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Sample records for helicobactor pylori seropositivity

  1. Anti-Helicobactor pylori activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants.

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    Masadeh, Majed M; Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Alzoubi, Karem H; Tumah, Haitham N; Bani-Hani, Kamal

    2014-05-01

    Natural flora are considered a major source of new agents for the treatment of Helicobactor pylori. The plants used in this study were selected based on previous traditional use. In this study, we evaluated the effect of extracts of 16 medicinal plants grown in Jordan against clinical isolates of H. pylori. Tested plant extracts included Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton (Verbenaceae), Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae), Artemisia inculata Delile (Asteraceae), Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc ex. DC. (Rosaceae), Inula viscose (L.) Ait (Asteraceae), Lavandula officinalis Chaix. (Lamiaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Cruciferae), Origanum syriaca L. (Lamiaceae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Passiflora incarnate L. (Passifloraceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach (Rosaceae), Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) and Varthemia iphionoids Boiss (Asteraceae). Clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested in vitro for susceptibility to each of the above plant crude extracts using disk diffusion method, and the MIC value was determined for each plant extract using the serial dilution method. Results showed that ethanol extracts of most medicinal plants exerted cytotoxiciy against H. pylori isolates. Among the tested plant extracts, A. triphylla (MIC: 90 µg/mL, MBC: 125 µg/mL) and I. viscosa (MIC: 83 µg/mL, MBC: 104 µg/mL) showed the strongest activity against both isolates of H. pylori. Jordanian medicinal plants might be valuable sources of starting materials for the synthesis of new antibacterial agents against H. pylori.

  2. A change of IL-2 and IL-4 production in patients with Helicobactor pylori infection

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    X. G. Fan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobactor pylori is the most common cause of gastroduodenal inflammation. However, the exact immune pathogenesis is not fully understood. To look for evidence of the immunological mechanism in H. pylori associated disease, we measured cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2 and IL-4 levels produced by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL and gastric biopsies in 20 subjects with or without H. pylori infection. H. pylori can stimulate IL-2 and IL-4 production from PBL in H. pylori negative as well as H. pylori positive individuals. The spontaneous IL-2 production by PBL and gastric biopsies was greater (p < 0.0025, <0.001in H. pylori negative individuals than that in H. pylori infected patients. Increased IL-4 levels from PBL in H. pylori infected patients were found in the presence of H. pylori (p < 0.0025. An increased spontaneous production of IL-4 from gastric biopsies was also observed in H. pylori infected patients (p < 0.025. In conclusion, an enhanced type 2 cytokine production was observed in H. pylori infected patients, which may be responsible for H. pylori chronic infection.

  3. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Children With Asthma

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    Yousefichaijan; Mosayebi; Sharafkhah; Kahbazi; Heydarbagi; Rafiei

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have reported an association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization and the occurrence of asthma or other allergies. However, data are inconsistent, and few studies have been performed in children. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate H. pylori seropositivity in children with and without asthma. Patients and Methods This cross-sect...

  4. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori.

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    Chih-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis.

  5. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of lung cancer.

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    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a risk factor for distal stomach cancer, and a few small studies have suggested that H. pylori may be a potential risk factor for lung cancer. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study of 350 lung adenocarcinoma cases, 350 squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 700 controls nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC cohort of male Finnish smokers. Controls were one-to-one matched by age and date of baseline serum draw. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori whole-cell and cytotoxin-associated gene (CagA antigens, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs for associations between H. pylori seropositivity and lung cancer risk using conditional logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was detected in 79.7% of cases and 78.5% of controls. After adjusting for pack-years and cigarettes smoked per day, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with either adenocarcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.75-1.6 or squamous cell carcinoma (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.77-1.7. Results were similar for CagA-negative and CagA-positive H. pylori seropositivity. Despite earlier small studies suggesting that H. pylori may contribute to lung carcinogenesis, H. pylori seropositivity does not appear to be associated with lung cancer.

  6. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum.

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    Shaban, Mona M; Kandil, Hisham O; Elshafei, Arwa H

    2014-02-01

    Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy are the most common conditions affecting pregnancy, occurring in about 80% of all pregnancies and always disappearing on the 16th to 18th weeks of gestation. This may be mild and it does not affect the general condition of the patient (the condition is called emesis gravidarum), or it may be severe enough to affect the patient physically and psychologically, causing intractable vomiting, electrolyte imbalance, weight loss >5%, impairment of liver and kidney functions and dehydration. Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common bacterium affecting humans. It is a gram-negative helix-shaped microaerophilic bacterium transmitted by the oro-oral or feco-oral route. It is more prevalent in developing countries and affects young children. Acute infection manifests as acute gastritis and stomach pain, whereas chronic infection causes chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, 2% of which may develop into stomach cancer. The authors tried to investigate the association between H pylori infection and hyperemesis gravidarum. Fifty patients with hyperemesis gravidarum and 50 patients with normal pregnancy were included in the study. H pylori infection was determined using a 1-step H pylori test device (serum/plasma), which is a qualitative membrane-based immunoassay. Regarding maternal age, gestational age and socioeconomic status, there is no statistical difference between both groups. There is a marked statistical difference between both groups in terms of Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and frequency of vomiting. There is a powerful correlation between H pylori and hyperemesis gravidarum.

  7. Role of gastric antioxidant and anti-Helicobactor pylori activities in antiulcerogenic activity of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca).

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    Goel, R K; Sairam, K; Rao, C V

    2001-07-01

    Studies with plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) have indicated its ulcer protective and healing activities through its predominant effect on various mucosal defensive factors [Sanyal et.al, Arch Int Pharmacodyn, 149 (1964) 393; 155 (1965) 244]. Oxidative stress and Helicobactorpylori colonization are considered to be important factors in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers. In the present study methanolic extract of plantain banana pulp (BE) was evaluated for its (i) antiulcer and antioxidant activities in 2 hr cold restraint stress and (ii) anti-H.pylori activity in vitro. The extract (BE, 50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) showed significant antiulcer effect and antioxidant activity in gastric mucosal homogenates, where it reversed the increase in ulcer index, lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase values induced by stress. However it did not produce any change in catalase values, which was significantly decreased by stress. Further, in the in vitro study. BE (0.32-1,000 microg/ml) did not show any anti-H.pylori activity. The results suggest absence of anti-H. pyloric activity of methanolic extract of banana in vitro and its antioxidant activity may be involved in its ulcerprotective activity.

  8. Prevalence of H. Pylori Seropositivity among Adult Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori has been recognized as a common cause of diseases that manifest with dyspepsia. Objective: To determine the prevalence of H. pylori in dyspeptic patients and relate this with the duration of presentation, sociodemographic factors and socio-economic class (SEC) of the respondents.

  9. The association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and risk of new-onset diabetes: a prospective cohort study.

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    Zhou, Mengge; Liu, Jing; Qi, Yue; Wang, Miao; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Fan; Hao, Yongchen; Zhao, Dong

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested a possible connection between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and diabetes risk. However, prospective studies examining direct associations between these two factors are relatively lacking. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to evaluate the association between H. pylori infection and risk of developing diabetes. We performed a population-based prospective study, recruiting participants aged 45-74 years and without diabetes from the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study in 2002, with a 10 year follow-up to investigate development of diabetes. H. pylori serostatus was determined by measuring serum H. pylori antibodies. H. pylori seropositivity was defined as the antibody concentration ≥ 10 U/ml. To examine the association between H. pylori seropositivity and diabetes risk, modified Poisson regression was performed. Of 2085 participants without diabetes, 1208 (57.9%) were H. pylori seropositive in 2002. After multivariate adjustment of possible diabetes risk factors, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with lower risk of diabetes (RR 0.78 [95% CI 0.63, 0.97], p = 0.022). Of the 1275 participants with H. pylori antibody measurements in both 2002 and 2007, 677 (53.1%) were persistently seropositive. A lower risk of diabetes was also observed in participants with persistent H. pylori seropositivity (RR 0.61 [95% CI 0.41, 0.93], p = 0.020), compared with those persistently seronegative. H. pylori seropositivity was associated with lower risk of diabetes in this prospective cohort study. Extrapolation of these results and the mechanism underlying the observed association require further investigation.

  10. Protective effect of yoghurt consumption on Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in a Mexican population.

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    Ornelas, India J; Galvan-Potrillo, Marcia; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between fermented and unfermented dairy product consumption and Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in a Mexican population. Dietary interviews were conducted as part of a population-based case-control study in 2005. Serum was obtained for each participant to determine H. pylori seropositivity status. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated from multivariate logistic regression models. Mexico City, Mexico. A random sample of 464 healthy adult residents. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori in the study sample was 75.4%. In fully adjusted models, compared with those who did not consume yoghurt, there was a protective effect of eating up to one serving per week of yoghurt and more than one serving per week of yoghurt (odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.94 and OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.86, respectively), with a P for trend of 0.01. There were no effects for the consumption of unfermented dairy products (milk and cheese). This study suggests that yoghurt consumption may have a protective effect against H. pylori seropositivity. Additional studies are needed to determine whether consumption of yoghurt or other fermented dairy products can prevent or eradicate H. pylori infection.

  11. O Blood Group as a Risk Factor for Helicobacter Pylori IgG Seropositivity Among Pregnant Sudanese Women.

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    Gasim, Gasim I; Elmugabil, Abdelmageed; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Rayis, Duria A; Adam, Ishag

    2017-06-07

    The objective was to investigate the prevalence and the association between blood groups and Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity among pregnant Sudanese women. A cross-sectional survey was carried-out at Saad Abul Ela Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan during the period of July 2014 through December 2015. Questionnaires covering socio-demographic and obstetrics information were administered. Specific H. pylori IgG antibody was analysed using ELISA. One hundred eighty six pregnant women were enrolled. The mean (SD) of the age, parity was 28.3 (2.6) years and 2.6 (3.5), respectively. Of the 186 women, 42 (22.6%), 24 (12.9%), 11(5.9%) and 109 (58.6%) had blood group A, B, AB and O, respectively. H. pylori IgG seropositivity rate was 132/186 (71.0%). There was no significant difference in age and parity between women with H. pylori IgG seropositive and seronegative. Compared with the women with H. pylori IgG seronegative, significantly higher numbers of women with H. pylori IgG seropositive had O blood group, [84/132(63.6) versus 25/54(46.3), PIgG seropositivity. The current study showed that women with blood group O were at higher risk for H. pylori IgG seropositivity.

  12. "RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HELICOBACTER PYLORI SEROPOSITIVITY AND HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM"

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    A. Jamal

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Severe nausea and vomiting associated with weight loss, ketonemia, and electrolyte imbalance in pregnancy is called hyperemesis gravidarum (HG. Its cause is unknown but there are some hypotheses like hormonal mechanisms, psychological and emotional factors and Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to find an association between (HG and H. pylori infection. For this purpose in a prospective study from Aug. 2001 to Feb. 2002, the serum antibodies against H. pylori in 39 patients with HG was compared with IgG titers of 55 asymptomatic pregnant women at the same gestational age as controls. Venous blood was taken after the patients had given their written consent. Specific serum antibodies (immunoglobulin IgG directed against H. pylori was measured by fluorescent enzyme-immunoassay. IgG titers less than 15 was considered negative, IgG titers more than 20 were regarded positive and IgG titers between 15-20 were considered as suspicious and required repeating the test after 2-4 weeks. Chi square, Mann Whitney and Student t test were used for statistical analysis of the data. Positive serum IgG concentrations were found in 26 of the 39 hyperemesis patients (66.7% compared with 23 of 55 controls (41.8%. The difference was statistically significant(P<0.015. The mean IgG titers in hyperemesis group were 25 compared to 10.5 in control group(P<0.05. It seems that H. pylori infection is significantly associated with HG.

  13. Association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and mild to moderate COPD: clinical implications in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori.

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    Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Keom

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric diseases. The clinical implications of H. pylori infection in various diseases outside the gastrointestinal system have also been reported, including in some respiratory disorders. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of H. pylori in patients with mild to moderate COPD in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Also, we aimed to elucidate the association between the seroprevalence of H. pylori and the decline of lung function in patients with COPD. Participants who underwent a medical checkup for H. pylori at a referral hospital in Korea were recruited for this study. All participants were tested for H. pylori infection using an immunoassay of the H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and a rapid urease test at the time of endoscopy with a gastric mucosal specimen. We assessed the decline in lung function using the spirometric data of those who underwent spirometry more than three times. In total, 603 participants (201 patients with COPD and 402 controls) were analyzed. The seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG in the patients and controls was 45.8% and 52.2%, respectively (P=0.134). The H. pylori IgG level in patients with COPD was not significantly different from that of the controls (114.8 and 109.6 units/mL, respectively; P=0.549). In addition, there were no significant differences in the annual forced expiratory volume in 1 second or forced vital capacity between the participants with H. pylori seropositivity and seronegativity. This study showed no relationship between H. pylori infection and COPD in a country with a high burden of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, H. pylori infection did not affect the rate of lung function decline in this study population.

  14. Association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and mild to moderate COPD: clinical implications in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori

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    Lee HY

    2016-08-01

    were no significant differences in the annual forced expiratory volume in 1 second or forced vital capacity between the participants with H. pylori seropositivity and seronegativity.Conclusion: This study showed no relationship between H. pylori infection and COPD in a country with a high burden of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, H. pylori infection did not affect the rate of lung function decline in this study population. Keywords: H. pylori, COPD, lung function decline

  15. The Association of Chlamydia pneumonia and Helicobacter pylori IgG Seropositivity With Omentin-1, Visfatin and Adiponectin Levels in Postmenopausal Women.

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    Ranjbar, Reza; Bolkheir, Alireza; Vahdat, Katayoun; Assadi, Majid; Darabi, Hossein; Nabipour, Iraj

    2016-12-01

    Some adipocytokines are cardioprotective or pro-inflammatory for cardiovascular system. Chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori has been also considered as novel risk factors for atherosclerosis. The main aim of the current population-based study is to investigate the potential link between circulating adipocytokines and Chlamydia pneumoniae or Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivities. A total of 250 healthy postmenopausal women who participated in a prospective cohort study were evaluated for IgG antibodies directed against C.pneumoniae and H. pylori. Omentin-1, visfatin, adiponectin, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against C. pneumoniae and H. pylori among the studied population was 20.4% (51 women) and 57.2% (143 women), respectively. There were no significant differences in adipocytokine levels between H. pylori IgG seropositive and H. pylori seronegative subjects. Similar results for visfatin and omentin-1 were found when C. pneumoniae IgG seropositive were compared with C. pneumoniae IgG seronegative subjects. However, in general linear model adjusted for age, body mass index and hs-CRP levels revealed significant difference between C. pneumoniae seropositive and C. pneumoniae seronegative subjects for circulating adiponectin. In conclusion, Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG seropositivity was associated with higher adiponectin levels in postmenopausal women. The elucidation of interaction mechanism of Chlamydia pneumoniae and a cardioprotective adipocytokine (adiponectin) will be useful in future therapeutic strategies.

  16. Seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori and CagA protein in schoolchildren of different ages living in urban and rural areas in southern Estonia.

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    Vorobjova, T; Grünberg, H; Oona, M; Maaroos, H I; Nilsson, I; Wadström, T; Covacci, A; Uibo, R

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate Helicobacter pylori and CagA seropositivity in a non-selected group of schoolchildren in southern Estonia, with reference to previous studies where high seroprevalence to H. pylori (87%) and anti-CagA positivity (63%) in an adult population from the same region were found. A total of 421 schoolchildren selected haphazardly from a random population (n = 1018, ages 9, 12 or 15 years) and living in urban or rural areas. H. pylori status was determined by evaluation of IgG antibodies against cell surface proteins of H. pylori, strain CCUG 17874, using standard ELISA. Anti-CagA IgGs were determined by ELISA using a recombinant fragment of CagA (CCUG 17874) as solid-phase antigen. Absorbance values > 0.3 (405 nm) were taken as a CagA-positive result based on a study of 25 sera from H. pylori-negative children. Of the 421 subjects, 235 (56%) were H. pylori-ELISA positive, and 109 out of the 235 (46%) were anti-CagA positive. Neither H. pylori nor CagA positivity were significantly different in girls and boys, or in children aged 9, 12 or 15 years. The H. pylori prevalence rate (118/181, 65%) as well as CagA positivity (64/181, 35%) in rural areas were higher compared with those in towns (117/240, 49% and 54/240, 22%, respectively; P = 0.001 and P = 0.005). Of schoolchildren living in southern Estonia, 56% were seropositive to H. pylori. Half of them had anti-CagA antibodies. Schoolchildren living in rural areas were infected significantly more often with CagA-seropositive strains compared with those living in towns.

  17. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

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    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  18. Polymorphism in COX-2 modifies the inverse association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Taiwan: a case control study

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    Lee Jang-Ming

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 was observed in many types of cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. One functional SNP, COX-2 -1195G/A, has been reported to mediate susceptibility of ESCC in Chinese populations. In our previous study, the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori was found to play a protective role in development of ESCC. The interaction of COX-2 and H. pylori in gastric cancer was well investigated. However, literature on their interaction in ESCC risk is scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction between COX-2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, H. pylori infection and the risk of developing ESCC. Methods One hundred and eighty patients with ESCC and 194 controls were enrolled in this study. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption, smoking habits and betel quid chewing, were collected via questionnaire. Genotypes of the COX-2 -1195 polymorphism were determined by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. H. pylori seropositivity was defined by immunochromatographic screening test. Data was analyzed by chi-squared tests and polytomous logistics regression. Results In analysis adjusting for the covariates and confounders, H. pylori seropositivity was found to be inversely association with the ESCC development (adjusted OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3 – 0.9. COX-2 -1195 AA homozygous was associated with an increased risk of contracting ESCC in comparison with the non-AA group, especially among patients with H. pylori seronegative (adjusted OR ratio: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2 – 7.3. The effect was strengthened among patients with lower third ESCC (adjusted OR ratio: 6.9, 95% CI 2.1 – 22.5. Besides, H. pylori seropositivity conveyed a notably inverse effect among patients with COX-2 AA polymorphism (AOR ratio: 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 – 0.9, and the effect was observed to be enhanced for the lower third ESCC

  19. Clinical evaluation of Libyan patients with rosacea and its correlation with seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori

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    Nadia Abdalhafid El-Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The papulopustular subtype of rosacea was the most common, moreover, many patients also had other subtypes of rosacea simultaneously. Sun exposure plays a critical role in its etiology. H. pylori represents a significant cofactor that may contribute to the severity of the disease.

  20. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity's association with markers of iron, 1-carbon metabolism, and antioxidant status among US adults: a structural equations modeling approach.

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    May A Beydoun

    Full Text Available We tested a model in which Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (Hps predicted iron status, which in turn acted as a predictor for markers of 1-C metabolism that were then allowed to predict antioxidant status.National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 1999-2000 cross-sectional data among adults aged 20-85 y were analyzed (n = 3,055. Markers of Hps, iron status (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS; 1-C metabolism (serum folate (FOLserum, B-12, total homocysteine (tHcy, methylmalonic acid (MMA and antioxidant status (vitamins A and E were entered into a structural equations model (SEM.Predictors of Hps included older age, lower education and income, racial/ethnic groups (lowest among Non-Hispanic Whites, and lifetime cigarette smoking. SEM modeling indicated that Hps had a direct inverse relationship with iron status (combining serum ferritin and TS which in turn was positively related to 1-C metabolites (higher serum folate, B-12 or lower tHcy/MMA that were positively associated with antioxidant status (combining serum vitamins A and E. Another pathway that was found bypassed 1-C metabolites (Hps → Iron_st → Antiox. The sum of all indirect effects from Hps combining both pathways and the other indirect pathways in the model (Hps → Iron_st → OneCarbon; Hps →OneCarbon →Antiox was estimated at β = -0.006±0.003, p<0.05.In sum, of the total effect of H. pylori seropositivity on antioxidant status, two significant indirect pathways through Iron status and 1-Carbon metabolites were found. Randomized controlled trials should be conducted to uncover the concomitant causal effect of H. pylori eradication on improving iron status, folate, B-12 and antioxidant status among H. pylori seropositive individuals.

  1. Effect of dental plaque control on infection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa.

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    Jia, Chun-Ling; Jiang, Guang-Shui; Li, Chun-Hai; Li, Cui-Rong

    2012-10-01

    Data on the role of dental plaque in the transmission of Helicobactor pylori have varied. Furthermore, there has been few reports on the relationship between dental plaque control and H. pylori infection of gastric mucosa. The purpose of this study was to elucidate this potential relationship. The 13C urea breath test was conducted on 56 subjects who received dental plaque control and 51 subjects who did not. The prevalence of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa was 19.64% in patients who received dental plaque control, which was significantly lower than in those without dental plaque control (84.31%). Long-term professional dental plaque control was associated with less gastric reinfection by H. pylori, suggesting that dental plaque control may help to prevent H. pylori-induced gastric disease or reinfection.

  2. Association between systemic lupus erythematosus and Helicobacter pylori seronegativity.

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    Sawalha, Amr H; Schmid, Wendi R; Binder, Steven R; Bacino, Debra K; Harley, John B

    2004-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative spiral bacterium that is clearly associated with a variety of gastrointestinal pathologies. A number of non-gastrointestinal diseases have also been associated with H. pylori. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity as part of a larger serologic survey in a group of 466 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 466 controls. We studied subjects for seropositivity against 5 antigens including mumps, measles, rubella, varicella zoster, and H. pylori. The 466 SLE patients were taken from a total of 290 pedigrees multiplex for SLE and matched to 466 controls for age (+/- 3 yrs), sex, and ethnicity to non-SLE affected individuals, taken mostly from the same collection of pedigrees multiplex for SLE. Assays for seropositivity were performed using a heterogeneous immunoassay technique. Pearson's chi-square was used to test for association of categorical variables and Student t-test for continuous variables. Logistic regression was used to compute the odds ratio for H. pylori seropositivity in patients and controls. There was a significant difference only in H. pylori seropositivity between SLE cases and their controls. The results were not altered by intrafamilial correlation. Subset analysis by race and sex showed that the differences between the African-American female patients with SLE and their matched controls were responsible for this association. Female African-American patients with SLE had a lower prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity compared to controls (38.1% vs 60.2%, OR 0.41, p = 0.0009, 95% CI 0.24-0.69). Of the 113 African-American female SLE patients in the study group, 43 were seropositive for H. pylori. The mean age of onset for SLE was older in the seropositive group (34.4 yrs) compared to the seronegative SLE patients (28.0 yrs) (t = 2.11, p = 0.039). Of 5 serologic tests performed, only the frequency of H. pylori seropositivity was different between SLE cases and their controls

  3. Helicobacter pylori

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    ... Prevention When to Call the Doctor Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) bacteria are a common cause of digestive illnesses, ... of adults are likely to have had an H. pylori infection — usually without any symptoms. Signs and Symptoms ...

  4. Evidence of mother-child transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar,Mario Luis; Kawakami,Elisabete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomical status is a major risk factor for natural acquisition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in developing countries. Its transmission route is unknown but studies suggest person-to-person transmission. AIM: To evaluate seropositivity of anti-H. pylori antibodies in family members of infected symptomatic index patients as compared to family members of symptomatic uninfected index patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve family members of 38 ...

  5. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Reactivities and Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Case-control Study in Spain

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    Nerea Fernández de Larrea-Baz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have suggested that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC, while others have not confirmed this hypothesis. This work aimed to assess the relation of CRC with H. pylori seropositivity and with seropositivity to 16 H. pylori proteins, in the MultiCase-Control study, MCC-Spain.Methods: MCC-Spain is a multicase-control study carried out in Spain from 2008 to 2013. In total, 2,140 histologically-confirmed incident CRC cases and 4,098 population-based controls were recruited. Controls were frequency-matched by sex, age, and province. Epidemiological data were collected through a questionnaire fulfilled by face-to-face interviews and a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Seroreactivities against 16 H. pylori proteins were determined in 1,488 cases and 2,495 controls using H. pylori multiplex serology. H. pylori seropositivity was defined as positivity to ≥4 proteins. Multivariable logistic regression mixed models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI.Results:H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with increased CRC risk (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.71–1.16. Among H. pylori seropositive subjects, seropositivity to Cagδ showed a lower CRC risk, and risk decreased with increasing number of proteins seropositive. Seropositivity to the most recognized virulence factors, CagA and VacA, was not associated with a higher CRC risk. No statistically significant heterogeneity was identified among tumor sites, although inverse relations were stronger for left colon cancer. An interaction with age and sex was found: H. pylori seropositivity was associated with a lower CRC risk in men younger than 65 and with a higher risk in older women.Conclusions: Our results suggest that neither H. pylori seropositivity, nor seropositivity to the virulence factor CagA are associated with a higher CRC risk. A possible effect modification by age and sex was

  6. Helicobacter pylori and its Association with Gastric and Oesophageal Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Simán, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common infections in man. The infection is often acquired during childhood and usually results in a chronic life-long inflammation in the gastric mucosa. The aim of our studies was to investigate the association between H. pylori seropositivity and the development of gastric and oesophageal carcinomas. Nested case-control studies were performed in the Malmö Preventive Medicine cohort consisting of 32,906 subjects. Tumour cases were identified by the Swed...

  7. Nitric oxide synthetase and Helicobacter pylori in patients undergoing appendicectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kell, M R

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine whether Helicobacter pylori forms part of the normal microenvironment of the appendix, whether it plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis, and whether it is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) in appendicular macrophages. METHODS: Serology for H. pylori was performed on 51 consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy. Appendix samples were tested for urease activity, cultured and stained for H. pylori, graded according to the degree of inflammatory infiltrate, and probed immunohistochemically for iNOS expression. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 21 (range 7-51) years. Seventeen patients (33 per cent) were seropositive for H. pylori but no evidence of H. pylori was found in any appendix specimen. However, an enhanced inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in seropositive patients (P < 0.04) and the expression of macrophage iNOS in the mucosa of normal and inflamed appendix specimens was increased (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: H. pylori does not colonize the appendix and is unlikely to be a pathogenic stimulus for appendicitis. Priming effects on mucosal immunology downstream from the foregut may occur after infection with H. pylori.

  8. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  9. Empiric treatment based on Helicobacter Pylori serology cannont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Evidence that chronic gastric Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is an aetiological factor in dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma and ... disease; patients with 'alarm' signs (78%), cancer (78%) and peptic ulcers (81%) had similar seropositivity rates to patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (81%).

  10. Prospective study of Helicobacter pylori antigens and gastric noncardia cancer risk in the Nutrition Intervention Trial cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gwen; Neal D Freedman; Michel, Angelika; Fan, Jin-Hu; Taylor, Philip R.; Pawlita, Michael; Qiao, You-Lin; Zhang, Han; Yu, Kai; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylon (H. pylori) infection is the strongest known risk factor for gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). We used multiplex serology to determine whether seropositivity to 15 H. pylori proteins is associated with the subsequent development of non-cardia gastric cancer in Linxian, China.

  11. Helicobacter pylori immunization and atopic dermatitis in South Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedullà, Marcella; Fierro, Vincenzo; Del Tufo, Ester; Alfano, Rossella; Triassi, Maria; Perrone, Laura

    2014-08-01

    The epidemiological decrease of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection has been recently associated to the increase of several extra-intestinal allergic disorders. We investigated the role of specific Hp IgG production in the development of IgE or not IgE mediated food allergy (FA) in children affected by atopic dermatitis (AD). From January 2010 to July 2013, 290 South Italian children, aged between 26 and 142 months, were consecutively referred to the Pediatric Clinic of the Pediatric Department at Second University of Naples and were diagnosed as affected by AD. The patients were classified in two groups on the basis of diagnosis of food allergy (88 FA affected and 202 not FA affected) and further divided on the basis of the diagnosis of atopy (63 IgE mediated and 23 not IgE mediated). Hp serum IgG was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Wampole® Helicobactor pylori IgG ELISA II, Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ) and Hp stool antigens using enzyme immunoassay (Premier Platinum HpSa plus, Cincinnati OH). We found a statistically significant higher prevalence of Hp serology positivity in not FA vs. FA AD-affected children (p = 0.032) and a significant inverse association between FA and Hp immunization (1/OR 0.32 95% CI 0.11-0.95). Further, we identified an absolute prevalence Hp serology positivity in not-IgE-mediated rather than in IgE-mediated FA AD-affected patients (p = 0.0006). We hypothesize that specific Hp IgG production could protect against the development of both FA and atopy in AD-affected children.

  12. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Tepehuanos Aged 15 Years and Older in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos (an indigenous ethnic group living in rural Mexico). The prevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 156 Tepehuanos in Durango State, Mexico, using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of Tepehuanos associated with seropositivity were investigated. In total, 103 (66%) of the 156 participants (mean age 31.03  ±  16.71 years) had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies. Fifty-four (52.4%) of the 103 seropositive individuals had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. Males and females had comparable seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in women with pregnancies than those without this obstetric characteristic. Logistic regression showed that Helicobacter pylori infection was positively associated with low education (OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.13-10.00; P = 0.02) and laborer occupation (OR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.14-6.42; P = 0.02). This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos and of the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with laborer occupation. Results warrants further research.

  13. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Tepehuanos Aged 15 Years and Older in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos (an indigenous ethnic group living in rural Mexico. The prevalence of anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 156 Tepehuanos in Durango State, Mexico, using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of Tepehuanos associated with seropositivity were investigated. In total, 103 (66% of the 156 participants (mean age years had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies. Fifty-four (52.4% of the 103 seropositive individuals had Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. Males and females had comparable seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody levels. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in women with pregnancies than those without this obstetric characteristic. Logistic regression showed that Helicobacter pylori infection was positively associated with low education (OR = 3.37; 95% CI: 1.13–10.00; and laborer occupation (OR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.14–6.42; . This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in Tepehuanos and of the association of Helicobacter pylori infection with laborer occupation. Results warrants further research.

  14. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  15. Iron deficiency and Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendt, N; Kool, P; Teesalu, K; Lillemäe, K; Maaroos, H-I; Oona, M

    2011-09-01

    To examine the relationship between iron deficiency (ID) and Helicobacter pylori infection in school-aged children. Altogether 363 children from ambulatory admission were consecutively enrolled in the study. Haemoglobin (Hb), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), IgG against H. pylori and IgA against tissue transglutaminase were measured. The criteria for ID were sTfR > 5.7 mg/L in children aged 7-12 years and sTfR > 4.5 mg/L in older children, for anaemia Hb < 115 g/L in the younger group and Hb < 130 g/L for older boys and Hb < 120 g/L for girls. Iron deficiency was found in 17% of the children, 5% had also anaemia. H. pylori colonization was detected in 27% and serum markers for coeliac disease in 0.6% of the children. The prevalence of ID and H. pylori seropositivity was higher in older children (23% and 29%, vs 9% and 22%, respectively). Children with H. pylori were significantly shorter [length SDS 1.0 (0.98-1.01) vs 0.98 (0.97-0.99)]. Older children had risk for ID (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3, p = 0.03). Although the prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity was higher in the ID group, it was not significantly associated with ID in multivariate analysis. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity was not associated with ID. The associated factor for ID was age. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Related Images View Sources Also Known As H. pylori antibody test, stool antigen, breath tests Urea breath test CLO test Rapid urease test (RUT) for H. pylori Formal Name Helicobacter pylori This article was last ...

  17. Helicobacter pylori Infection with Atrophic Gastritis Is an Independent Risk Factor for Advanced Colonic Neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Young; Park, Hye Won; Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Jong-Soo; Koo, Ja Eun; Chung, Eun Ju; Chang, Hye-Sook; Choe, Jaewon; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2016-11-15

    Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for atrophic gastritis (AG) and gastric cancer. The correlation between H. pylori, AG and colorectal neoplasm (CRN) has only been examined in a limited number of studies, and findings have been inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between H. pylori infection status, AG and advanced CRN. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the presence of serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies, AG, and advanced CRN in 6,351 consecutive asymptomatic subjects who underwent a screening colonoscopy. A total of 316 participants (5.0%) had advanced CRN. H. pylori seropositivity was 61.3%. In a univariate analysis, the presence of H. pylori infection was associated with advanced CRN (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.91; p=0.001). H. pylori infection was associated with an increased risk of advanced CRN after adjusting for clinically relevant confounders (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.72; p=0.023). H. pylori-related AG was significantly associated with the risk of advanced CRN (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.91; p=0.030), whereas H. pylori infection without AG was not. H. pylori infection increased the risk of advanced CRN, especially when it was combined with AG. Strict colonoscopy screening and surveillance may be warranted in those with H. pylori-positive AG.

  18. The prevalence and related symptomatology of Helicobacter pylori in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Andersen, L P; Pærregaard, Anders

    1998-01-01

    in 46/66 by culture and histology. The presence of H. pylori was significantly associated with active or inactive chronic gastritis. The presence of H. pylori was associated with both parents being born in a country with a high prevalence and a low social class. Helicobacter pylori-positive children had......The aim of the study was to assess and compare the IgG seroprevalence of H. pylori in children with recurrent abdominal pain with healthy children and to investigate the related symptoms. IgG antibodies against low-molecular weight H. pylori antigens were assessed in 438 children with recurrent...... of the abdominal pain, presence of pyrosis, nocturnal pain, relation of pain to meals and bowel irregularities. The seroprevalence was 21% (95% CI: 17-25%) in the children with recurrent abdominal pain and 10% (95% CI: 5-18%) in the healthy controls (p = 0.30). In seropositive children with RAP H. pylori was found...

  19. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.

  20. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Thevakumar

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7% were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%. Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%, males (56.2%, Negrito (48.6% and live in bamboo house (92.3%. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%, males (35.6% and Negrito (48.6%. The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.

  1. H. pylori infection and gastric cancer in Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Khandker Kawser; Kabir, Md Jahangir; Bhuyian, A K M Minhaj Uddin; Alam, Md Shahjadul; Chowdhury, Fazle Rabbi; Ahad, M Abdul; Rahman, Md Anisur; Rahman, M Mizanur

    2017-11-01

    Like that of other Asian countries gastric cancer (GC) is also a leading cancer in Bangladesh and also a cause for cancer-related mortality. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the strongest recognized risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. The infection is also prevalent in common people. This case-control study was carried out to find an association between GC and H. pylori infection in the community. To evaluate association of H. pylori and carcinoma of stomach this study was conducted at National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital, Dhaka from January 2013 to December 2014. H. pylori status was determined serologically by using H. pylori kit in the department of Biochemistry laboratory of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University. In total, 114 patients with GC and 520 patients not having GC were studied as controls. Logistic regression method was used to calculate the odds ratio. Significantly more patients in the case group (86.8%) were found to be seropositive for H. pylori antigen in contrast to the control group (67.5%). All of the cases in the present study were in advanced stage. No significant association between H. pylori seropositivity and tumor location was found. It was noted that undifferentiated gastric carcinoma had slightly more association with H. pylori infection. Younger H. pylori-infected patients had been found to be at higher relative risk for GC than older patients. As there is a strong association found between GC and H. pylori infection special emphasis to eradicate H. pylori infection might reduce the incidence of this dreadly disease.

  2. Impact of alcohol drinking on gastric cancer development according to Helicobacter pylori infection status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woohyun; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jang, Jieun; Hwang, Yunji; Ahn, Chunghyun; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2015-11-03

    Helicobacter pylori are major carcinogen of gastric cancer, but the associations among gastric cancer, H. pylori infection status, and alcohol consumption are not fully described. This study aimed to clarify how H. pylori infection status affects the association between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk. We selected 949 case-cohort participants from the 18,863 Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) populations. Gastric cancer incidence inside and outside of the subcohort were 12 and 254 cases, respectively. Seropositivities for CagA, VacA, and H. pylori infection were determined by performing immunoblot assays. Weighted Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Relative to non-drinking, heavy drinking (⩾7 times a week), and binge drinking (⩾55 g alcohol intake per occasion) showed a 3.48-fold (95% CI, 1.13-10.73) and 3.27-fold (95% CI, 1.01-10.56) higher risk in subjects not previously infected by H. pylori. There was no significant association between drinking pattern and gastric cancer risk in H. pylori IgG seropositive subjects. An increased risk for gastric cancer in heavy- and binge-drinking subjects were also present in subjects not infected by CagA- or VacA-secreting H. pylori. Heavy and binge alcohol consumption is an important risk factor related to an increasing incidence of gastric cancer in a population not infected by H. pylori.

  3. [Helicobacter pylori infection in children without dyspepsia in Curundu and Parque Lefevre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halphen, G M; Lindsay Estupiñán, J; Márquez, L E; Pon Chow, R L; Méndez, J R; Brandáriz, C; Oduber, L; Chanis, R

    1998-01-01

    A study of seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori determined by ELISA IgG, was conducted in 83 consecutive healthy children. The majority of the children (55%) had the bacterium. Seropositivity was demonstrated in 55% of the age group 0-5 years old, in 47% of 6-10, and in 67%, of the group 11 to 15. Of the children without sanitary inside their homes 86% were seropositive, versus 47% of the children with sanitary in their homes.

  4. Helicobacter pylori as a zoonotic infection: The detection of H. pylori antigens in the milk and faeces of cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection, which may increase the risk of gastritis, peptic ulcers, and cancer, has increased worldwide. This number is estimated to be around 70-90% in developing countries and 25-50% in developed countries. It is possible that the bacterium can be transmitted via food and water as well as zoo-notically and iatrogenically. Because of high prevalence of this infection in Iran, the aim of this study is to examine whether H. pylori infection might be transmitted from cow′s milk and faeces. Methods: The existence of the H. pylori antibody and antigen was investigated in samples of serum, milk, and faeces from 92 lactating Holstein cows in Shahrekord, Iran. The H. pylori antigen and antibody were detected using ELISA and were confirmed by PCR. Results: It was found that out of 92 serum specimens, 25 (27% of the cows were positive for the H. pylori antibody and 67 specimens were negative. From these 25 seropositive cows, 10 (40% faeces samples and four (16% milk sam-ples were antigen positive for H. pylori. Four of the antigen-positive milk specimens were also antigen positive for fae-ces. The existence of the UreC gene was also confirmed in positive samples of milk and faeces. Conclusions: There is a possibility that cow′s milk is a transmission mode in H. pylori infection and faecal contami-nation and inappropriate management processes could transfer H. pylori to humans. The awareness of the H. pylori epi-demiology and its method of distribution are necessary for public health measures and controlling the spread of this bacterium. Further investigation with a greater sample number is necessary to verify the ability of H. pylori transmis-sion via milk consumption.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection and its related factors in junior high school students in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshiko; Lin, Yingsong; Hongo, Minoru; Hidaka, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-04-01

    There have been few reports on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in asymptomatic Japanese children and adolescents. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is very low among Japanese children and that clinical variables such as serum pepsinogen and iron levels are associated with H. pylori infection. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 454 junior high school students aged 12-15 years in four areas in Nagano Prefecture. A commercial ELISA kit (E-plate Eiken H. pylori antibody) was used to measure IgG antibody against H. pylori. Serum pepsinogen and iron levels were also measured using standard methods. A urea breath test was performed for seropositive students. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 3.1% (14/454). There were no significant differences in H. pylori prevalence among mountain, rural, and urban areas. The mean level of both serum pepsinogen (PG I) and PG II was significantly increased in the seropositive subjects compared with the seronegative subjects. When the cutoff values for adults (PG I: 70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio: 3) were used, 4 of 14 subjects had PG I ≤70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio ≤3. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that low serum iron levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P=.02). The prevalence of H. pylori infection is as low as 3% among junior high school students aged 12-15 years in Japan. The disappearance of H. pylori is accelerating in Japanese children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with protection against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Perry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, a lifelong and typically asymptomatic infection of the stomach, profoundly alters gastric immune responses, and may benefit the host in protection against other pathogens. We explored the hypothesis that H. pylori contributes to the control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.We first examined M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma and H. pylori antibody responses in 339 healthy Northern Californians undergoing routine tuberculin skin testing. Of 97 subjects (29% meeting criteria for latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI, 45 (46% were H. pylori seropositive. Subjects with LTBI who were H. pylori-seropositive had 1.5-fold higher TB antigen-induced IFN-gamma responses (p = 0.04, ANOVA, and a more Th-1 like cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared to those who were H. pylori seronegative. To explore an association between H. pylori infection and clinical outcome of TB exposure, we evaluated H. pylori seroprevalence in baseline samples from two high risk TB case-contact cohorts, and from cynomolgus macaques experimentally challenged with M. tuberculosis. Compared to 513 household contacts who did not progress to active disease during a median 24 months follow-up, 120 prevalent TB cases were significantly less likely to be H. pylori infected (AOR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.0.36-0.83, p = 0.005, though seroprevalence was not significantly different from non-progressors in 37 incident TB cases (AOR: 1.35 [95% CI 0.63-2.9] p = 0.44. Cynomolgus macaques with natural H. pylori infection were significantly less likely to progress to TB 6 to 8 months after M. tuberculosis challenge (RR: 0.31 [95% CI 0.12-0.80], p = 0.04.H. pylori infection may induce bystander effects that modify the risk of active TB in humans and non-human primates. That immunity to TB may be enhanced by exposure to other microbial agents may have important implications for vaccine development and disease control.

  7. H. pylori-infection and antibody immune response in a rural Tanzanian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biggar Robert J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is ubiquitous in sub-Saharan Africa, but paradoxically gastric cancer is rare. Methods Sera collected during a household-based survey in rural Tanzania in 1985 were tested for anti-H. pylori IgG and IgG subclass antibodies by enzyme immunoassay. Odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI of association of seropositivity with demographic variables were computed by logistic regression models. Results Of 788 participants, 513 were aged ≤17 years. H. pylori seropositivity increased from 76% at 0–4 years to 99% by ≥18 years of age. Seropositivity was associated with age (OR 11.5, 95% CI 4.2–31.4 for 10–17 vs. 0–4 years, higher birth-order (11.1; 3.6–34.1 for ≥3rd vs. 1st born, and having a seropositive next-older sibling (2.7; 0.9–8.3. Median values of IgG subclass were 7.2 for IgG1 and 2.0 for IgG2. The median IgG1/IgG2 ratio was 3.1 (IQR: 1.7–5.6, consistent with a Th2-dominant immune profile. Th2-dominant response was more frequent in children than adults (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3–4.4. Conclusion H. pylori seropositivity was highly prevalent in Tanzania and the immunological response was Th2-dominant. Th2-dominant immune response, possibly caused by concurrent bacterial or parasitic infections, could explain, in part, the lower risk of H. pylori-associated gastric cancer in Africa.

  8. Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) are Gram-negative spiral bacteria which occur in the human stomach. The bacteria were cultured in vitro for the first time in 1983. It is suspected that the bacteria may cause chronic gastritis of type B and may also be a contributory cause of chronic ulceration and cancer...... of the stomach. The bacteria are accompanied by characteristic inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa. The significance for gastritis, chronic ulceration, non-ulcer dyspepsia and carcinoma of the stomach is discussed. HP occurs in a great proportion of the population of the world and the frequency increases...

  9. Asthma is inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori status in an urban population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Reibman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial exposures have been suggested to confer protection from allergic disorders and reduced exposures to gastrointestinal microbiota have been proposed as an explanation for the increase in asthma prevalence. Since the general prevalence of Helicobacter pylori has been decreasing, we hypothesized that H. pylori serostatus would be inversely related to the presence of asthma. METHODS: Adults were recruited to participate in the New York University (NYU/Bellevue Asthma Registry in New York City. Adult asthma cases (N = 318 and controls (N = 208 were identified and serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori whole cell antigens or the immunodominant CagA antigen were measured. RESULTS: As expected, the asthma cases and controls differed with respect to atopy and lung function. Seropositivity to H. pylori or CagA antigen was present in 47.1% of the total case and control study population. Asthma was inversely associated with CagA seropositivity (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.36-0.89. Median age of onset of asthma (doctor's diagnosis was older (21 years among individuals with CagA+ strains than among H. pylori- individuals (11 years (p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with the hypothesis that colonization with CagA+ H. pylori strains is inversely associated with asthma and is associated with an older age of asthma onset in an urban population. The data suggest H. pylori as a marker for protection.

  10. Association between iron deficiency anemia and Helicobacter pylori infection among children under six years in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Mohammad; Ziari, Katayoun; Mohebbi, Hossein; Alizadeh, Kamyab

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the association between H. pylori infection and Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among preschool children (age range: 40-75 months) at a tertiary referral hospital in Tehran.In a case-control study, the prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity was compared between 64 children with IDA diagnosis and 70 healthy non-anemic sex- and age-matched controls. Totally, 52 (81.3%) children with IDA and 10 (14.3%) non-anemic controls had a positive antibody level for H. pylori specific IgG and the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P<0.0001). H. pylori infection had a significant high prevalence among preschool patients with IDA. Eradication of H. pylori infection is recommended for patients with refractory IDA.

  11. Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Seif-Rabiei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between H. pylori and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In a case-control study, 90 patients with COPD and 90 age- and sex- matched control subjects were included. Serum samples were tested for anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA IgG by ELISA. A physician completed a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, habitual history, and spirometric findings for each patient. Of 90 patients with COPD 66 (51% had mild, 31 (34.4% moderate, and 13 (14.4% sever disease. There was no significant association between H. pylori IgG seropositivity and COPD. Serum levels of anti-CagA IgG were significantly higher in patients with COPD than in the control subjects (P < 0.001. No association was observed between H. pylori infection and severity of COPD. The results suggest that there is an association between CagA-positive H. pylori infections and COPD. Further studies should be planned to investigate the potential pathogenic mechanisms that might underlie these associations.

  12. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in elderly people in the Beijing region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Ying-Zhi; Li, Xiao-Ying; Tang, Zhe; Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yang, Yan; Chhetri, Jagadish K

    2014-04-07

    To investigate seroepidemiology of cagA(+) and vacA(+) strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in an elderly population in Beijing and to determine risk factors for seropositivity. A total of 2006 elderly persons (> 60 years) were selected using a random cluster sampling method in different parts of the Beijing area (urban, suburban and mountainous districts). Structured questionnaires were completed during home visits, including history of H. pylori infection, history of gastrointestinal diseases, diet types, hygiene habits, occupation and economic status. Blood samples (2 mL) were collected from each participant, and serum IgG antibodies to cagA, vacA and H. pylori urease antigens were measured by immunodetection. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in elderly subjects was 83.4% and the type I H. pylori strain infection rate was 56%. The seroprevalence for type I H. pylori strain infection in urban and suburban districts was higher than that in the mountainous areas (P diets was higher than in those eating high-protein foods (P 0.05). Type I H. pylori seroprevalence is higher in elderly people. The distribution of strains of H. pylori is significantly affected by age, area and dietary habits.

  13. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  14. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis and demographic variables on cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn D Gale

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States' National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis - both of which appear to be common in the general population - appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults.

  15. A prospective study of Helicobacter pylori in relation to the risk for pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen Dorthe; Lindkvist Björn; Borgström Anders; Manjer Jonas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and pancreatic cancer has been investigated in three previous studies with contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between H. pylori seropositivity and the risk for pancreatic cancer in a nested case-control study within a population based cohort. Methods Selected birth-year cohorts (born 1921–1949) of residents in Malmö, Sweden, were invited to a health screening investig...

  16. Tests for H. pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer disease - H. pylori ; PUD - H. pylori ... There are several methods to test for H. pylori infection. Breath Test (Carbon Isotope-urea Breath Test, or UBT) Up to 2 weeks before the test, you need to stop taking antibiotics, ...

