WorldWideScience

Sample records for helically coiled pipes

  1. On the influence of curvature and torsion on turbulence in helically coiled pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofalo, M.; Di Liberto, M.; Marotta, G.

    2014-04-01

    Turbulent flow and heat transfer in helically coiled pipes at Reτ=400 was investigated by DNS using finite volume grids with up to 2.36×107 nodes. Two curvatures (0.1 and 0.3) and two torsions (0 and 0.3) were considered. The flow was fully developed hydrodynamically and thermally. The central discretization scheme was adopted for diffusion and advection terms, and the second order backward Euler scheme for time advancement. The grid spacing in wall units was ~3 radially, 7.5 circumferentially and 20 axially. The time step was equal to one viscous wall unit and simulations were typically protracted for 8000 time steps, the last 4000 of which were used to compute statistics. The results showed that curvature affects the flow significantly. As it increases from 0.1 to 0.3 the friction coefficient and the Nusselt number increase and the secondary flow becomes stronger; axial velocity fluctuations decrease, but the main Reynolds shear stress increases. Torsion, at least at the moderate level tested (0.3), has only a minor effect on mean and turbulence quantities, yielding only a slight reduction of peak turbulence levels while leaving pressure drop and heat transfer almost unaffected.

  2. Helically coiled tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    In a heat exchanger such as a steam generator for a nuclear reactor, two or more bundles of helically coiled tubes are arranged in series with the tubes in each bundle integrally continuing through the tube bundles arranged in series therewith. Pitch values for the tubing in any pair of tube bundles, taken transverse to the path of the reactor coolant flow about the tubes, are selected as a ratio of two unequal integers to permit efficient operation of each tube bundle while maintaining the various tube bundles of the heat exchanger within a compact envelope. Preferably, the helix angle and tube pitch parallel to the path of coolant flow are constant for all tubes in a single bundle so that the tubes are of approximately the same length within each bundle

  3. Hydrodynamic studies of CNT nanofluids in helical coil heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babita; Sharma, S. K.; Mital Gupta, Shipra; Kumar, Arinjay

    2017-12-01

    Helical coils are extensively used in several industrial processes such as refrigeration systems, chemical reactors, recovery processes etc to accommodate a large heat transfer area within a smaller space. Nanofluids are getting great attention due to their enhanced heat transfer capability. In heat transfer equipments, pressure drop is one of the major factors of consideration for pumping power calculations. So, the present work is aimed to study hydrodynamics of CNT nanofluids in helical coils. In this study, pressure drop characteristics of CNT nanofluid flowing inside horizontal helical coils are investigated experimentally. The helical coil to tube diameter was varied from 11.71 to 27.34 keeping pitch of the helical coil constant. Double distilled water was used as basefluid. SDBS and GA surfactants were added to stablilize CNT nanofluids. The volumetric fraction of CNT nanofluid was varied from 0.003 vol% to 0.051 vol%. From the experimental data, it was analyzed that the friction factor in helical coils is greater than that of straight tubes. Concentration of CNT in nanofluids also has a significant influence on the pressure drop/friction factor of helical coils. At a constant concentration of CNT, decreasing helical coil to tube diameter from 27.24 to 11.71, fanning friction factor of helical coil; f c increases for a constant value of p/d t. This increase in the value of fanning friction factor can be attributed to the secondary flow of CNT nanofluid in helical coils.

  4. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Céspedes, Nora; Habel, Catherine; Lopez-Perez, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Pla...

  5. Numerical study of the influence of geometrical characteristics of a vertical helical coil on a bubbly flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, H.; Moosavi, R.

    2014-11-01

    In this article, turbulent single-phase and two-phase (air-water) bubbly fluid flows in a vertical helical coil are analyzed by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The effects of the pipe diameter, coil diameter, coil pitch, Reynolds number, and void fraction on the pressure loss, friction coefficient, and flow characteristics are investigated. The Eulerian-Eulerian model is used in this work to simulate the two-phase fluid flow. Three-dimensional governing equations of continuity, momentum, and energy are solved by using the finite volume method. The k- ɛ turbulence model is used to calculate turbulence fluctuations. The SIMPLE algorithm is employed to solve the velocity and pressure fields. Due to the effect of a secondary force in helical pipes, the friction coefficient is found to be higher in helical pipes than in straight pipes. The friction coefficient increases with an increase in the curvature, pipe diameter, and coil pitch and decreases with an increase in the coil diameter and void fraction. The close correlation between the numerical results obtained in this study and the numerical and empirical results of other researchers confirm the accuracy of the applied method. For void fractions up to 0.1, the numerical results indicate that the friction coefficient increases with increasing the pipe diameter and keeping the coil pitch and diameter constant and decreases with increasing the coil diameter. Finally, with an increase in the Reynolds number, the friction coefficient decreases, while the void fraction increases.

  6. A real-scale helical coil winding trial of the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Tamaki, T.; Asano, K.; Suzuki, S.; Yamauchi, T.; Uchida, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Yamagiwa, T.; Suzuki, S.; Miyoshi, R.; Sasa, H.; Watanabe, S.; Tatemura, M.; Hatada, N.; Yamaguchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Yanagi, N.; Satow, T.; Yamamoto, J.; Motojima, O.

    1995-01-01

    A real-scale helical coil winding trial of the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been conducted for a study of coil winding configuration and winding methods and for exhibiting the state of the art. It includes construction and test run of a specifically designed winding machine and development of various manufacturing methods for accurate coil winding. It has been carried out in Hitachi Works before in situ winding, and has provided much needed engineering data for construction of the LHD. (orig.)

  7. Helical-axis stellarators with noninterlocking planar coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of helical axis stellarator fields generated by unlinked, planar coils are described. It is shown that such fields can have a magnetic well and large rotational transform, implying large equilibrium and stability beta limits

  8. Helical-axis stellarators with noninterlocking planar coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of helical axis stellarator fields generated by unlinked, planar coils are described. It is shown that such fields can have a magnetic well and large rotational transform, implying large equilibrium and stability beta limits.

  9. Helical coil alignment in the advanced toroidal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.; Cole, M.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Nelson, B.E.; Warwick, J.E.; Whitson, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the helical coil design concept, detailed descriptions of the method for installation and alignment, and discussions of segment installation and alignment equipment. Alignment is accomplished by optical methods using electronic theodolites connected to a microcomputer to form a coordinate measurement system. The coordinate measurement system is described in detail, along with target selection and fixturing for manipulation of the helical coil segments during installation. In addition, software is described including vendor-supplied software used in the coordinate measurement system and in-house-developed software used to calibrate segment and positioning fixture motion. 2 refs., 8 figs

  10. Synthesis, model and stability of helically coiled carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejes, Dora; Raffai, Manuella; Hernadi, Klara

    2013-01-01

    . Our experiments focused on the production and development of catalysts for the synthesis of helically coiled CNTs (carbon nanotubes). The catalysts were tested in the decomposition of acetylene by CCVD (Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition) method. The carbon deposit was imaged by TEM (Transmission......Structural model of helically coiled carbon nanotubes is proposed. It is constructed by means of topological coordinate method. Relaxation and cohesive energy calculation are performed by molecular mechanics, using second-generation bond order potential for hydrocarbons introduced by D. W. Brenner...

  11. Performance analyses of helical coil heat exchangers. The effect of external coil surface modification on heat exchanger effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejczyk, Rafał; Muszyński, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    The shell and coil heat exchangers are commonly used in heating, ventilation, nuclear industry, process plant, heat recovery and air conditioning systems. This type of recuperators benefits from simple construction, the low value of pressure drops and high heat transfer. In helical coil, centrifugal force is acting on the moving fluid due to the curvature of the tube results in the development. It has been long recognized that the heat transfer in the helical tube is much better than in the straight ones because of the occurrence of secondary flow in planes normal to the main flow inside the helical structure. Helical tubes show good performance in heat transfer enhancement, while the uniform curvature of spiral structure is inconvenient in pipe installation in heat exchangers. Authors have presented their own construction of shell and tube heat exchanger with intensified heat transfer. The purpose of this article is to assess the influence of the surface modification over the performance coefficient and effectiveness. The experiments have been performed for the steady-state heat transfer. Experimental data points were gathered for both laminar and turbulent flow, both for co current- and countercurrent flow arrangement. To find optimal heat transfer intensification on the shell-side authors applied the number of transfer units analysis.

  12. Flow-induced vibration of helical coil compression springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, F.E.; King, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Helical coil compression springs are used in some nuclear fuel assembly designs to maintain holddown and to accommodate thermal expansion. In the reactor environment, the springs are exposed to flowing water, elevated temperatures and pressures, and irradiation. Flow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the spring may excite the spring coils and cause vibration. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the flow-induced vibration (FIV) response characteristics of the helical coil compression springs. Experimental tests indicate that a helical coil spring responds like a single circular cylinder in cross-flow. Two FIV excitation mechanisms control spring vibration. Namely: 1) Turbulent Buffeting causes small amplitude vibration which increases as a function of velocity squared. 2) Vortex Shedding causes large amplitude vibration when the spring natural frequency and Strouhal frequency coincide. Several methods can be used to reduce or to prevent vortex shedding large amplitude vibrations. One method is compressing the spring to a coil pitch-to-diameter ratio of 2 thereby suppressing the vibration amplitude. Another involves modifying the spring geometry to alter its stiffness and frequency characteristics. These changes result in separation of the natural and Strouhal frequencies. With an understanding of how springs respond in the flowing water environment, the spring physical parameters can be designed to avoid large amplitude vibration. (orig.)

  13. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Céspedes

    Full Text Available Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum were identified in the P. vivax genome. The peptides identified in silico were chemically synthesized; circular dichroism studies indicated partial or high α-helical content. Antigenicity was evaluated using human sera samples from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Eight of these fragments were selected and used to assess immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. ELISA assays indicated strong reactivity of serum samples from individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions and sera of immunized mice, with the α-helical coiled coil structures. In addition, ex vivo production of IFN-γ by murine mononuclear cells confirmed the immunogenicity of these structures and the presence of T-cell epitopes in the peptide sequences. Moreover, sera of mice immunized with four of the eight antigens recognized native proteins on blood-stage P. vivax parasites, and antigenic cross-reactivity with three of the peptides was observed when reacted with both the P. falciparum orthologous fragments and whole parasites. Results here point to the α-helical coiled coil peptides as possible P. vivax malaria vaccine candidates as were observed for P. falciparum. Fragments selected here warrant further study in humans and non-human primate models to assess their protective efficacy as single components or assembled as hybrid linear epitopes.

  14. Modeling of Heat Transfer in the Helical-Coil Heat Exchanger for the Reactor Facility "UNITERM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Solonin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circuit heat sink plays an important role in the reactor system. Therefore it imposes high requirements for quality of determining thermal-hydraulic parameters. This article is aimed at modeling of heat exchange process of the helical-coil heat exchanger, which is part of the heat sink circuit of the reactor facility "UNITERM."The simulation was performed using hydro-gas-dynamic software package ANSYS CFX. Computational fluid dynamics of this package allows us to perform calculations in a threedimensional setting, giving an idea of the fluid flow nature. The purpose of the simulation was to determine the parameters of the helical-coil heat exchanger (temperature, velocity at the outlet of the pipe and inter-tubular space, pressure drop, and the nature of the fluid flow of primary and intermediate coolants. Geometric parameters of the model were determined using the preliminary calculations performed by the criterion equations. In calculations Turbulence models k-ε RNG, Shear Stress Transport (SST are used. The article describes selected turbulence models, and considers relationship with wall function.The calculation results allow us to give the values obtained for thermal-hydraulic parameters, to compare selected turbulence models, as well as to show distribution patterns of the coolant temperature, pressure, and velocity at the outlet of the intermediate cooler.Calculations have shown that:- maximum values of primary coolant temperature at the outlet of the heat exchanger surface are encountered in the space between the helical-coil tubes;- higher temperatures of intermediate coolant at the outlet of the coils (in space of helicalcoil tubes are observed for the peripheral row;- primary coolant movement in the inter-tubular space of helical-coil surface is formed as a spiral flow, rather than as a in-line tube bank cross flow.

  15. CFD analysis of the two-phase bubbly flow characteristics in helically coiled rectangular and circular tube heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Alamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their ease of manufacture, high heat transfer efficiency and compact design, helically coiled heat exchangers are increasingly being adopted in a number of industries. The higher heat transfer efficiency over straight pipes is due to the secondary flow that develops as a result of the centrifugal force. In spite of the widespread use of helically coiled heat exchangers, and the presence of bubbly two-phase flow in a number of systems, very few studies have investigated the resultant flow characteristics. This paper will therefore present the results of CFD simulations for the two-phase bubbly flow in helically coiled heat exchangers as a function of the volumetric void fraction and the tube cross-section design. The CFD results are compared to the scarce flow visualisation experimental results available in the open literature.

  16. CFD analysis of the two-phase bubbly flow characteristics in helically coiled rectangular and circular tube heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Alamin; Fsadni, Andrew M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their ease of manufacture, high heat transfer efficiency and compact design, helically coiled heat exchangers are increasingly being adopted in a number of industries. The higher heat transfer efficiency over straight pipes is due to the secondary flow that develops as a result of the centrifugal force. In spite of the widespread use of helically coiled heat exchangers, and the presence of bubbly two-phase flow in a number of systems, very few studies have investigated the resultant flow characteristics. This paper will therefore present the results of CFD simulations for the two-phase bubbly flow in helically coiled heat exchangers as a function of the volumetric void fraction and the tube cross-section design. The CFD results are compared to the scarce flow visualisation experimental results available in the open literature.

  17. Residual stress measurements in coil, linepipe and girth welded pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Prask, H.; Luzin, V.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines come from forming operations in producing the coil and pipe, seam welding the pipe, and girth welding pipes together to form a gas pipeline. Welding is used extensively in gas pipelines, the welds are made without post weld heat treatment. The three normal stresses were measured by neutron diffraction for three types of sample: coil, unwelded rings cut from the pipe made from this coil, and girth welded rings cut from linepipe. All three specimens came from three thicknesses of manufacture (5.4, 6.4, and 7.1 mm). The welds are manual metal arc cellulosic electrode welds made in X70 linepipe, these were measured at 5 through-thickness positions at 19 locations (from the center of the weld up to 35 mm away from the weld) with a spatial resolution of 1 mm 3 . The coil and unwelded rings were measured at the same five through-thickness positions

  18. Seismic analysis of a helical coil type heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, I.; Baba, O.; Yatabe, H.

    1984-01-01

    The intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) which forms the reactor coolant pressure boundary is one of the most important components of the Multi-purpose Experimental Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (ex. VHTR) under development at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This paper presents the results of the finite element modeling, eigenvalue analysis and dynamic response analysis of the IHX. For the modeling, the structure of the IHX was separated into a helical tube bundle, inner and outer vessels, and a center pipe. The eigenvalue analysis was made for each structure with a detailed three-dimensional finite element model. Then the simplified model of the whole structure of the IHX was constructed using the result of the eigenvalue analysis. A dynamic response analysis was made for the simplified model with and without stoppers of the helical tube bundle supports and the center pipe. The effect of stoppers on the behavior of the center pipe, the helical tube, and the connecting tube is discussed. (author)

  19. Design and testing of a coil-unit barrel for helical coil electromagnetic launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Liu, Zhenxiang; Shu, Ting; Yang, Lijia; Ouyang, Jianming

    2018-01-01

    A coil-unit barrel for a helical coil electromagnetic launcher is described. It provides better features of high structural strength and flexible adjustability. It is convenient to replace the damaged coil units and easy to adjust the number of turns in the stator coils due to the modular design. In our experiments, the highest velocity measured for a 4.5-kg projectile is 47.3 m/s and the mechanical reinforcement of the launcher could bear 35 kA peak current. The relationship between the energy conversion efficiency and the inductance gradient of the launcher is also studied. In the region of low inductance gradient, the efficiency is positively correlated with the inductance gradient. However, in the region of high inductance gradient, the inter-turn arc erosion becomes a major problem of limiting the efficiency and velocity of the launcher. This modular barrel allows further studies in the inter-turn arc and the variable inductance gradient helical coil launcher.

  20. Unraveling double stranded alpha-helical coiled coils: an x-ray diffraction study on hard alpha-keratin fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreplak, L; Doucet, J; Briki, F

    2001-04-15

    Transformations of proteins secondary and tertiary structures are generally studied in globular proteins in solution. In fibrous proteins, such as hard alpha-keratin, that contain long and well-defined double stranded alpha-helical coiled coil domains, such study can be directly done on the native fibrous tissue. In order to assess the structural behavior of the coiled coil domains under an axial mechanical stress, wide angle x-ray scattering and small angle x-ray scattering experiments have been carried out on stretched horse hair fibers at relative humidity around 30%. Our observations of the three major axial spacings as a function of the applied macroscopic strain have shown two rates. Up to 4% macroscopic strain the coiled coils were slightly distorted but retained their overall conformation. Above 4% the proportion of coiled coil domains progressively decreased. The main and new result of our study is the observation of the transition from alpha-helical coiled coils to disordered chains instead of the alpha-helical coiled coil to beta-sheet transition that occurs in wet fibers.

  1. Evaluation of CFD Methods for Simulation of Two-Phase Boiling Flow Phenomena in a Helical Coil Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shaver, Dillon [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, Yang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vegendla, Prasad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tentner, Adrian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy charges participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with the development of advanced modeling and simulation capabilities that can be used to address design, performance and safety challenges in the development and deployment of advanced reactor technology. The NEAMS has established a high impact problem (HIP) team to demonstrate the applicability of these tools to identification and mitigation of sources of steam generator flow induced vibration (SGFIV). The SGFIV HIP team is working to evaluate vibration sources in an advanced helical coil steam generator using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the turbulent primary coolant flow over the outside of the tubes and CFD simulations of the turbulent multiphase boiling secondary coolant flow inside the tubes integrated with high resolution finite element method assessments of the tubes and their associated structural supports. This report summarizes the demonstration of a methodology for the multiphase boiling flow analysis inside the helical coil steam generator tube. A helical coil steam generator configuration has been defined based on the experiments completed by Polytecnico di Milano in the SIET helical coil steam generator tube facility. Simulations of the defined problem have been completed using the Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid modeling capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. Simulations suggest that the two phases will quickly stratify in the slightly inclined pipe of the helical coil steam generator. These results have been successfully benchmarked against both empirical correlations for pressure drop and simulations using an alternate CFD methodology, the dispersed phase mixture modeling capabilities of the open source CFD code Nek5000.

  2. Fifty years of coiled-coils and alpha-helical bundles: a close relationship between sequence and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, David A D; Fraser, R D Bruce; Squire, John M

    2008-09-01

    alpha-Helical coiled coils are remarkable for the diversity of related conformations that they adopt in both fibrous and globular proteins, and for the range of functions that they exhibit. The coiled coils are based on a heptad (7-residue), hendecad (11-residue) or a related quasi-repeat of apolar residues in the sequences of the alpha-helical regions involved. Most of these, however, display one or more sequence discontinuities known as stutters or stammers. The resulting coiled coils vary in length, in the number of chains participating, in the relative polarity of the contributing alpha-helical regions (parallel or antiparallel), and in the pitch length and handedness of the supercoil (left- or right-handed). Functionally, the concept that a coiled coil can act only as a static rod is no longer valid, and the range of roles that these structures have now been shown to exhibit has expanded rapidly in recent years. An important development has been the recognition that the delightful simplicity that exists between sequence and structure, and between structure and function, allows coiled coils with specialized features to be designed de novo.

  3. Modeling of an once through helical coil steam generator of a superheated cycle for sizing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Sik; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Eui Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A thermal sizing code, named as HSGSA (Helical coil Steam Generator Sizing Analyzer), for a sodium heated helical coil steam generator is developed for KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) design. The theoretical modeling of the shell and tube sides is described and relevant correlations are presented. For assessment of HSGSA, a reference plant design case is compared to the calculational outputs from HSGSA simulation. 9 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  4. Modeling of an once through helical coil steam generator of a superheated cycle for sizing analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Sik; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Eui Kwang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A thermal sizing code, named as HSGSA (Helical coil Steam Generator Sizing Analyzer), for a sodium heated helical coil steam generator is developed for KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor) design. The theoretical modeling of the shell and tube sides is described and relevant correlations are presented. For assessment of HSGSA, a reference plant design case is compared to the calculational outputs from HSGSA simulation. 9 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  5. Two-Phase Annular Flow in Helical Coil Flow Channels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshock, Edward G.; Lin, Chin S.

    1996-01-01

    A brief review of both single- and two-phase flow studies in curved and coiled flow geometries is first presented. Some of the complexities of two-phase liquid-vapor flow in curved and coiled geometries are discussed, and serve as an introduction to the advantages of observing such flows under a low-gravity environment. The studies proposed -- annular two-phase air-water flow in helical coil flow channels are described. Objectives of the studies are summarized.

  6. Performance of Helical Coil Heat Recovery Exchanger using Nanofluid as Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Bozorgan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids are expected to be a promising coolant condidate in chemical processes for heat transfer system size reduction. This paper focuses on reducing the number of turns in a helical coil heat recovery exchanger with a given heat exchange capacity in a biomass heating plant using γ-Al2O3/n-decane nanofluid as coolant. The nanofluid flows through the tubes and the hot n-hexane flows through the shell. The numerical results show that using nanofluid as coolant in a helical coil heat exchanger can reduce the manufacturing cost of the heat exchanger and pumping power by reducing the number of turns of the coil.

  7. Theoretical and experimental study on the magnetomechanical behavior of superconducting helical coils for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaghi, T.; Miya, K.; Yamada, H.; Takagi, T.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetomechanical behavior of superconducting helical coils for a magnetic fusion reactor was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Deformations of straight and torus type helical coils were caused due to static electromagnetic forces in the liquid helium cryostat and were analysed with the finite element computer code made here. Despite of a large scatter of experimental data due to a non-uniform friction force between the helical coil and the torus of stainless steel, the numerical results are very close to the mean value of the data. Numerical analysis of the force distribution acting on the helical coils was also performed for a Heliotron's coil system to characterize its nature. The force could be categorized conveniently as an extensional force, a tangential force and a toroidal force which correspond respectively to the kind of forces acting on toroidal field coils. Additionally, the effect of mechanical constraint on the magnetomechanical behavior is discussed and shows that the location of the constraint significantly affects the stress distributions in the coils. (orig.)

  8. Boiling heat transfer and dryout in helically coiled tubes under different pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young-Jong; Bae, Kyoo-Hwan; Kim, Keung Koo; Lee, Won-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfer characteristics and dryout for helically coiled tube are performed. • A boiling heat transfer tends to increase with a pressure increase. • Dryout occurs at high quality test conditions investigated. • Steiner–Taborek’s correlation is predicted well based on the experimental results. - Abstract: A helically coiled once-through steam generator has been used widely during the past several decades for small nuclear power reactors. The heat transfer characteristics and dryout conditions are important to optimal design a helically coiled steam generator. Various experiments with the helically coiled tubes are performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and occurrence condition of a dryout. For the investigated experimental conditions, Steiner–Taborek’s correlation is predicted reasonably based on the experimental results. The pressure effect is important for the boiling heat transfer correlation. A boiling heat transfer tends to increase with a pressure increase. However, it is not affected by the pressure change at a low power and low mass flow rate. Dryout occurs at high quality test conditions investigated because a liquid film on the wall exists owing to a centrifugal force of the helical coil

  9. Torsion effect on fully developed flow in a helical pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    1987-01-01

    Two techniques, a series expansion method of perturbed Poiseuille flow valid for low Dean numbers and a solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equation applicable to intermediate Dean values, are used to investigate the torsion effect on the fully developed laminar flow in a helical pipe of constant circular cross section. For the secondary flow patterns, the results show that the presence of torsion can produce a significant effect if the ratio of the curvature to the torsion is of order unity. The secondary flow is distorted in these cases. It is noted that the torsion effect is, however, usually small, and that the secondary flow has the usual pattern of a pair of counter-rotating vortices of nearly equal strength.

  10. Evaluation of mechanical integrity for helical coil hold-down spring of PLUS7TM fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ki Sung; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Jung Tack; Kim, Kyu Tae

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear fuel assembly is subject to hydraulic forces generated by primary coolant flow during reactor operation. These forces may be sufficient to overcome the fuel assembly weight thereby allowing the fuel assembly to lift off of its support. To provide a positive hold-down margin against the upward coolant flow forces, helical coil springs or leaf springs are installed in the fuel assemblies. An advanced fuel for Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNP), PLUS7 fuel has developed to get the thermal margin increase, failure free and high seismic resistance, etc. And the new designed helical coil hold-down spring was introduced into PLUS7 fuel assembly. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the mechanical integrity for the helical coil hold-down spring of PLUS7 fuel assembly

  11. Development of a helical-coil double wall tube steam generator for 4S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Yuko; Maruyama, Shigeki; Jimbo, Noboru; Hino, Takehisa; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The 4S, Super-Safe Small and Simple, is a small-sized sodium-cooled fast reactor. A fast reactor usually uses sodium as a coolant to transfer heat from core to turbine/generator system. The heat of the intermediate heat transport system and that of the water stream systems are exchanged by the steam generator (SG) tubes. If the tube failure occurs, a sodium/water reaction could be occurred. To prevent the reaction and enhance safety, a helical-coil-type double wall tube with wire mesh interlayer and continuous monitoring systems of tube failure are applied to the SG of the 4S. The development and general features of this type double wall tube were described in Ref. 1) and Ref. 2). Those paper summarized following results; The tubes studied in these references were straight type. To establish this SG, development of manufacturing method of helical-coil-type double wall tube and validation of the tube failure monitoring system are needed. In this study, three demonstration tests have been performed; welding test of the double wall tube to manufacture the tubes with 70-80m length, assembling test of the helical-coil tube, and confirmation test of the tube processing system using the fabricated helical-coil tubes. As a result, following technologies have been successfully established. (1) Development of the welding techniques for manufacturing of the helical-coil-type double wall tube with wire mesh interlayer. (2) The confirmation test for manufacturing the helical coil tube of the SG. (author)

  12. Investigation of Horizontal Velocity Fields in Stirred Vessels with Helical Coils by PIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Bliem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal velocity flow fields were measured by particle image velocimetry for a stirred vessel with baffles and two helical coils for enlargement of heat transfer area. The investigation was carried out in a cylindrical vessel with flat base and two different stirrers (radial-flow Rushton turbine and axial-flow propeller stirrer. Combined velocity plots for flow fields at different locations are presented. It was found that helical coils change the flow pattern significantly. Measurements for the axial-flow Rushton turbine showed a strong deflection by the coils, leading to a mainly tangential flow pattern. Behind baffles large areas of unused heat transfer area were found. First results for the axial-flow propeller reveal an extensive absence of fluid movement in the horizontal plane. Improved design considerations for enhanced heat transfer by more compatible equipment compilation are proposed.

  13. Adsorption of zinc ions on bone char using helical coil-packed bed columns and its mass transfer modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Pérez, J.; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A.; Rojas-Mayorga, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the assessment of helical coil-packed bed columns for Zn2+ adsorption on bone char. Zn2+ adsorption breakthrough curves have been obtained using helical coil columns with different characteristics and a comparison has been conducted with respect to the results of straight fixed-bed...... columns. Results showed that the helical coil adsorption columns may offer an equivalent removal performance than that obtained for the traditional packed bed columns but using a compact structure. However, the coil diameter, number of turns, and feed flow appear to be crucial parameters for obtaining...... the best performance in this packed-bed geometry. A mass transfer model for a mobile fluid flowing through a porous media was used for fitting and predicting the Zn2+ breakthrough curves in helical coil bed columns. Results of adsorbent physicochemical characterization showed that Zn2+ adsorption on bone...

  14. Turbulent convective heat transfer of methane at supercritical pressure in a helical coiled tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenggang; Sun, Baokun; Lin, Wei; He, Fan; You, Yingqiang; Yu, Jiuyang

    2018-02-01

    The heat transfer of methane at supercritical pressure in a helically coiled tube was numerically investigated using the Reynolds Stress Model under constant wall temperature. The effects of mass flux ( G), inlet pressure ( P in) and buoyancy force on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Results show that the light fluid with higher temperature appears near the inner wall of the helically coiled tube. When the bulk temperature is less than or approach to the pseudocritical temperature ( T pc ), the combined effects of buoyancy force and centrifugal force make heavy fluid with lower temperature appear near the outer-right of the helically coiled tube. Beyond the T pc , the heavy fluid with lower temperature moves from the outer-right region to the outer region owing to the centrifugal force. The buoyancy force caused by density variation, which can be characterized by Gr/ Re 2 and Gr/ Re 2.7, enhances the heat transfer coefficient ( h) when the bulk temperature is less than or near the T pc , and the h experiences oscillation due to the buoyancy force. The oscillation is reduced progressively with the increase of G. Moreover, h reaches its peak value near the T pc . Higher G could improve the heat transfer performance in the whole temperature range. The peak value of h depends on P in. A new correlation was proposed for methane at supercritical pressure convective heat transfer in the helical tube, which shows a good agreement with the present simulated results.

  15. Forced convective boiling of water inside helically coiled tube. Characteristics of oscillation of dryout point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Niro; Sugiyama, Kenta; Takeuchi, Masanori; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Yamamoto, Fujio

    2006-01-01

    The helically coiled tube of heat exchanger is used for the evaporator of prototype fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. This paper aims at the grasp of two-phase flow phenomena of forced convective boiling of water inside helical coiled tube, especially focusing on oscillation phenomena of dryout point. A glass-made helically coiled tube was used to observe the inside water boiling behavior flowing upward, which was heated by high temperature oil outside the tube. This oil was also circulated through a glass made tank to provide the heat source for water evaporation. The criterion for oscillation of dryout point was found to be a function of inlet liquid velocity and hot oil temperature. The observation results suggest the mechanism of dryout point oscillation mainly consists of intensive nucleate boiling near the dryout point and evaporation of thin liquid film flowing along the helical tube. In addition, the oscillation characteristics were experimentally confirmed. As inlet liquid velocity increases, oscillation amplitude also increases but oscillation cycle does not change so much. As hot oil temperature increases, oscillation amplitude and cycle gradually decreases. (author)

  16. Selection and application of C18200 chrome copper for the OHTE confinement test helical coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhn, F.A.; Graumann, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The selection and qualification of copper for the OHTE confinement test helical coil (H-coil) was a crucial step in the success of this new experiment. Previous problems encountered at General Atomic Company with close tolerance machined parts made from high strength copper were identified. The design criteria included selecting a material with minimal warpage during machining, an electrical conductivity >80% IACS, and a yield strength of at least 241 Mpa (35 ksi). The investigation of candidate materials and testing samples led to selection of a material that fully met all requirements. The C18200 chrome copper forged plates were supplied by the Ampco Metal Division of Ampco-Pittsburgh Corporation

  17. Design and fabrication of forced-flow superconducting poloidal coils for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Mizumaki, S.; Yamakoshi, T.; Kanai, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Wachi, Y.; Ushijima, M.; Yoshida, T.; Kai, T.; Takahata, K.; Yamamoto, J.; Satow, T.; Motojima, O.

    1995-01-01

    Three pairs of superconducting poloidal coils for the LHD (Large Helical Device) have been designed and fabricated using NbTi/Cu cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors cooled with forced-flow supercritical helium (SHE). In the LHD poloidal coils, high field accuracy as well as high reliability are required. To meet these requirements, detailed field and structural analyses have been performed and key parameters including winding pattern and size and locations of conductor joints have been determined. Compact conductor joint, where NbTi filaments are directly bonded, has also been developed using the solid state bonding technique. (orig.)

  18. Helically coiled carbon nanotube forests for use as electrodes in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Anthony; Ferri, Kevin; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao

    Supercapacitors are a class of devices which combine the high energy density of batteries with the power delivery of capacitors, and have benefitted greatly from the incorporation of carbon nanomaterials. In an effort to improve the specific capacitance of these devices, we have produced binder-free electrodes composed of helically coiled carbon nanotube forests grown on stainless steel current collectors with a performance superior to traditional carbon nanomaterials. By virtue of their helicity, the coiled nanotubes provide a greater surface area for energy storage than their straight counterparts, thus improving the specific capacitance. Furthermore, we used an Ar plasma treatment to increase the electronic density of states, and thereby the quantum capacitance, through the introduction of defects.

  19. Highlights from the assembly of the helical field coils for the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The helical field (HF) coils in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) device consist of a set of 24 identical segments connected to form a continuous pair of helical coils wrapped around a toroidal vacuum vessel. Each segment weighs approximately 1364 kg (3000 lb) and is composed of 14 water-cooled copper plate conductors bolted to a cast stainless steel structural support member with a T-shape cross section (known as the structural tee). The segment components are electrically insulated with Kapton adhesive tape, G-10, Tefzel, and rubber to withstand 2.5 kV. As a final insulator and structural support, the entire segment is vacuum impregnated with epoxy. This paper offers a brief overview of the processes used to assemble the component parts into a completed segment, including identification of items that required special attention. 4 figs

  20. Dryout in sodium-heated helically-coiled steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Kosugi, T.; Kubota, J.; Nakajima, K.; Tsuchiya, T.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental research on the dryout phenomenon in sodium heated, helically coiled steam generator tubes was carried out. The fluctuation of the tube wall temperature caused by dryout was measured with thermocouples installed in the center of the tube wall. Empirical correlations of dryout quality were developed as functions of critical heat flux, water mass velocity and saturation pressure. These correlations confirmed that the design criterion of the MONJU steam generator was reasonable. (author)

  1. Dryout occurrence in a helically coiled steam generator for nuclear power application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santini L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dryout phenomena have been experimentally investigated in a helically coiled steam generator tube. The experiences carried out in the present work are part of a wide experimental program devoted to the study of a GEN III+ innovative nuclear power plant [1].The experimental facility consists in an electrically heated AISI 316L stainless steel coiled tube. The tube is 32 meters long, 12.53 mm of inner diameter, with a coil diameter of 1m and a pitch of 0.79 m, resulting in a total height of the steam generator of 8 meters. The thermo-hydraulics conditions for dryout investigations covered a spectrum of mass fluxes between 199 and 810 kg/m2s, the pressures ranges from 10.7 to 60.7 bar, heat fluxes between 43.6 to 209.3 kW/m2.Very high first qualities dryout, between 0.72 and 0.92, were found in the range of explored conditions, comparison of our results with literature available correlations shows the difficulty in predicting high qualities dryout in helical coils., immediately following the heading. The text should be set to 1.15 line spacing. The abstract should be centred across the page, indented 15 mm from the left and right page margins and justified. It should not normally exceed 200 words.

