopter pilot. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):962-965.

  19. Helicopter flight simulation motion platform requirements

    Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn

    Flight simulators attempt to reproduce in-flight pilot-vehicle behavior on the ground. This reproduction is challenging for helicopter simulators, as the pilot is often inextricably dependent on external cues for pilot-vehicle stabilization. One important simulator cue is platform motion; however, its required fidelity is unknown. To determine the required motion fidelity, several unique experiments were performed. A large displacement motion platform was used that allowed pilots to fly tasks with matched motion and visual cues. Then, the platform motion was modified to give cues varying from full motion to no motion. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositionings. This refutes the view that pilots estimate altitude and altitude rate in simulation solely from visual cues. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.

  20. Generalized exclusion and Hopf algebras

    Yildiz, A

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalized oscillator algebra at the roots of unity with generalized exclusion and we investigate the braided Hopf structure. We find that there are two solutions: these are the generalized exclusions of the bosonic and fermionic types. We also discuss the covariance properties of these oscillators

  1. Evaluating Alternatives to Exclusive "He."

    Todd-Mancillas, William R.

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on reading comprehension of the use of the exclusive pronoun "he" and more or less contrived alternatives. Subjects, 358 students enrolled in an introduction to human communication at a large northeastern university, read three different forms of the same essay. One essay form exclusively used "he,"…

  2. Performance Analysis of a Utility Helicopter with Standard and Advanced Rotors

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Bousman, William G; Johnson, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    Flight test measurements of the performance of the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter with both standard and advanced rotors are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive helicopter analysis CAMRAD II...

  3. Amplifying the helicopter drift in a conformal HMD

    Schmerwitz, Sven; Knabl, Patrizia M.; Lueken, Thomas; Doehler, Hans-Ullrich

    2016-05-01

    Helicopter operations require a well-controlled and minimal lateral drift shortly before ground contact. Any lateral speed exceeding this small threshold can cause a dangerous momentum around the roll axis, which may cause a total roll over of the helicopter. As long as pilots can observe visual cues from the ground, they are able to easily control the helicopter drift. But whenever natural vision is reduced or even obscured, e.g. due to night, fog, or dust, this controllability diminishes. Therefore helicopter operators could benefit from some type of "drift indication" that mitigates the influence of a degraded visual environment. Generally humans derive ego motion by the perceived environmental object flow. The visual cues perceived are located close to the helicopter, therefore even small movements can be recognized. This fact was used to investigate a modified drift indication. To enhance the perception of ego motion in a conformal HMD symbol set the measured movement was used to generate a pattern motion in the forward field of view close or on the landing pad. The paper will discuss the method of amplified ego motion drift indication. Aspects concerning impact factors like visualization type, location, gain and more will be addressed. Further conclusions from previous studies, a high fidelity experiment and a part task experiment, will be provided. A part task study will be presented that compared different amplified drift indications against a predictor. 24 participants, 15 holding a fixed wing license and 4 helicopter pilots, had to perform a dual task on a virtual reality headset. A simplified control model was used to steer a "helicopter" down to a landing pad while acknowledging randomly placed characters.

  4. Development of Helicopter Capabilities in the U.S. Army During the Korean and Vietnam Wars

    2016-06-10

    28. 14 and could land almost in any place bigger than its rotor diameter. It demonstrated the nature of the helicopter . Nevertheless, rotorcraft of... composition of airmobile units, and 67 methodology of helicopter use on the battlefield. The study seems to cover a broad spectrum of knowledge and...can be focused on the one of several aspects: employment of armored helicopters , land mobility vs helicopter mobility, composition of airmobile units

  5. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...... are regulated by free movement rules and Article 106 TFEU, State aid law regulates the terms of the right to ensure that the beneficiary is not granted an economic advantage. Exclusive rights may be granted on various terms: for a payment, in combination with compensation or as compensation. The two former...... kinds of terms are regulated under State aid law which requires market terms. The granting of exclusive rights as compensation is analysed on the basis of the Eventech judgment, and it is found that when no financial transaction is included in the grant, it resembles a decision to organise a market...

  6. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    There is no clear guidance from theory as to the limits of the transition region; .... behavior in exclusive photoreactions with hadrons in the final state at large t may provide .... The planned medium acceptance detector (MAD) system in Hall A.

  7. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    INSPIRE-00106463

    2015-01-01

    Central Exclusive Production is a unique QCD process in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. Several results have been obtained at LHCb for the production of single charmonia, pairs of charmonia, and single bottomonia.

  8. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 27 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter... Appendix B to Part 27—Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight I. General. A normal category helicopter may not be type certificated for operation under the instrument flight rules (IFR) of this chapter...

  9. 14 CFR 61.161 - Aeronautical experience: Rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating.

    2010-01-01

    ... category and helicopter class rating. 61.161 Section 61.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... helicopter class rating. (a) A person who is applying for an airline transport pilot certificate with a rotorcraft category and helicopter class rating, must have at least 1,200 hours of total time as a pilot that...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 29 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter... Appendix B to Part 29—Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight I. General. A transport category helicopter may not be type certificated for operation under the instrument flight rules (IFR) of...

  11. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency medical....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... certificate holder may assign a helicopter flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an...

  12. Differences in physical workload between military helicopter pilots and cabin crew

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    The 1-year prevalence of regular or continuous neck pain in military helicopter pilots of the Dutch Defense Helicopter Command (DHC) is 20%, and physical work exposures have been suggested as risk factors. Pilots and cabin crew perform different tasks when flying helicopters. The aims of the current

  13. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks. ...

  14. U.S. Army Primary Helicopter School Training Program Performance Norms.

    Barnes, John A.; Statham, Flavous D.

    The Helicopter Pilot Training Program of the Army differs from those of the other services in concept. It takes nonpilot servicemen and trains them to fly helicopters. The study provides normative performance data for a pilot trainee in an army light-observation helicopter as a first step toward establishing normative data for pilot performance in…

  15. 46 CFR 131.950 - Placard on lifesaving signals and helicopter recovery.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placard on lifesaving signals and helicopter recovery... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.950 Placard on lifesaving signals and helicopter recovery..., Chapter V, of SOLAS 74/83; and (2) In helicopter recovery. (b) The signals must be employed by vessels or...

  16. 78 FR 40055 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters

    2013-07-03

    .... We also estimate that it would take about 3 work-hours per helicopter to rework the top cable cutter... helicopter to rework the top cable cutter assembly, $9,085 per helicopter to replace the top cable cutter... installing a WSPS upper installation, P/N 4G9540A00111, either: (i) Rework the top cable cutter assembly, P/N...

  17. 77 FR 52270 - Airworthiness Directives; Agusta S.p.A. Helicopters

    2012-08-29

    ... would take about three work- hours per helicopter to rework the top cable-cutter assembly, one work... would be $255 per helicopter to rework the top cable-cutter assembly, $9,085 per helicopter to replace... 4G9540A00111, either: (i) Rework the top cable cutter assembly, P/N 423-83001-1, in accordance with the...

  18. Helicopter Parenting: The Effect of an Overbearing Caregiving Style on Peer Attachment and Self-Efficacy

    van Ingen, Daniel J.; Freiheit, Stacy R.; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Moore, Linda L.; Wimer, David J.; Knutt, Adelle D.; Scapinello, Samantha; Roberts, Amber

    2015-01-01

    Helicopter parenting, an observed phenomenon on college campuses, may adversely affect college students. The authors examined how helicopter parenting is related to self-efficacy and peer relationships among 190 undergraduate students ages 16 to 28 years. Helicopter parenting was associated with low self-efficacy, alienation from peers, and a lack…

  19. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring particles produced exclusively. In addition, a new system of forward shower counters has been installed upstream and downstream of the detector, and has been used to facilitate studies of Central Exclusive Production. Such measurements of integrated and differential cross-section in both Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC, are summarised here.

  20. Exclusive Territories and Manufacturers’ Collusion

    Salvatore Piccolo; Markus Reisinger

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the rationale for exclusive territories in a model of repeated interaction between competing supply chains. We show that with observable contracts exclusive territories have two countervailing effects on manufacturers' incentives to sustain tacit collusion. First, granting local monopolies to retailers distributing a given brand softens inter- and intrabrand competition in a one-shot game. Hence, punishment profits are larger, thereby rendering deviation more profitable....

  1. Exclusion statistics and integrable models

    Mashkevich, S.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of exclusion statistics, as given by Haldane, allows for a statistical interaction between distinguishable particles (multi-species statistics). The thermodynamic quantities for such statistics ca be evaluated exactly. The explicit expressions for the cluster coefficients are presented. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence onto the higher-dimensional and the multi-species cases remain essentially open

  2. Square tracking sensor for autonomous helicopter hover stabilization

    Oertel, Carl-Henrik

    1995-06-01

    Sensors for synthetic vision are needed to extend the mission profiles of helicopters. A special task for various applications is the autonomous position hold of a helicopter above a ground fixed or moving target. As a proof of concept for a general synthetic vision solution a restricted machine vision system, which is capable of locating and tracking a special target, was developed by the Institute of Flight Mechanics of Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (i.e., German Aerospace Research Establishment). This sensor, which is specialized to detect and track a square, was integrated in the fly-by-wire helicopter ATTHeS (i.e., Advanced Technology Testing Helicopter System). An existing model following controller for the forward flight condition was adapted for the hover and low speed requirements of the flight vehicle. The special target, a black square with a length of one meter, was mounted on top of a car. Flight tests demonstrated the automatic stabilization of the helicopter above the moving car by synthetic vision.

  3. Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits

    Stephen H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems.

  4. Piezoelectric actuation of helicopter rotor blades

    Lieven, Nicholas A. J.

    2001-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is concerned with the application of embedded piezo-electric actuators in model helicopter rotor blades. The paper outlines techniques to define the optimal location of actuators to excite particular modes of vibration whilst the blade is rotating. Using composite blades the distribution of strain energy is defined using a Finite Element model with imposed rotor-dynamic and aerodynamics loads. The loads are specified through strip theory to determine the position of maximum bending moment and thus the optimal location of the embedded actuators. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on a 1/4 scale fixed cyclic pitch rotor head. Measurement of the blade displacement is achieved by using strain gauges. In addition a redundant piezo-electric actuator is used to measure the blades' response characteristics. The addition of piezo-electric devices in this application has been shown to exhibit adverse aeroelastic effects, such as counter mass balancing and increased drag. Methods to minimise these effects are suggested. The outcome of the paper is a method for defining the location and orientation of piezo-electric devices in rotor-dynamic applications.