  17. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  18. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children: Nutritional Status and Associations with Serum Leptin, Ghrelin, and IGF-1 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Gulin; Ozkan, Tanju Basarir; Ozgur, Taner; Altay, Derya; Cavun, Sinan; Goral, Guher

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, malignancy and lymphoma, and extra-gastrointestinal conditions. H. pylori infection is negatively associated with children's growth. Chronic inflammation of the stomach that results in the loss of appetite and, dysregulation of neuroendocrine hormones such as leptin, and ghrelin are the probable reasons of this negative association. The objective of this study is to determine the serum levels of leptin, ghrelin, and IGF-1 in H. pylori-infected children and their relations with growth. A hundred and sixty-one school children aged between 6 and 14 years were selected randomly from five primary schools representing a cross section of population. Demographic and sociocultural characteristics, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Serum H. pylori IgG, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, and ghrelin levels were measured in all children. The children were grouped according to the nutritional status and Helicobacter pylori seropositivity. Nutritional indices were compared among groups in association with serum leptin, ghrelin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. H. pylori IgG positivity was found in 34.2%, and 14.9% of children were malnourished. H. pylori seropositivity was significantly higher in older ages (10.32 ± 2.26 vs 9.53 ± 2.36 years, p = .036), and body weight and height Z scores were significantly lower in H. pylori-seropositive children (-0.33 ± 1.08 vs 0.04 ± 1.26, p = .044 and 0.13 ± 0.92 vs 0.23 ± 0.91, p = .018 respectively). H. pylori seropositivity was found to be an independent risk factor for shorter body height (p = .01). Serum leptin, ghrelin, and IGF-1 levels were not associated with H. pylori IgG seropositivity (0.35 vs 0.55 ng/mL, p = .3; 3267.4 ± 753.0 vs 2808.3 ± 911.4 pg/mL, p = .06; 470 ± 176 vs 521 ± 179 ng/mL, p = .32, respectively). Children infected with H. pylori are prone to short stature. This effect seems to be

  19. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Hispanics living in Puerto Rico: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pons, María; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Sevilla, Javier; Márquez-Lespier, Juan M; Morgan, Douglas; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important etiologic factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, one of the top ten leading causes of cancer death in Puerto Rico. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infections in this population was previously unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of H. pylori and its associated risk factors in Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional study was designed using an existing population-based biorepository. Seropositivity was determined using the Premier ™ H. pylori immunoassay. Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence was estimated with 95% confidence using marginal standardization following logistic regression. To assess the risk factors associated with H. pylori seropositivity, a multivariable log-binomial model was fitted to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 528 population-based serum samples were analyzed. The mean age of the study population was 41 ± 12 years, of whom 55.3% were females. The overall seroprevalence of H. pylori was 33.0% (95% CI = 28.3%-38.1%). Increasing age and having Puerto Rico. The H. pylori seroprevalence observed in Puerto Rico is similar to the seroprevalence reported in the overall population of the United States. The association between H. pylori seroprevalence and the risk factors analyzed offers insight into the epidemiology of gastric cancer in Puerto Rico and warrants further investigation. © 2017 The Authors. Helicobacter Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaff MS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih Jaff Pathology Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University (formerly Salahuddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq Abstract: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher frequencies of the O blood group and the nonsecretor phenotype of ABH antigens among patients suffering from peptic ulcers. Since Helicobacter pylori has been established as the main etiological factor in this disease, controversies about the associations of the ABO and Lewis blood group phenotypes and secretor and nonsecretor phenotypes in relation to susceptibility towards infection by this bacillus have been presented. The aim of this study was to verify the frequencies of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in H. pylori seropositive symptomatic patients. The study included (n = 1108 patients with dyspepsia symptoms referred from an outpatient clinic in Erbil city for investigation. Age, sex, and residency were recorded as a routine laboratory framework. Patients underwent SD Bioline (Standard Diagnostics Inc, Kyonggi-do, South Korea and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serologic tests for H. pylori. ABO blood group phenotypes were determined by a standard hemagglutination test. Results showed that 64.8% of patients (n = 718/1108 were seropositive for H. pylori infection, and (35.2% (n = 390/1108 were seronegative. Of the seropositive patients, 40.8% (n = 293/718 were male and 59.2% (n = 425/718 were female; while of the seronegative patients, 46.7% (n = 182/390 were male and 53.3% (n = 208/390 were female. The mean age for seropositives and seronegatives was (38.0 ± 14.6 years and (37.6 ± 15.7 years respectively. The frequency of the ABO and Rh-positive (Rh+ blood groups among seropositive patients was (A = 32.0%, B = 19.5%, AB = 6.7%, O = 41.8%, and Rh+ = 92.5% and was (A = 32.3%, B = 28.2%, AB = 8.0%, O = 31.5%, and Rh+ = 92.5% in seronegatives. The results of this study suggest that ABO blood groups, age, and gender influence

  1. Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Gastric Hypochlorhydria in the Malawian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Joe; Thumbs, Alexander; Kankwatira, Anstead; Andrews, Tim; Moore, Andrew; Malamba, Rose; Mtunthama, Neema; Hellberg, Kai; Kalongolera, Lughano; O'Toole, Paul; Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D Mark; Gordon, Melita

    2015-01-01

    HIV and Helicobacter pylori are common chronic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Both conditions can predispose to gastric hypochlorhydria that may be a risk factor for enteric infections and reduced drug absorption. We have investigated to what extent HIV and H. pylori infections are associated with hypochlorhydria in a Malawian cohort of patients undergoing endoscopy. 104 sequential symptomatic adults referred for gastroscopy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, had blood taken for rapid HIV testing and fasting serum gastrin analysis. Gastric fluid was aspirated for pH testing, and gastric biopsies were taken. After 9/104 HIV-infected patients who were already established on anti-retroviral therapy were excluded, 17/95 (25.0%) were seropositive for untreated HIV, and 68/95 (71.6%) patients were H. pylori positive by histology. Hypochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH>4.0) was present in 55.8% (53/95) of patients. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 2.91, [1.02-7.75], p=0.046). While single infection with HIV was not significantly independently associated with hypochlorhydria. H. pylori and HIV co-infection was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 6.25, [1.33-29.43], p=0.020) than either infection alone, suggesting an additive effect of co-infection. HIV infection was associated with higher serum gastrin levels (91.3 pM vs. 53.1 pM, p=0.040), while H. pylori infection was not (63.1 pM vs. 55.1 pM, p=0.610). Irrespective of H. pylori and HIV status, most patients (>90%) exhibited pangastritis. Only three patients had histological evidence of gastric atrophy, of which only one was HIV-infected. H. pylori infection was associated with fasting hypochlorhydria, while HIV was not independently associated. HIV and H. pylori co-infection, however, was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria than H. pylori infection alone. The mechanism of this apparent additive effect between HIV and H. pylori remains

  2. Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Gastric Hypochlorhydria in the Malawian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Geraghty

    Full Text Available HIV and Helicobacter pylori are common chronic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Both conditions can predispose to gastric hypochlorhydria that may be a risk factor for enteric infections and reduced drug absorption. We have investigated to what extent HIV and H. pylori infections are associated with hypochlorhydria in a Malawian cohort of patients undergoing endoscopy.104 sequential symptomatic adults referred for gastroscopy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, had blood taken for rapid HIV testing and fasting serum gastrin analysis. Gastric fluid was aspirated for pH testing, and gastric biopsies were taken.After 9/104 HIV-infected patients who were already established on anti-retroviral therapy were excluded, 17/95 (25.0% were seropositive for untreated HIV, and 68/95 (71.6% patients were H. pylori positive by histology. Hypochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH>4.0 was present in 55.8% (53/95 of patients. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 2.91, [1.02-7.75], p=0.046. While single infection with HIV was not significantly independently associated with hypochlorhydria. H. pylori and HIV co-infection was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 6.25, [1.33-29.43], p=0.020 than either infection alone, suggesting an additive effect of co-infection. HIV infection was associated with higher serum gastrin levels (91.3 pM vs. 53.1 pM, p=0.040, while H. pylori infection was not (63.1 pM vs. 55.1 pM, p=0.610. Irrespective of H. pylori and HIV status, most patients (>90% exhibited pangastritis. Only three patients had histological evidence of gastric atrophy, of which only one was HIV-infected.H. pylori infection was associated with fasting hypochlorhydria, while HIV was not independently associated. HIV and H. pylori co-infection, however, was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria than H. pylori infection alone. The mechanism of this apparent additive effect between HIV and H. pylori

  3. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal atrophy in Bhutan, a country with a high prevalence of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Seiji; Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Uchida, Tomohisa; Matsunari, Osamu; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-10-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Recently, serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies and pepsinogen (PG) have been used for gastric cancer screening. The incidence of gastric cancer in Bhutan is reported to be quite high compared with that in neighbouring countries. In this study, 381 subjects from three areas of Bhutan were assessed for gastric mucosal atrophy and serological parameters. Anti-H. pylori IgG, PG I, PG II and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) antibodies were measured using ELISA. Subjects were classified into four groups according to H. pylori and PG seropositivity: Group A (H. pylori-negative/PG-negative), Group B (H. pylori-positive/PG-negative), Group C (H. pylori-positive/PG-positive) and Group D (H. pylori-negative/PG-positive). The prevalence of H. pylori in the 381 subjects was 71.1% (271/381), with high infection rates found in rural areas. The PG I/II ratio was significantly inversely correlated with the atrophy score in the antrum and the corpus (PBhutan can be attributed to the high prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric mucosal atrophy.

  4. Periodontal disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a community-based study using serology and rapid urease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Krishnavilasom J; Nandakumar, Krishnankutty; Shenoy, Kottacherry T; Janam, Presanthila

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and their associations within a predefined Indian population. A community-based cross-sectional study of 500 selected individuals using a questionnaire, oral examination, rapid urease testing of dental plaque, and serological examination for immunoglobulin G antibody to H. pylori was carried out. Periodontal disease and H. pylori infection were prevalent in more than 50% of the population. Age, smoking, and diabetic status of the individuals were risk factors for periodontal disease after multivariate analysis, and a lack of proper sewage and waste disposal facilities were found to increase the risk of H. pylori infection. Although there was no association between periodontal disease and H. pylori seropositivity in the community, a highly-significant association was found between periodontal disease and colonization of H. pylori in dental plaque. Because periodontal disease is associated with the increased colonization of H. pylori, new treatment modalities, such as plaque control measures, should be employed for the complete management of H. pylori-associated gastric disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Helicobacter pylori associated with breastfeeding, nutritional status and recurrent abdominal pain in healthy Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senbanjo, Idowu O; Oshikoya, Kazeem A; Njokanma, Olisamedua F

    2014-04-15

    There is limited knowledge about the associations of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence and associations of H. pylori infection with breastfeeding practices, nutritional status, and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in a group of apparently healthy children and adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria. This was a prospective hospital-based study conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital that involved 118 children who came to the hospital for routine pediatric care. Seroprevalence status of the children was determined by measuring immunoglobulin G antibodies against H. pylori using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seventy-five (63.6%) children were seropositive for H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly from 40.4% in children less than five years of age to 85.1% at six to ten years of age (χ(2) = 20.9, p nutrition. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is high, particularly among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds in Lagos, Nigeria. It is associated with RAP. The effect of this infection on children's health requires further studies.

  6. Diet, Helicobacter pylori strain-specific infection, and gastric cancer risk among Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplein, Meira; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Peek, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo; Gao, Jing; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the association of diet and gastric cancer is equivocal, and the majority of previous studies have not evaluated the interaction of diet and infection with Helicobacter pylori, the leading risk factor for gastric cancer. We examined these associations among 226 cases and 451 controls nested within a prospective cohort. Dietary intakes were calculated from validated food frequency questionnaires. Blood levels of 15 antibodies to Helicobacter pylori proteins were assessed using multiplex serology. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression. Among individuals infected with high-risk Helicobacter pylori (sero-positivity to 5-6 virulent H. pylori proteins), increasing intake of red meat, heme iron, and sodium increased risk (comparing highest tertile to lowest: ORs [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 1.85 [1.01-3.40]; 1.95 [1.06-3.57]; and 1.76 [0.91-3.43], respectively) while increasing intake of fruit decreased gastric cancer risk (comparing highest tertile of intake to lowest: OR [95% CI]: 0.52 [0.28-0.94]). No associations of diet with risk were found among individuals infected with low-risk H. pylori (P for interaction for red meat and sodium: 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). In this population with over 90% prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection, categorizing individuals using H. pylori multiplex serology may identify individuals for whom a diet intervention may be effective.

  7. 110 HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) SEROPOSITIVITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with ocular disorders and who are otherwise healthy looking may infact be HIV seropositive and as such it may be necessary to observe all rules relating to HIV transmission so as to prevent ... from the tear fluid, conjunctiva of HIV positive but asymptomatic individuals (5). There have also been reports of health care ...

  8. Association Between Unplanned Pregnancy and HIV Seropositivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    66.7% of those that reported that their partners had worries, depression or sadness after disclosure had unplanned pregnancies whereas 83.3% of those that expressed no emotions had planned pregnancies. Conclusions: Possibility of antenatal HIV seropositivity disclosure to partner is the same whether the pregnancy is ...

  9. The gastric acid pocket is attenuated in H. pylori infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David R; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Wirz, Angela A; Orange, Clare; Ballantyne, Stuart A; Going, James J; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2017-09-01

    Gastric acid secretory capacity in different anatomical regions, including the postprandial acid pocket, was assessed in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative volunteers in a Western population. We studied 31 H. pylori positive and 28 H. pylori negative volunteers, matched for age, gender and body mass index. Jumbo biopsies were taken at 11 predetermined locations from the gastro-oesophageal junction and stomach. Combined high-resolution pH metry (12 sensors) and manometry (36 sensors) was performed for 20 min fasted and 90 min postprandially. The squamocolumnar junction was marked with radio-opaque clips and visualised radiologically. Biopsies were scored for inflammation and density of parietal, chief and G cells immunohistochemically. Under fasting conditions, the H. pylori positives had less intragastric acidity compared with negatives at all sensors >1.1 cm distal to the peak lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) pressure (pH. pylori positives at sensors 2.2, 3.3 and 4.4 cm distal to the peak LES pressure (pH. pylori positives. The H. pylori positives had a lower density of parietal and chief cells compared with H. pylori negatives in 10 of the 11 gastric locations (pH. pylori positives were CagA-seropositive and showed a more marked reduction in intragastric acidity and increased mucosal inflammation. In population volunteers, H. pylori positives have reduced intragastric acidity which most markedly affects the postprandial acid pocket. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. High Seroprevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Inmates: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in inmates has not been previously studied. Therefore, we determine the seroepidemiology of H. pylori infection in inmates. Methods Through a case-control study, inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango, Mexico and subjects without incarceration of the same city were examined for the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, incarceration, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the inmates was also investigated. Results Antibodies to H. pylori were found in 140 (83.3%) of 168 inmates and in 101 (60.1%) of 168 controls. Seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was significantly higher in inmates than in controls (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.93 - 5.71; P = 0.000002). The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was not influenced by gender, age, or socioeconomic status of inmates. Seropositivity to H. pylori was found in 3 of 3 inmates with peptic ulcer and in 1 of 2 inmates with gastritis. The seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure was high regardless the jail section, duration (years) in incarceration and number of incarcerations. Multivariate analysis revealed that H. pylori exposure was positively associated with having tattoos (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.14 - 9.70; P = 0.02), and negatively associated with drug abuse (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.70; P = 0.007). Conclusions Seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure in inmates is higher than those found in non-incarcerated people and other populations in the region. Results indicate that inmates may represent a new risk group for H. pylori exposure. Results warrant for further research on the potential role of incarceration and behavioral features of inmates for H. pylori infection. PMID:27785257

  11. Serological response to Helicobacter pylori infection among Latin American populations with contrasting risks of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Beltran, Mauricio; Conde-Glez, Carlos; Harris, Paul R.; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Flórez, Astrid Carolina; Torres, Javier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Sampson, Joshua N.; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a rare outcome of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Serologic profiles may reveal bacterial, environmental and/or host factors associated with cancer risk. We therefore compared specific anti-H. pylori antibodies among populations with at least 2-fold differences in gastric cancer mortality from Mexico, Colombia and Chile. Our study included 1,776 adults (mean age 42 years) from three nationally representative surveys, equally divided between residents of high- and low-risk areas. Antibodies to 15 immunogenic H. pylori antigens were measured by fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays; results were summarized to identify overall H. pylori seropositivity. We used logistic regression to model associations between antibody seroreactivity and regional cancer risk (high vs. low), adjusting for country, age and sex. Both risk areas had similar H. pylori seroprevalence. Residents in high- and low-risk areas were seroreactive to a similar number of antigens (means 8.2 vs. 7.9, respectively; adjusted-odds ratio, OR: 1.02, p=0.05). Seroreactivities to Catalase and the known virulence proteins CagA and VacA were each significantly (p<0.05) associated with residence in high-risk areas, but ORs were moderate (1.26, 1.42, and 1.41, respectively) and their discriminatory power was low (ROC area under curve <0.6). The association of Catalase was independent from effects of either CagA or VacA. Sensitivity analyses for antibody associations restricted to H. pylori-seropositive individuals generally replicated significant associations. Our findings suggest that humoral responses to H. pylori are insufficient to distinguish high and low gastric cancer risk in Latin America. Factors determining population variation of gastric cancer burden remain to be identified. PMID:26178251

  12. Seropositivity for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, Bohumil; Kučerová, Z.; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Rost, M.; Secor, W. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 335-337 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500960701; GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Enterocytozoon bieneusi * INTESTINAL MICROSPORIDIOSIS * seropositivity * human * DIARRHEA * SEROPREVALENCE Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 6.859, year: 2010

  13. HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakFaktor risiko infeksi Helicobacter pylori adalah tinggal di negara berkembang, kondisi sosial ekonomi yang rendah, jumlah anggota keluarga yang banyak, etnik dan genetik. Tatalaksana dan diagnosis Helicobacter pylori belum memuaskan karena adanya resistensi antibiotik pada pasien Helicobacter pylori. Kami melaporkan seorang pasien perempuan usia 8 tahun 6 bulan yang terinfeksi Helicobacter pylori. Diagnosis ditegakkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik, dan hasil laboratorium. Pasien diduga terinfeksi Helicobacter pylori karena mengalami nyeri perut berulang. Dari laboratorium didapatkan serologi IgG Helicobacter pylori positif. Pada hasil endoskopi biopsi ditemukan kuman Helicobacter pylori. Pasien mendapat therapi eradikasi lini pertama untuk infeksi Helicobacter pylori yaitu amoksisilin, klaritromisin dan omeprazol selama dua minggu. Setelah dua minggu pengobatan keluhan pasien tidak ada.Kata kunci: Helicobacter pylori, anak, nyeri perut berulangAbstractRisk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori infection include residency of developing country, poor socioeconomic conditions, crowded family, and possibly an ethnic or genetic as predispositions. The diagnosis and management Helicobacter pylori has not been satisfied yet, however, there is problem of increasing resistancy antibiotic due to Helicobacter pylori. Objective: We report a 8 year and 6 month old girl who suffered from Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis was based on history, clinical finding, and laboratory work-up. Suspicion on the presence of Helicobacter pylori was started when the girl had recurrent abdominal pain. Serology IgG Helicobacter pylori was positive and we had done endoscopic examination and biopsy. Therapy this patient was first line eradication Helicobacter pylori which give amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole for two weeks. There are no sympthoms after two weeks therapyKey word: Helicobacter pylori, children, recurrent abdominal pain

  14. Helicobacter pylori in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sýkora, Josef; Rowland, Marion

    2011-09-01

    This article reviewed the important publications on Helicobacter pylori research with children between April 2010 and March 2011. The most interesting studies in the last year lend further weight to the evidence for vertical transmission of H. pylori. The discovery of a potential role for jhp0562, the gene which encodes for the cell envelope protein glycosyltransferase, in the progression to peptic ulcer disease is also very interesting as it may provide a novel way to distinguish children at risk of peptic ulcer disease from those who are not, and so determine those who requires treatment to eradicate H. pylori. The rise in non-H. pylori-associated ulcers and erosions continues to be reported with no apparent risk factors for these ulcers identified to date. High levels of treatment failure continue to be reported, and there remains an urgent need for more effective treatment regimes for children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Helicobacter pylori and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Substances Chronic Inflammation Common Cancer Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Helicobacter pylori and Cancer On This Page What is ...

  16. Helicobacter pylori, anemia, iron deficiency and thrombocytopenia among pregnant women at Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Nahla; Gasim, Gasim I; Khalafalla, Khalifa E; Ali, Naj I; Adam, Ishag

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common gut pathogen that is linked to many complications of pregnancy such as iron deficiency anemia, pre-eclampsia and thrombocytopenia. There are no published data on H. pylori in Sudan. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period May-June 2012 at the antenatal care unit of Khartoum Hospital, Sudan, to investigate prevalence of H. pylori and its association, if any, with anemia and thrombocytopenia. Obstetric and medical histories were gathered using questionnaires. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin were measured and H. pylori antibodies (IgA and IgG) investigated using ELISA. Among 179 women, rates of positivity for specific IgG formed against H. pylori were 69.8% (125/179), 94.0% (168/179) and 5.6% (10/179) for IgA, IgG and both IgG and IgA, respectively. There was no association between the expected risk factors (age, parity, education) and H. pylori seropositivity. Of these women, 42/179 (24.3%), 50/179 (28.9%) and 19/179 (11%), respectively, were anemic (hemoglobin Sudan, and it is not associated with anemia or thrombocytopenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and Latent Toxoplasmosis and Demographic Variables on Cognitive Function in Young to Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D.; Erickson, Lance D.; Brown, Bruce L.; Hedges, Dawson W.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer’s disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States’ National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis – both of which appear to be common in the general population – appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults. PMID:25590622

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection in children in Estonia: decreasing seroprevalence during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, Marje; Utt, Meeme; Nilsson, Ingrid; Uibo, Oivi; Vorobjova, Tamara; Maaroos, Heidi-Ingrid

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is inversely associated with socioeconomic conditions in childhood. In Estonia, a high prevalence of H. pylori infection has been observed among children born in 1987 and earlier. Since 1991, after the dissolution of the USSR, profound social and economic changes have taken place in the country. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among children in the period 1991-2002. The hospital-based study population consisted of two groups of children enrolled in 1991 (n = 425) and 2002 (n = 296) according to the same inclusion criteria. The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the cell surface proteins of H. pylori were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the sera with the borderline results were analyzed by immunoblot analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the associations between H. pylori seropositivity and different variables such as demographic characteristics, diagnoses and year of enrollment. The only two variables linked independently to H. pylori serostatus were age and year of enrollment: the adjusted odds of being H. pylori seropositive were 1.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.76] times higher for the children enrolled in 1991 compared with the children enrolled in 2002. The age-standardized seroprevalence rate was 42.2% (95% CI 37.4-47.0%) for the group of 1991 and 28.1% (95% CI 23.1-33.6%) for the group of 2002. The prevalence of H. pylori infection among children has significantly decreased during the 11-year period of profound socioeconomic changes in Estonia.

  19. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alakkari, Alaa

    2012-02-01

    Research published over the past year has documented the continued decline of Helicobacter pylori-related peptic ulcer disease and increased recognition of non-H. pylori, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ulcer disease--idiopathic ulcers. Despite reduced prevalence of uncomplicated PUD, rates of ulcer complications and associated mortality remain stubbornly high. The role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia is unclear, with some authors considering H. pylori-associated nonulcer dyspepsia a distinct organic entity. There is increasing acceptance of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but little understanding of how GERD might be more common\\/severe in H. pylori-negative subjects. Research has focused on factors such as different H. pylori phenotypes, weight gain after H. pylori eradication, and effects on hormones such as ghrelin that control appetite.

  20. Effect of diet and Helicobacter pylori infection to the risk of early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Kang, Daehee; Shim, Ki Nam; Choe, Jae Won; Hong, Weon Seon; Choi, Haymie

    2003-05-01

    The association of dietary habits and Helicobacter pylori infection with early gastric cancer is still unclear. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Korea. Sixty-nine patients were newly diagnosed as having early gastric cancer at the Division of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, and 199 healthy subjects who visited the Health Promotion Center of the this same hospital for annual health examinations were selected as controls. Helicobacter pylori infection status was assayed by ELISA, and information for dietary habits was obtained by interview using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Preference for salty taste was also evaluated using a sensitive test. H. pylori seropositivity was observed in 88% of cases, as compared with 75% of controls (OR = 5.3, 95% confidence interval:1.7-16.5). Adaptive salt concentration was significantly and positively associated with early gastric cancer risk (p diets may enhance the effect of H. pyori infection in gastric carcinogenesis.

  1. Study of the Association between H. pylori Infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Fouladi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of mortality in developing and industrial countries. Recently the involvement of infectious agents as a risk factor for Acute Coronary syndrome is drafted. So this study was designed to investigate the probable association between Acute Coronary syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection.   Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 300 hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of Acute Coronary syndrome (UA and MI and 300 hospitalized patients without the history of coronary heart disease. Anti Helicobacter pylori Antibody level was determined by as an indicator of infection history. Using chi-square and t- test the results were analyzed in SPSS software.   Results: Results showed that 79 patients (26.3% in control group and 122 patients (40.6% in case group were seropositive and the difference was significant. Relationship between cronory diseases risk factors and levels of IgG was not significant. Also the results showed that the rate of hypertension in seropositive patients in case group was significantly upper than control group.   Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study we can conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection probably is a risk factor for Acute Coronary Syndrome. Thus, further studies are needed to elucidate the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

  2. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E. G.; de Laat, L.; van Oijen, A. H.; de Boer, W. A.

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to

  3. A prospective study of Helicobacter pylori in relation to the risk for pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Dorthe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and pancreatic cancer has been investigated in three previous studies with contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between H. pylori seropositivity and the risk for pancreatic cancer in a nested case-control study within a population based cohort. Methods Selected birth-year cohorts (born 1921–1949 of residents in Malmö, Sweden, were invited to a health screening investigation. A total of 33 346 subjects participated. Cases with pancreatic cancer (n = 87 were matched to controls (n = 263 using age, sex and time for baseline investigation as matching variables. H. pylori serology was analysed in stored serum samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios (OR for pancreatic cancer were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression. Results H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with pancreatic cancer in the total cohort (adjusted OR 1.25 (0.75–2.09. However, a statistically significant association was found in never smokers (OR 3.81 (1.06–13.63 adjusted for alcohol consumption and a borderline statistically significant association was found in subjects with low alcohol consumption (OR 2.13 (0.97–4.69 adjusted for smoking. Conclusion We conclude that no association between H. pylori infection and the risk for pancreatic cancer was found in the total cohort. However, in never smokers and in subjects with low risk alcohol consumption, a positive H. pylori serology was associated with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. These findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the limited number of cases in these subgroups.

  4. A prospective study of Helicobacter pylori in relation to the risk for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Borgström, Anders; Manjer, Jonas

    2008-11-05

    The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and pancreatic cancer has been investigated in three previous studies with contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between H. pylori seropositivity and the risk for pancreatic cancer in a nested case-control study within a population based cohort. Selected birth-year cohorts (born 1921-1949) of residents in Malmö, Sweden, were invited to a health screening investigation. A total of 33 346 subjects participated. Cases with pancreatic cancer (n = 87) were matched to controls (n = 263) using age, sex and time for baseline investigation as matching variables. H. pylori serology was analysed in stored serum samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios (OR) for pancreatic cancer were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regression. H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with pancreatic cancer in the total cohort (adjusted OR 1.25 (0.75-2.09)). However, a statistically significant association was found in never smokers (OR 3.81 (1.06-13.63) adjusted for alcohol consumption) and a borderline statistically significant association was found in subjects with low alcohol consumption (OR 2.13 (0.97-4.69) adjusted for smoking). We conclude that no association between H. pylori infection and the risk for pancreatic cancer was found in the total cohort. However, in never smokers and in subjects with low risk alcohol consumption, a positive H. pylori serology was associated with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. These findings should be interpreted cautiously due to the limited number of cases in these subgroups.

  5. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in New York City populations originating in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Olivares, Asalia Zuni; Foo, F Yeong; Foo, Sun; Neusy, Andre J; Ng, Christopher; Holzman, Robert S; Marmor, Michael; Blaser, Martin J

    2005-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori prevalence is higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries, and within the latter, higher among immigrants than among nativeborn residents. Using a point-prevalence survey, we sought to identify risk factors for H. pylori seropositivity in US urban East Asian-born populations. At a clinic in New York City, we consecutively enrolled 194 East Asian-born adults, who then responded to a survey and provided a blood sample. Assays were performed to detect IgG antibodies against whole cell (WC) and cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) antigens of H. pylori. For this group (mean age 50.2+/-14.7 years), the mean period of residence in the United States was 11.9+/-7.7 years. The total H. pylori seroprevalence was 70.1%, with highest (81.4%) in Fujianese immigrants. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated an independent association of H. pylori seropositivity with Fujianese origin [odds ratios (OR) =2.3, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) =1.05-5.0] and inverse associations with period in the United States (OR per year of residency in the United States =0.95, 95% CI =0.91-0.99) and with a history of dyspepsia (OR for a history of stomach pain =0.52, 95% CI =0.3-1.0). We conclude that H. pylori is highly prevalent among recent East Asian immigrants, especially among Fujianese. The protective effects of history of dyspepsia and duration in the United States suggest that these may be markers for antibiotic therapies.

  6. H. pylori seroprevalence and risk of diabetes: An ancillary case-control study nested in the diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Saud; Nelson, Jason; Moss, Steven F; Paulus, Jessica K; Knowler, William C; Pittas, Anastassios G

    2017-10-01

    To determine the association between H. pylori infection and risk of incident diabetes in adults at high risk for diabetes who participated in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) study. In a nested case-control study conducted among 421 adults with newly diagnosed diabetes and 421 matched controls, we examined the association between serological status of H. pylori at baseline and risk of incident diabetes over a mean follow-up period of 2.6years. Using data from the baseline visit of the DPP, we also examined the cross-sectional association between presence of H. pylori antibodies and insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and the disposition index-like measure after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). At baseline, H. pylori antibodies were present in 40% of participants who developed diabetes and 39% of controls. After adjusting for matching factors, there was no association between exposure to H. pylori and incident diabetes (odds ratio [OR] of 1.04 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40). In cross-sectional analyses, H. pylori status was not significantly associated with insulin sensitivity and disposition index-like measure from OGTT. In adults at high risk for diabetes, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with risk of developing diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Crohn's disease associated with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, E; Wendling, D

    1997-01-01

    We report two cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) associated with Crohn's disease (CD). The first case was a 60-year-old man with longstanding CD who next developed a seropositive, nodular RA. This patient also had bilateral sacroiliitis, but without positive HLA B27. The second was a 65-year-old female with a 15-year history of seropositive RA who presented secondarily a CD. No sacroiliitis or nodules were found in this patient. Both patients were DR1 (DRB1* 0101). Gold salts were only given in the second case and were stopped many years before the gastrointestinal symptoms. A similar case report has been previously described consisting in an ulcerative colitis complicating a seronegative HLA-B27 RA with sacroiliitis. The gastrointestinal involvement in RA may be broad and includes many causes: drug-induced colitis (including gold enterocolitis) vasculitis and amyloidosis located in the gut, associated bowel disease such as collagenous colitis, and also infectious agents. In addition, erosive polyarthritis associated with gastrointestinal manifestations can present a problem in the differential diagnosis between RA and an enteropathic arthritis. Finally, the coexistence by chance of inflammatory bowel disease and RA is suggested by the low occurrence of these two conditions in the same patient.

  8. The Psychosocial Integration of Seropositive Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Raluca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We can assume without fail that the psychosocial implications in case of HIV/AIDS are as overwhelming as the medical aspects. For the positive person as well as for those who assist the seropositive people, the uncertainty frames the medical prognosis. All the effects that occur are entirely funded: the loss of self-trust as well as mistrusting others, stigmatization, isolation, getting abandoned by the family, friends, neighbors and school mates or coworkers. The current study aims to evaluate this aspect, the fact that the living environment of the seropositive person does not lead to significant differences as far as adjusting to HIV/AIDS diagnosis is concerned, but the adjusting differences are more related to the personality structure of the infected person, to the way this person identifies strategies of coping with the new situations he / she has to deal with (cognitive, emotional and behavioral strategies. In the applicative part of the study, we analyze the adjustment to the diagnosis, as well as the adherence to the treatment, by applying certain specific work instruments.

  9. Polymorphisms of the DNA methyltransferase 1 associated with reduced risks of Helicobacter pylori infection and increased risks of gastric atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: DNA methyltransferase-1(DNMT1 is an important enzyme in determining genomic methylation patterns in mammalian cells. We investigated the associations between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risks of developing H. pylori seropositivity, gastric atrophy and gastric cancer in the Chinese population. METHODS: The study consisted of 447 patients with gastric cancer; 111 patients with gastric atrophy; and 961 healthy controls. Five SNPs, rs10420321, rs16999593, rs8101866, rs8111085 and rs2288349 of the DNMT1 gene were genotyped. Anti-H.pylori IgG was detected by ELISA. Gastric atrophy was screened by the level of serum pepsinogen Ι and II and then confirmed by endoscopy and histopatholgical examinations. RESULTS: The age- and sex-adjusted OR of H. pylori seropositivity was 0.67 (95%CI: 0.51-0.87 for rs8111085 TC/CC genotypes, significantly lower than the TT genotype in healthy controls. The adjusted OR of H.pylori seropositivity was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.52-0.89 for rs10420321 AG/GG genotypes. In addition, patients carrying rs2228349 AA genotype have a significantly increased risk for H.pylori seropositivity (OR=1.67; 95%CI: 1.02-2.75. Further haplotype analyses also showed that the ATTTG and ATCTA are significantly associated with increased risks in H.pylori infection compared to the GTCCG haplotype (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.77; OR=1.40, 95% CI: 1.09-1.80. The adjusted ORs of gastric atrophy were 1.66 (95%CI: 1.06-2.61 for rs10420321 GG genotype, and 1.67 (95%CI 1.06-2.63, P=0.03 for rs8111085 CC genotype, but no association was found between SNPs in the DNMT1 gene and risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with rs10420321 GG and rs8111085 CC genotype of the DNMT1 gene were associated with reduced risks for H.pylori infection. On the other hand, higher risks of gastric atrophy were found in the carriers with these two genotypes compared to other genotypes. Our results suggested that SNPs of DNMT1 could be used as genotypic

  10. Rapid recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian patients after successful eradication. Gastrointestinal Physiology Working Group of the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and The Johns Hopkins University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ramos, A; Gilman, R H; Leon-Barua, R; Recavarren-Arce, S; Watanabe, J; Salazar, G; Checkley, W; McDonald, J; Valdez, Y; Cordero, L; Carrazco, J

    1997-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Since gastric cancer is common in Peru, eradication of H. pylori may help to reduce the occurrence of gastric cancer. This study involved three randomized trials to determine the efficacy of four different triple-drug therapy regimens. The most successful regimen was furazolidone combined with bismuth subsalicylate and amoxicillin, which eradicated infection in 82% of patients. Patients successfully treated were followed every 2-3 months to determine the recurrence rate of H. pylori infection. Of 105 patients with H. pylori eradication documented by pathology and culture, 52% (55) returned for follow-up endoscopy, and in 73% (40) of these 55 the infection recurred during the 8-month follow-up period. Thirty-five patients from whom H. pylori was eradicated and who were tested for antibodies to H. pylori remained consistently seropositive. Rapid recurrence of H. pylori infection after successful eradication suggests that measures other than antimicrobial therapy are needed to fight H. pylori in developing countries.

  11. Helicobacter pylori: Novel Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Drouin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for Helicobacter pylori would cure the infection without resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance. Current therapies have variable cure rates; the reasons for treatment failure include bacterial resistance and poor compliance. Some antibiotics, such as furazolidone, may be affordable agents to treat this infection worldwide. New proton pump inhibitors, such as rabeprazole, can potentiate antibiotics. Nutriceuticals and probiotics demonstrate interesting in vitro activity against H pylori. Children rarely have symptoms to this infection and, therefore, are a suitable group in which to assess different nonaggressive therapies.

  12. Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in HIV seropositive patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A contemporary surge in diarrhoeal illnesses due to parasitic infestations is believed to be a synergy between endemicity and HIV seropositivity. Aim: To determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation among HIV seropositive patients at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. HELICOBACTER PYLORI-ASSOCIATED INFLAMMATION IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Pavlov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim – assessment of the prevalence of seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori infection and laboratory comparative study of the peripheralblood in patients depending on the course of coronary heart disease (CHD.Materials and methods. Observation of 100 patients with coronary artery disease and 40 control patients is presented. Investigation indicatorsof clinical blood tests, biochemical blood analysis and determination of immunoglobulin antibody titer against Helicobacter pylori.Results. In patients with coronary artery disease signs of systemic inflammation associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome are marked with increased antibody titers to infection Helicobacter pylori.Conclusion. A history of coronary artery disease in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastroduodenal pathology should be considered as a factor that increases the likelihood of unstable coronary desease course. Detected in patients with coronary artery disease signs of systemic inflammation with an increase in titer of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori infection associated with development of acute coronary syndrome.

  15. [Helicobacter pylori and Arteriosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Teruaki

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their

  16. Biopatologia do Helicobacter pylori

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    Ladeira Marcelo Sady Plácido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori induz inflamação persistente na mucosa gástrica com diferentes lesões orgânicas em humanos, tais como gastrite crônica, úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. Os fatores determinantes desses diferentes resultados incluem a intensidade e a distribuição da inflamação induzida pelo H. pylori na mucosa gástrica. Evidências recentes demonstram que cepas do H. pylori apresentam diversidade genotípica, cujos produtos acionam o processo inflamatório por meio de mediadores e citocinas, que podem levar a diferentes graus de resposta inflamatória do hospedeiro, resultando em diferentes destinos patológicos. Cepas H. pylori com a ilha de patogenicidade cag induzem resposta inflamatória mais grave, através da ativação da transcrição de genes, aumentando o risco para desenvolvimento de úlcera péptica e câncer gástrico. O estresse oxidativo e nitrosativo induzido pela inflamação desempenha importante papel na carcinogênese gástrica como mediador da formação ou ativação de cancerígenos, danos no DNA, bem como de alterações da proliferação celular e da apoptose.

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

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    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  18. Infecciones por helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori infections

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    Liliam Alvarez Gil

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Se revisan los conocimientos sobre el papel de Helicobacter pylori en varias enfermedades gastroduodenales como la gastritis crónica (GC, úlcera gástrica (UG, úlcera duodenal (UD y dispepsia no ulcerosa (DNU. La revisión abarca aspectos históricos, microbiológicos, clínicos, epidemiológicos, diagnósticos de laboratorio, terapéuticos y de patogénesis.

    The current knowledge of the role of Helicobacter Pylori in several gastroduodenal  diseases is reviewed. It includes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and nonulcerous dyspepsia. The following aspects are treated in this paper: history, microbiology. Clinical presentation, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis, therapy and pathogenesis.

  19. [H. pylori-negative gastric cancer].

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    Kato, Mototsugu; Ono, Shouko; Shimizu, Yuichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Mabe, Katsuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Broad category of H. pylori-negative gastric cancer includes true gastric cancer without history of H. pylori infection, gastric cancer after successful eradication of H. pylori, and H. pylori-negative gastric cancer with history of H. pylori infection. The frequency of gastric cancer without history of H. pylori infection was less than 1% in Japan. Although preventive effect for gastric cancer of H. pylori eradication can be expected, risk of gastric cancer incidence continues after eradication of H. pylori. The frequency of gastric cancer after successful eradication has been increasing, since eradication treatment was widely spread in Japan. The features of H. pylori-negative gastric cancer were reported to be different from conventional H. pylori-positive gastric cancer. Endoscopic screening of gastric cancer requires to understand the characteristics of gastric cancer based on status of H. pylori infection.

  20. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Texas Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men: Implications for Gastric Cancer Risk Disparities.

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    Long Parma, Dorothy; Muñoz, Edgar; Ogden, Susan M; Westin, Gustavo F; Leach, Robin J; Thompson, Ian M; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2017-07-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) infection is a major gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) risk factor. GA disproportionately affects U.S. Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Since H. pylori infection studies in Hispanics are few, infection rates in Hispanic and NHW men in Bexar County were compared, and relationships with ethnicity and obesity examined. Age- and zip code-matched participants from a community-dwelling cohort were randomly selected. Sera from 284 men were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay for H. pylori antibodies. Adjusted risk ratio estimation for matched data was conducted to identify differences. Hispanics had a markedly higher prevalence of infection (30.3%) than NHWs (9.2%). Matched risk ratio (mRR) analyses revealed a strong association between H. pylori seropositivity and Hispanic ethnicity (mRR = 3.31; 95% CI [1.91, 5.73], adjusted by BMI, smoking status, and family history of cancer (mRR range = 3.28-3.89). BMI mRRs (range = 1.19-1.22) were significant in all models. In this cohort, Hispanic men had higher H. pylori infection rates than NHWs, and parallel the disproportionately higher rates of GA; obesity contributes to this higher prevalence. Future studies should address country of origin, acculturation, and other factors influencing obesity to further elucidate risk of GA in Hispanic populations.

  1. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Texas Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men: Implications for Gastric Cancer Risk Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Dorothy Long; Muñoz, Edgar; Ogden, Susan M.; Westin, Gustavo F.; Leach, Robin J.; Thompson, Ian M.; Ramirez, Amelie G.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) risk factor. GA disproportionately affects U.S. Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Since H. pylori infection studies in Hispanics are few, infection rates in Hispanic and NHW men in Bexar County were compared, and relationships with ethnicity and obesity examined. Age- and zip code-matched participants from a community-dwelling cohort were randomly selected. Sera from 284 men were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay for H. pylori antibodies. Adjusted risk ratio estimation for matched data was conducted to identify differences. Hispanics had a markedly higher prevalence of infection (30.3%) than NHWs (9.2%). Matched risk ratio (mRR) analyses revealed a strong association between H. pylori seropositivity and Hispanic ethnicity (mRR = 3.31; 95% CI [1.91, 5.73], adjusted by BMI, smoking status, and family history of cancer (mRR range = 3.28–3.89). BMI mRRs (range = 1.19–1.22) were significant in all models. In this cohort, Hispanic men had higher H. pylori infection rates than NHWs, and parallel the disproportionately higher rates of GA; obesity contributes to this higher prevalence. Future studies should address country of origin, acculturation, and other factors influencing obesity to further elucidate risk of GA in Hispanic populations. PMID:28413904

  2. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Wouter J; Sostres, Carlos; Kuipers, Ernst J; Lanas, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Declining Helicobacter pylori prevalence rates have resulted in a decrease of peptic ulcer bleeding incidence. Moreover, eradication reduces peptic ulcer recurrence rate. Newer studies confirm that H. pylori eradication lowers the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Guidelines therefore advocate a test-and-treat strategy for patients with a history of ulcer bleeding and NSAIDs and/or aspirin use. There is mounting evidence that H. pylori status has no effect on symptoms and treatment efficacy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Some studies observed an improvement of GERD complaints after H. pylori eradication, which underlines that H. pylori treatment is not contra-indicated in GERD patients. The exact role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia (FD) remains controversial. However, there is growing consensus that H. pylori-positive FD should be assessed as a separate entity. In these patients, eradication can be beneficial and appropriate. Finally, several studies suggest that H. pylori infection may also be associated with beneficial effects for the host. Epidemiologic studies showed an inverse relation between H. pylori infection and asthma and allergy, although data are conflicting and need to be expanded. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection according to ABO blood group among blood donors in Kosovo

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    Bukurije Zhubi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous studies have reported a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among healthy and non-healthy persons in different places. The Aim of the study is to investigate the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among Kosovo’s Blood donor associated with ABO/Rhesus blood group.Methods: 671 blood donors are tested for H. pylori antibodies and results are classifi ed by way of donation, age, gender, blood groups and education level. Serum antibodies are analyzed by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay test for H. pylori IgG with Biomerieux HPY-VIDAS.Results: The frequency of IgG antibody for H. pylori among healthy blood donors is 56.9%, there is not found any difference between voluntary and non-voluntary blood donors (57.4% respectively 56.3%(OR=1.05; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.43; p=0.8. H pylori IgG antibodies positive are detected in 57.0 % ( 126 of 221 of women, compared with 56.9 % ( 256 of 450 of men(OR=0.99; 95% CI 0.72 to 1.38; p=0.96. Serpositive donors are older than seronegative ones (31.9 years, respectively 29.5 years, p=0.02. Mean value of IgG antibody of H. pylori is 3.61 with no significant difference between males and females (3.72 respectively 3.44; p=0.2. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection is similar among blood groups: O (57.4%, A (56.2%, B (59.6%, AB (51.4%, RhD positive (56.7% and RhD negative (58.3%.Conclusions: The seropositivity of H. pylori is moderately higher in the non voluntary and familiar blood donors among the total Kosovo blood donors. There is not found a significant relationship between infection with H. pylori and ABO/Rhesus blood group among blood donors.

  4. Age-Dependent Association among Helicobacter pylori Infection, Serum Pepsinogen Levels and Immune Response of Children to Live Oral Cholera Vaccine CVD 103-HgR

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    Muhsen, Khitam; Lagos, Rosanna; Reymann, Mardi K.; Graham, David Y.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Through its effects on gastric secretion, we hypothesized that Helicobacter pylori infection may influence oral immunization. Accordingly, we examined the association between H. pylori infection, serum pepsinogen (PG) (measures for H. pylori gastritis) and vibriocidal antibody (a correlate of protection) seroconversion following oral immunization with CVD 103-HgR live cholera vaccine among children of different ages. Methods Sera from 422 Chilean children who were vaccinated with a single dose of CVD 103-HgR were tested by ELISA for serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori, PG I and PG II levels and antibodies to Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide and hepatitis A virus (as markers of low socioeconomic status and exposure to enteric pathogens). Results The likelihood of vibriocidal antibody seroconversion following vaccination with CVD 103-HgR was significantly decreased in H. pylori-seropositive children age 6 months to 4 years with PG II>8 µg/L (adjusted OR 0.14 (95% CI 0.03–0.61; P = 0.009), and also in H. pylori seropositives with lower PG II level (adjusted OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.83; P = 0.017), compared to H. pylori-seronegatives. H. pylori-seropositive children aged 5–9 years with serum PG I>30 µg/L (indicating more severe gastritis) had higher odds of vibriocidal seroconversion than those with lower PG I levels (adjusted OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.26–15.38; P = 0.02). There was no significant association between exposures to S. flexneri 2a or hepatitis A virus and vibriocidal seroconversion. Conclusions As H. pylori gastritis progresses with increasing pediatric age in developing country venues, changes in gastric secretion ensue that we believe explain the observed differences in age-related immune responses to immunization with live oral cholera vaccine. The effect of H. pylori and changes of gastric acid secretion on the immunogenicity of various oral vaccines should be studied in different developing, transitional and industrialized

  5. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori infection in Greece: the changing prevalence during a ten-year period and its antigenic profile

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    Katsilambros Nicolaos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate changes in H pylori infection prevalence in Greece during a ten-year period, and to examine its antigenic profile. Methods Three groups of patients were studied. Group O-87: Banked serum samples of 200 consecutive adult outpatients, from the Hepato-Gastroenterology clinic of a teaching hospital at Athens, collected in 1987. Group O-97: Serum samples of 201 similarly selected outpatients from the same Unit, collected in 1997. Group BD-97: Serum samples of 120 consecutive blood donors from the same hospital, collected in 1997. H pylori IgG antibody seroprevalence was studied by a quantitative ELISA. Antigenic profile was studied by western-blot IgG assay, in 62 IgG positive patients of O-97 and BD-97. Results were analyzed by conventional statistics and multivariate regression analysis. Results The H pylori seroprevalence increased with age in the three tested groups. In O-97, seroprevalence did not differ from that, in BD-97. On the contrary, there was a significant decrease in seropositivity between O-87 and O-97 (59.5% vs 49.2%, p = 0.039. Multiple regression analysis showed that age over 35 years (OR:3.45, 95% CI:1.59–7.49, p = 0.002 and year of patients' selection – that is 1987 or 1997 – (OR:1.73, 95% CI:1.14–2.65 for 1987, p = 0.010, were independent risk factors of H pylori infection. The seroprevalence of CagA+ and VacA+ strains was 77.4% and 58.5%, respectively, and type I(CagA+/VacA+ strains were significantly more common than type II(CagA-/VacA- strains (59.7% vs 22.6%, p Conclusions During a ten-year period, we found a significant decrease of H pylori infection in Greece and our data support the birth cohort phenomenon as an explanation for the age-dependent increase of H pylori infection. The prevalence of CagA and/or VacA positive strains is relatively high, in a country with low incidence of gastric cancer.

  6. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G; de Laat, L; van Oijen, A H; de Boer, W A

    2012-03-01

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to detect halitosis. In this study a possible relation between H. pylori and halitosis was evaluated, using an objective method (gas chromatography, GC) to detect the VSCs, responsible for the halitosis. The levels of the VSCs hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured in mouth breath and in stomach air of 11 H. pylori positive patients and of 38 H. pylori negative patients, all with gastric pathology. Halitosis was also established by organoleptic scoring (OLS) of mouth-breath. The levels of H(2)S, MM and DMS in the mouth-breath and stomach air of the H. pylori positive patients did not differ significantly from those of the H. pylori negative patients. OLS of the mouth-breath resulted in 9 patients with halitosis, 1 out of the H. pylori positive group and 8 out of the H. pylori negative group, which is not statistically different. The concentrations of the VSCs in stomach air were in nearly all cases below the thresholds of objectionability of the various VSCs, indicating that halitosis does not originate in the stomach. The patients with gastric pathology were also compared with control patients without gastric pathology and with normal volunteers. No significant differences in VSCs in mouth breath were observed between these groups. Thus, in this study no association between halitosis and H. pylori infection was found. Halitosis, as established by GC and OLS, nearly always originates within the oral cavity and seldom or never within the stomach.

  7. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by Chloramination

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    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...

  8. Evidence of mother-child transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection Evidência da transmissão mãe-filho da infecção por Helicobacter pylori

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    Mario Luis Escobar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomical status is a major risk factor for natural acquisition of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in developing countries. Its transmission route is unknown but studies suggest person-to-person transmission. AIM: To evaluate seropositivity of anti-H. pylori antibodies in family members of infected symptomatic index patients as compared to family members of symptomatic uninfected index patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve family members of 38 patients who underwent endoscopy to exclude peptic disease were studied. Patients were deemed H. pylori infected or not infected when rapid urease test and histology were both positive or both negative. The family members underwent ELISA serology using the Cobas Core II Kit (Roche and were classified into three groups: I - 29 family members of 10 H. pylori (+ duodenal ulcer index patients; II - 57 family members of 17 H. pylori (+ index patients without duodenal ulcer; III - 26 family members of 11 H. pylori (- index patients. RESULTS: Seropositivity of group I and II (infected patients was higher than the control group, 83% vs 38%, specially in mothers, 81% vs 18%, and in siblings 76% vs 20%. Differences between fathers' seropositivity was not statistically significant in the three groups: 100% vs 86% vs 70%. Seropositivity of all family members (mother, father and siblings between infected group (I vs II was similar. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in family members of infected patients, but was similar among family members of infected patients with and without duodenal ulcer. H. pylori infection is more frequent in mothers and siblings of infected index children. A common source of infection cannot be excluded, but facts suggest that person-to-person transmission occurs, specially from mother to child.O estrato socioeconômico baixo é o maior fator de risco para a aquisição natural da infecção por Helicobacter pylori em pa

  9. Helicobacter pylori: Novel Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Drouin

    1999-01-01

    The ideal therapy for Helicobacter pylori would cure the infection without resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance. Current therapies have variable cure rates; the reasons for treatment failure include bacterial resistance and poor compliance. Some antibiotics, such as furazolidone, may be affordable agents to treat this infection worldwide. New proton pump inhibitors, such as rabeprazole, can potentiate antibiotics. Nutriceuticals and probiotics demonstrate interesting in vitro...