  2. Mass and heat transfer at the outer surface of helical coils under single and two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M.H.; Nirdosh, I.; Sedahmed, G.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The work aims to develop reactors which need rapid temperature control. • Mass and heat transfer at the outer surface of helical coils was studied experimentally. • The experiments were conducted under gas sparing, single and two phase flow. • Variables were helical tube diameter, physical properties, and gas and liquid velocity. • Results verification in terms of natural convection and surface renewal mechanism was explained. - Abstract: The mass transfer behavior of the outer surface of vertical helical coil was studied by the electrochemical technique under single phase flow, gas sparging and two phase flow. Variables studied were helical tube diameter, physical properties of the solution, solution velocity and superficial gas velocity. The mass transfer data were correlated by dimensionless equations. Mass transfer enhancement ratio in case of two phase flow ranged from 1.1 to 4.9 compared to single phase flow. Implication of the results for the design and operation of helical coil reactors used to conduct L–S exothermic diffusion controlled reactions which need rapid temperature control were outlined. In this case the inner coil surface will act as a cooler while the outer surface will act a reaction surface. Immobilized enzyme catalyzed biochemical reactions where heat sensitive materials may be involved represent an example for the reactions which can employ the helical coil reactor. Also the importance of the results in the design of and operation of diffusion controlled membrane processes which employ helical coil membrane was noted. In view of the analogy between heat and mass transfer the possibility of using the results in the design and operation of helical coil heat exchangers was highlighted.

  3. Numerical simulation of thermal-dynamic characteristics through a helical coiled tube with annular cross section for laminar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuangying; Chen Sujun; Li Yourong; Li Longjian

    2009-01-01

    A numerical method for simulating three-dimensional laminar forced convective heat transfer in a helical coiled passage with annular cross section under uniform wall temperature condition is presented. The helical coiled passage is fabricated by bending a 0.03 m inner diameter and 0.05 m outer diameter straight tube into a helical-coil of two turns. The results presented in this paper cover a Reynolds number range of 200 ∼ 1000, a pitch range of 0.1 ∼ 0.2 and a curvature ratio range of 0.1 ∼ 0.3. The numerical computations reveal the development and distribution of heat transfer and flow fields in the helical coiled passage when the inner annular wall is heated and the outer annular wall is insulated. In addition, the effects of Reynolds number, curvature ratio, and coil pitch on the average friction factor, average Nusselt number at different axial cross-section have been discussed. The results show that the secondary flow is weak and can be neglected at the entrance region, but the effect of the secondary flow is enhanced, the maximum velocity perpendicular to axial cross section shifts toward the outer side of helical coiled passage. Furthermore, the average Nusselt number and friction factor at every different axial location present different characteristics when the Reynolds number, curvature ratio and pitch change. Compared with the curvature ratio, the pitch has relatively little influence on the heat transfer and flow performance. (authors)

  4. Flow-induced vibration analysis of a helical coil steam generator experiment using large eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Haomin; Solberg, Jerome; Merzari, Elia; Kraus, Adam; Grindeanu, Iulian

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes a numerical study of flow-induced vibration in a helical coil steam generator experiment conducted at Argonne National Laboratory in the 1980s. In the experiment, a half-scale sector model of a steam generator helical coil tube bank was subjected to still and flowing air and water, and the vibrational characteristics were recorded. The research detailed in this document utilizes the multi-physics simulation toolkit SHARP developed at Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to simulate the experiment. SHARP uses the spectral element code Nek5000 for fluid dynamics analysis and the finite element code DIABLO for structural analysis. The flow around the coil tubes is modeled in Nek5000 by using a large eddy simulation turbulence model. Transient pressure data on the tube surfaces is sampled and transferred to DIABLO for the structural simulation. The structural response is simulated in DIABLO via an implicit time-marching algorithm and a combination of continuum elements and structural shells. Tube vibration data (acceleration and frequency) are sampled and compared with the experimental data. Currently, only one-way coupling is used, which means that pressure loads from the fluid simulation are transferred to the structural simulation but the resulting structural displacements are not fed back to the fluid simulation

  5. A special correcting winding for the l = 2 torsatron with split-type helical coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotenko, V.G.

    2012-01-01

    A split-type special correcting winding (split-type SCW) for the l = 2 torsatron toroidal magnetic system with split-type helical coils is considered. The split-type SCW gives the possibility of controlling the position of the magnetic surface configuration in the direction perpendicular to the torus equatorial plane. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the influence of the split-type SCW magnetic field on centered and distant relative to the torus surface magnetic surface configuration with a plane magnetic axis, being promising for the fusion reactor. The configuration is realized in the l = 2 torsatron with split-type helical coils and with the coils of an additional toroidal magnetic field. The calculations show that the split-type SCW magnetic field influence on the initial magnetic surface configuration leads mainly to the magnetic surface configuration displacement along the straight z axis of torus rotation. The displacement of ∼0.1a, a is the minor radius of the torus, has no critical effect on the magnetic surface parameters. An idea on the split-type SCW magnetic field structure is obtained by numerical simulations of the effect of this field as a minority magnetic field imposed on the magnetic field of a well-known configuration. The split-type SCW magnetic field is directed, predominantly along the major radius of the torus within its volume. The displacement range of the closed magnetic surface configuration depends on the split-type SCW magnetic field value.

  6. Generation of uniform magnetic field using a spheroidal helical coil structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Yavuz; Aktaş, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Uniformity of magnetic fields are of great importance especially in magnetic resonance studies, namely in magnetic resonance spectroscopy applications (NMR, FMR, ESR, EPR etc.) and magnetic resonance imaging applications (MRI, FMRI). Field uniformity is also required in some other applications such as eddy current probes, magnetometers, magnetic traps, particle counters etc. Here we proposed a coil winding regime, which follows the surface of a spheroid (an ellipsoid of rotation); in light of previous theoretical studies suggesting perfect uniformity for a constant ampere per turn in the axial direction thereof. We demonstrated our theoretical results from finite element calculations suggesting 0.15% of field uniformity for the proposed structure, which we called a Spheroidal Helical Coil. (paper)

  7. Requirements for accuracy of superconducting coils in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K; Yanagi, N; Ji, H; Kaneko, H; Ohyabu, N; Satow, T; Morimoto, S; Yamamoto, J; Motojima, O [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Chikusa, Nagoya (Japan); LHD Design Group

    1993-01-01

    Irregular magnetic fields resonate with the rational surface of the magnetic confinement systems, form magnetic islands and ergodic layers, and destruct the plasma confinement. To avoid this confinement destruction the requirement of an accuracy of 10[sup -4] in the magnetic field is adopted as the magnetic-accuracy design criterion for the LHD machine. Following this criterion the width of the undesirable magnetic island is kept less than one tenth of the plasma radius. The irregular magnetic field from the superconducting (SC) helical and poloidal coils is produced by winding irregularity, installing irregularity, cooling-down deformations and electromagnetic deformations. The local irregularities such as feeders, layer connections, adjacent-conductor connections of the coils also produce an error field. The eddy currents on the supporting shell structure of SC coils, the cryostat, etc. are also evaluated. All irregular effects are analyzed using Fourier decomposition and field mapping methods for the LHD design, and it is confirmed that the present design of the superconducting coil system satisfies the design criterion for these field irregularities. (orig.).

  8. Effect of Ovality on Maximum External Pressure of Helically Coiled Steam Generator Tubes with a Rectangular Wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong In; Lim, Eun Mo; Huh, Nam Su [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Shin Beom; Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Ji Ho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    A structural integrity of steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants is one of crucial parameters for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Thus, many studies have been made to provide engineering methods to assess integrity of defective tubes of commercial nuclear power plants considering its operating environments and defect characteristics. As described above, the geometric and operating conditions of steam generator tubes in integral reactor are significantly different from those of commercial reactor. Therefore, the structural integrity assessment of defective tubes of integral reactor taking into account its own operating conditions and geometric characteristics, i. e., external pressure and helically coiled shape, should be made to demonstrate compliance with the current design criteria. Also, ovality is very specific characteristics of the helically coiled tube because it is occurred during the coiling processes. The wear, occurring from FIV (Flow Induced Vibration) and so on, is main degradation of steam generator tube. In the present study, maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with wear is predicted based on the detailed 3-dimensional finite element analysis. As for shape of wear defect, the rectangular shape is considered. In particular, the effect of ovality on the maximum external pressure of helically coiled tubes with rectangular shaped wear is investigated. In the present work, the maximum external pressure of helically coiled steam generator tube with rectangular shaped wear is investigated via detailed 3-D FE analyses. In order to cover a practical range of geometries for defective tube, the variables affecting the maximum external pressure were systematically varied. In particular, the effect of tube ovality on the maximum external pressure is evaluated. It is expected that the present results can be used as a technical backgrounds for establishing a practical structural integrity assessment guideline of

  9. Investigation of the Dynamic Melting Process in a Thermal Energy Storage Unit Using a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic melting process of the phase change material (PCM in a vertical cylindrical tube-in-tank thermal energy storage (TES unit was investigated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. To ensure good heat exchange performance, a concentric helical coil was inserted into the TES unit to pipe the heat transfer fluid (HTF. A numerical model using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach was developed based on the enthalpy-porosity method to simulate the unsteady melting process including temperature and liquid fraction variations. Temperature measurements using evenly spaced thermocouples were conducted, and the temperature variation at three locations inside the TES unit was recorded. The effects of the HTF inlet parameters were investigated by parametric studies with different temperatures and flow rate values. Reasonably good agreement was achieved between the numerical prediction and the temperature measurement, which confirmed the numerical simulation accuracy. The numerical results showed the significance of buoyancy effect for the dynamic melting process. The system TES performance was very sensitive to the HTF inlet temperature. By contrast, no apparent influences can be found when changing the HTF flow rates. This study provides a comprehensive solution to investigate the heat exchange process of the TES system using PCM.

  10. High temperature technological heat exchangers and steam generators with helical coil assembly tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotaev, O.J.; Mizonov, N.V.; Nikolaevsky, V.B.; Nazarov, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of thermal hydraulics characteristics of nuclear steam generators with different tube bundle arrangements and waste heat boilers for ammonia production units was performed on the basis of operating experience results and research and development data. The present report involves the obtained information. The estimations of steam generator performances and repair-ability are given. The significant temperature profile of the primary and secondary coolant flows are attributed to all steam generator designs. The intermediate mixing is found to be an effective means of temperature profile overcoming. At present the only means to provide an effective mixing in heat exchangers of the following types: straight tubes, field tubes, platen tubes and multibank helical coil tubes (with complicated bend distribution along their length) are section arrangements in series in conjunction with forced and natural mixing in connecting lines. Development of the unificated system from mini helical coil assemblies allows to design and manufacture heat exchangers and steam generators within the wide range of operating conditions without additional expenses on the research and development work

  11. Convective mass transfer in helical pipes: effect of curvature and torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litster, S.; Djilali, N. [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Victoria, BC (Canada); Pharoah, J.G. [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Victoria, BC (Canada); Queen' s University at Kingston, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-01

    A 3D numerical analysis of the flow and mass transfer in helical pipes is presented. The interpretation of the flow patterns and their impact on mass transfer is shown to require a non-orthogonal pseudo-stream function based visualization. The strong coupling between torsion and curvature effects, and the resulting secondary flow regimes are well characterized by a parameter combining both the Dean (Dn) and Germano numbers (Gn). For membrane separation applications, helical modules combining high curvature with low torsion would alleviate concentration polarization and yield appreciable flux improvement. (orig.)

  12. Mechanical testing and development of the helical field coil joint for the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.E.; Bryan, W.E.; Goranson, P.L.; Warwick, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The helical field (HF) coil set for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is an M = 12, l = 2, constant-ratio torsatron winding consisting of 2 coils, each with 14 turns of heavy copper conductor. The coils are divided into 24 identical segments to facilitate fabrication and minimize the assembly schedule. The segments are connected across through-bolted lap joints that must carry up to 124,000 A per turn for 5 s or 62,500 A steady-state. In addition, the joints must carry the high magnetic and thermal loads induced in the conductor and still fit within the basic 140- by 30-mm copper envelope. Extensive testing and development were undertaken to verify and refine the basic joint design. Tests included assembly force and clamping force for various types of misalignment; joint resistance as a function of clamping force; clamp bolt relaxation due to thermal cycling; fatigue testing of full-size, multiturn joint prototypes; and low-cycle fatigue and tensile tests of annealed CDA102 copper. The required performance parameters and actual test results, as well as the final joint configuration, are presented. 2 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  13. An experimental investigation of pneumatic swirl flow induced by a three lobed helical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokeer, S.; Lowndes, I.; Kingman, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the results and conclusions drawn from a series of experiments conducted to investigate the swirl flow that are generated by a three lobed helical pipe mounted within a laboratory scale pneumatic conveying rig. The experiments employed Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) to quantify the strength of the induced vortex formations and the decay rates of the observed downstream swirl flows over a range of Reynolds number in the turbulent regime. Instantaneous point velocity measurements were resolved in three directions across regular measurement grids transcribed across parallel planes located at four distances downstream of the swirl inducing pipe section. The equivalent axial, radial and tangential velocities were subsequently computed at these grids points. The degree of swirl measured across each measurement plane was expressed in terms of a defined swirl number. It was concluded that the three lobed helical pipe gave rise to a wall jet type of swirl whose rate of observed downstream decay is related to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow and the distance downstream of the swirl pipe. The decay rates for the swirl flows were found to be inversely proportional to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow. The swirl pipe was observed to create a redistribution of the downstream velocity field from axial to tangential, accompanied by a transfer of axial to angular momentum. The findings of this paper are believed to improve understanding to assist the selective use of swirl flow within lean phase particles pneumatic transport systems.

  14. An experimental investigation of pneumatic swirl flow induced by a three lobed helical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokeer, S. [Department of Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, University of Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: S.Fokeer@lboro.ac.uk; Lowndes, I.; Kingman, S. [Division of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents a discussion of the results and conclusions drawn from a series of experiments conducted to investigate the swirl flow that are generated by a three lobed helical pipe mounted within a laboratory scale pneumatic conveying rig. The experiments employed Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) to quantify the strength of the induced vortex formations and the decay rates of the observed downstream swirl flows over a range of Reynolds number in the turbulent regime. Instantaneous point velocity measurements were resolved in three directions across regular measurement grids transcribed across parallel planes located at four distances downstream of the swirl inducing pipe section. The equivalent axial, radial and tangential velocities were subsequently computed at these grids points. The degree of swirl measured across each measurement plane was expressed in terms of a defined swirl number. It was concluded that the three lobed helical pipe gave rise to a wall jet type of swirl whose rate of observed downstream decay is related to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow and the distance downstream of the swirl pipe. The decay rates for the swirl flows were found to be inversely proportional to the Reynolds number of the upstream flow. The swirl pipe was observed to create a redistribution of the downstream velocity field from axial to tangential, accompanied by a transfer of axial to angular momentum. The findings of this paper are believed to improve understanding to assist the selective use of swirl flow within lean phase particles pneumatic transport systems.

  15. Thermal and electrical joint test for the helical field coils in the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Johnson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Initial feasibility studies of a number of configurations for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) resulted in the selection of a resistive copper continuous-coil torsatron as the optimum device considering the physics program, cost, and schedule. Further conceptual design work was directed toward optimization of this configuration and, if possible, a shorter schedule. It soon became obvious that in order to shorten the schedule, a number of design and fabrication activities should proceed in parallel. This was most critical for the vacuum vessel and the helical field (HF) coils. If the HF coils were wound in place on a completed vacuum vessel, the overall schedule would be significantly (greater than or equal to12 months) longer. The approach of parallel scheduel paths requires that the HF coils be segmented into parts of less than or equal to180 0 of poloidal angle and that joints be made on a turn-by-turn basis when the segments are installed. It was obvious from the outset that the compact and complex geometry of the joint design presented a special challenge in the areas of reliability, assembly, maintenance, disassembly, and cost. Also, electrical, thermal, and force excursions are significant for these joints. A number of soldered, welded, brazed, electroplated, and bolted joints were evaluated. The evaluations examined fabrication feasibility and complexity, thermal-electrical performance at approximately two-thirds of the steady-state design conditions, and installation and assembly processes. Results of the thermal-electrical tests were analyzed and extrapolated to predict performance at peak design parameters. The final selection was a lap-type joint clamped with insulated bolts that pass through the winding packing. 3 refs., 4 figs

  16. Effect of pressurization on helical guided wave energy velocity in fluid-filled pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Brennan; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    The effect of pressurization stresses on helical guided waves in a thin-walled fluid-filled pipe is studied by modeling leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate bordered by fluid. Fluid pressurization produces hoop and longitudinal stresses in a thin-walled pipe, which corresponds to biaxial in-plane stress in a plate waveguide model. The effect of stress on guided wave propagation is accounted for through nonlinear elasticity and finite deformation theory. Emphasis is placed on the stress dependence of the energy velocity of the guided wave modes. For this purpose, an expression for the energy velocity of leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate is derived. Theoretical results are presented for the mode, frequency, and directional dependent variations in energy velocity with respect to stress. An experimental setup is designed for measuring variations in helical wave energy velocity in a thin-walled water-filled steel pipe at different levels of pressure. Good agreement is achieved between the experimental variations in energy velocity for the helical guided waves and the theoretical leaky Lamb wave solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of Boundary Conditions and Friction on the Helical Buckling of Coiled Tubing in an Inclined Wellbore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yinchun; Ai, Zhijiu; Sun, Xu; Fu, Biwei

    2016-01-01

    Analytical buckling models are important for down-hole operations to ensure the structural integrity of the drill string. A literature survey shows that most published analytical buckling models do not address the effects of inclination angle, boundary conditions or friction. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of boundary conditions, friction and angular inclination on the helical buckling of coiled tubing in an inclined wellbore. In this paper, a new theoretical model is established to describe the buckling behavior of coiled tubing. The buckling equations are derived by applying the principles of virtual work and minimum potential energy. The proper solution for the post-buckling configuration is determined based on geometric and natural boundary conditions. The effects of angular inclination and boundary conditions on the helical buckling of coiled tubing are considered. Many significant conclusions are obtained from this study. When the dimensionless length of the coiled tubing is greater than 40, the effects of the boundary conditions can be ignored. The critical load required for helical buckling increases as the angle of inclination and the friction coefficient increase. The post-buckling behavior of coiled tubing in different configurations and for different axial loads is determined using the proposed analytical method. Practical examples are provided that illustrate the influence of the angular inclination on the axial force. The rate of change of the axial force decreases with increasing angular inclination. Moreover, the total axial friction also decreases with an increasing inclination angle. These results will help researchers to better understand helical buckling in coiled tubing. Using this knowledge, measures can be taken to prevent buckling in coiled tubing during down-hole operations.

  18. Markov analysis of alpha-helical, beta-sheet and random coil regions of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchiato, M.; Tramontano, A.

    1983-01-01

    The rules up to now used to predict the spatial configuration of proteins from their primary structure are mostly based on the recurrence analysis of some doublets, triplets and so on of contiguous amino acids, but they do not take into account the correlation characteristics of the whole amino acid sequence. A statistical analysis of amino acid sequences for the alpha-helical, beta-sheet and random coil regions of about twenty proteins with known secondary structure by considering correlations effects has been carried out. The obtained results demonstrate that these sequences are at least a second-order Markov chain, i.e. they appear as if they were generated by a source that remembers at least the two aminoacids before the one being generated and that these two previous symbols influence the present choice

  19. Trapped particle confinement studies in L = 2 torsatrons for additional helical coils, radial electric field and finite beta effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Wakatani, M.

    1990-07-01

    L = 2 torsatrons are studied to improve the high energy trapped particle confinement with additional l = 1 and/or l = 3 helical coils. The winding laws are selected in two ways. One is to realize 'σ - optimization' by the additional helical coils, but this approach loses magnetic well region. The other selection is to produce or deepen the magnetic well by the additional helical coils. L=3 helical coils are usable to this end. In this case the improvement of the trapped particle confinement depends on magnetic axis position. Radial electric field producing sheared rotational motion is also considered to improve the trapped particle confinement in a standard l = 2 torsatron. By excluding cancellation between E x B and ΔB drift motion occurred for the parabolic potential profiles, all deeply trapped particles can be confined in the central region. Degradation of the trapped particle confinement by the Shafranov shift is mitigated by shifting the magnetic axis inside in the vacuum configuration. (author)

  20. An assessment of heat transfer models of water flow in helically coiled tubes based on selected experimental datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Junli; Ma, Haifu; Yang, Zijiang; Shan, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A review of heat transfer characteristics for water flow in helically coiled tubes are conducted. •An assessment of heat transfer models under different heat transfer modes in helically coiled tubes are performed. •This work could provide references for the use of the correlations and for further studies. -- Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the heat transfer models under different heat transfer modes for water flow in helically coiled tubes based on the compiled datasets from the reviewed literatures. For single phase flow, most of the correlations of the heat transfer coefficient can fit well to the experiments. The correlations of Xin-Ebadian, Dravid and Kalb-Seader for laminar flow and those of Seban-McLaughlim, Mori-Nakayama, Xin-Ebadian, Hardik, Rogers-Mayhew, Mikaila-Poskas and El-Genk-Schriener for turbulent flow are recommended. For flow boiling heat transfer, Steiner-Taborek correlation could be utilized to predict the boiling heat transfer coefficients in helically coiled tubes for a relatively wide range of parameters. For dryout quality, the correlations of Hwang et al. and Santini et al. give relatively better predictions than others. However, more accurate correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient and dryout quality need to be developed based on further investigations with wider parameter ranges in the future. The present work could provide references for the investigators for future uses of those correlations and for performing further investigations on the heat transfer characteristics of water flow in helically coiled tubes.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Solar Thermal Storage Tanks with Helical Jacket Heater and Upper Spiral Coil Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung Man [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhong, Yiming; Nam, Jin Hyun [Daegu Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jae Dong [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hiki [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In a solar domestic hot water (Shadow) system, solar energy is collected using collector panels, transferred to a circulating heat transfer fluid (brine), and eventually stored in a thermal storage tank (Test) as hot water. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CAD) model was developed to predict the solar thermal energy storage in a hybrid type Test equipped with a helical jacket heater (mantle heat exchanger) and an immersed spiral coil heater. The helical jacket heater, which is the brine flow path attached to the side wall of a Test, has advantages including simple system design, low brine flow rate, and enhanced thermal stratification. In addition, the spiral coil heater further enhances the thermal performance and thermal stratification of the Test. The developed model was validated by the good agreement between the CAD results and the experimental results performed with the hybrid-type Test in Shadow settings.

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for Solar Thermal Storage Tanks with Helical Jacket Heater and Upper Spiral Coil Heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Man; Zhong, Yiming; Nam, Jin Hyun; Chung, Jae Dong; Hong, Hiki

    2013-01-01

    In a solar domestic hot water (Shadow) system, solar energy is collected using collector panels, transferred to a circulating heat transfer fluid (brine), and eventually stored in a thermal storage tank (Test) as hot water. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CAD) model was developed to predict the solar thermal energy storage in a hybrid type Test equipped with a helical jacket heater (mantle heat exchanger) and an immersed spiral coil heater. The helical jacket heater, which is the brine flow path attached to the side wall of a Test, has advantages including simple system design, low brine flow rate, and enhanced thermal stratification. In addition, the spiral coil heater further enhances the thermal performance and thermal stratification of the Test. The developed model was validated by the good agreement between the CAD results and the experimental results performed with the hybrid-type Test in Shadow settings

  3. Heat transfer of a helical double-pipe vertical evaporator: Theoretical analysis and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colorado-Garrido, D.; Santoyo-Castelazo, E. [Posgrado en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001. Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez, J.A.; Siqueiros, J.; Juarez-Romero, D. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencia Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001. Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico(UNAM), Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, 62580 Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    A predictive model is developed to describe heat transfer and fluid dynamic behavior of a helical double-pipe vertical evaporator used in an absorption heat transformer integrated to a water purification process. The evaporator uses water as working fluid connected in countercurrent. Heat transfer by conduction in the internal tube wall is considered; in addition the change of phase is carried out into the internal tube. The dynamic model considers equations of continuity, momentum and energy in each flow. The discretized governing equations are coupled using an implicit step by step method. The results of this model are compared with the experimental data in steady state, obtaining good agreement in the evaporation process. The model is also evaluated of form dynamic to determine the principal operation variables that affect the evaporator with the main objective to optimize and control the system. (author)

  4. Fatigue and fracture behavior of coiled pipes; Comportamento a fratura e fadiga de tubos bobinados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Alexandre M.; Silva, Renato M.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frainer, Vitor J; Tarnowski, Gabriel A.; Strohaecker, Telmo R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The possibility of applying coiled pipes in dynamic situations, such as risers, was investigated through full scale fatigue and fracture tests. A total of sixteen X-65 pipe specimens 41/2'' Od x 0.3'' x 13', containing a bias weld at the mid length, were fatigue tested in a resonance rig at 27 Hz. Six specimens were tested in the as fabricated condition while the ten others were previously subjected to five plastic deformation cycles, simulating reeling operations.. Tests were run until a crack propagated through thickness or 10{sup 7} cycles were achieved. Two cracked specimens were fracture tested in tension. All tests were carried out at room temperature. Test results showed that the fatigue lives were above the Bs-7608 mean class 'B' curves independently whether the specimen were plastically deformed or not. Post fatigue inspection and fractographic examination revealed that fatigue cracks propagate mostly from pits or surface scratches rather than from the bias weld. The two full size tensile specimens failed by ductile fracture at 80% of the material measured strength. (author)

  5. Frictional pressure drop of steam-water two-phase flow in helical coils with small helix diameter of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Qincheng; Chen Tingkuan; Luo Yushan; Zheng Jianxue

    1996-01-01

    Experiments of steam-water two-phase flow frictional pressure drop through five vertically and horizontally positioned helical coils were carried out in the high pressure steam water test loop of Xi'an Jiaotong University. Two kinds of tube with inner diameters of 10 mm and 12 mm were used to form the coils. The helix diameter was 115 mm with coil pitch 22.5 mm. The experimental conditions were: pressure p = 4-14 MPa, mass velocity G = 400-2000 kg/(m 2 ·s), and inner wall heat flux q = 0-750 kW/m 2 . Theoretical analysis with a semi-empirical correlation was made to predict the two-phase flow fictional pressure drop through these kinds of helical coils

  6. Flow pattern-based mass and heat transfer and frictional drag of gas-non-Newtonian liquid flow in helical coil: two- and three-phase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandlam, Anil Kumar; Das, Chiranjib; Majumder, Subrata Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Investigation of wall-liquid mass transfer and heat transfer phenomena with gas-Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in vertically helical coil reactor have been reported in this article. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various dynamic and geometric parameters on mass and heat transfer coefficients in the helical coil reactor. The flow pattern-based heat and mass transfer phenomena in the helical coil reactor are highlighted at different operating conditions. The study covered a wide range of geometric parameters such as diameter of the tube ( d t ), diameter of the coil ( D c ), diameter of the particle ( d p ), pitch difference ( p/D c ) and concentrations of non-Newtonian liquid. The correlation models for the heat and mass transfer coefficient based on the flow pattern are developed which may be useful in process scale-up of the helical coil reactor for industrial application. The frictional drag coefficient was also estimated and analyzed by mass transfer phenomena based on the electrochemical method.

  7. Thermal performance comparison of oscillating heat pipes with and without helical micro-grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jian; Li, Xiaojun; Xu, Qian; Wang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation to compare the thermal performance of three closed loop oscillating heat pipes (OHPs) with and without internal helical microgrooves at vertical and horizontal orientations. All of these OHPs were made from copper tubes and have three turns with lengths of 70, 230 and 110 mm at the evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections, respectively. Deionized water was used as the working fluid at a volumetric filling ratio of 50%. The internal diameters (IDs) of two smooth-tube OHPs are 4.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively, and the internal diameter of micro-grooved OHP without groove structures is about 4.5 mm. Experimental results demonstrated that the addition of groove structures make the OHP remarkably outperform smooth-tube OHPs in both effective thermal conductivity and thermal resistance. The thermal resistance of vertically-oriented micro-grooved OHP could be lowered to 0.057 °C/W associated with an effective thermal conductivity of 6.1 × 104 W/ (m·K) at the input heat flux of 3.8 × 104 W/m2. Compared to smooth-tube OHPs, preliminary mechanism analysis reveals that local heat transfer coefficients both at the heating and cooling sections of micro-grooved OHP could be significantly improved. Moreover, enhanced liquid backflow to the evaporator due to microgroove-induced capillarity is also responsible for the OHP performance enhancement.

  8. Proposed Design Procedure of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger for an Orc Energy Recovery System for Vehicular Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Bonafoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several systems that produce energy from low grade heat sources such as Stirling engines, thermoelectric generators, and ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. This paper shows the heat recovery from exhaust gases of a 1400 cc Diesel engine, to vaporize the working fluid of a small (<10 kW ORC system. The main objective is to have a system as compact as possible, to make it suitable for transport applications such as cars, ships, trains, etc. Three fluids were studied for this application: water and two refrigerant fluids: R134a and R245fa, which were found to be more appropriate than water at certain pressure and temperature values. Afterwards, a design procedure was proposed, then the heat exchanger was modeled and finally a steady-state thermal and structural analysis were carried out using a commercial software to find the temperature and the effects of the thermal stress on the material of the helical coiled tube.

  9. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in annulus laminar flow of multi tubes-in-tube helical coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, S. A.; Elattar, H. F.; Fouda, A.; Refaey, H. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, a CFD analysis using ANSYS-FLUENT 14.5 CFD package is used to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer of laminar flow in annulus formed by multi tubes in tube helically coiled heat exchanger. The numerical results are validated by comparison with previous experimental data and fair agreements were existed. The influences of the design and operation parameters such as heat flux, Reynolds numbers and annulus geometry on the heat transfer characteristics are investigated. Different annulus of different numbers of inner tubes, specifically 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 tubes, are tested. The Results showed that for all the studied annulus, the heat flux has no effect on the Nusselt number and compactness parameter. The annulus formed by using five inner tubes showed the best heat transfer performance and compactness parameter. Correlation of predicting Nusselt number in terms of Reynolds number and number of inner tubes are presented.

  10. Bioinspired coupled helical coils for soft tissue engineering of tubular structures - Improved mechanical behavior of tubular collagen type I templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, H P; Bohlin, J; Lomme, R M L M; Mihaila, S M; Hilborn, J; Feitz, W F J; Oosterwijk, E

    2017-09-01

    The design of constructs for tubular tissue engineering is challenging. Most biomaterials need to be reinforced with supporting structures such as knittings, meshes or electrospun material to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. In this study, coupled helical coils (CHCs) were manufactured to mimic collagen fiber orientation as found in nature. Monofilaments of different commercially available biodegradable polymers were wound and subsequently fused, resulting in right-handed and left-handed polymer helices fused together in joints where the filaments cross. CHCs of different polymer composition were tested to determine the tensile strength, strain recovery, hysteresis, compressive strength and degradation of CHCs of different composition. Subsequently, seamless and stable hybrid constructs consisting of PDSII® USP 2-0 CHCs embedded in porous collagen type I were produced. Compared to collagen alone, this hybrid showed superior strain recovery (93.5±0.9% vs 71.1±12.6% in longitudinal direction; 87.1±6.6% vs 57.2±4.6% in circumferential direction) and hysteresis (18.9±2.7% vs 51.1±12.0% in longitudinal direction; 11.5±4.6% vs 46.3±6.3% in circumferential direction). Furthermore, this hybrid construct showed an improved Young's modulus in both longitudinal (0.5±0.1MPavs 0.2±0.1MPa; 2.5-fold) and circumferential (1.65±0.07MPavs (2.9±0.3)×10 -2 MPa; 57-fold) direction, respectively, compared to templates created from collagen alone. Moreover, hybrid template characteristics could be modified by changing the CHC composition and CHCs were produced showing a mechanical behavior similar to the native ureter. CHC-enforced templates, which are easily tunable to meet different demands may be promising for tubular tissue engineering. Most tubular constructs lack sufficient strength and tunability to comply with the mechanical demands of native tissues. Therefore, we embedded coupled helical coils (CHCs) produced from biodegradable polymers - to

  11. Flow patterns and hydraulic losses in quasi-coil pipes : The effects of configuration of bend cross section, curvature ratio and bend angle

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; Sugino, Koichi; Yasui, Masaji; Hayakawa, Yukitaka; Kuzuhara, Sadao

    1985-01-01

    Pipes with bend combinations are much used in the heat exchangers, since the curved path in the bends promotes the mixing in flow for active heat transfer. In the present paper, one of the pipes with bend combinations, namely, quasi-coiled pipes composed of many bend elements are investigated, and the relationships between the hydraulic loss and the secondary flow are studied experimentally. The configurations of the cross sections, the bent angles and the curvature ratios of the bend element...

  12. Performance Evaluation of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Working under Supercritical Conditions in a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in low grade heat valorization using organic Rankine cycle (ORC technologies has increased significantly. A new small-scale ORC with a net capacity of 3 kW was efficiently integrated with a concentrated solar power technology for electricity generation. The excess heat source from Photovoltaic (PV collectors with a maximum temperature of 100 °C was utilized through a supercritical heat exchanger that uses R-404A as working medium. By ensuring supercritical heat transfer leads to a better thermal match in the heat exchanger and improved overall cycle efficiency. A helical coil heat exchanger was designed by using heat transfer correlations from the literature. These heat transfer correlations were derived for different conditions than ORCs and their estimated uncertainty is ~20%. In order to account for the heat transfer correlation uncertainties this component was oversized by 20%. Next, a prototype was built and installed in an integrated concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T/Rankine system. The results from the measurements show that for better estimation of the sizing of the heat exchanger a more accurate correlation is required in order to design an optimal configuration and thus employ cheaper components.