  5. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    1994-06-01

    Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system dynamics and performance of a split torque gearbox that uses a balance beam mechanism for load sharing. The Lagrange method was applied to develop a system of equations of motion. The mathematical model includes time-varying gear mesh stiffness, friction, and manufacturing errors. Cornell's method for calculating the stiffness of spur gear teeth was extended and applied to helical gears. The phenomenon of sidebands spaced at shaft frequencies about gear mesh fundamental frequencies was simulated by modeling total composite gear errors as sinusoid functions. Although the gearbox has symmetric geometry, the loads and motions of the two power paths differ. Friction must be considered to properly evaluate the balance beam mechanism. For the design studied, the balance beam is not an effective device for load sharing unless the coefficient of friction is less than 0.003. The complete system stiffness as represented by the stiffness matrix used in this analysis must be considered to precisely determine the optimal tooth indexing position.

  6. Advanced medical life support procedures in vitally compromised children by a helicopter emergency medical service

    Scheffer Gert J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the advanced life support procedures provided by an Emergency Medical Service (EMS and a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS for vitally compromised children. Incidence and success rate of several procedures were studied, with a distinction made between procedures restricted to the HEMS-physician and procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. Methods Prospective study of a consecutive group of children examined and treated by the HEMS of the eastern region of the Netherlands. Data regarding type of emergency, physiological parameters, NACA scores, treatment, and 24-hour survival were collected and subsequently analysed. Results Of the 558 children examined and treated by the HEMS on scene, 79% had a NACA score of IV-VII. 65% of the children had one or more advanced life support procedures restricted to the HEMS and 78% of the children had one or more procedures for which the HEMS is more experienced than the EMS. The HEMS intubated 38% of all children, and 23% of the children intubated and ventilated by the EMS needed emergency correction because of potentially lethal complications. The HEMS provided the greater part of intraosseous access, as the EMS paramedics almost exclusively reserved this procedure for children in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The EMS provided pain management only to children older than four years of age, but a larger group was in need of analgesia upon arrival of the HEMS, and was subsequently treated by the HEMS. Conclusions The Helicopter Emergency Medical Service of the eastern region of the Netherlands brings essential medical expertise in the field not provided by the emergency medical service. The Emergency Medical Service does not provide a significant quantity of procedures obviously needed by the paediatric patient.

  7. RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.

    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  8. Maneuver Acoustic Flight Test of the Bell 430 Helicopter

    Watts, Michael E.; Snider, Royce; Greenwood, Eric; Baden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A cooperative flight test by NASA, Bell Helicopter and the U.S. Army to characterize the steady state acoustics and measure the maneuver noise of a Bell Helicopter 430 aircraft was accomplished. The test occurred during June/July, 2011 at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This test gathered a total of 410 data points over 10 test days and compiled an extensive data base of dynamic maneuver measurements. Three microphone configurations with up to 31 microphones in each configuration were used to acquire acoustic data. Aircraft data included DGPS, aircraft state and rotor state information. This paper provides an overview of the test.

  9. Helicopter Pilot Performance for Discrete-maneuver Flight Tasks

    Heffley, R. K.; Bourne, S. M.; Hindson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a current study of several basic helicopter flight maneuvers. The data base consists of in-flight measurements from instrumented helicopters using experienced pilots. The analysis technique is simple enough to apply without automatic data processing, and the results can be used to build quantitative matah models of the flight task and some aspects of the pilot control strategy. In addition to describing the performance measurement technqiue, some results are presented which define the aggressiveness and amplitude of maneuvering for several lateral maneuvers including turns and sidesteps.

  10. Helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity - Some key ideas and insights

    Friedmann, Peretz P.

    1990-01-01

    Four important current topics in helicopter rotor dynamics and aeroelasticity are discussed: (1) the role of geometric nonlinearities in rotary-wing aeroelasticity; (2) structural modeling, free vibration, and aeroelastic analysis of composite rotor blades; (3) modeling of coupled rotor/fuselage areomechanical problems and their active control; and (4) use of higher-harmonic control for vibration reduction in helicopter rotors in forward flight. The discussion attempts to provide an improved fundamental understanding of the current state of the art. In this way, future research can be focused on problems which remain to be solved instead of producing marginal improvements on problems which are already understood.

  11. CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-390 CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...December 2015 SAR March 4, 2016 10:04:18 UNCLASSIFIED 4 Col Henry Vanderborght PMA-261 Heavy Lift Helicopters Program Executive Office - Air, Anti...757-5780 Fax: 301-757-5109 DSN Phone: 757-5780 DSN Fax: 757-5109 Date Assigned: May 29, 2014 Program Information Program Name CH-53K Heavy Lift

  12. Robust Helicopter Stabilization in the Face of Wind Disturbance

    A. Danapalasingam, Kumeresan; Leth, John-Josef; la Cour-Harbo, Anders

    2010-01-01

    When a helicopter is required to hover with minimum deviations from a desired position without measurements of an affecting persistent wind disturbance, a robustly stabilizing control action is vital. In this paper, the stabilization of the position and translational velocity of a nonlinear...... controller is then designed based on nonlinear adaptive output regulations and robust stabilization of a chain of integrators by a saturated feedback. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the control design in the stabilization of helicopter motion and the built-in robustness of the controller...

  13. Tests with an integrated helmet system for the TIGER helicopter

    Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Evers, Carl; Stenner, K.-H.

    1998-08-01

    The TIGER helicopter is under development by the MODs of France and Germany for their armies. The initial German requirement was for anti-tank missions only. This task has been extended to support missions which resulted in an upgrade to the German 'UH-TIGER' variant. German MOD is planning to procure 212 UH-TIGER helicopters armed with TRIGAT-, HOT anti-tank missiles, STINGER air-to-air missiles, 68 mm rockets and a gun pod with a 12.7 mm gun.

  14. Conceptual Design and Performance Analysis for a Large Civil Compound Helicopter

    Russell, Carl; Johnson, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a large civil compound helicopter is presented. The objective is to determine how a compound helicopter performs when compared to both a conventional helicopter and a tiltrotor using a design mission that is shorter than optimal for a tiltrotor and longer than optimal for a helicopter. The designs are generated and analyzed using conceptual design software and are further evaluated with a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. Multiple metrics are used to determine the suitability of each design for the given mission. Plots of various trade studies and parameter sweeps as well as comprehensive analysis results are presented. The results suggest that the compound helicopter examined for this study would not be competitive with a tiltrotor or conventional helicopter, but multiple possibilities are identified for improving the performance of the compound helicopter in future research.

  15. Flying control of small-type helicopter by detecting its in-air natural features

    Chinthaka Premachandra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Control of a small type helicopter is an interesting research area in unmanned aerial vehicle development. This study aims to detect a more typical helicopter unequipped with markers as a means by which to resolve the various issues of the prior studies. Accordingly, we propose a method of detecting the helicopter location and pose through using an infrastructure camera to recognize its in-air natural features such as ellipse traced by the rotation of the helicopter's propellers. A single-rotor system helicopter was used as the controlled airframe in our experiments. Here, helicopter location is measured by detecting the main rotor ellipse center and pose is measured following relationship between the main rotor ellipse and the tail rotor ellipse. Following these detection results we confirmed the hovering control possibility of the helicopter through experiments.

  16. Exclusion statistics and integrable models

    Mashkevich, S.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of exclusion statistics that was given by Haldane admits a 'statistical interaction' between distinguishable particles (multispecies statistics). For such statistics, thermodynamic quantities can be evaluated exactly; explicit expressions are presented here for cluster coefficients. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models of the Calogero-Sutherland type. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence to the higher-dimensional and the multispecies cases remain essentially open; however, our results provide some hints as to searches for the models in question

  17. Exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    Large momentum transfer exclusive processes and the short distance structure of hadronic wave functions can be systematically analyzed within the context of perturbative QCD. Predictions for meson form factors, two-photon processes γγ → M anti M, hadronic decays of heavy quark systems, and a number of other related QCD phenomena are reviewed

  18. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    Pochodzalla, Josef; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  19. Helicopter Gas Turbine Engine Performance Analysis : A Multivariable Approach

    Arush, Ilan; Pavel, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Helicopter performance relies heavily on the available output power of the engine(s) installed. A simplistic single-variable analysis approach is often used within the flight-testing community to reduce raw flight-test data in order to predict the available output power under different atmospheric

  20. Extending helicopter operations to meet future integrated transportation needs.

    Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Harvey, Catherine; Thomas, T Glyn

    2016-03-01

    Helicopters have the potential to be an integral part of the future transport system. They offer a means of rapid transit in an overly populated transport environment. However, one of the biggest limitations on rotary wing flight is their inability to fly in degraded visual conditions in the critical phases of approach and landing. This paper presents a study that developed and evaluated a Head up Display (HUD) to assist rotary wing pilots by extending landing to degraded visual conditions. The HUD was developed with the assistance of the Cognitive Work Analysis method as an approach for analysing the cognitive work of landing the helicopter. The HUD was tested in a fixed based flight simulator with qualified helicopter pilots. A qualitative analysis to assess situation awareness and workload found that the HUD enabled safe landing in degraded conditions whilst simultaneously enhancing situation awareness and reducing workload. Continued development in this area has the potential to extend the operational capability of helicopters in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Neck Pain in Military Helicopter Pilots: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A. H.; de Loose, Veerle; Meeuwsen, Ted; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Our aim is to estimate the self-reported one-year prevalence of neck pain in military helicopter pilots and to compare work-related, individual, and health-related factors in the pilots with (neck pain group) and without (reference group) regular or continuous neck pain. A questionnaire was

  2. At Issue: Helicopter Parents and Millennial Students, an Annotated Bibliography

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2008-01-01

    Technological advances have made it easy for parents and children--many of them students--to communicate instantaneously. Devices and technologies such as cell phones, laptops, texting, and e-mail all enable various forms of instant communication. "Helicopter parents" are regarded as very overprotective and overly involved in the affairs of their…

  3. Leadership Styles in United States Marine Corps Transport Helicopter Squadrons

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as

  4. 78 FR 63429 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-10-24

    ... Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery: Deliver to the ``Mail'' address between 9 a... rotor control turnbuckle ruptured because of corrosion. The damage was discovered during a flight... corrosion or a crack. The delivery date is the date the helicopter left Eurocopter's manufacturing plant in...

  5. 78 FR 23686 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-04-22

    ...-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand Delivery: Deliver to the ``Mail... during a scheduled maintenance check, a helicopter was discovered to have interference between the...) Inspect the right and left attachment points of the TGB forward attachment to measure the dimension for a...

  6. Enhancing Public Helicopter Safety as a Component of Homeland Security

    2016-12-01

    Risk Assessment Tool GPS Global Positioning System IFR instrument flight rules ILS instrument landing system IMC instrument meteorological...daily operations. Additionally, the effectiveness of the standards is evaluated by determining if these standards would have prevented the accidents...trends, such as human behavior and lack of standards, that are common in public safety helicopter accidents. Public safety aviation agencies can use this

  7. Organizing a Ground Crew for Today's Helicopter Parents

    Coburn, Karen Levin

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between college students and their parents is far closer than it was when most of today's educators were in school. Tapping into the upside and managing the potential drawbacks of highly involved parents is taking on great importance on an increasing number of campuses. Whether people call them "helicopter parents" or…

  8. 77 FR 70360 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2012-11-26

    ... helicopters. This AD requires inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment of the... tail rotor drive shaft free-wheel cage, which caused a pilot to experience a heavy jerk in the yaw.... That NPRM proposed to require inspecting the cage of the free-wheel assembly for the correct alignment...