  10. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana; Vidya

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study was done at Christian Medical College an d Hospital, Ludhiana for the period of 5 years from January 2006 to December 2010 in the Department of Microbiology. A total of 306 endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens were collected from the suspected cases of the peptic ulcer and were subjected to rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori. This test has high sensitivity and cent percent specificity. The prevalen ce was determined to be 09.48...

  11. Helicobacter pylori and Nonmalignant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Georgios S; Axon, Anthony T R

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers, plays a role in functional dyspepsia and is thought by some to influence the course of gastroesophageal reflux disease. This article addresses recent studies that have been published in connection with these diseases. H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer is declining in prevalence but the incidence of perforation and bleeding remains high especially in the elderly. All H. pylori associated peptic ulcers should be treated by eradication of the infection. Dyspepsia is a common disorder that affects up to 25% of the population. About 8% of cases that are infected with H. pylori will respond to treatment of the infection. The association between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease continues to be debated, a number of studies have shown that there is a negative association between H. pylori infection and Gastroesophageal reflux disease but treatment of H. pylori has not been shown to induce reflux or to affect the response to medication. Gastric atrophy is known to extend when acid suppression is used in infected patients implying that H. pylori treatment should be used in infected patients who are to undergo long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Helicobacter pylori in gastroduodenal perforation

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    Bharat B Dogra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:peptic ulcers were earlier believed to be caused by dietary factors, gastric acid, and stress. However, in 1983, Warren and Marshall identified the correlation between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and peptic ulcers. It is now well established that most of the peptic ulcers occur as a result of H. pylori infection. But the co-relation between perforated peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection is not yet fully established. Aims and objectives : to study the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with perforated peptic ulcer. Materials and methods: this was a prospective study carried out in all cases of perforated peptic ulcer reporting in surgical wards of a medical college during 2008-2010. A total of 50 cases, presenting as acute perforation of duodenum and stomach during this period, formed the study group. After resuscitation, all the cases were subjected to emergency exploratory laparotomy. The exact site of perforation was identified, biopsy was taken from the ulcer margin from 2-3 sites and the tissue was sent for H. pylori culture and histopathological examination. Simple closure of perforation, omentoplasty, thorough peritoneal lavage and drainage was carried out. Results: out of the 50 cases of perforated peptic ulcer, 38 happened to be males, and only 12 were females. The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 70 years. All the patients underwent only emergency laparotomy. As many as 46 cases (92% turned out to be positive for H. pylori and only four cases (8% were negative for this infection. Postoperatively, patients who were found to be positive for H. pylori were put on anti-H. pylori treatment. Conclusion: there was a high prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with perforated gastroduodenal ulcers.

  14. Heat shock protein of Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale strains isolated from HIV-seropositive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-Kacouris, Blanca Rosa; Ishihara, Kazuyuki; Miura, Tadashi; Okuda, Katsuji; Ikeda, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Rowland, Randal

    2002-11-01

    It has been suggested that infection by some mycoplasma species can act as possible cofactors in the acceleration of immunodeficiency in HIV-infected patients. The present study was designed to examine infections by oral mycoplasma species in HIV-seropositive (HIV(+)) patients. Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale were isolated from 59.5% and 16.7% of 42 HIV(+) patients, respectively. Non-M. salivarium and non-M. orale species were isolated from 40.5% of saliva samples from the HIV(+) group and 20.8% of those from 24 HIV-seronegative (HIV(-)) subjects, respectively. Although the production of superantigen by human peripheral lymphocytes in the isolated mycoplasma species from HIV(+) and HIV(-) subjects was evaluated, none of the examined mycoplasma strains, including ATCC strains of M. salivarium, M. orale, Mycoplasma buccae and Mycoplasma penetrans, were found to produce superantigen. Production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) by isolated mycoplasma strains was examined by immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies against Helicobacter pylori HSP60. It was found that all the strains of M. salivarium, M. orale, and unidentified mycoplasma species isolated from HIV(+) and HIV(-) groups produced heat shock proteins. HSP production by oral mycoplasma may play a role in the immunomodulation of HIV(+) patients.

  15. Increasing trend of HIV seropositivity in a sexually transmitted diseases centre and epidemiology of HIV seropositive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, K; Ramesh, V; Karmakar, S N; Misra, R S

    1996-01-01

    11,539 STD clinic attenders and 20,897 antenatal clinic (ANC) attenders at a New Delhi hospital were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA over a 3-year period. Results were confirmed by Western Blot. A low HIV seropositivity rate (1 per 1000) with an increasing trend in 1993 (4 per 1000) was observed in the STD attenders as against 0.1 per 1000 in the normal control populations. Most of the STD attenders including all the HIV seropositives had heterosexual contact with female sex workers. Both the HIV seropositive ANC attenders acquired the infection through blood transfusion. Thirteen of 23 HIV positive STD attenders had genital lesions, 5 having ulcerative and 8 having nonulcerative STD. Their clinical presentation did not differ from the HIV negative cases but the therapeutic response in 4 was altered. None had signs of symptoms of ARC/AIDS. Two out of 6 spouses and a 2-year-old child of HIV seropositive patients were seropositive. Increasing HIV seropositivity observed in this study reflects the changing situation in the country and highlights the importance of improvement of surveillance, early diagnosis and combined approaches to the management and control of STDs and HIV.

  16. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

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    Kienesberger Sabine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Methods Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2 were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. Results An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Conclusions Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social

  17. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardi, Enzo; Goni, Elisabetta; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Di Mario, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding and recurrence rate are strongly linked to Helicobacter pylori infection even if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play a relevant role in this setting. Further studies confirm that H. pylori eradication lowers the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Therefore, a test-and-treat strategy appears to be mandatory for patients with a history of ulcer bleeding and NSAIDs and/or aspirin use. Concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), evidence clearly shows that H. pylori status has no effect on symptoms and treatment. Therefore, H. pylori treatment is not contraindicated in patients with GERD. The exact role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia (FD) remains controversial. Novel possible mechanisms by which H. pylori may elicit dyspeptic symptoms include alterations of gastric motility, as well as endocrine and acid-secretory abnormalities. Hunger sensations, acid secretion, and gastrointestinal motility are regulated by ghrelin, particularly produced by the gastric enteroendocrine cell compartment. The improvement of symptoms correlates with enhanced plasma ghrelin levels. Apart from the need for more trials on this topic, these findings may give insight into the underlying pathophysiology of FD symptoms. Recent reports suggest that the presence of bacterial DNA in the oral cavity may be relevant to its transmission. A potential protective role of H. pylori on inflammatory bowel diseases needs to be better elucidated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalach, Nicolas; Bontems, Patrick; Raymond, Josette

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in children differs from that in adults, from the point of view of epidemiology, host response, clinical features, related diseases, and diagnosis, as well as treatment strategies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection, in both children and adults, is decreasing in the Western World as well as in some developing countries, which contrasts with the increase in childhood asthma and allergic diseases. Recurrent abdominal pain is not specific during H. pylori infection in children. The role of H. pylori infection and failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease remains controversial. The main initial diagnosis is based on upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy-based methods. Nodular gastritis may be a pathognomonic endoscopic finding of childhood H. pylori infection. The infection eradication control is based on validated noninvasive tests. The main cause of treatment failure of H. pylori infection is its clarithromycin resistance. We recommend standard antibiotic susceptibility testing of H. pylori in pediatric patients prior to the initiation of eradication therapy. H. pylori treatment in children should be based on an evaluation of the rate of eradication in the local population, a systematic use of a treatment adapted to the susceptibility profile and a treatment compliance greater than 90%. The last meta-analysis in children did not show an advantage for sequential therapy when compared to a 14-day triple therapy. Finally, the high rate of antibiotic resistance responsible for therapy failure in recent years justifies the necessity of a novel vaccine to prevent H. pylori infection in children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    in gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Zagai, Ulrika; Hallmans, Göran; Nyrén, Olof; Engstrand, Lars; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Duell, Eric J; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Jenab, Mazda; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Riboli, Elio; Aune, Dagfinn; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Capellá, Gabriel; Agudo, Antonio; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Martínez, Begoña; Redondo-Sanchez, Daniel; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Hm Peeters, Petra; Regnér, Sara; Lindkvist, Björn; Naccarati, Alessio; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Barré, Amélie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Ye, Weimin

    2017-04-15

    The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms. © 2016 UICC.

  1. Long-term recurrence rate after treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oona, M; Rägo, T; Maaroos, H I

    2004-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is common in Estonia: 87% of adults and 56% of children aged 9-15 years have been found to be H. pylori seropositive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term recurrence rate after treatment in children and adolescents in a setting of high H. pylori prevalence. All children (n = 27) who underwent gastroscopy at the Children's Clinic of Tartu University Clinics during 1993--95 and in whom H. pylori infection was verified by histological examination and rapid urease test and who had completed a treatment course against H. pylori infection were invited for a post-treatment follow-up endoscopy 4-6 weeks after completion of therapy (1st follow-up visit) and to the follow-up control by [13C]-urea breath test in 1997 (2nd follow-up visit) and 2002 (3rd follow-up visit). Recurrence of H. pylori infection occurred in I patient out of 16 at the 2nd follow-up visit (mean 17.8+/-7.1 months after treatment), and in 5 patients out of 15 at the 3rd follow-up visit (mean 6.6+/-0.9 years after treatment). The recurrence rate calculated for the period between the 1st and the 2nd follow-up visits was 4.2% per patient-year, and between the 2nd and the 3rd follow-up visits the rate was 7.6% (95% CI 2.5%-17.6%) per patient-year. The recurrence rate calculated for the whole follow-up period was 6.7% (95% CI 2.5%-14.5%) per patient-year. The post-treatment recurrence rate of H. pylori infection in children and adolescents is higher in Estonia than in low prevalence settings.

  2. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease

  3. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and asthma: a study in Cuban schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanobana, K; Vereecken, K; Junco Diaz, R; Sariego, I; Rojas, L; Bonet Gorbea, M; Polman, K

    2013-04-01

    Evidence suggests that human toxocariasis (HT) could stimulate the onset of allergic diseases such as asthma. More specifically, in subjects having a hypothetical 'atopic genotype', HT could boost preexistent allergy symptoms. We tested the latter hypothesis in Cuba, a country where both asthma and HT are prevalent. In a group of Cuban school-aged children (n = 958), we investigated the association of Toxocara seropositivity and atopic status with asthma. Toxocara seropositivity was diagnosed with ELISA and atopy by allergen skin prick test. Both physician-diagnosed asthma and current wheeze, as determined by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, were considered. Associations were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses, with either 'physician-diagnosed asthma' or 'current wheeze' as outcome variable. 40.1% of the children were Toxocara seropositive. Prevalences were 21.7% for current wheeze and 32.7% for physician-diagnosed asthma. The odds of having asthma were almost two times higher in atopic children, but only reached borderline significance (OR=1.90, CI 95%: 0.95-3.80 for physician-diagnosed asthma and OR=1.94, CI 95%: 0.98-3.85 for current wheeze). Toxocara seropositivity and physician-diagnosed asthma were associated (OR=1.51, CI 95%: 1.01-2.26). Moreover, in children without antibodies to Toxocara, being atopic was significantly associated with having physician-diagnosed asthma (OR=2.53, CI 95%: 1.63-3.90), while this association was not present in Toxocara positives (OR=1.38, CI 95%: 0.82-2.37). Our data confirm previous observations of higher Toxocara seropositivity rates in asthmatic children. Toxocara seropositivity appeared to abrogate the apparent association between atopy and asthma in Cuban children. Although this observation was limited to physician-diagnosed asthma, it challenges the hypothesis that HT stimulates the onset of allergic diseases such as asthma in atopic individuals.

  4. Management of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Kusters, Johannes G

    2016-08-12

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is associated with severe digestive diseases including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Successful eradication of this common gastric pathogen in individual patients is known to prevent the occurrence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. With half of the world's population being infected with H, pylori and only few antibiotics result in an effective eradication, a successful antibiotic driven worldwide eradication program seems unlikely. In addition, H. pylori eradication is not always beneficial as it has been described that eradication can be associated with an increased frequency of other disorders such as pediatric asthma, inflammatory bowel diseases and Barrett's Esophagus. We have to accept that eradication of this infection is a two-edged sword that is both useful and harmful and we should therefore focus our H. pylori eradication policy toward selectively identify and destroy only the virulent strains. In order to still be able to effectively treat H. pylori infections in the future we need an alternative diagnostic/treatment algorithm. This would involve a shift towards more precise and enhanced disease predicting diagnosis that tries to identify patients with chance of developing severe diseases such as gastric cancer, rather than the current regime that is geared towards find and destroy all H. pylori.

  5. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N.; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infections. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cag PAI, CagA, VacA and gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:26372819

  6. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermato...

  7. What Do We Do about Helicobacter pylori?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Hawkey

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliobacter pylori and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs cause ulcers by different mechanisms. Under some circumstances, patients infected with H pylori may be less prone to NSAID-associated ulcers than those who are H pylori-negative. Eradication trials have yielded differing results. However, those who have studied patients who have a past history of ulcer disease and are already established on NSAIDs have shown no benefit from H pylori eradication.

  8. Helicobacter Pylori : Serological Testing and Treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with dyspepsia and eradication of H. pylori after a non-invasive testing is an integral part of most management guidelines. This study evaluated the benefit of serological testing and treatment of H. pylori in Nigerian patients presenting with uninvestigated dyspepsia.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Helicobacter pylori: Prevalence and antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing evidence links infection of the gastric mucosa by. Helicobacter pylori with the subsequent development of gastric pathologies. The incidence of H. pylori infection in Kenya is staggeringly high. An investigation into the prevalence of H. pylori in patients with dyspepsia and asymptomatic controls from the same ...

  10. A comparative study of anxiety among HIV seropositive individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musumali

    University of Zambia, Psychology Department. Lusaka, Zambia ... behaviour patterns. In view of the negative influence of long standing anxiety, the present study attempts to find an answer regarding the possible differences between the prevalence and ... illness behavior among HIV seropositive individuals. • To find an ...

  11. Isoniazid prophylactic therapy for tuberculosis in HIV-seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therapy for tuberculosis in. HIV-seropositive patients. - a least-cost analysis. P. Masobe, T. Lee, M. Price. The expected upsurge in the number of new cases of tuberculosis resulting from the HIVlAIDS epidemic prompted an examination of the feasibility of prevention strategies to limit the increase in clinical tuberculosis.

  12. Incidence of seropositive myasthenia gravis in Cape Town and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a treatable autoimmune disease characterised by fatiguable weakness of skeletal muscles. More than 85% of MG patients have antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction or are seropositive for MG (SPMG). In the developed world the incidence of ...

  13. Increased inflammatory response in cytomegalovirus seropositive patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Westman

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD has been associated with increased local inflammation in the affected brain regions, and in some studies also with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is known to promote a more effector-oriented phenotype in the T-cell compartment, increasing with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from AD patients and non-demented (ND controls. Using a multiplex Luminex xMAP assay targeting GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10 and TNF-α, cytokine profiles from PBMCs were analysed after stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 beads, CMV pp65 peptide mix or amyloid β (Aβ protofibrils, respectively. CMV seropositive AD subjects presented with higher IFN-γ levels after anti-CD3/CD28 and CMV pp65 but not after Aβ stimulation, compared to CMV seropositive ND controls. When analysing IFN-γ response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation on a subgroup level, CMV seropositive AD subjects presented with higher levels compared to both CMV seronegative AD and CMV seropositive ND subjects. Taken together, our data from patients with clinically manifest AD suggest a possible role of CMV as an inflammatory promoter in AD immunology. Further studies of AD patients at earlier stages of disease, could provide better insight into the pathophysiology.

  14. Cultural Influences on Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Seropositivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the role of cultural influences, namely: circumcision, ear piercing and traditional scarification, on HbsAg seropositivity among primary school children in Nnewi. Subjects and Method: Two hundred and thirty seven randomly selected primary school children aged 5-12 years, were screened for HbsAg.

  15. (hiv) seropositivity in african patients presenting to the eye clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) patient each. These findings suggest that, patients with ocular disorders and who are otherwise healthy looking may infact be HIV seropositive and as such it may be necessary to observe all rules relating to HIV transmission so as to prevent ...

  16. Haematological profile of HIV seropositive HAART naive clients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study was to assess the haematological profile of HIV seropositive HAART naive patients who attended Kogi State University Teaching Hospital, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The study was prospective experimental research. Ethical clearance was ...

  17. Maternal HIV seropositivity and perinatal/neonatal outcome at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) and neonatal death of 3/66 (4.5%). Conclusion: High HIV seropositive prevalence rate, high rate of loss to follow up (abscondment), high positive rate in young mothers with adverse perinatal/neonatal outcome call for cost effective measures ...

  18. Isoniazid prophylactic therapy for tuberculosis in HIV-seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the costs and benefits that would result from isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis in a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 HIV-seropositive people in South Africa over a period of 8 years. At a 50% prevalence of tuberculosis infection among those at high ...

  19. Prevalence of HIV seropositivity in paediatric surgical patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a hernia and severe cachexia. Conclusion: Prevalence of HIV seropositivity is very low among paediatric surgical patients at NAUTH. Routine screening of patients is not necessary and should not form part of the policy. We recommend routine counselling of parents and provision of facilities for precautionary measures as ...

  20. Helicobacter pylori: a sexually transmitted bacterium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Oral sex (fellatio) is a very common sexual activity. H. pylori is mainly a gastric organism, but studies have reported that infected individuals may permanently or transiently carry H. pylori in their mouth and saliva. A Pubmed search was conducted using the words infection, oral sex and urethritis. The existing studies support the hypothesis that H. pylori could be a causative agent of non-gonococcal urethritis. It is possible that H. pylori may be transmitted via the act of fellatio in the urethra. Further research is required to explore the role of H. pylori in sexually transmitted urethritis.

  1. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Hubungan IL-8 Dengan Gastritis H.Pylori dan Non H.Pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica, R.Merlinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: H.pylori plays an important role to gastritis and paptic ulcer, 70%-90% occur in developing countries. Acute gastritis chronic gastritis inflammatory response occurs activating and cytokines that cause inflammation of the mucosa where mucosal levels of IL-8 incresed in H.pylori- infected patiens with dyspepsia. Aim: To identify the characteristic of patients gastritis H.pylori and non H.pylori gastritis, the levels of IL-8 in patients with H.pylori gastritis and non H.pylori an...

  3. DRUG RESISTANCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Silveira VIANNA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Helicobacter pylori has a worldwide distribution and is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases of the digestive system. Treatment to eradicate this microorganism involves the use of a combination of antimicrobials, such as amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin, combined with proton pump inhibitors. Although the current therapy is effective, a high rate of treatment failure has been observed, mainly because of the acquisition of point mutations, one of the major resistance mechanisms developed by H. pylori. This phenomenon is related to frequent and/or inappropriate use of antibiotics. Conclusion This review reported an overview of the resistance to the main drugs used in the treatment of H. pylori, confirming the hypothesis that antibacterial resistance is a highly local phenomenon and genetic characteristics of a given population can influence which therapy is the most appropriate.

  4. Diet and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołubiuk, Łukasz; Imiela, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Our diet contains many substances with potent antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Dietary interventions enable a decrease in H. pylori colonisation and result in a decrease in gastritis prevalence, thus potentially lowering the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with decreased expression of SLC5A8, a cancer suppressor gene, in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orellana Manzano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infects half of the world's population and causes gastric cancer in a subset of infected adults. Previous blood microarray findings showed that apparently healthy children, persistently infected with H. pylori have differential gene expression compared to age-matched, non-infected children. SLC5A8, a cancer suppressor gene with decreased expression among infected children, was chosen for further study based on bioinformatics analysis. Methods: A pilot study was conducted using specific qRT-PCR amplification of SLC5A8 in blood samples from H. pylori infected and non-infected children, followed by a larger, blinded, case-control study. We then analyzed gastric tissue from H. pylori infected and non-infected children undergoing endoscopy for clinical purposes. Results: Demographics, clinical findings and family history were similar between groups. SLC5A8 expression was decreased in infected versus non-infected children in blood, 0.12 (IQR: 0 – 0.89 versus 1.86 (IQR: 0 – 8.94, P=0.002, and in gastric tissue, 0.08 (IQR: 0.04 – 0.15 versus 1.88 (IQR: 0.55 – 2.56; P=0.001. Children who were both stool positive and seropositive for H. pylori had the lowest SLC5A8 expression levels.Conclusions: H. pylori infection is associated with suppression of SCL5A8, a cancer suppressor gene, in both blood and tissue samples from young children.

  6. Anti-Helicobacter pylori Antibody Profiles in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-Positive and EBV-Negative Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M Constanza; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Matsuo, Keitaro; Torres, Javier; Liao, Linda M; Morgan, Douglas R; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Dominguez, Ricardo L; Yatabe, Yasushi; Kim, Sung; Rocha-Guevara, Erick R; Lissowska, Jolanta; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer, but about 9% of cases harbor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the tumor cells. There is limited evidence on the possible interaction or antagonism between these infectious agents in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared H. pylori serologic profiles of EBV-positive (n = 58) and EBV-negative (n = 111) noncardia gastric cancer patients from the United States National Cancer Institute's International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium. EBV positivity of tumors was assessed by in situ hybridization. Serum levels of 15 antibodies to immunogenic proteins of H. pylori (Cad, CagA, Cagδ, CagM, Catalase, GroEL, HcpC, HP0231, HP0305, HpaA, HyuA, NapA, Omp, UreA, VacA) were assessed using bead-based multiplex serology. Logistic regression models were used to adjust odds ratios (OR) for country, age, sex, and year of diagnosis. Seropositivity to individual proteins ranged up to 90% overall. Antibodies to Catalase were borderline associated with tumor EBV positivity (adjusted OR = 3.15, p = .0024, Bonferroni corrected p = .036). Distributions of other antibodies did not vary by tumor EBV status. Similarity of host-response indicates the essential etiological role of H. pylori in EBV-positive gastric cancer. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Food constituents enhance urease activity in Healicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Mizote, Tomoko; Inatsu, Sakiko; Ehara, Keiko

    2005-01-01

    Urease activity of Helicobacter pylori recovered from the stomach of H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils was affected by the diet used after infection. The effect of dietary components on urease activity was investigated by growth of H. pylori in…

  8. Management of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, since its discovery by Warren and Marshall in 1982. ... Since the discovery of H. pylori by Warren and ..... least 2 antibiotics. Antibiotics that are traditionally used include amoxicillin, nitroimidazole (metronidazole and tinidazole), clarithromycin, tetracycline and bismuth.

  9. relation between helicobacter pylori, inflammatory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Sept. 2008 Vol 11(3):270-274. RELATION BETWEEN HELICOBACTER PYLORI, INFLAMMATORY. (NEUTROPHIL) ACTIVITY, CHRONIC GASTRITIS, GASTRIC ATROPHY AND. INTESTINAL METAPLASIA. *M. N Tanko, *A. N Manasseh,*G.O Echejoh, *B. M. Mandong , **A. O Malu , **E. N Okeke, **N. Ladep , **E. I. Agaba.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection. A...

  11. Helicobacter pylori and Peptic Ulcers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-17

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. David Swerdlow discusses the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease and trends in hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease in the United States between 1998 and 2005.  Created: 8/17/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/17/2010.

  12. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection among children seen in a tertiary hospital in Uyo, southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etukudo, Ofonime Michael; Ikpeme, Enobong Emmanuel; Ekanem, Emmanuel Eyo

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection occurs worldwide with higher seroprevalence rates in the childhood populations of developing countries. In Nigeria, there is a dearth of information concerning its occurrence in children and infection enhancing factors. A prospective seroepidemiologic survey to determine the prevalence rate and possible associations of environmental and socio-demographic factors with its seropositivity was therefore conducted. The subjects were children seen at the Children's Emergency Unit of University of Uyo Teaching Hospital in southern Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty subjects, comprising 132(57.4%) males and 98(42.6%) females (male: female ratio= 1.3:1.0) with an age range of 0.5-15 years and a mean age of 5.0 (SD ± 4.0) years were recruited. The median age was 4.0 years. H. pylori immunoglobulin G (1gG) antibody was determined from serum samples stored at -200C using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit, VicTorch. The overall seroprevalence rate was 30.9% with a peak prevalence of 40.7% for the 6.0 to 10.0 years age group. H. pylori seroprevalence in our children is associated with low social class (p=0.038), increased household population (p=0.009), source of drinking water (p=0.014), type of convenience used (p=0.019) and the method of disposal of household waste (p=0.043). The seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nigerian children is high and is associated with low social class, poor domestic water and poor sanitation. Improvement of water supply, human and domestic waste disposal systems and ultimately poverty alleviation would control this bacterial infection that has severe long term consequences.

  13. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in gastric carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Sicheng; Moss, Steven F.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important risk factor in the development of non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma; host genetic variability and dietary co-factors also modulate risk. Because most H. pylori infections do not cause cancer, H. pylori heterogeneity has been investigated to identify possible virulence factors. The strongest candidates are genes within the cag (cytotoxin associated antigen) pathogenicity island, including the gene encoding the CagA protein, as well as polymor...

  14. Helicobacter pylori: a sexually transmitted bacterium?

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadi, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral sex (fellatio) is a very common sexual activity. H. pylori is mainly a gastric organism, but studies have reported that infected individuals may permanently or transiently carry H. pylori in their mouth and saliva. Material and methods A Pubmed search was conducted using the words infection, oral sex and urethritis. Results The existing studies support the hypothesis that H. pylori could be a causative agent of non?gonococcal urethritis. Conclusions It is possible that H. py...

  15. Is Helicobacter pylori always a "bad guy"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojsak, Iva; Kolacek, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Various clinical presentations have been ascribed to Helicobacter (H.) pylori. Most importantly, H. pylori is considered the leading cause of gastric cancer worldwide and because of that, in adult population, it is listed as a number one carcinogen. However, children are less prone to develop H. pylori related serious diseases such as peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and cases of malignancy are only sporadically reported. On the other hand, there is an increasing level of evidence suggesting that H. pylori in children could also have a beneficial effect. Recently, several data confirmed previously described inverse relationship of H. pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that an increased prevalence of allergic diseases could be, at least partially, explained by the decreased incidence of H. pylori infection. H. pylori can, to some degree, influence immunological response. It has an ability to promote high proinflammatory cytokine expression in the gastric mucosa shifting immunity towards Th1 response, which could be a plausible explanation for the down-regulated clinical expression of allergies (including asthma) in patients with H. pylori gastritis. Based on these findings the aim of this review is to present "pros and cons" for H. pylori eradication in children.

  16. Investigation of Helicobacter pylori in Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadije Moridi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP is a motile, gram negative, catalase and oxidase positive bacteria that produce strong urease. H. pylori has been recognized as an etiologic agent of gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric MALT lamphoma. H. pylori infections have been correlated with many throat and larynx disease. More recently it is introduced as group 1 carcinogen. The existence of H. pylori within bouccal cavity and dental plaque has been reported. The nasal cavity can be colonized easily with H. pylori. Objectives: The aim of this Study is to report the result of an investigation of H. pylori genome within the larynx popilomatosis biopsy samples. Materials and Methods: 41 biopsy samples were provided from papillomatosis cases during therapeutic surgery. The biopsy samples were preserved at -80°C until use. The DNA extractions were achieved by the phenole- chloroform method. The cagA of H. pylori were amplified by specific primer sets. Results: H. pylori DNA were detected from 3 out of 41 (0.7% papilloma samples. Conclusions: This result is in agree with another reports about correlation between laryngeal papilomatosis and H. pylori infections

  17. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  18. Recovery of Salmonella enterica from seropositive finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; van der Wolf, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    the proportion of culture positive- and seropositive samples in a herd at cut-off OD% > 10 and of 0.58 at cut-off OD% > 40. Serology is a measure of historical exposure, which may or may not correlate closely to the microbiological burden at the time of sampling. Due to the low sensitivity of culture methods...... (87.5%) had a within-herd seroprevalence larger than 50% at sample cut-off OD% > 10. In our study, there was an increasing probability of recovering Salmonella with increasing within-herd seroprevalence. However, this was only a moderate correlation. A correlation coefficient of 0.62 was found between...

  19. Serum acute phase proteins in Dirofilaria immitis and Wolbachia seropositive cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre-Ferreira, Ana C; Vieira, Lisete; Vilhena, Hugo; Cerón, Jose J; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Montoya-Alonso, José A; Carretón, Elena; Pastor, Josep

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to characterise the response of acute phase proteins (APPs) in cats seropositive for Dirofilaria immitis and to its endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia. Methods The APPs serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) were measured in 25 seropositive cats and in 16 healthy seronegative cats. Results SAA and Cp concentrations were significantly higher in animals with D immitis seropositivity that exhibited clinical signs related to the disease, and Hp was elevated in all D immitis-seropositive animals. There was no significant correlation between APPs and D immitis or Wolbachia species antibody titres. Conclusions and relevance An association between feline seropositivity to D immitis and APP response was demonstrated. Increases in serum SAA and Cp concentrations were related to D immitis-associated clinical signs, whereas Hp increased in all seropositive animals.

  20. High exposure, spontaneous clearance, and low incidence of active Helicobacter pylori infection: the Sorbo San Basile study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzza, Francesco; Suraci, Evelina; Larussa, Tiziana; Leone, Isabella; Imeneo, Maria

    2014-08-01

    A decreased incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection has been prospected to occur nowadays. To evaluate the exposure to H. pylori, prevalence and incidence of active infection, and related risk factors in the general population. In a small town of Southern Italy (932 inhabitants), 595 (3-97 years) and 157 (12-82 years) subjects among those with no evidence of active H. pylori infection participated at baseline and 10 years later, respectively. A questionnaire was administered. Active H. pylori infection was assessed by (13) C-urea breath test (UBT). Serum VacA and CagA antibodies were determined. Of 518 subjects who were evaluated by both UBT and serology, 310 (59.8%) were UBT positive, 479 (92.4%) VacA positive, and 369 (71.2%) CagA positive. Subjects UBT negative and serology positive were 169 (32%), ranging 1 (14.2%) to 29 (82.8%) from last to first decades of life. Age, female gender, and people per room were independent risk factors for subjects UBT positive compared to those UBT negative and serology positive. Ten years later, subjects who became UBT positive were four of 157 (0.25% per year) while those who became seropositive for VacA and/or CagA were 17 of 26 (6.5% per year). H. pylori infection is highly dynamic with wide range of spontaneous clearance. It is easily cleared in the first decades of life, more recent years, less crowded homes, and males. It disappears and recurs more often than it was previously thought, implying that the current decline in its prevalence is due to real clearance instead of a fall in infection rate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. (Nutmeg) on Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis in albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activities of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. seed (nutmeg) was studied to authenticate traditional use in gastrointestinal disorder. Anti-H. pylori activities using the agar dilution method was investigated in 39 strains of H. pylori comprising 38 clinical ...

  2. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George; Scott, David R

    2016-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects about 50 % of the world's population, causing at a minimum chronic gastritis. A subset of infected patients will ultimately develop gastric or duodenal ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, or MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori requires complex regimens that include acid suppression and multiple antibiotics. The efficacy of treatment using what were once considered standard regimens have declined in recent years, mainly due to widespread development of antibiotic resistance. Addition of bismuth to standard triple therapy regimens, use of alternate antibiotics, or development of alternative regimens using known therapies in novel combinations have improved treatment efficacy in specific populations, but overall success of eradication remains less than ideal. Novel regimens under investigation either in vivo or in vitro, involving increased acid suppression ideally with fewer antibiotics or development of non-antibiotic treatment targets, show promise for future therapy.

  3. Legionella pneumophila Seropositivity-Associated Factors in Latvian Blood Donors

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    Olga Valciņa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous environmental exposure of humans to Legionella may induce immune responses and generation of antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups (SG 1–6 in the general healthy population and identify the associated host-related and environmental risk factors. L. pneumophila SG 1–6 seroprevalence among a total of 2007 blood samples collected from healthy donors was 4.8%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (5.9% than men (3.3% and in areas with a larger number of inhabitants, ranging from 3.5% in rural regions to 6.8% in the capital, Riga. Blood samples from inhabitants of apartment buildings tested positive for L. pneumophila in more cases (5.8% compared to those from inhabitants of single-family homes (2.7%. Residents of buildings with a municipal hot water supply system were more likely to be seropositive for L. pneumophila (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 1.26–7.91. Previous episodes of fever were additionally identified as a risk factor (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.43–4.1. In conclusion, centralized hot water supply, female gender and previous episodes of fever were determined as the main factors associated with L. pneumophila seropositivity in our study population.

  4. Seropositive abdominal and thoracic donor organs are largely underutilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Pietroski, R E; Hagan, M; Eisenbrey, A B; Fontana, R J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and utilization of anti-hepatitis B core protein(+) and anti-hepatitis C virus(+) organ donor referrals in a large organ procurement organization. Between 1995 and 2006, 3,134 deceased organ donor referrals were tested for anti-HBc and anti-HCV using commercial assays. The prevalence of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals significantly increased from 3.4% in 1994-1996 to 8.1% in 2003-2005 (P < .001), whereas the prevalence of anti-HBc(+) organ donor referrals remained unchanged at 3%-4% (P = .20). The 112 anti-HBc(+) (3.5%) and 173 anti-HCV(+) (5.5%) organ donor referrals were significantly older and more likely to be noncaucasian than seronegative organ donor referrals (P < .02). The procurement and utilization rates of seropositive thoracic and abdominal donor organs were significantly lower compared with seronegative organ donors (P < .0001). However, liver utilization rates significantly increased from anti-HBc(+) donors over time (21% vs 46%; P = .026), whereas utilization of anti-HCV(+) liver donors remained unchanged over time (5% vs 18%; P = .303). In summary, the proportion of anti-HCV(+) organ donor referrals has significantly increased and the proportion of anti-HBc(+) organ donor referrals has remained stable. Both thoracic and abdominal organs from seropositive donors are largely underutilized. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  6. Molecular mimicry in Helicobacter pylori infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Gonciarz, Weronika

    2017-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonize gastric mucosa in humans and increase the risk of serious diseases such as gastric and duodenal ulcers, stomach cancers and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis of several extragastric diseases has been suggested including immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and dermatological disorders. Also neurological diseases and even lung cancer have attracted researchers concern. The relation between H. pylori infection and a growth retardation in children has also been suggested. Many mechanisms of molecular mimicry between H. pylori and the host have been proposed as a pathogen strategy to manipulate the immune system of the host in order to remain unrecognized and avoid eradication. A lot of effort has been put into the demonstration of homologous sequences between H. pylori and host compounds. However, knowledge about how often autoantibodies or autoreactive T lymphocytes induced during H. pylori infections cause pathological disorders is insufficient. This review provides data on H. pylori antigenic mimicry and possible deleterious effects due to the induction of immune response to the components common to these bacteria and the host. PMID:28652651

  7. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative flagellated bacillus that usually colonizes gastric pits under the mucus layer and in close association to gastric epithelial cells. Approximately, 50% of the normal population across the world harbor H. pylori, though only 10‑20% of them become symptomatic.[3,4] There is an association of H. pylori infection with the ...

  8. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18...

  9. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study assessed the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies among Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It also examines whether anti H. pylori seroprevalence was associated with the severity of the HIV infection or the antiretroviral treatment. Material and Methods: ...

  10. HELICOBACTER PYLORI SEROLOGY AND EVALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been strongly associated with various gastroduodenal diseases worldwide with only a few studies emanating from developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and underlying gastroduodenal pathology in Nigerian ...

  11. Inflammation, immunity, and vaccines for Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elios, Mario M; Andersen, Leif P

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects almost half of the population worldwide and represents the major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, such as duodenal and gastric ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune gastritis, and B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Helicobacter pylori induces...

  12. Helicobacter pylori: From Infection to Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 380 abstracts, presentations and posters of recent advances were highlighted at the European and International Helicobacter pylori meeting held July 7 to 9, 1995 in Edinburgh, Scotland. New advances abound, with major interest focusing on the simple, safe, inexpensive new `gold standard’ for H pylori eradication therapy: a single week of tid omeprazole 20 mg, metronidazole 400 mg and clarithromycin 250 mg, or omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1000 mg and clarithromycin 500 mg. To avoid false negative results, two biopsies must be taken from the antrum and two from the gastric body at least four weeks after completion of eradication therapy, and ideally should be supplemented with at least one further H pylori test such as a biopsy for urease activity or culture, or a urea breath test. While most patients with a gastric or duodenal ulcer (DU who do not consume nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are infected with H pylori, the association is much less apparent in those with a DU who present with an upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. H pylori eradication for nonulcer dyspepsia is not widely recommended, and the patient with a DU given effective H pylori eradication who presents with dyspepsia likely has erosive esophagitis rather than recurrent DU or H pylori. Gastroenterologists are at increased risk of H pylori infection, particularly older gastroenterologists who are very busy endoscopists.

  13. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Adlekha, T Chadha, P Krishnan, B Sumangala. Abstract. Background: Helicobacter pylori related gastritis is a major health ailment in developing nations. There is ... Aim: To study the prevalence of H. pylori gastritis in patients undergoing endoscopy and its association with the development of gastrointestinal diseases.

  14. Living Conditions and Helicobacter pylori in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete Amaral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is transmissible and is considered a public health issue which affects people of all ages. The objective of this study was to identify factors (lifestyles, dietary factors, and hygiene conditions related to the prevalence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We carried out an observational cross-sectional study with a community sample of adults from the municipalities of Viseu and Sátão, Portugal. The final sample resulted in 166 adults. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire with questions regarding sociodemographic aspects and lifestyles. H. pylori infection was identified using the 13C-urea breath test. Results. No association was found between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or coffee or dietary factors. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was higher in adults who reported higher consumption of fried food and lower consumption of vegetables and fruit. H. pylori infection was significant for the variables of lower frequency of handwashing before going to the bathroom (p=0.02 and well water consumption (p=0.05. Conclusion. A significant association was found for H. pylori infection with the lower frequency of handwashing before going to the bathroom and the consumption of well water.

  15. Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial. The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015. Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H. pylori infection. About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H. pylori infection. Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H. pylori infection are under way. Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H. pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer; however, a population-based H. pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora. Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.

  16. helicobacter pylori serology and evaluation of gastroduodenal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thology in Nigerian patients with dyspepsia and ascertain the usefulness of H. pylori lgG screening in decreasing endoscopic workload in ... serum H. pylori IgG cannot be used as a screening procedure to reduce endoscopic workload in Nige- rian patients with .... of the patients with gastric cancer. we. 133"“ l. Submucosal ...

  17. Helicobacter pylori : Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-test strips for metronidazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were used for susceptibility testing. Results. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in children was 73.3%, and 54.8% in adults. All the H. pylori investigated in this study were largely sensitive to clarithromycin (100%, minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) <2 ìg/ml) ...

  18. Magnitude of Helicobacter pylori among Dyspeptic patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is predominantly acquired in childhood from family members. The infection can cause dypepepsia, chronic and acute gastritis and gastric cancer. Dyspepsia is the most common illness in the Ethiopian population visiting outpatient department of health facilities, and it has ...

  19. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori related gastritis is a major health ailment in developing nations. There is high morbidity and mortality ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric malignancies. Prevalence of H. pylori infection varies markedly from country to country and in a country, region to region. Aim: To study the prevalence ...

  20. Pathogenesis of helicobacter pylori infection involves interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori is the most ubiquitous bacterial infection worldwide infecting at least 50% of the world's population. Scientific evidence abound on the age long cohabitation of H. pylori and humans. However, following infection, development of disease depends upon three main factors namely: the virulence of the ...

  1. Helicobacter pylori Genotypes May Determine Gastric Histopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Cristina; Figueiredo, Céu; Carneiro, Fátima; Taveira Gomes, António; Barreira, Raul; Figueira, Paulo; Salgado, Céu; Belo, Luis; Peixoto, António; Bravo, Juan C.; Bravo, Luis E.; Realpe, Jose L.; Plaisier, Anton P.; Quint, Wim G. V.; Ruiz, Bernardo; Correa, Pelayo; van Doorn, Leen-Jan

    2001-01-01

    The outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The present study aimed to investigate the gastric histopathology in Portuguese and Colombian patients infected with H. pylori and to assess its relationship with bacterial virulence-associated vacA, cagA, and iceA genotypes. A total of 370 patients from Portugal (n = 192) and Colombia (n = 178) were studied. Corpus and antrum biopsy specimens were collected from each individual. Histopathological features were recorded and graded according to the updated Sydney system. H. pylori vacA, cagA, and iceA genes were directly genotyped in the gastric biopsy specimens by polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization. Despite the significant differences between the Portuguese and Colombian patient groups, highly similar results were observed with respect to the relation between H. pylori genotypes and histopathology. H. pylori vacA s1, vacA m1, cagA+ genotypes were significantly associated with a higher H. pylori density, higher degrees of lymphocytic and neutrophilic infiltrates, atrophy, the type of intestinal metaplasia, and presence of epithelial damage. The iceA1 genotype was only associated with epithelial damage in Portuguese patients. These findings show that distinct H. pylori genotypes are strongly associated with histopathological findings in the stomach, confirming their relevance for the development of H. pylori-associated gastric pathology. PMID:11159201

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and serum ferritin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Bode, G; Blettner, M

    2001-01-01

    were H. pylori positive, of whom 57.6% had an infection with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean of ferritin was 54.5 microg/dl among H. pylori-infected compared with 63.8 microg/dl among uninfected persons. A multiple linear regression model with log......, a marker of the body iron stores. In this analysis, we paid particular attention to the role of dietary iron intake and CagA, an established virulence factor of the agent. METHODS: The analysis is based on a cross-sectional national health and nutrition survey among healthy people in Germany conducted......-transformed serum ferritin concentration as dependent variable and H. pylori infection and several potential confounding factors as independent variable was fitted. In this model, H. pylori infection was associated with a 17.0% decrease of the serum ferritin concentration (95% CI = 9.8-23.6). The association...

  3. Periodontal therapy improves gastric Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, S; Bojic, B; Jankovic, Lj; Dapcevic, B; Popovic, B; Cakic, S; Milasin, J

    2009-10-01

    The oral cavity has been proposed as a reservoir for H. pylori that could be responsible for the refractoriness of gastric infection to triple therapy (antibiotics, antimicrobials, and proton pump inhibitors). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of combined periodontal and triple therapy vs. triple therapy alone, in gastric H. pylori eradication in persons with H. pylori in the subgingival biofilm. Individuals positive for H. pylori in their gastric and oral samples, as determined by nested PCR, were treated either with periodontal and triple therapy or with triple therapy alone. Our results indicate that 77.3% of those treated with the combined therapy exhibited successful eradication of gastric H. pylori, compared with 47.6% who underwent only triple therapy. Analysis of these data suggests that periodontal treatment in combination with systemic therapy could be a promising approach to increasing the therapy's efficacy and decreasing the risk of infection recurrence.

  4. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer.

  5. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF CLARITHROMYCIN AND FLUOROQUINOLONES RESISTANCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION, DIRECTLY APPLIED TO GASTRIC BIOPSIES, IN AN URBAN BRAZILIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Miranda MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Antimicrobial resistance is the major factor leading to eradication failure in H. pylori treatment. Molecular tests are useful to detect genetic mutations predictive of clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones resistance. Knowledge of the local prevalence rate of resistance is important to define the best recommended treatment. Objective - To assess the prevalence of primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones, using a molecular test, in a Southeastern urban Brazilian population. Methods - A total of 72 H. pylori seropositive patients [65% female, mean age 39 (19-73 years] never treated before for this infection were studied. All patients underwent gastroscopy in addition to antrum and corpus biopsies and molecular test GenoType HelicoDR (Hain Life Science, Germany to detect H. pylori and point mutations in genes responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. The molecular procedure was divided into three steps: DNA extraction from biopsy samples, a multiplex amplification with biotinylated primers and a reverse hybridization. The most frequent point mutations involved in resistance to the two antibiotics were evaluated. Results - Resistance to clarithromycin was detected in nine (12.5% patients and to fluoroquinolones in eight (11.1% patients. The point mutation A2147G was the most common (77.8% among resistant strains to clarithromycin. In 50% of the resistant strains to fluoroquinolones, the mutant codon couldn't be identified. Conclusion - The resistance rates to clarithromycin and fluorquinolones in a large urban population in the Southeast of Brazil were acceptable, suggesting that these drugs remain appropriate options to first and second-line of H. pylori treatment. The molecular test represents an adequate diagnostic tool for monitoring H. pylori resistance.

  6. Group psychotherapy for HIV-seropositive patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S H; Bystritsky, A; Baron, D; Jones, L D

    1991-07-01

    Patients were recruited from the UCLA AIDS Research Center who had previously been referred to psychiatry for participation in an open-label pilot treating patients with major depression with fluoxetine. They chose to participate in group therapy for continuing distress in coping with their HIV-seropositive status, dissolution of their support system, "accepting patienthood," and on being placed on an experimental medical protocol. The group was a closed, twenty-session, homogeneous (for patient characteristics), psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitively oriented psychotherapy group. We found this to be a successful intervention in helping patients manage HIV illness and in providing the coping skills and social support necessary to function at home, work, and in their interaction with their health care providers.

  7. A Seropositive Nodular Rheumatoid Polyarthritis without Arthritis: Does It Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Ben Fredj Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rheumatoid polyarthritis is the most frequent chronic polyarthritis. It affects essentially the woman between 40 and 60 years. Rheumatic subcutaneous nodules and tenosynovitis are usually associated with seropositive symptomatic rheumatoid polyarthritis. It is, however, rare that they constitute the essential clinical expression of the disease. In this case, it makes dispute another exceptional form of rheumatoid arthritis such as rheumatoid nodulosis. A 60-year-old woman was hospitalized for tumefaction of the dorsal face of the right hand evolving two months before. The clinical examination found subcutaneous nodules from which the exploration ended in rheumatoid nodules with tenosynovitis. The evolution after four years was favourable under corticosteroid therapy, methotrexate, and colchicine.

  8. Helicobacter pylori and pregnancy-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaropoli, Simona; Rolfo, Alessandro; Todros, Tullia

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is investigated in gastric diseases even during pregnancy. In particular, this Gram-negative bacterium seems to be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, a severe form of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. During the last decade, the relationship among H. pylori and several extra-gastric diseases strongly emerged in literature. The correlation among H. pylori infection and pregnancy-related disorders was mainly focused on iron deficiency anemia, thrombocytopenia, fetal malformations, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. H. pylori infection may have a role in the pathogenesis of various pregnancy-related disorders through different mechanisms: depletion of micronutrients (iron and vitamin B12) in maternal anemia and fetal neural tube defects; local or systemic induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines release and oxidative stress in gastrointestinal disorders and pre-eclampsia; cross-reaction between specific anti-H. pylori antibodies and antigens localized in placental tissue and endothelial cells (pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, miscarriage). Since H. pylori infection is most likely acquired before pregnancy, it is widely believed that hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy could activate latent H. pylori with a negative impact not only on maternal health (nutritional deficiency, organ injury, death), but also on the fetus (insufficient growth, malformation, death) and sometime consequences can be observed later in life. Another important issue addressed by investigators was to determine whether it is possible to transmit H. pylori infection from mother to child and whether maternal anti-H. pylori antibodies could prevent infant’s infection. Studies on novel diagnostic and therapeutic methods for H. pylori are no less important, since these are particularly sensitive topics in pregnancy conditions. It could be interesting to study the possible correlation between H

  9. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

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    Robert H Riddell

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paediatric population, the associations of Helicobacter pylori with gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenitis and duodenal ulcer, and with duodenal gastric surface metaplasia and disorders of the D cell-G cell axis resulting in hypergastrinemia, are well established and in many ways resemble their counterparts in adults. Eradication of H pylori invariably results in the reversal of these diseases with time. There are also suggestions that gastric surface metaplasia is more extensive in children with H pylori, and may be the site of duodenal H pylori infection and associated duodenal erosions or ulcers. There is no consensus as to whether H pylori in children is more or less severe than in adults. In one paediatric cohort, H pylori was associated with increased intensity of inflammation, while other studies suggest that acute inflammation may be less intense in children overall but that chronic inflammation may be increased in intensity, including lymphoid hyperplasia, which in turn may correlate with endoscopic nodularity. Lymphoid hyperplasia and nodular gastritis appear to be more frequent in children than in adults and usually regress following H pylori eradication. However, in children, other diseases or morphological abnormalities, including some loss of glands (atrophy, occasionally intestinal metaplasia, lymphoproliferative diseases including low grade mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, lymphocytic gastritis and hypertrophic gastritis/Menetrier’s disease, are much less frequently associated with H pylori than in adults. Other associations are rarely seen in children, primarily because the time required for these to develop takes the individual to adulthood; for example, while intestinal metaplasia occurs in the pediatric population, the complications of adenoma/dysplasia and carcinoma are rare. In adults, inflammatory and hyperplastic polyps, atrophic gastritis and pernicious anemia, and in some patients granulomas

  10. Fatores de risco para infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori em crianças Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in children

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    Mônica M. C. Moraes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: conhecer a soroprevalência da infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori em crianças e identificar a presença de fatores de risco associados à sorologia positiva. Método: realizou-se um estudo transversal para o estabelecimento da soroprevalência e, posteriormente, um estudo comparativo entre as crianças com sorologias positivas e negativas. Estudadas 228 crianças, no Hospital Geral de Pediatria - Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco, entre maio e julho de 1999. Avaliou-se idade, sexo, variáveis ambientais, socioeconômicas, de saúde e nutricionais; história de moradores do mesmo domicílio, com queixas digestivas e história pregressa de doença péptica. Esses dados foram obtidos através de entrevista realizada com os pais ou responsáveis das crianças. O estado nutricional foi avaliado através dos índices antropométricos. Resultados: a soroprevalência para o Helicobacter pylori foi de 32% (IC 95% 26%-38%; 25,8% (IC 95% 17,8%-33,8% nos pré-escolares, e de 39,4% (IC 95% 30,4% -48,4% nos escolares. Nas crianças soropositivas, observou-se com maior freqüência ausência, no domicílio, de vaso sanitário, ou o mesmo não tinha descarga (p=0,008, maior aglomeração domiciliar (p=0,05, uma menor renda familiar (per capita (p=0,03 e maior número de mães que não sabiam ler nem escrever (p=0,0002. Não houve diferença estatística significante nos dois grupos em relação às variáveis indicadoras de condições de saúde, aos índices antropométricos e quanto ao contato com morador com queixas digestivas ou história pregressa de gastrite ou úlcera péptica. Conclusões: a soroprevalência da infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori foi alta na população estudada, sendo maior entre os escolares. Verificou-se associação entre a soropositividade e condições ambientais desfavoráveis.Objective: to establish the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and to identify risk factors for seropositivity

  11. Seropositivity of cytomegalovirus in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss

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    Roya Sherkat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some evidence has shown a relationship between human cytomegalovirus (CMV infection and pregnancy loss. However, whether recurrent or latent CMV infection or altered immune response to CMV is related to recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL is unclear. We evaluated CMV infection and avidity of antibodies to CMV in women with RPL. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 43 women with RPL referred to a clinical immunology out-patient clinic in Isfahan (Iran, and 43 age-matched multiparous women without history of abortion as control subjects. Patients and controls were evaluated for anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies and IgG avidity index (AI using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Results: One case (2.3% of positive anti-CMV IgM was detected in each group. Anti-CMV IgG positivity was more frequent in patients than in controls (90.6% vs. 69.8%, P = 0.014, but there was no difference between the two groups in anti-CMV IgG AI (79.4 ± 11.4 vs. 80.1 ± 10.2, P = 0.781. IgG titer was significantly higher in seropositive cases with RPL than seropositive controls (5.18 ± 1.99 vs. 2.00 ± 0.81, P < 0.001. Conclusion: We found that previous exposure to CMV was significantly higher in patients with RPL than the control group. However, no association was found between IgG AI and RPL. Further investigations are needed to find whether latent CMV infection starts an indirect process of autoimmune etiology in RPL or women with RPL have recurrent or reactivation of CMV infection.