  13. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  14. Friction pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of two-phase flow in helically coiled tube once-through steam generator for integrated type marine water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hideki; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Matsuoka, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    Two-phase friction pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients in a once-through steam generator with helically coiled tubes were investigated with the model test rig of an integrated type marine water reactor. As the dimensions of the heat transfer tubes and the thermal-fluid conditions are almost the same as those of real reactors, the data applicable directly to the real reactor design were obtained. As to the friction pressure drop, modified Kozeki's prediction which is based on the experimental data by Kozeki for coiled tubes, agreed the best with the experimental data. Modified Martinelli-Nelson's prediction which is based on Martinelli-Nelson's multiplier using Ito's equation for single-phase flow in coiled tube, agreed within 30%. The effect of coiled tube on the average heat transfer coefficients at boiling region were small, and the predictions for straight tube could also be applied to coiled tube. Schrock-Grossman's correlation agreed well with the experimental data at the pressures of lower than 3.5 MPa. It was suggested that dryout should be occurred at the quality of greater than 90% within the conditions of this report. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional deformation response of a NiTi shape memory helical-coil actuator during thermomechanical cycling: experimentally validated numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, B.; Nicholson, D. E.; Saleeb, A. F.; Padula, S. A., II; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2016-09-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators often operate under a complex state of stress for an extended number of thermomechanical cycles in many aerospace and engineering applications. Hence, it becomes important to account for multi-axial stress states and deformation characteristics (which evolve with thermomechanical cycling) when calibrating any SMA model for implementation in large-scale simulation of actuators. To this end, the present work is focused on the experimental validation of an SMA model calibrated for the transient and cyclic evolutionary behavior of shape memory Ni49.9Ti50.1, for the actuation of axially loaded helical-coil springs. The approach requires both experimental and computational aspects to appropriately assess the thermomechanical response of these multi-dimensional structures. As such, an instrumented and controlled experimental setup was assembled to obtain temperature, torque, degree of twist and extension, while controlling end constraints during heating and cooling of an SMA spring under a constant externally applied axial load. The computational component assesses the capabilities of a general, multi-axial, SMA material-modeling framework, calibrated for Ni49.9Ti50.1 with regard to its usefulness in the simulation of SMA helical-coil spring actuators. Axial extension, being the primary response, was examined on an axially-loaded spring with multiple active coils. Two different conditions of end boundary constraint were investigated in both the numerical simulations as well as the validation experiments: Case (1) where the loading end is restrained against twist (and the resulting torque measured as the secondary response) and Case (2) where the loading end is free to twist (and the degree of twist measured as the secondary response). The present study focuses on the transient and evolutionary response associated with the initial isothermal loading and the subsequent thermal cycles under applied constant axial load. The experimental

  16. Depicting mass flow rate of R134a /LPG refrigerant through straight and helical coiled adiabatic capillary tubes of vapor compression refrigeration system using artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jatinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2018-07-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation is carried out with R134a and LPG refrigerant mixture for depicting mass flow rate through straight and helical coil adiabatic capillary tubes in a vapor compression refrigeration system. Various experiments were conducted under steady-state conditions, by changing capillary tube length, inner diameter, coil diameter and degree of subcooling. The results showed that mass flow rate through helical coil capillary tube was found lower than straight capillary tube by about 5-16%. Dimensionless correlation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed to predict mass flow rate. It was found that dimensionless correlation and ANN model predictions agreed well with experimental results and brought out an absolute fraction of variance of 0.961 and 0.988, root mean square error of 0.489 and 0.275 and mean absolute percentage error of 4.75% and 2.31% respectively. The results suggested that ANN model shows better statistical prediction than dimensionless correlation model.

  17. A novel approach to calculate inductance and analyze magnetic flux density of helical toroidal coil applicable to Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage systems (SMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh Pahlavani, M.R.; Shoulaie, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, formulas are proposed for the self and mutual inductance calculations of the helical toroidal coil (HTC) by the direct and indirect methods at superconductivity conditions. The direct method is based on the Neumann's equation and the indirect approach is based on the toroidal and the poloidal components of the magnetic flux density. Numerical calculations show that the direct method is more accurate than the indirect approach at the expense of its longer computational time. Implementation of some engineering assumptions in the indirect method is shown to reduce the computational time without loss of accuracy. Comparison between the experimental measurements and simulated results for inductance, using the direct and the indirect methods indicates that the proposed formulas have high reliability. It is also shown that the self inductance and the mutual inductance could be calculated in the same way, provided that the radius of curvature is >0.4 of the minor radius, and that the definition of the geometric mean radius in the superconductivity conditions is used. Plotting contours for the magnetic flux density and the inductance show that the inductance formulas of helical toroidal coil could be used as the basis for coil optimal design. Optimization target functions such as maximization of the ratio of stored magnetic energy with respect to the volume of the toroid or the conductor's mass, the elimination or the balance of stress in some coordinate directions, and the attenuation of leakage flux could be considered. The finite element (FE) approach is employed to present an algorithm to study the three-dimensional leakage flux distribution pattern of the coil and to draw the magnetic flux density lines of the HTC. The presented algorithm, due to its simplicity in analysis and ease of implementation of the non-symmetrical and three-dimensional objects, is advantageous to the commercial software such as ANSYS, MAXWELL, and FLUX. Finally, using the

  18. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in a laminar flow in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium: the sensitivity to parameter variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.; Kuznetsov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate numerically heat transfer in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium; the analysis is based on the full momentum equation for porous media that accounts for the Brinkman and Forchheimer extensions of the Darcy law as well as for the flow inertia. Numerical computations are performed in an orthogonal helical coordinate system. The effects of the Darcy number, the Forchheimer coefficient as well as the Dean and Germano numbers on the axial flow velocity, secondary flow, temperature distribution, and the Nusselt number are investigated. (authors)

  19. Numerical investigation of heat transfer in a laminar flow in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium: the sensitivity to parameter variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, L.; Kuznetsov, A.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate numerically heat transfer in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium; the analysis is based on the full momentum equation for porous media that accounts for the Brinkman and Forchheimer extensions of the Darcy law as well as for the flow inertia. Numerical computations are performed in an orthogonal helical coordinate system. The effects of the Darcy number, the Forchheimer coefficient as well as the Dean and Germano numbers on the axial flow velocity, secondary flow, temperature distribution, and the Nusselt number are investigated. (authors)

  20. Introduction of fuzzy logic theorem for quench detection in the superconducting coil system of a Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yamato; Ninomiya, Akira; Uriu, Yoshihisa; Ishigohka, Takeshi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Yanagi, Nagato; Sekiguchi, Haruo; Yamada, Shuichi

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the state of the superconducting coil system in a LHD at NIFS (National Institute of Fusion Science) using a fuzzy logic theorem to detect quenching at an early stage. In this method, the 'warning coefficient' of the coil system is calculated. As for the fuzzy variables, 'effective stored heat' in the coil is introduced in addition to the voltage signal in order to improve quench detection and state estimation. The 'effective stored heat' is an integrated value of the heat generated in the coil on the assumption that instantaneous heat in the conductor is continuously cooled by liquid helium. Experiments conducted using the LHD coils confirmed that quench alarm signals can be issued with sufficient lead time before quenching. On the other hand, in the case of small local disturbances, the system shows only a small increase in the caution level. (author)

  1. Void fraction correlations analysis and their influence on heat transfer of helical double-pipe vertical evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrales, Arianna; Colorado, Dario; Huicochea, Armando; Díaz, Juan; Alfredo Hernández, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 50 void fraction correlations were evaluated on heat transfer in vertical evaporators. • Two-phase flow model based on control volume formulation was used. • The drift flux parameter is common in all correlations with satisfactory results. - Abstract: An analysis of 50 void fraction correlations available in the literature was performed to describe two-phase flow mechanism inside two helical double-pipe vertical evaporators. The evaporators considered water as working fluid connected in countercurrent so the change of phase was carried out into the internal tube. The discretized equations of continuity, momentum and energy in each flow were coupled using an implicit step by step method. The selection of the void fraction correlations for the mathematical model was based on inclusion of some theoretical limits. The results of this analysis were compared with the experimental data in steady state for two different evaporators, obtaining good agreement in the evaporation process for only 7 void fraction correlations. The Armand and Massena correlation had a mean percentage error (MPE) of 3.08%, followed by Rouhanni and Axelsson I adquired MPE=3.16%, Chisholm and Armand obtained MPE=3.18%, Steiner as well as Rouhanni and Axelsson II with MPE=3.19%, Bestion reached MPE=3.20% and Flanigan presented MPE=3.21%. Furthermore, the experimental and simulated heat flux were acceptable (R 2 =0.939). Finally, the results showed that the drift flux parameter was important to evaluate the void fraction

  2. An experimental study on the thermal and fouling characteristics in a washable shell and helically coiled heat exchanger by the Wilson plot method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kyoung Min; Ahn, Young Chull [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jun Hyeon; Hur, Hyun; Na, Byung Chul; Hwang, Yoon Jae; Kim, Byung Soon [LG Electronics, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Keun [EcoEnergy Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Brazed plate heat exchangers (BPHEX) are broadly used in water source heat pump systems for their large heat transfer capacity. Despite their high heat transfer rate, their high-performance rate tends to decrease sharply, due to fouling and they cannot be cleaned. So the thermal and fouling resistances of washable Shell and helically coiled tube heat exchangers (SCHEX) are designed and experimentally investigated in this study. Heat exchangers with two different tube types are studied and compared with a brazed plate heat exchanger. The overall thermal resistance coefficient of the heat exchangers as determined by using Wilson plots is 38% lower than that of the brazed plate heat exchanger at a Reynolds number of 2460. Fouling test results revealed that regular maintenance and physical cleaning can be used to maintain the thermal resistance of fouling of the washable heat exchanger at a level equal to or less than that of the brazed plate heat exchanger.

  3. Functional performance of the helical coil steam generator, Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) IV system. Executive summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.B.

    1975-10-01

    The objective of this project was to study the functional performance of the CNSG - IV helical steam generator to demonstrate that the generator meets steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic performance specifications and that secondary flow instability will not be a problem. Economic success of the CNSG concepts depends to a great extent on minimizing the size of the steam generator and the reactor vessel for ship installation. Also, for marine application the system must meet stringent specifications for operating stability, transient response, and control. The full-size two-tube experimental unit differed from the CNSG only in the number of tubes and the mode of primary flow. In general, the functional performance test demonstrated that the helical steam generator concept will exceed the specified superheat of 35F at 100% load. The experimental measured superheat at comparable operating conditions was 95F. Testing also revealed that available computer codes accurately predict trends and overall performance characteristics

  4. Design and performance of the helically coiled boilers of two AGR power stations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nagdy, M.; Papa, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Hartlepool and Heysham-I AGR stations have been commissioned and operating since 1983. The main features, of the design of the helical once-through boilers raising the steam for power generation, are outlined. The modifications to the feed inlet flow ferrules, necessary to improve the boiler performance and optimize the power output, have been described. Comparisons between the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of the boilers before and following these alterations are given. The improvements in the computer code predictions of the plant performance have also been presented. (author)

  5. Development of an API 5 L X 70 coil for the production of API pipes continuously welded by electric resistance; Desenvolvimento de bobina API 5 L X 70 para producao de tubos API soldados continuamente por resistencia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Alexandre R; Cavalheiro, Benedito C [CONFAB Tubos S.A., Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    The manufacturing of high strength ERW pipe, which applies the continuous forming process, is known to lead to a relevant economy in a productivity basis. The past few years shown a trend of changing on grade range, from the past X52 to the present X70. The manufacturing of the latter grades for coils are somehow difficult due to the high Bauschinger effect observed on ERW pipes with ferritic-perlitic microstructure, that results in pipes with yield strength much lower than in coils, as on limitations on rolling, where controlled rolling is not applied. In this work, acicular dispersed bainite was searched, in a way to reduce this effect after pipe forming. API 5L X70 coils, from USIMINAS, were processed including an intentional addition of Molybdenum in the range of 0.20%, together with Columbium and Vanadium (added as 0.050% average). (author)

  6. Similitude of membrane helical coil with membrane serpentine tube for characteristics of high-pressure syngas: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddamwar, Sagar. S.; Pawar, Anand N.; Naik, Pramod A.

    2018-05-01

    Heat exchangers remain one primary engineering methods besides this broad category of purposes including various waste heat recovery systems, power sectors, nuclear reactors. Natural convection is a method concerning heat transfer, during which flow of fluid occurs by density variations in the fluid occurring due to different temperature conditions. A fluid which encompasses a heat reservoir holds heat becomes light dense and rises. Operating fluid that is enclosing the high-temperature liquid remains frozen and later flows in to supplant it. Following this chilling liquid gets heated, and this method persists, resulting from convection flow. Forced convection into a heat exchanger is this movement of heat from one moving water to different stream through the surface from a pipe. The low-temperature liquid extracts heat of this comparatively high-temperature water because that flows along or over it.

  7. Feasibility evaluations for the integration of laser butt welding of tubes in industrial pipe coil production lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penasa, Mauro; Colombo, Enrico; Giolfo, Mauro

    1994-09-01

    Due to the good performance shown by laser welded joints, to the quality and repeatability achievable by this welding technique and to its high process productivity, a feature inherent to the laser technology which, together with its high flexibility, allows different operations to be performed by a single source, consistent savings in a production line may be obtained. Therefore laser welding techniques may be of high relevance for industrial applications, provided that a sufficient attention is paid to avoiding a low utilization time to the operating laser source. The paper describes a feasibility study for the integration of a laser source as an automatic unit for circumferential butt welding of tubes in production lines of pipe coils, just before the cold bending station. Using a 6 kW CO2 source, thickness ranging from 3.5 to 11.2 mm in carbon, low alloyed Cr-Mo and austenitic stainless steels, have been successfully welded. Cr-Mo steels require on line preheating treatment, which however can be achieved by laser defocused passes just before welding. The results of the preliminary qualification performed on laser welded joints of the involved topologies of product (materials, diameters and thicknesses) are described together with technological tests required for approval: laser circumferential butt welding of tubes has proven to be effective, with satisfactory and repeatable results and good joint performances. An exhaustive comparison with current welding techniques (TIG, MIG) is then carried out, along with a detailed analysis of the potential advantages and benefits which may be expected by using the laser welding technique, as well as with a first estimation of the investments and running costs. Since laser productivity is saturated only at a rough 35% during the year, an accurate analysis of other possible applications and of a possible lay out of a laser working cell integrated in the factory production lines is performed. Usually little attention is

  8. Experimental Assessment of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Operating at Subcritical and Supercritical Conditions in a Small-Scale Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of a helical coil heat exchanger operating at subcritical and supercritical conditions is analysed. The counter-current heat exchanger was specially designed to operate at a maximal pressure and temperature of 42 bar and 200 °C, respectively. The small-scale solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC installation has a net power output of 3 kWe. The first tests were done in a laboratory where an electrical heater was used instead of the concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T collectors. The inlet heating fluid temperature of the water was 95 °C. The effects of different parameters on the heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger were investigated. Particularly, the performance analysis was elaborated considering the changes of the mass flow rate of the working fluid (R-404A in the range of 0.20–0.33 kg/s and the inlet pressure varying from 18 bar up to 41 bar. Hence, the variation of the heat flux was in the range of 5–9 kW/m2. The results show that the working fluid’s mass flow rate has significant influence on the heat transfer rate rather than the operational pressure. Furthermore, from the comparison between the experimental results with the heat transfer correlations from the literature, the experimental results fall within the uncertainty range for the supercritical analysis but there is a deviation of the investigated subcritical correlations.

  9. A Study of the Cold Resistance of Pipe Coiled Stock Produced at Foundry-Rolling Works. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagmet, O. A.; Naumenko, V. V.; Smetanin, K. S.

    2018-03-01

    Results of a study of coiled stock from low-carbon steels alloyed with manganese and silicon and different additives of niobium and titanium are presented. The coiled stock is produced at foundry-rolling works by the method of direct rolling of thin slabs right after their continuous casting. The microdeformation of the crystal lattice and the crystallographic texture are determined. The conditions of formation of the most favorable structure and texture in the steels are specified.

  10. A periodic table of coiled-coil protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutevelis, Efrosini; Woolfson, Derek N

    2009-01-23

    Coiled coils are protein structure domains with two or more alpha-helices packed together via interlacing of side chains known as knob-into-hole packing. We analysed and classified a large set of coiled-coil structures using a combination of automated and manual methods. This led to a systematic classification that we termed a "periodic table of coiled coils," which we have made available at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/ccplus/search/periodic_table. In this table, coiled-coil assemblies are arranged in columns with increasing numbers of alpha-helices and in rows of increased complexity. The table provides a framework for understanding possibilities in and limits on coiled-coil structures and a basis for future prediction, engineering and design studies.

  11. Liquid rope coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Habibi, M.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    A thin stream or rope of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a steadily rotating helical coil. Tabletop laboratory experiments in combination with a numerical model for slender liquid ropes reveal that finite-amplitude coiling can occur in four distinct regimes

  12. Modular coils: a promising toroidal-reactor-coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.; Furth, H.P.; Johnson, J.L.; Ludescher, C.; Weimer, K.E.

    1981-04-01

    The concept of modular coils originated from a need to find reactor-relevant stellarator windings, but its usefulness can be extended to provide an externally applied, additional rotational transform in tokamaks. Considerations of (1) basic principles of modular coils, (2) types of coils, (3) types of configurations (general, helically symmetric, helically asymmetric, with magnetic well, with magnetic hill), (4) types of rotational transform profile, and (5) structure and origin of ripples are given. These results show that modular coils can offer a wide range of vacuum magnetic field configurations, some of which cannot be obtained with the classical stellarator or torsatron coil configuration

  13. On modular stellarator reactor coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, F.; Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H.

    1985-01-01

    Modular twisted coils are discussed which produce magnetic fields of the Advanced Stellarator WENDELSTEIN VII-AS type. Reducing the number coils/FP offers advantage for maintenance of coils, but increases the magnetic ripple and B m /B o . Computation of force densities within the coils of ASR and ASB yield local maximum values of about 80 and 180 MN/m 3 , respectively. A system of mutual coil support is being developed. Twisted coils in helical arrangement provide a reactor-sized HELIAC system. In order to reduce the magnetic ripple, a large number of 14 coils/FP in special arrangement is used

  14. Modification of the Structure of Low-Carbon Pipe Steel by Helical Rolling, and the Increase in Its Strength and Cold Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyagina, L. S.; Gordienko, A. I.; Pochivalov, Yu. I.; Smirnova, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports the investigation results on the microstructure and mechanical properties of low-carbon pipe steel after helical rolling. The processing of the steel leads to the refinement of ferritic grains from 12 (for the coarse-grained state) to 5 μm, to the strengthening of ferrite by carbide particles, a decrease in the total fraction of perlite grains, a more uniform alternation of ferrite and perlite, and the formation of regions with bainitic structure. The mechanical properties of the steel have been determined in the conditions of static and dynamic loading in the range of test temperatures from +20 to-70°C. As a result of processing, the ultimate tensile strength increases (from 650 to 770 MPa at a rolling temperature from 920°C) and the viscoplastic properties at negative temperatures are improved significantly. The ductile-brittle transition temperature of the rolled steel decreases from-32 to-55°C and the impact toughness at the test temperature-40°C increases eight times compared to the initial state of the steel.

  15. Nucleic acid helices: I. Structure of M1 RNA from E. coli as determined bypsoralen crosslinking. II. Thermodynamics of the helix-coil transition of DNA oligonucleotides in solutions containing 3.0 M tetramethylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    This work includes two different investigations examining nucleic acid helices. The first study discusses secondary and tertiary interactions in the RNA moiety of ribonuclease P from Escherichia coli. The second study discusses the thermodynamics of the helix-coil transition of DNA oligonucleotides in solutions containing tetramethylammonium chloride. The RNA moiety of ribonuclease P from Escherichia coli (M1 RNA) has been photoreacted with 4'-hydroxymethyl-4,5'8-trimethylpsoralen and long wave UV light (320-380 nm) in a buffer in which the M1 RNA alone acts as a true catalyst of tRNA processing. Limited specific digestion followed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis yields fragments crosslinked by HMT. The positions of the crosslinks have been determined to within ±15 nucleotides by photoreversal of the isolated crosslinked fragments and enzymatic sequencing of the resulting RNA. Further assignments of the exact locations of the crosslinks have been made on the known photoreactivity of the psoralen with different bases

  16. Helical Confinement Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Dinklage, A; Erckmann, V; Feng, Y; Geiger, J; Hartmann, D; Hirsch, M; Jaenicke, R; Koenig, R; Laqua, H P; Maassberg, H; Wagner, F; Weller, A; Wobig, H [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Stellarators, conceived 1951 by Lyman Spitzer in Princeton, are toroidal devices that confine a plasma in a magnetic field which originates from currents in coils outside the plasma. A plasma current driven by external means, for example by an ohmic transformer, is not required for confinement. Supplying the desired poloidal field component by external coils leads to a helically structured plasma topology. Thus stellarators - or helical confinement devices - are fully three-dimensional in contrast to the toroidal (rotational) symmetry of tokamaks. As stellarators can be free of an inductive current, whose radial distribution depends on the plasma parameters, their equilibrium must not be established via the evolving plasma itself, but to a first order already given by the vacuum magnetic field. They do not need an active control (like positional feedback) and therefore cannot suffer from its failure. The outstanding conceptual advantage of stellarators is the potential of steady state plasma operation without current drive. As there is no need for current drive, the recirculating power is expected to be smaller than in equivalent tokamaks. The lack of a net current avoids current driven instabilities; specifically, no disruptions, no resistive wall modes and no conventional or neoclassical tearing modes appear. Second order pressure-driven currents (Pfirsch-Schlueter, bootstrap) exist but they can be modified and even minimized by the magnetic design. The magnetic configuration of helical devices naturally possesses a separatrix, which allows the implementation of a helically structured divertor for exhaust and impurity control. (author)

  17. Nucleic acid helices: I. Structure of M1 RNA from E. coli as determined bypsoralen crosslinking. II. Thermodynamics of the helix-coil transition of DNA oligonucleotides in solutions containing 3. 0 M tetramethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    This work includes two different investigations examining nucleic acid helices. The first study discusses secondary and tertiary interactions in the RNA moiety of ribonuclease P from Escherichia coli. The second study discusses the thermodynamics of the helix-coil transition of DNA oligonucleotides in solutions containing tetramethylammonium chloride. The RNA moiety of ribonuclease P from Escherichia coli (M1 RNA) has been photoreacted with 4{prime}-hydroxymethyl-4,5{prime}8-trimethylpsoralen and long wave UV light (320-380 nm) in a buffer in which the M1 RNA alone acts as a true catalyst of tRNA processing. Limited specific digestion followed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis yields fragments crosslinked by HMT. The positions of the crosslinks have been determined to within {plus minus}15 nucleotides by photoreversal of the isolated crosslinked fragments and enzymatic sequencing of the resulting RNA. Further assignments of the exact locations of the crosslinks have been made on the known photoreactivity of the psoralen with different bases.

  18. Radiation resistant ducted superconductive coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, A.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation-resistant ducted superconductive coil consists of a helically wound electrical conductor constituted by an electrically conductive core of superconductive material provided with a longitudinally extending cooling duct. The core is covered with a layer of inorganic insulating material and the duct is covered by an electrically conductive metallic gas-tight sheath. The metallic sheaths on adjacent turns of the coil are secured together. 2 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures

  19. Commercial applications for COIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L. A.; Stromberg, D. S.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

  20. New Modular Heliotron system compatible with closed helical divertor and good plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Watanabe, K.Y.

    1994-04-01

    A new helical system ('Modular Heliotron') with improved modular coils compatible with efficient closed helical divertor and good plasma confinement property is proposed based on a Heliotron system with continuous helical coils and one pair of poloidal coils. The physics optimization of this system as a function of the gap angle between adjacent modular coils has been carried out by means of vacuum magnetic surface calculations and finite-beta plasma analyses, and a new improved coil system is invented by combining sectored helical field coils with sectored returning poloidal field coils. The Modular Heliotron with standard coil winding law (reference Modular Heliotron) was previously proposed, but it is found that this is not appropriate to keep clean helical divertor and high beta configuration when the coil gap becomes large. By modulating the modular coil winding with outside-plus and inside-minus pitch modulation, almost the same good magnetic configuration as that of a conventional Heliotron can be produced. The optimal gap angle is determined as a function of the modulation parameter. This improved Modular Heliotron permits larger gap angle between adjacent modules and produces more clean helical divertor configuration than the reference Modular Heliotron. All these helical system are created by only modular coils without poloidal coils. (author)

  1. New modular heliotron system compatible with closed helical divertor and good plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Watanabe, K.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new helical system ('modular heliotron') with improved modular coils compatible with an efficient closed helical divertor and a good plasma confinement property is proposed, based on a heliotron system with continuous helical coils and one pair of poloidal coils. The physics optimization of this system as a function of the gap angle between adjacent modular coils has been carried out by means of vacuum magnetic surface calculations and finite-beta plasma analyses, and a new improved coil system is invented by combining sectored helical field coils with sectored returning poloidal field coils. A modular heliotron with standard coil winding law (the reference modular heliotron) was previously proposed, but it is found that this was not appropriate to keep a clean helical divertor and high beta configuration when the coil gap becomes large. By modulating the modular coil winding with outside-plus and inside-minus pitch modulation, almost the same good magnetic configuration as that of a conventional heliotron can be produced. The optimal gap angle is determined as a function of the modulation parameter. This improved modular heliotron permits a larger gap angle between adjacent modules and produces a cleaner helical divertor configuration than the reference modular heliotron. All these helical systems are created by only modular coils without poloidal coils. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 11 refs, 7 figs

  2. Multicoil2: predicting coiled coils and their oligomerization states from sequence in the twilight zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Trigg

    Full Text Available The alpha-helical coiled coil can adopt a variety of topologies, among the most common of which are parallel and antiparallel dimers and trimers. We present Multicoil2, an algorithm that predicts both the location and oligomerization state (two versus three helices of coiled coils in protein sequences. Multicoil2 combines the pairwise correlations of the previous Multicoil method with the flexibility of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs in a Markov Random Field (MRF. The resulting algorithm integrates sequence features, including pairwise interactions, through multinomial logistic regression to devise an optimized scoring function for distinguishing dimer, trimer and non-coiled-coil oligomerization states; this scoring function is used to produce Markov Random Field potentials that incorporate pairwise correlations localized in sequence. Multicoil2 significantly improves both coiled-coil detection and dimer versus trimer state prediction over the original Multicoil algorithm retrained on a newly-constructed database of coiled-coil sequences. The new database, comprised of 2,105 sequences containing 124,088 residues, includes reliable structural annotations based on experimental data in the literature. Notably, the enhanced performance of Multicoil2 is evident when tested in stringent leave-family-out cross-validation on the new database, reflecting expected performance on challenging new prediction targets that have minimal sequence similarity to known coiled-coil families. The Multicoil2 program and training database are available for download from http://multicoil2.csail.mit.edu.

  3. Toroidal helical quartz forming machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, K.W.; Cole, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Scyllac fusion experimental machine used 10 cm diameter smooth bore discharge tubes formed into a simple toroidal shape prior to 1974. At about that time, it was discovered that a discharge tube was required to follow the convoluted shape of the load coil. A machine was designed and built to form a fused quartz tube with a toroidal shape. The machine will accommodate quartz tubes from 5 cm to 20 cm diameter forming it into a 4 m toroidal radius with a 1 to 5 cm helical displacement. The machine will also generate a helical shape on a linear tube. Two sets of tubes with different helical radii and wavelengths have been successfully fabricated. The problems encountered with the design and fabrication of this machine are discussed

  4. Exploring the conserved water site and hydration of a coiled-coil trimerisation motif: a MD simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Baron, Riccardo; Missimer, John H; Steinmetz, Michel O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2008-07-21

    The solvent structure and dynamics around ccbeta-p, a 17-residue peptide that forms a parallel three-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil in solution, was analysed through 10 ns explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 278 and 330 K. Comparison with two corresponding simulations of the monomeric form of ccbeta-p was used to investigate the changes of hydration upon coiled-coil formation. Pronounced peaks in the solvent density distribution between residues Arg8 and Glu13 of neighbouring helices show the presence of water bridges between the helices of the ccbeta-p trimer; this is in agreement with the water sites observed in X-ray crystallography experiments. Interestingly, this water site is structurally conserved in many three-stranded coiled coils and, together with the Arg and Glu residues, forms part of a motif that determines three-stranded coiled-coil formation. Our findings show that little direct correlation exists between the solvent density distribution and the temporal ordering of water around the trimeric coiled coil. The MD-calculated effective residence times of up to 40 ps show rapid exchange of surface water molecules with the bulk phase, and indicate that the solvent distribution around biomolecules requires interpretation in terms of continuous density distributions rather than in terms of discrete molecules of water. Together, our study contributes to understanding the principles of three-stranded coiled-coil formation.

  5. Helical type thermonuclear device and control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional helical type thermonuclear device, electric current flows in the toroidal direction under magnetic fields of helical coils and vertical magnetic coils, by which a circulating electric field is caused. Therefore, there is a problem that electrons as a seed are generated by cosmic rays, etc., the electrons are confined in a magnetic field boundary, are accelerated by the circulating electric field, to reach a high energy level, collide against structures in a vacuum vessel and emit a great amount of X-rays. Then, compensation coils for offsetting the magnetic fields generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils and the power source therefor are disposed at the positions opposing to each other on both sides of the vertical magnetic coils for controlling the variation coefficient rate of electric current upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic coils. Since the compensation coils also offset the magnetic field generated upon energization and deenergization of the vertical magnetic field coils by this control, the circulating magnetic field is not caused in the vacuum vessel to reduce the X-ray radiation by electrons at high energy level. (N.H.)

  6. Routine phasing of coiled-coil protein crystal structures with AMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens M. H. Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coiled-coil protein folds are among the most abundant in nature. These folds consist of long wound α-helices and are architecturally simple, but paradoxically their crystallographic structures are notoriously difficult to solve with molecular-replacement techniques. The program AMPLE can solve crystal structures by molecular replacement using ab initio search models in the absence of an existent homologous protein structure. AMPLE has been benchmarked on a large and diverse test set of coiled-coil crystal structures and has been found to solve 80% of all cases. Successes included structures with chain lengths of up to 253 residues and resolutions down to 2.9 Å, considerably extending the limits on size and resolution that are typically tractable by ab initio methodologies. The structures of two macromolecular complexes, one including DNA, were also successfully solved using their coiled-coil components. It is demonstrated that both the ab initio modelling and the use of ensemble search models contribute to the success of AMPLE by comparison with phasing attempts using single structures or ideal polyalanine helices. These successes suggest that molecular replacement with AMPLE should be the method of choice for the crystallographic elucidation of a coiled-coil structure. Furthermore, AMPLE may be able to exploit the presence of a coiled coil in a complex to provide a convenient route for phasing.

  7. Dynamics and deformability of α-, 310- and π-helices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narwani Tarun Jairaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein structures are often represented as seen in crystals as (i rigid macromolecules (ii with helices, sheets and coils. However, both definitions are partial because (i proteins are highly dynamic macromolecules and (ii the description of protein structures could be more precise. With regard to these two points, we analyzed and quantified the stability of helices by considering α-helices as well as 310- and π-helices. Molecular dynamic (MD simulations were performed on a large set of 169 representative protein domains. The local protein conformations were followed during each simulation and analyzed. The classical flexibility index (B-factor was confronted with the MD root mean square flexibility (RMSF index. Helical regions were classified according to their level of helicity from high to none. For the first time, a precise quantification showed the percentage of rigid and flexible helices that underlie unexpected behaviors. Only 76.4% of the residues associated with α-helices retain the conformation, while this tendency drops to 40.5% for 310-helices and is never observed for π-helices. α-helix residues that do not remain as an α-helix have a higher tendency to assume β-turn conformations than 310- or π-helices. The 310-helices that switch to the α-helix conformation have a higher B-factor and RMSF values than the average 310-helix but are associated with a lower accessibility. Rare π-helices assume a β-turn, bend and coil conformations, but not α- or 310-helices. The view on π-helices drastically changes with the new DSSP (Dictionary of Secondary Structure of Proteins assignment approach, leading to behavior similar to 310-helices, thus underlining the importance of secondary structure assignment methods.

  8. CCBuilder 2.0: Powerful and accessible coiled-coil modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christopher W; Woolfson, Derek N

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of user-friendly and accessible computational tools for biomolecular modeling would expand the reach and application of biomolecular engineering and design. For protein modeling, one key challenge is to reduce the complexities of 3D protein folds to sets of parametric equations that nonetheless capture the salient features of these structures accurately. At present, this is possible for a subset of proteins, namely, repeat proteins. The α-helical coiled coil provides one such example, which represents ≈ 3-5% of all known protein-encoding regions of DNA. Coiled coils are bundles of α helices that can be described by a small set of structural parameters. Here we describe how this parametric description can be implemented in an easy-to-use web application, called CCBuilder 2.0, for modeling and optimizing both α-helical coiled coils and polyproline-based collagen triple helices. This has many applications from providing models to aid molecular replacement for X-ray crystallography, in silico model building and engineering of natural and designed protein assemblies, and through to the creation of completely de novo "dark matter" protein structures. CCBuilder 2.0 is available as a web-based application, the code for which is open-source and can be downloaded freely. http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/ccbuilder2. We have created CCBuilder 2.0, an easy to use web-based application that can model structures for a whole class of proteins, the α-helical coiled coil, which is estimated to account for 3-5% of all proteins in nature. CCBuilder 2.0 will be of use to a large number of protein scientists engaged in fundamental studies, such as protein structure determination, through to more-applied research including designing and engineering novel proteins that have potential applications in biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  9. Helical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Nicholas; Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL—The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Johnson, Eric [Micro-Photonics Laboratory – Center for Optical Material Science, Clemson, Anderson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The shaping of laser-induced filamenting plasma channels into helical structures by guiding the process with a non-diffracting beam is demonstrated. This was achieved using a Bessel beam superposition to control the phase of an ultrafast laser beam possessing intensities sufficient to induce Kerr effect driven non-linear self-focusing. Several experimental methods were used to characterize the resulting beams and confirm the observed structures are laser air filaments.