  9. 78 FR 76984 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-12-20

    ... inspecting each jettisonable emergency exit window panel (window) for sealant, and removing any sealant that... prevent failure of the windows to jettison, so helicopter occupants can exit the aircraft during an... Office, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590...

  10. 78 FR 37156 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-06-20

    ... inspecting each jettisonable emergency exit window panel (window) for sealant, and removing any sealant that... prevent failure of the windows to jettison, so helicopter occupants can exit the aircraft during an... comments to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor...

  11. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  12. 78 FR 20234 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-04-04

    ... prompted by flight crew reports of deviations between the displayed attitude on the attitude display screen... screens occurred simultaneously during flight on several helicopters equipped with the GV76-1 vertical... of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) by inserting a copy of this AD into the RFM or by pen and ink...

  13. 77 FR 58971 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    2012-09-25

    ... prompted by flight crew reports of deviations between the displayed attitude on the attitude display screen... screens occurred simultaneously during flight on several helicopters equipped with the GV76-1 vertical... of the Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) by inserting a copy of this AD into the RFM or by pen and ink...

  14. Military Potential Test of the UH-2A Helicopter.

    1963-10-25

    required to fully service two engines during engine change. 3. One quart of hydr aulic fluid , MIL 5606. Used to replace spillage while disconnecting...Maryland , dated 24 January 1963. 7. Report Nr. 1, Final Report, Climatic Laboratory Environ- mental Test of the Model UH- 2A Helicopter , by US

  15. Development in helicopter tail boom strake applications in the US

    Wilson, John C.; Kelley, Henry L.; Donahue, Cynthia C.; Yenni, Kenneth R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a strake or spoiler on a helicopter tail boom to beneficially change helicopter tail boom air loads was suggested in the United States in 1975. The anticipated benefits were a change of tail boom loads to reduce required tail rotor thrust and power and improve directional control. High tail boom air loads experienced by the YAH-64 and described in 1978 led to a wind tunnel investigation of the usefullness of strakes in altering such loads on the AH-64, UH-60, and UH-1 helicopters. The wind tunnel tests of 2-D cross sections of the tail boom of each demonstrated that a strake or strakes would be effective. Several limited test programs with the U.S. Army's OH-58A, AH-64, and UH-60A were conducted which showed the effects of strakes were modest for those helicopters. The most recent flight test program, with a Bell 204B, disclosed that for the 204B the tail boom strake or strakes would provide more than a modest improvement in directional control and reduction in tail rotor power.

  16. 77 FR 30230 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland Helicopters

    2012-05-22

    ... September 30, 2011. (g) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2436: DC Generator Control... Deutschland GmbH Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters with certain Generator Control Units (GCU) installed. This..., West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. Hand...

  17. 77 FR 69556 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland Helicopters

    2012-11-20

    ..., 2011. (h) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2436: DC Generator Control Unit. Issued... Deutschland GmbH (ECD) Model MBB-BK117 C-2 helicopters with certain Generator Control Units (GCU) installed... Ground Floor, Room W12- 140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  18. Helicopter Approach Capability Using the Differential Global Positioning System

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1994-01-01

    The results of flight tests to determine the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the Differential mode (DGPS) to provide high accuracy, precision navigation and guidance for helicopter approaches to landing are presented. The airborne DGPS receiver and associated equipment is installed in a NASA UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. The ground-based DGPS reference receiver is located at a surveyed test site and is equipped with a real-time VHF data link to transmit correction information to the airborne DGPS receiver. The corrected airborne DGPS information, together with the preset approach geometry, is used to calculate guidance commands which are sent to the aircraft's approach guidance instruments. The use of DGPS derived guidance for helicopter approaches to landing is evaluated by comparing the DGPS data with the laser tracker truth data. The errors indicate that the helicopter position based on DGPS guidance satisfies the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category 1 (CAT 1) lateral and vertical navigational accuracy requirements.

  19. Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations

    Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.

    This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a

  20. Characteristics, Causes, and Evaluation of Helicopter Particulate Visual Obstruction

    2012-09-10

    future full-scale testing. The thrust sources examined were a 1 in. diameter nozzle , a 4 in. diameter nozzle , and a 16 in. ducted fan. The sources...Hiller also evaluated inclining the thrust vector , and determined there was little reduction in dynamic pressure at the point of ground interaction...CHARACTERISTICS, CAUSES, AND EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER PARTICULATE VISUAL OBSTRUCTION THESIS

  1. 77 FR 5418 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-02-03

    ...) Subject Joint Aircraft Service Component (JASC) Code: 2800, Fuel system. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on... aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with a 10 micron fuel filter element. This proposed AD... AD for the Sikorsky Model S-61A, D, E, L, N, NM, R, and V helicopters with a fuel system 40 micron...

  2. 78 FR 17591 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2013-03-22

    ... aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with a 10 micron nominal (40 micron absolute) fuel... helicopters with a fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element, part number (P/N) 52-0505-2 or 52-01064-1. That NPRM proposed to require replacing each forward and aft fuel system 40 micron fuel filter element with...

  3. Flight Test Guide (Part 61 Revised): Instrument Pilot: Helicopter.

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The guide provides an outline of the skills required to pass the flight test for an Instrument Pilot Helicopter Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. General procedures for flight tests are described and the following pilot operations outlined: maneuvering by reference to instruments, IFR navigation, instrument…

  4. 78 FR 58256 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-09-23

    ... revising the RFM to reduce the Velocity Never Exceed (V NE ) indicated airspeed (IAS) limitation. It also... (IAS). EAD 2012-0217-E retains some of the requirements of EAD 2012-0207-E, removes the airspeed... Model AS550C3 helicopters (EASB 01.00.65). EASB 01.00.65 is Revision 3, dated February 4, 2013. EASB 01...

  5. Numerical simulation of helicopter engine plume in forward flight

    Dimanlig, Arsenio C. B.; Vandam, Cornelis P.; Duque, Earl P. N.

    1994-01-01

    Flowfields around helicopters contain complex flow features such as large separated flow regions, vortices, shear layers, blown and suction surfaces and an inherently unsteady flow imposed by the rotor system. Another complicated feature of helicopters is their infrared signature. Typically, the aircraft's exhaust plume interacts with the rotor downwash, the fuselage's complicated flowfield, and the fuselage itself giving each aircraft a unique IR signature at given flight conditions. The goal of this project was to compute the flow about a realistic helicopter fuselage including the interaction of the engine air intakes and exhaust plume. The computations solve the Think-Layer Navier Stokes equations using overset type grids and in particular use the OVERFLOW code by Buning of NASA Ames. During this three month effort, an existing grid system of the Comanche Helicopter was to be modified to include the engine inlet and the hot engine exhaust. The engine exhaust was to be modeled as hot air exhaust. However, considerable changes in the fuselage geometry required a complete regriding of the surface and volume grids. The engine plume computations have been delayed to future efforts. The results of the current work consists of a complete regeneration of the surface and volume grids of the most recent Comanche fuselage along with a flowfield computation.

  6. Using Paper Helicopters to Teach Statistical Process Control

    Johnson, Danny J.

    2011-01-01

    This hands-on project uses a paper helicopter to teach students how to distinguish between common and special causes of variability when developing and using statistical process control charts. It allows the student to experience a process that is out-of-control due to imprecise or incomplete product design specifications and to discover how the…

  7. Helicopter blades running elevation measurement using omnidirectional vision

    Chengtao CAI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Omnidirectional dynamic space parameters of high-speed rotating helicopter blades are precise 3D vector description of the blades. In particular, the elevation difference is directly related to the aerodynamic performance and maneuverability of the helicopter. The state of the art detection techniques based on optics and common vision have several drawbacks, such as high demands on devices but poor extensibility, limited measurement range and fixed measurement position. In this paper, a novel approach of helicopter blades running elevation measurement is proposed based on omnidirectional vision. With the advantages of panoramic visual imaging integration, 360° field of view and rotation in-variance, high-resolution images of all rotating blades positions are obtained at one time. By studying the non-linear calibration and calculation model of omnidirectional vision system, aiming at solving the problem of inaccurate visual space mapping model, the omnidirectional and full-scale measurement of the elevation difference are finalized. Experiments are carried out on our multifunctional simulation blades test system and the practical blades test tower, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that the proposed method can considerably reduce the complexity of measurement. Keywords: Full-scale measurement, Helicopter blades elevation, Non-linear calibration, Omnidirectional vision, Unified sphere model

  8. 78 FR 38826 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Helicopter Models

    2013-06-28

    ... (ECD) Model MBB-BK 117 C-2 helicopter picked up a dummy load of 552 lbs. to conduct a ``maximum load... comply with this AD. It will take about 1 work-hour to perform the lift testing at an average labor rate... the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. For the reasons...

  9. Transformation of Helicopter PinS Procedures for Airplanes

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibility to use existing helicopter Point in Space procedures with minor changes for airplanes. The basis is to find parts of PinS procedures that need to be changed, suggest these changes, and then determine whether the revised procedures could be usable and could bring the benefits for airplane operations.

  10. The need for a dedicated public service helicopter design

    Morrison, R.

    1984-01-01

    The need to provide the necessary funding to research, design and contract the building of an advanced technology rotorcraft that will meet the mission demands of public service (fire, police, paramedics and rescue) operators is discussed. Noise and cost factors, the greatest objections on the part of many police and public adminstrators are addressed. The growth of helicopter utilization in public service is documented.

  11. 77 FR 68058 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    2012-11-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-70, S-70A, S-70C, S-70C(M... after receipt. For service information identified in this AD, contact Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation...

  12. Sound Zones

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  13. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Materials and methods Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. Results During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. Discussion These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance. PMID:22153688

  14. Effects of helicopter transport on red blood cell components.

    Otani, Taiichi; Oki, Ken-ichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Tamura, Satoru; Naito, Yuki; Homma, Chihiro; Ikeda, Hisami; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-01-01

    There are no reported studies on whether a helicopter flight affects the quality and shelf-life of red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate. Seven days after donation, five aliquots of red blood cells from five donors were packed into an SS-BOX-110 container which can maintain the temperature inside the container between 2 °C and 6 °C with two frozen coolants. The temperature of an included dummy blood bag was monitored. After the box had been transported in a helicopter for 4 hours, the red blood cells were stored again and their quality evaluated at day 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21 and 42 after donation. Red blood cell quality was evaluated by measuring adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and supernatant potassium, as well as haematocrit, intracellular pH, glucose, supernatant haemoglobin, and haemolysis rate at the various time points. During the experiment the recorded temperature remained between 2 and 6 °C. All data from the red blood cells that had undergone helicopter transportation were the same as those from a control group of red blood cell samples 7 (just after the flight), 14, 21, and 42 days after the donation. Only supernatant Hb and haemolysis rate 42 days after the donation were slightly increased in the helicopter-transported group of red blood cell samples. All other parameters at 42 days after donation were the same in the two groups of red blood cells. These results suggest that red blood cells stored in mannitol-adenine-phosphate are not significantly affected by helicopter transportation. The differences in haemolysis by the end of storage were small and probably not of clinical significance.