  12. Seropositivity and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B in Maharashtra, India

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    S. R. Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B is one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. More than 240 million people have chronic (long term liver infections. More than 780 000 people die every year due to complications of hepatitis B, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis B is a major public health problem in India. The average carrier rate of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV in general population is considered to be approximately 4%. Aim and Objective: To estimate the seropositivity and to understand dynamics of HBV transmission. Material and Methods: The study was conducted from March 2010 to September 2012. Seropositivity of Hepatitis B surface antigen among hospital based general population was determined using a third generation ELISA in the Department of Microbiology, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India. A total of 25193 serum samples were screened for HBV infection. Results: Out of 25193 samples screened 473(1.87% serum samples were positive for HBsAg. The mean age of HBsAg positive patient was 40.71 ± 17.46 and mean age of HBsAg negative patients was 34.03 ± 17.51. Prevalence of hepatitis B infection was signicantly higher in patients with history of blood transfusion, tattooing, skin and ear piercing, history of dialysis, habit of alcohol, habit of tobacco and occupation. Conclusion: There is limited data about blood borne hepatitis i.e. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Western Maharashtra. For prevention and control of hepatitis B raising awareness, promoting prevention of transmission through vaccination, safe injection practices and blood safety and promoting wider access to monitoring, screening, care and treatment services is necessary

  13. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  14. The Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori

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    Marija Gubina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to Helicobacter pylori involves different mechanisms that are both protective and damaging to the host. The innate and the adaptive immune responses lead to inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory responses, allowing for persistence of many infections. Thus, developing new therapeutics and effective vaccines against H. pylori has proven to be arduous. Despite many immunisation experiments, using various routes of immunisation with classical as well as recombinant H. pylori vaccines (urease, CagA, HP-NAP, HspA, DNA, chimeric molecules, live vectors, microspheres, no effective vaccine is currently available for humans. New directions for successful vaccine construction should follow a profound knowledge of immunopathological events during natural H. pylori infection and factors leading to resolution of infection: mandatory is a new knowledge about the interplay of the innate response to H. pylori, mucosal inflammation, H. pylori virulence factors inducing immune responses, regulation of the adaptive responses to H. pylori as well as construction of novel vaccine platforms for achieving a broad immune response, leading to a sterilizing immunity.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Abdullah; Fakhimi-Derakhshan, Koroush; Imanzadeh, Farid; Rezaei, Mohamad; Cavoshzadeh, Zahra; Maham, Saeid

    2013-06-01

    Childhood infectious diseases are one of the most known environmental pathogenic causes of childhood asthma. The high prevalence of both Helicobacter pylori infection and asthma in our country prompted us to assess anyprobable association between them in childhood. This cross-sectional study recruited 196 children aged 6 to 12 years old comprising 98 asthmatic (case group) and 98 healthy (control group) individuals. Urea breath test was performed for all of the children and H. pylori infection was compared between the two groups according to the urea breath test results. Urea breath test was positive in 18 asthmatic (18.36) and 23 (23.36) healthy subjects but was not significantly different between the case and controls (p = 0.380). Further analysis in the asthmatic group revealed association of H. pylori infection withage (p asthma (p = 0.010). However, no significant correlation was found between sex, severity of asthma, controled asthma or abnormal pulmonary function tests with H. pylori infection (p= 0.804, 0.512, 0.854 and 0.292, respectively). Given the results of the study, H. pylori infection was not significantly different between asthmatic and healthy children. In asthmatic patients, there was no significant association between H. pylori infection and sex, severity of disease, control status of disease and normal or abnormal pulmonary function tests. H. Pylori infection had a significant association with increasing age and duration of asthma.

  16. Metalloregulation of Helicobacter pylori physiology and pathogenesis

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    Jennifer Angeline Gaddy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes over half of the world’s population. Chronic H. pylori infection is associated with increased risk for numerous disease outcomes including gastritis, dysplasia, neoplasia, B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, and invasive adenocarcinoma. The complex interactions that occur between pathogen and host are dynamic and exquisitely regulated, and the relationship between the H. pylori and its human host are no exception. To successfully colonize, and subsequently persist, within the human stomach H. pylori must temporally regulate numerous genes to ensure localization to the gastric lumen and coordinated expression of virulence factors to subvert the host’s innate and adaptive immune response. H. pylori achieves this precise gene regulation by sensing subtle environmental changes including host-mediated alterations in nutrient availability and responding with dramatic global changes in gene expression. Recent studies revealed that the presence or absence of numerous metal ions encountered in the lumen of the stomach, or within host tissues, including nickel, iron, copper and zinc, can influence regulatory networks to alter gene expression in H. pylori. These expression changes modulate the deployment of bacterial virulence factors that can ultimately influence disease outcome. In this review we will discuss the environmental stimuli that are detected by H. pylori as well as the trans regulatory elements, specifically the transcription regulators and transcription factors, that allow for these significant transcriptional shifts.

  17. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-09-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases.

  18. Helicobacter pylori gastritis and risk of ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasay, Mohammad; Jafri, Wasim; Khealani, Bhojo; Azam, Iqbal; Hussaini, Akber

    2008-07-01

    To identify the association between H. Pylori gastritis and stroke. Patients with biopsy proven H. Pylori gastritis and non H. Pylori gastritis were enrolled. Patients were followed for a period of two years. A total of 326 patients were included in the study. 162 patients were with H. Pylori gastritis. There was no significance difference in age, sex and duration of symptoms in the two groups. Three patients in H. Pylori group had stroke or TIA as compared to one in non H. Pylori group. Patients with H. Pylori gastritis were more likely to die or have cardiac and or neurological event as compared to Non H. pylori gastritis (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.89-1.67). This relationship was not significant after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors (AOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.45-1.31). H. Pylori gastritis is not independently associated with increased risk for stroke. Larger, randomized studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  19. Helicobacter pylori-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori infection in Digestive Diseases Week, 2016. Despite the undeniable widespread reduction in the prevalence of this infection, infection rates continue to be high in developing countries. The prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance is markedly high in most countries and continues to rise. The management of H. pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcers still leaves much to be desired. Although H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma, it does not completely avoid its appearance. The new rapid stool antigen tests show promising results. The efficacy of standard triple therapy is clearly inadequate and continues to decline, and cannot therefore be recommended. Vonoprazan, when associated with 2 antibiotics, is more effective than traditional proton pump inhibitors, especially in clarithromycin-resistant patients. Non-bismuth quadruple (concomitant) therapy achieves eradication rates of around 90% and has a good safety profile. Concomitant therapy is more effective and simpler than sequential therapy. Although some probiotics can increase the efficacy and tolerability of triple therapy, the utility of its association with quadruple concomitant therapy has not been established. If a first treatment with clarithromycin fails, both bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy achieve good-but still suboptimal-results. The combination of bismuth and levofloxacin in the same regimen increases the efficacy of rescue therapy. The management of H. pylori infection by European gastroenterologists is widely heterogeneous and the eradication rates achieved by them are generally unacceptable. In Spain, the highest first-line eradication rate is obtained with quadruple concomitant therapy in 14-day regimens and with double doses of proton pump inhibitors; in second-line therapy, the use of

  20. Infecção pelo helicobacter pylori e sua correlação com os sintomas dispépticos e evolução da gravidez Helicobacter pylori infection and its correlation with gastrointestinal symptoms and outcome of pregnancy

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    Sansom Henrique Bromberg

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar em gestantes possível correlação da infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori com sintomas dispépticos e características maternas da gravidez. MÉTODOS: A soropositividade ao H. pylori foi obtida em 146 mulheres com 10 a 23 semanas de gestação. A média de idade foi de 29,6 anos, variando de 17 a 45 anos. A determinação semiquantitativa de anticorpos da classe IgG contra o H. pylori foi realizada com "kit" Elisa de procedência comercial (Varelisa H.pylori IgG Antibodies, Pharmacia & Upjohn Diagnostics GmbH & Co., Germany. Grávidas com sintomas dispépticos que necessitaram de tratamento constituíram o grupo investigado. Outras características maternas também foram correlacionadas à infecção pelo H. pylori: obesidade - IMC >30; paridade - primípara e multípara; evolução da gestação - a termo e aborto ou prematuridade. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos a análise estatística - t de Student e Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da infecção pelo H. pylori na população estudada foi de 65,7%. Constatou-se ausência de correlação entre a infecção bacteriana e os fenômenos dispépticos da gravidez. Correlação negativa também foi constatada para obesidade, paridade e o evoluir da gestação. Gestantes com sorologia positiva apresentaram media de idade significantemente maior que as de sorologia negativa: 30,45 ± 6,87 versus 27,96 ± 7,44, p= 0,045565. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo não associou a infecção pelo H. pylori com os sintomas dispépticos da gravidez, nem com as características maternas estudadas: obesidade, paridade e evolução da gravidez.OBJECTIVE: The present study intended to investigate whether there was a relationship between pregnant women with dyspeptic complaints and with and without Helycobacter pylori infection in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: H.pylori seropositivity was determined in 146 (aged 20 to 40 years antenatal patients at 10 to 23 weeks

  1. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

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    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinogenesis in rodent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Toyoda, Takeshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tatematsu, Masae

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor for gastric carcinogenesis in human. In carcinogen-treated Mongolian gerbils, H. pylori infection enhances stomach carcinogenesis, while infection alone induced severe hyperplasia called heterotopic proliferative glands. A high-salt diet or early acquisition of the bacteria exacerbates inflammation and carcinogenesis. Oxygen radical scavengers or anti-inflammatory chemicals as well as eradication of H. pylori are effective to prevent carcinogenesis. H. pylori-associated inflammation induces intestinal metaplasia and intestinalization of stomach cancers independently. It is necessary to control cancer development not only in H. pylori-positive cases but also in H. pylori-negative metaplastic gastritis.

  3. Helicobacter pylori: focus on CagA and VacA major virulence factors Helicobacter pylori: enfoque sobre los factores de virulencia CagA y VacA

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    Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available After colonizing the human gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori can remain within the host for years and even decades, and is associated with several, highly significant gastric pathologies. In Mexico, the seroprevalence at 1 year of age is 20% and the estimated increment in seropositivity per year is 5% for children aged 1-10 years. More than 80% of adults are infected by the time they are 18-20 years old. Bacterial virulence factors have been proposed for H. pylori, such as urease, flagella, heat-shock protein, lipopolysaccharide, adhesions, vacuolating cytotoxin, cag pathogenicity island and the cytotoxin-associated protein, the latter being the most studied mechanism to date.Después de colonizar la mucosa gástrica humana, Helicobacter pylori puede permanecer por años e incluso décadas en el humano, y se asocia a varias patologías gástricas. En México, la seroprevalencia estimada es de 20% en niños de un año de edad, con una tasa de incremento en seropositividad de 5% anual durante los primeros 10 años de vida hasta alcanzar 80% en adultos jóvenes entre los 18 y 20 años de edad. Los factores bacterianos de virulencia propuestos para H. pylori son ureasa, flagelos, proteínas de choque térmico, lipopolisacárido, adhesinas, citotoxina vacuolizante, isla de patogenicidad y la proteína asociada a la citoxina; este último factor es el más estudiado hasta la fecha.

  4. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    This article aims to examine current best practice in the field reference to first-line, second-line, rescue and emerging treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication. The recommended first-line treatment in published guidelines in Europe and North American is proton pump inhibitor combined with amoxicillin and clarithromycin being the favoured regimen. Rates of eradication with this regimen however are falling alarmingly due to a combination of antibiotic resistance and poor compliance with therapy. Bismuth based quadruple therapies and levofloxacin based regimes have been shown to be effective second line regimens. Third-line options include regimes based on rifabutin or furazolidone, but susceptibility testing is the most rational option here, but is currently not used widely enough. Sequential therapy is promising but needs further study and validation outside of Italy. Although the success of first line treatments is falling, if compliance is good and a clear treatment paradigm adhered to, almost universal eradication rates can still be achieved. If compliance is not achievable, the problem of antibiotic resistance will continue to beset any combination of drugs used for H. pylori eradication.

  5. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic patients in Iran

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    Leila Shokrzadeh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection has been known to be associated with several upper gastrointestinal disorders such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, the relationship between H. pylori infection and dyspeptic symptoms remains controversial. Furthermore, it is still not clear which factors are associated with H. pylori infection in the Iranian population. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients and factors associated with H. pylori infection in the Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 303 patients with dyspeptic symptoms underwent endoscopy. Clinical data and a questionnaire about gastrointestinal symptoms were collected from each patient. H. pylori status was evaluated by histological examination. Among the 303 patients, 263 (86.8% were found to be positive for H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylori infection decreased significantly with age. There was no difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection between the patients with and those without a family history of gastroduodenal diseases. Among 250 patients with abdominal pain, 219 (87.6% were infected with H. pylori. Among 211 patients with epigastric abdominal pain, 185 (87.7% were infected with H. pylori. It was observed that belching was significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P = 0.03. Dyspepsia triggered by the consumption of tea was higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients (P = 0.03. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients was quite high in Iran. Belching and dyspepsia triggered by tea consumption was related with H. pylori infection.

  6. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Andreas; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2015-09-01

    During the period reviewed, prevalence studies were essentially performed in less economically advanced countries and a high prevalence was found. The traditional risk factors for Helicobacter pylori positivity were mostly found. Transmission studied by molecular typing showed a familial transmission. The eventual role of water transmission was explored in several studies with controversial results. Concerning diagnosis, most of the invasive and noninvasive methods used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection are long standing with efficient performance. The most interesting recent improvements in H. pylori diagnosis include advances in endoscopy, developments in molecular methods, and the introduction of omics-based techniques. Interpretation of old or newer method should take into account the pretest probability and the prevalence of H. pylori in the population under investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ‑9 years and in the 10‑19 years age group respectively.[6] There are many other etiological. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Among. Patients Undergoing Upper Gastrointestinal. Endoscopy in a Medical College Hospital in Kerala,.

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection and skin disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Zara, Tuba; Engin, Burhan; Serdaroğlu, Server; Tüzün, Yalçin; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    ..., Behçet's disease, alopecia areata, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and Sweet's syndrome. However, more systematic studies are required to clarify the proposed association between Helicobacter pylori and skin diseases...

  9. Effects of curcumin on Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-12-01

    Curcumin is a well-established natural molecule with significant biological and pharmaceutical effects. Its effects on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been repeatedly confirmed both in animal and human models. This study directly compared five different samples to evaluate if the effects are general or if they differ among samples. Using a mouse model, we studied the effects of curcumin on lipid peroxide (LPO) level, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and urease activity, number of colonized bacteria, levels of anti-H. pylori antibodies, biofilm formation, IFN-γ, IL-4, gastrin and somatostatin levels in serum, and minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, we evaluated the effects on biofilm production and antibacterial antibody response. In all tests, one sample (Sabinsa) was consistently the most active. All curcumin samples showed some anti-H. pylori effects, but only some of the tested samples had significant activity.

  10. Management of Helicobacter Pylori Infection | Jemilohun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. pylori) play in the pathogenesis of diseases that present clinically as dyspepsia, such as chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, gastric mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, since its discovery by ...

  11. Diagnóstico serológico de Helicobacter pylori en endoscopistas: Serología en endoscopistas Serologic diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori in endoscopy personnel: Serology in endoscopists

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    C. Velasco Elizalde

    2007-02-01

    ía más frecuentemente que los seronegativos, aunque las diferencias no fueron estadísticamente significativas.Objective: the Helicobacter pylori entered into the medical world, particularly in the field of the Gastroenterology, revolutionizing it, and changing partially our physiopathological concepts and treatment of the gastroduodenal ulcer. This infestation results in an immune response, that is measured by means of serologic tests, which are very useful in the massive screening studies, mainly in population at risk like those who are institutionalized and the personnel of health, particularly workers of the departments of Gastroenterology. Method:motivated for this, we carry out a prospective study in 38 endoscopists using as controls 38 workers not related with a Gastroenterology department. Thus, we analyzed the presence of antibodies against Helicobacter pylori among the personnel of the departments of Gastroenterology of three hospitals of Havana City. These personnel filled a form designed for this purpose containing following data: age, sex, time of work as endoscopist, use of protection means, and history of gastroduodenal pathology. Results: there were 24 women in each group (63,2%. Whereas the seroprevalence among endoscopists was 39,47%, in the control group, only three people were seropositives (7,89%. We found a positive correlation between the time working as endoscopists and the rate of seropositivity. Conclusions: our study demonstrated that endoscopists have a significantly higher risk than the controls of contracting the infection by the Helicobacter pylori, and that the seropositive endoscopists have sintomatology more frequently than the seronegative endoscopists, although these differences were not statistically significant.

  12. Is vaccine type seropositivity a marker for human papillomavirus vaccination? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

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    Emiko Y. Petrosky

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The increase in vaccine era seropositivity likely reflects vaccination uptake. Our study suggests seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 may be a useful marker for vaccination coverage in adolescent and young adult females. Discordance between seropositivity and reported vaccination may be explained by inaccurate reporting and/or natural exposure to HPV.

  13. Analysis of clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori in Pakistan reveals high degrees of pathogenicity and high frequencies of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Faisal; Campbell, Barry James; Alfizah, Hanafiah; Varro, Andrea; Zahra, Rabaab; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Pritchard, David Mark

    2014-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori contributes to failure in eradicating the infection and is most often due to point and missense mutations in a few key genes. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of H. pylori isolates from 46 Pakistani patients were determined by Etest. Resistance and pathogenicity genes were amplified, and sequences were analyzed to determine the presence of mutations. A high percentage of isolates (73.9%) were resistant to metronidazole (MTZ), with considerable resistance to clarithromycin (CLR; 47.8%) and amoxicillin (AML; 54.3%) also observed. Relatively few isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TET; 4.3%) or to ciprofloxacin (CIP; 13%). However, most isolates (n = 43) exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. MTZ-resistant isolates contained missense mutations in oxygen-independent NADPH nitroreductase (RdxA; 8 mutations found) and NADH flavin oxidoreductase (FrxA; 4 mutations found). In the 23S rRNA gene, responsible for CLR resistance, a new point mutation (A2181G) and 4 previously reported mutations were identified. Pathogenicity genes cagA, dupA, and vacA s1a/m1 were detected frequently in isolates which were also found to be resistant to MTZ, CLR, and AML. A high percentage of CagA and VacA seropositivity was also observed in these patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences showed uniform distribution of the 3' region of cagA throughout the tree. We have identified H. pylori isolates in Pakistan which harbor pathogenicity genes and worrying antibiotic resistance profiles as a result of having acquired multiple point and missense mutations. H. pylori eradication regimens should therefore be reevaluated in this setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina-Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Zina, Lívia-Guimarães; Amaral, Fabrício-Rezende

    2016-03-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a recurrent painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophile bacteria, that colonizes the gastric mucosa and it was previously suggested to be involved in RAS development. In the present paper we reviewed all previous studies that investigated the association between RAS and H. pylori. A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) databases was made of articles published up until July 2015 using the following keywords: Helicobacter Pylori or H. pylori and RAS or Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Fifteen experimental studies that addressed the relationship between infection with H. pylori and the presence of RAS and three reviews, including a systematic review and a meta-analysis were included in this review. The studies reviewed used different methods to assess this relationship, including PCR, nested PCR, culture, ELISA and urea breath test. A large variation in the number of patients included in each study, as well as inclusion criteria and laboratorial methods was observed. H. pylori can be detected in the oral mucosa or ulcerated lesion of some patients with RAS. The quality of the all studies included in this review was assessed using levels of evidence based on the University of Oxford's Center for Evidence Based Medicine Criteria. Although the eradication of the infection may affect the clinical course of the oral lesions by undetermined mechanisms, RAS ulcers are not associated with the presence of the bacteria in the oral cavity and there is no evidence that H. pylori infection drives RAS development.

  15. Role of probiotics in Helicobacter pylori infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cazzato, Immacolata Alessia; Candelli, Marcello; Nista, Enrico Celestino; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the main causal agent of several gastrointestinal disturbances (e.g. chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric cancer). Treatments based on a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors are currently used to eradicate the gastric infection. Despite the high eradication rate reached by standard therapies (_/80%), because of the high incidence of H. pylori-related diseases worldwide new options to improve the eradication rate are needed. Probiotics are defined as...

  16. Effectiveness of Citrus Fruits on Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Due to the increased side effects of the treatment regimens and the development of antimicrobial resistance, a number of natural compounds have been tested as potential alternatives. In this review, we will examine the current knowledge on the effect of Citrus fruits and their derivatives against H. pylori, highlighting the remaining outstanding questions on the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  17. Acid-Adaptive Genes of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yi; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Matrubutham, Uday; Gleeson, Martin A.; Scott, David R.; Sachs, George

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the only neutralophile that has been able to colonize the human stomach by using a variety of acid-adaptive mechanisms. One of the adaptive mechanisms is increased buffering due to expression of an acid-activated inner membrane urea channel, UreI, and a neutral pH-optimum intrabacterial urease. To delineate other possible adaptive mechanisms, changes in gene expression in response to acid exposure were examined using genomic microarrays of H. pylori exposed to different...

  18. Helicobacter Pylori associated global gastric cancer burden

    OpenAIRE

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Hisada, Michie; El-Omar, Emad M.

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is ubiquitous, infecting close to one-half of the world's population, but its prevalence is declining in developed countries. Chronic H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to gastric adenocarcinoma, especially non-cardia type (63% of all stomach cancer or ∼5.5% of the global cancer burden: ∼25% of cancers associated with infectious etiology), and to gastric mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which accounts for up to 8% of all non-Hodgkin ly...

  19. Restricting access of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients to infertility services: a legal analysis of the rights of reproductive endocrinologists and of HIV-seropositive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, John Y

    2007-12-01

    To discuss the legal rights of reproductive endocrinologists and HIV-seropositive patients seeking infertility services. Westlaw and LexisNexis commercial legal search engines were used to perform a legal review of statutes and cases pertaining to HIV-seropositive patients seeking health care services. Human immunodeficiency virus antidiscrimination laws apply to healthcare providers whether they practice in private clinics or a university setting. Patients infected with HIV cannot be denied access to health services solely on the basis of their HIV status. If proof exists that HIV-seropositive patients will medically benefit by a referral to another provider with more expertise, it is legally permissible to refer these patients to another provider who has more expertise in providing infertility services to HIV-seropositive patients. However, the burden will be on the reproductive endocrinologist to demonstrate that he or she lacks the capability to care for HIV-seropositive patients and that the referral was for the medical benefit of the patient and of the patient's potential offspring.

  20. Genetic architectures of seropositive and seronegative rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Yohei; Remmers, Elaine F

    2015-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis and some other rheumatic diseases are genetically complex, with evidence of familial clustering, but not of Mendelian inheritance. These diseases are thought to result from contributions and interactions of multiple genetic and nongenetic risk factors, which have small effects individually. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of large collections of data from cases and controls have revealed many genetic factors that contribute to non-Mendelian rheumatic diseases, thus providing insights into associated molecular mechanisms. This Review summarizes methods for the identification of gene variants that influence genetically complex diseases and focuses on what we have learned about the rheumatic diseases for which GWAS have been reported. Our review of the disease-associated loci identified to date reveals greater sharing of risk loci among the groups of seropositive (diseases in which specific autoantibodies are often present) or seronegative diseases than between these two groups. The nature of the shared and discordant loci suggests important similarities and differences among these diseases.

  1. Helicobacter pylori DNA in recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victória, Júnia Maria Netto; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Silva, Jeane de Fátima Correia; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2003-04-01

    Considering not only the fact that recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) and stomach ulcers are immunologically mediated ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori, but also the recent evidence that anaemia can be associated with both diseases, and the discovery of H. pylori in the oral mucosa led us to hypothesize that this bacteria may be related to RAS pathogenesis. Thirty-six consecutive subjects affected by minor and major forms of RAS and 48 healthy volunteers were included in the present study. The nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect the presence of H. pylori in the oral lesion, the normal contralateral mucosa of patients affected by RAS and the oral mucosa of control subjects. The chi2- and Fisher's tests were used for statistical analysis. No association between RAS lesions and H. pylori was observed. However, 14 out of 36 (38.9%) of the patients with RAS were found to show the presence of H. pylori DNA in the lesion and/or contralateral mucosa. Sixteen out of 48 (33.3%) of the patients without RAS (control subjects) were positive (P > 0.05). The present study does not give support to the assumption that H. pylori could be involved in RAS development.

  2. Paediatric Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ayse Esra; Bilici, Meki; Tonbul, Alparslan; Karabel, Musemma; Dogan, Guzide; Tas, Tugba

    2012-01-01

    To compare the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by stool antigen test in children with and without halitosis. Comparative study. Department of Paediatrics, Fatih University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2008 and June 2009. Fifty-three patients aged between 3-15 years who presented to paediatrics outpatient clinic with halitosis and 55 healthy children aged between 4-15 years without halitosis were included in the study. Halitosis was confirmed with organoleptic test. Stool antigen test was performed in both groups. Intergroup proportions were compared using chisquare and Fisher exact tests with significance at p halitosis and 12 of 55 healthy controls (21.8%). The rate of positive H. pylori stool antigen test results were similar between two groups (p > 0.05). Twoweeks eradication treatment was administered to 11 patients with H. pylori infection and halitosis. After treatment, the symptoms of 8 patients with halitosis (72.7%) completely resolved and persisted in 3 patients (27.3%). Seven of the 11 patients who were administered eradication treatment also had abdominal pain along with halitosis. Both symptoms completely resolved in all those patients after treatment. Although no statistically significant difference existed between the rate of H. pylori infections among those with and without halitosis. Eradication treatment was found beneficial in the treatment of children with halitosis and positive H. pylori stool antigen test.

  3. Changing epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is known as the most important cause of gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, and socioeconomic status. In Japan, H. pylori infection has been highly correlated with the incidence rate of gastric cancer, and a reduction in H. pylori infection is therefore crucial for decreasing the incidence of gastric cancer, especially at the population level. Infection occurs during childhood, commonly before 5 years of age. In Japan, where gastric cancer has ranked as the most common cancer by incidence and mortality for the last several decades, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has dramatically declined by birth cohort effect, mainly due to improvements in the general hygiene environment in childhood. Older generations born before around 1950 show a high prevalence of around 80-90 %, decreasing with age to reach around 10 % or less in those born around the 1990s, and less than 2 % for children born after the year 2000. This change will have generational effects on gastric cancer prevention strategies, both primary and secondary. The risk-stratified approach to gastric cancer prevention should be considered in Japan and other countries which have similarly experienced rapid economic development.

  4. No Helicobacter pylori, no Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    Virtually all duodenal ulcers (DUs) and the vast majority of gastric ulcers (GUs) are the consequence of Helicobacter pylori-associated inflammation. In DUs, the inflammation is maximal in the antrum and is associated with gastric metaplasia in the bulb. Gastrin homeostasis is disturbed by H. pylori

  5. Detection of Helicobacter pylori urease antigen in saliva in patients with different gastric H. pylori status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia El Khadir

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated a low detection rate of H. pylori antigens in saliva compared with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa, suggesting that saliva cannot be used as a suitable sample for the diagnosis of H. pylori in our study population.

  6. Serotonin modulates immune function in T cells from HIV-seropositive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Afzelius, P; Andresen, L

    1997-01-01

    We have shown earlier increased intracellular levels of cAMP in peripheral lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and that a chemically induced decrease in this level increases cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Others have shown that serotonin indirectly decreases intracellular cAMP levels...... in normal peripheral lymphocytes. In this study, we show that addition of serotonin decreases intracellular levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and significantly increases the proliferative capacity in vitro. However, the effect of serotonin varies with the initial proliferative...... enhancing effect on cell proliferation in some HIV-seropositive individuals than in others....

  7. Review: clinical management of Helicobacter pylori infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been associated with gastric disorders. The situation of H. pylori infection in China-where a high prevalence of H. pylori infection, a high incidence of gastric cancer, and widespread resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin exist-is quite different from that in Western countries. In order for Chinese clinicians to better manage H. pylori infection, a Chinese Study Group on H. pylori published four consensus reports regarding the management of H. pylori infection in China between 1999 and 2012. The eradication rate with standard triple therapy was pylori in China in recent years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Helicobacter pylori-coccoid forms and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Leif Percival; Rasmussen, Lone

    2009-01-01

    be detected by PCR in water supplies. There is no substantial evidence for viable H. pylori persisting in water supplies. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental water is a risk factor for H. pylori infection when compared with tap water, and formation of H. pylori biofilm cannot be excluded....... Helicobacter pylori does not seem to take part in biofilm formation in the oral cavity even though the bacterium may be detected....

  9. Association Between Helycobacter Pylori Infection and Pathological Oral Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carini Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from the literature are controversial regarding the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in dental plaque and its association with gastric infection. One of the possible mechanisms suggested for re-infection is the recolonization with H. pylori from dental plaque. The purpose of this review was to determine whether dental plaque, poor oral hygiene, and periodontal disease were risk factors for H. pylori infection.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Figueiredo, C.; Seruca, R.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...

  11. Effect of dietary anti-Helicobacter pylori-urease immunoglobulin Y on Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H; Nomura, S; Masaoka, T; Goshima, H; Kamata, N; Kodama, Y; Ishii, H; Kitajima, M; Nomoto, K; Hibi, T

    2004-07-01

    Recently, chicken egg yolk was recognized as an inexpensive antibody source, and the therapeutic usefulness of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY) in oral passive immunization has been investigated. Although multiple antibiotic treatments eradicate most Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, therapy fails in 10-15% of cases due to the development of drug resistance. Consequently, it is important that new, more broadly based therapies for the treatment of H. pylori infection should be identified. The present study evaluated the effect, on H. pylori infection, of IgY prepared from egg yolk of hens immunized with H. pylori urease (anti-HpU IgY). Seventeen asymptomatic volunteers diagnosed as H. pylori-positive by the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) were orally administered anti-HpU IgY for 4 weeks. Four weeks later, UBT values were significantly decreased although no case showed H. pylori eradication. An H. pylori-positive 53-year-old female gastritis patient administered anti-HpU IgY plus lansoprazole for 8 weeks showed a decrease in serum pepsinogen (PG) I and UBT values as well as an increase in the PG I/II ratio. In conclusion, anti-HpU IgY may mitigate H. pylori-associated gastritis and partially attenuate gastric urease activity. Furthermore, anti-HpU IgY combined with antacids appears to ameliorate gastric inflammation. These encouraging results may represent a novel approach to the management of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease.

  12. Detection of Helicobacter pylori urease antigen in saliva in patients with different gastric H. pylori status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khadir, Mounia; Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; El Rhazi, Karima; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; El Abkari, Mohamed; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2016-07-01

    Finding a simple, accurate, and noninvasive diagnosis method is a substantial challenge for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of H. pylori urease antigen in saliva with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa. Saliva samples and gastric biopsies were taken from 153 consenting Moroccan patients. Saliva samples were analyzed using an immunochromatographic test for urease antigen H. pylori detection. Thereafter, the gastric biopsies were analyzed by histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect this bacterium. From a total of 153 recruited Moroccan patients, H. pylori was detected in 28 (18.30%), 87 (57.24%), and 69 (45.10%) cases by saliva test, histology, and PCR, respectively. A significant association was observed between the presence of H. pylori antigen in saliva and age. However, no association was found with sex, H. pylori virulence factors, gastric disease outcome, and density of the bacterium on the gastric mucosa. Considering that only 90 patients presented concordant results on H. pylori diagnosis (positive or negative) by both histology and PCR, the immunochromatographic test showed very low sensitivity (29.79%) and high specificity (90.70%). Of these two tests, the positive and negative predictive values were 77.78% and 54.17%, respectively. The accuracy of the test for salivary detection of urease antigen H. pylori was 58.89%. This study demonstrated a low detection rate of H. pylori antigens in saliva compared with the presence of this bacterium in gastric mucosa, suggesting that saliva cannot be used as a suitable sample for the diagnosis of H. pylori in our study population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  13. Successful isolation of Helicobacter pylori after prolonged incubation: A case report of prolonged incubation for H. pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of Helicobacter pylori from a gastric biopsy is the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. However, the primary isolation of H. pylori from gastric biopsies is rather demanding. The duration of incubation for the isolation of H. pylori has been recommended to be five to seven days: in the present case, we found that a prolonged incubation period allowed the successful isolation of H. pylori from a patient with ulcus ventriculi. Biopsies were placed directly into transport medium and processed for culture within two hours. On day 14, one suspected H. pylori-like colony appeared on one of the plates. The isolate was confirmed to be H. pylori based on its typical colony morphology, negative Gram stain, and positive urease, catalase and oxidase tests. The isolate, requiring 14 days recovery, later exhibited the normal growth characteristics of H. pylori strains, indicating its unusually long incubation requirement was a temporary predicament.

  14. Changing patterns of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) discovered in 1982, has strongly been associated with multiple clinical disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. This study described the prevalence of H. pylori among large numbers of patients over two different time periods in Accra, Ghana. Methods: It was a retrospective records ...

  15. Investigation of association of Helicobacter pylori and simple nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate a possible contribution of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) in the etiopathogenesis of simple nasal polyps. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial. Methods: Twenty five patients with simple nasal polyps underwent nasal polypectomy were studied. Helicobacter pylori DNA was investigated for ...

  16. Clinical correlates of helicobacter pylori infection in children seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is the commonest global chronic human bacterial infection. Data from developed countries show that acquisition occurs in childhood but manifestation of chronic gastroduodenal diseases occur more commonly in adulthood. H. pylori infection has however been associated ...

  17. Role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of infantile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    between infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) and Helicobacter pylori infection. Materials and. Methods: In a case-control study, 20 infants with confirmed IHPS (Group 1) and 30 age-matched healthy infants (Group 2) were enrolled for the assessment of H. pylori infection. Serological testing of anti-H. pylori antibody ...

  18. Helicobacter pylori and histopathological changes of gastric mucosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The severity of gastritis correlated with the presence of H. pylori in Ganda and Nyarwanda but not in Nkole. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) was observed in Nyarwanda and Nkole and in some of these cases there was H. pylori. Gastric atrophy (GA) was also commonly observed in Nkole and Nyarwanda and H. pylori ...

  19. Helicobacter Pylori and the Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of stomach cancer that infects a substantial proportion of the Canadian adult population. H pylori can be detected by noninvasive tests and effectively eradicated by medical treatment. Screening for and treatment of H pylori may represent a significant opportunity for preventive oncology.

  20. Nutrients released by gastric epithelial cells enhance Helicobacter pylori growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Karin; van der Ende, Arie

    2004-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori survives and proliferates in the human gastric mucosa. In this niche, H. pylori adheres to the gastric epithelial cells near the tight junctions. In vitro, H. pylori proliferated well in tissue-culture medium near gastric epithelial cells. However, in the absence of

  1. Effect of curcumin on Helicobacter pylori biofilm formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori is a leading etiologic agent causing peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. The alternative lifestyle as a biofilm facilitates H. pylori to survive in adverse environments. Here, we investigated effect of curcumin on H. pylori biofilm formation both qualitatively by pellicle assay and quantitatively by crystal violet ...

  2. Is vaccine type seropositivity a marker for human papillomavirus vaccination? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Emiko Y; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-04-01

    Since 2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been routinely recommended for adolescent females in the USA. The quadrivalent vaccine induces long-term seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16, which may be useful as a marker for HPV vaccine coverage. We evaluated vaccine type seropositivity (i.e., seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 with or without HPV18) among females aged 14-59 years participating in the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys). We compared pre-vaccine era (2003-2006) to vaccine era (2007-2010) seropositivity and assessed agreement between vaccine era seropositivity and reported vaccination by kappa statistic. Seropositivity was 1.0% among 2151 females in the pre-vaccine era and 22.1% among 1420 females in the vaccine era (p vaccine era females reported receipt of one or more HPV vaccine dose. Seropositivity and reported vaccination had high agreement (kappa = 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.74-0.84). Among seropositive females, 14.5% reported no vaccination. The increase in vaccine era seropositivity likely reflects vaccination uptake. Our study suggests seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 may be a useful marker for vaccination coverage in adolescent and young adult females. Discordance between seropositivity and reported vaccination may be explained by inaccurate reporting and/or natural exposure to HPV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. World trends for H. pylori eradication therapy and gastric cancer prevention strategy by H. pylori test-and-treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Mori, Hideki

    2017-11-14

    Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis leads to the development of gastric cancer. Kyoto global consensus report on H. pylori gastritis recommended H. pylori eradication therapy to prevent gastric cancer. To manage H. pylori infection, it is important to choose the appropriate regimen considering regional differences in resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole. Quinolones and rifabutin-containing regimens are useful as third- and fourth-line rescue therapies.

  4. Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Resistance: Trends Over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G Lahaie

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to antibiotics can be a major problem in the treatment of bacterial infections. As the use of antibiotics increases, bacterial resistance to these agents is rising and in many cases is responsible for the failure of treatment regimens. Although the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection requires the use of more than one antibiotic to obtain adequate eradication rates, the efficacy of the currently used antibiotic combinations has been shown to be decreased by resistance to one of the antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in regimens for the treatment of H pylori is increasing in many countries, including Canada. This increase is both in the use of these antibiotics alone for the treatment of nongastrointestinal infections and in their use in association with proton pump inhibitors for the treatment of H pylori infection. In several European and Asian countries, where resistance to antibiotics is being monitored, it has been demonstrated that H pylori resistance to metronidazole and to clarithromycin increased throughout the 1990s. Thus far, the data available in Canada do not show increased resistance to either of these antibiotics. As for other antibiotics used in the treatment of H pylori infection, such as tetracycline and amoxicillin, the rate of resistance to these agents is still very low and does not constitute a significant problem. Because the efficacy of the regimens used in the treatment of H pylori infection is compromised by resistance to the antibiotics used, it is important that H pylori resistance rates in Canada and throughout the world continue to be monitored. Only with such reliable data can the most optimal regimens be recommended.

  5. Coxiella burnetii seropositivity is highly stable throughout gestation in lactating high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Almería, S; López-Gatius, F

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse, in high-producing dairy cows, plasma Coxiella burnetii antibody titres and seroconversion throughout gestation, along with possible factors affecting such titres. The study was performed on 65 lactating pregnant non-aborting animals in a commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy herd in northeastern Spain. Blood samples for antibody determinations were collected on days 40, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 of gestation. By General Linear Model (GLM) repeated measures analysis of variance, the effects of milk production and reproductive variables as well as Neospora caninum-seropositivity on C. burnetii antibody levels for all animals and for seropositive animals were established. Significant effects were observed of day of gestation, parity and N. caninum-seropositivity (between subject effects) on the C. burnetii antibody levels recorded for the whole population of animals throughout the gestation period. C. burnetii antibody levels were higher in primiparous than in multiparous cows, with titres in primiparous cows diminishing during the post-partum period. In seropositive cows, significant effects were observed of milk production and inseminating bull on gestational C. burnetii antibody levels. When the data were subjected to binary logistic regression considering C. burnetii-seropositivity as the dependent variable, the resultant odds ratios indicated that the likelihood of C. burnetii-seropositivity was lower in N. caninum-seropositive animals (OR 0.12) compared to N. caninum-seronegative animals, and in multiparous cows (OR 0.12) compared to primiparous cows. In conclusion, Coxiella-infected dams remained seropositive during the whole gestation period, though primiparous cows showed a drop in antibody titres post-partum. No seronegative cow suffered seroconversion. Presence of both, N. caninum and C. burnetii antibodies in the same animal, was associated with a decrease in antibody titres against C. burnetii, perhaps indicating some

  6. Comparison of IL-6, IL-8 Concentrations in H. pylori- and non-H. pylori-associated Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontar Alamsyah Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a non-invasive microorganism causing intense gastric mucosal inflammatory and immune reaction. The gastric mucosal levels of the proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin 6 (IL-6 and IL-8 have been reported to be increased in H. pylori infection, but the serum levels in H. pylori infection is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in H. pylori infection. METHODS: A cross sectional study was done on eighty consecutive gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and Permata Bunda Hospital, Medan, Indonesia from May-October 2014. Histopathology was performed for the diagnosis of gastritis. Rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Serum samples were obtained to determine circulating IL-6 and IL-8. Univariate and bivariate analysis (independent t test were done. RESULTS: There were 41.25% patients infected with H. pylori. Circulatory IL-6 levels were significantly higher in H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori negative, but there were no differences between serum levels of IL-8 in H. pylori positive and negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response to H. pylori promotes systemic inflammation, which was reflected in an increased level of serum IL-6. Serum levels of IL-8 were not significantly different between H. pylori positive and negative. KEYWORDS: Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, IL-6, IL-8, cytokine.

  7. Association between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and memory function in nondemented older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Cynthia P; Gale, Shawn D; Hedges-Muncy, Ariana; Erickson, Lance D; Wilson, Eric; Hedges, Dawson W

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) seropositivity may be associated with decreased memory in older adults. To further investigate the association between T. gondii seropositivity and memory in nondemented older adults, we obtained serum samples from 114 nondemented older adults evaluated by the Alzheimer's Disease and Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. We determined T. gondii seropositivity and anti-T. gondii IgG antibody titer and examined associations with memory function while controlling for socioeconomic status, education level, age, and apolipoprotein E4 status. There were few associations between T. gondii seropositivity or anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and memory, although there was some support suggesting an interaction between anti-T. gondii and sex. In the seropositive-only sample, there was an inverse relationship between anti-T. gondii titer and performance on the selective reminding test. Overall, we found little evidence of an association between impaired memory function and T. gondii seropositivity and anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in this sample of nondemented older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis-C antibody seropositivity in healthy Egyptian children and four high risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Nanawy, A A; el Azzouni, O F; Soliman, A T; Amer, A E; Demian, R S; el-Sayed, H M

    1995-12-01

    We studied the prevalence of HCV antibody seropositivity and serum alanine concentrations in a random sample of healthy Egyptian children (n = 110) as well as in four high risk groups of children. Group 1 included 18 children with thalassemia major, group 2 included 17 children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), group 3 included 21 children with schistosomal hepatic fibrosis (SHF), and group 4 included 20 children with chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The prevalence rate of HCV seropositivity was 12 per cent in normal children, 44 per cent in thalassemic children, 29 per cent in children with IDDM, 38 per cent in children with SHF and 0 per cent in patients with RHD. The liver size was significantly larger in HCV seropositive normal children as well as in HCV seropositive children with thalassemia and SHF compared to the seronegative children in each group respectively (P antibody seropositivity in healthy Egyptian children compared to reports from other countries, and a significantly high prevalence of HCV seropositivity in children with thalassemia, IDDM, and SHF which carries a considerably high risk for development of chronic liver disease in these patients.

  9. The internalization of Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the failure of H. pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-Hua; Lv, Zhi-Fa; Zhong, Yao; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Ping; Xie, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) internalization involves invasion of cells by the bacterium. Several studies have shown that H. pylori can invade human gastric epithelial cells, immune cells, and Candida yeast in vivo and in vitro. Whether bacterial invasion plays a role in eradication failure is unclear. To investigate the relationship between H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells and H. pylori eradication failure. Forty-two clinical strains isolated from H. pylori-positive patients with different outcomes after treatment with furazolidone-based therapy were examined (17 failures and 25 successes). The H. pylori strains were shown to be susceptible to amoxicillin and furazolidone, and the patients also exhibited good compliance. Genotyping was performed for cagA and vacA (s and m). The antibiotic susceptibility of the strains to amoxicillin, furazolidone, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was determined by E-tests. The levels of H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells were detected by gentamicin colony-forming unit assays. The internalization level in the eradication success group was 5.40±5.78 × 10-3  cfu/cell, and the median was 6.194 × 10-3  cfu/cell; the internalization level in the eradication failure group was 8.98±5.40 × 10-3  cfu/cell, and the median was 10.28 × 10-3  cfu/cell. The eradication failure group showed a greater invasion level than the eradication success group (P.05). The results showed that H. pylori invasion of the gastric epithelia might play a role in eradication failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Ming Liou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The elderly often seek medical attention because of gastroduodenal diseases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection is associated with several gastroduodenal diseases and its prevalence increases with age worldwide. It is estimated that 10–15% of infected patients will have peptic ulcer disease and 1% of patients will have gastric cancer or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Notably, the most severe clinical outcomes, i.e., gastric cancer and complicated peptic ulcer diseases, usually occur in elderly patients. Thus the test-and-treatment strategy is not recommended for elderly patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia. However, biopsy specimens for the rapid urease test and histology should be taken from both the antrum and corpus to increase the detection rate in elderly patients, especially in those with atrophic gastritis. The urea breath test may increase the detection rate if the rapid urease test or histology are negative in elderly patients with atrophic gastritis. Standard triple therapy and sequential therapy can achieve satisfactory eradication rates for H. pylori in elderly patients. Elderly patients with peptic ulcers may have a similar benefit from treatment of H. pylori infection as non-elderly patients. Eradication of H. pylori infection may also lead to improvement in histologic grading of gastritis, but the risk of gastric cancer cannot be completely reduced, especially in patients with existing premalignant lesions.

  11. Rare Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genotypes in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunari, Osamu; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-03-02

    Both the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer are high in Bhutan. The high incidence of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer suggest the phylogeographic origin of an infection with a more virulent strain of H. pylori. More than 90% of Bhutanese strains possessed the highly virulent East Asian-type CagA and all strains had the most virulent type of vacA (s1 type). More than half also had multiple repeats in East Asian-type CagA, which are rare in other countries and are reported characteristictly found in assciation with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer consistent with Bhutanese strains having multiple H. pylori virulence factors associated with an increase in gastric cancer risk. Phylogeographic analyses showed that most Bhutanese strains belonged to the East Asian population type with some strains (17.5%) sharing East Asian and Amerindian components. Only 9.5% belonged to the European type consistant with H. pylori in Bhutan representing an intermediate evolutionary stage between H. pylori from European and East Asian countries.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide Structure and Biosynthesis in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Liao, Tingting; Debowski, Aleksandra W; Tang, Hong; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Stubbs, Keith A; Marshall, Barry J; Benghezal, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    This review covers the current knowledge and gaps in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure and biosynthesis. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which colonizes the luminal surface of the human gastric epithelium. Both a constitutive alteration of the lipid A preventing TLR4 elicitation and host mimicry of the Lewis antigen decorated O-antigen of H. pylori LPS promote immune escape and chronic infection. To date, the complete structure of H. pylori LPS is not available, and the proposed model is a linear arrangement composed of the inner core defined as the hexa-saccharide (Kdo-LD-Hep-LD-Hep-DD-Hep-Gal-Glc), the outer core composed of a conserved trisaccharide (-GlcNAc-Fuc-DD-Hep-) linked to the third heptose of the inner core, the glucan, the heptan and a variable O-antigen, generally consisting of a poly-LacNAc decorated with Lewis antigens. Although the glycosyltransferases (GTs) responsible for the biosynthesis of the H. pylori O-antigen chains have been identified and characterized, there are many gaps in regard to the biosynthesis of the core LPS. These limitations warrant additional mutagenesis and structural studies to obtain the complete LPS structure and corresponding biosynthetic pathway of this important gastric bacterium. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in hyperemesis

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    hosein Khedmat

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vomiting is one of the most common problems during pregnancy periods which happens in 50% of the pregnant women. Hyperemesis gravidarum is a rare status that 1 out of 500 pregnant women suffer from it. Although the reason of HG is unknown, but several studies indicate a relationship between HG and helicobacter pylori . So the aim of this study was to assess the relation between H.pylori infection and hyperemesis gravidarum and to compare it with healthy ones. Materials and Methods : In this case control study 100 pregnant women with HG and 100 pregnant controls , at the same gestational weeks , referred to the city clinics were studied. Then H.pylori serum immunoglobulin IgG concentration was determined in the case and control groups by ELIZA method and serologic tests and analyzed using SPSS software. Findings: Results showed that the prevalence of H.pylori infection was significantly higher in patients with HG (79.8% than in controls (46.8% with a P<0.001 . There were no significant differences in maternal age , gestational age and social economic status between case and control groups . Conclusion : Results of this study indicate that H. pylori can play an important role for etiology of hyperemesis gravidarum.