  10. Analysis and experimental study of wireless power transfer with HTS coil and copper coil as the intermediate resonators system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiufang; Nie, Xinyi; Liang, Yilang; Lu, Falong; Yan, Zhongming; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated a kind of system architecture with three coils which the repeater is copper coil or HTS coil. • We simulated the different repeater system and obtained the magnetic field distribution at different distance. • We used helical coil instead of pancake coil which does not use capacitors. • HTS intermediate coil has significant effect on improving the transmission efficiency and lengthening transmission distance than copper intermediate coil. - Abstract: Intermediate resonator (repeater) between transmitter and receiver can significantly increase the distance of wireless power transfer (WPT) and the efficiency of wireless power transfer. The wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances with an high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil and copper coil as intermediate resonators was presented in this paper. The electromagnetic experiment system under different conditions with different repeating coils were simulated by finite element software. The spatial distribution patterns of magnetic induction intensity at different distances were plotted. In this paper, we examined transfer characteristics with HTS repeating coil and copper repeating coil at 77 K and 300 K, respectively. Simulation and experimental results show that HTS and copper repeating coil can effectively enhance the space magnetic induction intensity, which has significant effect on improving the transmission efficiency and lengthening transmission distance. We found that the efficiency and the distance of wireless power transfer system with an HTS coil as repeater is much higher by using of copper coil as repeater.

  11. Analysis and experimental study of wireless power transfer with HTS coil and copper coil as the intermediate resonators system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiufang [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Nie, Xinyi [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Liang, Yilang [School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Lu, Falong [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Yan, Zhongming, E-mail: wangxiufanghappy@163.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Wang, Yu [School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We investigated a kind of system architecture with three coils which the repeater is copper coil or HTS coil. • We simulated the different repeater system and obtained the magnetic field distribution at different distance. • We used helical coil instead of pancake coil which does not use capacitors. • HTS intermediate coil has significant effect on improving the transmission efficiency and lengthening transmission distance than copper intermediate coil. - Abstract: Intermediate resonator (repeater) between transmitter and receiver can significantly increase the distance of wireless power transfer (WPT) and the efficiency of wireless power transfer. The wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances with an high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil and copper coil as intermediate resonators was presented in this paper. The electromagnetic experiment system under different conditions with different repeating coils were simulated by finite element software. The spatial distribution patterns of magnetic induction intensity at different distances were plotted. In this paper, we examined transfer characteristics with HTS repeating coil and copper repeating coil at 77 K and 300 K, respectively. Simulation and experimental results show that HTS and copper repeating coil can effectively enhance the space magnetic induction intensity, which has significant effect on improving the transmission efficiency and lengthening transmission distance. We found that the efficiency and the distance of wireless power transfer system with an HTS coil as repeater is much higher by using of copper coil as repeater.

  12. Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, David W.

    2016-09-27

    Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing is a concept that allows the strength of thick-wall rigid pipe, and the flexibility of thin-wall tubing, to be realized in a single design. The primary use is for a drillstring tubular, but it has potential for other applications requiring transmission of mechanical loads (forces and torques) through an initially coiled tubular. The concept uses a spring-loaded spherical `ball-and-socket` type joint to interconnect two or more short, rigid segments of pipe. Use of an optional snap ring allows the joint to be permanently made, in a `self-assembling` manner.

  13. Historical review: another 50th anniversary--new periodicities in coiled coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Markus; Lupas, Andrei N

    2003-12-01

    In 1953, Francis Crick and Linus Pauling both proposed models of supercoiled alpha helices ('coiled coils') for the structure of keratin. These were the first attempts at modelling the tertiary structure of a protein. Crick emphasized the packing mode of the side-chains ('knobs-into-holes'), which required a periodicity of seven residues over two helical turns (7/2) and a supercoil in the opposite sense of the constituent helices. By contrast, Pauling envisaged a broader set of periodicities (4/1, 7/2, 18/5, 15/4, 11/3) and supercoils of both senses. Crick's model became canonical and the 'heptad repeat' essentially synonymous with coiled coils, but 50 years later new crystal structures and protein sequences show that the less common periodicities envisaged by Pauling also occur in coiled coils, adding a variant packing mode ('knobs-to-knobs') to the standard model. Pauling's laboratory notebooks suggest that he searched unsuccessfully for this packing mode in 1953.

  14. A helical scintillating fiber hodoscope

    CERN Document Server

    Altmeier, M; Bisplinghoff, J; Bissel, T; Bollmann, R; Busch, M; Büsser, K; Colberg, T; Demiroers, L; Diehl, O; Dohrmann, F; Engelhardt, H P; Eversheim, P D; Felden, O; Gebel, R; Glende, M; Greiff, J; Gross, A; Gross-Hardt, R; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Jeske, M; Jonas, E; Krause, H; Lahr, U; Langkau, R; Lindemann, T; Lindlein, J; Maier, R; Maschuw, R; Mayer-Kuckuck, T; Meinerzhagen, A; Naehle, O; Pfuff, M; Prasuhn, D; Rohdjess, H; Rosendaal, D; Von Rossen, P; Sanz, B; Schirm, N; Schulz-Rojahn, M; Schwarz, V; Scobel, W; Thomas, S; Trelle, H J; Weise, E; Wellinghausen, A; Wiedmann, W; Woller, K; Ziegler, R

    1999-01-01

    A novel scintillating fiber hodoscope in helically cylindric geometry has been developed for detection of low multiplicity events of fast protons and other light charged particles in the internal target experiment EDDA at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. The hodoscope consists of 640 scintillating fibers (2.5 mm diameter), arranged in four layers surrounding the COSY beam pipe. The fibers are helically wound in opposing directions and read out individually using 16-channel photomultipliers connected to a modified commercial encoding system. The detector covers an angular range of 9 deg. <= THETA<=72 deg. and 0 deg. <=phi (cursive,open) Greek<=360 deg. in the lab frame. The detector length is 590 mm, the inner diameter 161 mm. Geometry and granularity of the hodoscope afford a position resolution of about 1.3 mm. The detector design took into consideration a maximum of reliability and a minimum of maintenance. An LED array may be used for monitoring purposes. (author)

  15. Superconducting Helical Snake Magnet for the AGS

    CERN Document Server

    Willen, Erich; Escallier, John; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Jain, Animesh K; Luccio, Alfredo U; MacKay, William W; Marone, Andrew; Muratore, Joseph F; Okamura, Masahiro; Plate, Stephen R; Roser, Thomas; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wanderer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting helical magnet has been built for polarized proton acceleration in the Brookhaven AGS. This "partial Snake" magnet will help to reduce the loss of polarization of the beam due to machine resonances. It is a 3 T magnet some 1940 mm in magnetic length in which the dipole field rotates with a pitch of 0.2053 degrees/mm for 1154 mm in the center and a pitch of 0.3920 degrees/mm for 393 mm in each end. The coil cross-section is made of two slotted cylinders containing superconductor. In order to minimize residual offsets and deflections of the beam on its orbit through the Snake, a careful balancing of the coil parameters was necessary. In addition to the main helical coils, a solenoid winding was built on the cold bore tube inside the main coils to compensate for the axial component of the field that is experienced by the beam when it is off-axis in this helical magnet. Also, two dipole corrector magnets were placed on the same tube with the solenoid. A low heat leak cryostat was built so that t...

  16. Performance of cold compressors in a cooling system of an R and D superconducting coil cooled with subcooled helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Yanagi, N.; Takahata, K.; Maekawa, R.; Mito, T.

    2006-01-01

    The helical coils of large helical device (LHD) have been operated in saturated helium at 4.4 K and plasma experiments have been carried out at magnetic fields lower than 3 T for 8 years. Now, it is considered that the cooling system of helical coils will be improved to enhance magnetic fields in 2006. In the improvement, the helical coils will be cooled with subcooled helium and the operating temperature of helical coils will be lowered to achieve the designed field of 3 T and enhance cryogenic stabilities. Two cold compressors will be used in the cooling system of helical coils to generate subcooled helium. In the present study, the performance of cold compressors has been investigated, using a cooling system of R and D coil, to apply cold compressors to the cooling system of helical coils. Actual surge lines of cold compressors were observed and the stable operation area was obtained. Automatic operations were also performed within the area. In the automatic operations, the suitable pressure of a saturated helium bath, calculated from the rotation speed of the 1st cold compressor, was regulated by bypass valve. From these results, stable operations will be expected in the cooling system of helical coils

  17. Helical-tokamak hybridization concepts for compact configuration exploration and MHD stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, T.; Yamazaki, K.; Arimoto, H.; Baba, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Ozeki, H.; Shoji, T.; Mikhailov, M.I.

    2010-11-01

    To search for low-aspect-ratio torus systems, a lot of exotic confinement concepts are proposed so far historically. One of the authors previously proposed the tokamak-helical hybrid called TOKASTAR (Tokamak-Stellarator Hybrid) to improve the magnetic local shear near the bad curvature region. This is characterized by simple and compact coil systems with enough divertor space relevant to reactor designs. Based on this TOKASTAR concept, a toroidal mode number N=2 C (compact) -TOKASTAR machine (R - 35 mm) was constructed. The rotational transform of this compact helical configuration is rather small to confine hot ions, but can be utilized as a compact electron plasma machine for multi-purposes. The C-TOKASTAR has a pair of spherically winding helical coils and a pair of poloidal coils. Existence of magnetic surface and electron confinement property in C-TOKASTAR device were investigated by an electron-emission impedance method. Calculation of the particle orbit also supports that closed magnetic surface is formed in the cases that the ratio between poloidal and helical coil current is appropriate. Another aspect of the research using TOKASTAR configuration includes the evaluation of the effect of the outboard helical field application to tokamak plasmas. It is considered that outboard helical field has roles to assist the initiation of plasma current, to improve MHD stability, and so on. To check these roles, we made TOKASTAR-2 machine (R - 0.12 m, B - 1 kG) with ohmic heating central coil, eight toroidal field coils, a pair of vertical field coils and two outboard helical field coil segments. The electron cyclotron heating plasma start-up and plasma current disruption control experiments might be expected in this machine. Calculation of magnetic field line tracing has revealed that magnetic surface can be formed using additional outer helical coils. (author)

  18. Pipe support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems is described. A section of the pipe to be suppported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe

  19. CCBuilder: an interactive web-based tool for building, designing and assessing coiled-coil protein assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Christopher W; Bruning, Marc; Ibarra, Amaurys Á; Bartlett, Gail J; Thomson, Andrew R; Sessions, Richard B; Brady, R Leo; Woolfson, Derek N

    2014-11-01

    The ability to accurately model protein structures at the atomistic level underpins efforts to understand protein folding, to engineer natural proteins predictably and to design proteins de novo. Homology-based methods are well established and produce impressive results. However, these are limited to structures presented by and resolved for natural proteins. Addressing this problem more widely and deriving truly ab initio models requires mathematical descriptions for protein folds; the means to decorate these with natural, engineered or de novo sequences; and methods to score the resulting models. We present CCBuilder, a web-based application that tackles the problem for a defined but large class of protein structure, the α-helical coiled coils. CCBuilder generates coiled-coil backbones, builds side chains onto these frameworks and provides a range of metrics to measure the quality of the models. Its straightforward graphical user interface provides broad functionality that allows users to build and assess models, in which helix geometry, coiled-coil architecture and topology and protein sequence can be varied rapidly. We demonstrate the utility of CCBuilder by assembling models for 653 coiled-coil structures from the PDB, which cover >96% of the known coiled-coil types, and by generating models for rarer and de novo coiled-coil structures. CCBuilder is freely available, without registration, at http://coiledcoils.chm.bris.ac.uk/app/cc_builder/. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. New Classes of Quasi-helically Symmetric Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.; Boozer, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    New classes of quasi-helically symmetric stellarators with aspect ratios (le) 10 have been found which are stable to the perturbation of magnetohydrodynamic modes at plasma pressures of practical interest. These configurations have large rotational transform and good quality of flux surfaces. Characteristics of some selected examples are discussed in detail. The feasibility of using modular coils for these stellarators has been investigated. It is shown that practical designs for modular coils can be achieved.

  1. High-n helicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, N.; Cheng, C.Z.; Okamoto, M.

    1992-05-01

    The high-n Helicity-induced shear Alfven Eigenmodes (HAE) are considered both analytically and numerically for the straight helical magnetic system, where n is the toroidal mode number. The eigenmode equation for the high-n HAE modes is derived along the field line and with the aid of the averaging method is shown to reduce to the Mathieu equation asymptotically. The discrete HAE modes are shown to exist inside the continuum spectrum gaps. The continuous spectrum gaps appear around ω 2 = ω A 2 [N(lι-m)/2] 2 for N = 1,2,.., where ω A is the toroidal Alfven transit frequency, and l, m, and ι are the polarity of helical coils, the toroidal pitch number of helical coils, and the rotational transform, respectively. For the same ω A and ι, the frequency of the helical continuum gap is larger than that of the continuum gap in tokamak plasmas by |l-ι -1 m|. The polarity of helical coils l plays a crucial role in determining the spectrum gaps and the properties of the high-n HAE modes. The spectrum gaps near the magnetic axis are created by the helical ripple with circular flux surfaces for l = 1, and ≥ 3 helicals. For l = 2 helical systems, the spectrum gaps are created by the ellipticity of the flux surfaces. These analytical results for the continuum gaps and the existence of the high-n HAE modes in the continuum gaps are confirmed numerically for the l = 2 case, and we find that the HAE modes exist for mode structures with the even and the odd parities. (author)

  2. Helicity content and tokamak applications of helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1986-05-01

    Magnetic helicity is approximately conserved by the turbulence associated with resistive instabilities of plasmas. To generalize the application of the concept of helicity, the helicity content of an arbitrary bounded region of space will be defined. The definition has the virtues that both the helicity content and its time derivative have simple expressions in terms of the poloidal and toroidal magnetic fluxes, the average toroidal loop voltage and the electric potential on the bounding surface, and the volume integral of E-B. The application of the helicity concept to tokamak plasmas is illustrated by a discussion of so-called MHD current drive, an example of a stable tokamak q profile with q less than one in the center, and a discussion of the possibility of a natural steady-state tokamak due to the bootstrap current coupling to tearing instabilities

  3. Versatile fill coils: initial experience as framing coils for oblong aneurysms. A technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Toshiya; Bain, Mark; Hui, Ferdinand K

    2014-01-01

    Coil embolization of oblong aneurysms is difficult because the majority of commercially available coils are manufactured with a helical or spherical tertiary structure. While adopting framing strategies for oblong aneurysms (aspect ratio ≥ 2: 1), traditional coils may be undersized in the long axis but oversized in the short axis, resulting in increased aneurysmal wall stress, risk of re-rupture, and difficulty creating a basket that respects the aneurysmal neck. We review three cases in which versatile filling coils (VFCs) were used as the initial coils for embolization of oblong aneurysms and report coil distribution characteristics and clinical outcomes. Packing density after VFC implantation was assessed using the software AngioSuite-Neuro edition and AngioCalc. a 58-year-old woman experienced a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm (7.5 mm × 3.5 mm). A 3-6 mm × 15 cm VFC was selected as the first coil because the flexibility of its wave-loop structure facilitates framing of an irregularly shaped aneurysm. The loop portions of the structures tend to be pressed to the extremes of the aneurysmal sac by the wave component. The VFC was introduced smoothly into the aneurysmal sac without catheter kickback. We were then able to insert detachable filling coils without any adjunctive technique and achieved complete occlusion. Complete occlusion without severe complications was achieved in all three cases in our study. Average packing density after the first coil was 15.63%. VFC coils may have a specific role in framing oblong aneurysms given their complex loop-wave design, allowing spacing of the coils at the dome and neck while keeping sac stress to a minimum.

  4. Intermediate filament mechanics in vitro and in the cell: From coiled coils to filaments, fibers and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Köster, Sarah; Weitz, David; Goldman, Robert D.; Aebi, Ueli; Herrmann, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate filament proteins form filaments, fibers and networks both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of metazoan cells. Their general structural building plan accommodates highly varying amino acid sequences to yield extended dimeric α-helical coiled coils of highly conserved design. These “rod” particles are the basic building blocks of intrinsically flexible, filamentous structures that are able to resist high mechanical stresses, i.e. bending and stretching to a considerable degree, bo...

  5. Design windows and cost analysis on helical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Y.; Imagawa, S.; Sagara, A.

    2007-01-01

    The LHD type helical reactors are characterized by a large major radius but slender helical coil, which give us different approaches for power plants from tokamak reactors. For searching design windows of helical reactors and discussing their potential as power plants, we have developed a mass-cost estimating model linked with system design code (HeliCos), thorough studying the relationships between major plasma parameters and reactor parameters, and weight of major components. In regard to cost data we have much experience through preparing ITER construction. To compare the weight and cost of magnet systems between tokamak and helical reactors, we broke down magnet systems and cost factors, such as weights of super conducting strands, conduits, support structures, and winding unit costs, through estimating ITER cost data basis. Based on FFHR2m1 deign we considered a typical 3 GWth helical plant (LHD type) with the same magnet size, coil major radius Rc 14 m, magnetic energy 120 GJ, but increasing plasma densities. We evaluated the weight and cost of magnet systems of 3 GWth helical plant, the total magnet weights of 16,000ton and costs of 210 BYen, which are similar values of tokamak reactors (10,200 ton, 110 BYen in ITER 2002 report, and 21,900 ton, 275 BYen in ITER FDR1999). The costs of strands and winding occupy 70% of total magnet costs, and influence entire power plants economics. The design windows analysis and comparative economics studies to optimize the main reactor parameters have been carried out. Economics studies show that it is misunderstanding to consider helical coils are too large and too expensive to achieve power plants. But we should notice that the helical reactor design windows and economics are very sensitive to allowable blanket space (depend on ergodic layer conditions) and diverter configuration for decreasing heat loads. (orig.)

  6. Compressive response and deformation mechanisms of vertically aligned helical carbon nanotube forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, V. C.; Thevamaran, R.; Coluci, V. R.

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamic compressive response of vertically aligned helical carbon nanotube forests using a mesoscale model. To describe the compressive response, the model includes the helical geometry of the constituent coils, the entanglement between neighboring coils, and the sideway interactions among coils. Coarse-grained simulations show forest densification and stress localization, which are caused by different deformation mechanisms such as coil packing, buckling, and crushing. We find that these mechanisms depend on the initial overlap between coils and lead to a nonlinear stress-strain behavior that agrees with recent impact experiments. The nonlinear stress-strain behavior was shown to be composed of an initial linear increase of stress in strain followed by an exponential growth. These regimes are an outcome of the characteristics of both the individual coils and the entangled morphology of the forests.

  7. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine whether an increase in the damping values used in seismic structural analyses of nuclear piping systems is justified. Increasing the allowable damping would allow fewer piping supports which could lead to safer, more reliable, and less costly piping systems. Test data from availble literature were examined to determine the important parameters contributing to piping system damping, and each was investigated in separate-effects tests. From the combined results a world pipe damping data bank was established and multiple regression analyses performed to assess the relative contributions of the various parameters. The program is being extended to determine damping applicable to higher frequency (33 to 100 Hz) fluid-induced loadings. The goals of the program are to establish a methodology for predicting piping system damping and to recommend revised guidelines for the damping values to be included in analyses

  8. Conception of Brownian coil

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiayuan

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a conception of Brownian coil. Brownian coil is a tiny coil with the same size of pollen. Once immersed into designed magnetic field and liquid, the coil will be moved and deformed macroscopically, due to the microscopic thermodynamic molecular collisions. Such deformation and movement will change the magnetic flux through the coil, by which an ElectroMotive Force (EMF) is produced. In this work, Brownian heat exchanger and Brownian generator are further designed to tran...

  9. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been developed to assess the available piping damping data, to generate additional data and conduct seperate effects tests, and to establish a plan for reporting and storing future test results into a data bank. This effort is providing some of the basis for developing higher allowable damping values for piping seismic analyses, which will potentially permit removal of a considerable number of piping supports, particularly snubbers. This in turn will lead to more flexible piping systems which will be less susceptible to thermal cracking, will be easier to maintain and inspect, as well as less costly

  10. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  11. Formation and sustainment of a very low aspect ratio tokamak using coaxial helicity injection (the Helicity Injected Torus [HIT] experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    In the paper we will detail the progress of the HIT experiment construction, including the following components: preliminary data and interpretation; diagnostic systems; vacuum vessel and pumping system; helicity source and power supplies; toroidal field coil and power supply; data acquisition system; collaboration with general atomics, with a brief summary given on each

  12. Pipe connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.E.; Pardini, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated

  13. Developing mixed convection in a coiled heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, J.J.M.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the development of mixed convection in a helically coiled heat exchanger for Re = 500, Pr = 5 and d = 1/14 is studied. The influence of buoyancy forces (Gr = ¢O (105)) on heat transfer and secondary flow is analyzed. In the method used the parabolized equations are solved using a

  14. Developing mixed convection in a coiled heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, J.J.M.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Steenhoven, van A.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the development of mixed convection in a helically coiled heat exchanger for Re = 500, Pr = 5 and
    δ =114
    is studied. The influence of buoyancy forces ¢
    (Gr = ¢O (105))
    on heat transfer and secondary flow is analyzed. In the method used the parabolized equations are

  15. Particle orbit analysis for LHD helical axis configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Yamazaki, K.; Motojima, O.

    1993-04-01

    Fast ion orbits for helical magnetic axis configurations in LHD (Large Helical Device) are analyzed and compared with the standard circular axis case. Boundaries between passing and helically trapped particle regions show clear differences: in the non-planar axis case the helically trapped region spreads, near the magnetic axis, over a much wider band across the 90deg pitch angle value and shows a very marked asymmetry. The locally trapped particle region is also wider than in the standard case. The differences in the loss cone boundaries of the two cases are rather small, however, the effects of re-entering criteria are very important in both cases. On the contrary, effects of finite coil size are not significant. (author)

  16. Energy and helicity of magnetic torus knots and braids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberti, Chiara; Ricca, Renzo L.

    2018-02-01

    By considering steady magnetic fields in the shape of torus knots and unknots in ideal magnetohydrodynamics, we compute some fundamental geometric and physical properties to provide estimates for magnetic energy and helicity. By making use of an appropriate parametrization, we show that knots with dominant toroidal coils that are a good model for solar coronal loops have negligible total torsion contribution to magnetic helicity while writhing number provides a good proxy. Hence, by the algebraic definition of writhe based on crossing numbers, we show that the estimated values of writhe based on image analysis provide reliable information for the exact values of helicity. We also show that magnetic energy is linearly related to helicity, and the effect of the confinement of magnetic field can be expressed in terms of geometric information. These results can find useful application in solar and plasma physics, where braided structures are often present.

  17. Water cooling coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S; Ito, Y; Kazawa, Y

    1975-02-05

    Object: To provide a water cooling coil in a toroidal nuclear fusion device, in which coil is formed into a small-size in section so as not to increase dimensions, weight or the like of machineries including the coil. Structure: A conductor arranged as an outermost layer of a multiple-wind water cooling coil comprises a hollow conductor, which is directly cooled by fluid, and as a consequence, a solid conductor disposed interiorly thereof is cooled indirectly.

  18. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  19. A novel method for coiled tubing installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Peter J. [2H Offshore, Houston, TX (United States); Tibbetts, David [Aquactic Engineering and Construction Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-19

    Installation of flexible pipe for offshore developments is costly due to the physical cost of the flexible pipe, expensive day rates and the availability of suitable installation vessels. Considering the scarcity of flexible pipe in today's increasingly demanding and busy market, operators are seeking a cost effective solution for installing piping in a range of water depths using vessels which are readily on hand. This paper describes a novel approach to installing reeled coiled tubing, from 1 inch to 5 inch diameter, from the back of a small vessel in water depths from 40 m up to around 1000 m. The uniqueness of the system is the fact that the equipment design is modular and compact. This means that when disassembled, it fits into standard 40 ft shipping containers, and the size allows it to be installed on even relatively small vessels of opportunity, such as anchor handling or installation vessels, from smaller, and cheaper quay side locations. Such an approach is the ideal solution to the problem faced by operators, in that it allows the installation of cheaper, readily available coiled tubing, from cost-effective vessels, which do not need to transit to a pick up the system. (author)

  20. Studies of a thermal energy storage unit with ice on coils; Ice on coil gata kori chikunetsuso no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S; Miura, N [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Study was made of an ice-on-coil heat storage tank for power load levelling. Prior to the prediction of performance of the system as a whole, the performance of the heat storage tank itself needs to be predicted. A brine (35.9% water solution of ethylene glycol) cooled by a refrigerating machine was poured from the upper end of the piping in the heat storage tank (consisting of 19 spiral pipes or coils arranged in parallel in the vertical direction) for the collection of ice around the coils. Ice grew thicker with the passage of time but there was no remarkable decrease in the transfer of heat because there was an increase in the area of contact between ice and water, and the brine exit temperature remained constant over a prolonged period of time. There was a close agreement between experiment results and theoretical conclusions throughout the heat accumulation process, including changes with time in the thickness of ice on the coils, all pointing to the appropriateness of this analytical effort. To melt the ice, water was poured into the tank top at a predetermined rate. Water chilly at 2-4{degree}C was recovered at the tank bottom, stable in the amount produced. As for the use of spiral pipes for making ice, the laminar heat transfer rate in such pipes are supposed to be more than two times higher than that in straight pipes, and this was quite effective in accelerating heat transfer. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Spiral versus J-shaped coils for neurovascular embolisation - an in-vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiu, K.; Tokunaga, K.; Mandai, S.; Martin, J.B.; Jean, B.; Ruefenacht, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the characteristics of J-shaped detachable platinum coils with those of spiral coils in in-vitro vascular models. J-shaped coils consist of distal semicircular and proximal straight segments, the latter extending for most of the length of the coil. Spiral coils have a helical shape memory and are thus limited in expansion. In in-vitro silicone vascular models simulating intracranial aneurysms and dural arteriovenous fistulae, we compared J-shaped and spiral coils with regard to ease of delivery, anchoring and folding patterns, and stability in various types of vascular lumen. Delivery and retrieval were comparable. In large and irregular aneurysms and venous sinuses, J-shaped coils could form a more complex basket which conformed to the shape of the vascular cavity. The J-shaped coil was always in contact with the vessel wall. In wide-necked aneurysms, coil protrusion was more frequent with J-shaped coils, while spiral coils tended to stay compact and circular. Arteries were occluded in a shorter segment with spiral coils. J-shaped coils were safe and superior for large and irregular aneurysms or sinuses. Spiral coils were preferable for spherical aneurysms and segmental occlusion of arteries. (orig.)

  2. Impedance of a slotted-pipe kicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Feng [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics

    1996-08-01

    This paper introduces the principle of a new slotted kicker simply, which is made by using vacuum pipe itself with proper slits as current conductors, and then, presents a rough estimation of its longitudinal and transverse impedance, respectively. Calculation shows that its impedance is reduced significantly compared to our present air-coil kicker. (author)

  3. Strong contributions from vertical triads to helix-partner preferences in parallel coiled coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkruger, Jay D; Bartlett, Gail J; Woolfson, Derek N; Gellman, Samuel H

    2012-09-26

    Pairing preferences in heterodimeric coiled coils are determined by complementarities among side chains that pack against one another at the helix-helix interface. However, relationships between dimer stability and interfacial residue identity are not fully understood. In the context of the "knobs-into-holes" (KIH) packing pattern, one can identify two classes of interactions between side chains from different helices: "lateral", in which a line connecting the adjacent side chains is perpendicular to the helix axes, and "vertical", in which the connecting line is parallel to the helix axes. We have previously analyzed vertical interactions in antiparallel coiled coils and found that one type of triad constellation (a'-a-a') exerts a strong effect on pairing preferences, while the other type of triad (d'-d-d') has relatively little impact on pairing tendencies. Here, we ask whether vertical interactions (d'-a-d') influence pairing in parallel coiled-coil dimers. Our results indicate that vertical interactions can exert a substantial impact on pairing specificity, and that the influence of the d'-a-d' triad depends on the lateral a' contact within the local KIH motif. Structure-informed bioinformatic analyses of protein sequences reveal trends consistent with the thermodynamic data derived from our experimental model system in suggesting that heterotriads involving Leu and Ile are preferred over homotriads involving Leu and Ile.

  4. IPM Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submit A Report View Reports List [+] View Reports Map [+] CDM Alert System Sign Up For Alerts User Login Annual Epidemic Histories Annual Season Summaries Contact Us ipmPIPE User Login Web Administrator Login

  5. NCSX Trim Coil Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish, M.; Brooks, A.; Rushinski, J.; Upcavage, R.

    2009-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure

  6. Pipe grabber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Mubashirov, S.G.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-05-15

    A pipe grabber is suggested which contains a housing, clamping elements and centering mechanism with drive installed on the lower end of the housing. In order to improve the reliable operation of the pipe grabber, the centering mechanism is made in the form of a reinforced ringed flexible shaft, while the drive is made in the form of elastic rotating discs. In this case the direction of rotation of the discs and the flexible shaft is the opposite.

  7. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  8. Occurrence of helically coiled microfossil Obruchevella in the Owk ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the Owk Shale, four species of Obruchevella, viz., O. delicata, O. parva, O. minor and O. .... Asterisk indicate the level of the occurrence of carbonaceous fossils. (c) Locality ...... A B (Moscow: Nauka), English translation published in. 1990 ...

  9. Self-assembly of a double-helical complex of sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T W; Jousselin, H

    1994-02-03

    Spontaneous self-organization of helical and multiple-helical molecular structures occurs on several levels in living organisms. Key examples are alpha-helical polypeptides, double-helical nucleic acids and helical protein structures, including F-actin, microtubules and the protein sheath of the tobacco mosaic virus. Although the self-assembly of double-helical transition-metal complexes bears some resemblance to the molecular organization of double-stranded DNA, selection between monohelical, double-helical and triple-helical structures is determined largely by the size and geometrical preference of the tightly bound metal. Here we present an example of double-helical assembly induced by the weaker and non-directional interactions of an alkali-metal ion with an organic ligand that is pre-organized into a coil. We have characterized the resulting complex by two-dimensional NMR and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry. These results provide a step toward the creation of molecular tubes or ion channels consisting of intertwined coils.

  10. Biomaterials Made from Coiled-Coil Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conticello, Vincent; Hughes, Spencer; Modlin, Charles

    The development of biomaterials designed for specific applications is an important objective in personalized medicine. While the breadth and prominence of biomaterials have increased exponentially over the past decades, critical challenges remain to be addressed, particularly in the development of biomaterials that exhibit highly specific functions. These functional properties are often encoded within the molecular structure of the component molecules. Proteins, as a consequence of their structural specificity, represent useful substrates for the construction of functional biomaterials through rational design. This chapter provides an in-depth survey of biomaterials constructed from coiled-coils, one of the best-understood protein structural motifs. We discuss the utility of this structurally diverse and functionally tunable class of proteins for the creation of novel biomaterials. This discussion illustrates the progress that has been made in the development of coiled-coil biomaterials by showcasing studies that bridge the gap between the academic science and potential technological impact.

  11. Gravity-assist heat pipes for thermal control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverall, J.E.; Keddy, E.S.; Kemme, J.E.; Phillips, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Sodium heat pipes, operating in the gravity-assist mode, have been incorporated into irradiation capsules to provide a means for establishing and controlling a desired specimen temperature. Investigations were made of new wick structures for potassium heat pipes to operate at lower temperatures and higher heat transfer rates, and a helical trough wick structure was developed with an improved heat transfer capability in the temperature range of interest. Test results of these heat pipes led to the study of a new heat pipe limit which had not previously been considered. (12 references) (U.S.)

  12. A tokamak with nearly uniform coil stress based on virial theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, H.

    2002-01-01

    A novel tokamak concept with a new type of toroidal field (TF) coils and a central solenoid (CS) whose stress is much reduced to a theoretical limit determined by the virial theorem has been devised. Recently, we had developed a tokamak with force-balanced coils (FBCs) which are multi-pole helical hybrid coils combining TF coils and a CS coil. The combination reduces the net electromagnetic force in the direction of major radius. In this work, we have extended the FBC concept using the virial theorem. High-field coils should accordingly have same averaged principal stresses in all directions, whereas conventional FBC reduces stress in the toroidal direction only. Using a shell model, we have obtained the poloidal rotation number of helical coils which satisfy the uniform stress condition, and named the coil as virial-limited coil (VLC). VLC with circular cross section of aspect ratio A=2 reduces maximum stress to 60% compared with that of TF coils. In order to prove the advantage of VLC concept, we have designed a small VLC tokamak Todoroki-II. The plasma discharge in Todoroki-II will be presented. (author)

  13. Investigation of nonplanar modular coil systems for stellarator fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmeyer, E.

    1988-12-01

    Steady-state stellarators constitute an important option for a future fusion reactor. The helical magnetic field required for plasma confinement can be produced by means of a set of modular nonplanar coils. In order to achieve optimum power density of the plasma, the magnetic flux density inside the torus is made as high as possible. State-of-the-art estimates allow values of the magnetic flux density on axis of B 0 = 4-7 T. The present report is concerned with investigations on modular nonplanar stellarator coil systems. Coil systems with poloidal periodicity l=2 and a coil system of the W VII-AS type with superposed l=0, 1, 2, 3 terms are treated. Furthermore, the parameters are simultaneously varied while keeping constant the ratios of certain magnitudes. In the parameter space of the geometric values and coil number the following quantities are evaluated: maximum magnetic flux density in the coil domain, stored magnetic energy of the coil system, magnetic force density distribution or magnetic forces, and mechanical stress distribution in the coils. Numerical methods are applied in the programme systems used for these calculations. The aim of the study is to determine an optimum regime for the above parameters. The numerical results are compared with those of analytical approximation solutions. (orig.)