  15. Exclusive photoreactions on light nuclei

    Maruyama, K.

    1989-08-01

    The mechanism of photon absorption on light nuclei in the Δ-resonance region is discussed. The present status of experimental results is briefly summarized. A recent data from 1.3-GeV Tokyo ES using a π sr spectrometer is introduced. Exclusive measurements of the photodisintegration of 3 He and 4 He may be a clear way to identify 2N, 3N and 4N absorptions. (author)

  16. Gender, Marginalisation and Social Exclusion

    D. Munk, Martin

    The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing...... access to the five ressources: cultural, financial, mental, social and powerrelated resources is highlighted. It is demonstrated how gender involves living in different realities, and requires different solutions to create equal possibilities....

  17. Landing-Zone and Drop-Zone Criteria

    2017-05-01

    Points of Impact (RPI) ............................................................................................. 75 6.5.5 Multiple Points of Impact ...Helicopter IFR runway (UFC 3-260-01, Fig. 4-2) ....................................................................... 48 11 IFR airspace imaginary...surfaces: IFR Helicopter runways and helipad (UFC 3- 260-01, Fig. 4-3

  18. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  19. Quadrotor helicopter for surface hydrological measurements

    Pagano, C.; Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Surface hydrological measurements are typically performed through user-assisted and intrusive field methodologies which can be inadequate to monitor remote and extended areas. In this poster, we present the design and development of a quadrotor helicopter equipped with digital acquisition system and image calibration units for surface flow measurements. This custom-built aerial vehicle is engineered to be lightweight, low-cost, highly customizable, and stable to guarantee optimal image quality. Quadricopter stability guarantees minimal vibrations during image acquisition and, therefore, improved accuracy in flow velocity estimation through large scale particle image velocimetry algorithms or particle tracking procedures. Stability during the vehicle pitching and rolling is achieved by adopting large arm span and high-wing configurations. Further, the vehicle framework is composed of lightweight aluminum and durable carbon fiber for optimal resilience. The open source Ardupilot microcontroller is used for remote control of the quadricopter. The microcontroller includes an inertial measurement unit (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyroscopes for stable flight through feedback control. The vehicle is powered by a 3 cell (11.1V) 3000 mAh Lithium-polymer battery. Electronic equipment and wiring are hosted into the hollow arms and on several carbon fiber platforms in the waterproof fuselage. Four 35A high-torque motors are supported at the far end of each arm with 10 × 4.7 inch propellers. Energy dissipation during landing is accomplished by four pivoting legs that, through the use of shock absorbers, prevent the impact energy from affecting the frame thus causing significant damage. The data capturing system consists of a GoPro Hero3 camera and in-house built camera gimbal and shock absorber damping device. The camera gimbal, hosted below the vehicle fuselage, is engineered to maintain the orthogonality of the camera axis with respect to the water surface by

  20. Coastal zone

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  1. Signal Separation of Helicopter Radar Returns Using Wavelet-Based Sparse Signal Optimisation

    2016-10-01

    helicopter from the composite radar returns. The received signal consists of returns from the rotating main and tail rotor blades, the helicopter body...is used to separate the main and tail rotor blade components of a helicopter from the composite radar returns. The received signal consists of returns...Two algorithms are presented in the report to separately extract main rotor blade returns and tail rotor blade returns from the composite signal

  2. The Use of Commercial Remote Sensing Systems in Predicting Helicopter Brownout Conditions

    2009-09-01

    REFERENCES Anthoni, J. F. (2000). Soil Erosion and Conservation – Part 2. Retrieved 15 August 2009, from http://www.seafriends.org.nz/ enviro / soil ... soils susceptible to helicopter brownout. Helicopter brownout occurs when downwash disturbs the dust and sand beneath the aircraft during takeoff...destruction, as well as personnel injury or death. The likelihood of helicopter brownout is related to soil moisture content, particle size distribution, and

  3. A general method for closed-loop inverse simulation of helicopter maneuver flight

    Wei WU

    2017-01-01

    Maneuverability is a key factor to determine whether a helicopter could finish certain flight missions successfully or not. Inverse simulation is commonly used to calculate the pilot controls of a helicopter to complete a certain kind of maneuver flight and to assess its maneuverability. A general method for inverse simulation of maneuver flight for helicopters with the flight control system online is developed in this paper. A general mathematical describing function is established to provid...

  4. Optimal control of helicopters following power failure. Helicopter no engine koshoji no saiteki hiko seigyo

    Okuno, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the optimal control of helicopters, the control procedures following power failure were theoretically investigated by applying nonlinear optimal control theory to the following four optimization problems. The first was minimization of the touchdown speed following power failure. Comparisons between the calculated optimal solutions and the empirical flight test results showed that pilots used nonoptimal controls, especially in the timing and amplitude of the collective flare before touchdowns. The second was prediction of the height-velocity (H-V) boundaries. The calculated H-V boundaries showed good correlation with the flight test results. The third was optimization of the takeoff procedures for category A STOL operation following power failure. The results showed that the required takeoff distance using the normal takeoff procedure can be significantly reduced. The fourth was evaluation of the takeoff performance for category A VTOL operation. The calculating method of the maximum takeoff weight was confirmed, and possibility of allowing the payload to be increased was shown. 38 refs., 53 figs.

  5. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.

  6. Direct Self-Repairing Control for Quadrotor Helicopter Attitude Systems

    Huiliao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadrotor helicopter with uncertain actuator faults, such as loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place, is studied in this paper. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller based on direct self-repairing control is designed for such nonlinear system to track the desired output signal, when any actuator of this quadrotor helicopter is loss of effectiveness or stuck at some place. Moreover, using the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the whole system and the convergence of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Finally, the availability of the proposed method is verified by simulation on 3-DOF hover to ensure that the system performance under faulty conditions can be quickly recovered to its normal level. And this proposed method is also proved to be better than that of LQR through simulation.

  7. NASA/FAA experiments concerning helicopter IFR airworthiness criteria

    Lebacqz, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    A sequence of ground and flight simulation experiments was conducted as part of a joint NASA/FAA program to investigate helicopter instrument flight rules (IFR) airworthiness criteria. The first six of these experiments are described and the results summarized. Five of the experiments were conducted on large amplitude motion base simulators; V/STOLAND UH-1H variable stability helicopter was used in the flight experiment. Airworthiness implications of selected variables that were investigated across all of the experiments are discussed, including the level of longitudinal static stability, the type of stability and control augmentation, the addition of flight director displays, and the type of instrument approach task. Among the specific results reviewed are the adequacy of neutral longitudinal statics for dual pilot approaches and the requirement for pitch and roll attitude stabilization in the stability and control augmentation system to achieve flying qualities evaluated as satisfactory.

  8. A Maneuvering Flight Noise Model for Helicopter Mission Planning

    Greenwood, Eric; Rau, Robert; May, Benjamin; Hobbs, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A new model for estimating the noise radiation during maneuvering flight is developed in this paper. The model applies the Quasi-Static Acoustic Mapping (Q-SAM) method to a database of acoustic spheres generated using the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique. A method is developed to generate a realistic flight trajectory from a limited set of waypoints and is used to calculate the quasi-static operating condition and corresponding acoustic sphere for the vehicle throughout the maneuver. By using a previously computed database of acoustic spheres, the acoustic impact of proposed helicopter operations can be rapidly predicted for use in mission-planning. The resulting FRAME-QS model is applied to near-horizon noise measurements collected for the Bell 430 helicopter undergoing transient pitch up and roll maneuvers, with good agreement between the measured data and the FRAME-QS model.

  9. Helicopter Acoustic Flight Test with Altitude Variation and Maneuvers

    Watts, Michael E.; Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben; Stephenson, James; Smith, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    A cooperative flight test campaign between NASA and the U.S. Army was performed from September 2014 to February 2015. The purposes of the testing were to: investigate the effects of altitude variation on noise generation, investigate the effects of gross weight variation on noise generation, establish the statistical variability in acoustic flight testing of helicopters, and characterize the effects of transient maneuvers on radiated noise for a medium-lift utility helicopter. This test was performed at three test sites (0, 4000, and 7000 feet above mean sea level) with two aircraft (AS350 SD1 and EH-60L) tested at each site. This report provides an overview of the test, documents the data acquired and describes the formats of the stored data.

  10. Application of Face-Gear Drives in Helicopter Transmissions

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.

  11. Towards a better understanding of helicopter external noise

    Damongeot, A.; Dambra, F.; Masure, B.

    The problem of helicopter external noise generation is studied taking into consideration simultaneously the multiple noise sources: rotor rotational-, rotor broadband -, and engine noise. The main data are obtained during flight tests of the rather quiet AS 332 Super Puma. The flight procedures settled by ICAO for noise regulations are used: horizontal flyover at 90 percent of the maximum speed, approach at minimum power velocity, take-off at best rate of climb. Noise source levels are assessed through narrow band analysis of ground microphone recordings, ground measurements of engine noise and theoretical means. With the perceived noise level unit used throughout the study, relative magnitude of noise sources is shown to be different from that obtained with linear noise unit. A parametric study of the influence of some helicopter parameters on external noise has shown that thickness-tapered, chord-tapered, and swept-back blade tips are good means to reduce the overall noise level in flyover and approach.

  12. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  13. Exclusive electroproduction of pion pairs

    Warkentin, N.; Schaefer, A.; Diehl, M.; Ivanov, D. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate electroproduction of pion pairs on the nucleon in the framework of QCD factorization for hard exclusive processes. We extend previous analyses by taking the hard-scattering coefficients at next-to-leading order in α s . The dynamics of the produced pion pair is described by two-pion distribution amplitudes, for which we perform a detailed theoretical and phenomenological analysis. In particular, we obtain constraints on these quantities by comparing our results with measurements of angular observables that are sensitive to the interference between two-pion production in the isoscalar and isovector channels. (orig.)

  14. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  15. INVESTINGATION DOWNWARD WIND PRESSURE ON A SMALL QUADROTOR HELICOPTER

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Small rotary-wing UAVs are susceptible to gusts and other environmental disturbances that affect inflow at their rotors. Inflow variations cause unexpected aerodynamic forces through changes in thrust conditions and unmodeled blade-flapping dynamics. This pa­per introduces an onboard, pressure-based flow measurement system developed for a small quadrotor helicopter. The probe-based instrumentation package provides spatially dis­tributed airspeed measurements along each of the aircra...