  14. Helicobacter pylori: prospettive per un vaccino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Del Giudice

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori causes one of the most widespread infections worldwide: it affects more than 50% of the human population, and is responsible for serious gastric pathologies such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis and, in some individuals, gastric cancer. Current treatments with antibiotics are efficacious, but encounters several drawbacks at the level of compliance, side effects, antibiotic resistance, etc.The availability of vaccines could contribute in reducing the burden of H. pylori associated diseases. Several bacterial antigens have been identified as virulence factors and proposed as potential vaccine candidates. Some of these antigens have been tested in experimental animal models of challenge with H. pylori. The experiments in animals have shown that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against H. pylori is indeed feasible. Several open questions still remain concerning the understanding of the host-microbe relationship and the quality of the immune response which should be induced in order to confer protective immunity in man.The answers to these questions will be crucial in helping the preparation of appropriate vaccine formulations able to efficaciously protect humans both prophylactically and therapeutically. A few clinical trials have been carried out so far with still limited results. Other trials in humans are in progress and are planned for the next few years.The final hope is that these new vaccines will show the expected efficacy against H. pylori and will permit the elimination of this pathogen which has cohabited with humans for more than 100,000 years.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebule, I A; Longdoh, A N; Paloheimo, I L

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori-infection associated gastritis is known to be a significant risk factor of gastric cancer. Serum levels of Gastrin-17 and Pepsinogen1which are respectively biomarkers of gastric antral and corpus mucosal activity are well known parameters of atrophic gastritis. To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and atrophic gastritis amongst dyspeptic patients and to compare the production of PGI and G-17 in the various atrophic stages. A total of 139 dyspeptic patients aged 46.68±15.50 years [females 106 aged47.23±15.51years, males 33 aged 44.48±14.62] were included during the one year period, March 2008-april 2009 at the district hospital Tombel. The degree of atrophy was determined by the levels of serum pepsinogen1, and gastrin-17 and the presence of Helicobacter pylori antibodies detected by an enzyme immunoassay. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori was 79.82% and that for atrophic gastritis was 6.6%. A decrease in mean serum levels of gastin-17 along with increasing antral atrophy was observed; the mean serum levels of pepsinogen1 were reduced during progression of corpus atrophy. A weak reverse correlation(r =-0.036) was found between Gastrin-17 and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.

  16. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction.

  17. Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Famouri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Childrenwith Helicobacter infection need treatment. The aim of treatment is elimination of H.Pylori. Most patients with this infection are asymptomatic and without peptic disease. Treatment and management of these patients are controversy. Conventional Treatment: The best treatment for H. pylori eradication regimens should have cure rates of at least 80%, be without major side effects, and induce minimal bacterial resistance. Antibiotics alone have not achieved this. Luminal acidity influences both the effectiveness of some antimicrobial agents and the survival of the bacteri; thus antibiotics have been combined with acid suppression such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs, bismuth, or H2 antagonists. The “classic” regimen is treatment twice daily for 7 days with a PPI and clarithromycin plus either amoxicillin or metronidazole Bismuth has been used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and 1 part o quadruple therapy for H.Pylori but compliance of children for it is low.   Sequential Therapy  Sequential therapyinvolves dual therapy with a PPI and amoxicillin for 5 days followed sequentially by clarithromycin, Tinidazole and omeperazole for 5 days or other triple therapy for 7 days. This treatment has had 97% efficacy.   Adjunctive Therapies A number of studies have showed the potential benefits of probiotic therapy in H. pylori treatment regimens.Consumption of these drugs accompanied with other medications increase H.Pylori eradication.    

  18. Significance of dormant forms of Helicobacter pylori in ulcerogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Reshetnyak, Tatiana Magomedalievna

    2017-01-01

    Nearly half of the global population are carriers of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in the healthy human stomach. H. pylori can be a pathogen and causes development of peptic ulcer disease in a certain state of the macroorganism. It is well established that H. pylori infection is the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Decontamination of the gastric mucosa with various antibiotics leads to H. pylori elimination and longer remission in this disease. However, the reasons for repeated detection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD after its successful eradication remain unclear. The reason for the redetection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD can be either reinfection or ineffective anti-Helicobacter therapy. The administration of antibacterial drugs can lead not only to the emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms, but also contribute to the conversion of H. pylori into the resting (dormant) state. The dormant forms of H. pylori have been shown to play a potential role in the development of relapses of PUD. The paper discusses morphological H. pylori forms, such as S-shaped, C-shaped, U-shaped, and coccoid ones. The authors proposes the classification of H. pylori according to its morphological forms and viability. PMID:28785141

  19. N-acetylcysteine, a novel treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hien Quoc; Couper, Richard T L; Tran, Cuong D; Moore, Lynette; Kelso, Richard; Butler, Ross N

    2004-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), being both a mucolytic agent and a thiol-containing antioxidant, may affect the establishment and maintenance of H. pylori infection within the gastric mucus layer and mucosa. Agar and broth dilution susceptibility tests determined the MIC of H. pylori strain SSI to NAC. H. pylori load in SSI strain-infected C57BL mice was determined as colony forming units per gram of gastric tissue. Gastritis assessment was scored and gastric surface hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle measurement. MICs of NAC were 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 mg/ml using the agar dilution and broth dilution methods, respectively. NAC (120 mg per day for 14 days) reduced the H. pylori load in mice by almost 1 log compared with sham treatment. Pretreatment with NAC (40 mg/day) also significantly reduced the H. pylori load but did not prevent H. pylori colonization. Both H. pylori infection and NAC reduced the surface hydrophobicity of murine gastric mucosa. No significant differences were observed in the gastritis scores of H. felis- or H. pylori-infected mice receiving either NAC or sham treatments. This study demonstrates that NAC inhibits the growth of H. pylori in both agar and broth susceptibility tests and in H. pylori-infected mice. NAC did not alter the severity of H. pylori- or H. felis-induced gastritis.

  20. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Children of Seropositive Women

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    Ines Mack

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most frequent congenital virus infection worldwide. The risk of congenital CMV (cCMV transmission is highest in seronegative women who acquire primary CMV infection during pregnancy. A growing body of evidence indicates that secondary CMV infections in pregnant women with preconceptual immunity (either through reactivation of latent virus or re-infection with a new strain of CMV contribute to a much greater proportion of symptomatic cCMV than was previously thought. Here, we describe a case of symptomatic cCMV infection in the newborn of a woman with proven immunity prior to pregnancy. Diagnosis was confirmed by CMV PCR from amniotic fluid and fetal MR imaging. The newborn presented with typical cCMV symptoms including jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, cholestasis, petechiae, small head circumference, and sensorineural hearing loss, the most common neurologic sequela. CMV was detected in infant blood and urine by PCR, and intravenous ganciclovir was initiated and continued orally for 6 weeks totally. Apart from persisting right-sided deafness, the child exhibited normal neurological development up through the last follow-up at 4.5 years. To date, the most effective strategy to prevent vertical CMV transmission is hygiene counseling for women of childbearing age, which, in our case, and in concordance with recent literature, applies to seronegative, as well as seropositive, women. Once an expecting mother shows seroconversion or signs of an active CMV infection, there are no established procedures to reduce the risk of transmission, or therapeutic options for the fetus with signs of infection. After birth, symptomatic infants can be treated with ganciclovir to inhibit viral replication and improve hearing ability and neurodevelopmental outcome. A comprehensive review of the literature, including our case study, reveals the most current and significant diagnostic and treatment options available. In conclusion, the triad

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Figueiredo, Céu; Seruca, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... pathways. As such, this review highlights the consequences of H. pylori infection on the integrity of DNA in the host cells. By down-regulating major DNA repair pathways, H. pylori infection has the potential to generate mutations. In addition, H. pylori infection can induce direct changes on the DNA...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...

  2. Current Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Gold

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infects approximately 50% of the world’s population and is a definitive cause of gastroduodenal disease (ie, gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers in children and adults. Four consensus conferences held around the globe have brought together clinicians, scientists, epidemiologists and health care economists to discuss the role of the gastric pathogen H pylori in human gastroduodenal disease. At each of these conferences, the overriding objective was to reach a consensus on the development of practical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of H pylori-infected individuals. However, it was not until the Canadian H pylori Consensus Conference, held in November 1997, that the issues of H pylori infection in children were addressed. Therapies for H pylori infection in children, presented in part at the First Canadian Paediatric H pylori Consensus Conference, held in Victoria, British Columbia, November 1998, are reviewed in this paper.

  3. Recent "omics" advances in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthenet, Elvire; Sheppard, Sam; Vale, Filipa F

    2016-09-01

    The development of high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies is changing the face of microbiology, facilitating the comparison of large numbers of genomes from different lineages of a same organism. Our aim was to review the main advances on Helicobacter pylori "omics" and to understand how this is improving our knowledge of the biology, diversity and pathogenesis of H. pylori. Since the first H. pylori isolate was sequenced in 1997, 510 genomes have been deposited in the NCBI archive, providing a basis for improved understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important pathogen. This review focuses on works published between April 2015 and March 2016. Helicobacter "omics" is already making an impact and is a growing research field. Ultimately these advances will be translated into a routine clinical laboratory setting in order to improve public health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    This article reviews the literature published pertaining to Helicobacter pylori eradication over the last year. The general perception among clinicians and academics engaged in research on H. pylori has been that eradication rates for first-line therapies are falling, although some data published this year have cast doubt on this. The studies published this year have therefore focussed on developing alternative strategies for the first-line eradication of H. pylori. In this regard, clear evidence now exists that both levofloxacin and bismuth are viable options for first-line therapy. The sequential and "concomitant" regimes have also been studied in new settings and may have a role in future algorithms also. In addition, data have emerged that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii may be a useful adjunct to antibiotic therapy. Other studies promote individualized therapies based on host polymorphisms, age, and other such demographic factors.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Hoffman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori is most frequently associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Antimicrobial intervention, together with proton pump inhibitors, has become the standard therapy for treating this disease. Resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole, two of the most commonly used antimicrobials for treatment of H pylori infections, is often associated with treatment failures and relapse of infection. Clarithromycin resistance arises through mutations leading to base changes in 23S ribosomal RNA subunits, while resistance to metronidazole is due to mutations in the rdxA gene, which encodes a novel nitroreductase that is responsible for reductive activation of the drug. Products of metronidazole activation are mutagenic and can be demonstrated to increase both the mutation frequency and the frequency at which antibiotic resistance arises in H pylori.

  6. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anthony; Gisbert, Javier P; McNamara, Deirdre; O'Morain, Colm

    2011-09-01

    This article reviews the literature published pertaining to Helicobacter pylori eradication over the last year. The general perception among clinicians and academics engaged in research on H. pylori has been that eradication rates for first-line therapies are falling, although some data published this year have cast doubt on this. The studies published this year have therefore focussed on developing alternative strategies for the first-line eradication of H. pylori. In this regard, clear evidence now exists that both levofloxacin and bismuth are viable options for first-line therapy. The sequential and "concomitant" regimes have also been studied in new settings and may have a role in future algorithms also. In addition, data have emerged that the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii may be a useful adjunct to antibiotic therapy. Other studies promote individualized therapies based on host polymorphisms, age, and other such demographic factors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Rosacea is associated with Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Egeberg, A; Gideonsson, R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common skin disease characterized by facial erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Helicobacter pylori infection has been suggested to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of rosacea. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and meta-analyse the relationship between...... rosacea and infection with Helicobacter pylori. METHODS: A literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Data extraction and analyses were performed on descriptive data. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random-effects models with Der...... in the quantitative meta-analysis, comprising a total of 928 rosacea patients and 1527 controls. The overall association between Helicobacter pylori infection and rosacea was non-significant (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.00-2.84, P = 0.052), but analysis restricted to C-urea breath test showed a significant association (OR 3...

  8. Factors associated with seropositivity for APGL-Iamong household contacts of leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gustavo Wambier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is mainly transmitted among family members who share genetic and ambient factors. The clinical form of leprosy in the index case and kinship could be risk factors for leprosy transmission. High antibody levels in household contacts (HC in the absence of neural or skin lesions may characterize latent infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between seropositivity for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I immunoglobulin M antibodies (APGL-I in HC and the clinical classification of the index case and to analyze the association between APGL-I positivity with other factors such as age, kinship, and gender. METHODS: We performed a survey among 320 HC of 120 leprosy patients who were evaluated and followed-up in a leprosy outpatient clinic of a university hospital. All HC underwent complete skin examination, peripheral nerve palpation, skin sensory tests, and serologic tests for the detection and quantification of APGL-I. RESULTS: The overall seropositivity rate was 20%, and was greatly affected by kinship. APGL-I seropositivity was higher in siblings (41%, followed by parents (28%, spouses (26%, other (19%, and offspring (14%. Independent risk factors for seropositivity were being siblings (OR 3.3 and being a HC of an index case with indeterminate leprosy (OR 5.3. APGL-I seropositivity was associated with index cases with a bacillary index of 4 (88%; p<.001. Seropositivity among HC was not significantly associated with their gender and age. There was no statistical difference in the seropositivity rates of HC of index patients with paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy. CONCLUSIONS: Strict evaluation and follow-up of HC with positive results for APGL-I is recommended. Special attention should be paid during the screening of siblings of the index cases, HC of patients with a high bacillary index, and HC of patients with indeterminate leprosy.

  9. Helicobacter pylori: From Bench to Bedside

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    N Chiba

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential increase in research in the field of Helicobacter pylori a paradigm shift has occurred. It is now recognized that H pylori is a chronic infection of the stomach causing inflammation. Some patients remain asymptomatic, while others may develop dyspepsia, duodenal or gastric ulcer, gastric cancer or a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, the role of H pylori in contributing to nonulcer dyspepsia or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy remains controversial. An effective vaccine against H pylori is years away. Major interest has focused on the questions "who should be investigated and therefore treated" and "what is the latest gold standard for eradication of H pylori"? In Europe, guidelines have been developed to help the practitioner answer these important questions. Canadian guidelines will soon be available. For persons with known peptic ulcer disease there should be unequivocal acceptance that the good clinical practice of eradicating H pylori will result in substantial savings in health care expenses. The original 'classical triple therapy' (bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline [BMT] has now been surpassed by the combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI plus two antibiotics (metronidazole plus clarithromycin; amoxicillin plus clarithromycin; or amoxicillin plus metronidazole, each given twice a day for one week. In Canada, the regimen of omeprazole plus one antibiotic (amoxicillin or clarithromycin was approved recently but gives an eradication rate that is lower than the current target of 90%. According to the European (Mäastricht recommendations, if a single treatment attempt with PPI plus two antibiotics fails, PPI plus BMT is recommended.

  10. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions

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    Soussan Irani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 biopsies diagnosed as oral ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and oral primary lymphoma were selected from the archives of the Pathology Department. Thirty-two samples that were diagnosed as being without any pathological changes were selected as the control group. All the paraffin blocks were cut for hematoxylin and eosin staining to confirm the diagnoses and then the samples were prepared for immunohistochemistry staining. Data were collected and analyzed. Results. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between the frequency of H. pylori positivity in normal tissue and the lesions were examined (P=0.000. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the lesions examined (P=0.042. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between H. pylori positivity and different tissue types except inside the muscle layer as follows: in epithelium and in lamina propria (P=0.000, inside the blood vessels (P=0.003, inside the salivary gland duct (P=0.036, and muscle layer (P=0.122. Conclusion. There might be a relation between the presence of H. pylori and oral lesions. Therefore, early detection and eradication of H. pylori in high-risk patients are suggested.

  11. 16S rRNA mutation-mediated tetracycline resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gerrits (Monique); M.R. de Zoete; N.L.A. Arents (Niek); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); J.G. Kusters (Johannes)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost Helicobacter pylori strains are susceptible to tetracycline, an antibiotic commonly used for the eradication of H. pylori. However, an increase in incidence of tetracycline resistance in H. pylori has recently been reported. Here the mechanism of tetracycline

  12. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Chronic Hepatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Huang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: It is possible that H. pylori infection could increase liver damage caused by HBV. H. pylori eradication should be performed in patients with complicating H. pylori infection to delay hepatic disease progression.

  13. Seropositivity and Coinfection of Hepatitis B and C among Patients Seeking Hospital Care in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The undertaken study was conducted to find out the seroprevalence and coinfection of HBV and HCV infection among patients seeking hospital care. A total of 845 samples were received at tertiary care hospital of Islamabad and were screened for hepatitis B and C. The ELISA was used to detect antigen for HBV and antibodies for HCV in patient serum. Among 845 collected samples, 255 (30.1% were seropositive for HBV and HCV. Out of 255 seropositive samples, 45 (5.3% were positive for HBsAg while 199 (23.5% were positive for anti-HCV. Among 255, 11 (1.3% were seropositive for both HBsAg and anti-HCV (coinfection. Among the seropositive male, HBV was more prevalent (23.8% while female patients had a high incidence of HCV (52.2%. Among the age group variable, HBV, HCV, and coinfection were found to be more common in the age groups of 21–30 (29% and 30–40 (24% years. The seropositivity for HBsAg was higher in unmarried individuals (31.2% while anti-HCV was more prevalent in married individuals (84%. The present study provides the preliminary information about high HCV and HBV prevalence. Findings from the current study will be helpful for the better management and control of viral hepatitis among patients seeking hospital care.

  14. Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity and Its Relation with Obesity and Metabolic Profile in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Parra-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36 is causally and correlatively associated in animals and humans, respectively, with increased adiposity and altered metabolic profile. In previous studies, the relationship between Ad-36 seropositivity with obesity was established in adults and children. We evaluated the association of positive antibodies to Ad-36 with obesity and metabolic profile in Mexican children. Seventy-five children with normal-weight and 82 with obesity were studied in this research. All children had a clinic assessment which included weight, height, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Laboratory analyzes included triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose and insulin levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine the antibodies to Ad-36 in the serum samples. The overall Ad-36 seroprevalence was 73.9%. Ad-36 seropositivity had a higher prevalence in obese children than in normal weight group (58.6 versus 41.4%, P=0.007. Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity (OR=2.66, P=0.01 and high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (OR=2.85, P=0.03. The Ad-36 seropositive group had greater risk of 4 metabolic abnormalities compared with those children without none alteration. In summary, Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity and low HDL-c levels in the sample of children studied.

  15. Adenovirus-36 Seropositivity and Its Relation with Obesity and Metabolic Profile in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B.; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P.; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F.

    2013-01-01

    The human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36) is causally and correlatively associated in animals and humans, respectively, with increased adiposity and altered metabolic profile. In previous studies, the relationship between Ad-36 seropositivity with obesity was established in adults and children. We evaluated the association of positive antibodies to Ad-36 with obesity and metabolic profile in Mexican children. Seventy-five children with normal-weight and 82 with obesity were studied in this research. All children had a clinic assessment which included weight, height, body circumferences, and skinfold thickness. Laboratory analyzes included triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose and insulin levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the antibodies to Ad-36 in the serum samples. The overall Ad-36 seroprevalence was 73.9%. Ad-36 seropositivity had a higher prevalence in obese children than in normal weight group (58.6 versus 41.4%, P = 0.007). Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity (OR = 2.66, P = 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (OR = 2.85, P = 0.03). The Ad-36 seropositive group had greater risk of 4 metabolic abnormalities compared with those children without none alteration. In summary, Ad-36 seropositivity was associated with obesity and low HDL-c levels in the sample of children studied. PMID:24324491

  16. Conventional Pap Smear Screening in HIV Seropositive Women in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha Devi, Kodey; Bindhu Priya, Narigapalli

    2013-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of Pap smear abnormalities and to characterize the associated risk factors in HIV seropositive women. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 252 HIV seropositive women in and around Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India by screening them for cervical cytological abnormalities by means of conventional Pap smear screening and the abnormalities reported as per modified Bethesda system. The prevalence of Pap smear abnormalities in HIV seropositive women was found to be 7.17 % which was a twofold increased risk as compared to the general population. On analysis of the risk factors like younger age for abnormal pap smears, mean CD4 count, duration of disease, and ART/HAART therapy the difference between the two groups of HIV seropositive women with normal pap smears and seropositive women with abnormal pap smears was found to be not statistically significant. HIV/AIDS is associated with a twofold increased risk for cervical cytological abnormalities, and hence the need for periodic pap smear screening in this high risk group to reduce the global burden of cervical cancer.

  17. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  18. Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics Against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have

  19. Helicobacter pylori in humans: Where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Arshad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been associated with colonization of gastro duodenal mucosa of humans from millions of years. The main burden of the disese is in the developing countries, due to overcrowding and poor hygiene. If left untreated it leads to lot of sequlae from minor to sinister diseases over a period of time. The main challenges that remain are prevention of H. pylori-related diseases by effective treatment and screening procedures and development of a vaccine, which can address all these issues including beneficial aspects of H. pylori. The literature pertaining to different aspects of H. pylori were scrutinized from Pubmed. Material on clinical behavior, complications of chronic gastric involvement, and prevention besides role of H. pylori in nongastric diseases and the latest trends of management was collected for research and review. We continue to face many challenges.The prevention of cancer of the stomach, a worst sequlae of H. pylori continues to be a big challenge despite population screening and prevention surveys being underway in many countries. On the other hand continued scientific work has now unfolded involvement of H. pylori in extragastric diseases like cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, sideroblastic anemia, mental diseases, and collagen vascular diseases. In contrast, the beneficial effects of H. pylori with respect to allergic diseases and obesity are now clear. Moreover, problem of drug resistance for eradication of H. pylori has arisen for which novel treatments are being tried. Lactobacillus reuteri having anti H. pylori action is emerging as one of the promising treatment.

  20. Association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Wu, Junbei; Zhang, Guoxin

    2013-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is recognized as a worldwide public health threat. Some studies have suggested that individuals with asthma have a lower rate of H. pylori infection, but the relation remains controversial. This meta-analysis was carried out to quantify the association between H. pylori infection and asthma. Published information on the prevalence of H. pylori in individuals with asthma was collected to assess the potential associations between H. pylori infection and the risk of asthma. Fourteen eligible studies were selected for analysis. Data on the study populations, detection method of H. pylori, and publication year were summarized. Meta-regression models and subgroup analyses were established to screen the factors resulting in heterogeneity. Of the 106 articles retrieved, 14 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The 14 studies involved 28 283 patients, with a total H. pylori infection rate of 40.53%. This meta-analysis found a significantly lower rate of H. pylori infection in the asthmatics than in the controls (odds ratio=0.84, 95% confidence interval: 0.73-0.96, P=0.013). Subgroup analysis indicated a similar infection rate of CagA-positive H. pylori infection in the asthmatic group and the control group (odds ratio=0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.41-1.28, P=0.03). The pooled data suggest that asthmatics have a significantly lower rate of H. pylori infection. Large-scale and multicenter studies should be carried out to further determine the relation between this bacterium and allergic disorders.

  1. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  2. Individual and environmental risk factors for dengue and chikungunya seropositivity in North-Eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C.; Msonga, Maulid; Schiøler, Karin L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dengue and chikungunya are mosquito-borne viral diseases of major global health concern. In Tanzania, information on risk factors for dengue and chikungunya is limited. We investigated individual, household, socio-economic, demographic and environmental risk factors for dengue...... and chikungunya seropositivity. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken which included a total of 1003 participants from North-Eastern Tanzania, to determine the sero-prevalence of dengue and chikungunya and to investigate associated risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risk...... factors for dengue and chikungunya seropositivity. Results: Environmental factors such as living in a house with uncovered containers within the compound had higher odds of being chikungunya IgM seropositive (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.76–4.76). Also, participants who kept hoofed animals in their home and who...

  3. Molecular assessment of clarithromycin resistant Helicobacter pylori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular assessment of clarithromycin resistant Helicobacter pylori strains using rapid and accurate PCR-RFLP method in gastric specimens in Iran. ... Thirty nine (39) (23/78%) clarithromycin-resistant strains were detected which were identified as 15 (9.15%) A2143G, 15 (9.15%) A2142G and 9 (5.49%) mix strains.

  4. Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori, which has been designated by the WHO as type I carcinogen, has a global prevalence of over 50%. The aim of this study was to determine the association between this bacterium and upper gastrointestinal problems in an endoscopy unit in Ouagadougou, using a molecular diagnostic method.

  5. HELICOBACTER PYLORI: THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF PEPTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    room temperature, and in this state it fails to grow on subculture. .... H. pylori weaken the protective mucous coating of the stomach and duodenum, which allows acid to get through to the sensitive lining beneath. Both the acid and the bacteria irritate the ... the organism from gastric acid by converting urea to ammonia and ...

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection - recent developments in diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Isabel; Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Considering the recommended indications for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy and the broad spectrum of available diagnostic methods, a reliable diagnosis is mandatory both before and after eradication therapy. Only highly accurate tests should be used in clinical practice, and the sensitivity and specificity of an adequate test should exceed 90%. The choice of tests should take into account clinical circumstances, the likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests, the cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy and the availability of the tests. This review concerns some of the most recent developments in diagnostic methods of H. pylori infection, namely the contribution of novel endoscopic evaluation methodologies for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, such as magnifying endoscopy techniques and chromoendoscopy. In addition, the diagnostic contribution of histology and the urea breath test was explored recently in specific clinical settings and patient groups. Recent studies recommend enhancing the number of biopsy fragments for the rapid urease test. Bacterial culture from the gastric biopsy is the gold standard technique, and is recommended for antibiotic susceptibility test. Serology is used for initial screening and the stool antigen test is particularly used when the urea breath test is not available, while molecular methods have gained attention mostly for detecting antibiotic resistance. PMID:25071324

  7. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  8. Relation Between Helicobacter Pylori, Inflammatory (neutrophil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the relation of Helicobacter pylori infection with chronic inflammation, atrophy, activity level and intestinal metaplasia. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 consecutive patients with dyspepsia. These patients were fasted for 12 hours and gastroscopic biopsy specimens were ...

  9. Helicobacter pylori Infection, Gastric Cancer and Gastropanel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loor Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is one of the most widespread types of cancer worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection has been clearly correlated with gastric carcinogenesis. At present and in the near future, the most important challenge is and will be the significant reduction of mortality due to GC. That goal can be achieved through the identification of higher-risk patients, such as those with atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. In this review we intend to discuss the importance of diagnosing H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis in preventing gastric cancer, using a new non-invasive test called GastroPanel. This test is a classification algorithm including four biochemical parameters pepsinogen I and II (PGI and PGII, gastrin-17 (G17, and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies (Ig G anti-Hp measured in fasting sera, which allows to classify patients as having atrophic or non-atrophic gastritis and to find whether gastritis is associated or not with H. pylori infection. GastroPanel is not a “cancer test”, but it can and should be used in the screening and diagnosis of subjects with a high cancer risk; still, a careful diagnostic made by superior digestive endoscopy is compulsory to find possible precancerous or cancerous lesions at an early and curable stage.

  10. Prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection among symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating meals cooked at home alone or supplemented with meals from the eateries did not influence the immunochromatographic antibody reactions. Conclusions: The prevalence of H.pylori in our dyspeptic subjects was lower than in other parts of Nigeria. Methodological differences not withstanding. It is probably timely to ...

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Discussion. Helicobacter pylori-infection -infection causes acute gastritis in most infected individuals. In a certain number of patients with persistent infection, chronic active gastritis develops, leading finally to glandular atrophy, a risk factor for gastric adenoma and cancer7 . Correa 19928 postulated the paradigm of gastric.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Noach, L. A.; Rauws, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    H. pylori is undoubtedly the dominant factor in the multifactorial peptic ulcer diathesis. We should not ignore the other contributing factors but rather try to identify how they interact with the organism and initiate the ulcerative process. The interplay of acid attack and mucosal defence is

  13. [The treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korwin, J D; Lozniewski, A

    1996-12-14

    H. pylori causes inflammatory lesions of the stomach and duodenum. At the present time eradication is essentially recommended in case of gastric or duodenal ulcer. The choice of the appropriate drug depends on the characteristics of the H. pylori infection, the localization deep in the gastric mucosa, the physico-chemical properties of the gastric medium, especially the acidity which deactivates antibiotics, slow bacterial growth and the germ's sensitivity to antibiotics. Anti-infectious treatment is now based on a three-drug regimen combining an antisecretory drug (proton pump inhibitor or H2 receptor antagonist) and two antibiotics: clarithromycin associated with amoxicillin or an imidazol derivative (metronidazol or tinidazol) or tetracycline. Two antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin) as well as three anti-secretory agents (lansoprazole, omeprazole, ranitidine) have been authorized in France for three-drug regimens of 1 or 2 weeks leading to approximately 90% eradication. Special attention should be placed on the risk of resistance to antibiotics (macrolids and imidazol derivatives) and patient compliance required for successful eradication of H. pylori. Other therapeutic schemes are under assessment and a vaccine is being prepared. Eradication of H. pylori has totally changed the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers, eliminating the need for long-term treatment and avoiding complications.

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection and dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardo, P G; Tugnait, A; Hassan, F; Lynch, D A; West, A P; Mapstone, N P; Quirke, P; Chalmers, D M; Kowolik, M J; Axon, A T

    1995-01-01

    Sixty two patients (mean age 45.6 years) were assessed for oral hygiene and periodontal disease by dental examination before endoscopy. Information about oral care, smoking, and dentures was obtained and samples of dental plaque collected. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in plaque as sought by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and gastric antral biopsy specimens were taken for histological examination. Although H pylori was detected in the antral specimens of 34 patients (54%) all of the cultures of dental plaque were negative, and PCR was only positive from the dentures of one patient. Smokers had poor oral hygiene, visited their dentist less often, and brushed their teeth less frequently. There was no correlation of H pylori gastritis with either dental hygiene or periodontal disease. These results suggest that dental plaque or dentures are not an important reservoir for H pylori and are probably not a significant factor in transmission of the organism. The conflicting results in published works may be caused by differences in sample collection, culture techniques, or oral contamination from gastric juice as a result of gastro-oesophageal reflux at the time of endoscopy. PMID:7672679

  15. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal

  16. Assessment of local carotid stiffness in seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Şirin Özcan, Ayşe Nur; Erten, Şükran; Alsancak, Yakup; Durmaz, Tahir

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Arterial stiffness (AS) is an independent predictor of CV events. This study aimed to analyse local carotid AS parameters in seronegative and seropositive RA patients. Of 347 consecutive RA patients, we selected specifically those who were free of established CV diseases and risk factors. As a result, 140 patients (126 women, 52.2 ± 10 years) and 140 healthy controls (122 women, 52.7 ± 8.0 years) were enrolled into this study. The common carotid AS was evaluated using radio frequency echo-tracking system to determine the local carotid pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Based on rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positivity, RA patients were categorized into seronegative and seropositive subgroups. Carotid PWV was determined to be significantly higher in all patients and subgroups than controls (p < .001 for all). Although cIMT was similar between the patients, controls and seropositive subgroup, seronegative patients had significantly higher cIMT compared to controls (p = .035) and seropositive group (p = .010). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between cPWV and age (r: 0.603, p < .001), ESR (r: 0.297, p = .004), ACPA (r: 0.346, p = .001) and cIMT (r: 0.290, p = .005) in seropositive patients. RA per se is sufficient to cause arteriosclerosis in the absence of classical CV risk factors. However, arterial hypertrophy is only increased in seronegative patients but not in seropositive group.

  17. Regional and temporal variations of Leptospira seropositivity in dogs in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Levine, M; Guptill-Yoran, C; Johnson, A J; von Kamecke, P; Moore, G E

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported a seasonal increased risk for leptospirosis, but there is no consistent seasonality reported across regions in the United States. To evaluate and compare seasonal patterns in seropositivity for leptospirosis in dogs for 4 US regions (northeast [NE], midwest [MW], south-central [SC], and California-southern west coast [CS]). Forty four thousand nine hundred and sixteen canine serum samples submitted to a commercial laboratory for microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) from 2000 through 2010. In this retrospective study, positive cases were defined as MAT titers ≥1 : 3,200 for at least one of 7 tested serovars. Four geographic regions were defined, and MAT results were included in regional analyses based on hospital zipcode. A seasonal-trend decomposition method for times series was utilized for the analysis. Monthly variation in the seropositive rate was evaluated using a seasonal cycle subseries plot and logistic regression. Two thousand and twelve of 44,916 (4.48%) samples were seropositive. Compared to seropositive rates for February, significantly higher monthly rates occurred during the 2nd half of the year in the MW (OR 3.92-6.35) and NE (OR 2.03-4.80) regions, and only in January (OR 2.34) and December (OR 1.74) in the SC region. Monthly seropositive rates indicative of seasonality were observed earlier in the calendar year for both CS and SC regions. Seasonal patterns for seropositivity to leptospires differed by geographic region. Although risk of infection in dogs can occur year round, knowledge of seasonal trends can assist veterinarians in formulating differential diagnoses and evaluation of exposure risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Association of HPV infection and Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity in cases of cervical neoplasia in Midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Barros, Narriman Kennia; Costa, Maria Cecília; Alves, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo; Villa, Luísa Lina; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Dos Santos Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena

    2012-07-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the main etiological agent for cervical neoplasia. However, the presence of a single type HPV infection alone is unlikely to be sufficient to cause cervical cancer. There is epidemiologic evidence suggesting that HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis play a central role in the etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent cervical cancer. To evaluate the HPV prevalence and the seropositivity for C. trachomatis in women referred to the colposcopy clinic due to an abnormal cervical smear and to examine the effect of this association on the severity of cervical neoplasia. Following enrollment, 131 patients underwent colposcopy and biopsies when necessary. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping was performed by reverse line-blot hybridization assay. C. trachomatis seropositivity was tested by ELISA for the detection of IgG antibodies. The prevalence of HPV infection was 86.3%. Seropositivity for C. trachomatis was 26%. Thirty-one women (27.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis antibodies and HPV-DNA. The most prevalent HPV type in C. trachomatis-seropositive women were HPV 16 (51.6%) and this HPV type was present mainly in neoplasia cases. Positivity for HPV, particularly HPV types 16 and 18, and C. trachomatis seropositivity was significantly associated with a diagnosis of high grade neoplasia. Borderline significance was observed after adjustment for HPV. C. trachomatis seropositivity is associated with high grade neoplasia in women infected with HPV, mainly when the types 16 and 18 were involved. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Brucella Seropositivity in Sheep and Goats in Duhok Province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali. G. Alhamada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 432 small ruminants (335 sheep and 97 goats from 72 farms in Duhok Province, northern Iraq, were collected to investigate risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity. Serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA. Using parallel interpretation, RBT and iELISA results showed that 31.7% (95% confidence interval (CI: 26.1, 36.3 of sheep and 34.0% (95% CI: 24.7, 44.3 of goats had antibodies against Brucella in the study area. A random-effects multivariable logistic regression model indicated that a higher chance of being seropositive (odds ratio (OR = 1.7; 95% 1.4; 2.2 was associated with an increase in the age of animals. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in flocks where sheep and goats grazed together was 2.0 times higher (95% CI: 1.08; 3.9 compared to flocks where sheep and goats grazed separately. The odds of Brucella seropositivity in small ruminants was 2.2 higher (95% CI: 1.2; 4.3 for animals originating from farms with a history of goat abortion in the preceding 12 months. In contrast, for every 1000 Iraqi Dinars (~0.85 US Dollar spent by the farmers on control of Brucella in their flocks, the odds of Brucella seropositivity decreased significantly (OR = 0.9, p-value = 0.021. The final model also indicated significant differences in Brucella seropositivity between the different districts of Duhok Province. This study provides a contribution to the epidemiology of brucellosis in small ruminants in northern Iraq.

  20. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmn NikNadia

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71, which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001, and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001 and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001 were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  1. Molecular and Serological Intraocular Fluid Analysis of Coxiella burnetii-seropositive Patients with Concurrent Idiopathic Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, L E; Oosterheert, J J; Kampschreur, L M; Ossewaarde-van Norel, J; Dekkers, J; Rothova, A; de Groot-Mijnes, J D F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between Q fever and uveitis. We determined whether Coxiella burnetii causes intraocular infection in C. burnetii-seropositive patients with idiopathic uveitis. From a retrospective observational case series, paired aqueous humor and serum samples from 10 C. burnetii-seropositive patients with idiopathic uveitis were examined for intraocular antibody production by using the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although intraocular IgG against C. burnetii was detected, no intraocular antibody production was observed (low Goldmann Wittmer coefficients). All PCR results were negative. Uveitis due to an intraocular infection with C. burnetii is unlikely.

  2. Extremely high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Mahachai, Varocha; Shiota, Seiji; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Tung, Nguyen Lam; Fujioka, Toshio; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-05-14

    To revealed the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the Bhutanese population. We recruited a total of 372 volunteers (214 females and 158 males; mean age of 39.6 ± 14.9 years) from three Bhutanese cities (Thimphu, Punaka, and Wangdue). The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on five different tests: the rapid urease test (CLO test), culture, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and serum anti H. pylori-antibody. The serological test showed a significantly higher positive rate compared with the CLO test, culture, histology and IHC (P Bhutan was 73.4%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection significantly decreased with age (P Bhutan may be attributed to the high prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection: New pathogenetic and clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects more than half of the world’s human population, but only 1% to 3% of infected people consequently develop gastric adenocarcinomas. The clinical outcome of the infection is determined by host genetic predisposition, bacterial virulence factors, and environmental factors. The association between H. pylori infection and chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cell carcinoma, and B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been well established. With the exception of unexplained iron deficiency anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, H. pylori infection has no proven role in extraintestinal diseases. On the other hand, there is data showing that H. pylori infection could be beneficial for some human diseases. The unpredictability of the long-term consequences of H. pylori infection and the economic challenge in eradicating it is why identification of high-risk individuals is crucial. PMID:24914360

  4. Extraintestinal manifestations of Helicobacter pylori: A concise review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frank; Rayner-Hartley, Erin; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been clearly linked to peptic ulcer disease and some gastrointestinal malignancies. Increasing evidence demonstrates possible associations to disease states in other organ systems, known as the extraintestinal manifestations of H. pylori. Different conditions associated with H. pylori infection include those from hematologic, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, neurologic, and dermatologic systems. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of the evidence that supports or refutes the associations of H. pylori and its proposed extraintestinal manifestations. Based on data from the literature, PUD, mucosal associated lymphoid tumors lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma has well-established links. Current evidence most supports extraintestinal manifestations with H. pylori in immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, urticaria, Parkinson’s, migraines and rosacea; however, there is still plausible link with other diseases that requires further research. PMID:25232230

  5. Why do we still have Helicobacter Pylori in our Stomachs

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin; Ierardi, Enzo; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2015-01-01

    The existence of any infectious agent in a highly acidic human stomach is contentious, but the chance finding of Helicobacter pylori is by no means an accident. Once H. pylori colonises the gastric mucosa, it can persist for a lifetime, and it is intriguing why our immune system is able to tolerate its existence. Some conditions favour the persistence of H. pylori in the stomach, but other conditions oppose the colonisation of this bacterium. Populations with high and extremely low prevalence...

  6. Eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori ameliorates halitosis and tongue coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, Svetislav; Bojic, Bozidar; Popovic, Branka; Milasin, Jelena

    2015-03-01

    The influence of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection on the development of oral pathoses remains unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of gastric H. pylori infection on occurrence of halitosis and coated tongue. Ninety-eight patients with dyspepsia were included in the study and their salivary samples and gastric biopsies were analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by Nested-PCR. Halitosis and coated tongue were assessed at the initial examination and 3 months after systemic eradication therapy against H. pylori. Gastric biopsies of 66 patients were positive for H. pylori. Only one saliva sample was H. pylori positive. At initial examination, halitosis was observed in 20 patients (30.3%) out of 66 who had gastric H. pylori infection and in only 3 patients (9.4%) out of 32 without H. pylori infection (p = 0.0236). Coated tongue was diagnosed in 18 (27.2%) patients with the infection compared to only 2 (6.25%) patients negative for gastric H. pylori (p = 0.0164). Patients with gastric infection were treated with the triple eradication therapy (Amoxicillin, Clarythromycin, Pantoprazol) and their gastric biopsies and oral status were examined 3 months later. Halitosis was significantly more prevalent in the group of patients with persistent H. pylori infection (42.1%) compared to only 6.4% of patients in the group where infection was successfully eradicated (p = 0.0012). Coated tongue was diagnosed in 47.4% of patients where H. pylori was still present after eradication therapy and in only 6.4% where eradication succeeded (p = 0.0003). Our findings suggest that eradication of gastric H. pylori significantly alleviates halitosis and coated tongue, the two oral conditions that may be considered as extragastric manifestations of this common chronic bacterial infection.

  7. Lymphoid follicles in children with Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, pgastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835

  8. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Ontario: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Naja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori has been classified by the World Health Organization as a type I carcinogen. Nearly 50% of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with H pylori. Prevalence patterns of the infection are different between developing and developed countries. The present study had two objectives – to estimate the prevalence of H pylori infection in Ontario, and to evaluate the relationship between the infection and various demographic characteristics and selected lifestyle factors.

  9. Novel Insights into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Schumann, E. M. Schneider, and K. Triantafilou. 2005. Lipopolysaccharides from Helicobacter pylori can act as antagonists for Toll -like receptor 4. Cell...lymphocyte receptor for the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin. Cell Host Microbe 3:20-9. 142. Sharma, C. M., S. Hoffmann, F. Darfeuille, J...into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori Name of Candidate: Jeremy Gilbreath Doctor of Philosophy Degree January 10, 2013 DISSERTATION AND

  10. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutatio...

  11. "Targeted disruption of the epithelial-barrier by Helicobacter pylori"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Lydia E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric epithelium and induces chronic gastritis, which can lead to gastric cancer. Through cell-cell contacts the gastric epithelium forms a barrier to protect underlying tissue from pathogenic bacteria; however, H. pylori have evolved numerous strategies to perturb the integrity of the gastric barrier. In this review, we summarize recent research into the mechanisms through which H. pylori disrupts intercellular junctions and disrupts the gastric epithelial barrier.

  12. Helicobacter pylori Associated Lymphocytic Gastritis in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Jeong; Eom, Dae Woon; Park, Kieyoung

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis (LG) is a rare subtype of chronic gastritis. It is defined as dense proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) more than 25 lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells. The known major causes of LG are celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori associated LG (HpLG) has more enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic tendencies than chronic H. pylori gastritis. A 12-year-old girl with postprandial epigastric pain was diagnosed HpLG on endoscopic biopsy. After the...

  13. Toxigenic Helicobacter pylori infection precedes gastric hypochlorhydria in cancer relatives, and H. pylori virulence evolves in these families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Richard H; Thomas, Rachael J; Aviles-Jimenez, Francisco; Letley, Darren P; Limb, Marie C; El-Omar, Emad M; Atherton, John C

    2008-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection by virulent strains is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. We aimed to determine whether infection with virulent H. pylori preceded precancerous gastric hypochlorhydria and atrophy in gastric cancer relatives and quantify the extent of virulence factor evolution. H. pylori strains from 51 Scottish gastric cancer relatives were characterized by genetic fingerprinting and typing the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA), the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA), and housekeeping genes. We phenotyped strains by coculture with gastric epithelial cells and assessing vacuolation (microscopy), CagA tyrosine phosphorylation (immunoblot), and interleukin-8 secretion (ELISA). Toxigenic (vacA type s1/m1) H. pylori was associated with precancerous gastric hypochlorhydria (Phypochlorhydria, suggesting that virulent H. pylori increases cancer risk by causing this condition. Microevolution of virulence genes is common within families of gastric cancer patients and changes H. pylori virulence.

  14. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hashemi, Seyyed Hamid; Nadi, Ebrahim; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Seif-Rabiei, Mohammad-Ali; Roustaei, Uldoz

    2011-01-01

    There is some evidence indicating the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of extragastrointestinal diseases including skin, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, as well as some respiratory diseases...

  15. Halitosis and helicobacter pylori infection: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wenhuan; Li, Juan; Xu, Liming; Zhu, Jianhong; Hu, Kewei; Sui, Zhenyu; Wang, Jianzong; Xu, Lingling; Wang, Shaofeng; Yin, Guojian

    2016-09-01

    Halitosis is used to describe any disagreeable odor of expired air regardless of its origin. Numerous trials published have investigated the relation between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and halitosis, and even some regimes of H pylori eradication have been prescribed to those patients with halitosis in the clinic. We conducted a meta-analysis to define the correlation between H pylori infection and halitosis. To evaluate whether there is a real correlation between H pylori infection and halitosis, and whether H pylori eradication therapy will help relieve halitosis. We searched several electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Wanfangdata) up to December 2015. Studies published in English and Chinese were considered in this review. After a final set of studies was identified, the list of references reported in the included reports was reviewed to identify additional studies. Screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction and quality assessment was undertaken independently and in duplicate. All analyses were done using Review Manager 5.2 software. A total of 115 articles were identified, 21 of which met the inclusion criteria and presented data that could be used in the analysis. The results showed that the OR of H pylori infection in the stomach between halitosis-positive patients and halitosis-negative patients was 4.03 (95% CI: 1.41-11.50; P = 0.009). The OR of halitosis between H pylori-positive patients and H pylori-negative patients was 2.85 (95% CI: 1.40-5.83; P = 0.004); The RR of halitosis after successful H pylori eradication in those H pylori-infected halitosis-positive patients was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.08-0.39; P halitosis before successful H pylori eradication therapy was 4.78 (95% CI: 1.45-15.80; P = 0.01), compared with after successful H pylori eradication therapy. There is clear evidence that H pylori infection correlates with halitosis. H pylori infection might be important in the

  16. Chronic Gastritis and its Association with H. Pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, J; Khan, A H; Uddin, M J; Rahman, M H; Saha, M; Safwath, S A; Alam, M J; Mamun, M A

    2015-10-01

    This cross sectional study was designed to see association of chronic gastritis including its type with H. pylori infection. Consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic examination having histopathological evidence of chronic gastritis were enrolled in the study and was done in Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College from July 2011 to June 2012. Biopsies were taken from antrum, body and fundus in all patients. Histopathological examinations were done using H-E stain and for detection of H. pylori, rapid urease test, anti-H.pylori antibody test and histopathological test with modified Giemsa stain were done. Patients having results positive in at least two methods were considered infected by H. pylori. Total 80 dyspeptic patients having chronic gastritis were evaluated. Out of them 67(83.8%) had H. pylori infection and 13(16.2%) were H. pylori negative. Among all patients 57(71.2%) had pangastritis and 23(28.8%) had antral gastritis with female and male predominance respectively. H. pylori infection was present in 49(86.0%) cases of pangastritis and 18(78.3%) cases of antral gastritis. H. pylori infection was a little higher among males (34, 50.7%) females (33, 49.3%). H. pylori infection is the predominant cause of chronic gastritis and pangastritis is the major type.

  17. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Hyperplastic Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Bela; Pai, Rish K

    2016-12-01

    Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are routinely encountered during upper endoscopy and often arise in the setting of abnormal surrounding mucosa, particularly Helicobacter pylori, autoimmune gastritis, and reactive gastropathy. Not infrequently gastroenterologists fail to biopsy the surrounding mucosa, thus determining the underlying etiology of the gastric hyperplastic polyp can be difficult. Recently, the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society published guidelines on the use of special stains. The society guidelines indicate that H pylori are not usually present in hyperplastic polyps and special stains in this setting may have limited utility. We analyzed the histologic features of 32 gastric hyperplastic polyps in which the nonpolypoid mucosa demonstrated H pylori gastritis. A consecutive series of 50 hyperplastic polyps in which no surrounding mucosa was sampled was also analyzed. When H pylori are identified in biopsies of the nonpolypoid mucosa, it is also commonly present within the polyp tissue (22/32, 69%). The majority of H pylori organisms were identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin stain (16/22, 72%). In contrast, H pylori were only seen in 2/50 consecutive hyperplastic polyps in which the surrounding mucosa was not sampled. Compared with the hyperplastic polyps that lack the organisms, H pylori associated hyperplastic polyps more commonly had dense lymphoplasmacytic inflammation (P = .0001) and neutrophils within gastric epithelium (P = .036). Polyp location, number, size, and presence of intestinal metaplasia was not associated with H pylori These results provide empirical data to guide evaluation of hyperplastic polyps for H pylori. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Nobeli auhinna tõi Helicobacter pylori / Juhan Kaldre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldre, Juhan

    2005-01-01

    Nobeli meditsiiniauhind määrati sel aastal Austraalia teadlastele Robin Warrenile ja Barry Marshallile, kes avastasid, et gastriit ning peptiline haavand tekib Helicobacter pylori infektsiooni tulemusena

  19. Pathogenesis of helicobacter pylori infection: Bacterium and host relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić-Milutinović Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of a half of the mankind. Duodenal ulcer is found in 15-25%, t gastric ulcer in 13%, while gastric adenocarcinoma develops in 1% of all infected individuals. Pathogenesis of H. pylori infection is related to the virulence factors of the bacterium, environmental (dietary habits, hygiene, stress and host factors (age, sex, blood type. Colonization of the gastric mucosa is related to the motility of the bacterium, presence of lipopolysacharide (LPS and various bacterial enzymes. Gastric mucosal injury is the result of H. pylori LPS, vacuolization cytotoxin (vacA, cytotoxin associated protein (cagA, heat shock proteins and factors responsible for neutrophil chemotaxis and activity. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa and zones of ectopic gastric epithelium. H. pylori infection is transmitted via oral-oral, fecal-oral and iatrogenic way (during endoscopy. Higher prevalence of the infection is associated with lower socioeconomic level, lack of drinking water, and living in a community. Acute H. pylori gastritis is superficial pangastritis progressing into the chronic phase after 7-10 days. Gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia can develop during the course of H. pylori infection. Clearly defined factors that influence the outcome of H. pylori infection include bacterial strain, distribution of gastritis, acid secretion and gastric mucosal atrophy.