  14. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  15. A large stellarator based on modular coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamberger, S.M.; Sharp, L.E.; Petersen, L.F.

    1979-06-01

    Although stellarators offer some considerable advantages over tokamaks, difficulties arise in designing large devices due, for instance, to poor plasma access as well as to constructional electromechanical and maintenance problems associated with continous helical windings. This paper describes a design for a fairly large device (major radius 2.1m), based on a set of discrete coil modules arranged in a toroidal configuration to provide the required closed magnetic surfaces, having gaps for unobstructed access to the plasma for diagnostics, etc, and allowing for easy removal for maintenance

  16. Asymptomatic Delayed Coil Migration from an Intracranial Aneurysm: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Deep Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe asymptomatic delayed migration of a coil loop in a patient following successful coil embolization of an anterior communicating artery saccular aneurysm. Methods. A 24-year-old man with a ruptured anterior communicating artery saccular aneurysm underwent coil embolization with one helical ultrasoft coil. Results. A followup CT scan head and a cerebral angiogram one month following the procedure revealed distal migration of an intra-aneurysmal coil loop into the left pericallosal artery. The patient, however, remained asymptomatic. Conclusion. Delayed migration of coil following embolization of an intracranial aneurysm is an extremely rare occurrence. An asymptomatic presentation, as in our patient, is even more unique. The stent-like configuration of the migrated spiral coil loop probably prevented complete occlusion of the blood vessel.

  17. A note on helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Newmann, E.T.; Porter, J.; Winicour, J.; Lukacs, B.; Perjes, Z.; Sebestyen, A.

    1981-03-01

    The authors give a formal definition of the helicity operator for integral spin fields, which does not involve their momentum-space decomposition. The discussion is based upon a representation of the Pauli-Lubanski operator in terms of the action on tensor fields by the Killing vectors associated with the generators of the Poincare group. This leads to an identification of the helicity operator with the duality operator defined by the space-time alternating tensor. Helicity eigenstates then correspond to self-dual or anti-self-dual fields, in agreement with usage implicit in the literature. In addiition, the relationship between helicity eigenstates which are intrinsically non-classical, and states of right or left circular polarization in classical electrodynamics are discussed. (author)

  18. Superconducting magnetic coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aized, Dawood; Schwall, Robert E.

    1996-06-11

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil.

  19. Helical CT defecography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, R.; Fiorini, G.; Beghello, A.; Cicio, G.R.; Derchi, L.E.; Consigliere, M.; Resasco, M.; Tornago, S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the possible role of Helical CT defecography in pelvic floor disorders by comparing the results of the investigations with those of conventional defecography. The series analyzed consisted of 90 patients, namely 62 women and 28 men, ranging in age 24-82 years. They were all submitted to conventional defecography, and 18 questionable cases were also studied with Helical CT defecography. The conventional examination was performed during the 4 standard phases of resting, squeezing, Valsalva and straining; it is used a remote-control unit. The parameters for Helical CT defecography were: 5 mm beam collimation, pitch 2, 120 KV, 250 m As and 18-20 degrees gantry inclination to acquire coronal images of the pelvic floor. The rectal ampulla was distended with a bolus of 300 mL nonionic iodinated contrast agent (dilution: 3g/cc). The patient wore a napkin and was seated on the table, except for those who could not hold the position and were thus examined supine. Twenty-second helical scans were performed at rest and during evacuation; multiplanar reconstructions were obtained especially on the sagittal plane for comparison with conventional defecographic images. Coronal Helical CT defecography images permitted to map the perineal floor muscles, while sagittal reconstructions provided information on the ampulla and the levator ani. To conclude, Helical CT defecography performed well in study of pelvic floor disorders and can follow conventional defecography especially in questionable cases [it

  20. Cooling and dehumidifying coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The operating features of cooling and dehumidifying coils and their constructional details are discussed. The heat transfer relations as applicable to the boiling refrigerant and a single phase fluid are presented. Methods of accounting for the effect of moisture condensation on the air side heat transfer coefficient and the fin effectiveness are explained. The logic flow necessary to analyze direct expansion coils and chilled water coils is discussed

  1. The JET divertor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, J.R.; Froger, C.; Sborchia, C.

    1989-01-01

    The divertor coil is mounted inside the Jet vacuum vessel and is able to carry 1 MA turns. It is of conventional construction - water cooled copper, epoxy glass insulation -and is contained in a thin stainless steel case. The coil has to be assembled, insulated and encased inside the Jet vacuum vessel. A description of the coil is given, together with technical information (including mechanical effects on the vacuum vessel), an outline of the manufacture process and a time schedule. (author)

  2. Costs reduced by innovative plastic distribution pipe use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.W.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a strategic corporate cost-reduction initiative, Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Gas Distribution Group has achieved some quick but significant cash savings. System design, construction, and the purchasing function were areas that produced some fast paybacks while maintaining reliability and safety. The primary savings were made by optimizing pipe specifications to match system operating parameters. This allowed the use of smaller diameter pipes and/or thinner wall pipes which conserved the materials cost of the pipeline. Other realized savings in the form of coiled pipe, purchasing changes, and backfilling specifications are also described

  3. Structure of bacteriophage T4 fibritin: a segmented coiled coil and the role of the C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Strelkov, S V; Mesyanzhinov, V V; Rossmann, M G

    1997-06-15

    Oligomeric coiled-coil motifs are found in numerous protein structures; among them is fibritin, a structural protein of bacteriophage T4, which belongs to a class of chaperones that catalyze a specific phage-assembly process. Fibritin promotes the assembly of the long tail fibers and their subsequent attachment to the tail baseplate; it is also a sensing device that controls the retraction of the long tail fibers in adverse environments and, thus, prevents infection. The structure of fibritin had been predicted from sequence and biochemical analyses to be mainly a triple-helical coiled coil. The determination of its structure at atomic resolution was expected to give insights into the assembly process and biological function of fibritin, and the properties of modified coiled-coil structures in general. The three-dimensional structure of fibritin E, a deletion mutant of wild-type fibritin, was determined to 2.2 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. Three identical subunits of 119 amino acid residues form a trimeric parallel coiled-coil domain and a small globular C-terminal domain about a crystallographic threefold axis. The coiled-coil domain is divided into three segments that are separated by insertion loops. The C-terminal domain, which consists of 30 residues from each subunit, contains a beta-propeller-like structure with a hydrophobic interior. The residues within the C-terminal domain make extensive hydrophobic and some polar intersubunit interactions. This is consistent with the C-terminal domain being important for the correct assembly of fibritin, as shown earlier by mutational studies. Tight interactions between the C-terminal residues of adjacent subunits counteract the latent instability that is suggested by the structural properties of the coiled-coil segments. Trimerization is likely to begin with the formation of the C-terminal domain which subsequently initiates the assembly of the coiled coil. The interplay between the stabilizing effect of the C

  4. Light scattering measurements supporting helical structures for chromatin in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A M; Cotter, R I; Pardon, J F

    1978-05-01

    Laser light scattering measurements have been made on a series of polynucleosomes containing from 50 to 150 nucleosomes. Radii of gyration have been determined as a function of polynucleosome length for different ionic strength solutions. The results suggest that at low ionic strength the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure rather than a random coil. The helix becomes more regular on increasing the ionic strength, the dimension resembling those proposed by Finch and Klug for their solenoid model.

  5. Design study on divertor plates of Large Helical Device (LHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, N.; Kubota, Y.; Sagara, A.

    1992-10-01

    A conceptual design has been completed for the divertor plates of the Large Helical Device (LHD, R = 3.9 m, a p = 50 ∼ 60 cm, B h = 3 ∼ 4T/ superconducting coils of NbTi) and the detailed technical design is now in progress. The design concept and the status of research and development (R and D) programs are described. (author)

  6. Helical magnetic axis configuration combined with l = 1 and weak l = -1 torsatron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Hitoshi; Saito, Katsunori; Gesso, Hirokazu; Shiina, Shoichi

    1989-01-01

    The superposition of a relatively weak l = -1 torsatron field on a main l = 1 torsatron field leads to the improvement of the confinement properties due to the formation of a local magnetic well, which results from the local curvature of the helical magnetic axis with a larger excursion in the major radius direction. This l±1 helical magnetic axis system has a comparatively simple, compact coil structure. Here the vacuum configuration properties of l = ±1 system are described. (author)

  7. Neutronics investigation of advanced self-cooled liquid blanket systems in helical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Sagara, A.; Muroga, T.; Youssef, M.Z.

    2006-10-01

    Neutronics performances of advanced self-cooled liquid blanket systems have been investigated in design activity of the helical-type reactor FFHR2. In the present study, a new three-dimensional (3-D) neutronics calculation system has been developed for the helical-type reactor to enhance quick feedback between neutronics evaluation and design modification. Using this new calculation system, advanced Flibe-cooled and Li-cooled liquid blanket systems proposed for FFHR2 have been evaluated to make clear design issues to enhance neutronics performance. Based on calculated results, modification of the blanket dimensions and configuration have been attempted to achieve the adequate tritium breeding ability and neutron shielding performance in the helical reactor. The total tritium breeding ratios (TBRs) obtained after modifying the blanket dimensions indicated that all the advanced blanket systems proposed for FFHR2 would achieve adequate tritium self-sufficiency by dimension adjustment and optimization of structures in the breeder layers. Issues in neutron shielding performance have been investigated quantitatively using 3-D geometry of the helical blanket system, support structures, poloidal coils etc. Shielding performance of the helical coils against direct neutrons from core plasma would achieve design target by further optimization of shielding materials. However, suppression of the neutron streaming and reflection through the divertor pumping areas in the original design is important issue to protect the poloidal coils and helical coils, respectively. Investigation of the neutron wall loading indicated that the peaking factor of the neutron wall load distribution would be moderated by the toroidal and helical effect of the plasma distribution in the helical reactor. (author)

  8. Helicity, Reconnection, and Dynamo Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Hantao

    1998-01-01

    The inter-relationships between magnetic helicity, magnetic reconnection, and dynamo effects are discussed. In laboratory experiments, where two plasmas are driven to merge, the helicity content of each plasma strongly affects the reconnection rate, as well as the shape of the diffusion region. Conversely, magnetic reconnection events also strongly affect the global helicity, resulting in efficient helicity cancellation (but not dissipation) during counter-helicity reconnection and a finite helicity increase or decrease (but less efficiently than dissipation of magnetic energy) during co-helicity reconnection. Close relationships also exist between magnetic helicity and dynamo effects. The turbulent electromotive force along the mean magnetic field (alpha-effect), due to either electrostatic turbulence or the electron diamagnetic effect, transports mean-field helicity across space without dissipation. This has been supported by direct measurements of helicity flux in a laboratory plasma. When the dynamo effect is driven by electromagnetic turbulence, helicity in the turbulent field is converted to mean-field helicity. In all cases, however, dynamo processes conserve total helicity except for a small battery effect, consistent with the observation that the helicity is approximately conserved during magnetic relaxation

  9. Active internal corrector coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Cottingham, J.; Dahl, P.

    1986-01-01

    Trim or corrector coils to correct main magnet field errors and provide higher multipole fields for beam optics purposes are a standard feature of superconducting magnet accelerator systems. This paper describes some of the design and construction features of powered internal trim coils and a sampling of the test results obtained

  10. Compact stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  11. Molecular basis of coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Barbara; Bjelic, Saša; Honnappa, Srinivas; Jawhari, Hatim; Jaussi, Rolf; Payapilly, Aishwarya; Jowitt, Thomas; Steinmetz, Michel O; Kammerer, Richard A

    2010-11-16

    Coiled coils are extensively and successfully used nowadays to rationally design multistranded structures for applications, including basic research, biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, and medicine. The wide range of applications as well as the important functions these structures play in almost all biological processes highlight the need for a detailed understanding of the factors that control coiled-coil folding and oligomerization. Here, we address the important and unresolved question why the presence of particular oligomerization-state determinants within a coiled coil does frequently not correlate with its topology. We found an unexpected, general link between coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity and trigger sequences, elements that are indispensable for coiled-coil formation. By using the archetype coiled-coil domain of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 as a model system, we show that well-established trimer-specific oligomerization-state determinants switch the peptide's topology from a dimer to a trimer only when inserted into the trigger sequence. We successfully confirmed our results in two other, unrelated coiled-coil dimers, ATF1 and cortexillin-1. We furthermore show that multiple topology determinants can coexist in the same trigger sequence, revealing a delicate balance of the resulting oligomerization state by position-dependent forces. Our experimental results should significantly improve the prediction of the oligomerization state of coiled coils. They therefore should have major implications for the rational design of coiled coils and consequently many applications using these popular oligomerization domains.

  12. Conceptual design of the superconducting magnet system for the helical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Nagato; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Takahata, Kazuya; Natsume, Kyohei

    2013-01-01

    Current status of conceptual design of superconducting magnet system and low temperature system for the helical fusion reactor are introduced. There are three kinds of candidates of superconducting magnets such as Cable-in-conduit (CIC), Low-Temperature Superconductor (LTS) and High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS). Their characteristic properties, coil designs and cooling systems are stated. The freezer and low temperature distribution system, bus line and current lead, and excitation power source for superconducting coil are reported. The various elements of superconducting magnet system of FFHR-d1, partial cross section of FFHR helical coil using CIC, conceptual diagram of helical coil winding method of FFHR using CIC, relation among mass flow of supercritical helium supplied into CIC conductor and temperature increasing and pressure loss, cross section structure of LTS indirect-cooling conductor at 100 kA, cross section of 100-kA HTS conductor, connection method of helical coil segment and YBCO conductor are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  13. A thermal study of pipes with outer transverse fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides results of thermal investigations on pipes with outer transverse fins produced by placing a strip, being a form of helical spring which functions as a radiator, on the basis pipe. The investigations were carried out at the facility that enables measurements with respect to both natural and forced convection. Performance of the investigated pipes was assessed in relation to a non-finned pipe and a pipe welded with the use of Metal Active Gas (MAG technology. The experiments have shown that the finned pipe welding technology does not markedly affect their thermal efficiency, which has been confirmed by performed model calculations, while the welding technology has a crucial impact on their operating performance.

  14. Field of a helical Siberian Snake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccio, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    To preserve the spin polarization of a beam of high energy protons in a circular accelerator, magnets with periodic magnetic field, called Siberian Snakes are being used. Recently, it was proposed to build Siberian Snakes with superconducting helical dipoles. In a helical, or twisted dipole, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the helix and rotates around it as one proceeds along the magnet. In an engineering study of a 4 Tesla helical snake, the coil geometry is derived, by twisting, from the geometry of a cosine superconducting dipole. While waiting for magnetic measurement data on such a prototype, an analytical expression for the field of the helice is important, to calculate the particle trajectories and the spin precession in the helix. This model will also allow to determine the optical characteristics of the snake, as an insertion in the lattice of the accelerator. In particular, one can calculate the integrated multipoles through the magnet and the equivalent transfer matrix. An expression for the field in the helix body, i.e., excluding the fringe field was given in a classical paper. An alternate expression can be found by elaborating on the treatment of the field of a transverse wiggler obtained under the rather general conditions that the variables are separable. This expression exactly satisfies Maxwell`s div and curl equations for a stationary field, {del} {center_dot} B = 0, {del} x B = 0. This approach is useful in that it will allow one to use much of the work already done on the problem of inserting wigglers and undulators in the lattice of a circular accelerator.

  15. Design of the pancake-winding central solenoid coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nishi, Masataka; Tsuji, Hirosi

    1995-01-01

    There was a debate over whether a pancake-winding or layer-winding technique is more appropriate for the Central Solenoid (CS) coil for ITER superconducting magnet. The layer-winding CS has the advantage of homogeneous winding supporting the TF centering force without weak joints, but has many difficulties during manufacturing and quality control. On other hand, the pancake-winding has the advantage of better quality control during manufacturing and module testing but has difficulties with joints and feeders, and pipes located in the load path of the bucking force from the toroidal field coils. The compact joints, reinforcement by preformed amour, sharp bending, and double seals are applied to the design of pancake-winding CS coil and demonstrated by hardware developments. The pancake-winding CS coil by using modified existing technology is compatible with the bucking concept of the ITER magnet system. (author)

  16. Large coil task and results of testing US coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    The United States, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland have collaborated since 1978 in development of superconducting toroidal field coils for fusion reactor applications. The United States provided a test facility nd three coils; the other participants, one coil each. All coils have the same interface dimensions and performance requirements (stable at 8 T), but internal design was decided by each team. Two US coil teams chose bath-cooled NbTi, 10-kA conductors. One developed a Nb 3 Sn conductor, cooled by internal flow, rated at 18 kA. All US coils have diagnostic instrumentation and imbedded heaters that enable stability tests and simulated nuclear heating experiments. In single-coil tests, each coil operated at full current in self-field (6.4 T). In six-coil tests that began in July 1986, one US coil and the Japanese coil hve been successfully operated at full current at 8 T. The other coils have operated as background coils while awaiting their turn as test coil. Coil tests have been informative and results gratifying. The facility has capably supported coil testing and its operation has provided information that will be useful in designing future fusion systems. Coil capabilities beyond nominal design points will be determined

  17. Helical-D pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    A stabilized pinch configuration is described, consisting of a D-shaped plasma cross section wrapped tightly around a guiding axis. The open-quotes helical-Dclose quotes geometry produces a very large axial (toroidal) transform of magnetic line direction that reverses the pitch of the magnetic lines without the need of azimuthal (poloidal) plasma current. Thus, there is no need of a open-quotes dynamoclose quotes process and its associated fluctuations. The resulting configuration has the high magnetic shear and pitch reversal of the reversed field pinch (RFP). (Pitch = P = qR, where R = major radius). A helical-D pinch might demonstrate good confinement at q << 1

  18. Open coil traction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2012-01-01

    Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement.

  19. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  20. Heat transfer analysis of short helical borehole heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vertical ground heat exchanger with a helical shaped pipe is analyzed. ► The model considers the interaction between the ground and the environment. ► The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental values. ► The weather conditions considerably affect the fluid heat carrier temperature. ► The pitch between the turns does not affect the behaviour of the heat exchanger. -- Abstract: In this paper a numerical model to analyze the thermal behaviour of vertical ground heat exchangers with a helical shaped pipe is presented. This type of configuration can be a suitable alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers, especially when the heating and cooling loads of the building are very low. The model describes the heat transfer problem by means of a network of interconnected thermal resistances and capacitances. Moreover, as the investigated ground heat exchanger is usually installed in shallow depth, the model takes into account the interaction between the ground and the ambient environment which affects the fluid heat carrier temperature into the heat exchanger and, as a consequence, the energy efficiency of the heat pump. After a sensitivity analysis on the mesh parameters, the presented model is compared with experimental data and the simulation results show good agreement with the measurements. Finally, analyses to investigate the influence of the weather conditions, of the axial heat transfer and of the pitch between the turns of the helical pipe for two types of ground are carried out.

  1. Review of the helicity formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, F.; Cerrada, M.; Fernandez, E.

    1972-01-01

    Our purpose in these notes has been to present a brief and general review of the helicity formalism. We begin by discussing Lorentz invariance, spin and helicity ideas, in section 1 . In section 2 we deal with the construction of relativistic states and scattering amplitudes in the helicity basis and we study their transformation properties under discrete symmetries. Finally we present some more sophisticated topics like kinematical singularities of helicity amplitudes, kinematical constraints and crossing relations 3, 4, 5 respectively. (Author) 8 refs

  2. Extending the self-assembly of coiled-coil hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robson Marsden, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Of the various biomolecular building blocks in use in nature, coiled-coil forming peptides are amongst those with the most potential as building blocks for the synthetic self-assembly of nanostructures. Native coiled coils have the ability to function in, and influence, complex systems composed of

  3. Experimental measurement of fluid force coefficients for helical tube arrays in air cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Shifang; Liu Reilan

    1993-01-01

    A helical coil steam generator is extensively used in the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGCR) and Sodium Cooled Reactor (SCR) nuclear power stations because of its compact structure, good heat-exchange, and small volume. The experimental model is established by the structure parameter of 200MW HTGCR. The fluid elastic instability of helical tube arrays in air cross flow is studied in this experiment, and the fluid force coefficients of helical tube arrays having the same notational direction of two adjacent layers in air cross flow are obtained. As compared to the fluid force coefficients of cylinder tube arrays, the fluid force coefficients of helical tube arrays are smaller in the low velocity area, and greater in the high velocity area. The experimental results help the study of the dynamic characteristics of helical tube arrays in air cross flow

  4. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2015-01-01

    DOE Technical Topic Manager to develop magnets for the Mu2e experiment that fit well into the Fermilab Technical Division availability. The difference between the MCC helical solenoid and the Mu2e bent solenoid described in Appendix I is that the helical solenoid is made of coils that are in parallel planes with offset centers, while the coils in the bent solenoid follow the central particle trajectory and look much like a @slinky@ toy. The muon-beam cooling-channel technologies developed in this project will enable a muon collider, the next step toward the energy frontier, Higgs/neutrino/Z-factories, and rare muon decay experiments. Commercial uses of the beams made possible by the cooling techniques developed in this project include scanning for nuclear contraband, studies of material properties with spin resonance techniques, and muon-catalyzed fusion.

  5. Helical muon beam cooling channel engineering design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-07

    project was approved by the DOE Technical Topic Manager to develop magnets for the Mu2e experiment that fit well into the Fermilab Technical Division availability. The difference between the MCC helical solenoid and the Mu2e bent solenoid described in Appendix I is that the helical solenoid is made of coils that are in parallel planes with offset centers, while the coils in the bent solenoid follow the central particle trajectory and look much like a “slinky” toy. The muon-beam cooling-channel technologies developed in this project will enable a muon collider, the next step toward the energy frontier, Higgs/neutrino/Z-factories, and rare muon decay experiments. Commercial uses of the beams made possible by the cooling techniques developed in this project include scanning for nuclear contraband, studies of material properties with spin resonance techniques, and muon-catalyzed fusion.

  6. Invited review the coiled coil silk of bees, ants, and hornets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Tara D; Weisman, Sarah; Walker, Andrew A; Mudie, Stephen T

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we review current knowledge about the silk produced by the larvae of bees, ants, and hornets [Apoidea and Vespoidea: Hymenoptera]. Different species use the silk either alone or in composites for a variety of purposes including mechanical reinforcement, thermal regulation, or humidification. The characteristic molecular structure of this silk is α-helical proteins assembled into tetrameric coiled coils. Gene sequences from seven species are available, and each species possesses a copy of each of four related silk genes that encode proteins predicted to form coiled coils. The proteins are ordered at multiple length scales within the labial gland of the final larval instar before spinning. The insects control the morphology of the silk during spinning to produce either fibers or sheets. The silk proteins are small and non repetitive and have been produced artificially at high levels by fermentation in E. coli. The artificial silk proteins can be fabricated into materials with structural and mechanical properties similar to those of native silks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Structure of a designed, right-handed coiled-coil tetramer containing all biological amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Mark; Plecs, Joseph J; Holton, James M; Alber, Tom

    2007-10-01

    The previous design of an unprecedented family of two-, three-, and four-helical, right-handed coiled coils utilized nonbiological amino acids to efficiently pack spaces in the oligomer cores. Here we show that a stable, right-handed parallel tetrameric coiled coil, called RH4B, can be designed entirely using biological amino acids. The X-ray crystal structure of RH4B was determined to 1.1 Angstrom resolution using a designed metal binding site to coordinate a single Yb(2+) ion per 33-amino acid polypeptide chain. The resulting experimental phases were particularly accurate, and the experimental electron density map provided an especially clear, unbiased view of the molecule. The RH4B structure closely matched the design, with equivalent core rotamers and an overall root-mean-square deviation for the N-terminal repeat of the tetramer of 0.24 Angstrom. The clarity and resolution of the electron density map, however, revealed alternate rotamers and structural differences between the three sequence repeats in the molecule. These results suggest that the RH4B structure populates an unanticipated variety of structures.

  8. An in-pipe mobile micromachine using fluid power. A mechanism adaptable to pipe diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Shinichi; Takahashi, Ken

    2000-01-01

    To realize micro maintenance robots for small diameter pipes of nuclear reactors and so on, high power in-pipe mobile micromachines have been required. The authors have proposed the bellows microactuator using fluid power and have tried to apply the actuators to in-pipe mobile micromachines. In the previous papers, some inchworm mobile machine prototypes with 25 mm in diameter are fabricated and the traveling performances are experimentally investigated. In this paper, to miniaturize the in-pipe mobile machine and to make it adaptable to pipe diameters, firstly, a simple rubber-tube actuator constrained with a coil-spring is proposed and the static characteristics are investigated. Secondly, a supporting mechanism which utilizes a toggle mechanism and is adaptable to pipe diameters is proposed and the supporting forces are investigated. Finally, an in-pipe mobile micromachine for pipe with 4 - 5 mm in diameter is fabricated and the maximum traveling velocity of 7 mm/s in both ahead and astern movements is experimentally verified. (author)

  9. LHC bending magnet coil

    CERN Multimedia

    A short test version of coil of wire used for the LHC dipole magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair.

  10. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  11. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  12. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  13. Structural analysis of compression helical spring used in suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akshat; Misra, Sheelam; Jindal, Arun; Lakhian, Prateek

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of this work has to develop a helical spring for shock absorber used in suspension system which is designed to reduce shock impulse and liberate kinetic energy. In a vehicle, it increases comfort by decreasing amplitude of disturbances and it improves ride quality by absorbing and dissipating energy. When a vehicle is in motion on a road and strikes a bump, spring comes into action quickly. After compression, spring will attempt to come to its equilibrium state which is on level road. Helical springs can be made lighter with more strength by reducing number of coils and increasing the area. In this research work, a helical spring is modeled and analyzed to substitute the existing steel spring which is used in suspension. By using different materials, stress and deflection of helical spring can be varied. Comparability between existing spring and newly replaced spring is used to verify the results. For finding detailed stress distribution, finite element analysis is used to find stresses and deflection in both the helical springs. Finite element analysis is a method which is used to find proximate solutions of a physical problem defined in a finite domain. In this research work, modeling of spring is accomplished using Solid Works and analysis on Ansys.

  14. TFTR toroidal field coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.E.; Punchard, W.F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The design of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Toroidal Field (TF) magnetic coils is described. The TF coil is a 44-turn, spiral-wound, two-pancake, water-cooled configuration which, at a coil current of 73.3 kiloamperes, produces a 5.2-Tesla field at a major radius of 2.48 meters. The magnetic coils are installed in titanium cases, which transmit the loads generated in the coils to the adjacent supporting structure. The TFTR utilizes 20 of these coils, positioned radially at 18 0 intervals, to provide the required toroidal field. Because it is very highly loaded and subject to tight volume constraints within the machine, the coil presents unique design problems. The TF coil requirements are summarized, the coil configuration is described, and the problems highlighted which have been encountered thus far in the coil design effort, together with the development tests which have been undertaken to verify the design

  15. NCSX Toroidal Field Coil Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalish M; Rushinski J; Myatt L; Brooks A; Dahlgren F; Chrzanowski J; Reiersen W; Freudenberg K.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is an experimental device whose design and construction is underway at the Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The primary coil systems for the NCSX device consist of the twisted plasma-shaping Modular Coils, the Poloidal Field Coils, and the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils. The TF Coils are D-shaped coils wound from hollow copper conductor, and vacuum impregnated with a glass-epoxy resin system. There are 18 identical, equally spaced TF coils providing 1/R field at the plasma. They operate within a cryostat, and are cooled by LN2, nominally, to 80K. Wedge shaped castings are assembled to the inboard face of these coils, so that inward radial loads are reacted via the nesting of each of the coils against their adjacent partners. This paper outlines the TF Coil design methodology, reviews the analysis results, and summarizes how the design and analysis support the design requirements

  16. Conserved residues in the coiled-coil pocket of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 are essential for viral replication and interhelical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Hongmei; Konstantinidis, Alex K.; Stewart, Kent D.; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Ng, Teresa; Swift, Kerry; Matayoshi, Edmund D.; Kati, Warren; Kohlbrenner, William; Molla, Akhteruzzaman

    2004-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 plays an important role in mediating the fusion of HIV with host cells. During the fusion process, three N-terminal helices and three C-terminal helices pack in an anti-parallel direction to form a six-helix bundle. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the gp41 core demonstrated that within each coiled-coil interface, there is a deep and large pocket, formed by a cluster of residues in the N-helix coiled-coil. In this report, we systematically analyzed the role of seven conserved residues that are either lining or packing this pocket on the infectivity and interhelical interaction using novel approaches. Our results show that residues L568, V570, W571, and K574 of the N-helix that are lining the side chain and right wall of the pocket are important for establishing a productive infection. Mutations V570A and W571A completely abolished replication, while replication of the L568A and K574A mutants was significantly attenuated relative to wild type. Similarly, residues W628, W631, and I635 of the C-helix that insert into the pocket are essential for infectivity. The impaired infectivity of these seven mutants is in part attributed to the loss in binding affinity of the interhelical interaction. Molecular modeling of the crystal structure of the coiled-coil further shows that alanine substitution of those residues disrupts the hydrophobic interaction between the N- and C-helix. These results suggest that the conserved residues in the coiled-coil domain play a key role in HIV infection and this coiled-coil pocket is a good target for development of inhibitors against HIV. In addition, our data indicate that the novel fluorescence polarization assay described in this study could be valuable in screening for inhibitors that block the interhelical interaction and HIV entry

  17. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Woolley, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    A new coil protection calculator (CPC) is presented in this paper. It is now being developed for TFTR's magnetic field coils will replace the existing coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPC will permit operation up to the actual coil limits by accurately and continuously computing coil parameters in real-time. The improvement will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates

  18. Rice Cellulose SynthaseA8 Plant-Conserved Region Is a Coiled-Coil at the Catalytic Core Entrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushton, Phillip S.; Olek, Anna T.; Makowski, Lee; Badger, John; Steussy, C. Nicklaus; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Stauffacher, Cynthia V. (NEU); (Purdue)

    2016-11-22

    The crystallographic structure of a rice (Oryza sativa) cellulose synthase, OsCesA8, plant-conserved region (P-CR), one of two unique domains in the catalytic domain of plant CesAs, was solved to 2.4 Å resolution. Two antiparallel α-helices form a coiled-coil domain linked by a large extended connector loop containing a conserved trio of aromatic residues. The P-CR structure was fit into a molecular envelope for the P-CR domain derived from small-angle X-ray scattering data. The P-CR structure and molecular envelope, combined with a homology-based chain trace of the CesA8 catalytic core, were modeled into a previously determined CesA8 small-angle X-ray scattering molecular envelope to produce a detailed topological model of the CesA8 catalytic domain. The predicted position for the P-CR domain from the molecular docking models places the P-CR connector loop into a hydrophobic pocket of the catalytic core, with the coiled-coil aligned near the entrance of the substrate UDP-glucose into the active site. In this configuration, the P-CR coiled-coil alone is unlikely to regulate substrate access to the active site, but it could interact with other domains of CesA, accessory proteins, or other CesA catalytic domains to control substrate delivery.

  19. Thermal and hydraulic analyses of TFTR cooling water system and magnetic field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.Y.

    1975-10-01

    The TFTR toroidal field coils, ohmic heating, hybrid and equilibrium field coils are cooled by water from the machine area cooling water system. The system has the following major equipment and capacities: flow rate of 3600 gpm; ballast tank volume of 5500 gal; pumps of 70.4 m head; chiller refrigeration rating of 3300 tons and connecting pipe of 45.7 cm I.D. The performance of the closed loop system was analyzed and found to be adequate for the thermal loads. The field coils were analyzed with detailed thermal and hydraulic models, including a simulation of the complete water cooling loop. Under the nominal operating mode of one second of toroidal field flat top time and 300 seconds of pulse cycle time, the maximum temperature for the TF coils is 53 0 C; for the OH coils 46 0 C and for the EF coils 39 0 C, which are well below the coil design limit of 120 0 C. The maximum TF coil coolant temperature is 33 0 C which is below the coolant design limit of 100 0 C. The overall pressure loss of the system is below 6.89 x 10 5 Pa (100 psi). With the given chiller refrigeration capacity, the TF coils can be operated to yield up to 4 seconds of flat top time. The TF coils can be operated on a steady state basis at up to 20% of the pulsed duty design current rating of 7.32 kA/coil

  20. Ergodization of magnetic surfaces due to finite beta effect in a helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takaya.

    1989-04-01

    Breaking of magnetic surfaces due to finite beta effect in a l=2 heliotron/torsatron configuration is studied by using a newly developed three dimensional equilibrium code. Breaking can be suppressed by a larger aspect ratio configuration, shaping of magnetic surface (inward shift or prolate shape), pitch modulation of helical coils, or pressure profile control. (author)

  1. Coulomb double helical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Structures of Coulomb clusters formed by dust particles in a plasma are studied by numerical simulation. Our study reveals the presence of various types of self-organized structures of a cluster confined in a prolate spheroidal electrostatic potential. The stable configurations depend on a prolateness parameter for the confining potential as well as on the number of dust particles in a cluster. One-dimensional string, two-dimensional zigzag structure and three-dimensional double helical structure are found as a result of the transition controlled by the prolateness parameter. The formation of stable double helical structures resulted from the transition associated with the instability of angular perturbations on double strings. Analytical perturbation study supports the findings of numerical simulations.

  2. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average β and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned

  3. Residual stress improvement for pipe weld by means of induction heating pre-flawed pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, T.; Yoshida, K.; Okamoto, A.