  16. Conservative Management of Mechanical Neck Pain in a Helicopter Pilot.

    Alagha, Babak

    2015-10-01

    Acute and chronic spinal symptoms such as neck pain may limit flying performance significantly and disqualify the pilot from flight duty. Mechanical neck pain is very common among pilots because of their exposure to vibration, +GZ forces, helmet weight, poor neck posture during air combat maneuvers, previous neck injuries, and poor treatment plans for such injuries. Successful treatment of such injuries requires appropriate therapeutic procedures as well as an aeromedical assessment. The aim of this case study was to demonstrate the benefits of conservative procedures such as spinal manipulation and mobilization therapy (SMMT) and exercise therapy (ET) in treating chronic mechanical neck pain in an Iranian commercial helicopter pilot. A 36-yr-old male patient presented to the clinic with moderate, intermittent nonradicular chronic neck pain and limited range of motion over a 2-yr period. The patient was treated with cervical and upper thoracic SMMT followed by home ET for 5 wk. After this period, the patient reported significant recovery and improvement in range of motion in his neck. Mechanical neck pain is very common among helicopter pilots. Although Air Force and Navy waiver guides recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications as well as SMMT and ET, there are currently very few published studies that examine the benefits of manual and exercise therapy for treating mechanical neck pain in commercial and military pilots. Based on the results of this study, it seems that SMMT and ET may be a safe and effective in treatment of uncomplicated mechanical neck pain in helicopter pilots. Alagha B. Conservative management of mechanical neck pain in a helicopter pilot.

  17. Exploration of Configuration Options for a Large Civil Compound Helicopter

    Russell, Carl; Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Multiple compound helicopter configurations are designed using a combination of rotorcraft sizing and comprehensive analysis codes. Results from both the conceptual design phase and rotor comprehensive analysis are presented. The designs are evaluated for their suitability to a short-to-medium-haul civil transport mission carrying a payload of 90 passengers. Multiple metrics are used to determine the best configuration, with heavy emphasis placed on minimizing fuel burn.

  18. 78 FR 25365 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    2013-05-01

    ... this AD, do not install any of the following parts on any helicopter: (i) Left-hand sliding door, part number (P/N) 350A25-0030-00XX, 350A25-0120-00XX, and 350AMR-0227-0052; (ii) Right-hand sliding door, P/N... following a case of total failure and a case of a crack discovered on the support shaft of the sliding door...

  19. Helicopter Fatigue. A Review of Current Requirements and Substantiation Procedures

    1979-01-01

    stress versus cycles to failure (S/N) method of testing and verification. A mi..iimum of six test specimens is required to establish the mean curve with...Approach) A.D. Hall B.Sc., C.Eng., M.R.Ae.S. 4 Chief Stress Engineer (Dynamic Components) Westland Helicopters Limited, Yeovil, Somerset, England...airworthiness requirements concerning the fatifue strength of British milltary nelicopters are embodied in the U.K. Ministry Documents Aviation Publication

  20. Helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System

    Kaufmann, David N.

    1992-01-01

    The period between 1 July and 31 December, 1992, was spent developing a research plan as well as a navigation system document and flight test plan to investigate helicopter precision approach capability using the Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition, all hardware and software required for the research was acquired, developed, installed, and verified on both the test aircraft and the ground-based reference station.

  1. Failure Analysis of a Helicopter External Fuel-Tank Pylon

    Newman, John A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Lindenberg, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    An eight-inch-long (0.2 m) crack was found in an external fuel-tank pylon of a U.S. Coast Guard HH-60 helicopter. The damaged pylon was removed from service and destructively examined at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to determine the cause of the crack. Results of the analysis revealed that crack initiation occurred at corrosion pits in a fastener hole and crack propagation was a result of cyclic loading.

  2. Implementation of mutual exclusion in VHDL

    Boersma, M.V.; Benders, L.P.M.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Wilsey, P.A.; Rhodes, D.

    1994-01-01

    In VHDL it is difficult to implement mutual exclusion at an abstract level since atomic actions are required. A local status model and an arbiter model are presented to achieve mutual exclusion in VHDL. Shared data, protected by a mutual exclusion mechanism, cannot be modelled as a simple, resolved

  3. Surfactant-aided size exclusion chromatography

    Horneman, D.A.; Wolbers, M.; Zomerdijk, M.; Ottens, M.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Wielen, van der L.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The flexibility and selectivity of size exclusion chromatog. (SEC) for protein purifn. can be modified by adding non-ionic micelle-forming surfactants to the mobile phase. The micelles exclude proteins from a liq. phase similar to the exclusion effect of the polymer fibers of the size exclusion

  4. Recurrent and Transient Spinal Pain Among Commercial Helicopter Pilots.

    Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information on the occurrence of spinal pain, i.e., low back and neck pain, among commercial helicopter pilots, along with possible associations between pain and anthropometric and demographic factors and flying exposure. Data were collected through a subjective and retrospective survey among all the 313 (294 men, 19 women) full-time pilots employed by two helicopter companies. A questionnaire was used to assess the extent of spinal complaints in a transient and recurrent pain pattern along with information on physical activities, occupational flying experience, and airframes. The survey had 207 responders (194 men, 13 women). The pilots had extensive flying experience. Spinal pain was reported by 67%. Flying-related transient pain was reported among 50%, whereas recurrent spinal pain, not necessarily associated with flying, was reported by 52%. Women experienced more pain, but sample size prevented further conclusions. Male pilots reporting any spinal pain flew significantly more hours last year (median 500 h, IQR 400-650) versus men with no pain (median 445 h, IQR 300-550). Male pilots with transient or recurrent spinal pain did not differ from nonaffected male colleagues in the measured parameters. Spinal pain is a frequent problem among male and female commercial helicopter pilots. For men, no significant associations were revealed for transient or recurrent spinal pain with age, flying experience in years, total hours, annual flying time, type of aircraft, or anthropometric factors except for any spinal pain related to hours flown in the last year.

  5. Simulation Analysis of Helicopter Ground Resonance Nonlinear Dynamics

    Zhu, Yan; Lu, Yu-hui; Ling, Ai-min

    2017-07-01

    In order to accurately predict the dynamic instability of helicopter ground resonance, a modeling and simulation method of helicopter ground resonance considering nonlinear dynamic characteristics of components (rotor lead-lag damper, landing gear wheel and absorber) is presented. The numerical integral method is used to calculate the transient responses of the body and rotor, simulating some disturbance. To obtain quantitative instabilities, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is conducted to estimate the modal frequencies, and the mobile rectangular window method is employed in the predictions of the modal damping in terms of the response time history. Simulation results show that ground resonance simulation test can exactly lead up the blade lead-lag regressing mode frequency, and the modal damping obtained according to attenuation curves are close to the test results. The simulation test results are in accordance with the actual accident situation, and prove the correctness of the simulation method. This analysis method used for ground resonance simulation test can give out the results according with real helicopter engineering tests.

  6. The Effects of Modafinil on Aviator Performance During 40 Hours of Continuous Wakefulness: A UH-60 Helicopter Simulator Study

    Caidwell, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) activation in helicopter pilots who had been deprived of sleep. Six Army helicopter pilots were each exposed to two 40-hour periods of continuous wakefulness separated by one night of recovery sleep...

  7. Implementation of exclusive truck facilities

    Fekpe, E. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States). Transportation Market Sector

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed the issue of highway congestion, safety, and efficiency in freight movement on highways, with particular reference to the challenge of supporting increasing capacity demand from truck traffic. Innovative and practical solutions are needed to address the growing need for more efficient freight movement while maintaining acceptable levels of safety on highways. The concept of exclusive truck facilities (ETFs) is becoming an attractive option as a feasible strategy to help stabilize traffic flow, reduce congestion, improve safety, enhance transportation system management, improve access to freight facilities, and improve efficiency in freight movement along corridors of national importance. ETFs can either be truck only lanes or truckways. Passenger cars may not use ETFs. However, the use of ETFs could involve high costs of construction, maintenance, and acquisition of additional right of way. A cost-benefit analysis was performed for alternative ETF configurations under different traffic and site characteristics. A set of criteria was then proposed for identifying suitable locations for exclusive truck lanes. It was proposed that ETFs are economically feasible at locations with traffic volume of 100,000 vehicles per day or more and with a truck volume of at least 25 per cent of the traffic. In addition, the rate of truck-involved fatal crashes and level of service should be used to prioritize preliminary candidate locations that satisfy the traffic criteria. Consideration should also be given to the existence of freight terminals, ports, processing centers or regional distribution centres that are close to highways. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  9. Maryland's Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Experience From 2001 to 2011: System Improvements and Patients' Outcomes.

    Hirshon, Jon Mark; Galvagno, Samuel M; Comer, Angela; Millin, Michael G; Floccare, Douglas J; Alcorta, Richard L; Lawner, Benjamin J; Margolis, Asa M; Nable, Jose V; Bass, Robert R

    2016-03-01

    Helicopter emergency medical services (EMS) has become a well-established component of modern trauma systems. It is an expensive, limited resource with potential safety concerns. Helicopter EMS activation criteria intended to increase efficiency and reduce inappropriate use remain elusive and difficult to measure. This study evaluates the effect of statewide field trauma triage changes on helicopter EMS use and patient outcomes. Data were extracted from the helicopter EMS computer-aided dispatch database for in-state scene flights and from the state Trauma Registry for all trauma patients directly admitted from the scene or transferred to trauma centers from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2011. Computer-aided dispatch flights were analyzed for periods corresponding to field triage protocol modifications intended to improve system efficiency. Outcomes were separately analyzed for trauma registry patients by mode of transport. The helicopter EMS computer-aided dispatch data set included 44,073 transports. There was a statewide decrease in helicopter EMS usage for trauma patients of 55.9%, differentially affecting counties closer to trauma centers. The Trauma Registry data set included 182,809 patients (37,407 helicopter transports, 128,129 ambulance transports, and 17,273 transfers). There was an increase of 21% in overall annual EMS scene trauma patients transported; ground transports increased by 33%, whereas helicopter EMS transports decreased by 49%. Helicopter EMS patient acuity increased, with an attendant increase in patient mortality. However, when standardized with W statistics, both helicopter EMS- and ground-transported trauma patients showed sustained improvement in mortality. Modifications to state protocols were associated with decreased helicopter EMS use and overall improved trauma patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Autonomous formation flight of helicopters: Model predictive control approach

    Chung, Hoam

    Formation flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter formations is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter formation flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level formation management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe formations. The starting point for safe autonomous formation flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous formations, our decentralized model predictive control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a formation. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter formations comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a formation manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The formation manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the formation manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected

  11. Physical Oceanography Report. Helicopter-Based STD Data from MIZEX 83 (Marginal Ice Zone Experiment).

    1984-09-01

    platform /sonde-cradle support system was developed at Lamont to specifically conform to the passenger compartment ofI Unfortunately, the 202 underwater...NN o Ito~,O rd-toc,-t CD 0 000-0 N-10 6, )-0ooUo06oOo owo V 000000 WIX ; OAO. N AIN to.6uIND- 6ro"~ooo’o NK 6-ooW m 0 0 Lai 0 .NN NN I 0 Z M’%W~0~N

  12. 58th SOW Low-Dust Helicopter Landing Zone Final Environmental Assessment

    2012-11-01

    and are sensed by the human ear. Whether that sound is interpreted as pleasant (e.g., music ) or unpleasant (e.g., jackhammers) depends largely on...NM 87056 Mr. Pete Campos New Mexico State Senate 500 Raynolds Avenue Las Vegas NM 87701 Ms. Sue Wilson Beffort New Mexico State Senate 67 Raindance Rd

  13. Exclusive Breastfeeding Determinants in Breastfeeding Mother

    Ika Mustika

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 month is very important for baby. The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding namely sociodemograph factors , factors pre / post delivery , and psychosocial factors. This aims of this study to identify determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding on mother. This research method is a systematic review , by analyzing the various studies on exclusive breastfeeding. There are 17 studies. The results obtained occupational factors most studied with significant results ( median OR = 1.265 . Psychosocial factors that have significant relationship is support of her husband (average OR = 4.716 and family support ( average OR = 1.770 . Conclusions : factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding is occupational factor. Socialization and support from people nearby, health workers, and all parties is needed for exclusive breastfeeding for six months can be achieved.

  14. A helicopter that flaps its wings : The Ornicopter flaps its wings like a bird to get into the air

    Van Holten, T.; Mols, B.

    2003-01-01

    No other type of aircraft is as manoeuvrable as a helicopter. Reverse in full flight, rotate in the air, hover at a standstill, the helicopter can do it all. The police, fire services, medical services, military and civil aviation all use the helicopter for the freedom of flight it offers. However,

  15. 76 FR 53315 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model SA-365N and SA-365N1 Helicopters

    2011-08-26

    ... of compliance. (d) The Joint Aircraft System/Component Code is 2897: Fuel System Wiring. (e) The... helicopters. This action requires you to disconnect the high level fuel switches in the fuel tanks on the affected helicopters. In addition, for helicopters without a crossfeed between the fuel filler necks, you...

  16. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  17. Dissecting the gray zone between follicular lymphoma and marginal zone lymphoma using morphological and genetic features

    Krijgsman, Oscar; Gonzalez, Patricia; Ponz, Olga Balague; Roemer, Margaretha G. M.; Slot, Stefanie; Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Bot, Freek; van Groningen, Krijn; Beijert, Max; Ylstra, Bauke; de Jongi, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma is a poorly defined entity in the World Health Organization classification, based largely on criteria of exclusion and the diagnosis often remains subjective. Follicular lymphoma lacking t(14;18) has similar characteristics which results in a major potential diagnostic

  18. FlyTact : A tactile display improves a helicopter pilot's landing performance in degraded visual environments

    Jansen, C.; Wennemers, A.S.; Vos, W.K.; Groen, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Helicopter landings are more challenging in 'brownout' conditions, in which sand and dust is stirred up by the rotary wing aircraft, obscuring visibility. Safe brownout landings require new sensor and display technologies to provide the pilot with information on helicopter motion. In this respect

  19. Who's in Charge Here? Cooperative Work and Authority Negotiation in Police Helicopter Missions.

    Linde, Charlotte

    A study of collaboration and the ongoing negotiation of authority in police helicopter work focused on inflight communication in one helicopter during two weeks of operation. Data were drawn from audio and video recordings of internal and external communications obtained inflight and from observation and physiological indicators of stress and…

  20. 76 FR 52593 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Canada Ltd. Model BO 105 LS A-3 Helicopters

    2011-08-23

    ... fatigue failure of a TT strap, loss of a blade, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES... failure of a TT strap, loss of a blade, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. Since issuing... ASB also describes and contains a graph for determining the revised life limit, and provides various...

  1. 78 FR 44050 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH Helicopters

    2013-07-23

    ..., and subsequent loss of helicopter control. DATES: We must receive comments on this proposed AD by... could result in failure of an engine, loss of engine power, and subsequent loss of helicopter control... corrosion, leaking grease, condensation, or water. This proposed AD is prompted by metallic debris from an...

  2. A Novel Emergent State Control Law for an Integrated Helicopter/Turboshaft Engine System

    Zhang, H.; Li, Y.; Deng, S.

    2014-01-01

    A two-layer robust control scheme is proposed to get a better response ability for emergency maneuvers of helicopter. Note that the power used in ascending flight is the main coupling between helicopter and its turboshaft engines; therefore vertical flight control is separated from conventional

  3. 76 FR 37261 - Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    2011-06-27

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...) structure and designates two helicopter RNAV routes (TK-routes) in the northeast corridor between the... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish two helicopter RNAV routes in Northeast United States...

  4. Globalization, social exclusion and work : with special reference to informal employment and gender

    Carr, Marilyn; Chen, Martha

    2004-01-01

    Looks at three different patterns that limit competitiveness: a) questionable working conditions in export processing zones or within global value chains that are driven by a foreign or multinational enterprise; b) exclusion of self-employed from the internal governance process of the chain; c) import-flooding putting domestic sectors at a disadvantage. Makes policy recommendations for more favourable inclusion opportunities.

  5. Quad-Rotor Helicopter Autonomous Navigation Based on Vanishing Point Algorithm

    Jialiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quad-rotor helicopter is becoming popular increasingly as they can well implement many flight missions in more challenging environments, with lower risk of damaging itself and its surroundings. They are employed in many applications, from military operations to civilian tasks. Quad-rotor helicopter autonomous navigation based on the vanishing point fast estimation (VPFE algorithm using clustering principle is implemented in this paper. For images collected by the camera of quad-rotor helicopter, the system executes the process of preprocessing of image, deleting noise interference, edge extracting using Canny operator, and extracting straight lines by randomized hough transformation (RHT method. Then system obtains the position of vanishing point and regards it as destination point and finally controls the autonomous navigation of the quad-rotor helicopter by continuous modification according to the calculated navigation error. The experimental results show that the quad-rotor helicopter can implement the destination navigation well in the indoor environment.

  6. Helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic surveys at Mounts Adams, Baker and Rainier, Washington: implications for debris flow hazards and volcano hydrology

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria

    2011-01-01

    High‐resolution helicopter magnetic and electromagnetic (HEM) data flown over the rugged, ice‐covered Mt. Adams, Mt. Baker and Mt. Rainier volcanoes (Washington), reveal the distribution of alteration, water and ice thickness essential to evaluating volcanic landslide hazards. These data, combined with geological mapping and rock property measurements, indicate the presence of appreciable thicknesses (>500 m) of water‐saturated hydrothermally altered rock west of the modern summit of Mount Rainier in the Sunset Amphitheater region and in the central core of Mount Adams north of the summit. Alteration at Mount Baker is restricted to thinner (<300 m) zones beneath Sherman Crater and the Dorr Fumarole Fields. The EM data identified water‐saturated rocks from the surface to the detection limit (100–200 m) in discreet zones at Mt. Rainier and Mt Adams and over the entire summit region at Mt. Baker. The best estimates for ice thickness are obtained over relatively low resistivity (<800 ohm‐m) ground for the main ice cap on Mt. Adams and over most of the summit of Mt. Baker. The modeled distribution of alteration, pore fluids and partial ice volumes on the volcanoes helps identify likely sources for future alteration‐related debris flows, including the Sunset Amphitheater region at Mt. Rainier, steep cliffs at the western edge of the central altered zone at Mount Adams and eastern flanks of Mt. Baker.

  7. Fiscal 2000 pioneering research report on the research on advanced safety helicopter; 2000 nendo advanced safety helicopter no chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted concerning helicopter operating environments and the trends of related technologies in Japan and abroad, and the needs and seeds were grasped. Research was made to study technical problems and measures to solve them for the development of a safe, low-noise, and low-cost next-generation advanced safety helicopter (ASH). A market research was conducted on traffic systems in the future, state of aviation-related infrastructures and their future, current state of people's daily life which centers about locomotion, and the effect that ASH would impose on society. A technical research was carried out relative to flight safety, which involved EVS (enhanced vision system), information display system for helicopters, collision avoidance advisory for pilots, air collision prevention system/surveillance system for helicopters, obstacle detection/warning system for helicopters, blade deicing system for helicopters, and so forth. Detailed investigations were also conducted for technologies for reduction in the manufacturing, maintenance, and development costs, and for reduction in noise. (NEDO)

  8. Exclusive Higgs production at the LHC

    Dechambre, Alice [Universite de Liege, Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Allee du 6 aout, 17 - Bat. B5c, B-4000 Liege 1 - Sart-Tilman (Belgium); Staszewski, Rafal [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Henryk Niewodniczanski, Institute of Nuclear Physics - PAN, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Royon, Christophe [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    After a brief description of the models of exclusive diffractive Higgs production, we first evaluate the theoretical uncertainties that affect the calculation of exclusive cross section (jets, Higgs...). In addition, in view of the recent measurement of exclusive di-jet at CDF and the new implementation of the corresponding cross section in FPMC (Forward Physics Monte-Carlo), we developed an analysis strategy that can be used to narrow down these uncertainties with the help of early LHC measurement. (authors)

  9. Negotiations and Exclusivity Contracts for Advertising

    Anthony Dukes; Esther Gal–Or

    2003-01-01

    Exclusive advertising on a given media outlet is usually profitable for an advertiser because consumers are less aware of competing products. However, for such arrangements to exist, media must benefit as well. We examine conditions under which such exclusive advertising contracts benefit both advertisers and media outlets (referred to as ) by illustrating that exclusive equilibria arise in a theoretical model of the media, advertisers, and consumers who participate in both the product and me...

  10. Impact of exercise programs among helicopter pilots with transient LBP.

    Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter

    2017-06-20

    Flight related low back pain (LBP) among helicopter pilots is frequent and may influence flight performance. Prolonged confined sitting during flights seems to weaken lumbar trunk (LT) muscles with associated secondary transient pain. Aim of the study was to investigate if structured training could improve muscular function and thus improve LBP related to flying. 39 helicopter pilots (35 men and 4 women), who reported flying related LBP on at least 1 of 3 missions last month, were allocated to two training programs over a 3-month period. Program A consisted of 10 exercises recommended for general LBP. Program B consisted of 4 exercises designed specifically to improve LT muscular endurance. The pilots were examined before and after the training using questionnaires for pain, function, quality of health and tests of LT muscular endurance as well as ultrasound measurements of the contractility of the lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM). Approximately half of the participants performed the training per-protocol. Participants in this subset group had comparable baseline characteristics as the total study sample. Pre and post analysis of all pilots included, showed participants had marked improvement in endurance and contractility of the LMM following training. Similarly, participants had improvement in function and quality of health. Participants in program B had significant improvement in pain, function and quality of health. This study indicates that participants who performed a three months exercise program had improved muscle endurance at the end of the program. The helicopter pilots also experienced improved function and quality of health. Identifier: NCT01788111 Registration date; February 5th, 2013, verified April 2016.