  20. Use of chopsticks for eating and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, W K; Sung, J J; Ling, T K; Siu, K L; Cheng, A F

    1999-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggests that ethnic groups using chopsticks for eating have a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection. This study investigated the carriage of H. pylori in chopsticks after eating. Used chopsticks and saliva were collected from asymptomatic individuals whose H. pylori status was determined by [13C]urea breath test and serology. Both the saliva specimens and chopsticks were cultured and processed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of H. pylori. Furthermore, chopsticks used by hospital staff in the cafeteria were pooled for the detection of H. pylori by bacteriologic culture and PCR. Sixty-nine volunteers were recruited in the first study and 45 (65%) were diagnosed to have H. pylori infection. While all cultures were negative, H. pylori was detected by PCR in the saliva from 15 (33%) infected subjects and in the chopsticks from one (2%). Among the 12 sets of pooled chopstick-washing studied, H. pylori was detected by PCR in two sets. This study showed that H. pylori was rarely detected in chopsticks after eating and hence, the risk of contracting this infection via the use of chopsticks is low.

  1. Distinctiveness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypes from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Seropositive and -Seronegative Patients in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Niyaz; Caviedes, Luz; Alam, Mahfooz; Rao, K. Rajender; Sangal, Vartul; Sheen, Patricia; Gilman, Robert H.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive (n = 80) and -seronegative (n = 25) patients from Lima, Peru, revealed two distinct genotypes correlating with the host immune status. While the level of intrastrain diversity of DNA fingerprints of HIV-seropositive isolates was less pronounced, these isolates showed many clonal groupings. PMID:12682166

  2. High seropositivity of IgG and IgM antibodies against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bodies to their developing foetus, if pregnant. This may be due to the fact that IgG antibody is unique among the major immunoglobulin classes for its active transfer across maternal placenta25,31. Transmission of CMV is sexual24. Among the 59. (32.8%) HIV-1 seropositive individuals with single sex- ual partners, 5(8.5%) ...

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasites seen in HIV sero-positive subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age-group < 10 years (41.7%) and rig Engineers (20%) were the greatest risk bearers. The effect of antiretroviral drugs, compromised immunity, standard of living, awareness are discussed in the paper. Keywords: HIV sero-positive, intestinal parasites, Niger Delta. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol. 29 (2) 2008: pp. 115- ...

  4. cd4 cells profile of haart naive hiv seropositive clients in kogi state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    2014-07-15

    Jul 15, 2014 ... reproductive life, characterized by risky behavior such as unprotected sex, multiple sexual partners, alcoholism, smoking, intravenous drug addiction and body tattoo practices which predisposes to HIV infection. The finding of this survey on the age group distribution of HIV sero-positive HAART naive.

  5. Thoughts of Death and Suicidal Ideation in Nonpsychiatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin; Parsons, Thomas D.; van der Horst, Charles; Hall, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the prevalence of death thoughts and suicidality in HIV infection. Subjects (n=246) were examined for psychiatric morbidity and suicidality. Compared to high risk HIV seronegatives, HIV seropositives (HIV+) had significantly increased frequency and severity of both suicidal ideation and death thoughts. Two-thirds of…

  6. The Prevalence of Malaria Antigen In The Serum of HIV Seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    seropositive patients with malaria antigen. Methodology: ... distribution and clinical presentations . Malaria is .... The red blood cells are lysed by the diluents, releasing the malaria parasite antigens, which react with the antibody that was embedded on the well. A positive result gives two colored lines (for test and control);.

  7. CMV seropositivity determines epoetin dose and hemoglobin levels in patients with CKD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); W. Weimar (Willem); N.H.R. Litjens (Nicolle)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive patients with ESRD may have more CD4+T cells lacking the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 (CD4+CD28null) than CMV-seronegative patients. Increased numbers of CD28null T cells associates with epoetin nonresponsiveness in patients with ESRD, but whether

  8. Increased Inflammatory Response in Cytomegalovirus Seropositive Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Gabriel; Ingelsson, Martin; Korsgren, Olle; Lannfelt, Lars; Sehlin, Dag; Lidehall, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Britt-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been associated with increased local inflammation in the affected brain regions, and in some studies also with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is known to promote a more effector-oriented phenotype in the T-cell compartment, increasing with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AD patients and non-demented (ND) controls. Using a multiplex Luminex xMAP assay targeting GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10 and TNF-α, cytokine profiles from PBMCs were analysed after stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 beads, CMV pp65 peptide mix or amyloid β (Aβ) protofibrils, respectively. CMV seropositive AD subjects presented with higher IFN-γ levels after anti-CD3/CD28 and CMV pp65 but not after Aβ stimulation, compared to CMV seropositive ND controls. When analysing IFN-γ response to anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation on a subgroup level, CMV seropositive AD subjects presented with higher levels compared to both CMV seronegative AD and CMV seropositive ND subjects. Taken together, our data from patients with clinically manifest AD suggest a possible role of CMV as an inflammatory promoter in AD immunology. Further studies of AD patients at earlier stages of disease, could provide better insight into the pathophysiology. PMID:24804776

  9. trend of hiv sero-positivity among blood donors over the six years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The data were cleaned edited and entered in to computer and analysis was done using SPSS version 7.5. Results: A total of 3394 subjects donated blood over the last six years, 3020 were male and 360 were female. The prevalence of seropositivity tended to decrease from 1995 some how until 1999 and started to rise in ...

  10. Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity in adults with acute ischemic stroke: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Causative role of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS remains unresolved till date. Aim: To investigate the role of C. pneumoniae antibodies in AIS. Materials and Methods: Patients with AIS and sex- and environment-matched controls were enrolled. Antibodies to C. pneumoniae (IgA, IgG and IgM were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: A total of 51 patients and 48 controls were enrolled. The IgA seropositivity was significantly associated with AIS (unadjusted odds ratio 3.1; 95% CI 1.38, 6.96; P = 0.005, whereas IgG (unadjusted OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.18, 1.09; P = 0.07 and IgM (unadjusted OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.36, 3.3; P = 0.88 were not. There was no difference in IgA or IgG positivity in different stroke subtypes. On multivariate analysis after adjusting for sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol, the IgA seropositivity yielded an adjusted OR for stroke (4.72; 95% CI 1.61, 13.83; P = 0.005, while IgG seropositivity did not (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.08, 0.83; P = 0.23. Conclusions: An increased risk of AIS was demonstrated in patients seropositive for C. pneumoniae for IgA antibodies.

  11. Prevention for HIV-Seropositive Persons: Successive Approximation Toward a New Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Swendeman, Dallas

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a three-module intervention based on social action theory that focuses on health promotion and social identity formation for seropositive youth. The modules are designed to reduce transmission of HIV by reducing sexual and substance abuse acts, increasing healthy acts and adherence to care, and maintaining positive behavioral…

  12. Suicidal ideation in seropositive patients seen at a South African HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Suicidal behaviour and HIV/AIDS are significant public health concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate suicidal ideation in patients who were referred to a voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) clinic and who were found to be seropositive. This in order to improve suicide prevention and intervention ...

  13. Suicidal ideation in seropositive patients seen at a South African HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicidal ideation in seropositive patients seen at a South African HIV voluntary counselling and testing clinic. RD Govender1, L Schlebusch2. 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa. 2Department of Behavioural Medicine, University of ...

  14. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Hayakawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein.

  15. Predictive factors of cytomegalovirus seropositivity among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Dieynaba S; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Krivine, Anne; Andrieu, Thibaut; Rozenberg, Flore; Picone, Olivier; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France. Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity. Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1%) were primiparous, and 552 (67.1%) had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): [53.6%-60.4%]) were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%-47.9%]) in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%-88.3%]). Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i) geographic origin (ppregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendy, A; Vieira, E R; Albatineh, A N; Gasana, J

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects one-third of the world population, but its association with cognitive functions in school-aged children is unclear. We examined the relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and neuropsychological tests scores (including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory) in 1755 school-aged children 12-16 years old who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 7·7% and seropositivity to the parasite was associated with lower reading skills (regression coefficient [β] = -5·86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11·11, -0·61, P = 0·029) and memory capacities (β = -0·86, 95% CI: -1·58, -0·15, P = 0·017). The interaction between T. gondii seropositivity and vitamin E significantly correlated with memory scores. In subgroup analysis, Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations (β = -1·61, 95% CI: -2·44, -0·77, P < 0·001) than in those with higher values (β = -0·12, 95% CI: -1·23, 0·99, P = 0·83). In conclusion, Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children. Serum vitamin E seems to modify the relationship between the parasitic infection and memory deficiency.

  17. Serotonin modulates immune function in T cells from HIV-seropositive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Afzelius, P; Andresen, L

    1997-01-01

    We have shown earlier increased intracellular levels of cAMP in peripheral lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and that a chemically induced decrease in this level increases cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Others have shown that serotonin indirectly decreases intracellular cAMP levels...

  18. Toxigenic Helicobacter pylori Infection Precedes Gastric Hypochlorhydria in Cancer Relatives, and H. pylori Virulence Evolves in These Families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard H. Argent; Rachael J. Thomas; Francisco Aviles-Jimenez; Darren P. Letley; Marie C. Limb; Emad M. El-Omar; John C. Atherton

    2008-01-01

    .... We aimed to determine whether infection with virulent H. pylori preceeded precancerous gastric hypochlorhydria and atrophy in gastric cancer relatives and quantify the extent of virulence factor evolution...

  19. Seropositivity among Korean Young Adults Approximately 2 Years after a Single-Dose Vaccination against Hepatitis A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeong-Jun; Lim, Jiseun; Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    We previously observed 80.7% seropositivity and a significant interaction between gender and hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine type (Havrix vs. Epaxal) on the seropositivity approximately 11 months after single-dose HAV vaccinations in Korean young adults. Our objective was to evaluate seropositivity approximately 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination and the influence of demographic characteristics on seropositivity, including the interaction between gender and vaccine type. Seronegative medical school students were randomly vaccinated with Havrix or Epaxal. Based on a total serum anti-HAV antibody titer cutoff of 20 IU/mL, 338 participants (76.0%) of the 445 vaccinees were seropositive 20-25 months after a single-dose HAV vaccination. The seropositive rates were similar after vaccination with Havrix (77.0%) and Epaxal (74.9%). Univariate analysis indicated that female (p = 0.052) and less obese (p < 0.001) participants had a higher seropositive rate, whereas other characteristics such as age, alcohol use, smoking history, vaccine type, and follow-up duration were not associated with seropositivity. Multivariate analysis indicated that women (p = 0.026) and participants with moderate alcohol use (p < 0.001) showed significantly higher seropositive rates than men and participants with no or low alcohol use, respectively. The seropositive rates after vaccination with Havrix and Epaxal were 70.9% and 67.5% in men and 87.7% and 91.3% in women, respectively (p for interaction = 0.304). Compared with the seropositive rate approximately 11 months after vaccination, the seropositive rate decreased substantially only in men in the Havrix group (11.0% points), and consequently, the interaction between gender and vaccine type disappeared while seropositivity remained high (87.7% and 91.3% in Havrix and Epaxal groups, respectively) among women approximately 2 years after vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess whether the seropositive rate would be maintained in

  20. Eco-epidemiological analysis of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia: A multilevel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero V, Juan C; Paternina T, Luis E; Uribe Y, Alexander; Muskus, Carlos; Hidalgo, Marylin; Gil, Juliana; Cienfuegos G, Astrid V; Osorio Q, Lisardo; Rojas A, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Rickettsiosis is a re-emergent infectious disease without epidemiological surveillance in Colombia. This disease is generally undiagnosed and several deadly outbreaks have been reported in the country in the last decade. The aim of this study is to analyze the eco-epidemiological aspects of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia where outbreaks of the disease were previously reported. A cross-sectional study, which included 597 people living in 246 households from nine hamlets in two municipalities of Colombia, was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016. The survey was conducted to collect sociodemographic and household characteristics (exposure) data. Blood samples were collected to determine the rickettsial seropositivity in humans, horses and dogs (IFA, cut-off = 1/128). In addition, infections by rickettsiae were detected in ticks from humans and animals by real-time PCR targeting gltA and ompA genes. Data was analyzed by weighted multilevel clog-log regression model using three levels (person, household and hamlets) and rickettsial seropositivity in humans was the main outcome. Overall prevalence of rickettsial seropositivity in humans was 25.62% (95%CI 22.11-29.12). Age in years (PR = 1.01 95%CI 1.01-1.02) and male sex (PR = 1.65 95%CI 1.43-1.90) were risk markers for rickettsial seropositivity. Working outdoors (PR = 1.20 95%CI 1.02-1.41), deforestation and forest fragmentation for agriculture use (PR = 1.75 95%CI 1.51-2.02), opossum in peridomiciliary area (PR = 1.56 95%CI 1.37-1.79) and a high proportion of seropositive domestic animals in the home (PR20-40% vs 40% vs <20% = 3.14 95%CI 2.43-4.04) were associated with rickettsial seropositivity in humans. This study showed the presence of Rickettsia antibodies in human populations and domestic animals. In addition, different species of rickettsiae were detected in ticks collected from humans and animals. Our results highlighted the role of domestic animals as sentinels of rickettsial

  1. Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Monica Simões; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Maranhão, Adriana Gonçalves; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Rocha, Myrna Santos; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello

    2017-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) have distinct etiological profiles in immune-deficient and immune-competent patients. This study compares detection rates, genotype distribution and viral loads of different enteric viral agents in HIV-1 seropositive (n = 200) and HIV-1 seronegative (n = 125) children hospitalized with DD in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Except for group A rotavirus (RVA), which were detected through enzyme immunoassay, the other enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], astrovirus [HAstV], adenovirus [HAdV] and bocavirus [HBoV]) were detected through PCR or RT-PCR. A quantitative PCR was performed for RVA, NoV, HAstV, HAdV and HBoV. Infections with NoV (19% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001), HBoV (14% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.042) and HAdV (30.5% vs. 14.4%; p<0.001) were significantly more frequent among HIV-1 seropositive children. RVA was significantly less frequent among HIV-1 seropositive patients (6.5% vs. 20%; p<0.001). Similarly, frequency of infection with HAstV was lower among HIV-1 seropositive children (5.5% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.018). Among HIV-1 seropositive children 33 (16.5%) had co-infections, including three enteric viruses, such as NoV, HBoV and HAdV (n = 2) and NoV, HAstV and HAdV (n = 2). The frequency of infection with more than one virus was 17 (13.6%) in the HIV-1 negative group, triple infection (NoV + HAstV + HBoV) being observed in only one patient. The median viral load of HAstV in feces was significantly higher among HIV-1 positive children compared to HIV-1 negative children. Concerning children infected with RVA, NoV, HBoV and HAdV, no statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of viral loads in feces, comparing HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children. Similar detection rates were observed for RVA, HAstV and HAdV, whilst NoV and HBoV were significantly more prevalent among children with CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3. Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along with

  2. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive and seronegative former blood donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease.To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction.The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo. ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF<0.50%.Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001. Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002 and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001. Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker, intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities. ECG was sensitive (92% for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99% for ruling out LV dysfunction.ECG abnormalities are more frequent in seropositive than in seronegative blood donors

  3. Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi Seropositive and Seronegative Former Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Sabino, Ester C.; Marcolino, Milena S.; Salemi, Vera M. C.; Ianni, Barbara M.; Fernandes, Fábio; Nastari, Luciano; Antunes, André; Menezes, Márcia; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Sachdev, Vandana; Carrick, Danielle M.; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Eduard L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. Objectives To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. Methods The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo). ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF)<0.50%. Results Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001). Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients −0.159,p<0.0003, and −0.142,p = 0.002) and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001). Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker), intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block) and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities). ECG was sensitive (92%) for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99%) for ruling out LV dysfunction. Conclusions ECG abnormalities are more frequent in

  4. Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Augusta Rodrigues Portes

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases (DD have distinct etiological profiles in immune-deficient and immune-competent patients. This study compares detection rates, genotype distribution and viral loads of different enteric viral agents in HIV-1 seropositive (n = 200 and HIV-1 seronegative (n = 125 children hospitalized with DD in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Except for group A rotavirus (RVA, which were detected through enzyme immunoassay, the other enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], astrovirus [HAstV], adenovirus [HAdV] and bocavirus [HBoV] were detected through PCR or RT-PCR. A quantitative PCR was performed for RVA, NoV, HAstV, HAdV and HBoV. Infections with NoV (19% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001, HBoV (14% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.042 and HAdV (30.5% vs. 14.4%; p<0.001 were significantly more frequent among HIV-1 seropositive children. RVA was significantly less frequent among HIV-1 seropositive patients (6.5% vs. 20%; p<0.001. Similarly, frequency of infection with HAstV was lower among HIV-1 seropositive children (5.5% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.018. Among HIV-1 seropositive children 33 (16.5% had co-infections, including three enteric viruses, such as NoV, HBoV and HAdV (n = 2 and NoV, HAstV and HAdV (n = 2. The frequency of infection with more than one virus was 17 (13.6% in the HIV-1 negative group, triple infection (NoV + HAstV + HBoV being observed in only one patient. The median viral load of HAstV in feces was significantly higher among HIV-1 positive children compared to HIV-1 negative children. Concerning children infected with RVA, NoV, HBoV and HAdV, no statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of viral loads in feces, comparing HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children. Similar detection rates were observed for RVA, HAstV and HAdV, whilst NoV and HBoV were significantly more prevalent among children with CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3. Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along

  5. Eco-epidemiological analysis of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia: A multilevel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Quintero V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsiosis is a re-emergent infectious disease without epidemiological surveillance in Colombia. This disease is generally undiagnosed and several deadly outbreaks have been reported in the country in the last decade. The aim of this study is to analyze the eco-epidemiological aspects of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia where outbreaks of the disease were previously reported. A cross-sectional study, which included 597 people living in 246 households from nine hamlets in two municipalities of Colombia, was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016. The survey was conducted to collect sociodemographic and household characteristics (exposure data. Blood samples were collected to determine the rickettsial seropositivity in humans, horses and dogs (IFA, cut-off = 1/128. In addition, infections by rickettsiae were detected in ticks from humans and animals by real-time PCR targeting gltA and ompA genes. Data was analyzed by weighted multilevel clog-log regression model using three levels (person, household and hamlets and rickettsial seropositivity in humans was the main outcome. Overall prevalence of rickettsial seropositivity in humans was 25.62% (95%CI 22.11-29.12. Age in years (PR = 1.01 95%CI 1.01-1.02 and male sex (PR = 1.65 95%CI 1.43-1.90 were risk markers for rickettsial seropositivity. Working outdoors (PR = 1.20 95%CI 1.02-1.41, deforestation and forest fragmentation for agriculture use (PR = 1.75 95%CI 1.51-2.02, opossum in peridomiciliary area (PR = 1.56 95%CI 1.37-1.79 and a high proportion of seropositive domestic animals in the home (PR20-40% vs 40% vs <20% = 3.14 95%CI 2.43-4.04 were associated with rickettsial seropositivity in humans. This study showed the presence of Rickettsia antibodies in human populations and domestic animals. In addition, different species of rickettsiae were detected in ticks collected from humans and animals. Our results highlighted the role of domestic animals as sentinels of

  6. Eco-epidemiological analysis of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia: A multilevel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternina T., Luis E.; Uribe Y., Alexander; Muskus, Carlos; Hidalgo., Marylin; Gil., Juliana; Cienfuegos G., Astrid V.; Osorio Q., Lisardo; Rojas A., Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Rickettsiosis is a re-emergent infectious disease without epidemiological surveillance in Colombia. This disease is generally undiagnosed and several deadly outbreaks have been reported in the country in the last decade. The aim of this study is to analyze the eco-epidemiological aspects of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia where outbreaks of the disease were previously reported. A cross-sectional study, which included 597 people living in 246 households from nine hamlets in two municipalities of Colombia, was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016. The survey was conducted to collect sociodemographic and household characteristics (exposure) data. Blood samples were collected to determine the rickettsial seropositivity in humans, horses and dogs (IFA, cut-off = 1/128). In addition, infections by rickettsiae were detected in ticks from humans and animals by real-time PCR targeting gltA and ompA genes. Data was analyzed by weighted multilevel clog-log regression model using three levels (person, household and hamlets) and rickettsial seropositivity in humans was the main outcome. Overall prevalence of rickettsial seropositivity in humans was 25.62% (95%CI 22.11–29.12). Age in years (PR = 1.01 95%CI 1.01–1.02) and male sex (PR = 1.65 95%CI 1.43–1.90) were risk markers for rickettsial seropositivity. Working outdoors (PR = 1.20 95%CI 1.02–1.41), deforestation and forest fragmentation for agriculture use (PR = 1.75 95%CI 1.51–2.02), opossum in peridomiciliary area (PR = 1.56 95%CI 1.37–1.79) and a high proportion of seropositive domestic animals in the home (PR20-40% vs 40% vs <20% = 3.14 95%CI 2.43–4.04) were associated with rickettsial seropositivity in humans. This study showed the presence of Rickettsia antibodies in human populations and domestic animals. In addition, different species of rickettsiae were detected in ticks collected from humans and animals. Our results highlighted the role of domestic animals as sentinels of

  7. Host pathogen interactions in Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Karwowska, Zuzanna; Gonciarz, Weronika; Allushi, Bujana; Stączek, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system. Despite the host immune response, H. pylori infection can be difficult to eradicate. H. pylori is categorized as a group I carcinogen since this bacterium is responsible for the highest rate of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection of cancer can be lifesaving. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer patients diagnosed in the early stages is nearly 90%. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages but always progresses over time and begins to cause symptoms when untreated. In 97% of stomach cancer cases, cancer cells metastasize to other organs. H. pylori infection is responsible for nearly 60% of the intestinal-type gastric cancer cases but also influences the development of diffuse gastric cancer. The host genetic susceptibility depends on polymorphisms of genes involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and the cytokine response of gastric epithelial and immune cells. H. pylori strains differ in their ability to induce a deleterious inflammatory response. H. pylori-driven cytokines accelerate the inflammatory response and promote malignancy. Chronic H. pylori infection induces genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells and affects the DNA damage repair systems. Therefore, H. pylori infection should always be considered a pro-cancerous factor. PMID:28321154

  8. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kandulski, Arne

    2016-09-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H. pylori in patients with specific risk factors. The H. pylori-negative and NSAID-negative "idiopathic PUD" have been increasingly observed and associated with slower healing tendency, higher risk of recurrence, and greater mortality. Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia has been further investigated and finally defined by the Kyoto consensus. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is advised as first option in this group of patients. Only in the case of symptom persistence or recurrence after eradication therapy, dyspeptic patients should be classified as functional dyspepsia (FD). There were few new data in 2015 on the role of H. pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and in particular Barrett's esophagus. A lower prevalence of gastric atrophy with less acid output in patients with erosive esophagitis confirmed previous findings. In patients with erosive esophagitis, no difference was observed in healing rates neither between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients nor between patients that underwent eradication therapy compared to patients without eradication. These findings are in line with the current consensus guidelines concluding that H. pylori eradication has no effects on symptoms and does not aggravate preexisting GERD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastritis: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E.; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. METHODS Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known. PMID:23147524

  10. Oral and gastric Helicobacter pylori: effects and associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Veiga

    Full Text Available This study consisted in the comparison of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori present in the stomach and in saliva of a sample of Portuguese adolescents and the assessment of the association between H. pylori infection with socio-demographic variables and prevalence of dental caries.A cross-sectional study was designed including a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors was applied. Gastric H. pylori infection was determined using the urease breath test (UBT. Saliva collection was obtained and DNA was extracted by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in order to detect the presence of oral H. pylori.The prevalence of gastric H. pylori detected by UBT was 35.9%. Within the adolescents with a gastric UBT positive, only 1.9% were positive for oral H. pylori. The presence of gastric H. pylori was found to be associated with age (>15years, Odds ratio (OR=1.64, 95%CI=1.08-2.52, residence area (urban, OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.03-2.29 and parents´ professional situation (unemployed, OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.02-1.23. Among those with detected dental caries during the intra-oral observation, 37.4% were positive for gastric H. pylori and 40.2% negative for the same bacterial strain (p=0.3.The oral cavity cannot be considered a reservoir for infection of H. pylori. Gastric H. pylori infection was found to be associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, residence area and socioeconomic status.

  11. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y; Kramer, Jennifer R; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P=0.06). We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known.

  12. Ten-year incidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy among asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi-seropositive former blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Ester C; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Salemi, Vera M C; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Antunes, Andre P; Menezes, Marcia M; Ianni, Barbara M; Nastari, Luciano; Fernandes, Fabio; Patavino, Giuseppina M; Sachdev, Vandana; Capuani, Ligia; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Carrick, Danielle M; Wright, David; Kavounis, Katherine; Goncalez, Thelma T; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L

    2013-03-12

    Very few studies have measured disease penetrance and prognostic factors of Chagas cardiomyopathy among asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi-infected persons. We performed a retrospective cohort study among initially healthy blood donors with an index T cruzi-seropositive donation and age-, sex-, and period-matched seronegatives in 1996 to 2002 in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo and Montes Claros. In 2008 to 2010, all subjects underwent medical history, physical examination, ECGs, and echocardiograms. ECG and echocardiogram results were classified by blinded core laboratories, and records with abnormal results were reviewed by a blinded panel of 3 cardiologists who adjudicated the outcome of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Associations with Chagas cardiomyopathy were tested with multivariate logistic regression. Mean follow-up time between index donation and outcome assessment was 10.5 years for the seropositives and 11.1 years for the seronegatives. Among 499 T cruzi seropositives, 120 (24%) had definite Chagas cardiomyopathy, and among 488 T cruzi seronegatives, 24 (5%) had cardiomyopathy, for an incidence difference of 1.85 per 100 person-years attributable to T cruzi infection. Of the 120 seropositives classified as having Chagas cardiomyopathy, only 31 (26%) presented with ejection fraction <50%, and only 11 (9%) were classified as New York Heart Association class II or higher. Chagas cardiomyopathy was associated (P<0.01) with male sex, a history of abnormal ECG, and the presence of an S3 heart sound. There is a substantial annual incidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy among initially asymptomatic T cruzi-seropositive blood donors, although disease was mild at diagnosis.

  13. Ten-Year Incidence of Chagas Cardiomyopathy Among Asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi–Seropositive Former Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Ester C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Salemi, Vera M.C.; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudio; Antunes, Andre P.; Menezes, Marcia M.; Ianni, Barbara M.; Nastari, Luciano; Fernandes, Fabio; Patavino, Giuseppina M.; Sachdev, Vandana; Capuani, Ligia; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, David; Kavounis, Katherine; Goncalez, Thelma T.; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Very few studies have measured disease penetrance and prognostic factors of Chagas cardiomyopathy among asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi–infected persons. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective cohort study among initially healthy blood donors with an index T cruzi–seropositive donation and age-, sex-, and period-matched seronegatives in 1996 to 2002 in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo and Montes Claros. In 2008 to 2010, all subjects underwent medical history, physical examination, ECGs, and echocardiograms. ECG and echocardiogram results were classified by blinded core laboratories, and records with abnormal results were reviewed by a blinded panel of 3 cardiologists who adjudicated the outcome of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Associations with Chagas cardiomyopathy were tested with multivariate logistic regression. Mean follow-up time between index donation and outcome assessment was 10.5 years for the seropositives and 11.1 years for the seronegatives. Among 499 T cruzi seropositives, 120 (24%) had definite Chagas cardiomyopathy, and among 488 T cruzi seronegatives, 24 (5%) had cardiomyopathy, for an incidence difference of 1.85 per 100 person-years attributable to T cruzi infection. Of the 120 seropositives classified as having Chagas cardiomyopathy, only 31 (26%) presented with ejection fraction <50%, and only 11 (9%) were classified as New York Heart Association class II or higher. Chagas cardiomyopathy was associated (P<0.01) with male sex, a history of abnormal ECG, and the presence of an S3 heart sound. Conclusions There is a substantial annual incidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy among initially asymptomatic T cruzi–seropositive blood donors, although disease was mild at diagnosis. PMID:23393012

  14. A European longitudinal study in Salmonella seronegative- and seropositive-classified finishing pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Fo Wong, D M A; Dahl, J; Wingstrand, A; van der Wolf, P J; von Altrock, A; Thorberg, B M

    2004-10-01

    Surveillance and control are important aspects of food safety assurance strategies at the pre-harvest level of pork production. Prior to implementation of a Salmonella surveillance and control programme, it is important to have knowledge on the dynamics and epidemiology of Salmonella infections in pig herds. For this purpose, 17 finishing pig herds initially classified as seropositive and 15 as seronegative, were followed for a 2-year period through serological and bacteriological sampling. The study included 10 herds from Denmark, 13 from The Netherlands, 4 from Germany and 5 from Sweden and was performed between October 1996 and May 1999. The Salmonella status of finishing pig herds was determined by an initial blood sampling of approximately 50 finishing pigs close to market weight per herd. The development of the Salmonella status of the selected herds was assessed at seven subsequent sampling rounds of 25 blood samples from finishing pigs, 25 blood samples from grower pigs and 10 pen faecal samples each, approximately 3 months apart. The odds for testing finishers seropositive, given that growers were found seropositive previously were 10 times higher than if growers were seronegative (OR 10.0, 95% CI 3.2-32.8). When Salmonella was isolated from pen faecal samples, the herd was more likely to be classified seropositive in the same sampling round, compared to no Salmonella being detected (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.1-14.6). The stability of an initially allocated Salmonella status was found to vary noticeably with time, apparently irrespective of a seropositive or seronegative classification at onset of the study. Given the measured dynamics in the occurrence of Salmonella in pig herds, regular testing is necessary to enable producers, advisors and authorities to react to sudden increases in the Salmonella prevalence in single herds or at a national level.

  15. Interferon-γ +874A/T polymorphism associated with Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association of polymorphisms in genes that code for interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10, which play important roles in Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection, with the occurrence of T. gondii co-infection in HIV patients. Methods: The IFN-γ +874A/T and IL-10 -1082A/G polymorphism statuses of 306 HIV seropositive samples were characterized using PCR. The polymorphism statuses were analyzed together with the clinical data for each patient. Results: Immunoglobulin M anti-T. gondii seropositivity was associated with high IL-10 levels [adjusted odds ratio (OR: 0.4, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.181–0.825; P = 0.014], but not with either the IL-10 -1082A/G or IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism. In addition, the IFN-γ +874A allele was associated with immunoglobulin G (IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.043–2.193; P = 0.029. In patients with CD4+ T cell levels ≥ 200 cells/µL, the IFN-γ +874 AA genotype was associated with IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity (adjusted OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.278–4.950; P = 0.008. Conclusions: The IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism is associated with IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity. This polymorphism might be useful to predict the susceptibility of HIV patients to toxoplasmosis.

  16. Factors associated with seropositivity for APGL-Iamong household contacts of leprosy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambier, Carlos Gustavo; Wambier, Sarah Perillo de Farias; Furini, Renata Bazan; Simão, João Carlos Lopes; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2016-02-01

    Leprosy is mainly transmitted among family members who share genetic and ambient factors. The clinical form of leprosy in the index case and kinship could be risk factors for leprosy transmission. High antibody levels in household contacts (HC) in the absence of neural or skin lesions may characterize latent infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between seropositivity for anti-phenolic glycolipid-I immunoglobulin M antibodies (APGL-I) in HC and the clinical classification of the index case and to analyze the association between APGL-I positivity with other factors such as age, kinship, and gender. We performed a survey among 320 HC of 120 leprosy patients who were evaluated and followed-up in a leprosy outpatient clinic of a university hospital. All HC underwent complete skin examination, peripheral nerve palpation, skin sensory tests, and serologic tests for the detection and quantification of APGL-I. The overall seropositivity rate was 20%, and was greatly affected by kinship. APGL-I seropositivity was higher in siblings (41%), followed by parents (28%), spouses (26%), other (19%), and offspring (14%). Independent risk factors for seropositivity were being siblings (OR 3.3) and being a HC of an index case with indeterminate leprosy (OR 5.3). APGL-I seropositivity was associated with index cases with a bacillary index of 4 (88%; pleprosy. Strict evaluation and follow-up of HC with positive results for APGL-I is recommended. Special attention should be paid during the screening of siblings of the index cases, HC of patients with a high bacillary index, and HC of patients with indeterminate leprosy.

  17. Immunological response and markers of cell damage in seropositive horses for Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Carmo, Guilherme M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Klauck, Vanderlei; Pazinato, Rafael; Moura, Anderson B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Stefani, Lenita M

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic disease affecting several species of mammals, but little is known about this disease in horses. This study aimed to investigate the levels of several immunological variables and markers of cell damage in the serum of seropositive horses for Toxoplasma gondii. Sera samples of adult horses from the Santa Catarina State, Brazil used on a previous study were divided into groups according to their antibody levels for T. gondii determined by immunofluorescence assay, i.e. 20 samples from seronegative horses (Group A - control), 20 samples from horses with titers of 1:64 (Group B), 20 samples of horses with titers of 1:256 (Group C), and five samples from horses with titers of 1:1024 (Group D). Positive animals (Groups B, C, and D) had higher levels of immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-4, and IL-6) and protein C-reactive protein, as well as lower levels of IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) when compared to seronegative horses (Group A). The nitric oxide levels were also elevated in seropositive horses. Therefore, we have found humoral and cellular immune responses in seropositive horses, and a correlation between high antibody levels and inflammatory mediators. Markers of cell injury by lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein oxidation (AOPP) were elevated in animals seropositives for T. gondii when compared to seronegatives. Therefore, seropositive horses to T. gondii can keep active immune responses against the parasite. As a consequence with chronicity of disease, they show cellular lesions that may lead to tissue damage with the appearance of clinical disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis with risk of colonic, pancreatic and gastric cancer: A ten-year follow-up of the ESTHER cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin-Zu; Schöttker, Ben; Castro, Felipe Andres; Chen, Hongda; Zhang, Yan; Holleczek, Bernd; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-03-29

    To assess the association of H. pylori and chronic atrophic gastritis (AG) with colonic, pancreatic and gastric cancer in a population-based prospective cohort. Serum antibodies against H. pylori in general and specific to cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), as well as serum pepsinogen I and II were analyzed in 9,506 men and women, aged 50-75 years in a cohort study from Saarland, Germany. Incident cases of colonic, pancreatic and gastric cancer were ascertained by record linkage with data from the Saarland Cancer Registry. During an average follow-up of 10.6 years, 108 colonic, 46 pancreatic and 27 gastric incident cancers were recorded. There was no association between H. pylori infection and colonic cancer (HR = 1.07; 95% CI 0.73-1.56) or pancreatic cancer (HR = 1.32; 0.73-2.39), regardless of either CagA seropositivity or AG status. In contrast, CagA+ infection was associated with a strongly increased risk of gastric cancer, especially non-cardia gastric cancer, and this association was particularly pronounced in the presence of AG. Compared to people without AG and without CagA+ infection, people with both risk factors had a significantly increased risk of non-cardia gastric cancer (HR = 32.4; 7.6-137.6). This large cohort study did not observe an association of H. pylori infection or AG with colonic or pancreatic cancer, but underlines that the vast majority of non-cardia gastric cancers arise from AG and infection with CagA+ H. pylori strains.

  19. Molecular alterations in early gastric carcinomas. No apparent correlation with Helicobacter pylori status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, P.; Craanen, M. E.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Dekker, W.; Kuipers, E. J.; Meuwissen, S. G.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the differences in molecular profile between H pylori-positive and H pylori-negative early gastric carcinomas, if any, are almost nonexistent. We therefore investigated whether molecular differences can be observed between H pylori-positive and H pylori-negative early gastric carcinomas.

  20. H pylori: Treatment for the patient only or the whole family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yavuz Selim; Can, Didem; Tunali, Vahit; Sahin, Orhan; Koc, Oguz; Bender, Omer

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of treatment of H pylori-infected individuals with the effects of treatment of individuals as well as all H pylori-infected family members. METHODS: H pylori-positive patients with similar demographic specifications were prospectively randomized with respect to treatment, with a triple regimen of either patients and all H pylori-positive family members living together (groupI) or patients only (group II). Nine months after treatment, all patients were assessed for H pylori positivity. RESULTS: There were 70 H pylori-positive patients in each group; patients in groupsIand II lived with 175 and 190 H pylori-positive relatives, respectively. Age, sex and H pylori positivity rate were similar in both groups of relatives. Nine months after 14 d standard triple therapy, H pylori positivity was 7.1% in groupIpatients and 38.6% in group II patients [P < 0.01, OR = 8.61 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.91-22.84]. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate bad environmental hygienic conditions and close intra-familial relationships are important in H pylori contamination. These findings indicate all family members of H pylori-positive individuals should be assessed for H pylori positivity, particularly in developing countries where H pylori prevalence is high; they also suggest patients, their spouses and all H pylori-positive family members of H pylori-positive individuals should be treated for H pylori infection. PMID:18300351

  1. A fluid model for Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigh, Shang-Yik; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Swimming microorganisms and self-propelled nanomotors are often found in confined environments. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori survives in the acidic environment of the human stomach and is able to penetrate gel-like mucus layers and cause infections by locally changing the rheological properties of the mucus from gel-like to solution-like. In this talk we propose an analytical model for the locomotion of Helicobacter pylori as a confined spherical squirmer which generates its own confinement. We solve analytically the flow field around the swimmer, and derive the swimming speed and energetics. The role of the boundary condition in the outer wall is discussed. An extension of our model is also proposed for other biological and chemical swimmers. Newton Trust.

  2. Rosacea and Helicobacter pylori: links and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Elizabeth; Korfitis, Chrysovalantis; Kemanetzi, Christina; Sotiriou, Elena; Apalla, Zoe; Vakirlis, Efstratios; Fotiadou, Christina; Lallas, Aimilios; Ioannides, Demetrios

    2017-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin disease characterized by facial erythema and telangiectasia. Despite the fact that many hypotheses have been proposed, its etiology remains unknown. In the present review, the possible link and clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of rosacea are being sought. A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed using the terms “rosacea”, “H.pylori”, “gastrointestinal disorders and H.pylori”, “microorganisms and rosacea”, “pathogenesis and treatment of rosacea”, and “risk factors of rosacea”, and selected publications were studied and referenced in text. Although a possible pathogenetic link between H. pylori and rosacea is advocated by many authors, evidence is still interpreted differently by others. We conclude that further studies are needed in order to fully elucidate the pathogenesis of rosacea. PMID:28848358

  3. Novel anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Sukhbir K

    2014-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a ubiquitous gastropathogen infecting more than half of the world population. It is associated with dyspepsia, gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers, mucus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric carcinoma. Current recommended therapy does not eradicate infection in all treated cases and at least 20% post-treatment patients continue to suffer. Salvage therapy helps some of these nonresponders, but resistance to available antibiotics is mounting. Hence, its treatment still remains a daunting task for the practicing physician. Novel medications with improved efficacy and tolerability and with less chances of resistance are required. The present review attempts to discuss the newer patents in this field, which demonstrate a promising future role in the management of H. pylori infection and its consequent problems.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection and pediatric asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Karimi; Koroush Fakhimi Derakhshan; Farid Imanzadeh; Mohamad Rezaei; Zahra Cavoshzadeh; Saeid Maham

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood infectious diseases are one of the most known environmental pathogenic causes of childhood asthma. The high prevalence of both Helicobacter pylori infection and asthma in our country prompted us to assess anyprobable association between them in childhood. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 196 children aged 6 to 12 years old comprising 98 asthmatic (case group) and 98 healthy (control group) individuals. Urea breath test was performed for all of the children and ...

  5. RESEARCH Helicobacter pylori eradication: A randomised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2006.102269]. 13. Laine L, Estrada R, Trujillo M, Fukanaga K, Neil G. Randomized comparison of differing periods of twice-a-day triple therapy for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1996;10(6):1029-33. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2036.1996.111282000.x]. 14.

  6. A meta-analysis of the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Venkatanarayanan, Nandini; De Deyn, Michelle Lee Zhi Qing; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Mo, Yin; Yeo, Wee-Song

    2018-02-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum remains a common, distressing, and significant yet poorly understood disorder during pregnancy. The association between maternal Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and hyperemesis gravidarum has been increasingly recognized and investigated. This study thus aimed to provide an updated review and meta-analysis of the topic. Using the search terms (H. pyloriOR Helicobacter ORHelicobacter pyloriOR infection) AND (pregnancy OR emesis OR hyperemesis gravidarum OR nausea OR vomiting), a preliminary search on the PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and WanFang database yielded 372 papers published in English between January 1st, 1960 and June 1st, 2017. A total of 38 cross-sectional and case-control studies, with a total of 10 289 patients were eligible for review. Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between H. pylori infection and hyperemesis gravidarum during pregnancy, with a pooled odds ratio of 1.348 (95% CI: 1.156-1.539, P hyperemesis gravidarum limit the reliability of findings. Also, 15 of the included studies were from the same country (Turkey), which could limit the generalizability of current findings. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies throughout the world, and there may also be pathogenic differences as most strains of H. pylori in East Asia carry the cytotoxin-associated gene A gene. H. pylori infection was associated with an increased likelihood of hyperemesis gravidarum during pregnancy. Given the high prevalence of H. pylori infections worldwide, detecting H. pylori infection and the eradication of maternal H. pylori infection could be part of maternal hyperemesis gravidarum management. Further confirmation with robust longitudinal studies and mechanistic investigations are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos Felipe; Romero, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a successful pathogen that can persist in the stomach of an infected person for their entire life. It provokes chronic gastric inflammation that leads to the development of serious gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is known that these ailments can be avoided if the infection by the bacteria can be prevented or eradicated. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re-infection and the high cost of antibiotic therapy. The delay in developing a vaccine to prevent or eradicate the infection has furthered research into new therapeutic approaches. This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels. Nevertheless, some of them are useful in preventing the adverse effects of antibiotics, modulating the immune response, gastroprotection, and the general promotion of health. Therefore, those agents can be used as adjuvants of allopathic anti-H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:24587621

  8. Helicobacter spp. other than Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Cinthia G; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2010-09-01

    Over the last 12 months, new insights into the association of non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters with a range of human diseases in children and adults, including hepatobiliary disease, Crohn's disease, sepsis, and gastric disease were published. Studies investigating the presence of non-H. pylori Helicobacters in domestic animals reinforce previous findings that cats and dogs harbor gastric Helicobacter species and thus may be an important source of these organisms in humans. The confounding effect of enterohepatic Helicobacters on the outcome of biomedical research was investigated in several studies and led to recommendations that animals should be screened prior to performing experiments. A number of important and novel investigations regarding pathogenic mechanisms and immune responses to enterohepatic Helicobacters were conducted. Genomic advances in non-H. pylori Helicobacters included description of the complete genome of Helicobacter canadensis, delineation of two Helicobacter bilis genomospecies, and identification of a novel cis-regulatory RNA. New insights concerning growth conditions, biochemical characterization, and the effect of certain dietary compounds on Helicobacter spp. have also been reported. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Rescue Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier P. Gisbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. After 30 years of experience in H. pylori treatment, however, the ideal regimen to treat this infection has still to be found. Nowadays, apart from having to know well first-line eradication regimens, we must also be prepared to face treatment failures. In designing a treatment strategy, we should not only focus on the results of primary therapy alone but also on the final—overall—eradication rate. The choice of a “rescue” treatment depends on which treatment is used initially. If a first-line clarithromycin-based regimen was used, a second-line metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy may be used afterwards, and then a levofloxacin-based combination would be a third-line “rescue” option. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based “rescue” therapy constitutes an encouraging 2nd-line strategy, representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure, with the advantage of efficacy, simplicity and safety. In this case, quadruple regimen may be reserved as a 3rd-line “rescue” option. Even after two consecutive failures, several studies have demonstrated that H. pylori eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several “rescue” therapies are consecutively given.

  10. Rosacea and Helicobacter pylori: links and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaridou E

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Lazaridou,1 Chrysovalantis Korfitis,2 Christina Kemanetzi,1 Elena Sotiriou,1 Zoe Apalla,1 Efstratios Vakirlis,1 Christina Fotiadou,1 Aimilios Lallas,1 Demetrios Ioannides1 1First Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Aristotle University Medical School, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Department of Dermatology, 401 General Army Hospital, Athens, Greece Abstract: Rosacea is a chronic skin disease characterized by facial erythema and telangiectasia. Despite the fact that many hypotheses have been proposed, its etiology remains unknown. In the present review, the possible link and clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of rosacea are being sought. A PubMed and Google Scholar search was performed using the terms “rosacea”, “H.pylori”, “gastrointestinal disorders and H.pylori”, “microorganisms and rosacea”, “pathogenesis and treatment of rosacea”, and “risk factors of rosacea”, and selected publications were studied and referenced in text. Although a possible pathogenetic link between H. pylori and rosacea is advocated by many authors, evidence is still interpreted differently by others. We conclude that further studies are needed in order to fully elucidate the pathogenesis of rosacea. Keywords: eradication, Helicobacter pylori, pathogenesis, rosacea

  11. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori sigma54 promoter-binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lara E; Brahmachary, Priyanka; Hoover, Timothy R

    2006-06-01

    Several Helicobacter pylori flagellar genes require sigma(54) for their transcription. Predicted H. pylori sigma(54)-dependent promoters display a preference for A at position -23 instead of C or T as occurs in promoters from most other bacteria. Substitution of the A at position -23 of the H. pylori flaB promoter with a C did not effect expression of a flaB'-'xylE reporter gene in H. pylori, whereas T or G substitutions at this position drastically reduced expression. Results of gel mobility shift assays that used DNA probes corresponding to core promoter sequences and a H. pylori sigma(54) protein fused to the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein suggested that H. pylori sigma(54) has a higher affinity for promoters with an A at the -23 position. The failure to observe an effect on expression for the flaB mutant promoter with the A to C substitution at the -23 position indicates that sequences flanking the core promoter region may assist binding of H. pylori sigma(54) to the mutant flaB promoter. Alternatively, H. pylori RNA polymerase or the sigma(54)-dependent activator FlgR may compensate for the reduced affinity of sigma(54) for the mutant flaB promoter.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and typhoid fever in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, A.M.; Verspaget, H.W.; Ali, S.; Visser, L.G.; Veenendaal, R.A.; Asten, H.A.G.H. van; Widjaja, S.; Surjadi, C.; Dissel, J.T. van

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the association between typhoid fever and Helicobacter pylori infection, as the latter microorganism may influence gastric acid secretion and consequently increase susceptibility to Salmonella typhi infection. Anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA antibody titres (ELISA) and gastrin concentration

  13. Short report: evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication with bismuth sucralfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, M. H.; Noach, L. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    In a pilot study we have evaluated the clinical efficacy of bismuth sucralfate to eradicate H. pylori. Ten consecutive patients with chronic dyspepsia and H. pylori associated gastritis were treated with bismuth sucralfate (220 mg bismuth per tablet, 4 tablets per day for 4 weeks). If a 14C urea

  14. RECOVERY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI FROM WATER BY IMMUNOMAGNETIC CAPTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A few reports have been written stating that H. pylori can be found in waters. However, detection and identification of H. pylori from water samples remains a very difficult task. One method that seems to work successfully is immunomagnetic capture. Water samples were concentr...

  15. SURVIVAL OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN A NATURAL FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode by which Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of most gastric ulcers, is transmitted remains undetermined. Epidemiological evidence suggests these organisms are waterborne; however, H. pylori has rarely been grown from potential water sources. This may be due to th...

  16. What constitutes an Arabian Helicobacter pylori? Lessons from comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narender; Albert, M John; Al Abkal, Hanan; Siddique, Iqbal; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori, the human gastric pathogen, causes a variety of gastric diseases ranging from mild gastritis to gastric cancer. While the studies on H. pylori are dominated by those based on either East Asian or Western strains, information regarding H. pylori strains prevalent in the Middle East remains scarce. Therefore, we carried out whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis of three H. pylori strains isolated from three native Arab, Kuwaiti patients. H. pylori strains were sequenced using Illumina platform. The sequence reads were filtered and draft genomes were assembled and annotated. Various pathogenicity-associated regions and phages present within the genomes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the genetic relatedness of Kuwaiti strains to various lineages of H. pylori. The core genome content and virulence-related genes were analyzed to assess the pathogenic potential. The three genomes clustered along with HpEurope strains in the phylogenetic tree comprising various H. pylori lineages. A total of 1187 genes spread among various functional classes were identified in the core genome analysis. The three genomes possessed a complete cagPAI and also retained most of the known outer membrane proteins as well as virulence-related genes. The cagA gene in all three strains consisted of an AB-C type EPIYA motif. The comparative genomic analysis of Kuwaiti H. pylori strains revealed a European ancestry and a high pathogenic potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Helicobacter pylori gastritis in HIV-infected patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Daniel T; Morgan, Christopher J; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are different: H. pylori is transmitted by gastro- or fecal-oral routes and is associated with low socioeconomic conditions, while HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, infected body fluids, and transplacentally. If the host responses to these infections were independent, the prevalence of H. pylori should be similar in HIV-infected and non-infected patients. Yet, several studies have detected a lower prevalence of H. pylori in patients with HIV infection, whereas other studies found either no differences or greater rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-positive subjects. To review studies that addressed the issue of these two simultaneous infections and attempt to determine whether reliable conclusions can be drawn from this corpus of often contrasting evidence. Electronic literature search for relevant publications, followed by manual search of additional citations from extracted articles. The initial search yielded 44 publications; after excluding case reports, reviews, narrowly focused articles, and duplicate reports, there remained 29 articles, which are the corpus of this review. With one exception, all studies reported higher rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-negative subjects. Five studies also examined the CD4 lymphocyte counts and found an inverse correlation between the degree of immunosuppression and the prevalence of active H. pylori infection. Current evidence suggests that it is likely that H. pylori needs a functional immune system to successfully and persistently colonize the human gastric mucosa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Correlation of Serum Anti- Helicobacter pylori Immunoglobulin A (IGA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgA antibodies has been reported to vary among populations and in relation to strains of Helicobacter pylori bacterium. However, there has been conflicting reports on the association between IgA serological status and the histological variables of chronic gastritis. This study ...