    1980-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) has been found in type 304 stainless steel piping of several BWR plants. It is already well known that IGSCC is most likely to occur when three essential factors, material sensitization, high tensile stress and corrosive environment, are present. If the welding residual stress is sufficiently high (200 to approximately 400 MPa) in the inside piping surface near the welded joint, then it may be one of the biggest contributors to IGSCC. If the residual stress is reduced or reversed by some way, the IGSCC will be effectively mitigated. In this paper a method to improve the residual stress named IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) is explained. IHSI aims to improve the condition of residual stress in the inside pipe surface using the thermal stress induced by the temperature difference in pipe wall, that is produced when the pipe is heated from the outside surface by an induction heating coil and cooled on the inside surface by water simultaneously. This method becomes more attractive when it can be successfully applied to in-service piping which might have some pre-flaw. In order to verify the validity of IHSI for such piping, some experiments and calculations using finite element method were conducted. These results are mainly discussed in this paper from the view-points of residual stress, flaw behaviour during IHSI and material deterioration. (author)

  4. Diffraction by DNA, carbon nanotubes and other helical nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Amand A; Lambin, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    This review discusses the diffraction patterns of x-rays or electrons scattered by fibres of helical biological molecules and by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from the unified point of view of the Fourier-Bessel transform of an atomic helix. This paper is intended for scientists who are not professional crystallographers. X-ray fibre diffraction patterns of Pauling's protein α-helix and of Crick and Pauling's protein coiled-coil are revisited. This is followed by a non-technical comparison between the historic x-ray diffraction patterns of the A and B conformations of DNA, which were crucial for the discovery of the double helix. The qualitative analysis of the diffraction images is supported by novel optical simulation experiments designed to pinpoint the gross structural informational content of the patterns. The spectacular helical structure of the tobacco mosaic virus determined by Rosalind Franklin and co-workers will then be described as an early example of the great power of x-ray crystallography in determining the structure of a large biomolecular edifice. After these mostly historical and didactic case studies, this paper will consider electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy of CNTs of great current interest, focusing particularly on recent data obtained for single-wall, double-wall and scrolled nanotubes. Several points of convergence between the interpretations of the diffraction patterns of biological helices and CNTs will be emphasized

  5. Superconducting coil protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    The protection system is based on a two-phase construction program. Phase I is the development of a reliable hardwired relay control system with a digital loop utilizing firmware and a microprocessor controller. Phase II is an expansion of the digital loop to include many heretofore unmonitored coil variables. These new monitored variables will be utilized to establish early quench detection and to formulate confirmation techniques of the quench detection mechanism. Established quench detection methods are discussed and a new approach to quench detection is presented. The new circuit is insensitive to external pulsed magnetic fields and the associated induced voltages. Reliability aspects of the coil protection system are discussed with respect to shutdowns of superconducting coil systems. Redundance and digital system methods are presented as related topics

  6. Structural basis for cargo binding and autoinhibition of Bicaudal-D1 by a parallel coiled-coil with homotypic registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi, E-mail: terawaki@gunma-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yoshikane, Asuka [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Higuchi, Yoshiki [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Department of Picobiology, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Wakamatsu, Kaori [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Bicaudal-D1 (BICD1) is an α-helical coiled-coil protein mediating the attachment of specific cargo to cytoplasmic dynein. It plays an essential role in minus end-directed intracellular transport along microtubules. The third C-terminal coiled-coil region of BICD1 (BICD1 CC3) has an important role in cargo sorting, including intracellular vesicles associating with the small GTPase Rab6 and the nuclear pore complex Ran binding protein 2 (RanBP2), and inhibiting the association with cytoplasmic dynein by binding to the first N-terminal coiled-coil region (CC1). The crystal structure of BICD1 CC3 revealed a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with asymmetry and complementary knobs-into-holes interactions, differing from Drosophila BicD CC3. Furthermore, our binding study indicated that BICD1 CC3 possesses a binding surface for two distinct cargos, Rab6 and RanBP2, and that the CC1-binding site overlaps with the Rab6-binding site. These findings suggest a molecular basis for cargo recognition and autoinhibition of BICD proteins during dynein-dependent intracellular retrograde transport. - Highlights: • BICD1 CC3 is a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with axial asymmetry. • The coiled-coil packing of BICD1 CC3 is adapted to the equivalent heptad position. • BICD1 CC3 has distinct binding sites for two classes of cargo, Rab6 and RanBP2. • The CC1-binding site of BICD1 CC3 overlaps with the Rab6-binding site.

  7. Structural basis for cargo binding and autoinhibition of Bicaudal-D1 by a parallel coiled-coil with homotypic registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Yoshikane, Asuka; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Bicaudal-D1 (BICD1) is an α-helical coiled-coil protein mediating the attachment of specific cargo to cytoplasmic dynein. It plays an essential role in minus end-directed intracellular transport along microtubules. The third C-terminal coiled-coil region of BICD1 (BICD1 CC3) has an important role in cargo sorting, including intracellular vesicles associating with the small GTPase Rab6 and the nuclear pore complex Ran binding protein 2 (RanBP2), and inhibiting the association with cytoplasmic dynein by binding to the first N-terminal coiled-coil region (CC1). The crystal structure of BICD1 CC3 revealed a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with asymmetry and complementary knobs-into-holes interactions, differing from Drosophila BicD CC3. Furthermore, our binding study indicated that BICD1 CC3 possesses a binding surface for two distinct cargos, Rab6 and RanBP2, and that the CC1-binding site overlaps with the Rab6-binding site. These findings suggest a molecular basis for cargo recognition and autoinhibition of BICD proteins during dynein-dependent intracellular retrograde transport. - Highlights: • BICD1 CC3 is a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with axial asymmetry. • The coiled-coil packing of BICD1 CC3 is adapted to the equivalent heptad position. • BICD1 CC3 has distinct binding sites for two classes of cargo, Rab6 and RanBP2. • The CC1-binding site of BICD1 CC3 overlaps with the Rab6-binding site

  8. An alternative conformation of the gp41 heptad repeat 1 region coiled coil exists in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mische, Claudia C.; Yuan Wen; Strack, Bettina; Craig, Stewart; Farzan, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, gp41, which mediates virus-cell fusion, exists in at least three different conformations within the trimeric envelope glycoprotein complex. The structures of the prefusogenic and intermediate states are unknown; structures representing the postfusion state have been solved. In the postfusion conformation, three helical heptad repeat 2 (HR2) regions pack in an antiparallel fashion into the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of a triple-helical coiled coil formed by the heptad repeat 1 (HR1) regions. We studied the prefusogenic conformation of gp41 by mutagenic alteration of membrane-anchored and soluble forms of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Our results indicate that, in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein precursor, the gp41 HR1 region is in a conformation distinct from that of a trimeric coiled coil. Thus, the central gp41 coiled coil is formed during the transition of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins from the precursor state to the receptor-bound intermediate

  9. The effect of coil misalignment on particle transport in quasi-axisymmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akihiro; Okamura, Shoichi; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Suzuki, Chihiro; Nishimura, Shin; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Nemov, Victor V.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the misalignment of modular coils neoclassical transport in CHS-qa is discussed in this paper. In order to calculate the effective helical ripple that characterizes the neoclassical transport of the stellarator configuration, NEO code is used which gives the effective helical ripple numerically. A displacement is put artificially on the modular coils of the CHS-qa, and the effect of this on the profile of the effective helical ripple is evaluated quantitatively. One objective of this study is to obtain useful information to determine the acceptable error level for the assembly of modular coils from the viewpoint of engineering. The calculation results of the NEO code show that if the level of displacement is smaller than a few centimeters, it has only a very small effect on the neoclassical transport. The a mount of change in the effective helical ripple is small. Therefore the displacement of the modular coils caused by the electromagnetic force at a 1.5 T operation of CHS-qa does not lead to significant problems in terms of neoclassical transport. (author)

  10. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  11. Numerical analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a helical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    combustion gases to convergent divergent nozzles of a liquid propellant rocket engine. Lin et al. (1997)conducted a fully elliptic numerical study to investigate three-dimensional turbulent developing convective heat transfer in helical pipes with finite pitches. Results discuss the developments of effective thermal conductivity, ...

  12. Design of a vertical wiggler with superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huke, K.; Yamakawa, T.

    1980-01-01

    A vertical wiggler has been designed, which will be installed in the 2.5 GeV electron storage ring under construction at KEK-PF. The wiggler magnet with superconducting coils produces magnetic fields of 6 T and wiggles electron beams in a vertical plane. Synchrotron radiation generated by the wiggler has a critical wavelength of 0.5 Angstroem and has an electric field-vector in the vertical direction, which is very important for precise experiments in various fields of the material sciences. The wiggler consists of three pairs of superconducting coils, an iron magnetic shield, a beam pipe and a liquid helium cryogenic system and is contained in a vacuum vessel which can move up and down together with the wiggler. During the injection time, the vessel is pushed up, so that electron beams with a large spatial spread go through the lower part of the beam pipe, where the aperture of the beam pipe is large enough. After the beam size becomes small due to radiation damping, the vessel is pushed down so that the electron beams go through the narrow gap of the wiggler magnet. Using the iron magnetic shield with iron pole pieces, the ratio between the magnetic field in the gap and the maximum field on the superconductor coils is reduced to 1.1. (orig.)

  13. NET model coil test possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, J.; Gruenhagen, A.; Herz, W.; Jentzsch, K.; Komarek, P.; Lotz, E.; Malang, S.; Maurer, W.; Noether, G.; Ulbricht, A.; Vogt, A.; Zahn, G.; Horvath, I.; Kwasnitza, K.; Marinucci, C.; Pasztor, G.; Sborchia, C.; Weymuth, P.; Peters, A.; Roeterdink, A.

    1987-11-01

    A single full size coil for NET/INTOR represents an investment of the order of 40 MUC (Million Unit Costs). Before such an amount of money or even more for the 16 TF coils is invested as much risks as possible must be eliminated by a comprehensive development programme. In the course of such a programme a coil technology verification test should finally prove the feasibility of NET/INTOR TF coils. This study report is almost exclusively dealing with such a verification test by model coil testing. These coils will be built out of two Nb 3 Sn-conductors based on two concepts already under development and investigation. Two possible coil arrangements are discussed: A cluster facility, where two model coils out of the two Nb 3 TF-conductors are used, and the already tested LCT-coils producing a background field. A solenoid arrangement, where in addition to the two TF model coils another model coil out of a PF-conductor for the central PF-coils of NET/INTOR is used instead of LCT background coils. Technical advantages and disadvantages are worked out in order to compare and judge both facilities. Costs estimates and the time schedules broaden the base for a decision about the realisation of such a facility. (orig.) [de

  14. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  15. Effects of swirl in turbulent pipe flows : computational studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Frode

    2011-07-01

    The primary objective of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the effect of swirl in steady turbulent pipe flows. The work has been carried out by a numerical approach, with direct numerical simulations as the method of choice. A key target to pursue was the effects of the swirl on the wall friction in turbulent pipe flows. The motivation came from studies of rotating pipe flows in which drag reduction was achieved. Drag reduction was reported to be due to the swirl favourably influencing the coherent turbulent structures in the near-wall region. Based on this, it was decided to investigate if similar behaviour could be obtained by inducing a swirl in a pipe with a stationary wall. To do a thorough investigation of the general three-dimensional swirl flow and particularly of the swirl effects; chosen variations of mean and turbulent flow parameters were explored together with complementary flow visualizations. Two different approaches in order to induce the swirl in the turbulent pipe flow, have been carried out. However, the present thesis might be regarded to be comprised of three parts. The first part consists of the first approach to induce the swirl. Here a prescribed circumferential force was implemented in a serial open source Navier-Stokes solver. In the second approach, the swirl was intended induced by implementing structures at the wall. Simulations of flows through a pipe with one or more helical fin(s) at the pipe wall was decided to be performed. In order to pursue this approach, it was found necessary to do a parallelization of the existing serial numerical code. The key element of this parallelization has been included as a part of the present work. Additionally, the helical fin(s) were implemented into the code by use of an immersed boundary method. A validation of this work is also documented in the thesis. The work done by parallelizing the code and implementing an immersed boundary method constitutes the second part of the present thesis. The

  16. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  17. Variation in the helical structure of native collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P R O Orgel

    Full Text Available The structure of collagen has been a matter of curiosity, investigation, and debate for the better part of a century. There has been a particularly productive period recently, during which much progress has been made in better describing all aspects of collagen structure. However, there remain some questions regarding its helical symmetry and its persistence within the triple-helix. Previous considerations of this symmetry have sometimes confused the picture by not fully recognizing that collagen structure is a highly complex and large hierarchical entity, and this affects and is effected by the super-coiled molecules that make it. Nevertheless, the symmetry question is not trite, but of some significance as it relates to extracellular matrix organization and cellular integration. The correlation between helical structure in the context of the molecular packing arrangement determines which parts of the amino acid sequence of the collagen fibril are buried or accessible to the extracellular matrix or the cell. In this study, we concentrate primarily on the triple-helical structure of fibrillar collagens I and II, the two most predominant types. By comparing X-ray diffraction data collected from type I and type II containing tissues, we point to evidence for a range of triple-helical symmetries being extant in the molecules native environment. The possible significance of helical instability, local helix dissociation and molecular packing of the triple-helices is discussed in the context of collagen's supramolecular organization, all of which must affect the symmetry of the collagen triple-helix.

  18. Fault Analysis of ITER Coil Power Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Ho; Jun, Tao; Benfatto, Ivone

    2009-01-01

    The ITER magnet coils are all designed using superconductors with high current carrying capability. The Toroidal Field (TF) coils operate in a steadystate mode with a current of 68 kA and discharge the stored energy in case of quench with using 9 interleaved Fast Discharge Units (FDUs). The Central Solenoid (CS) coils and Poloidal Field (PF) coils operate in a pulse mode with currents of up to 45 kA and require fast variation of currents inducing more than 10 kV during normal operation on the coil terminals using Switching Network (SN) systems (CSs, PF1 and 6) and Booster and VS converters (PF2 to 5), which are series connected to Main converters. SN and FDU systems comprise high current DC circuit breakers and resistors for generating high voltage (SN) and to dissipate magnetic energy (FDUs). High transient voltages can arise due to the switching operation of SN and FD and the characteristics of resistors and stray components of DC distribution systems. Also, faults in power supply control such as shorts or grounding faults can produce higher voltages between terminals and between terminal and ground. Therefore, the design of the coil insulation, coil terminal regions, feeders, feed throughs, pipe breaks and instrumentation must take account of these high voltages during normal and abnormal conditions. Voltage insulation level can be defined and it is necessary to test the coils at higher voltages, to be sure of reliable performance during the lifetime of operation. This paper describes the fault analysis of the TF, CS and PF coil power supply systems, taking account of the stray parameter of the power supply and switching systems and inductively coupled superconducting coil models. Resistor grounding systems are included in the simulation model and all fault conditions such as converter hardware and software faults, switching system hardware and software faults, DC short circuits and single grounding faults are simulated. The occurrence of two successive faults

  19. N-terminal aliphatic residues dictate the structure, stability, assembly, and small molecule binding of the coiled-coil region of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekar, Susheel K; Asnani, Mukta; Limbad, Chandani; Haghpanah, Jennifer S; Hom, Wendy; Barra, Hanna; Nanda, Soumya; Lu, Min; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2009-09-15

    The coiled-coil domain of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMPcc) assembles into a homopentamer that naturally recognizes the small molecule 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (vit D). To identify the residues critical for the structure, stability, oligomerization, and binding to vit D as well as two other small molecules, all-trans-retinol (ATR) and curcumin (CCM), here we perform an alanine scanning mutagenesis study. Ten residues lining the hydrophobic pocket of COMPcc were mutated into alanine; of the mutated residues, the N-terminal aliphatic residues L37, L44, V47, and L51 are responsible for maintaining the structure and function. Furthermore, two polar residues, T40 and Q54, within the N-terminal region when converted into alanine improve the alpha-helical structure, stability, and self-assembly behavior. Helical stability, oligomerization, and binding appear to be linked in a manner in which mutations that abolish helical structure and assembly bind poorly to vit D, ATR, and CCM. These results provide not only insight into COMPcc and its functional role but also useful guidelines for the design of stable, pentameric coiled-coils capable of selectively storing and delivering various small molecules.

  20. Eccentric Coil Test Facility (ECTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, P.B.; Walstrom, P.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design of a facility for testing superconducting coils under some conditions peculiar to tokamak systems is given. A primary element of the proposed facility is a large 25 MJ background solenoid. Discussions of the mechanical structure, the stress distribution and the thermal stability for this coil are included. The systems for controlling the facility and diagnosing test coil behavior are also described

  1. Helical Tomotherapy Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, John; Soisson, Emilie

    2008-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy uses a dynamic delivery in which the gantry, treatment couch, and multileaf collimator leaves are all in motion during treatment. This results in highly conformal radiotherapy, but the complexity of the delivery is partially hidden from the end-user because of the extensive integration and automation of the tomotherapy control systems. This presents a challenge to the medical physicist who is expected to be both a system user and an expert, capable of verifying relevant aspects of treatment delivery. A related issue is that a clinical tomotherapy planning system arrives at a customer's site already commissioned by the manufacturer, not by the clinical physicist. The clinical physicist and the manufacturer's representative verify the commissioning at the customer site before acceptance. Theoretically, treatment could begin immediately after acceptance. However, the clinical physicist is responsible for the safe and proper use of the machine. In addition, the therapists and radiation oncologists need to understand the important machine characteristics before treatment can proceed. Typically, treatment begins about 2 weeks after acceptance. This report presents an overview of the tomotherapy system. Helical tomotherapy has unique dosimetry characteristics, and some of those features are emphasized. The integrated treatment planning, delivery, and patient-plan quality assurance process is described. A quality assurance protocol is proposed, with an emphasis on what a clinical medical physicist could and should check. Additionally, aspects of a tomotherapy quality assurance program that could be checked automatically and remotely because of its inherent imaging system and integrated database are discussed

  2. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  3. Optimization of Coil Element Configurations for a Matrix Gradient Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroboth, Stefan; Layton, Kelvin J; Jia, Feng; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jurgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, matrix gradient coils (also termed multi-coils or multi-coil arrays) were introduced for imaging and B 0 shimming with 24, 48, and even 84 coil elements. However, in imaging applications, providing one amplifier per coil element is not always feasible due to high cost and technical complexity. In this simulation study, we show that an 84-channel matrix gradient coil (head insert for brain imaging) is able to create a wide variety of field shapes even if the number of amplifiers is reduced. An optimization algorithm was implemented that obtains groups of coil elements, such that a desired target field can be created by driving each group with an amplifier. This limits the number of amplifiers to the number of coil element groups. Simulated annealing is used due to the NP-hard combinatorial nature of the given problem. A spherical harmonic basis set up to the full third order within a sphere of 20-cm diameter in the center of the coil was investigated as target fields. We show that the median normalized least squares error for all target fields is below approximately 5% for 12 or more amplifiers. At the same time, the dissipated power stays within reasonable limits. With a relatively small set of amplifiers, switches can be used to sequentially generate spherical harmonics up to third order. The costs associated with a matrix gradient coil can be lowered, which increases the practical utility of matrix gradient coils.

  4. Analysis of pipe mitred bends using beam models - by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, A.C.S.L. de.

    1984-01-01

    The formulation of a recently proposed displacement based straight pipe element for the analysis of pipe mitred bends is summarized in this work. The element kinematics includes axial, bending, torsional and ovalisation displacements, all varying cubically along the axis of the element. Interaction effects between angle adjoined straight pipe section are modeled including the appropriate additional strain terms in the stiffness matrix formulation and by using a penalty procedure to enforce continuity of pipe skin flexural rotations at the common helical edge. The element model capabilities are ilustrated in some sample analysis and the results are compared with other available experimental, analytical or more complex numerical models. (Author) [pt

  5. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are

  6. New tetrameric forms of the rotavirus NSP4 with antiparallel helices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushant; Ramappa, Raghavendra; Pamidimukkala, Kiranmayee; Rao, C D; Suguna, K

    2018-06-01

    Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4, the first viral enterotoxin to be identified, is a multidomain, multifunctional glycoprotein. Earlier, we reported a Ca 2+ -bound coiled-coil tetrameric structure of the diarrhea-inducing region of NSP4 from the rotavirus strains SA11 and I321 and a Ca 2+ -free pentameric structure from the rotavirus strain ST3, all with a parallel arrangement of α-helices. pH was found to determine the oligomeric state: a basic pH favoured a tetramer, whereas an acidic pH favoured a pentamer. Here, we report two novel forms of the coiled-coil region of NSP4 from the bovine rotavirus strains MF66 and NCDV. These crystallized at acidic pH, forming antiparallel coiled-coil tetrameric structures without any bound Ca 2+ ion. Structural and mutational studies of the coiled-coil regions of NSP4 revealed that the nature of the residue at position 131 (Tyr/His) plays an important role in the observed structural diversity.

  7. Study of verification and validation of standard welding procedure specifications guidelines for API 5L X-70 grade line pipe welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi H. A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Verification and validation of welding procedure specifications for X-70 grade line pipe welding was performed as per clause 8.2, Annexure B and D of API 5L, 45th Edition to check weld integrity in its future application conditions. Hot rolled coils were imported from China, de-coiling, strip edge milling, three roller bending to from pipe, inside and outside submerged arc welding of pipe, online ultrasonic testing of weld, HAZ and pipe body, cutting at fixed random length of pipe, visual inspection of pipe, Fluoroscopic inspection of pipe, welding procedure qualification test pieces marking at weld portion of the pipe, tensile testing, guided bend testing, CVN Impact testing were performed. Detailed study was conducted to explore possible explanations and variation in mechanical properties, WPS is examined and qualified as per API 5L 45th Edition.

  8. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the research onHigh Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite -- HPFRCC --pipes recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The project combines material development, processing technique development......-w$ relationship is presented. Structural development involved definition of a new type of semi-flexiblecement based pipe, i.e. a cement based pipe characterized by the fact that the soil-pipe interaction related to pipe deformation is an importantcontribution to the in-situ load carrying capacity of the pipe...

  9. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  10. Applications of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification at Walt Disney World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.J.; Dinh, K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and application of heat pipes for HVAC dehumidification purposes. In HVAC applications, a heat pipe is used as a heat exchanger that transfers heat from the return air directly to the supply air. The air is pre-cooled entering the cooling coil and reheated using the same heat removed from the return air. While consuming no energy, the heat pipe lets the evaporator coil operate at a lower temperature, increasing the moisture removal capabilities of the HVAC system by 50% to 100%. WALT DISNEY WORLD is currently testing several heat pipe applications ranging from 1 to 240 tons. The applications include (1) water attractions (2) museums/artifacts areas (3) resort guest rooms and (4) locker rooms. Actual energy usage and relative humidity reductions are shown to determine the effectiveness of the heat pipe as an energy efficient method of humidity control

  11. Supporting device for Toroidal coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takao.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the response of a toroidal coil supporting device upon earthquakes and improve the earthquake proofness in a tokamak type thermonuclear device. Constitution: Structural materials having large longitudinal modulus and enduring great stresses, for example, stainless steels are used as the toroidal coil supporting legs and heat insulating structural materials are embedded in a nuclear reactor base mats below the supporting legs. Furthermore, heat insulating concretes are spiked around the heat insulating structural materials to prevent the intrusion of heat to the toroidal coils. The toroidal coils are kept at cryogenic state and superconductive state for the conductors. In this way, the period of proper vibrations of the toroidal coils and the toroidal coil supporting structures can be shortened thereby decreasing the seismic response. Furthermore, since the strength of the supporting legs is increased, the earthquake proofness of the coils can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Flexible helical yarn swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A P; Leshansky, A M; Pismen, L M

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the motion of a flexible Stokesian flagellar swimmer realised as a yarn made of two intertwined elastomer fibres, one active, that can reversibly change its length in response to a local excitation causing transition to the nematic state or swelling, and the other one, a passive isotropic elastomer with identical mechanical properties. A propagating chemical wave may provide an excitation mechanism ensuring a constant length of the excited region. Generally, the swimmer moves along a helical trajectory, and the propagation and rotation velocity are very sensitive to the ratio of the excited region to the pitch of the yarn, as well as to the size of a carried load. External excitation by a moving actuating beam is less effective, unless the direction of the beam is adjusted to rotation of the swimmer.

  13. LHD helical divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Watanabe, T.; Ji Hantao

    1993-07-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) now under construction is a heliotron/torsatron device with a closed divertor system. The edge LHD magnetic structure has been studied in detail. A peculiar feature of the configuration is existence of edge surface layers, a complicated three dimensional magnetic structure which does not, however, seem to hamper the expected divertor functions. Two divertor operational modes are being considered for the LHD experiment, high density, cold radiative divertor operation as a safe heat removal scheme and high temperature divertor plasma operation. In the latter operation, a divertor plasma with temperature of a few kev, generated by efficient pumping, expects to lead to significant improvement in core plasma confinement. Conceptual designs of the LHD divertor components are under way. (author)

  14. Cryogenic structural material and design of support structures for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Arata; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Tamura, Hitoshi

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a short history of material selection for the cryogenic support structures for the Large Helical Device (LHD) which has superconducting coils. Since the support structures are cooled down to 4.4 K together with the coils, SUS 316 was chosen because of its stable austenitic phase, sufficient mechanical properties at cryogenic temperature and good weldability. Also, outlines of the design and fabrication processes of the support structures are summarized. On the design of the support structures, a deformation analysis was carried out to maintain the proper magnetic field during operation. Afterwards, a stress analysis was performed. During machining and assembling, tolerance was noticed to keep coil positions accurate. Special welding grooves and fabrication processes were considered and achieved successfully. Finally, a cryogenic supporting post which sustains the cryogenic structures and superconducting coils is presented. CFRP was used in this specially developed supporting post to reduce the heat conduction from ambient 300 K structures. (author)

  15. Salt effects on hydrophobic interaction and charge screening in the folding of a negatively charged peptide to a coiled coil (leucine zipper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelesarov, I; Dürr, E; Thomas, R M; Bosshard, H R

    1998-05-19

    The stability of a coiled coil or leucine zipper is controlled by hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic forces between the constituent helices. We have designed a 30-residue peptide with the repeating seven-residue pattern of a coiled coil, (abcdefg)n, and with Glu in positions e and g of each heptad. The glutamate side chains prevented folding at pH values above 6 because of electrostatic repulsion across the helix dimer interface as well as within the individual helices. Protonation of the carboxylates changed the conformation from a random coil monomer to a coiled coil dimer. Folding at alkaline pH where the peptide had a net charge of -7e was promoted by the addition of salts. The nature of the charge screening cation was less important than that of the anion. The high salt concentrations (>1 M) necessary to induce folding indicated that the salt-induced folding resulted from alterations in the protein-water interaction. Folding was promoted by the kosmotropic anions sulfate and fluoride and to a lesser extent by the weak kosmotrope formate, whereas chloride and the strong chaotrope perchlorate were ineffective. Kosmotropes are excluded from the protein surface, which is preferentially hydrated, and this promotes folding by strengthening hydrophobic interactions at the coiled coil interface. Although charge neutralization also contributed to folding, it was effective only when the screening cation was partnered by a good kosmotropic anion. Folding conformed to a two-state transition from random coil monomer to coiled coil dimer and was enthalpy driven and characterized by a change in the heat capacity of unfolding of 3.9 +/- 1.2 kJ mol-1 K-1. The rate of folding was analyzed by fluorescence stopped-flow measurements. Folding occurred in a biphasic reaction in which the rapid formation of an initial dimer (kf = 2 x 10(7) M-1 s-1) was followed by an equally rapid concentration-independent rearrangement to the folded dimer (k > 100 s-1).

  16. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984

  17. Aneurysm coil embolization: cost per volumetric filling analysis and strategy for cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charlie; Ching, Esteban Cheng; Hui, Ferdinand K

    2016-05-01

    One of the primary device expenditures associated with the endovascular treatment of aneurysms is that of detachable coils. Analyzing the cost efficiency of detachable coils is difficult, given the differences in design, implantable volume, and the presence of additives. However, applying a volume per cost metric may provide an index analogous to unit price found in grocery stores. The price information for 509 different coils belonging to 31 different coil lines, available as of September 2013, was obtained through the inventory management system at the study site, and normalized to the price of the least expensive coil. Values were used to calculate the logarithmic ratio of volume over cost. Operator choice among coil sizes can vary the material costs by five-fold in a hypothetical aneurysm. The difference in coil costs as a function of cost per volume of coil can vary tremendously. Using the present pricing algorithms, using the longest available length at a particular helical dimension and system yields improved efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Empirical Correlation of the Morphology of Coiled Carbon Nano tubes with Their Response to Axial Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J.R.; Boyles, J.S.; Bottomley, L.A.; Ferri, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical response of thirteen different helical multi-walled carbon nano coils to axial compression is reported. Each nano coil was attached to the apex of a cantilever probe tip; its dimensions and orientation relative to the tip apex were determined with scanning electron microscopy. The atomic force microscope was employed to apply a cyclic axial load on the nano coil. Its mechanical response was determined by simultaneous collection of the thermal resonance frequency, displacement, and oscillation amplitude of the cantilever-nano tube system in real time. Depending upon compression parameters, each coil underwent buckling, bending, and slip-stick motion. Characteristic features in the thermal resonance spectrum and in the force and oscillation amplitude curves for each of these responses to induced stress are presented. Following compression studies, the structure and morphology of each nano coil were determined by transmission electron microscopy. The compression stiffness of each nano coil was estimated from the resonant frequency of the cantilever at the point of contact with the substrate surface. From this value, the elastic modulus of the nano coil was computed and correlated with the coiled carbon nano tube’s morphology.

  19. Solar heating pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson-Rider, G.

    1977-10-04

    A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.

  20. Theoretical aspects of magnetic helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetic helicity, usually defined as K=integralA.Bdv, where A is the vector potential and B the magnetic field, measures the topological linkage of magnetic fluxes. Helicity manifests itself in the twistedness and knottedness of flux tubes. Its significance is that it is an ideal MHD invariant. While the helicity formalism has proven very useful in understanding reversed field pinch and spheromak behavior, some problems exist in applying the method consistently for complex (e.g., toroidal) conductor geometries or in situations where magnetic flux penetrates conducting walls. Recent work has attempted to generalize K to allow for all possible geometries

  1. Magnetic configuration dependence of the shafranov shift in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobuchi, T; Ida, K; Yamada, H; Yokoyama, M; Watanabe, K Y; Sakakibara, S; Yoshinuma, M [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-Cho, Toki-City, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    The dependence of the Shafranov shift on magnetic field configuration, toroidicity and central rotational transform {iota}(0) in neutral beam heated plasma has been experimentally investigated in the Large Helical Device. The toroidicity of the plasma is controlled by the quadrupole field, while the central {iota}(0) is controlled by changing the distance of the current centre of the helical coil to the plasma. It is experimentally confirmed that both the lower toroidicity and the higher {iota}(0) contribute to the reduction of the Shafranov shift as predicted by the three-dimensional equilibrium code, VMEC.

  2. Turbulence induced Fretting-wear characteristics of steam generator helical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhung, Myung Jo; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Yune, Young Gill; Yu, Seon Oh

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses safety assessment of the potential for fretting-wear damages on steam generator helical tubes due to turbulence-induced vibration in operating nuclear power plants. To get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and participation factor, modal analyses are performed for helical type tubes with various conditions. Special emphases are put on the effects of coil diameter and the number of turns on the modal and fretting wear characteristics of tubes. Also, investigated are the effects of external pressure on the tube modal characteristics as well as the effects of turbulence induced vibration on the fretting-wear characteristics of tubes

  3. Manufacturing and use of spiral welded pipes for high pressure service : state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoop, F.M.; Sommer, B. [Salzgitter GroBrohre GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This paper provided details of an improved helical seam 2-step (HTS) manufacturing process used to produce spiral welded large diameter pipes for high pressure transmission pipelines. During the process, pipe forming is combined with continuous tack welding and internal and external submerged arc welding at separate welding stations. The pipe forming unit consists of a 3 roll bending system with an outside roller cage used to guarantee the roundness of the pipe. The converging strip edges of the pipe are joined using a continuous shielded arc tack weld. Tack welding is done automatically with a laser-guided weld head. Run-out angles are adjusted by an automatic gap control system. The formed and tack-welded pipes are then fed to computer-controlled welding stations for final welding, where each pipe is rotated with a precise screw-like motion. The same welding materials used for the helical seam are used for the skelp end welding. The process offers more precise root gap control, as well as improved pipe geometry. Use of the process has also increased production rates and improved weld stability. The dimensions of the spiral-weld pipes are adjustable so that any diameter can be produced from a base material of the same width. The pipes can also be coated externally with fusion-bonded epoxy or 3-layer polyethylene/polypropylene. It was concluded that the process is being further refined to support the use of HTS pipes in high-pressure pipelines. New nondestructive testing techniques used to assess the performance of the line pipes were presented, as well as the results from hot and cold bending tests, field weldability trials, and tests related to the safety of spiral pipes. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. S.C. correction coils and magnets for the HERA proton ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, C.; Geerinck, J.; Schmueser, P.

    1986-05-01

    The quadrupole and sextupole correction coils of the HERA proton ring are mounted on the cold beam pipe inside the main dipole magnets. Superferric dipole magnets for orbit correction are located adjacent to the main quadrupole magnets in a common cryostat which also contains the beam monitor. The design, manufacture and performance of both types of correction elements are described. (orig.)

  5. Revisiting Coiled Flocculator Performance for Particle Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This work summarizes recent studies evaluating the torsion and curvature parameters in the flocculation efficiency using a hydraulic plug-flow flocculator named as Flocs Generator Reactor (FGR). Colloidal Fe(OH)3 and coal particles were used as suspension models and a cationic polyacrylamide was used for the flocculation. The effectiveness of the aggregation process (in the distinct curvature and torsion parameters and hydrodynamic conditions) was evaluated by the settling rate of the Fe(OH)3 flocs and flocs size by photographic analysis. Due to curvature, a secondary flow is induced and the profiles of the flow quantities differ from those for a straight pipe. Results showed that the difference in the flocculator design influences the Fe(OH)3 flocs size and settling rates, reaching values about 13 and 4 mh-1, for the coiled and straight pipes respectively. Coal flocs generation also showed to be dependent on the flocculator design and shear rate. Results showed that turbulent kinetic energy increases due to curvature when the torsion parameter is kept constant (pitch close to zero) enhancing the flocs formation.