  11. Experimental Investigation of a Helicopter Rotor Hub Flow

    Reich, David

    The rotor hub system is by far the largest contributor to helicopter parasite drag and a barrier to increasing helicopter forward-flight speed and range. Additionally, the hub sheds undesirable vibration- and instability-inducing unsteady flow over the empennage. The challenges associated with rotor hub flows are discussed, including bluff body drag, interactional aerodynamics, and the effect of the turbulent hub wake on the helicopter empennage. This study was conducted in three phases to quantify model-scale rotor hub flows in water tunnels at The Pennsylvania State University Applied research lab. The first phase investigated scaling and component interaction effects on a 1:17 scale rotor hub model in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Effects of Reynolds number, advance ratio, and hub geometry configuration on the drag and wake shed from the rotor hub were quantified using load cell measurements and particle-image velocimetry (PIV). The second phase focused on flow visualization and measurement on a rotor hub and rotor hub/pylon geometry in the 12-inch diameter water tunnel. Stereo PIV was conducted in a cross plane downstream of the hub and flow visualization was conducted using oil paint and fluorescent dye. The third phase concentrated on high accuracy load measurement and prediction up to full-scale Reynolds number on a 1:4.25 scale model in the 48-inch diameter water tunnel. Measurements include 6 degree of freedom loads on the hub and two-component laser-Doppler velocimetry in the wake. Finally, results and conclusions are discussed, followed by recommendations for future investigations.

  12. Helicopter electromagnetic survey of the Model Land Area, Southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Fitterman, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Prinos, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over the Model Land Area in southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida, to map saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer. The survey, which is located south and east of Florida City, Florida, covers an area of 115 square kilometers with a flight-line spacing of 400 meters. A five-frequency, horizontal, coplanar bird with frequencies ranging from 400 to 100,000 Hertz was used. The data were interpreted using differential resistivity analysis and inversion to produce cross sections and resistivity depth-slice maps. The depth of investigation is as deep as 100 meters in freshwater-saturated portions of the Biscayne aquifer and the depth diminishes to about 50 meters in areas that are intruded by saltwater. The results compare favorably with ground-based, time-domain electromagnetic soundings and induction logs from observation wells in the area. The base of a high-resistivity, freshwater-saturated zone mapped in the northern 2 kilometers of the survey area corresponds quite well with the base of the surficial aquifer that has been determined by drilling. In general, saltwater in the survey area extends 9 to 12 kilometers inland from the coast; however, there is a long nose of saltwater centered along the Card Sound Road Canal that extends 15 kilometers inland. The cause of this preferential intrusion is likely due to uncontrolled surface flow along the canal and subsequent leakage of saltwater into the aquifer. Saltwater also extends farther inland in the area between U.S. Highway 1 and Card Sound Road than it does to the west of this area. Until 1944, a railroad grade occupied the current location of U.S. Highway 1. Borrow ditches associated with the railroad grade connected to Barnes Sound and allowed saltwater to flow during droughts and storm surges to within a few kilometers of Florida City. Relicts of this saltwater that settled to the bottom of the Biscayne aquifer can be seen in the helicopter

  13. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  14. Perturbative QCD and exclusive processes

    Bennett, J.; Hawes, F.; Zhao, M.; Zyla, P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss perturbation theory as applied to particle physics calculations. In particle physics one is generally interested in the scattering amplitude for a system going from some initial state to a final state. The intermediate state or states are unknown. To get the scattering amplitude it is necessary to sum the contributions from processes which pass through all possible intermediate states. Intermediate states involve the exchange of intermediate vector bosons between the particles, and with this interaction is associated a coupling constant α. Each additional boson exchange involves an additional contribution of α to the coupling. If α is less than 1, one can see that the relative contribution of higher order processes is less and less important as α falls. In QCD the gluons serve as the intermediate vector bosons exchanged by quarks and gluons, and the interaction constant is not really a constant, but depends upon the distance between the particles. At short distances the coupling is small, and one can assume perturbative expansions may converge rapidly. Exclusive scattering processes, as opposed to inclusive, are those in which all of the final state products are detected. The authors then discuss the application of perturbative QCD to the deuteron. The issues of chiral conservation and color transparancy are also discussed, in the scheme of large Q 2 interations, where perturbative QCD should be applicable

  15. Exclusive processes in pp collisions in CMS

    da Silveira, Gustavo G.; Collaboration, for the CMS

    2013-01-01

    We report the results on the searches of exclusive production of low- and high-mass pairs with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The analyses comprise the central exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production, the exclusive two-photon production of dileptons, $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, and the exclusive two-photon production of $W$ pairs in the asymmetric $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ decay channel. No diphotons candidates are observed in data and ...

  16. Multilevel Analysis of Continuous AE from Helicopter Gearbox

    Chlada, Milan; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Heřmánek, Jan; Krofta, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/755 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : structural health monitoring (SHM) * signal processing * acoustic emission (AE) * diagnostics of helicopter gearbox * wavelet analysis * continuous acoustic emission Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/630_Chlada_Rev1.pdf

  17. Engineering Design Handbook. Helicopter Engineering. Part Two. Detail Design

    1976-01-01

    lubrication, the splines and the monoball oc- ge’~ll ar pity -agd stac mt uis brekawy snip v casionzily require lubricationforce. F6 , A~sj, the di~aphiag tc 5v...being stowed ian aminimum volum, so as Hap sad daue co a be Wooatd in accas *.m M~ to isseff-a with the traosport of cor.. wi& MaL4T.5M= so that the men...helicopter to If lubrication is required, fittings must be located placement of modules - limited piece-part replace- where accas is possible using

  18. CAA modeling of helicopter main rotor in hover

    Kusyumov Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers. Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW–H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.

  19. Model Predictive Control for a Small Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    Jianfu Du

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinematical and dynamical equations of a small scale unmanned helicoper are presented in the paper. Based on these equations a model predictive control (MPC method is proposed for controlling the helicopter. This novel method allows the direct accounting for the existing time delays which are used to model the dynamics of actuators and aerodynamics of the main rotor. Also the limits of the actuators are taken into the considerations during the controller design. The proposed control algorithm was verified in real flight experiments where good perfomance was shown in postion control mode.

  20. Reporting Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in Major Incidents

    Fattah, Sabina; Johnsen, Anne Siri; Sollid, Stephen J M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in major incidents is predominately based on case descriptions reported in a heterogeneous fashion. Uniform data reported with a consensus-based template could facilitate the collection, analysis, and exchange of experiences...... variables were determined by consensus. These variables were formatted in a template with 4 main categories: HEMS background information, the major incident characteristics relevant to HEMS, the HEMS response to the major incident, and the key lessons learned. CONCLUSION: Based on opinions from European...

  1. CAA modeling of helicopter main rotor in hover

    Kusyumov, Alexander N.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Batrakov, Andrey S.; Kusyumov, Sergey A.; Barakos, George

    In this work rotor aeroacoustics in hover is considered. Farfield observers are used and the nearfield flow parameters are obtained using the in house HMB and commercial Fluent CFD codes (identical hexa-grids are used for both solvers). Farfield noise at a remote observer position is calculated at post processing stage using FW-H solver implemented in Fluent and HMB. The main rotor of the UH-1H helicopter is considered as a test case for comparison to experimental data. The sound pressure level is estimated for different rotor blade collectives and observation angles.

  2. Association Between Helicopter vs Ground Emergency Medical Services and Survival for Adults With Major Trauma

    Galvagno, Samuel M.; Haut, Elliott R.; Zafar, S. Nabeel; Millin, Michael G.; Efron, David T.; Koenig, George J.; Baker, Susan P.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Haider, Adil H.

    2012-01-01

    Context Helicopter emergency medical services and their possible effect on outcomes for traumatically injured patients remain a subject of debate. Because helicopter services are a limited and expensive resource, a methodologically rigorous investigation of its effectiveness compared with ground emergency medical services is warranted. Objective To assess the association between the use of helicopter vs ground services and survival among adults with serious traumatic injuries. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study involving 223 475 patients older than 15 years, having an injury severity score higher than 15, and sustaining blunt or penetrating trauma that required transport to US level I or II trauma centers and whose data were recorded in the 2007–2009 versions of the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank. Interventions Transport by helicopter or ground emergency services to level I or level II trauma centers. Main Outcome Measures Survival to hospital discharge and discharge disposition. Results A total of 61 909 patients were transported by helicopter and 161 566 patients were transported by ground. Overall, 7813 patients (12.6%) transported by helicopter died compared with 17 775 patients (11%) transported by ground services. Before propensity score matching, patients transported by helicopter to level I and level II trauma centers had higher Injury Severity Scores. In the propensity score–matched multivariable regression model, for patients transported to level I trauma centers, helicopter transport was associated with an improved odds of survival compared with ground transport (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.14–1.17; P<.001; absolute risk reduction [ARR], 1.5%). For patients transported to level II trauma centers, helicopter transport was associated with an improved odds of survival (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.13–1.17; P < .001; ARR, 1.4%). A greater proportion (18.2%) of those transported to level I trauma centers

  3. Civilian Helicopter Search and Rescue Accidents in the United States: 1980 Through 2013.

    Worley, Gordon H

    2015-12-01

    Helicopters are commonly used in search and rescue operations, and accidents have occurred during helicopter search and rescue (HSAR) missions. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the HSAR accident rate in the United States could be determined and whether any common contributing factors or trends could be identified. Searches were conducted of the National Transportation Safety Board aviation accident database, the records of the major search and rescue and air medical organizations, and the medical and professional literature for reports of HSAR accidents. A total of 47 civilian HSAR accidents were identified during the study. Of these, 43% involved fatal injuries, compared with a 19% fatality rate for US helicopter general aviation accidents during the same time period and a 40% rate for helicopter emergency medical services. The HSAR accidents carried a significantly higher risk of fatal outcomes when compared with helicopter general aviation accidents (2-tailed Fisher's exact test, P .05). The number of HSAR missions conducted annually could not be established, so an overall accident rate could not be calculated. Although the overall number of HSAR accidents is small, the percentage of fatal outcomes from HSAR accidents is significantly higher than that from general helicopter aviation accidents and is comparable to that seen for helicopter emergency medical services operations. Further study could help to improve the safety of HSAR flights. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Helicopter crashes into water: warning time, final position, and other factors affecting survival.

    Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Baker, Susan P; Shanahan, Dennis F; Haaland, Wren L

    2014-04-01

    According to 40 yr of data, the fatality rate for a helicopter crash into water is approximately 25%. Does warning time and the final position of the helicopter in the water influence the survival rate? The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database was queried to identify helicopter crashes into water between 1981 and 2011 in the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii. Fatality rate, amount of warning time prior to the crash, and final position of the helicopter were identified. There were 133 helicopters that crashed into water with 456 crew and passengers. Of these, 119 occupants (26%) did not survive; of those who did survive, 38% were injured. Twelve died after making a successful escape from the helicopter. Crashes with 1 min. However, more than half of fatalities (57%) came from crashes for which the warning time could not be determined. Lack of warning time and how to survive in the water after the crash should be a topic for study in all marine survival/aircraft ditching courses. Investigators should be trained to provide estimates of warning time when investigating helicopter crashes into water.

  5. Reliability model for helicopter main gearbox lubrication system using influence diagrams

    Rashid, H.S.J.; Place, C.S.; Mba, D.; Keong, R.L.C.; Healey, A.; Kleine-Beek, W.; Romano, M.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of oil from a helicopter main gearbox (MGB) leads to increased friction between components, a rise in component surface temperatures, and subsequent mechanical failure of gearbox components. A number of significant helicopter accidents have been caused due to such loss of lubrication. This paper presents a model to assess the reliability of helicopter MGB lubricating systems. Safety risk modeling was conducted for MGB oil system related accidents in order to analyse key failure mechanisms and the contributory factors. Thus, the dominant failure modes for lubrication systems and key contributing components were identified. The Influence Diagram (ID) approach was then employed to investigate reliability issues of the MGB lubrication systems at the level of primary causal factors, thus systematically investigating a complex context of events, conditions, and influences that are direct triggers of the helicopter MGB lubrication system failures. The interrelationships between MGB lubrication system failure types were thus identified, and the influence of each of these factors on the overall MGB lubrication system reliability was assessed. This paper highlights parts of the HELMGOP project, sponsored by the European Aviation Safety Agency to improve helicopter main gearbox reliability. - Highlights: • We investigated methods to optimize helicopter MGB oil system run-dry capability. • Used Influence Diagram to assess design and maintenance factors of MGB oil system. • Factors influencing overall MGB lubrication system reliability were identified. • This globally influences current and future helicopter MGB designs

  6. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  7. Prehospital helicopter transport and survival of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Bekelis, Kimon; Missios, Symeon; Mackenzie, Todd A

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the association of helicopter transport with survival of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), in comparison with ground emergency medical services (EMS). Helicopter utilization and its effect on the outcomes of TBI remain controversial. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients with TBI who were registered in the National Trauma Data Bank between 2009 and 2011. Regression techniques with propensity score matching were used to investigate the association of helicopter transport with survival of patients with TBI, in comparison with ground EMS. During the study period, there were 209,529 patients with TBI who were registered in the National Trauma Data Bank and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 35,334 were transported via helicopters and 174,195 via ground EMS. For patients transported to level I trauma centers, 2797 deaths (12%) were recorded after helicopter transport and 8161 (7.8%) after ground EMS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association of helicopter transport with increased survival [OR (odds ratio), 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.81-2.10; absolute risk reduction (ARR), 6.37%]. This persisted after propensity score matching (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.74-2.03; ARR, 5.93%). For patients transported to level II trauma centers, 1282 deaths (10.6%) were recorded after helicopter transport and 5097 (7.3%) after ground EMS. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association of helicopter transport with increased survival (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.64-2.00; ARR 5.17%). This again persisted after propensity score matching (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.55-1.94; ARR, 4.69). Helicopter transport of patients with TBI to level I and II trauma centers was associated with improved survival, in comparison with ground EMS.

  8. Development of a Field-Deployable Psychomotor Vigilance Test to Monitor Helicopter Pilot Performance.

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2016-04-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill. Fatigue is a serious threat to operational safety, particularly for sustained helicopter operations involving high levels of cognitive information processing and sustained time on task. As part of ongoing research into this issue, the object of this study was to develop a field-deployable helicopter-specific psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for the purpose of daily performance monitoring of pilots. The PVT consists of a laptop computer, a hand-operated joystick, and a set of rudder pedals. Screen-based compensatory tracking task software includes a tracking ball (operated by the joystick) which moves randomly in all directions, and a second tracking ball which moves horizontally (operated by the rudder pedals). The 5-min test requires the pilot to keep both tracking balls centered. This helicopter-specific PVT's portability and integrated data acquisition and storage system enables daily field monitoring of the performance of individual helicopter pilots. The inclusion of a simultaneous foot-operated tracking task ensures divided attention for helicopter pilots as the movement of both tracking balls requires simultaneous inputs. This PVT is quick, economical, easy to use, and specific to the operational flying task. It can be used for performance monitoring purposes, and as a general research tool for investigating the psychomotor demands of helicopter operations. While reliability and validity testing is warranted, data acquired from this test could help further our understanding of the effect of various factors (such as fatigue) on helicopter pilot performance, with the potential of contributing to helicopter operational safety.

  9. 10 CFR 1009.4 - Exclusions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusions. 1009.4 Section 1009.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) GENERAL POLICY FOR PRICING AND CHARGING FOR MATERIALS AND SERVICES SOLD BY DOE § 1009.4 Exclusions. This part shall not apply when the amount to be priced or charged is...

  10. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...

  11. 18 CFR 1308.3 - Exclusions.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions. 1308.3... General Matters § 1308.3 Exclusions. (a) This part does not apply to any TVA contract which does not contain a disputes clause. (b) Except as otherwise specifically provided, this part does not apply to any...

  12. Requirements for a Hydrogen Powered All-Electric Manned Helicopter

    Datta, Anubhav

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to set propulsion system targets for an all-electric manned helicopter of ultra-light utility class to achieve performance comparable to combustion engines. The approach is to begin with a current two-seat helicopter (Robinson R 22 Beta II-like), design an all-electric power plant as replacement for its existing piston engine, and study performance of the new all-electric aircraft. The new power plant consists of high-pressure Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells, hydrogen stored in 700 bar type-4 tanks, lithium-ion batteries, and an AC synchronous permanent magnet motor. The aircraft and the transmission are assumed to remain the same. The paper surveys the state of the art in each of these areas, synthesizes a power plant using best available technologies in each, examines the performance achievable by such a power plant, identifies key barriers, and sets future technology targets to achieve performance at par with current internal combustion engines.

  13. Full-Scale Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter

    Littell, Justin

    2011-01-01

    A full-scale crash test was successfully conducted in March 2010 of an MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley Research Center s Landing and Impact Research Facility. The reasons for conducting this test were threefold: 1 To generate data to be used with finite element computer modeling efforts, 2 To study the crashworthiness features typically associated with a small representative helicopter, and 3 To compare aircraft response to data collected from a previously conducted MD-500 crash test, which included an externally deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept. Instrumentation on the airframe included accelerometers on various structural components of the airframe; and strain gages on keel beams, skid gear and portions of the skin. Three Anthropomorphic Test Devices and a specialized Human Surrogate Torso Model were also onboard to collect occupant loads for evaluation with common injury risk criteria. This paper presents background and results from this crash test conducted without the DEA concept. These results showed accelerations of approximately 30 to 50 g on the airframe at various locations, little energy attenuation through the airframe, and moderate to high probability of occupant injury for a variety of injury criteria.

  14. Helicopter noise in hover: Computational modelling and experimental validation

    Kopiev, V. F.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Vorontsov, V. I.; Karabasov, S. A.; Anikin, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter rotor are calculated by a new method, to assess its applicability in assessing rotor performance in hovering. Direct solution of the Euler equations in a noninertial coordinate system is used to calculate the near-field flow around the spinning rotor. The far-field noise field is calculated by the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) method using permeable control surfaces that include the blade. For a multiblade rotor, the signal obtained is duplicated and shifted in phase for each successive blade. By that means, the spectral characteristics of the far-field noise may be obtained. To determine the integral aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor, software is written to calculate the thrust and torque characteristics from the near-field flow solution. The results of numerical simulation are compared with experimental acoustic and aerodynamic data for a large-scale model of a helicopter main rotor in an open test facility. Two- and four-blade configurations of the rotor are considered, in different hover conditions. The proposed method satisfactorily predicts the aerodynamic characteristics of the blades in such conditions and gives good estimates for the first harmonics of the noise. That permits the practical use of the proposed method, not only for hovering but also for forward flight.

  15. A helicopter emergency medical service may allow faster access to highly specialised care

    Afzali, Monika; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Centralization of the hospital system entails longer transport for some patients. A physician-staffed helicopter may provide effective triage, advanced management and fast transport to highly specialized treatment for time-critical patients. The aim of this study was to describe activity and poss......Centralization of the hospital system entails longer transport for some patients. A physician-staffed helicopter may provide effective triage, advanced management and fast transport to highly specialized treatment for time-critical patients. The aim of this study was to describe activity...... and possible beneficial effect of a physician-staffed helicopter in a one-year trial period in eastern Denmark....

  16. Conference on Helicopter Structures Technology, Moffett Field, Calif., November 16-18, 1977, Proceedings

    1978-01-01

    Work on advanced concepts for helicopter designs is reported. Emphasis is on use of advanced composites, damage-tolerant design, and load calculations. Topics covered include structural design flight maneuver loads using PDP-10 flight dynamics model, use of 3-D finite element analysis in design of helicopter mechanical components, damage-tolerant design of the YUH-61A main rotor system, survivability of helicopters to rotor blade ballistic damage, development of a multitubular spar composite main rotor blade, and a bearingless main rotor structural design approach using advanced composites.

  17. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  18. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers.

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank

    2017-09-01

    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Final assessment of vibro-acoustic source strength descriptors of helicopter gearboxes

    Ohlrich, Mogens; Rasmussen, Ulrik Møller

    1996-01-01

    Two novel measurement techniques have been developed for quantifying the vibro-aqcoustic source strength of lightweight helicopter gearboxes. The accuracy, robustness and implementation of these methods have been examined by a comprehensive investigation, including theoretical studies of simple...... multi-modal beam systems and extensive experiments with more realistic small scale models and with large, detailed 3/4-scale test structures of a medium-size helicopter. In addition, partial verification tests have been conducted with the Eurocopter BK 117 helicopter and its main rotor gearbox....... The results of this work are essential as input for any prediction code of the internal noise in a helicopter cabin, because the prediction requires knowledge of the major sources, that is, the rotors, engines and gearboxes....

  20. Direct CFD Predictions of Low Frequency Sounds Generated by Helicopter Main Rotors

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Conner, Dave; Watts, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This proposed paper will highlight the application of a CSD/CFD methodology currently inuse by the US Army Aerfolightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) to assess the feasibility and fidelity of directly predicting low frequency sounds of helicopter rotors.