  19. correlation of serum anti-helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin a (iga)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. It is now established that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which is believed to be the commonest bacterial infection of man, is the major causative agent of chronic gastritis.1 This chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa which is histologically characterized by mucosal infiltration by plasma cells has been ...

  20. Therapeutic options after failed Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. W.; Weel, J. F.; van der Ende, A.; ten Kate, F. J.; Dankert, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many of the currently used Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens fail to cure 5-20% of the patients. Those patients will remain at risk of developing a potentially fatal complication of peptic ulcer disease. Therefore, a new attempt to cure H. pylori infection after initial failure of

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection in Africa: Pathology and microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... symptom complex or syndrome that can be ascribed to chronic gastritis, whether or not due to H. pylori. Peptic .... H. pylori is a fragile organism. It must be protected from desiccation and contact ..... Fox JG, Batchelder M, Marini R, Yan L, Handt L, Li X, Shamen B,. Hayward A, Campbell J, Murphy JC (1995).

  2. The impact of Helicobacter pylori on atopic disorders in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.L. Holster (Ingrid); A.J. Vila (Anne J.); D. Caudri (Daan); C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); G.I. Perez; M.J. Blaser (Martin J.); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Western populations has steadily decreased. This has been suggested as one of the factors involved in the recent increase of asthma and allergy. Some studies have reported a negative association between H. pylori and asthma and

  3. Alopecia areata is not associated with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hafez Hisham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is an immune-mediated form of hair loss that occurs in all ethnic groups, ages, and both sexes. Helicobacter pylori has been associated with many extra-digestive dermatological conditions. The causal relation between alopecia areata and Helicobacter pylori is discussed in this study. Materials and Methods: We have screened for the presence of H. pylori in patients with AA, in order to determine any potential role in its patho-physiology. We have prospectively studied 31 patients with alopecia areata and 24 healthy volunteers of similar gender, for the presence of H. pylori stool antigen (HpSAg. Results: Optical density values for H. pylori infection was positive in 18 of the 31 patients evaluated (58.1%, while in 13 patients, the values did not support H. pylori infection (41.9%. In the control group, 10 of the 24 (41.7% had positive results. Within the group of alopecia areata, there was no significant difference between HpSAg positive and negative patients. Conclusions: The results have shown that a relation between Helicobacter pylori and alopecia areata is not supported. We advise that H. pylori detection need not to be included in the laboratory work up of alopecia areata.

  4. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  5. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, information concerning the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant H. pylori strains is important in predicting therapeutic response. In this study, drug susceptibility of H. pylori in patients was investigated in Laleh hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2007 - 2008. 104 antral biopsies of patients with non ulcer dyspepsia and ...

  6. H. pylori infection increases levels of exhaled nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Matthias; Karlseder, Alban; Niederseer, David; Lirk, Philipp; Neher, Andreas; Rieder, Josef; Tilg, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common chronic bacterial infections worldwide. Despite the existence of a breath test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, no study has described the composition of volatile compounds, especially the levels of nitrate, in the exhaled air of

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gerrits (Monique)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAn estimated 4 to 5 million individuals in the Netherlands are actively infected with Helicobacter pylori. Eradication of this bacterium becomes more difficult as the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide. Most H. pylori infections are now diagnosed by

  8. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Public Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Khean-Lee; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on the epidemiology and public health implications of Helicobacter pylori published in peer-reviewed journals from April 2010 through March 2011. Prevalence rates vary widely between different geographical regions and ethnic groups. An interesting study from the USA identified the degree of African ancestry as an independent predictor of H. pylori infection. Two studies have demonstrated early childhood as the period of transmission of infection and identified an infected sibling as an important risk factor. An oral–oral route of spread has been substantiated with several studies showing the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity. Studies have shown the presence of H. pylori in drinking water and the role of poor living conditions and sanitation in H. pylori infection, supporting an oral–fecal route of spread. Screening for H. pylori as a gastric cancer prescreening strategy has been described in Japan, and the importance of H. pylori eradication as a gastric cancer–prevention strategy has now been further emphasized in Japanese guidelines. Two studies have shown a decrease in the burden of dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease with H. pylori eradication. PMID:21896079

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and precancerous lesions of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haziri, Adem; Juniku-Shkololli, Argjira; Gashi, Zaim; Berisha, Drita; Haziri, Avni

    2010-01-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, hereditary non-polyposos colon cancer, gastric dysplasia, gastric adenoma, Barrett esophagitis and familiar adenomatous polyposis are confirmed precancerous lesions of the stomach. Most of these conditions are correlated with long-term infections with Helicobacter pylori. Patients which were included in our study underwent gastro endoscopy with multiple biopsies from antrum and corpus ventricle, also urease test and histopathological examination, using special coloring for Helicobacter pylori. 802 patients entered this study, of which 369 female and 483 male. Among female patients 56.4% resulted Helicobacter pylori positive, whereas among male patients this was at a rate of 62.6%. The most affected age was 40-49 years, in which group Helicobacter pylori infection was 64.2%. In each precancerous lesion positivity of Helicobacter pylori infection was very high.-in patients with intestinal metaplasia: 71.7%, with gastric dysplasia: 71.4%, with gastric ulcer: 68.4%, with atrophic gastritis: 66.0% and with Barrett esophagitis: 55.0%. The main purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of Helicobacter pylori infection among patients with precancerous lesions, which resulted to be very high. The highest percentage of infection resulted in patients with intestinal metaplasia (71.7%). Precancerous lesions of stomach are associated with high percentage of Helicobacter pylori infection. This confirms once more the importance of Helicobacter pylori eradication in early stages and patient's surveillance.

  10. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with the Lewis and ABO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is a basic risk factor for chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma. Based on some studies, the reason is binding of H. pylori to H and Leb antigens in gastric mucosa. However, some other findings have not determined any association between the infection and these antigens.

  11. Helicobacter pylori carriage among adult Nigerian subjects without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:H.Pylori bacteria has a world wide distribution. It is implicated in the aetiology of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Population screening may have significant clinical import. Objective: To determine the frequency of H.pylori carriage and associated social demographic factors in asymptomatic patients and ...

  12. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections: Mitigating factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... basis of novel low cost, efficient, large-scale and alternative/complementary solutions with minimal side effects to decrease or eradicate ... Key words: Helicobacter pylori, treatment regimen, factors affecting treatment, alternative approaches, .... treatment for H. pylori infection has been fraught with difficulty.

  13. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in female Vietnamese immigrants to Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Su Jung; Yi, Sun Young; Park, Hye Sook; Park, Bo Hyun

    2012-02-14

    To investigate the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its relationship to nutritional factors in female Vietnamese immigrants to Korea. A total of 390 female immigrants from Vietnam and 206 Korean male spouses participated in the study. Blood samples from 321 female immigrants and 201 Korean male spouses were analyzed for H. pylori antibodies. Data on age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking status, dietary nutritional factors and gastrointestinal symptoms were collected using questionnaires. The daily intakes of the following nutrients were estimated: energy, protein, niacin, lipid, fiber, calcium, iron, sodium, potassium, zinc, folate, cholesterol, and vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, C and E. The prevalence of H. pylori positivity was lower in the immigrants than in age-matched Korean females (55.7% vs 71.4%, respectively; P < 0.0001) and the domestic population of Vietnam. The prevalence of H. pylori positivity among married couples was 31.7% for both spouses. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of smoking, amount of alcohol consumed, or nutritional factors between the H. pylori-positive and negative groups. The prevalence of H. pylori positivity was lower among female Vietnamese immigrants than among Korean females. Nutritional factors did not differ between the H. pylori-positive and negative groups.

  14. Helicobacer pylori detection using local (in-house) rapid Urease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by Robin Warren and Barry Marshall in 1982 and its subsequent association with diseases like antral (type B) gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastric cancer and gastric Mucosal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) lymphoma, various invasive as well ...

  15. Prevalence Of Helicobacter pylori In Gastric Biopsies Of Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection as seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) Benin City Nigeria was 16% which was significant using the students T-test (P<0.05). Eighty one gastric biopsy specimens received in the microbiology laboratory were cultured on chocolate agar. Of the H. pylori ...

  16. Inverse Association Between Helicobacter pylori Gastritis and Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is known to be inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that a similar inverse association also applied to microscopic colitis. The associations between microscopic colitis and presence of H. pylori-positive chronic active gastritis (CAG), H. pylori-negative CAG, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric atrophy were expressed as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust these associations for sex, age, percentage residents per ZIP code with white, black, Hispanic, or Asian ethnicity, percentage with college education, average housing values, annual income, and population size of individual ZIP codes. H. pylori-positive CAG was less common among patients with than without microscopic colitis (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.70). Intestinal metaplasia also occurred less frequently among patients with than without microscopic colitis (0.75, 0.65-0.86). These inverse associations remained unaffected by adjustments for parameters of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In contradistinction with H. pylori-positive CAG, H. pylori-negative CAG was more common in patients with than without microscopic colitis (1.54, 1.17-1.97). H. pylori infection and microscopic colitis are inversely associated. This observation is consistent with similar inverse associations found between H. pylori and inflammatory bowel disease. These relationships may provide clues about the yet unknown etiology of microscopic colitis.

  17. Biofilm formation enhances Helicobacter pylori survivability in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Ho, Bow

    2017-04-01

    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Campylobacter pylori and its role in peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Rauws, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    In almost all patients with genuine nondrug-induced duodenal or gastric ulcer there is evidence of gastric Campylobacter pylori colonization and concomitant inflammation. C. pylori is only demonstrable in the duodenal cap when there is "gastric mucus metaplasia." Suppression or eradication of C.

  19. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with peptic ulcer disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection has been identified as an important risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and is probably the most important cause of relapse in those previously treated for peptic ulcer disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of Helicobacter pylori infection as ...

  20. Campylobacter pylori as possible factor in peptic ulcer recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the literature up to 1988 about the close association of Campylobacter pylori with chronic active gastritis, duodenitis and peptic ulcer disease. No firm data however demonstrate that Campylobacter pylori causes duodenal ulcer but long term eradication of this bacterium prevents

  1. Helicobacter Pylori –Infected Patients | Eltayeb | Sudan Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of Helicobacter pylori on gastric carcinogenesis is still unclear but it is considered to predispose carriers to gastric cancer. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the extent of DNA damage of normal gastric epithelial cells and H. Pylori positive & negative gastritis ...

  2. Sero-prevalence and associated factors of Helicobacter pylori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H.pylori infections can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma2. Majority of the in- fected individuals are asymptomatic; nevertheless a small percentage tends to develop manifestations of peptic ulcer diseases later in life1. H.pylori is commonly transmitted ...

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection: past, present and future | Jemilohun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by Warren and Marshall in 1982 was preceded by nearly a hundred year of inconspicuous publications in regard to spiral bacteria, achlorhydria, gastritis, gastric urease, and antimicrobial therapy for peptic ulcers. The infection has now been implicated in the etiopathogenesis ...

  4. the effect of some nigerian local herbs on helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Nigerian medicinal plants commonly used in the treatment of bacterial infections were tested for antimicrobial activity against twenty local strains of Helicobacter pylori recovered from patients with gastro-duodenal ulcers and gastritis. In vitro agar diffusion assay revealed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of ethanolic ...

  5. Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: Relationship with the gastric infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma, burning and halitosis. Record selection focused on the highest quality studies and meta-analyses. We selected 48 articles reporting on the association between saliva and plaque and H. pylori-infection. In order to assess periodontal disease data, we included 12 clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis. We evaluated 13 published articles that addressed the potential association with RAS, and 6 with squamous cell carcinoma. Fourteen publications focused on our questions on burning and halitosis. There is a close relation between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and the stomach. The mouth is the first extra-gastric reservoir. Regarding the role of H. pylori in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma, no evidence is still available. PMID:25110422

  6. Helicobacter pylori Induction of the Gastrin Promoter Through GC-Rich DNA Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Tamara P.; Gray, Brian M.; Eaton, Kathyrn A.; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection has been linked to the development of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. H. pylori- infected patients and animal models develop hypergastrinemia, chronic gastritis, and gastric atrophy. Since gastrin is an important regulator of gastric acid secretion and cell growth, H. pylori regulation of this hormone has been implicated in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effect of H. pylori infection on gastrin gene expression in m...

  7. Reduced genome size of Helicobacter pylori originating from East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan-Jiang; Wang, Li-Li; Tian, Zi-Bing; Yu, Xin-Jun; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major pathogen colonizing the human stomach, shows great genetic variation. Comparative analysis of strains from different H. pylori populations revealed that the genome size of strains from East Asia decreased to 1.60 Mbp, which is significantly smaller than that from Europe or Africa. In parallel with the genome reduction, the number of protein coding genes was decreased, and the guanine-cytosine content was lowered to 38.9%. Elimination of non-essential genes by mutations is likely to be a major cause of the genome reduction. Bacteria with a small genome cost less energy. Thus, H. pylori strains from East Asia may have proliferation and growth advantages over those from Western countries. This could result in enhanced capacity of bacterial spreading. Therefore, the reduced genome size potentially contributes to the high prevalence of H. pylori in East Asia.

  8. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Tsukamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents.

  9. Helicobacter pylori eradication - an update on the latest therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaxley, Julian; Chakravarty, Bhaskar

    2014-05-01

    The eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can be challenging in certain circumstances. There is no current first-line therapy that is curative in all patients. This article summaries the role of emerging novel therapies in the treatment of 
H. pylori. Known as sequential therapy and salvage therapy, these new therapeutic strategies are thought to produce eradication rates superior to currently recommended first-line therapies. This article outlines the growing body of evidence supporting their efficacy. Sequential therapy and salvage therapy have emerged recently as alternative regimens for the eradication of H. pylori. Although current guidelines continue to recommend established therapies for first-line management of H. pylori, general practitioners should be aware of these new strategies such that these options could be applied when traditional therapy fails.

  10. NOD1-Mediated Mucosal Host Defense against Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Watanabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma. Although it has been well established that persistent colonization by H. pylori is associated with adaptive Th1 responses, the innate immune responses leading to these Th1 responses are poorly defined. Recent studies have shown that the activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1 in gastric epithelial cells plays an important role in innate immune responses against H. pylori. The detection of H. pylori-derived ligands by cytosolic NOD1 induces several host defense factors, including antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and chemokines. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanisms by which NOD1 contributes to mucosal host defense against H. pylori infection of the stomach.

  11. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Mitsuru; Kiriyama, Yuka; Toyoda, Takeshi; Cao, Xueyuan

    2017-01-01

    Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents. PMID:28771198

  12. Soroprevalência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori em crianças de diferentes níveis sócio-econômicos em Porto Velho, Estado de Rondônia Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among children of different socioeconomic levels in Porto Velho, State of Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Valéria Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investigou a soroprevalência de infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori em 200 (subdivididas em 2 grupos crianças da Cidade de Porto Velho, Rondônia. A prevalência da soropositividade variou consideravelmente de acordo com o nível sócio-econômico, onde 51% das crianças de baixo nível e 24% de classe média eram positivas. As características da população infantil relacionadas ao sexo, raça e dieta alimentar não representaram fatores de risco para a aquisição da infecção; porém, a maioria das infectadas pertencia à faixa etária de cinco ou mais anos, independente do nível sócio-econômico. A distribuição fenotípica dos grupos sanguíneos ABO, entre os indivíduos infectados e não infectados, mostrou4 que a sororeatividade ao Helicobacter pylori foi maior entre as crianças do grupo sanguíneo O, sugerindo que há uma maior susceptibilidade genética destas crianças para a infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori.This study investigated the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in 200 children in the city of Porto Velho, State of Rondônia, divided in two groups of 100 children. The prevalence of seropositivity varied considerably according to socioeconomic level, such that 51% of the lower-level children and 24% of the middle-class children were positive. The characteristics of the child population relating to sex, ethnicity and diet did not represent risk factors for acquiring the infection. However, most of the infected children were in the age group of five years or older, independent of socioeconomic level. The phenotypic distribution of ABO blood groups among the infected and uninfected individuals showed that the seroreactivity to Helicobacter pylori was greater among the children with the O blood type, thus suggesting that these children have greater genetic susceptibility to infection by Helicobacter pylori.

  13. Strategies used by helicobacter pylori to establish persistent infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Amin Talebi Bezmin

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative and motile bacterium that colonizes the hostile microniche of the human stomach, then persists for the host’s entire life, if not effectively treated. Clinically, H. pylori plays a causative role in the development of a wide spectrum of diseases including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Due to the global distribution of H. pylori, it is no exaggeration to conclude that smart strategies are contributing to adaptation of the bacterium to its permanent host. Thirty-four years after the discovery of this bacterium, there are still many unanswered questions. For example, which strategies help the bacterium to survive in this inhospitable microniche? This question is slightly easier to answer if we presume the same clinical concept for both persistent infection and disease. Understanding the mechanisms governing H. pylori persistence will improve identification of the increased risk of diseases such as gastric cancer in patients infected with this bacterium. A well-defined and long-term equilibrium between the human host and H. pylori allows bacterial persistence in the gastric microniche; although this coexistence leads to a high risk of severe diseases such as gastric cancer. To escape the bactericidal activity of stomach acid, H. pylori secretes large amounts of surface-associated and cytosolic urease. The potential to avoid acidic conditions and immune evasion are discussed in order to explain the persistence of H. pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa, and data on bacterial genetic diversity are included. Information on the mechanisms related to H. pylori persistence can also provide the direction for future research concerning effective therapy and management of gastroduodenal disorders. The topics presented in the current review are important for elucidating the strategies used by H. pylori to help the bacterium

  14. Helicobacter pylori's unconventional role in health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion S Dorer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, that is resident in the human stomach and causes chronic disease (peptic ulcer and gastric cancer was radical on many levels. Whereas the mouth and the colon were both known to host a large number of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the microbiome, the stomach was thought to be a virtual Sahara desert for microbes because of its high acidity. We now know that H. pylori is one of many species of bacteria that live in the stomach, although H. pylori seems to dominate this community. H. pylori does not behave as a classical bacterial pathogen: disease is not solely mediated by production of toxins, although certain H. pylori genes, including those that encode exotoxins, increase the risk of disease development. Instead, disease seems to result from a complex interaction between the bacterium, the host, and the environment. Furthermore, H. pylori was the first bacterium observed to behave as a carcinogen. The innate and adaptive immune defenses of the host, combined with factors in the environment of the stomach, apparently drive a continuously high rate of genomic variation in H. pylori. Studies of this genetic diversity in strains isolated from various locations across the globe show that H. pylori has coevolved with humans throughout our history. This long association has given rise not only to disease, but also to possible protective effects, particularly with respect to diseases of the esophagus. Given this complex relationship with human health, eradication of H. pylori in nonsymptomatic individuals may not be the best course of action. The story of H. pylori teaches us to look more deeply at our resident microbiome and the complexity of its interactions, both in this complex population and within our own tissues, to gain a better understanding of health and disease.

  15. The Impacts of Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Positivity on Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Erkol Ižnal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to clarify the impacts of H. pylori infection on disease activity and clinical findings of AS. Material and Method: Forty-eight patients with AS were included in this study. The demographic data including age, sex, durations of the disease and medication of the patients were recorded. The laboratory analysis comprised Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and H. pylori antigen determination in gaita. The disease activity, functional disability and clinical status were assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI, The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional index (BASFI and The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI respectively. We divided patients according to H. pylori antigen positivity in gaita as H. pylori positive and negative patients.Results: The mean age of patients was 41.9 11.8. CRP levels were slightly but not significantly higher in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients without H. pylori antigen in gaita (p=0.08. There was no significant difference in terms of ESR levels, BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI scores in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients with negative H. pylori antigen in gaita (p-values were >0.05 for all. In regression model BASDAI score was found to have no relationship with H. pylori antigen positivity, ESR and CRP levels (p-values were >0.05 for all. Discussion: H. pylori seemed to have probable impacts on the disease activity of AS. Studies with greater patient population and longer follow-up periods are warranted to enlighten this issue.

  16. Is vaccine type seropositivity a marker for human papillomavirus vaccination? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003?2010 ?

    OpenAIRE

    Petrosky, Emiko Y.; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Eileen F. Dunne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Since 2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been routinely recommended for adolescent females in the USA. The quadrivalent vaccine induces long-term seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16, which may be useful as a marker for HPV vaccine coverage. Methods: We evaluated vaccine type seropositivity (i.e., seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 with or without HPV18) among females aged 14–59 years participating in the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cross-sectio...

  17. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and risk factors in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy

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    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. It is transmitted by the ingestion of contaminated water and foods, by soil contaminated with cat feces, especially while handling it, and congenitally via the placenta. The diagnosis of maternal infection is made by serological detection of either IgM or IgG antibodies. This study assessed the seropositivity in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy (FHS in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: The study was performed in 19 FHS units and included 148 childbearing women. The outcomes evaluated were IgM and IgG seropositivity and behavioral variables. RESULTS: IgG yielded positive results in 16% of the pregnant women, whereas IgM was positive in only 1%. CONCLUSIONS: The 1% IgM positivity rate for T. gondii indicates congenital toxoplasmosis is not common in Lages.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and risk factors in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho; da Rocha, Gino Chaves; Romagna, Getúlio; de Oliveira, Juliana Pellizzoni; Ribeiro, Dadryhan Morghani; Marques, Sandra Márcia Tietz

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii. It is transmitted by the ingestion of contaminated water and foods, by soil contaminated with cat feces, especially while handling it, and congenitally via the placenta. The diagnosis of maternal infection is made by serological detection of either IgM or IgG antibodies. This study assessed the seropositivity in pregnant women followed up by the Family Health Strategy (FHS) in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study was performed in 19 FHS units and included 148 childbearing women. The outcomes evaluated were IgM and IgG seropositivity and behavioral variables. IgG yielded positive results in 16% of the pregnant women, whereas IgM was positive in only 1%. The 1% IgM positivity rate for T. gondii indicates congenital toxoplasmosis is not common in Lages.

  19. Estimating the abortion risk difference in Neospora caninum seropositive dairy cattle in Brazil

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    Rafael Romero Nicolino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis in cattle herds is associated with large economic losses, with abortion being the only clinical sign perceptible to the producer. Losses are estimated at over one billion dollars worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the abortion risk difference in seropositive animals using specific data for dairy herds in Brazil. Differences in the risk of abortion between seropositive and seronegative animals were calculated through a meta-analysis of previous data from several Brazilian states, and an increase of 10.04% (0.091 to 0.118 in the specific risk was identified. This finding indicates that more than 474,000 abortions caused by neosporosis may be occurring only in dairy cattle herds in Brazil, causing a major economic loss in the milk production chain. The use of this specific measure for Brazilian herds opens the possibility of developing cost-benefit analysis for neosporosis in Brazil using data that are more reliable

  20. Comparison of seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis with regard to some clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Izairi, Remzi; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with regard to some clinical characteristics. The studied group consisted of RA seronegative patients with titters lower then 1:64 defined by Rose-Waaler test, while the control group consisted of RA seropositive patients with titters of 1:64 or higher. Examinees all belonged to the 2nd and 3rd functional classes according to ARA criteria, were between 25-60 years of age (Xb = 49.96), with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xbox = 6.41). In the disease onset most frequently affected joints were metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint of the hands, almost equally represented with regard to sero-status and sex. During the examination seropositive patients showed a higher presence of inflamation of peripheral joints of hand and foot, but only the presence of PIP of the hands was statistically significant (chi2 = 15.63, p < 0.01). Knees, talocrural joints and elbows were more frequently affected in seropositive patients, whereas humeroscapular, coxofemoral and sacroiliacal joints were more frequently affected in seronegative patients, but without significant statistical difference with regard to sero-status. The presence of affected PIP of the hands (chi2 = 9.96, p < 0.01) and knees (chi2 = 4.17, p < 0.05) with regard to sex was statistically significant in seropositive female patients, as well as the presence of atacked PIP of the hands (chi2 = 6.08, p < 0.05), and cervical vertebrae (chi2 = 6.00, p < 0.05) in seropositive male patients. There were some differences between groups with regard to sex in metatarsophalangealjoints (MTP), PIP of the foot, and other joints, but without any statistical significance. In both subsets statistically significant domination was found in affected second (chi2 = 20.85, p < 0.01) and third (chi2 = 15.70, p < 0.01) fingers of the PIP level of hands and third finger (chi2

  1. Household Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Cryptosporidium Seropositivity in the United States.

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    Daniel J Becker

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoa that infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife globally. In the United States, cryptosporidiosis occurs in an estimated 750,000 persons annually, and is primarily caused by either of the Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, exposure to which occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocytes shed from infected hosts. Although most cryptosporidiosis cases are caused by genotype 1 and are of human origin, the zoonotic sources of genotype 2, such as livestock, are increasingly recognized as important for understanding human disease patterns. Social inequality could mediate patterns of human exposure and infection by placing individuals in environments where food or water contamination and livestock contact is high or through reducing the availability of educational and sanitary resources required to avoid exposure.We here analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES between 1999 and 2000, and related seropositivity to Cryptosporidium parvum to correlates of social inequality at the household and individual scale. After accounting for the complex sampling design of NHANES and confounding by individual demographics and household conditions, we found impaired household food adequacy was associated with greater odds of Cryptosporidium seropositivity. Additionally, we identified individuals of non-white race and ethnicity and those born outside the United States as having significantly greater risk than white, domestic-born counterparts. Furthermore, we provide suggestive evidence for direct effects of family wealth on Cryptosporidium seropositivity, in that persons from low-income households and from families close to the poverty threshold had elevated odds of seropositivity relative to those in high-income families and in households far above the poverty line.These results refute assertions that cryptosporidiosis in the United States is independent of

  2. MicroRNA profile changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals

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    Smith Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs play diverse roles in regulating cellular and developmental functions. We have profiled the miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 36 HIV-1 seropositive individuals and 12 normal controls. The HIV-1-positive individuals were categorized operationally into four classes based on their CD4+ T-cell counts and their viral loads. We report that specific miRNA signatures can be observed for each of the four classes.

  3. Association of HCV Core Antigen Seropositivity with Long-Term Mortality in Patients on Regular Hemodialysis

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    Akihiko Kato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV antibody seropositivity is independently associated with poor prognosis in hemodialysis (HD patients. However, anti-HCV antibody cannot distinguish between patients with active infection and those who have recovered from infection. We therefore aimed in this study to examine the association of HCV core antigen (HCVcAg seropositivity with mortality in HD patients. We first measured serum HCVcAg using an immunoradiometric assay and anti-HCV antibody in 405 patients on regular HD, and followed them for 104 months. There were 82 patients (20.2% who had been positive for anti-HCV antibodies; 57 (69.5% of these were positive for HCVcAg. During the follow-up, 29 patients were excluded, so we tested the association of HCVcAg seropositivity with all-cause, cardiovascular (CV and non-CV mortalities in 376 patients. A total of 209 patients (55.6% had expired during the observational period, 92 out of them due to CV causes. After adjusting for comorbid parameters, HCVcAg was independently associated with overall mortality (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.05–2.47, p < 0.05. HCV infection was significantly related to liver disease-related mortality. Past HCV infection also contributed to CV mortality (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.27–5.45, p < 0.01. In contrast, anti-HCV antibody and HCVcAg seropositivities did not associate with infectious disease-related and cancer-related (expect for hepatocellular carcinoma mortality. It follows from these findings that HCVcAg serology is associated with all-cause and CV mortality in HD patients.

  4. Cross-sectional study of cytomegalovirus shedding and immunological markers among seropositive children and their mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Stowell, Jennifer D.; Mask, Karen; Amin, Minal; Clark, Rebekah; Levis, Denise; Hendley, Will; Lanzieri, Tatiana M.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Cannon, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading infectious cause of birth defects in the United States. To better understand factors that may influence CMV transmission risk, we compared viral and immunological factors in healthy children and their mothers. Methods We screened for CMV IgG antibodies in a convenience sample of 161 children aged 0-47 months from the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area, along with 32 mothers of children who screened CMV-seropositive. We assessed CMV sh...

  5. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial.

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    Norma Amador-Licona

    Full Text Available HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals, and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55% and AZT/3TC/EFV (15% without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04, but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.

  7. Characteristics of antibody responses in West Nile virus-seropositive blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Paul J; Prince, Harry E; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Lanciotti, Robert; Tobler, Leslie H; Busch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is now endemic in the United States. Protection against infection is thought to be conferred in part by humoral immunity. An understanding of the durability and specificity of the humoral response is not well established. We studied the magnitude and specificity of antibody responses in 370 WNV-seropositive blood donors. We also recalled 18 donors who were infected in 2005 to compare their antibody responses at 6 months following infection versus at 5 years postinfection. There were no significant differences in IgG antibody levels based on age, sex, or recent infection (as evidenced by IgM positivity). Specific antibody responses by viral plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) were seen in 51/54 subjects evaluated. All donors who were seropositive in 2005 remained seropositive at 5 years and maintained neutralizing antibodies. IgG levels at 5 years postinfection showed fairly minimal decreases compared with the paired levels at 6 months postinfection (mean of paired differences,-0.54 signal-to-cutoff ratio (S/CO) units [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.86 to -0.21 S/CO units]) and only minimal decreases in PRNT titers. WNV induces a significant antibody response that remains present even 5 years after infection.

  8. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

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    Faezeh Hamidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii in a group of peritoneal dialysis patients with hemodialysis patients and a general local population as a control group in Tabriz, Northwest Iran. Methods: A total of 176 individuals were participated in the present study. Among them, 42 were peritoneal dialysis patients, 84 were hemodialysis patients and 50 were healthy volunteers. Anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M serologic study was administered on the collected serums and then the obtained data were analyzed using statistical methods. Results: In the present research, 70.2% of hemodialysis patients, 66.6% of peritoneal dialysis patients and 68% of control group had positive results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G antibody. All individuals of the groups had negative serologic results for anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin M antibody. There was no significant difference between Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in hemodialysis patients and peritoneal dialysis patients and general population (P > 0.05. Conclusions: The findings showed that either peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis doesn’t increase the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity in our region (Northwest Iran. It could be explained by the fact that the present research is carried out in a high seroprevalent area scale in which the majority of normal population had previous exposure to this parasitical infection.

  9. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seropositivity in buffaloes in Paraiba State, Brazil

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    Arthur Willian de Lima Brasil

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this survey were to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies and to identify the risk factors associated with seropositivity among buffaloes in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. This survey included 136 buffaloes belonging to 14 herds. To detect anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT was used. Among the 136 samples analyzed, 17 (12.5% were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024, and 26 (19.1% for anti-N. caninum with titers from 200 to 1,600. Animals seropositive for both T. gondii and N. caninum were found in 10 of the 14 herds (71.4%. Semi-intensive management systems (odds ratio = 2.99 and presence of pigs (odds ratio = 4.33 were identified as risk factors for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. It can be suggested that T. gondii and N. caninum are widespread in buffaloes in Paraíba, and that additional surveys are needed in order to ascertain the importance of these agents for this species and for pigs, and the influence of the farming type on occurrences of seropositive animals.

  10. Reproductive performance in sows in relation to Japanese Encephalitis Virus seropositivity in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Johanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Ståhl, Karl; Thu, Ho Thi Viet; Magnusson, Ulf

    2012-02-01

    Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is considered an important reproductive pathogen in pigs. Most studies of the reproductive impact of JEV have been conducted in areas where the disease occurs in seasonal epidemics. In this study, the associations between seropositivity for JEV, measured with an IgG ELISA, and the number of piglets born alive and stillborn were investigated in a tropical area endemic for JEV in Vietnam. Sixty percent of sows from four farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam were seropositive to JEV and the Odds Ratio for a sow being infected was highest (6.4) in sows above 3.5 years (95% confidence interval 2.2-18.3). There was an association between increasing Optical Density (OD) values from the ELISA and the number of stillborn piglets in sows less than 1.5 years, but no effect of seropositivity could be shown when all sows were studied. OD values had an effect (p = 0.04) on the number of piglets born alive in the statistical analysis only when interacting with the effect of the breeds. An increase in mean OD value of the herd was correlated (p immunity in many gilts before their first pregnancy. This, in turn, may imply that JEV infection in pigs is of minor importance for the reproductive performance in endemic areas.

  11. Aichi Virus Positivity in HIV-1 Seropositive Children Hospitalized with Diarrheal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; de Mello Volotao, Eduardo; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Rocha, Monica Simoes; Trindade Pinheiro Xavier, Maria da Penha; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Fialho, Alexandre Madi; Rocha, Myrna Santos; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Gagliardi Leite, Jose Paulo; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Aichi viruses (AiV) have been detected in patients with diarrheal diseases (DD). The aim of this study was to assess AiV infection rates in hospitalized children with DD, including 123 HIV-1 seropositive and 125 HIV-1 seronegative patients, in two public pediatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AiV was investigated by nested RT-PCR. The AiV-positive samples were also tested for specie A rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, enteric adenovirus and bocavirus in order to assess co-infections. AiV parcial genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. AiV were detected in 9/123 (7.32%) of the HIV-1 seropositive subjects and 1/125 (0.8%) of the HIV seronegative patients with DD (p = 0.019). The phylogenetic analysis of positive samples disclosed that: i) 13 samples were characterized as genotype A, with one of them being from the HIV-1 seronegative patient; ii) one sample from a HIV-1 seropositive patient was characterized as genotype B. AiV genotype A was grouped into 3 genetic clusters. Data suggest that AiV may be an opportunistic pathogen infecting children with AIDS and DD.

  12. Association between malaria exposure and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seropositivity in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwoga, Angela; Cose, Stephen; Wakeham, Katie; Miley, Wendell; Ndibazza, Juliet; Drakeley, Christopher; Elliott, Alison; Whitby, Denise; Newton, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Unlike other herpes viruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is not ubiquitous worldwide and is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons for this are unclear. As part of a wider investigation of factors that facilitate transmission in Uganda, a high prevalence country, we examined the association between antimalaria antibodies and seropositivity against KSHV. Antibodies against P. falciparum merozoite surface protein (PfMSP)-1, P. falciparum apical membrane antigen (PfAMA)-1 and KSHV antigens (ORF73 and K8.1) were measured in samples from 1164 mothers and 1227 children. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus seroprevalence was 69% among mothers and 15% children. Among mothers, KSHV seroprevalence increased with malaria antibody titres: from 60% to 82% and from 54% to 77%, comparing those with the lowest and highest titres for PfMSP-1 and PfAMA-1, respectively (P < 0.0001). Among children, only antibodies to PfAMA-1 were significantly associated with KSHV seropositivity, (P < 0.0001). In both mothers and children, anti-ORF73 antibodies were more strongly associated with malaria antibodies than anti-K8.1 antibodies. The association between malaria exposure and KSHV seropositivity suggests that malaria is a cofactor for KSHV infection or reactivation. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prevalence and Factors Associated with HCV (Hepatitis C Virus Seropositivity in Islamabad, Pakistan

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    Hammad Ali Qazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 150-200 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C. Prevalence is higher in some countries in Asia and Africa. Only limited information about the epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection especially in females is available. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies and the possible factors for transmission in the female population of a largely urban city Islamabad. A cross sectional study was conducted from May 2006 to August 2006 in Islamabad. We select 252 female households (n=252 following the selection criteria. The primary outcome variables were HCV seropositivity and factors like history of major surgical procedure, blood transfusion, Intravenous drug use etc. The results showed mean age of the sample was 33.21 (±9.95 years and HCV seropositivity was present in 62 (24.6% females. Final Forward Stepwise multiple logistic regression showed blood transfusion [OR, 10.094 95% CI 1.950-52.257], dental procedure [OR, 5.381 95% CI 2.315-12.507] and dilation and curettage [OR, 3.869 95% 1.867-8.015] were significantly associated with HCV seropositivity in females. The study highlights poor quality of care provided and a massive need to educate general population including patients as well as health professionals and allied health workers.

  14. Prevalence and Factors Associated with HCV (Hepatitis C Virus Seropositivity in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Ali Qazi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nAn estimated 150-200 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C. Prevalence is higher in some countries in Asia and Africa. Only limited information about the epidemiology of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection especially in females is available. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies and the possible factors for transmission in the female population of a largely urban city Islamabad. A cross sectional study was conducted from May 2006 to August 2006 in Islamabad. We select 252 female households (n=252 following the selection criteria. The primary outcome variables were HCV seropositivity and factors like history of major surgical procedure, blood transfusion, Intravenous drug use etc. The results showed mean age of the sample was 33.21 (±9.95 years and HCV seropositivity was present in 62 (24.6% females. Final Forward Stepwise multiple logistic regression showed blood transfusion [OR, 10.094 95% CI 1.950-52.257], dental procedure [OR, 5.381 95% CI 2.315-12.507] and dilation and curettage [OR, 3.869 95% 1.867-8.015] were significantly associated with HCV seropositivity in females. The study highlights poor quality of care provided and a massive need to educate general population including patients as well as health professionals and allied health workers.

  15. Alterations in penicillin-binding protein 1A confer resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Gerrits (Monique); D. Schuijffel; A.A. van Zwet (Anton); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls (Christina); J.G. Kusters (Johannes)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost Helicobacter pylori strains are susceptible to amoxicillin, an important component of combination therapies for H. pylori eradication. The isolation and initial characterization of the first reported stable amoxicillin-resistant clinical H. pylori isolate (the

  16. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  17. Helicobacter pylori and Antibiotic Resistance, A Continuing and Intractable Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Bin; Dai, Jinfeng

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen with a high global prevalence, is the causative pathogen for multiple gastrointestinal diseases, especially chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric malignancies. Antibiotic therapies remain the mainstay for H. pylori eradication; however, this strategy is hampered by the emergence and spread of H. pylori antibiotic resistance. Exploring the mechanistic basis of this resistance is becoming one of the major research questions in contemporary biomedical research, as such knowledge could be exploited to devise novel rational avenues for counteracting the existing resistance and devising strategies to avoid the development of a novel anti-H. pylori medication. Encouragingly, important progress in this field has been made recently. Here, we attempt to review the current state and progress with respect to the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance for H. pylori. A picture is emerging in which mutations of various genes in H. pylori, resulting in decreased membrane permeability, altered oxidation-reduction potential, and a more efficient efflux pump system. The increased knowledge on these mechanisms produces hope that antibiotic resistance in H. pylori can ultimately be countered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current and future insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma worldwide. H. pylori treatment still remains a challenge, since many determinants for successful therapy are involved such as individual primary or secondary antibiotics resistance, mucosal drug concentration, patient compliance, side-effect profile and cost. While no new drug has been developed, current therapy still relies on different mixture of known antibiotics and anti-secretory agents. A standard triple therapy consisting of two antibiotics and a proton-pump inhibitor proposed as the first-line regimen. Bismuth-containing quadruple treatment, sequential treatment or a non-bismuth quadruple treatment (concomitant) are also an alternative therapy. Levofloxacin containing triple treatment are recommended as rescue treatment for infection of H. pylori after defeat of first-line therapy. The rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance reduces the effectiveness of any regimens involving these remedies. Therefore, adding probiotic to the medications, developing anti-H. pylori photodynamic or phytomedicine therapy, and achieving a successful H. pylori vaccine may have the promising to present synergistic or additive consequence against H. pylori, because each of them exert different effects. PMID:26798626

  19. Helicobacter pylori is undetectable in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Birol; İnce, Ali Tüzün; Gültepe, Bilge; Gücin, Zuhal; Malya, Fatma Ümit; Tozlu, Mukaddes; Şentürk, Hakan; Bağcı, Pelin; Çelikel, Çiğdem Ataizi; Aker, Fügen; Özkara, Selvinaz; Paşaoğlu, Esra; Dursun, Nevra; Özgüven, Banu Yılmaz; Tunçel, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    About half of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a bacterium associated with gastric cancer and considered to be a risk factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Whether the bacterium is associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, believed to be a precursor of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of H. pylori DNA in tissue sections of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. The presence of H. pylori DNA was tested in a retrospective controlled study of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissues from 24 patients who underwent surgery for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Histologically normal tissues surrounding neoplasms were used as control. H. pylori DNA was evaluated after deparaffinization, DNA extraction, and purification, and results were evaluated statistically. Samples were collected from 13 males and 11 females with mean age 59 years (range 44-77), and consisted of 19 cases of main-duct and three cases of branched-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Two patients were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. H. pylori DNA was not detected either in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm tissue, or in surrounding normal tissue. Although H. pylori has been implicated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, it may not play a key role in the development of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Helicobacter pylori vaccination: is there a path to protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus

    2014-09-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogenic, extracellular bacterium that colonizes the stomach in approximately 50% of the world population. It strongly interacts with the gastric epithelium and mostly causes asymptomatic gastritis. The colonization of H. pylori leads to ulcer development in around 20% of infected patients and may progress to gastric cancer or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in 1%. Thus, H. pylori is the major cause of gastric cancer worldwide. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Since its discovery in the early eighties by Warren and Marshall, research has been focused on the investigation of H. pylori biology, host-pathogen interaction, prevention and treatment. Although H. pylori induces a strong humoral and local cellular immune response, the pathogen is not cleared and establishes a chronic infection after encounters in childhood. The ability to colonize the stomach is mediated by several virulence factors that change the host environment, promote adhesion to the epithelium, influence the gastric inflammation and induce immune evasion. H. pylori can be eradicated by antibiotic treatment in combination with a proton-pump inhibitor, but efficacy is decreasing. Current therapies are expensive, have side effects and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance, underlining the need for novel therapeutics.

  1. Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in vivo by novel endoscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Li, Yan-Qing

    2014-07-28

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a worldwide problem. Endoscopic observation of H. pylori infection in vivo would be helpful to obtain an immediate diagnosis. The aim of this review is to describe recent advances in endoscopic technology and to review the available literature pertaining to its clinical application in H. pylori infection. Endoscopic visualization of H. pylori infection is not always feasible using conventional endoscopy. Thus, advanced endoscopic techniques have been developed with the aim of providing a precise and ''real-time'' endoscopic diagnosis. Recently, new endoscopic techniques such as magnifying endoscopy, narrow band imaging, I-Scan, endocytoscopy and endomicroscopy help focus examination of the stomach to diagnose disease in a time-efficient manner, and the analysis of mucosal surface details is beginning to resemble histologic examination. The new detailed images have enabled endoscopists to observe microscopic structures, such as gastric pit patterns, microvessels and cell morphology. Accordingly, endoscopic prediction of H. pylori infection is possible by analysis of surface architecture of the mucosa, which influences the clinical management. These endoscopic techniques might lead us to easier diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori-related diseases.

  2. Helicobacter pylori: A Brief History of a Still Lacking Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruggiero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than half of the human population worldwide. Soon after its discovery, the causative relationships between H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma were evidenced. Then, a significantly increased risk of developing gastric cancer was found to be associated with H. pylori infection. The efficacy of the treatment for H. pylori, based on a proton pump inhibitor plus antibiotics, has dropped below 80%, mainly due to antibiotic resistance. Vaccination would overcome antibiotic resistance and would lead to the eradication of this pathogen; however, in spite of almost twenty-five years of investigation on H. pylori vaccine candidates and good protective results obtained in animal models, no vaccine is currently licensed. This review focuses on the studies on the efficacy of those H. pylori vaccine candidates that underwent clinical trials. Efficacy trials have given unsatisfactory results, so far, with bacterial colonization remaining unaffected by vaccination. However, a vaccine able to counteract H. pylori-induced diseases, such as gastric cancer, even without providing sterilizing immunity, could be considered valuable.

  3. Environmental determinants of transformation efficiency in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary E; Lam, Anna; Bhatnagar, Srijak; Solnick, Jay V

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori uses natural competence and homologous recombination to adapt to the dynamic environment of the stomach mucosa and maintain chronic colonization. Although H. pylori competence is constitutive, its rate of transformation is variable, and little is known about factors that influence it. To examine this, we first determined the transformation efficiency of H. pylori strains under low O2 (5% O2, 7.6% CO2, 7.6% H2) and high O2 (15% O2, 2.9% CO2, 2.9% H2) conditions using DNA containing an antibiotic resistance marker. H. pylori transformation efficiency was 6- to 32-fold greater under high O2 tension, which was robust across different H. pylori strains, genetic loci, and bacterial growth phases. Since changing the O2 concentration for these initial experiments also changed the concentrations of CO2 and H2, transformations were repeated under conditions where O2, CO2, and H2 were each varied individually. The results showed that the increase in transformation efficiency under high O2 was largely due to a decrease in CO2. An increase in pH similar to that caused by low CO2 was also sufficient to increase transformation efficiency. These results have implications for the physiology of H. pylori in the gastric environment, and they provide optimized conditions for the laboratory construction of H. pylori mutants using natural transformation.

  4. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection on nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschi, Francesco; Annalisa, Tortora; Teresa, Di Rienzo; Giovanna, D'Angelo; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franco, Scaldaferri; Viviana, Gerardi; Valentina, Tesori; Riccardo, Lopetuso Loris; Antonio, Gasbarrini

    2014-09-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world's population. It is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and shows a deep association with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Recently, the medical research focused on the modification of the gastric environment induced by H. pylori infection, possibly affecting the absorption of nutrients and drugs as well as the production of hormones strongly implicated in the regulation of appetite and growth. Interestingly, the absorption of iron and vitamin B12 is impaired by H. pylori infection, while infected subjects have lower basal and fasting serum levels of ghrelin and higher concentration of leptin compared to controls. Since leptin is an anorexigenic hormone, and ghrelin stimulates powerfully the release of growth hormone in humans, H. pylori infection may finally induce growth retardation if acquired very early in the childhood and in malnourished children. This review is focused on the nutritional effects of H. pylori infection, such as the reduced bioavailability or the malabsorbption of essential nutrients, and of gastrointestinal hormones, as well as on the relationship between H. pylori and the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Helicobacter pylori - a seasoned pathogen by any other name

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    Ahmed Niyaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori is a well known inhabitant of human stomach which is linked to peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. It was recently shown in several studies that H. pylori can be harnessed as a surrogate marker of human migration and that its population structure and stratification patterns exactly juxtapose to those of Homo sapiens. This is enough a testimony to convey that H. pylori may have coevolved with their host. Several protective effects of H. pylori colonization have been considered as evidence of a presumed symbiotic relationship. Contrary to this assumption is the presence of a strong virulence apparatus within H. pylori; why a co-evolved parasite would try inflicting its host with serious infection and even causing cancer? The answer is perhaps embedded in the evolutionary history of both the bacterium and the host. We discuss a hypothetical scenario wherein H. pylori may have acquired virulence genes from donors within its environment that varied with change in human history and ecology. The H. pylori genomes sequenced to date portray fairly high abundance of such laterally acquired genes which have no assigned functions but could be linked to inflammatory responses or other pathogenic attributes. Therefore, the powerful virulence properties and survival strategies of Helicobacter make it a seasoned pathogen; thus the efforts to portray it as a commensal or a (harmless 'bacterial parasite' need rethinking.

  6. In vitro antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus casei against Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shymaa Enany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ, clarithromycin (CLR, tetracycline (TET, and amoxicillin (AMX by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach.

  7. The Helicobacter pylori theory and duodenal ulcer disease. A case study of the research process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A H; Gjørup, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the medical research process from the time of the generation of a new theory to its implementation in clinical practice. The Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) theory, i.e. the theory that H. pylori plays a significant causal role in duodenal ulcer disease was chosen as a case....... MATERIAL: Abstracts from 1984 to 1993, identified in the CD-Rom, Medline system, ("Silverplatter"), using the search terms Campylobacter pylori and Helicobacter pylori, and reviews and editorials about H. pylori in some of the most widespread clinical journals. RESULTS: 2204 papers on H. pylori were....... pylori in duodenal ulcer disease had been published in some of the most widespread clinical journals. In half of the papers the authors were convinced of the causal role of H. pylori in duodenal ulcer disease, while in the remainder they were sceptical. In seven cases the authors stated which patients...

  8. Effect of H. pylori density by histopathology on its complications and eradication therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dharmesh K; Jain, Samit S; Mohite, Ashok; Amarapurkar, Anjali D; Contractor, Q Q; Rathi, Pravin M

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes chronic gastritis and is a major risk factor for duodenal and gastric ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and primary gastric lymphoma. Increased gastric bacterial density may lead to increased levels of inflammation and epithelial injury. 1) To study the effect of H. pylori density by histological changes in stomach. 2) To study the effect of H. pylori density on the efficacy of standard triple drug eradication treatment. 3) To study the effect of H. pylori density on the complication related to H. pylori. All the patients visiting gastroenterology OPD with the symptoms of dyspepsia not responding to proton pump inhibitor or having alarm symptoms were subjected to upper GI endoscopy and biopsy. If H. pylori was present they were included in the study. The patients were given standard 14 day triple antibiotic combination for H. pylori eradication. H. pylori eradication was confirmed by urea breath test after six weeks of completion of treatment. Out of 250 patients screened, 120 patients enrolled in the study. On clinical history 41.5% patients had symptoms of heart burn where as 63.3% patients had dyspeptic symptoms. Success rate of anti H. pylori triple drug therapy was 80%. Rate of eradication was significantly lower among the patients with higher H. pylori density (p H. pylori density (p H. pylori density by histopathology correlates with the complication related to H. pylori i.e. duodenal ulcer, reflux esophagitis and antral erosions. It also correlates with the success of the standard triple drug eradication treatment.