  6. Godbillon Vey Helicity and Magnetic Helicity in Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, G. M.; Hu, Q.; Anco, S.; Zank, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Godbillon-Vey invariant arises in homology theory, and algebraic topology, where conditions for a layered family of 2D surfaces forms a 3D manifold were elucidated. The magnetic Godbillon-Vey helicity invariant in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a helicity invariant that occurs for flows, in which the magnetic helicity density hm= A\\cdotB=0 where A is the magnetic vector potential and B is the magnetic induction. Our purpose is to elucidate the evolution of the magnetic Godbillon-Vey field η =A×B/|A|2 and the Godbillon-Vey helicity hgv}= η \\cdot∇ × η in general MHD flows in which the magnetic helicity hm≠q 0. It is shown that hm acts as a source term in the Godbillon-Vey helicity transport equation, in which hm is coupled to hgv via the shear tensor of the background flow. The transport equation for hgv depends on the electric field potential ψ , which is related to the gauge for A, which takes its simplest form for the advected A gauge in which ψ =A\\cdot u where u is the fluid velocity.

  7. Current control of superconducting coils for fusion experimental facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, T.; Etou, D.; Chikaraishi, H.; Takami, S.; Inoue, T.

    2003-01-01

    The LHD (Large Helical Device) has twelve superconducting coils and six dc power supplies, and following specifications are required for its control system; each coil current must be controlled independently, the steady state control error is less than 0.01% of the reference value, the current settling time for 0.1% of control error is less than 1 second, and the control system must be robust against turbulence caused by appearance and disappearance of the plasma, parameter errors and external electro-magnetic noises. In this paper, the design and test results of the coil current control system for the LHD are described. The good response and robustness are in the relation of trade off each other. H-infinity controller is one of schemes to guarantee robustness for stability. However, the independent responses of six coils were impossible by the H-infinity controller only. To resolve this problem, we applied a feed-forward control with the H-infinity control. Moreover, the advanced design method of H-infinity controller using μ-synthesis was applied to guarantee the control performance in the whole operating condition. As a result, good control results were obtained by experiments. (author)

  8. The Effect of a Helix-Coil Transition on the Extension Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhot, Arnaud; Halperin, Avi

    2000-03-01

    The secondary structure of a polymer affects its deformation behavior in accordance with the Le Chatelier principle. An important example of such secondary structure is the alpha helix encountered in polypeptides. Similar structure was recently proposed for PEO in aqueous media. Our discussion concerns the coupling of the cooperative helix-coil transition and the extension elasticity. In particular, we analyze the extension of a long single chain by use of optical tweezers or AFM. We consider chains that exist in the coil-state when unperturbed. The transition nevertheless occurs because the extension favors the low entropy helical state. As a result, the corresponding force law exhibits a plateau. The analysis of this situation involves two ingredients: (I) the stretching free energy penalty for a rod-coil mutiblock copolymer (II) the entropy associated with the possible placements of the rod and coil blocks.

  9. Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dandan; Yue, Fuyong; Li, Guixin; Zheng, Guoxing; Chan, Kinlong; Chen, Shumei; Chen, Ming; Li, King Fai; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Cheah, Kok Wai; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Xianzhong

    2015-09-10

    Metasurfaces are engineered interfaces that contain a thin layer of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures capable of manipulating light in a desirable manner. Advances in metasurfaces have led to various practical applications ranging from lensing to holography. Metasurface holograms that can be switched by the polarization state of incident light have been demonstrated for achieving polarization multiplexed functionalities. However, practical application of these devices has been limited by their capability for achieving high efficiency and high image quality. Here we experimentally demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with high efficiency and good image fidelity over a broad range of frequencies. The metasurface hologram features the combination of two sets of hologram patterns operating with opposite incident helicities. Two symmetrically distributed off-axis images are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the input light. The demonstrated helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with its high performance opens avenues for future applications with functionality switchable optical devices.

  10. Coil Optimization for HTS Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    An optimization approach of HTS coils in HTS synchronous machines (SM) is presented. The optimization is aimed at high power SM suitable for direct driven wind turbines applications. The optimization process was applied to a general radial flux machine with a peak air gap flux density of ~3T...... is suitable for which coil segment is presented. Thus, the performed study gives valuable input for the coil design of HTS machines ensuring optimal usage of HTS tapes....

  11. Calculation of forces on reactor containment fan cooler piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.; Ramsden, K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the Reactor Containment Fan Cooler (RCFC) system piping load calculations. These calculations are based on piping loads calculated using the EPRI methodology and RELAP5 to simulate the hydraulic behavior of the system. The RELAP5 generated loads were compared to loads calculated using the EPRI GL-96-06 methodology. This evaluation was based on a pressurized water reactor's RCFC coils thermal hydraulic behavior during a Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) and a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The RCFC consist of two banks of service water and chill water coils. There are 5 SX and 5 chill water coils per bank. Therefore, there are 4 RCFC units in the containment with 2 banks of coils per RCFC. Two Service water pumps provide coolant for the 4 RCFC units (8 banks total, 2 banks per RCFC unit and 2 RCFC units per pump). Following a LOOP/LOCA condition, the RCFC fans would coast down and upon being re-energized, would shift to low-speed operation. The fan coast down is anticipated to occur very rapidly due to the closure of the exhaust damper as a result of LOCA pressurization effects. The service water flow would also coast down and be restarted in approximately 43 seconds after the initiation of the event. The service water would drain from the RCFC coils during the pump shutdown and once the pumps restart, water is quickly forced into the RCFC coils causing hydraulic loading on the piping. Because of this scenario and the potential for over stressing the piping, an evaluation was performed by the utility using RELAP5 to assess the piping loads. Subsequent to the hydraulic loads being analyzed using RELAP5, EPRI through GL-96-06 provided another methodology to assess loads on the RCFC piping system. This paper presents the results of using the EPRI methodology and RELAP5 to perform thermal hydraulic load calculations. It is shown that both EPRI methodology and RELAP5 calculations can be used to generate hydraulic loads

  12. Large superconducting coil fabrication development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Allred, E.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Burn, P.B.; Deaderick, R.I.; Henderson, G.M.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    Toroidal fields for some fusion devices will be produced by an array of large superconducting coils. Their size, space limitation, and field requirements dictate that they be high performance coils. Once installed, accessibility for maintenance and repairs is severely restricted; therefore, good reliability is an obvious necessity. Sufficient coil fabrication will be undertaken to develop and test methods that are reliable, fast, and economical. Industrial participation will be encouraged from the outset to insure smooth transition from development phases to production phases. Initially, practice equipment for three meter bore circular coils will be developed. Oval shape coil forms will be included in the practice facility later. Equipment that is more automated will be developed with the expectation of winding faster and obtaining good coil quality. Alternate types of coil construction, methods of winding and insulating, will be investigated. Handling and assembly problems will be studied. All technology developed must be feasible for scaling up when much larger coils are needed. Experimental power reactors may need coils having six meter or larger bores

  13. Regulatory coiled-coil domains promote head-to-head assemblies of AAA+ chaperones essential for tunable activity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroni, Marta; Franke, Kamila B; Maurer, Michael; Jäger, Jasmin; Hantke, Ingo; Gloge, Felix; Linder, Daniela; Gremer, Sebastian; Turgay, Kürşad; Bukau, Bernd; Mogk, Axel

    2017-11-22

    Ring-forming AAA+ chaperones exert ATP-fueled substrate unfolding by threading through a central pore. This activity is potentially harmful requiring mechanisms for tight repression and substrate-specific activation. The AAA+ chaperone ClpC with the peptidase ClpP forms a bacterial protease essential to virulence and stress resistance. The adaptor MecA activates ClpC by targeting substrates and stimulating ClpC ATPase activity. We show how ClpC is repressed in its ground state by determining ClpC cryo-EM structures with and without MecA. ClpC forms large two-helical assemblies that associate via head-to-head contacts between coiled-coil middle domains (MDs). MecA converts this resting state to an active planar ring structure by binding to MD interaction sites. Loss of ClpC repression in MD mutants causes constitutive activation and severe cellular toxicity. These findings unravel an unexpected regulatory concept executed by coiled-coil MDs to tightly control AAA+ chaperone activity.

  14. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2015-08-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  15. Triple Halo Coil: Development and Comparison with Other TMS Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Priyam; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive stimulation technique that can be used for the treatment of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, PTSD, TBI and anxiety by regulating synaptic activity. TMS is FDA approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. There is a critical need to develop deep TMS coils that can stimulate deeper regions of the brain without excessively stimulating the cortex in order to provide an alternative to surgical methods. We have developed a novel multi-coil configuration called ``Triple Halo Coil'' (THC) that can stimulate deep brain regions. Investigation of induced electric and magnetic field in these regions have been achieved by computer modelling. Comparison of the results due to THC configuration have been conducted with other TMS coils such as ``Halo Coil'', circular coil and ``Figure of Eight'' coil. There was an improvement of more than 15 times in the strength of magnetic field, induced by THC configuration at 10 cm below the vertex of the head when compared with the ``Figure of Eight'' coil alone. Carver Charitable Trust.

  16. The coiled coil motif in polymer drug delivery systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2013), s. 90-96 ISSN 0734-9750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0543; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coiled coil * hydrophilic polymer * recombinant protein Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 8.905, year: 2013

  17. Magnet design with 100-kA HTS STARS conductors for the helical fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, N.; Terazaki, Y.; Ito, S.; Tamura, H.; Hamaguchi, S.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2016-12-01

    The high-temperature superconducting (HTS) option is employed for the conceptual design of the LHD-type helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. The 100-kA-class STARS (Stacked Tapes Assembled in Rigid Structure) conductor is used for the magnet system including the continuously wound helical coils. Protection of the magnet system in case of a quench is a crucial issue and the hot-spot temperature during an emergency discharge is estimated based on the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional analyses. The number of division of the coil winding package is examined to limit the voltage generation. For cooling the HTS magnet, helium gas flow is considered and its feasibility is examined by simple analysis as a first step.

  18. Liquid-liquid extraction system with microstructured coiled flow inverter and other capillary setups for single-stage extraction applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurt, S.K.; Vural - Gursel, I.; Hessel, V.; Nigam, K.D.P.; Kockmann, N.

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification via miniaturization has become an attractive research field for industry and R&D especially for the production of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals due to enhanced mass and heat transport. Fabrication of helically coiled tubular devices (HCTDs) in micro-scale can further

  19. Combination of helical ferritic-steel inserts and flux-tube-expansion divertor for the heat control in tokamak DEMO reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, T.; Tokunaga, S.; Hoshino, K.; Shimizu, K.; Asakura, N.

    2015-01-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) in the H-mode operation of tokamak reactors may be suppressed/mitigated by the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP), but RMP coils are considered incompatible with DEMO reactors under the strong neutron flux. We propose an innovative concept of the RMP without installing coils but inserting ferritic steels of the helical configuration. Helically perturbed field is naturally formed in the axisymmetric toroidal field through the helical ferritic steel inserts (FSIs). When ELMs are avoided, large stationary heat load on divertor plates can be reduced by adopting a flux-tube-expansion (FTE) divertor like an X divertor. Separatrix shape and divertor-plate inclination are similar to those of a simple long-leg divertor configuration. Combination of the helical FSIs and the FTE divertor is a suitable method for the heat control to avoid transient ELM heat pulse and to reduce stationary divertor heat load in a tokamak DEMO reactor

  20. Intersegment interactions and helix-coil transition within the generalized model of polypeptide chains approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badasyan, A. V.; Hayrapetyan, G. N.; Tonoyan, Sh. A.; Mamasakhlisov, Y. Sh.; Benight, A. S.; Morozov, V. F.

    2009-09-01

    The generalized model of polypeptide chains is extended to describe the helix-coil transition in a system comprised of two chains interacting side-by-side. The Hamiltonian of the model takes into account four possible types of interactions between repeated units of the two chains, i.e., helix-helix, helix-coil, coil-helix, and coil-coil. Analysis reveals when the energy Ihh+Icc of (h-h, c-c) interactions overwhelms the energy Ihc+Ich of mixed (h-c, c-h) interactions, the correlation length rises substantially, resulting in narrowing of the transition interval. In the opposite case, when Ihh+Icchelical segments indicate rearrangement of helical segments at the transition point. Conceptual links are established with experimentally oriented theories of Ghosh and Dill [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2306 (2009)] and Skolnick and Holtzer [Biochemistry 25, 6192 (1986)], providing a potential explanation for both favorable helix formation and disfavored intersegment interactions from the same theoretical perspective.

  1. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  2. Divertor Heat Flux Reduction by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in the LHD-Type Helical DEMO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, N.; Sagara, A.; Goto, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Miyazawa, J., E-mail: yanagi@lhd.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: The conceptual design studies of the LHD-type helical fusion DEMO reactor, FFHR-d1, are progressing steadfastly. The LHD-type heliotron magnetic configuration equipped with the built- in helical divertors has a potential to realize low divertor heat flux in spatial average. However, the toroidal asymmetry may give more than a couple of times higher peak heat flux at some locations, as has been experimentally observed in LHD and confirmed by magnetic field-line tracing. By providing radiation dispersion accompanied with a plasma detachment, the heat flux may decrease significantly though the compatibility with a good core plasma confinement is an important issue to be explored. Whereas the engineering difficulties for developing materials to be used under the neutron environment require even further decrease of the heat flux (even though the heliotron is a unique configuration that divertor plates be largely shielded from the direct irradiation of neutrons by breeder blankets). In this respect, we proposed, in the last IAEA FEC, a new strike point sweeping scheme using a set of auxiliary helical coils, termed helical divertor (HD) coils. The HD coils carrying a few percent of the current amplitude of the main helical coils sweep the divertor strike points without altering the core plasma. Though this scheme is effective in dispersing the heat flux in the poloidal direction, the toroidal asymmetry still remains. The AC operation may also give unforeseen engineering difficulties. We here propose that the peak heat flux be mitigated using RMP fields in steady-state. The magnetic field-lines are numerically traced in the vacuum configuration and their footprints coming to the divertor regions are counted. Their fraction plotted as a function of the toroidal angle indicates that the peak heat flux be mitigated to {approx} 20 MW per square meters at 3 GW fusion power generation without having radiation dispersion when an RMP field is applied. We note that the

  3. Effect of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid on the thermal performance of shell and coil heat exchanger with different coil torsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, K. M.; Sakr, R. Y.; Ali, R. K.; Salem, M. R.

    2017-06-01

    This work investigated experimentally the thermal performance of shell and coil heat exchanger with different coil torsions (λ) for γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid flow. Five helically coiled tube (HCT) with 0.0442 ≤ λ ≤ 0.1348 were tested within turbulent flow regime. The average size of γ-Al2O3 particles is 40 nm and volume concentration (φ) is varied from 0 to 2%. Results showed that reducing coil torsion enhances the heat transfer rate and increases HCT-friction factor (fc). Also, it is noticed that HCT average Nusselt number (Nut) and fc of nanofluids increase with increasing γ-Al2O3 volume concentration. The thermal performance index, TPI = (ht,nf/ht,bf)/(ΔPc,nf/ΔPc,bf). increases with increasing nanoparticles concentration, coil torsion, HCT-side inlet temperature and nanofluid flow rate. Over the studied range of HCT-Reynolds number, the average value of TPI is of 1.34 and 2.24 at φ = 0.5% and φ = 2%, respectively. The average value of TPI is of 1.64 at λ = 0.0442 while its average value at λ = 0.1348 is of 2.01. One of the main contributions is to provide heat equipments designers with Nut and fc correlations for practical configurations shell and coil heat exchangers with a wide range of nanofluid concentration.

  4. A flexible film type EMAT for inspection of small diameter pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Cuixiang; Xiao, Pan; Zhao, Siqi; Chen, Zhenmao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Takagi, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    Pipe structures are widely applied in industries, and different kinds of defects may occur in the structures during their long-time service. For non-destructive testing of defects in pipes of small diameter, it has to be conducted from the inner side of the pipe when there is no space for detection from the outside or the geometry of the outside tube surface is too complicated. In this work, a flexible film type Electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) probe with a dual coil configuration is developed. The new probe is flexible and can be inserted into the pipe for inspection. First, the feasibility of the new probe was studied through numerical simulation. Then the feasibility of the proposed flexible EMAT for detection of wall thinning in small diameter pipe was verified experimentally. It was found that the new EMAT method is suitable for the detection of wall thinning defects for small pipes.

  5. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Fang, Hui; Li, Long; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoming; Kang, Yihua; Sun, Yanhua; Tang, Chaoqing

    2017-01-21

    To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.

  6. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.

  7. Miniature Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  8. Niobium 1 percent zirconium/potassium and titanium/potassium life-test heat pipe design and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, Michael A.

    Experimental lifetime performance studies currently in progress use Niobium 1 percent Zirconium (Nb-1Zr) and Titanium (Ti) heat pipes with potassium (K) as the working fluid. A heat pipe life test matrix was developed for testing the heat pipes. Because the corrosion rates in alkali metal heat pipes are affected by temperature and working fluid evaporation flux, the variable parameters of the experimental matrix are established as steady operating temperature and input heat flux density. Total impurity inventory is a factor in corrosion rate so impurity levels are being evaluated in the heat pipe materials before and after testing. Eight Nb-1Zr/K heat pipes were designed, fabricated, and tested. Two of the heat pipes have completed testing whereas the other six are currently in test. These are gravity assist heat pipes operating in a reflux mode. The heat pipes are tested by sets, one set of two and two sets of three heat pipes. Three Ti/K heat pipes are also in life test. These heat pipes are tested as a set in a horizontal position in a capillary pumped annular flow mode. Each of the heat pipes is encapsulated in a quartz vacuum container with a water calorimeter over the vacuum container for power throughput measurements. Thermocouples are attached to the heat pipes for measuring temperature. Heat input to the heat pipes is via an RF coil. The heat pipes are operating at between 800 and 900 K, with heat input fluxes of 13.8 to 30 W/sq cm. Of the Nb-1Zr/K heat pipes, two of the heat pipes have been in operation for 14,000 hours, three over 10,000 hours, and three over 7,000 hours. The Ti/K heat pipes have been in operation for 1,266 hours.

  9. The IEA Large Coil Task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, D.S.; Klose, W.; Shimamoto, S.; Vecsey, G.

    1988-01-01

    A multinational program of cooperative research, development, demonstrations, and exchanges of information on superconducting magnets for fusion was initiated in 1977 under an IEA agreement. The first major step in the development of TF magnets was called the Large Coil Task. Participants in LCT were the U.S. DOE, EURATOM, JAERI, and the Departement Federal de l'Interieur of Switzerland. The goals of LCT were to obtain experimental data, to demonstrate reliable operation of large superconducting coils, and to prove design principles and fabrication techniques being considered for the toroidal magnets of thermonuclear reactors. These goals were to be accomplished through coordinated but largely independent design, development, and construction of six test coils, followed by collaborative testing in a compact toroidal test array at fields of 8 T and higher. Under the terms of the IEA Agreement, the United States built and operated the test facility at Oak Ridge and provided three test coils. The other participants provided one coil each. Information on design and manufacturing and all test data were shared by all. The LCT team of each participant included a government laboratory and industrial partners or contractors. The last coil was completed in 1985, and the test assembly was completed in October of that year. Over the next 23 months, the six-coil array was cooled down and extensive testing was performed. Results were gratifying, as tests achieved design-point performance and well beyond. (Each coil reached a peak field of 9 T.) Experiments elucidated coil behavior, delineated limits of operability, and demonstrated coil safety. (orig./KP)

  10. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  11. Pulling Helices inside Bacteria: Imperfect Helices and Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Jun F.; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2009-04-01

    We study steady-state configurations of intrinsically-straight elastic filaments constrained within rod-shaped bacteria that have applied forces distributed along their length. Perfect steady-state helices result from axial or azimuthal forces applied at filament ends, however azimuthal forces are required for the small pitches observed for MreB filaments within bacteria. Helix-like configurations can result from distributed forces, including coexistence between rings and imperfect helices. Levels of expression and/or bundling of the polymeric protein could mediate this coexistence.

  12. Superconducting poloidal coils for STARFIRE commercial reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Evans, K. Jr.; Turner, L.R.; Huang, Y.C.; Prater, R.; Alcorn, J.

    1979-01-01

    STARFIRE is considered to be the tenth commercial tokamak power plant. A preliminary design study on its superconducting poloidal coil system is presented. Key features of the design studies are: the elimination of the ohmic heating coil; the trade-off studies of the equilibrium field coil locations; and the development of a conceptual design for the superconducting equilibrium field coils. Described are the 100 kA cryostable conductor design, the coil structure, and evaluation of the coil forces

  13. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  14. Riser pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, W.; Jimenez, A.F.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a method for storing and retrieving a riser pipe, comprising the steps of: providing an upright annular magazine comprised of an inside annular wall and an outside annular wall, the magazine having an open top; storing the riser pipe in a substantially vertically oriented position within the annular magazine; and moving the riser pipe upwardly through the open top of the annular magazine at an angle to the vertical along at least a portion of the length of the riser pipe.

  15. Piping engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference 'Piping Engineering and Operation' was organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in November/December 1993 to follow on from similar successful events of 1985 and 1989, which were attended by representatives from all sectors of the piping industry. Development of engineering and operation of piping systems in all aspects, including non-metallic materials, are highlighted. The range of issues covered represents a balance between current practices and implementation of future international standards. Twenty papers are printed. Two, which are concerned with pressurized pipes or steam lines in the nuclear industry, are indexed separately. (Author)

  16. Piping equipment; Materiel petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 'blue bible' of the perfect piping-man appeals to end-users of industrial facilities of the petroleum and chemical industries (purchase services, standardization, new works, maintenance) but also to pipe-makers and hollow-ware makers. It describes the characteristics of materials (carbon steels, stainless steels, alloyed steels, special alloys) and the dimensions of pipe elements: pipes, welding fittings, flanges, sealing products, forged steel fittings, forged steel valves, cast steel valves, ASTM standards, industrial valves. (J.S.)

  17. Neutronics Design of Helical Type DEMO Reactor FFHR-d1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Sagara, A.; Goto, T.; Yanagi, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Tamura, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Muroga, T., E-mail: teru@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Neutronics design study has been performed in a newly started conceptual design activity for a helical type DEMO reactor FFHR-d1. Features of the FFHR-d1 design are enlargement of the basic configurations of reactor components and extrapolation of plasma parameters from those of the helical type plasma experimental machine Large Helical Device (LHD) to achieve the highest feasibility. From the neutronics point of view, a blanket space of FFHR-d1 is severely limited at the inboard of the torus. This is due to the core plasma position shifting to the inboard side under the confinement condition extrapolated from LHD. The first step of the neutronics investigation using the MCNP code has been performed with a simple torus model simulating thin inboard blanket space. A Flibe+Be/Ferritic steel breeding blanket showed preferable performances for both tritium breeding and shielding, and has been adapted as a reference blanket system for FFHR-d1. The investigations indicate that a combination of a 15 cm thick breeding blanket, 55 cm thick WC+B4C shield, i.e., the blanket space of 70 cm, could suppress the fast neutron flux and nuclear heating in the helical coils to the design targets for the neutron wall loading of 1.5 MW/m{sup 2}. Since the outboard side can provide a large space for a 60 cm thick breeding blanket, a fully-covered tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 1.31 has been obtained in the simple torus model. The neutronics design study has proceeded to the second step using a 3-D helical reactor model. The most important issue in the 3-D neutronics design is a compatibility with the helical divertor design. To achieve a higher TBR and shielding performance, the core plasma has to be covered by the breeding blanket layers as possible. However, the dimensions of the blanket layers are limited by magnetic field lines connecting an edge of the core plasma and divertor pumping ports. After repeating modification of the blanket configuration, the global TBR of 1

  18. Note: On-chip multifunctional fluorescent-magnetic Janus helical microswimmers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, G., E-mail: gilgueng.hwang@lpn.cnrs.fr; Decanini, D.; Leroy, L.; Haghiri-Gosnet, A. M. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460 (France)

    2016-03-15

    Microswimmers integrated into microfluidic devices that are capable of self-illumination through fluorescence could revolutionize many aspects of technology, especially for biological applications. Few illumination and propulsion techniques of helical microswimmers inside microfluidic channels have been demonstrated. This paper presents the fabrication, detachment, and magnetic propulsions of multifunctional fluorescent-magnetic helical microswimmers integrated inside microfluidics. The fabrication process is based on two-photon laser lithography to pattern 3-D nanostructures from fluorescent photoresist coupled with conventional microfabrication techniques for magnetic thin film deposition by shadowing. After direct integration inside a microfluidic device, injected gas bubble allows gentle detachment of the integrated helical microswimmers whose magnetic propulsion can then be directly applied inside the microfluidic channel using external electromagnetic coil setup. With their small scale, fluorescence, excellent resistance to liquid/gas surface tension, and robust propulsion capability inside the microfluidic channel, the microswimmers can be used as high-resolution and large-range mobile micromanipulators inside microfluidic channels.

  19. Quality assurance aspects of the major procurements for the Large Coil Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.J.; Thompson, P.B.; Ryan, T.L.; Queen, C.C.; Halstead, E.L.; Murphy, J.L.; Wood, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) project is comprised of the test stand, supporting cryogenic systems, instrumentation, data acquisition, and utilities necessary for testing the large superconducting coils of the Large Coil Program (LCP). A significant portion of the facility hardware has been obtained through procurement actions with industrial suppliers. This paper addresses the project's experience in formulation and execution of quality assurance (QA) actions relative to several of the major items procured. Project quality assurance planning and specific features related to procurement activities for several of the more specialized test facility components are described. These component procurements include: (1) the coil test stand's major structural item (the bucking post) purchased from foreign industry; (2) fabrication and testing of high-current power supplies; (3) industrial fabrication of specialized instrumentation (voltage-tap signal conditioning modules); and (4) fabrication, installation, and testing of the liquid helium piping system

  20. Exploring the trigger sequence of the GCN4 coiled-coil: Biased molecular dynamics resolves apparent inconsistencies in NMR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missimer, John H; Dolenc, Jožica; Steinmetz, Michel O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2010-01-01

    Trigger sequences are indispensable elements for coiled-coil formation. The monomeric helical trigger sequence of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 has been investigated recently using several solution NMR observables including nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) intensities and 3J(HN,HCα)-coupling constants, and a set of 20 model structures was proposed. Constrained to satisfy the NOE-derived distance bounds, the NMR model structures do not appear to reproduce all the measured 3J(HN-HCα)-coupling constant values, indicating that the α-helical propensity is not uniform along the GCN4 trigger sequence. A recent methodological study of unrestrained and restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the GCN4 trigger sequence in solution showed that only MD simulations incorporating time-averaged NOE distance restraints and instantaneous or local-elevation 3J-coupling restraints could satisfy the entire set of the experimental data. In this report, we assess by means of cluster analyses the model structures characteristic of the two simulations that are compatible with the measured data and compare them with the proposed 20 NMR model structures. Striking characteristics of the MD model structures are the variability of the simulated configurations and the indication of entropic stability mediated by the aromatic N-terminal residues 17Tyr and 18His, which are absent in the set of NMR model structures. PMID:20954244

  1. Assembly of alginate microfibers to form a helical structure using micromanipulation with a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Tao; Huang, Qiang; Shi, Qing; Wang, Huaping; Li, Pengyun; Fukuda, Toshio; Hu, Chengzhi; Nakajima, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Helical structures assembled using alginate microfibers have a promising spatial architecture mimicking in vivo vessels for culturing vascular cells. However, the helical structure can only be assembled at the macroscale, since a microassembly-based approach has not yet been developed. In this paper, we propose a magnetic-field-based micromanipulation method to fabricate a helical microstructure. By microfluidic spinning, alginate microfibers encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles are synthesized to enable the control of an electromagnetic needle (EMN). We developed a microrobotic system to actuate a micropipette to fix a free end of the microfiber, and then move the EMN to reel the microfiber around a micropillar. The motion of the EMN is guided using an upright microscope and a side-view camera. Because of the limitation of operation space, a spacer sleeve was designed to keep the tip of the EMN attracted to the microfiber, and simultaneously to keep the other part of the EMN isolated from the microfiber. To ensure the availability of the microfiber for continuously coiling, we enable the EMN tip to slide on the surface of the microfiber without changing the tensioning of the microfiber for positioning control. Furthermore, stable and repeatable micromanipulation was achieved to form multi-turn microfiber coils based on the motion planning of the EMN. Finally, we successfully fabricated a helical microstructure that can be applied in vascular tissue engineering in the future. (paper)

  2. Transport barrier in Helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on the transport barrier in Helical plasmas are reviewed. There are two mechanisms of transport improvement, that results in the formation of the transport barrier. One is the improvement of neoclassical transport by reducing the ripple loss with radial electric field, which exist only in helical plasma. The other is the improvement of anomalous transport due to the suppression of fluctuations associated with a radial electric field shear both in tokamak and helical plasma. The formation of the transport barrier can be triggered by the radial electric field shear associated with the transition of the radial electric field (L/H transition or ion-electron root transition) or the peaked density or the optimization of magnetic field shear. The mechanisms of transport barrier formation are also discussed. (author). 60 refs

  3. Generalized helicity and Beltrami fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buniy, Roman V., E-mail: roman.buniy@gmail.com [Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom); Kephart, Thomas W., E-mail: tom.kephart@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    We propose covariant and non-abelian generalizations of the magnetic helicity and Beltrami equation. The gauge invariance, variational principle, conserved current, energy–momentum tensor and choice of boundary conditions elucidate the subject. In particular, we prove that any extremal of the Yang–Mills action functional 1/4 ∫{sub Ω}trF{sub μν}F{sup μν}d{sup 4}x subject to the local constraint ε{sup μναβ}trF{sub μν}F{sub αβ}=0 satisfies the covariant non-abelian Beltrami equation. -- Highlights: •We introduce the covariant non-abelian helicity and Beltrami equation. •The Yang–Mills action and instanton term constraint lead to the Beltrami equation. •Solutions of the Beltrami equation conserve helicity.

  4. Generalized helicity and Beltrami fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniy, Roman V.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose covariant and non-abelian generalizations of the magnetic helicity and Beltrami equation. The gauge invariance, variational principle, conserved current, energy–momentum tensor and choice of boundary conditions elucidate the subject. In particular, we prove that any extremal of the Yang–Mills action functional 1/4 ∫ Ω trF μν F μν d 4 x subject to the local constraint ε μναβ trF μν F αβ =0 satisfies the covariant non-abelian Beltrami equation. -- Highlights: •We introduce the covariant non-abelian helicity and Beltrami equation. •The Yang–Mills action and instanton term constraint lead to the Beltrami equation. •Solutions of the Beltrami equation conserve helicity

  5. Sodium steam generator within which are inlet and outlet ducts with pipe bundles in vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The sodium steam generator with internal flow ducts for inlet and outlet to a vessel are provided as pipe bundles in the form of helically wound concentric layers terminating in inlet and outlet connections with chambers, characterised in that within the vessel, the pipe pieces which are connected to the pipe windings with the said vessel are arranged in substantially radially aligned rows so that each row measured in the circumferential direction at least on one side is at a spacing from the following row sufficiently large that between the rows or groups of rows an open sector is provided. (G.C.)

  6. Imperfection analysis of flexible pipe armor wires in compression and bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by a specific failure mode known as lateral wire buckling occurring in the tensile armor layers of flexible pipes. The tensile armor is usually constituted by two layers of initially helically wound steel wires with opposite lay directions. During pipe...... ability of the wires. This may cause the wires to buckle in the circumferential pipe direction, when these are restrained against radial deformations by adjacent layers. In the present paper, a single armoring wire modeled as a long and slender curved beam embedded in a frictionless cylinder bent...

  7. Coil protection calculator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsala, R.J.; Lawson, J.E.; Persing, R.G.; Senko, T.R.; Woolley, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A new coil protection system (CPS) is being developed to replace the existing TFTR magnetic coil fault detector. The existing fault detector sacrifices TFTR operating capability for simplicity. The new CPS, when installed in October of 1988, will permit operation up to the actual coil stress limits parameters in real-time. The computation will be done in a microprocessor based Coil Protection Calculator (CPC) currently under construction at PPL. THe new CPC will allow TFTR to operate with higher plasma currents and will permit the optimization of pulse repetition rates. The CPC will provide real-time estimates of critical coil and bus temperatures and stresses based on real-time redundant measurements of coil currents, coil cooling water inlet temperature, and plasma current. The critical parameter calculations are compared to prespecified limits. If these limits are reached or exceeded, protection action will be initiated to a hard wired control system (HCS), which will shut down the power supplies. The CPC consists of a redundant VME based microprocessor system which will sample all input data and compute all stress quantities every ten milliseconds. Thermal calculations will be approximated every 10ms with an exact solution occurring every second. The CPC features continuous cross-checking of redundant input signal, automatic detection of internal failure modes, monitoring and recording of calculated results, and a quick, functional verification of performance via an internal test system. (author)

  8. Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift

  9. Resonant helical fields in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, V.

    1990-01-01

    Poincare maps of magnetic field lines of a toroidal helical system were made. The magnetic field is a linear superposition of the magnetic fields produced by a toroidal plasma in equilibrium and by external helical currents. Analytical expression for the Poincare maps was no obtained since the magnetic field do not have symmetry. In order to obtain the maps, the equation minus derivative of l vector times B vector = 0 was numerically integrated. In the Poincare maps, the principal and the secondary magnetic island were observed. (author)

  10. Helical system. History and current state of helical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper described the following: (1) history of nuclear fusion research of Japan's original heliotron method, (2) worldwide development of nuclear fusion research based on helical system such as stellarator, and (3) worldwide meaning of large helical device (LHD) aiming to demonstrate the steady-state performance of heliotron type in the parameter area extrapolable to the core plasma, and research results of LHD. LHD demonstrated that the helical system is excellent in steady operation performance at the world's most advanced level. In an experiment using deuterium gas in 2017, LHD achieved to reach 120 million degrees of ion temperature, which is one index of nuclear fusion condition, demonstrated the realization of high-performance plasma capable of extrapolating to future nuclear fusion reactors, and established the foundation for full-scale research toward the realization of nuclear fusion reactor. Besides experimental research, this paper also described the helical-type stationary nuclear fusion prototype reactor, FFHR-d1, which was based on progress of large-scale simulation at the world's most advanced level. A large-scale superconducting stellarator experimental device, W7-X, with the same scale as LHD, started experiment in December 2015, whose current state is also touched on here. (A.O.)