  9. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chandra Shrestha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  10. Animal Model Reveals Potential Waterborne Transmission of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Eaton, Kathryn A; Valdivieso, Manuel; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been consistently associated with lack of access to clean water and proper sanitation, but no studies have demonstrated that the transmission of H. pylori can occur from drinking contaminated water. In this study, we used a laboratory mouse model to test whether waterborne H. pylori could cause gastric infection. Groups of immunocompetent C57/BL6 Helicobacter-free mice were exposed to static concentrations (1.29 × 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8), and 10(9) CFU/L) of H. pylori in their drinking water for 4 weeks. One group of Helicobacter-free mice was exposed to uncontaminated water as a negative control. H. pylori morphology changes in water were examined using microscopy Live/Dead staining. Following exposure, H. pylori infection and inflammation status in the stomach were evaluated using quantitative culture, PCR, the rapid urease test, and histology. None of the mice in the negative control or 10(5) groups were infected. One of 20 cages (one of 40 mice) of the 10(6) group, three of 19 cages (four of 38 mice) of the 10(7) CFU/L group, 19 of 20 cages (33 of 40 mice) of the 10(8) group, and 20 of 20 cages (39 of 40 mice) of the 10(9) CFU/L group were infected. Infected mice had significantly higher gastric inflammation than uninfected mice (27.86% higher inflammation, p pylori in water is infectious in mice, suggesting that humans drinking contaminated water may be at risk of contracting H. pylori infection. Much work needs to be performed to better understand the risk of infection from drinking H. pylori-contaminated water. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, V V; Ignat, A; Ciubotariu, G; Ciubară, A; Moscalu, M; Burlea, M

    2016-11-01

    Some studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection would be a protective factor for the gastroesophageal reflux. The aim of this study was to explore this fact. A group of 72 children, admitted in a pediatric gastroenterology regional center in Northeast Romania, diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux by 24-hour continuous esophageal pH monitoring (results were interpreted using the Boix-Ochoa score), underwent upper endoscopy with gastric biopsy to detect the presence of H. pylori by the rapid urease testing and for bacteriological and histologic examination. 19 children (26.39%) had H. pylori infection, while 53 (73.61%) did not. The grade of esophagitis was classified according to the Los Angeles classification system. Out of 47 children with esophagitis A, 16 (34.04%) had H. pylori infection, while out of the 25 children with esophagitis B, only 3 (12%) had H. pylori infection, with statistic significance (χ(2) = 54.69, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Regarding the value of the Boix-Ochoa score, it appears that the presence of the H. pylori determines lower pH-metry scores (F = 8.13, P = 0.0015, 95% CI). The presence of the H. pylori was not an important factor in the gastroesophageal reflux. On the other hand its relationship with esophagitis appears to be inverse ratio. The fact that the H. pylori presence is statistically greater in the grade A esophagitis could confirm the hypothesis that the bacteria would slow down the development of the esophagitis. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  12. Severe gastritis decreases success rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar

    2016-05-01

    In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.

  13. Helicobacter pylori associated Asian enigma: Does diet deserve distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal

    2016-04-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widespread infections in humans worldwide that chronically infects up to 50% of the world's population. The infection is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer, therefore, it has been classified as class I definite carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Despite the established etiological role of H. pylori, its actual distribution and association with related diseases is controversial and there is a large intercountry variation especially among Asian countries. H. pylori infection is more frequent in developing countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as compared to developed Asian countries like Japan, China and South Korea. However, the frequency of gastric cancer is comparatively lower in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh with that of Japan, China and South Korea. Such phenomenon of clinical diversity, defined as enigma, is judged by genetic variability of the infecting H. pylori strains, differences in the host genetic background in various ethnic groups, and environmental factors such as dietary habits. Most of the studies have so far focused on the bacterial factor while environmental issues, including dietary components, were not given due attention as one of the factors related with H. pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis. The dietary factor has been suggested to play an important role in H. pylori related carcinogenesis, and in this respect several studies have corroborated the intake of various dietary components as modulatory factors for gastric cancer risk. In this review, such studies, from in vitro experiments to clinical trials, are being focused in detail with respect to enigma associated with H. pylori. It may be conceivably concluded from the available evidence that dietary factor can be a game changer in the scenario of Asian enigma, particularly in high risk population infected with

  14. Leptospira seroprevalence and associations between seropositivity, clinical disease and host factors in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engvall E Olsson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of different serovars of Leptospira spp. and their association with clinical disease and host factors in Swedish horses. Methods Sera from 2017 horses brought to equine clinics during 1997–98 were investigated. The sera were examined by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against the following L. interrogans serovars: Bratislava strain Jez, Icterohaemorrhagiae strain Kantorowicz and Pomona strain Pomona and also L. kirschneri sv Grippotyphosa strain Duyster and L. borgpetersenii sv Sejroe strain M 84. Host factors, disease factors, season, pasture access and outdoor confinement variables were analysed with respect to seropositivity to sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model seropositivity to sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae (seroprevalence > 8%. Results The seroprevalence, at a cut-off 1:100, were for sv Bratislava (16.6%, Icterohaemorrhagiae (8.3%, Sejroe (1.2%, Pomona (0.5% and Grippotyphosa (0.4%. In the multivariable analysis, it was demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age for sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae. For sv Bratislava the seasons April – June and October – December and for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae October – December had higher seroprevalences than other seasons. Horses not used for racing had higher levels of seropositivity to sv Bratislava. Furthermore, horses with respiratory problems as well as horses with fatigue had higher levels of seropositivity to sv Bratislava. Ponies and coldbloods, and horses with access to pasture, had lower seroprevalence for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae. Healthy horses had lower seroprevalence for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae, than non-healthy horses. Conclusion There was no significant association between clinical signs and disease and positive titres to sv Bratislava (except for the association between respiratory

  15. Longitudinal investigation of adenovirus 36 seropositivity and human obesity: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, M A; Burgner, D; Atkinson, R L; Pei-Lun Lee, Z; Magnussen, C G; Cheung, M; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Jokinen, E; Laitinen, T; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Viikari, J S A; Juonala, M; Raitakari, O T

    2015-11-01

    Adenovirus-36 (Adv-36) infection is associated with exaggerated adipogenesis in cell culture and the development of obesity in animal models and humans, but a causal relationship remains unproven. Our objective was to determine whether serological evidence of Adv-36 infection in childhood and/or adulthood is associated with adult obesity. Paired plasma concentrations of Adv-36 antibodies were measured by a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a subgroup (n=449) of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in childhood (mean age 11.9 years) and adulthood (mean age 41.3 years). The study group included (1) individuals who had maintained normal-weight status (2) those who became obese adults from a normal-weight status in childhood and (3) those that were overweight/obese as a child and obese as an adult. Mean (s.d.) time between baseline and follow-up was 29.4 (3.2) years (range 21-31 years). A total of 24.4% of individuals who were normal weight throughout life were seropositive for Adv-36 during child and/or adulthood as compared with 32.3% of those who became obese adults (P=0.11). Those who became obese in adulthood were more likely to be Adv-36 seropositive as adults compared with those who maintained normal weight (21.3% vs. 11.6%, P=0.02). This difference was mediated by a decline in Adv-36 seropositivity between child and adulthood in those maintaining normal weight. No differences were observed in body mass index across the life course, nor in waist circumference in adult life, between those who were Adv-36 seronegative or seropositive at any age. Individuals who gained weight across the life course were more likely to be Adv-36 seropositive in adult life than those who did not gain weight. However, analysis of change in weight status in relation to Adv-36 positivity did not support a causal role for Adv-36 in the development of obesity.

  16. Predictive factors of cytomegalovirus seropositivity among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieynaba S N'Diaye

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France.Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity.Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1% were primiparous, and 552 (67.1% had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI: [53.6%-60.4%] were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%-47.9%] in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%-88.3%]. Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i geographic origin (p<0.001(compared with Metropolitan France, geographic origins of Africa adjusted odds ratio (aOR 21.2, 95% CI:[9.7-46.5], French overseas departments and territories and other origin, aOR 7.5, 95% CI:[3.9-14.6], and Europe or Asia, aOR 2.2, 95% CI: [1.3-3.7]; and (ii gravidity (p = 0.019, (compared with gravidity = 1, if gravidity≥3, aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: [1.1-2.2]; if gravidity = 2, aOR = 1.0, 95% CI: [0.7-1.4]. Work characteristics and socioeconomic status were not independently associated with CMV seropositivity.In this cohort of pregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France.

  17. Acid-Adaptive Genes of Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Matrubutham, Uday; Gleeson, Martin A.; Scott, David R.; Sachs, George

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the only neutralophile that has been able to colonize the human stomach by using a variety of acid-adaptive mechanisms. One of the adaptive mechanisms is increased buffering due to expression of an acid-activated inner membrane urea channel, UreI, and a neutral pH-optimum intrabacterial urease. To delineate other possible adaptive mechanisms, changes in gene expression in response to acid exposure were examined using genomic microarrays of H. pylori exposed to different levels of external pH (7.4, 6.2, 5.5, and 4.5) for 30 min in the absence and presence of 5 mM urea. Gene expression was correlated with intrabacterial pH measured using 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-carboxyfluorescein and compared to that observed with exposure to 42°C for 30 min. Microarrays containing the 1,534 open reading frames of H. pylori strain 26695 were hybridized with cDNAs from control (pH 7.4; labeled with Cy3) and acidic (labeled with Cy5) conditions. The intrabacterial pH was 8.1 at pH 7.4, fell to 5.3 at pH 4.5, and rose to 6.2 with urea. About 200 genes were up-regulated and ∼100 genes were down-regulated at pH 4.5 in the absence of urea, and about half that number changed in the presence of urea. These genes included pH-homeostatic, transcriptional regulatory, motility, cell envelope, and pathogenicity genes. The up-regulation of some pH-homeostatic genes was confirmed by real-time PCR. There was little overlap with the genes induced by temperature stress. These results suggest that H. pylori has evolved multifaceted acid-adaptive mechanisms enabling it to colonize the stomach that may be novel targets for eliminating infection. PMID:14500513

  18. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  19. H. Pylori in a gastric schwannoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Daniel S; Paulin, Ethan T; Parker, Mitchell I; Zhang, Bin; Parker, Glenn S; Schwartz, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    Schwannomas are benign, often asymptomatic, slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells of the neural sheath. Although H. Pylori has been associated with gastric adenocarcinoma, there has never been a recorded association with schwannoma formation. We present a 64-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic partial wedge gastrectomy for an incidentally discovered gastric mass. Histologic examination was consistent with schwannoma; however, chronic inflammation with microorganisms morphologically consistent with H. Pylori was also present. This case suggests the first recorded case of H. Pylori in an immunohistochemically confirmed gastric schwannoma.

  20. Helicobacter pylori y dispepsia, un problema de salud comunitario

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel González-Carbajal Pascual; Ludmila Concepción Izaguirre

    2002-01-01

    Mientras la relación causal entre el Helicobacter pylori y la gastritis crónica, así como la importante conexión entre esta infección, la úlcera gastroduodenal y el cáncer gástrico han sido bien establecidas, la asociación entre la infección por Helicobacter pylori y la dispepsia "no ulcerosa" es un problema que dista mucho de estar esclarecido. Hay autores que no dudan en utilizar tratamiento de erradicación en la dispepsia "no ulcerosa" con Helicobacter pylori, pero existen enfoques alterna...

  1. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and parasites in symptomatic children examined for Helicobacter pylori antibodies, antigens, and parasites in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Mohanna, Mabrook A; Al-Zubairi, Lutf M; Sallam, Abdul K

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and parasites in symptomatic children examined for H. pylori antibodies, antigens, and parasites in Yemen. A record-based study was carried out at Specialized Sam Pediatric Center in Sana'a, Yemen for 3 years between 2011-2013. Out of the 43,200 patients seen for different causes through that period, 1008 (2.3%) (females: 675 [67%]; males: 333 [33%]) had gastric complaints, and were subjected to an examination of blood and stool for H. pylori and parasites. Data regarding age and gender was also collected. The age of the patients ranged from 3-15 years. The prevalence of H. pylori among children examined for H. pylori was 65%, 30% of them were males, and 35% were females (chi square [I2]=142, p<0.01]). The prevalence in the 6-8 years age group was 83%, and it was 52% in the age group of 12-15 years. The prevalence of giardiasis was 10%, and amoebiasis was 25%. Prevalence of H. pylori infection among children was high, and was more prevalent in the age group of 6-8 years than in the other age groups. Females were more affected than males. Parasites (amoebiasis and giardiasis) infestation was less prevalent.

  2. The seropositivity of Hepatitis A in children aged between 0-18 years in Kars province and around

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    Yunus Yılmaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study are to determine the rate of hepatitis A seropositivity in pediatric patient not studied before in Kars, assess the relation of hepatitis A seropositivity with seasons, compare the seropositivity rate with the other parts of our country and contribute to epidemiological studies. Methods: The study was performed between 01.01.2012 – 31.06.2014 on children aged between 0-18 years old, tested for anti-HAV IgG with different complaints and tested for HAV IgM due to suspected hepatitis A, who had admitted to Kafkas University Faculty of Medicine and Kars State Hospital by ELISA method. 1065 patients tested HAV IgG and 1481 patients tested HAV IgM were studied retrospectively. The results were analyzed by using chi-square trend analysis according to the age groups, gender, and seasons. Results: The anti-HAV Ig G and anti-HAV IgM seropositivity rates were found to be 66.3% (706/1065 and 42.7% (633/1481, respectively. Seasonal anti-HAV IgM positive rates were detected as 2.4% in December-February, 3% in March-May, 8.5% in June-August, and 21% in September-November. Conclusion: There is no previous study showing hepatitis A seropositivity in Kars and it’s around. In our region, HAV seropositivity has seasonal differences and is detected highly.

  3. Rapid improvement of Henoch-Schonlein purpura associated with the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection

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    Turgay Ulas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori are one of the most common bacterial infections, seen in humans, worldwide and their possible relationships to different diseases are a focus of attention nowadays. H. pylori may cause some extra intestinal manifestations some of which are dermatological conditions, including Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP, chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis. We describe a 49-year-old man who presented with HSP triggered by gastric H. pylori infection. Treatment of H. Pylori infection was accompanied by prompt resolution of the gastrointestinal manifestations and purpuric rashes. These findings suggest a causative role for H. pylori in the occurrence of HSP.

  4. Enterohepatic Helicobacter other than Helicobacter pylori

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    Beatriz Mateos Muñoz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Helicobacter genus includes Gram negative bacteria which were originally considered to belong to the Campylobacter genus. They have been classified in a separate genus since 1989 because they have different biochemical characteristics, with more than 24 species having been identified and more still being studied. H. pylori is the best known. It has an important etiopathogenic role in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Enterohepatic Helicobacter s (EHH other than H. pylori colonize the bowel, biliary tree and liver of animals and human beings with pathogenic potential. The difficulties existing to correctly isolate these microorganisms limit the description of their true prevalence and of the diseases they cause. Many studies have tried to discover the different clinical implications of EHH. Diseases like chronic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hepatocarcinoma, autoimmune hepatobiliary disease, biliary lithiasis, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, Meckel's diverticulum, acute appendicitis and inflammatory bowel disease have been related with different EHH species with different results, although their prevalence is greater than in healthy subjects. However, these data are currently not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. Finally, the best known role of EHH in bowel disease is production of acute and chronic diarrhea pictures initially referred to as Campylobacter. H. pullorum has been identified in patients with acute gastroenteritis. The correct identification of EHH as producers of infectious gastroenteritis is found in its antibiotic susceptibility. It is generally macrolide-susceptible and quinolone-resistant.

  5. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune disease:Cause or bystander

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel S Smyk Andreas L Koutsoumpas Maria G Myt-ilinaiou Eirini I Rigopoulou Lazaros I Sakkas Dimitrios P Bogdanos

    2014-01-01

    ... to the stomach.This review discusses the current evidence in support or against the role of H.pylori as a potential trigger of autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases,as well as organ specific autoimmune...

  6. Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Gastric Hypochlorhydria in the Malawian Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geraghty, Joe; Thumbs, Alexander; Kankwatira, Anstead; Andrews, Tim; Moore, Andrew; Malamba, Rose; Mtunthama, Neema; Hellberg, Kai; Kalongolera, Lughano; O'Toole, Paul; Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D Mark; Gordon, Melita

    2015-01-01

    HIV and Helicobacter pylori are common chronic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Both conditions can predispose to gastric hypochlorhydria that may be a risk factor for enteric infections and reduced drug absorption...

  7. Discovery – The Link to H.Pylori Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI supported research to solidify the link between H. pylori infections and stomach cancer. As a result, new cancer treatment and prevention strategies are being developed, encouraging scientists to carefully examine other cancers for viral and bacterial connections.

  8. Diet, microbial virulence, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, Timothy L; Peek, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the strongest known risk factors for this malignancy. H. pylori strains exhibit a high level of genetic diversity, and the risk of gastric cancer is higher in persons carrying certain strain types (for example, those that contain a cag pathogenicity island or type s1 vacA alleles) than in persons carrying other strain types. Additional risk factors for gastric cancer include specific human genetic polymorphisms and specific dietary preferences (for example, a high-salt diet or a diet deficient in fruits and vegetables). Finally, iron-deficiency anemia is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Recent studies have provided evidence that several dietary risk factors for gastric cancer directly impact H. pylori virulence. In this review article, we discuss mechanisms by which diet can modulate H. pylori virulence and thereby influence gastric cancer risk.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection and fasting plasma glucose concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Peach, H; Barnett, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background—Helicobacter pylori infection raises basal and meal stimulated serum gastrin concentrations and lowers iron stores, which may in turn reduce fasting plasma glucose concentrations in the population.

  10. Periodontal therapy as adjunctive treatment for gastric Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Yan, Xiang; Zhou, YongNing; Li, Wei Xin

    2016-02-07

    Helicobacter pylori is estimated to affect about half the world's population and is considered as the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Eradication of H. pylori infection accelerates ulcer healing and prevents relapse, reducing incidence of H. pylori-related gastric diseases. Numerous studies have provided evidence that the oral cavity could be a potential reservoir for H. pylori. The presence of oralH. pylori might affect the efficiency of eradication therapy and act as a causal force for its recurrence. Conversely, other investigators have indicated that the colonization and growth of H. pylori differs between the oral cavity and the stomach. Considering the open debate on the topic, it's necessary to clarify whether periodontal therapy is an effective adjunctive treatment for gastric H. pylori infection. To assess the effects of periodontal therapy plus eradication therapy versus eradication therapy alone for gastric H. pylori infection. The secondary objective is to compare the non-recurrence rate at long-term follow up in different treatment groups. We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (1980 to August 2015), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1978 to August 2015). We also searched both ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP portal in October 2015. We handsearched the reference lists of included studies to identify relevant trials. RCTs comparing periodontal therapy plus eradication treatment with eradication treatment alone, regardless of language of publication. Two reviewers selected the trials that met the inclusion criteria and extracted the details of each study independently. The data were pooled using both fixed-effect and random-effects models and results calculated as odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on an intention-to-treat analysis. However, because there

  11. Extradigestive Manifestation of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents

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    Philip M Sherman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection fulfills each of Koch's postulates as a human pathogen causing chronic active gastritis. Disease consequences that develop in a subset of infected subjects include peptic ulcerations, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. More recently, multiple publications have advocated a role for H pylori infection in causing a variety of extraintestinal manifestations. Many of these reports suffer from being case reports or case series without adequate controls. As a result, purported manifestations may simply be coincidental in nature. On the other hand, increasing evidence supports H pylori infection as a cause of sideropenic (refractory iron deficiency anemia. Moderate evidence supports H pylori gastric infection as a cause of some cases of immune thrombocytopenic purpura due to molecular mimicry. Guidelines should be adjusted in accordance with advancing knowledge in the field.

  12. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H...

  13. Helicobacter pylori and Hepatitis C virus coinfection in Egyptian patients

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    El-Masry Samir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease worldwide. It has been shown that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori plays an important role in chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies, and its eradication has been advocated. The association between H. pylori infection and liver cirrhosis in patients with hepatitis C virus has been documented in different parts of the world; nevertheless, no conclusive data is available in Egypt. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the status of H. pylori infection was sought in 90 patients with chronic HCV infection and in 66 HCV-free healthy controls. Results: The study showed that the H. pylori positivity was increased significantly (P = 0.03 in the HCV-infected patients when compared to that in healthy controls, where H. pylori infection was found in 50 (55.6% out of 90 of the HCV-infected patients versus 26 (39.4% out of 66 of the healthy controls. In HCV-infected patients, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was increased significantly (P = 0.04 from chronic active hepatitis to cirrhosis. H. pylori infection was present in 6/18 (33.3%, 10/21 (47.6%, 16/27 (59.3%, 18/24 (75.0% patients with chronic active hepatitis, Child-Pugh score A, Child-Pugh score B and Child-Pugh score C, respectively. More importantly, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in HCV-infected patients was increased very significantly (P = 0.003 with increasing Meld (model for end-stage liver disease score. The prevalence of H. pylori was documented in 9/28 (32.1% patients with Meld score ≤10 and in 41/62 (66.1% patients with Meld score> 10. Conclusion: It may be stated that our results collectively reflect a remarkable increase in H. pylori prevalence with advancing hepatic lesions, and the eradication treatment may prove beneficial in those patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  14. Recent Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori by Baka Pygmies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Valeria; Maady, Ayas; Nkwescheu, Armand; Siri, Jose; Elamin, Wael F.; Falush, Daniel; Linz, Bodo; Achtman, Mark; Moodley, Yoshan; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Both anatomically modern humans and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori originated in Africa, and both species have been associated for at least 100,000 years. Seven geographically distinct H. pylori populations exist, three of which are indigenous to Africa: hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, and hpNEAfrica. The oldest and most divergent population, hpAfrica2, evolved within San hunter-gatherers, who represent one of the deepest branches of the human population tree. Anticipating the presence of ancient H. pylori lineages within all hunter-gatherer populations, we investigated the prevalence and population structure of H. pylori within Baka Pygmies in Cameroon. Gastric biopsies were obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy from 77 Baka from two geographically separated populations, and from 101 non-Baka individuals from neighboring agriculturalist populations, and subsequently cultured for H. pylori. Unexpectedly, Baka Pygmies showed a significantly lower H. pylori infection rate (20.8%) than non-Baka (80.2%). We generated multilocus haplotypes for each H. pylori isolate by DNA sequencing, but were not able to identify Baka-specific lineages, and most isolates in our sample were assigned to hpNEAfrica or hpAfrica1. The population hpNEAfrica, a marker for the expansion of the Nilo-Saharan language family, was divided into East African and Central West African subpopulations. Similarly, a new hpAfrica1 subpopulation, identified mainly among Cameroonians, supports eastern and western expansions of Bantu languages. An age-structured transmission model shows that the low H. pylori prevalence among Baka Pygmies is achievable within the timeframe of a few hundred years and suggests that demographic factors such as small population size and unusually low life expectancy can lead to the eradication of H. pylori from individual human populations. The Baka were thus either H. pylori-free or lost their ancient lineages during past demographic fluctuations. Using coalescent simulations

  15. Functional dyspepsia, H. pylori and post infectious FD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Kwong Ming

    2011-04-01

    Functional dyspepsia has been defined by Rome III as the presence of one or more chronic dyspepsia symptoms in the absence of any organic, systemic, or metabolic disease that is likely to explain the symptoms. Delayed gastric emptying, antral hypomotility and altered intestinal motility, decreased gastric accommodation, H.pylori infection, enhanced visceral sensitivity, abnormal duodenal sensitivity to acid, carbohydrate maldigestion and psychological factors have all been identified in subgroups of patients with functional dyspepsia. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN H.PYLORI, FD AND POST INFECTIOUS FD:  The relationship between H. pylori infection and functional dyspepsia is controversial. H.pylori infection is present in a minority of patients with FD. Symptoms and abnormalities of function such as gastric emptying have not been consistently shown to be related to H.pylori infection. However, meta-analysis has shown that H.pylori eradication therapy in FD results in a small but statistically significant effect in H.pylori positive FD (relative risk reduction 10%). Guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection have therefore strongly recommended H.pylori eradication therapy in H.pylori positive FD patients. Post-infectious dyspepsia has been described as a distinct clinical entity, based on a large retrospective study that showed a subset of dyspeptic patients who had a history suggestive of post-infectious dyspepsia. In a prospective study, investigators in Spain have found that development of dyspepsia was increased fivefold at 1 year after acute Salmonella gastroenteritis. In post-infectious FD patients, early satiety, weight loss, nausea, and vomiting are frequently reported together with a higher prevalence of impaired gastric accommodation. More recently, infectious FD has been found to be associated with persisting focal T-cell aggregates, decreased CD4+ cells and increased macrophage counts in the duodenum for several moths after acute infection. This suggests

  16. Lymphocytic gastritis is not associated with active Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer A; Roberts, Cory A; Lager, Donna J; Putcha, Rajesh V; Jain, Rajeev; Lewin, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis (LG), characterized by marked intra-epithelial lymphocytosis in the gastric mucosa, has been frequently associated with both celiac disease (CD) and H. pylori gastritis. The aim of this study was to review and correlate the morphology of LG with the presence of CD and H. pylori. Gastric biopsies diagnosed with LG from 1/1/2006 to 8/1/2013 at our institution and corresponding small bowel biopsies, when available, were reviewed for verification of the diagnosis and to assess for the presence of H. pylori and CD. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for H. pylori was performed on all gastric biopsies. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from the medical record. Fifty-four of the 56 cases that met inclusion criteria demonstrated significant intra-epithelial lymphocytosis as the predominant histologic abnormality; however, none were associated with H. pylori infection by IHC staining. Two cases that also showed a prominent intra-epithelial and lamina propria neutrophilic infiltrate were both positive for H. pylori and were excluded from further study. Of the 36 small bowel biopsies available, 19 (53%) showed changes in CD. LG is not a distinct clinicopathologic entity, but a morphologic pattern of gastric injury that can be secondary to a variety of underlying etiologies. When restricted to cases with lymphocytosis alone, LG is strongly associated with CD and not with active H. pylori infection. However, cases that also show significant neutrophilic infiltrate should be regarded as "active chronic gastritis" and are often associated with H. pylori infection. A morphologic diagnosis of LG should prompt clinical and serologic workup to exclude underlying CD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Helicobacter pylori gastritis, a presequeale to coronary plaque

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    Shrikant C. Raut

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are considered the most common human pathogen colonizing gastric mucosa. Gastritis with or without H. pylori infection is associated with increase in levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP but a more pronounced increase is noted in gastritis with H. pylori infection. Increasing level of homocysteine, due to decreased absorption of vitamin B12 and folic acid, together with increased CRP levels in gastritis with H. pylori infection may be the earliest event in the process of atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Retrospective study conducted at tertiary care hospital in Mumbai by Department of Biochemistry in association with Department of Surgery. Eighty patients who underwent gastroscopy in view of gastritis were subjected to rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and hs-CRP were analyzed using chemiluminescence immuno assay. Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation and linear regression used for statistical analysis. Patients with H. pylori gastritis had significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 (271.6±101.3 vs 390.6±176.7 pg/mL; P=0.0005, as well as higher levels of homocysteine (17.4±7.4 vs 13.8±7.8 mmol/L; P=0.037 and hs-CRP (2.5±2.9 vs 1.2±1.1 mg/L; P=0.017, than in patients without H. pylori gastritis. However, folic acid showed (8.9±3.2 vs 10.0±3.6 ng/mL; P=0.171 no significant difference. Elevated homocysteine and hs-CRP in H. pylori gastritis may independently induce endothelial dysfunction, leading to cardiovascular pathology.

  18. Helicobacter pylori Update: Gastric Cancer, Reliable Therapy, and Possible Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    David Y Graham

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to development of diverse gastric and extra-gastric diseases. The infection is necessary but not sufficient for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its eradication would eliminate a major worldwide cause of cancer death, so there is much interest in identifying how, if, and when this can be accomplished. There are several mechanisms by which H pylori contributes to development of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of many cancers associa...

  19. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  20. The effect of Helicobacter pylori on asthma and allergy

    OpenAIRE

    D?Elios, Mario Milco

    2010-01-01

    Amedeo Amedei1, Gaia Codolo2, Gianfranco Del Prete1, Marina de Bernard2, Mario M D’Elios11Policlinico AOU Careggi, Department Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy; 2Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, ItalyAbstract: Current evidence indicates an inverse association between Helicobacter pylori and asthma and allergy. H. pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which represents the major cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, and preferentially eli...

  1. Helicobacter pylori in humans: Where are we now?

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Arshad Hussain; Shamila Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been associated with colonization of gastro duodenal mucosa of humans from millions of years. The main burden of the disese is in the developing countries, due to overcrowding and poor hygiene. If left untreated it leads to lot of sequlae from minor to sinister diseases over a period of time. The main challenges that remain are prevention of H. pylori-related diseases by effective treatment and screening procedures and development of a vaccine, which can address all th...

  2. Is Helicobacter Pylori a Possible Etiopathogenic Factor in Chronic Tonsillitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Elmas Ozgun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Helicobacter pylori is the major gastric pathogen which has an important role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic gastritis. We investigated the presence of Helicobacter pylori as an extragastric reservoir in the tonsillectomy specimens to display if it is an etiologic factor in the development of chronic tonsilitis. Material and Method: In the current study, 100 cases with chronic tonsilitis were examined in bilateral tonsillectomy specimens. The colonization of the microorganism have be...

  3. H. pylori eradication lower ulcers in cirrhosis. [Corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether early Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy in cirrhotic patients caused a dramatic reduction of recurrent peptic ulcers compared with those treated with a late eradication. We identified cirrhotic patients using the International Classifications of Diseases, Revision 9 (ICD-9-CM). Decompensated cirrhotic patients can apply for a catastrophic illness card and were identified via the ICD-9-CM codes 571.2, 571.5 and 571.6. Compensated cirrhotic patients were identified via the ICD-9-CM codes 571.2, 571.5 and 571.6, after excluded decompensated cirrhotic patients. We categorized patients into early (time lag ≤365 days after peptic ulcer diagnosis) and late (time lag >365 days) H. pylori eradication therapy groups. The end-point was the occurrence of recurrent peptic ulcers. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs). Altogether, 154 cirrhotic patients were included in the early H. pylori eradication group and 103 in the late H. pylori eradication group. Cirrhotic patients had a higher risk of recurrent peptic ulcers in the late H. pylori eradication group (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.09-2.28, P = 0.015). However, the risk of recurrent peptic ulcers in alcoholic cirrhotic patients in both groups (HR 1.47, 95% CI 0.77-2.83, P = 0.247) was similar. Early H. pylori eradication is associated with a lower risk of recurrent peptic ulcers in cirrhotic patients. H. pylori eradication is the mainstay for treating cirrhotic patients who have contracted peptic ulcers. © 2014 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

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    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  5. Relatedness of Helicobacter pylori populations to gastric carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan-Jiang; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Wang, Li-Li; Xin, Yong-Ning; Jiang, Man; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects half of the human population. The infection is associated with chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and peptic ulcers. It is also a major risk factor for gastric cancer. Phylogenetic analysis of global strains reveals there are seven populations of H. pylori, including hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, hpEastAsia, hpEurope, hpNEAfrica, hpAsia2 and hpSahul. These populations are consistent with their geographical origins, and possibly result from geographical separation of the bacterium leading to reduced bacterial recombination in some populations. For each population, H. pylori has evolved to possess genomic contents distinguishable from others. The hpEurope population is distinct in that it has the largest genome of 1.65 mbp on average, and the highest number of coding sequences. This confers its competitive advantage over other populations but at the cost of a lower infection rate. The large genomic size could be a cause of the frequent occurrence of the deletion of the cag pathogenicity island in H. pylori strains from hpEurope. The incidence of gastric cancer varies among different geographical regions. This can be attributed in part to different rates of infection of H. pylori. Recent studies found that different populations of H. pylori vary in their carcinogenic potential and contribute to the variation in incidence of gastric cancer among geographical regions. This could be related to the ancestral origin of H. pylori. Further studies are indicated to investigate the bacterial factors contributing to differential virulence and their influence on the clinical features in infected individuals. PMID:23236231

  6. Helicobacter pylori associated gastric intestinal metaplasia: Treatment and surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kevin Sze-Hang; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Leung, Wai K.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correa’s cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important...

  7. Deteksi Resistensi Amoxicillin Helicobacter pylori pada Pasien Dispepsia

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    Indah Sulistiyawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin is one of the antibiotics that commonly used on treatment of H. pylori infection. pbp1A gene mutation in H. pylori is a dominant cause of amoxicillin resistance. This study was aimed to evaluate the presence of H. pylori in patients with dyspepsia by using non-invasive method i.e. H. pylori stool antigen (HPSA and invasive method i.e. pbp1A gene amplification, and also evaluate the amoxicillin resistance of H. pylori by assessing the pbp1A gene mutations. The samples were  26 faeces and 26 gastric biopsies of patients with dyspepsia from the Internal Disease of Prof. Dr. Margono Soekardjo Hospital in Purwokerto. DNA amplification performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect the presence of amoxicillin resistance encoding gene i.e. penicillin binding protein (pbp1A. Sequencing of the DNA sample was performed at the First Base Malaysian Company, to analyze the existence of a point mutation. DNA sequencing analysis of 12 samples showed the presence of a mutations in pbp1A gene from 2 samples, in the third motive of pbp i.e. amino acid changes, Alanine 599 substituted to Threonin and Threonin 592 to Alanine. Those mutations become a dominant risk factor for resistance of H. pylori, toward the bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis. In this research, it was known that the detection of H. pylori infection by using PCR remains more accurate and specific method. The presence of H. pylori mutant strains in this study may becomes the risk factors of resistance to amoxicillin treatment.

  8. Age of the association between Helicobacter pylori and man.

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    Yoshan Moodley

    Full Text Available When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya, they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88-116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43-56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36-52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya.

  9. Risk factors of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in veterinary medicine students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rooij, Myrna M T; Schimmer, Barbara; Versteeg, Bart; Schneeberger, Peter; Berends, Boyd R; Heederik, Dick; van der Hoek, Wim; Wouters, Inge M

    2012-01-01

    Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among veterinary medicine students and to identify associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study with questionnaire and blood sample collection was performed among all veterinary medicine students studying in The Netherlands in 2006. Serum samples (n = 674), representative of all study years and study directions, were analyzed for C. burnetii IgG and IgM phase I and II antibodies with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Seropositivity was defined as IgG phase I and/or II titer of 1:32 and above. Of the veterinary medicine students 126 (18.7%) had IgG antibodies against C. burnetii. Seropositivity associated risk factors identified were the study direction 'farm animals' (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.27 [95% CI 2.14-5.02]), advanced year of study (OR year 6: 2.31 [1.22-4.39] OR year 3-5 1.83 [1.07-3.10]) having had a zoonosis during the study (OR 1.74 [1.07-2.82]) and ever lived on a ruminant farm (OR 2.73 [1.59-4.67]). Stratified analysis revealed study direction 'farm animals' to be a study-related risk factor apart from ever living on a farm. In addition we identified a clear dose-response relation for the number of years lived on a farm with C. burnetii seropositivity. C. burnetii seroprevalence is considerable among veterinary medicine students and study related risk factors were identified. This indicates Q fever as an occupational risk for veterinary medicine students.

  10. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

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    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  11. Correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients

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    Matera Antonio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of intrafamilial HCV transmission are still being debated. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlates of HCV seropositivity among familial contacts of HCV positive patients in Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 175 HCV positive patients (index cases, recruited from Policlinico Gemelli in Rome as well as other hospitals in Central Italy between 1995 and 2000 (40% female, mean age 57 ± 15.2 years, and 259 familial contacts. Differences in proportions of qualitative variables were tested with non-parametric tests (χ2, Yates correction, Fisher exact test, and a p value Results Seropositivity for HCV was found in 8.9% of the contacts. From the univariate analysis, risk factors significantly associated to HCV positivity in the contacts were: intravenous drug addiction (p = 0.004 and intercourse with drug addicts (p = 0.005. The only variables associated significantly and independently to HCV seropositivity in patients' contacts were intercourse with drug addicts (OR = 19.28; 95% CI: 2.01 – 184.94, the retirement status from work (OR = 3.76; 95% CI: 1.17 – 11.98, the time of the relationship (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.11 and tattoos (OR = 7.68; 95% CI: 1.00 – 60.20. Conclusion The present study confirms that having intercourse with a drug addict is the most significant risk factor for intrafamilial HCV transmission. The association with retirement status from work could be related to both a long-term relationship with an index case and past exposure to common risk factors.

  12. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

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    Cabezón, Oscar; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Molina-López, Rafael; Marco, Ignasi; Blanco, Juan M; Höfle, Ursula; Margalida, Antoni; Bach-Raich, Esther; Darwich, Laila; Echeverría, Israel; Obón, Elena; Hernández, Mauro; Lavín, Santiago; Dubey, Jitender P; Almería, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610), Strigiformes (n=260), Ciconiiformes (n=156), Gruiformes (n=21), and other orders (n=32), from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25) were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:)23.5-28.7) of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus), Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), long-eared owl (Asio otus), common scops owl (Otus scops), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), white stork (Ciconia ciconia), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus); in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and great bustard (Otis tarda); and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus). The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) (68.1%, 98 of 144). The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in

  13. Evidence of meaningful levels of Trypanosoma cruzi in platelet concentrates from seropositive blood donors.

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    Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Fisa, Roser; Riera, Cristina; Bula, Ibeth; Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa

    2015-06-01

    According to the reported cases of transfusion-acquired Trypanosoma cruzi infection, the risk of T. cruzi transfusion transmission appears to be higher with platelet (PLT) products than with other blood components. The aim of this study was to investigate by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) the parasitic load detected in leukoreduced plasma and PLT concentrates collected by apheresis from seropositive T. cruzi blood donors and compare them with peripheral whole blood (WB). During 2011 to 2013, a prospective study was carried out in a group of blood donors originating from Chagas-endemic areas but who are now living on the island of Majorca, Spain. Leukoreduced plasma and PLT concentrates were collected by apheresis from seropositive blood donors with detectable parasitemias in peripheral WB. Seropositivity was found in 23 of 1201 donors studied (1.9%), and T. cruzi DNA with less than 1 parasite equivalent/mL was detected in peripheral WB in 60.86% (14 of 23) of these. The study in blood components obtained by apheresis from these donors showed that T. cruzi DNA with a mean ± SD parasitic load of 5.33 ± 6.12 parasite equivalents/mL was detected in 100% of the PLT concentrate samples. Parasite DNA was undetectable in the extract taken from plasma collected from donors with a positive qPCR in peripheral WB. The higher parasitic load found in PLT concentrates compared to plasma and peripheral WB would explain the higher transfusion transmission risk of Chagas disease associated with PLT transfusions described in the reported cases of transfusion-acquired T. cruzi infection. © 2015 AABB.

  14. Patterns of human herpesvirus-8 oral shedding among diverse cohorts of human herpesvirus-8 seropositive persons.

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    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Goldman, Jason D; Magaret, Amalia S; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Gantt, Soren; Johnston, Christine; Phipps, Warren T; Schiffer, Joshua T; Zuckerman, Richard A; McClelland, R Scott; Celum, Connie; Corey, Larry; Wald, Anna; Casper, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), establishes lifelong latent infection with periodic lytic replication ("shedding") at mucosal sites, especially the oropharynx. Patterns of HHV-8 shedding are not well understood, and require elucidation to better predict risk of HHV-8 related malignancies in those infected. We sought to characterize patterns of HHV-8 oropharyngeal shedding among diverse cohorts that enrolled HHV-8 seropositive persons. We quantified HHV-8 oral shedding using PCR among HHV-8 seropositive persons who collected at least 14 days of oral swabs in 22 studies on 3 continents. We excluded persons taking antivirals during sampling or any prior use of antiretrovirals in those who were HIV-infected. 248 participants were enrolled from the US, Peru, Cameroon, Uganda, and Kenya; 61 % were men, 58 % were HIV seropositive, and 16 % had KS. Overall, 3,123 of 10,557 samples (29.6 %) had HHV-8 detected. Quantity of virus shed was highly correlated with shedding rate, (ρ = 0.72, p < 0.0001). HHV-8 was detected in ≥1 sample in 55 % of participants with a median of 7 % of days in the US and Kenya, 0 % in Uganda and Peru, and 18 % in Cameroon. Median episode duration was three days, and episodes with high median quantity lasted longer (42 vs 3 days, p < 0.0001). In persons with multiple observations over time, 66 % of shedding rate variance was attributable to differences between individuals. In HHV-8 infected individuals from diverse settings, oral mucosal shedding rate, quantity, and duration were correlated; individual shedding was highly variable. Studies are needed to determine factors accounting for between-person variation and the relationship of HHV-8 shedding to development of associated diseases.

  15. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospira Seropositivity in Beef Cattle, Sheep and Deer Farmers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J; Collins-Emerson, J M

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira. Samples with a MAT titre ≥48 were considered seropositive. Using Bayesian statistical analysis, the median seroprevalence of Leptospira, all serovars combined, was estimated to be 6.6% (95% probability interval (PI) 3.6-10.9%). Risk factors associated with seropositivity were assisting deer or cattle calving, farming deer, having ≥25% of flat terrain and high abundance of wild deer on farm, while high possum abundance on farm was negatively associated with seropositivity. No association was observed between farmer serostatus and previously recorded livestock serology. Leptospira seropositivity was associated with influenza-like illness of farmers (RR = 1.7; 95% PI 1.0-2.5). Assuming a causal relationship, this suggested an annual risk of 1.3% (95% PI 0.0-3.0%) of influenza-like illnesses due to Leptospira infection in the population of farmers. The association between seropositivity and disease can be used to estimate the public health burden of leptospirosis in New Zealand. Identifying and understanding risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity can inform preventive measures, hence contributing to the reduction of leptospirosis incidence in farmers. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Relationship Among Chlamydia and Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Seropositivity, IKZF1 Genotype and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in A General Japanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Shigeo; Tabara, Yasuharu; Matsumoto, Hisako; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Takahashi, Meiko; Ito, Isao; Ito, Yutaka; Murase, Kimihiko; Terao, Chikashi; Kosugi, Shinji; Yamada, Ryo; Sekine, Akihiro; Nakayama, Takeo; Chin, Kazuo; Mishima, Michiaki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The association of COPD with the pathogenicity of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae is controversial. We conducted a cross-sectional study to clarify the association between atypical pneumoniae seropositivity and COPD in a general population. We also investigated genetic polymorphisms conferring susceptibility to a pneumonia titer. The study included 9040 Japanese subjects (54 ± 13 years). COPD was defined as a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity of less than 70%. Serum levels of IgA and IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae were determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay, and M pneumoniae seropositivity was assessed by a particle agglutination test. Subjects seropositive for C pneumoniae (26.1%) had a higher prevalence of COPD (seropositive, 5.8%; seronegative, 3.1%; P pneumoniae seropositivity (20.4%) and COPD was also significant in covariate-adjusted analysis (P pneumoniae IgA index identified a susceptible genotype (rs17634369) near the IKZF1 gene, and the seropositive rate of C pneumoniae significantly differed among genotypes (AA, 22.5; AG, 25.3; GG, 29.7%, P pneumoniae (odds ratio = 1.41, P = 0.004) and M pneumoniae (odds ratio = 1.60, P = 0.002) was an independent determinant for COPD, while no direct association was found with the rs17634369 genotype. Seropositivity for both C pneumoniae and M pneumoniae is an independent risk factor for COPD in the general population. PMID:27082601

  17. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii among Stray and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus

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    Christel Bohn T. Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. It is widespread in the environment and infects a variety of warm-blooded animals, causing miscarriages and birth problems. Previous studies in the Philippines have determined the seropositivity of T. gondii in humans. However, the seroprevalence of the parasite among household pets, par ticularly its feline def initive host, remains insufficient . This study aimed to: (1 determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among domestic and stray cats in the Philippines; and, (2 to analyze the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples from 59 domestic and stray cats were collected and tested for T. gondii seropositivity using a commercially available indirect ELISA kit, while pet owners and handlers were given questionnaires about their cats. Thirteen or 22.03% of the cats were seropositive to T. gondii, and risk factor analysis revealed a significant difference between domestic and stray cats with regard to diet (p = 0.026, OR = 8.333, c = 0.299 and domestication (p = 0.039, OR = 5.000, c = 0.276. Cats fed with table food tested 31.43% seropositive compared to the 4.35% of those fed with cat food, whereas 33.33% of the stray cats were seropositive compared to 7.69% for domestic cats. Odds ratio test showed that the risk factors studied were associated with higher likelihood of T. gondii seropositivity. These results implicate diet and environment in the transmission dynamics of T. gondii among cats.

  18. SEROPOSITIVITY FOR ASCARIOSIS AND TOXOCARIOSIS AND CYTOKINE EXPRESSION AMONG THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN THE VENEZUELAN DELTA REGION

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    Zaida Araujo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at measuring seropositivities for infection by Ascaris suum and Toxocara canis using the excretory/secretory (E/S antigens from Ascaris suum (AES and Toxocara canis (TES within an indigenous population. In addition, quantification of cytokine expressions in peripheral blood cells was determined. A total of 50 Warao indigenous were included; of which 43 were adults and seven children. In adults, 44.1% were seropositive for both parasites; whereas children had only seropositivity to one or the other helminth. For ascariosis, the percentage of AES seropositivity in adults and children was high; 23.3% and 57.1%, respectively. While that for toxocariosis, the percentage of TES seropositivity in adults and children was low; 9.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The percentage of seronegativity was comparable for AES and TES antigens in adults (27.9% and children (28.6%. When positive sera were analyzed by Western blotting technique using AES antigens; three bands of 97.2, 193.6 and 200.2 kDas were mostly recognized. When the TES antigens were used, nine major bands were mostly identified; 47.4, 52.2, 84.9, 98.2, 119.1, 131.3, 175.6, 184.4 and 193.6 kDas. Stool examinations showed that Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Entamoeba coli were the most commonly observed intestinal parasites. Quantification of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-4 expressions showed that there was only a significant increased expression of IL-4 in indigenous with TES seropositivity (p < 0.002. Ascaris and Toxocara seropositivity was prevalent among Warao indigenous.

  19. A CCL5 Haplotype Is Associated with Low Seropositivity Rate of HCV Infection in People Who Inject Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huik, Kristi; Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Karki, Tõnis; Rüütel, Kristi; Talu, Ave; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Uusküla, Anneli; Carrillo, Andrew; Ahuja, Sunil K; He, Weijing; Lutsar, Irja

    2016-01-01

    The role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and its ligand CCL5 on the pathogenesis of HIV infection has been well studied but not for HCV infection. Here, we investigated whether CCL5 haplotypes influence HIV and HCV seropositivity among 373 Caucasian people who inject drugs (PWID) from Estonia. Study included 373 PWID; 56% were HIV seropositive, 44% HCV seropositive and 47% co-infected. Four CCL5 haplotypes (A-D) were derived from three CCL5 polymorphisms (rs2107538/rs2280788/rs2280789) typed by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. The data of CCR5 haplotypes were used from our previous study. The association between CCL5 haplotypes with HIV and/or HCV seropositivity was determined using logistic regression analysis. Possessing CCL5 haplotype D (defined by rs2107538A/rs2280788G/rs2280789C) decreased the odds of HCV seropositivity compared to those not possessing it (OR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.09-0.40), which remained significant after adjustment to co-variates (OR = 0.08; 95% CI 0.02-0.29). An association of this haplotype with HIV seropositivity was not found. In step-wise logistic regression with backward elimination CCL5 haplotype D and CCR5 HHG*1 had reduced odds for HCV seropositivity (OR = 0.28 95% CI 0.09-0.92; OR = 0.23 95% CI 0.08-0.68, respectively) compared to those who did not possess these haplotypes, respectively. Our results suggest that among PWID CCL5 haplotype D and CCR5 HHG*1 independently protects against HCV. Our findings highlight the importance of CCL5 genetic variability and CCL5-CCR5 axis on the susceptibility to HCV.

  20. H. pylori Management in ASEAN: the Bangkok Consensus Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Pittayanon, Rapat; Rojborwonwitaya, Jarin; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Maneerattanaporn, Monthira; Chotivitayatarakorn, Peranart; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Pisespongsa, Pises; Mairiang, Pisaln; Rani, Aziz; Leow, Alex; Mya, Swe Mon; Lee, Yi-Chia; Vannarath, Sengdao; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Chakravuth, Oung; Aung, Moe Myint; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Sollano, Jose D; Trong, Duc Quach; Sansak, Inchaya; Wiwattanachang, Olarn; Harnsomburana, Piyathida; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Fock, Kwong-Ming; Goh, Khean-Lee; Sugano, Kentaro; Graham, David

    2017-07-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection remains to be the major cause of important upper gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori management in ASEAN: the Bangkok consensus report gathered key opinion leaders for the region to review and evaluate clinical aspects of H. pylori infection and to develop consensus statements, rationales and grades of recommendation for the management of H. pylori infection in clinical practice in ASEAN countries. This ASEAN Consensus consisted of 34 international experts from 10 ASEAN countries, Japan, Taiwan and the United States. The meeting mainly focused on four issues: 1) Epidemiology and Disease Association; 2) Diagnostic tests; 3) Management; and 4) Follow-up after eradication. The final results of each workshop were presented for consensus voting by all participants. Statements, rationale and recommendations were developed from the available current evidence to help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori and its clinical diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.