  11. Helicity and evanescent waves. [Energy transport velocity, helicity, Lorentz transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudin, J L; Platzeck, A M [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina); Albano, J R [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    1978-02-20

    It is shown that the projection of the angular momentum of a circularly polarized electromagnetic evanescent wave along the mean velocity of energy transport (=helicity) can be reverted by a Lorentz transformation, in spite of the fact that this velocity is c.

  12. AWWA C303-17 concrete pressure pipe, bar-wrapped, steel-cylinder type

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This standard describes the manufacture of concrete pressure pipe, reinforced with a steel cylinder that is helically wrapped with mild steel bar reinforcement, in sizes ranging from 10 in. through 72 in. (250 mm through 1,830 mm), inclusive, and for working pressures up to 400 psi (2,760 kPa).

  13. Transients in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesin, D.; Paes-Leme, P.J.S.; Sampaio, R.

    1981-01-01

    The motion of a fluid in a pipe is commonly modeled utilizing the one space dimension conservation laws of mass and momentum. The development of shocks and spikes utilizing the uniform sampling method is studied. The effects of temperature variations and friction are compared for gas pipes. (Author) [pt

  14. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  15. Piping research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This document presents the piping research program plan for the Structural and Seismic Engineering Branch and the Materials Engineering Branch of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The plan describes the research to be performed in the areas of piping design criteria, environmentally assisted cracking, pipe fracture, and leak detection and leak rate estimation. The piping research program addresses the regulatory issues regarding piping design and piping integrity facing the NRC today and in the foreseeable future. The plan discusses the regulatory issues and needs for the research, the objectives, key aspects, and schedule for each research project, or group of projects focussing of a specific topic, and, finally, the integration of the research areas into the regulatory process is described. The plan presents a snap-shot of the piping research program as it exists today. However, the program plan will change as the regulatory issues and needs change. Consequently, this document will be revised on a bi-annual basis to reflect the changes in the piping research program. (author)

  16. The design study of the JT-60SU device. No. 3. The superconductor-coils of JT-60SU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Mori, Katsuharu; Nakagawa, Syouji

    1997-03-01

    The superconducting coil systems and the cryogenic system for the JT-60 Super Upgrade (JT-60SU) has been designed. Both Nb 3 Al and NbTi as a superconducting wire material are employed in the toroidal coils (D-shaped 18 coils) to realize a high field magnet with a low cost. Significant reduction of the coil weight (150 tons/coil) without losing the coil rigidity has been achieved by connecting two toroidal coils with shear panels. Validity of this design is confirmed by the detailed structural analysis and thermohydraulic analysis. The poloidal coil system consists of 4 central solenoid coils with (NbTi) 3 Sn and 6 outer equilibrium field coils with NbTi. This system has an enough capability to supply the flux of 170Vs to produce a 10MA discharge with 200s of flat-top and to make various plasma configurations. The construction procedure of the poloidal coil system is also established under the constraint of the JT-60 site. Two sets of race-track shaped superconducting coils mounted on the top of the machine is designed to compensate the error field inside the vessel by supplying helical (m=2/n=1) magnetic field. By using cryogenic system with a 36kW of cooling capacity, the total cold weight of around 4000tons can be cooled down to 4.5K within one month, and steady heat load of 6.5kW and transient heat load of 9.0MJ can be removed within 30 minutes of discharge repetition rate. (author)

  17. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  18. A Built for Purpose Micro-Hole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bart Patton

    2007-09-30

    This report will serve as the final report on the work performed from the contract period October 2005 thru April 2007. The project 'A Built for Purpose Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR)' purpose was to upgrade an existing state-of-the-art Coiled Tubing Drilling Rig to a Microhole Coiled Tubing Rig (MCTR) capable of meeting the specifications and tasks of the Department of Energy. The individual tasks outlined to meet the Department of Energy's specifications are: (1) Concept and development of lubricator and tool deployment system; (2) Concept and development of process control and data acquisition; (3) Concept and development of safety and efficiency improvements; and (4) Final unit integration and testing. The end result of the MCTR upgrade has produced a unit capable of meeting the following requirements: (1) Capable of handling 1-inch through 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing (Currently dressed for 2-3/8-inch coiled tubing and capable of running up to 3-1/2-inch coiled tubing); (2) Capable of drilling and casing surface, intermediate, production and liner hole intervals; (3) Capable of drilling with coiled tubing and has all controls and installation piping for a top drive; (4) Rig is capable of running 7-5/8-inch range 2 casing; and (5) Capable of drilling 5,000 ft true vertical depth (TVD) and 6,000 ft true measured depth (TMD).

  19. Dynamic Models of Heating and Cooling Coils with One—Dimensional Air Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangZijie; G.Krauss

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation models of the plate-fin,air-to-water(or water vapour) heat exchangers used as air-heating or air-cooling and dehumidifying colis in the HVAC(Heating,Ventilation and AIr-Conditioning)systems.The thermal models are used to calculate the heat exchange between distributing air and coil pipes and outlet temperatures of air and heat or chilled fluid.The aerodynamic models are used to account for the pressure drop of the air crossing the coil tubes,They can also be used to optimize the structres of such coils.The models are based on principal laws of teat and mass conservation and fluid mechanics.They are transparent and easy to use.In our work,a coil is considered as an assembly of numbers of basic elements in which all the state variables are unique.Therefore we can conveniently simulate the coils with different structures and different geometric parameters.Two modular programs TRNSYS(Transient System Simulation)and ESACAP are utilized as supporting softwares which make the programming and simulation greatly simplified.The coil elements and a real coil were simulated.The results were compared with the data offered by the manufacturer(company SOFICA) and also with those obtained using critical methods such as NTU method ,etc.and good agreement is attained.

  20. Parameterization and measurements of helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Okamura, M.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic fields with helical symmetry can be parameterized using multipole coefficients (a n , b n ). We present a parameterization that gives the familiar multipole coefficients (a n , b n ) for straight magnets when the helical wavelength tends to infinity. To measure helical fields all methods used for straight magnets can be employed. We show how to convert the results of those measurements to obtain the desired helical multipole coefficients (a n , b n )

  1. Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....

  2. ICRF heating on helical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Lyon, J.F.; Hoffman, D.J.; Murakami, M.; England, A.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Wang, C.; Batchelor, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is currently in use on CHS and W7-AS and is a major element of the heating planned for steady state helical devices. In helical devices, the lack of a toroidal current eliminates both disruptions and the need for ICRF current drive, simplifying the design of antenna structures as compared to tokamak applications. However the survivability of plasma facing components and steady state cooling issues are directly applicable to tokamak devices. Results from LHD steady state experiments should be available on a time scale to strongly influence the next generation of steady state tokamak experiments. The helical plasma geometry provides challenges not faced with tokamak ICRF heating, including the potential for enhanced fast ion losses, impurity accumulation, limited access for antenna structures, and open magnetic field lines in the plasma edge. The present results and near term plans provide the basis for steady state ICRF heating of larger helical devices. An approach which includes direct electron, mode conversion, ion minority and ion Bernstein wave heating addresses these issues

  3. ICRF heating on helical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.A.; Lyon, J.F.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating is currently in use on CHS and W7AS and is a major element of the heating planned for steady state helical devices. In helical devices, the lack of a toroidal current eliminates both disruptions and the need for ICRF current drive, simplifying the design of antenna structures as compared to tokamak applications. However the survivability of plasma facing components and steady state cooling issues are directly applicable to tokamak devices. Results from LHD steady state experiments should be available on a time scale to strongly influence the next generation of steady state tokamak experiments. The helical plasma geometry provides challenges not faced with tokamak ICRF heating, including the potential for enhanced fast ion losses, impurity accumulation, limited access for antenna structures, and open magnetic field lines in the plasma edge. The present results and near term plans provide the basis for steady state ICRF heating of larger helical devices. An approach which includes direct electron, mode conversion, ion minority and ion Bernstein wave heating addresses these issues

  4. The helical tomotherapy thread effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, M.W.; Fenwick, J.; James, J.A.; Jeraj, R.; Kapatoes, J.M.; Keller, H.; Mackie, T.R.; Olivera, G.; Soisson, E.T.

    2005-01-01

    Inherent to helical tomotherapy is a dose variation pattern that manifests as a 'ripple' (peak-to-trough relative to the average). This ripple is the result of helical beam junctioning, completely unique to helical tomotherapy. Pitch is defined as in helical CT, the couch travel distance for a complete gantry rotation relative to the axial beam width at the axis of rotation. Without scattering or beam divergence, an analytical posing of the problem as a simple integral predicts minima near a pitch of 1/n where n is an integer. A convolution-superposition dose calculator (TomoTherapy, Inc.) included all the physics needed to explore the ripple magnitude versus pitch and beam width. The results of the dose calculator and some benchmark measurements demonstrate that the ripple has sharp minima near p=0.86(1/n). The 0.86 factor is empirical and caused by a beam junctioning of the off-axis dose profiles which differ from the axial profiles as well as a long scatter tail of the profiles at depth. For very strong intensity modulation, the 0.86 factor may vary. The authors propose choosing particular minima pitches or using a second delivery that starts 180 deg off-phase from the first to reduce these ripples: 'Double threading'. For current typical pitches and beam widths, however, this effect is small and not clinically important for most situations. Certain extremely large field or high pitch cases, however, may benefit from mitigation of this effect

  5. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  6. First coil for the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1955-01-01

    The coils for the SC magnet were stored in the large hangar of the Cointrin Airport (to make sure that they would be available before snow and ice would block the roads and canals from Belgium, where they were built).

  7. Clogging of granular material in vertical pipes discharged at constant velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Rodríguez Diego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an experimental study on the flow of spherical particles through a vertical pipe discharged at constant velocity by means of a conveyor belt placed at the bottom. For a pipe diameter 3.67 times the diameter of the particles, we observe the development of hanging arches that stop the flow as they are able to support the weight of the particles above them. We find that the distribution of times that it takes until a stable clog develops, decays exponentially. This is compatible with a clogging probability that remains constant during the discharge. We also observe that the probability of clogging along the pipe decreases with the height, i.e. most of the clogs are developed near the bottom. This spatial dependence may be attributed to different pressure values within the pipe which might also be related to a spontaneous development of an helical structure of the grains inside the pipe.

  8. The Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.

    1985-01-01

    With delivery of the coil to ORNL on February 4, 1984, the second phase of the Swiss Large Coil Program - design and construction - was terminated. Mainlines of the Swiss design concept are summarized and related to theoretical calculations, experimental results of the supporting program, fabricational experience and first successful test results. An attempt is made to draw preliminary conclusions with regard to the design of future toroidal systems such as NET

  9. Sensitivity Analysis and Stray Capacitance of Helical Flux Compression Generator with Multi Layer Filamentary Conductor in Rectangular Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Mosleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to calculate the equivalent stray capacitance (SC of n-turn of the helical flux compression generator (HFCG coil with multi layer conductor wire filaments (MLCWF in the form of rectangular cross-section. This approach is based on vespiary regular hexagonal (VRH model. In this method, wire filaments of the generator coil are separated into many very small similar elementary cells. By the expanded explosion in the liner and move explosion to the end of the liner, the coil turns number will be reduced. So, the equivalent SC of the HFCG will increase. The results show that by progress of explosion and decrease of the turns’ number in the generator coil total capacitance of the generator increases until the explosion reaches to the second turn. When only one turn remains in the circuit, a decrease occurs in the total capacitance of the generator.

  10. The SMES model coil. Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Takahashi, Nobuji

    1998-01-01

    A SMES model coil was fabricated as R and D item in the development of component technologies for a 480 MJ/20 MW SMES pilot plant. The coil consists of four double-pancake windings. The coil is the same diameter but half the number of pancakes that will be needed for a SMES pilot plant. The NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor and superconducting joints between the double pancakes are cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. Prior to fabrication, various characteristics of the cable-in-conduit were measured by full-sized short samples from actual conductors and by scaled short samples from scaled conductors. The critical current of the scaled short samples was in agreement with that calculated from one strand of the conductor. The impedance between arbitrary dual-oxide coated strands in the full-size conductor was measured to be smaller than that obtained from two Cr-plated strands, which showed a good degree of stability in another coil. It was estimated that oxide-coated conductors would have high stability. Through fabrication of a model coil, it was demonstrated that a large forced-flow coil for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device could be manufactured. (author)

  11. The SMES model coil. Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanai, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari; Takahashi, Nobuji [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1998-07-01

    A SMES model coil was fabricated as R and D item in the development of component technologies for a 480 MJ/20 MW SMES pilot plant. The coil consists of four double-pancake windings. The coil is the same diameter but half the number of pancakes that will be needed for a SMES pilot plant. The NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor and superconducting joints between the double pancakes are cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. Prior to fabrication, various characteristics of the cable-in-conduit were measured by full-sized short samples from actual conductors and by scaled short samples from scaled conductors. The critical current of the scaled short samples was in agreement with that calculated from one strand of the conductor. The impedance between arbitrary dual-oxide coated strands in the full-size conductor was measured to be smaller than that obtained from two Cr-plated strands, which showed a good degree of stability in another coil. It was estimated that oxide-coated conductors would have high stability. Through fabrication of a model coil, it was demonstrated that a large forced-flow coil for a small-scale 100 kWh SMES device could be manufactured. (author)

  12. Equilibrium field coil concepts for INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickler, D.J.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Brown, T.G.

    1981-08-01

    Methods are presented for reducing ampere-turn requirements in the EF coil system. It is shown that coil currents in an EF coil system external to the toroidal field coils can be substantially reduced by relaxing the triangularity of a D-shaped plasma. Further reductions are realized through a hybrid EF coil system using both internal and external coils. Equilibrium field coils for a poloidally asymmetric, single-null INTOR configuration are presented. It is shown that the shape of field lines in the plasma scrapeoff region and divertor channel improves as triangularity is reduced, but it does so at the possible expense of achievable stable beta values

  13. Two conceptual designs of helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1A based on ITER technologies and challenging ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, A.; Miyazawa, J.; Tamura, H.; Tanaka, T.; Goto, T.; Yanagi, N.; Sakamoto, R.; Masuzaki, S.; Ohtani, H.; The FFHR Design Group

    2017-08-01

    The Fusion Engineering Research Project (FERP) at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) is conducting conceptual design activities for the LHD-type helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1A. This paper newly defines two design options, ‘basic’ and ‘challenging.’ Conservative technologies, including those that will be demonstrated in ITER, are chosen in the basic option in which two helical coils are made of continuously wound cable-in-conduit superconductors of Nb3Sn strands, the divertor is composed of water-cooled tungsten monoblocks, and the blanket is composed of water-cooled ceramic breeders. In contrast, new ideas that would possibly be beneficial for making the reactor design more attractive are boldly included in the challenging option in which the helical coils are wound by connecting high-temperature REBCO superconductors using mechanical joints, the divertor is composed of a shower of molten tin jets, and the blanket is composed of molten salt FLiNaBe including Ti powers to increase hydrogen solubility. The main targets of the challenging option are early construction and easy maintenance of a large and three-dimensionally complicated helical structure, high thermal efficiency, and, in particular, realistic feasibility of the helical reactor.

  14. Endovascular rescue method for undesirably stretched coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Undesirable detachment or stretching of coils within the parent artery during aneurysm embolization can be related with thrombus formation, which can be caused occlusion of parent artery or embolic event(s). To escape from this situation, several rescue methods have been reported. A case with undesirably stretched coil in which another rescue method was used, is presented. When the stretched coil is still located in the coil delivery microcatheter, the stretched coil can be removed safely using a snare and a handmade monorail microcatheter. After a snare is lodged in the handmade monorail microcatheter, the snare is introduced over the coil delivery micorcatheter and located in the distal part of the stretched coil. After then, the handmade monorail microcatheter captures the stretched coil and the snare as one unit. This technique using a handmade monorail microcatheter and a snare can be a good rescue modality for the undesirably stretched coil, still remained within the coil delivery microcatheter.

  15. Coil supporting device in nuclear fusion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Ryo; Imura, Yasuya.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To secure intermediate fittings with a coil fixed thereon by an insulating tape to a fixed body by means of fittings, thereby supporting the coil in a narrow space. Structure: A coil is secured to intermediate fittings by means of an insulating tape, after which the intermediate fittings is mounted on a fixed body through fittings to support the coil in a narrow clearance portion between a plasma sealed vessel and a main coil. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  17. Modelling of helical current filaments induced by LHW on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, Michael; Denner, Peter; Liang, Yunfeng [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Zeng, Long [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Gong, Xianzu; Gan, Kaifu; Wang, Liang; Liu, Fukun; Qian, Jinping; Shen, Biao; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Gauthier, Eric [Association EURATOM-CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: the EAST Team

    2013-07-01

    Helical radiation belts have been observed in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of the plasma during the application of lower hybrid wave (LHW) heating at the superconducting tokamak EAST. Modelled SOL field lines, starting in-front of the LHW antennas, show agreement in position and pitch angle to the experimental observed radiation belts. A splitting of the strike-line can be observed on the outer divertor plates during the application of LHW heating. Agreement in the comparison of the Mirnov coil signals and a modelled electric current flow along these SOL field lines was found. A lower hybrid current drive can induce such an electric current flow near the plasma edge. This electric current flow causes a change of the plasma topology which could result in the splitting of the strike-line as known from the application of resonant magnetic perturbation fields. Comparisons of modelled footprint structures and experimental observed heat load patterns in the divertor region are discussed.

  18. Free-boundary equilibrium studies for the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, H.J.; Ichiguchi, K.

    1993-06-01

    A free-boundary version of the VMEC three-dimensional equilibrium code, together with a code, DIAGNO, to determine the response to a set of magnetic diagnostic coils has been applied to the Large Helical Device. Two sequences of equilibria were considered: one where an external vertical field was used to keep the plasma centered and another where the outwardly shifting plasma was truncated by a limiter. The predictions of a simple cylindrical model have been verified for a diamagnetic loop. A set of simple response curves has been obtained which should be useful for the analysis and control of the finite plasma. The ideal Mercier criterion suggests that the centered plasma might be more stable. (author)

  19. Numerical investigation of heat transfer and entropy generation of laminar flow in helical tubes with various cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Sasmito, Agus P.; Shamim, Tariq; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfers of helical coiled tube with several cross section profiles are evaluated. • Helical tubes offer higher heat transfer and lower entropy generation. • Square cross-section generates the highest entropy, followed by ellipse and circular. • Study could serve as a guideline in designing an efficient helical tube heat exchanger. - Abstract: This study evaluates heat transfer performance and entropy generation of laminar flow in coiled tubes with various cross-sections geometries i.e. circular, ellipse and square, relatives to the straight tubes of similar cross-sections. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed and validated against empirical correlations. Good agreement is obtained within range of Reynolds and Dean numbers considered. Effect of geometry, wall temperature, Reynolds number and heating/cooling mode were examined. To evaluate the heat transfer performance of the coiled tube configurations, a parameter referred as Figure of Merit (FoM) is defined as the ratio heat transfer rate to the required pumping power. In addition, exergy analysis is carried out to examine the inefficiency of the coiled tube configurations. The results indicate that coiled tubes provide higher heat transfer rate. In addition, it was found to be more efficient as reflected by lower entropy generation as compared to straight tubes. Among the studied cross-section, square cross-section generates the highest entropy, followed by ellipse and circular counterpart. Entropy production from heat transfer contribution is two order-of-magnitude higher than that of entropy contribution from viscous dissipation. Cooling case produces slightly higher entropy than heating counterpart. Finally, this study can provide practical guideline to design more efficient coiled heat exchanger.

  20. Generalized helicity and its time derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Marklin, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Spheromaks can be sustained against resistive decay by helicity injection because they tend to obey the minimum energy principle. This principle states that a plasma-laden magnetic configuration will relax to a state of minimum energy subject to the constraint that the magnetic helicity is conserved. Use of helicity as a constraint on the minimization of energy was first proposed by Woltjer in connection with astrophysical phenomena. Helicity does decay on the resistive diffusion time. However, if helicity is created and made to flow continuoiusly into a confinement geometry, these additional linked fluxes can relax and sustain the configuration indefinitely against the resistive decay. In this paper we will present an extension of the definition of helicity to include systems where B vector can penetrate the boundary and the penetration can be varying in time. We then discuss the sustainment of RFPs and spheromaks in terms of helicity injection

  1. Theory and design of heat exchanger : Double pipe and heat exchanger in abnormal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ui Dong

    1996-02-01

    This book introduces theory and design of heat exchanger, which includes HTRI program, multiple tube heat exchanger external heating, theory of heat transfer, basis of design of heat exchanger, two-phase flow, condensation, boiling, material of heat exchanger, double pipe heat exchanger like hand calculation, heat exchanger in abnormal condition such as Jackets Vessel, and Coiled Vessel, design and summary of steam tracing.

  2. A semi-analytical study on helical springs made of shape memory polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghani, M; Naghdabadi, R; Arghavani, J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the responses of shape memory polymer (SMP) helical springs under axial force are studied both analytically and numerically. In the analytical solution, we first derive the response of a cylindrical tube under torsional loadings. This solution can be used for helical springs in which both the curvature and pitch effects are negligible. This is the case for helical springs with large ratios of the mean coil radius to the cross sectional radius (spring index) and also small pitch angles. Making use of this solution simplifies the analysis of the helical springs to that of the torsion of a straight bar with circular cross section. The 3D phenomenological constitutive model recently proposed for SMPs is also reduced to the 1D shear case. Thus, an analytical solution for the torsional response of SMP tubes in a full cycle of stress-free strain recovery is derived. In addition, the curvature effect is added to the formulation and the SMP helical spring is analyzed using the exact solution presented for torsion of curved SMP tubes. In this modified solution, the effect of the direct shear force is also considered. In the numerical analysis, the 3D constitutive equations are implemented in a finite element program and a full cycle of stress-free strain recovery of an SMP (extension or compression) helical spring is simulated. Analytical and numerical results are compared and it is shown that the analytical solution gives accurate stress distributions in the cross section of the helical SMP spring besides the global load–deflection response. Some case studies are presented to show the validity of the presented analytical method. (paper)

  3. Heat pipe development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  4. Helical CT of ureteral disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cikman, Pablo; Bengio, Ruben; Bulacio, Javier; Zirulnik, Esteban; Garimaldi, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Among the new applications of helical CT is the study of the ureteral pathology. The objective of this paper was to evaluate patients with suspected pathology of this organ and the repercussion in the therapeutic plans. We studied 23 patients with a helical CT protocol, without IV contrast injection and performed multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). We called this procedure Pielo CT. Thirteen ureteral stones were detected, 6 calculi, 2 urinary tract tumors, dilatation of the system in a patient with neo-bladder. In 2 patients, in whom ureteral pathology was ruled out, we found other alterations that explained the symptoms, (gallbladder stones, disk protrusion). The Pielo CT let decide a therapeutical approach in 20 or 21 patients with ureteral pathology. (author)

  5. Temperature control with high performance gravity-assist heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemme, J.E.; Deverall, J.E.; Keddy, E.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Ranken, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    The development of high performance heat pipes for controlling the temperature of irradiation experiments in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) is described. Because this application involves vertical operation in a gravity-assist mode with the evaporator down, several tests were made with sodium and potassium heat pipes in this position to establish their performance limits as a function of operating temperature. Best performance was achieved with a new wick structure consisting of a fine porous liner next to the heat-pipe wall and four helical channels next to the vapor passage. Also, a new modification of heat-pipe theory was discovered for determining performance limits for this type of wick. In its most rudimentary form, this modification says that the dynamic pressure gradient in the vapor stream cannot exceed the gravity gradient causing return of liquid. Once this modification was expressed in the form of a limiting equation, and a term was added to account for the slight capillary force developed in the channels, good agreement was obtained between calculated limits and those measured in several tests with both sodium and potassium. These tests showed rather conclusively that only half of the liquid head in the evaporator section was causing return of condensate, whereas existing theory predicts that the full head of liquid in the heat pipe is available for condensate return. (U.S.)

  6. Simplified pipe gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, H.; Nordskov, A.; Sass, B.; Visler, T.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified version of a deuterium pellet gun based on the pipe gun principle is described. The pipe gun is made from a continuous tube of stainless steel and gas is fed in from the muzzle end only. It is indicated that the pellet length is determined by the temperature gradient along the barrel right outside the freezing cell. Velocities of around 1000 m/s with a scatter of +- 2% are obtained with a propellant gas pressure of 40 bar

  7. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  8. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed; Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Algharbi, Salem; Aboudi, Faisal; Khudiri, Musab

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  9. Helicity formalism and spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Piovano, U.

    1990-01-01

    The helicity formalism and the technique to compute amplitudes for interaction processes involving leptons, quarks, photons and gluons are reviewed. Explicit calculations and examples of exploitation of symmetry properties are shown. The formalism is then applied to the discussion of several hadronic processes and spin effects: the experimental data, when related to the properties of the elementary constituent interactions, show many not understood features. Also the nucleon spin problem is briefly reviewed. (author)

  10. Radiation characteristics of helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeraj, Robert; Mackie, Thomas R.; Balog, John; Olivera, Gustavo; Pearson, Dave; Kapatoes, Jeff; Ruchala, Ken; Reckwerdt, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Helical tomotherapy is a dedicated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) system with on-board imaging capability (MVCT) and therefore differs from conventional treatment units. Different design goals resulted in some distinctive radiation field characteristics. The most significant differences in the design are the lack of flattening filter, increased shielding of the collimators, treatment and imaging operation modes and narrow fan beam delivery. Radiation characteristics of the helical tomotherapy system, sensitivity studies of various incident electron beam parameters and radiation safety analyses are presented here. It was determined that the photon beam energy spectrum of helical tomotherapy is similar to that of more conventional radiation treatment units. The two operational modes of the system result in different nominal energies of the incident electron beam with approximately 6 MeV and 3.5 MeV in the treatment and imaging modes, respectively. The off-axis mean energy dependence is much lower than in conventional radiotherapy units with less than 5% variation across the field, which is the consequence of the absent flattening filter. For the same reason the transverse profile exhibits the characteristic conical shape resulting in a 2-fold increase of the beam intensity in the center. The radiation leakage outside the field was found to be negligible at less than 0.05% because of the increased shielding of the collimators. At this level the in-field scattering is a dominant source of the radiation outside the field and thus a narrow field treatment does not result in the increased leakage. The sensitivity studies showed increased sensitivity on the incident electron position because of the narrow fan beam delivery and high sensitivity on the incident electron energy, as common to other treatment systems. All in all, it was determined that helical tomotherapy is a system with some unique radiation characteristics, which have been to a large extent

  11. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  12. Replaceable liquid nitrogen piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasujima, Yasuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masataka; Hongo, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This liquid nitrogen piping with total length of about 50 m was made and installed to supply the liquid nitrogen for heat insulating shield to three superconducting magnets for deflection and large super-conducting magnet for detection in the π-meson beam line used for high energy physics experiment in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The points considered in the design and manufacture stages are reported. In order to minimize the consumption of liquid nitrogen during transport, vacuum heat insulation method was adopted. The construction period and cost were reduced by the standardization of the components, the improvement of welding works and the elimination of ineffective works. For simplifying the maintenance, spare parts are always prepared. The construction and the procedure of assembling of the liquid nitrogen piping are described. The piping is of double-walled construction, and its low temperature part was made of SUS 316L. The super-insulation by aluminum vacuum evaporation and active carbon were attached on the external surface of the internal pipe. The final leak test and the heating degassing were performed. The tests on evacuation, transport capacity and heat entry are reported. By making the internal pipe into smaller size, the piping may be more efficient. (Kako, I.)

  13. Helical Antimicrobial Sulfono- {gamma} -AApeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yaqiong; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Bai, Ge; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Chuanhai; Cai, Jianfeng

    2015-06-11

    Host-defense peptides (HDPs) such as magainin 2 have emerged as potential therapeutic agents combating antibiotic resistance. Inspired by their structures and mechanism of action, herein we report the fi rst example of antimicrobial helical sulfono- γ - AApeptide foldamers. The lead molecule displays broad-spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Time-kill studies and fl uorescence microscopy suggest that sulfono- γ -AApeptides eradicate bacteria by taking a mode of action analogous to that of HDPs. Clear structure - function relationships exist in the studied sequences. Longer sequences, presumably adopting more-de fi ned helical structures, are more potent than shorter ones. Interestingly, the sequence with less helical propensity in solution could be more selective than the stronger helix-forming sequences. Moreover, this class of antimicrobial agents are resistant to proteolytic degradation. These results may lead to the development of a new class of antimicrobial foldamers combating emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  14. Experimental approach to investigate the constrained recovery behavior of coiled monofilament polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, S. S.; Nunes, L. C. S.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a new approach for investigating the thermo-mechanical behavior of coiled oriented polymer fibers with fixed ends and promote an understanding of the actuation response of coiled polymers in constrained recovery applications. In the proposed experimental methodology, a coiled fiber was pre-stretched by 50% and the distance between its ends remained constant, then it was subjected to a heating-cooling cycle ranging from 30 °C to 120 °C and the induced restoring force was measured. Based on these measurements, axial deformation and shear strain were obtained from full-field displacements extracted by the digital image correlation method from images of the coiled fiber. Three coiled fibers with different initial pitch angles were manufactured, and samples with lengths of 15 mm and 20 mm were tested. Bias angles and coil radius were also estimated using the experimental data associated with the helical spring theory. Results show that significant shape changes can be noticed above the glass transition temperature (47 °C), and these changes induce variation in the resultant forces. The effects of thermal softening and thermal contraction for a modest negative thermal expansion coefficient became evident at temperatures ranging from ∼47 °C to ∼90 °C, while the response of a coiled homochiral polymer fiber was achieved at temperatures close to 90 °C. During the cooling process, saturated states of the axial deformation and shear strain of the coiled fibers were observed at temperatures between 120 °C and 100 °C.

  15. Control of the Helicity Content of a Gun-Generated Spheromak by Incorporating a Conducting Shell into a Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Jun'ichi; Asai, Tomohiko

    In the formation of magnetized plasmoid by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the magnetic helicity content of the generated plasmoid is one of the critical parameters. Typically, the bias coil to generate a poloidal flux is mounted either on the outer electrode or inside the inner electrode. However, most of the flux generated in the conventional method spreads even radially outside of the formation region. Thus, only a fraction of the total magnetic flux is actually exploited for helicity generation in the plasmoid. In the proposed system, the plasma gun incorporates a copper shell mounted on the outer electrode. By changing the rise time of the discharge bias coil current and the geometrical structure of the shell, the magnetic field structure and its time evolution can be controlled. The effect of the copper shell has been numerically simulated for the actual gun structure, and experimentally confirmed. This may increase the magnetic helicity content results, through increased poloidal magnetic field.

  16. Simulation of impurity transport in the peripheral plasma due to the emission of dust in long pulse discharges on the Large Helical Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shoji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two different plasma termination processes by dust emission were observed in long pulse discharges in the Large Helical Device. One is a plasma termination caused by large amounts of carbon dust released from a lower divertor region. The other is termination caused by stainless steel (iron dust emission from the surface of a helical coil can. The effect of the dust emission on the sustainment of the long pulse discharges are investigated using a three-dimensional edge plasma transport code (EMC3-EIRENE coupled with a dust transport code (DUSTT. The simulation shows that the plasma is more influenced by the iron dust emission from the helical coil can than by the carbon dust emission from the divertor region. The simulation revealed that the plasma flow in divertor legs is quite effective for preventing dust from terminating the long pulse discharges.

  17. CCHMM_PROF: a HMM-based coiled-coil predictor with evolutionary information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartoli, Lisa; Fariselli, Piero; Krogh, Anders

    2009-01-01

    tools are available for predicting coiled-coil domains in protein sequences, including those based on position-specific score matrices and machine learning methods. RESULTS: In this article, we introduce a hidden Markov model (CCHMM_PROF) that exploits the information contained in multiple sequence...... alignments (profiles) to predict coiled-coil regions. The new method discriminates coiled-coil sequences with an accuracy of 97% and achieves a true positive rate of 79% with only 1% of false positives. Furthermore, when predicting the location of coiled-coil segments in protein sequences, the method reaches...

  18. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  19. Magnetic helicity and active filament configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Poedts, S.; Soenen, A.; Zuccarello, F. P.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The role of magnetic helicity in active filament formation and destabilization is still under debate. Aims: Although active filaments usually show a sigmoid shape and a twisted configuration before and during their eruption, it is unclear which mechanism leads to these topologies. In order to provide an observational contribution to clarify these issues, we describe a filament evolution whose characteristics seem to be directly linked to the magnetic helicity transport in corona. Methods: We applied different methods to determine the helicity sign and the chirality of the filament magnetic field. We also computed the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints. Results: All the observational signatures provided information on the positive helicity and sinistral chirality of the flux rope containing the filament material: its forward S shape, the orientation of its barbs, the bright and dark threads at 195 Å. Moreover, the magnetic helicity transport rate at the filament footpoints showed a clear accumulation of positive helicity. Conclusions: The study of this event showed a correspondence between several signatures of the sinistral chirality of the filament and several evidences of the positive magnetic helicity of the filament magnetic field. We also found that the magnetic helicity transported along the filament footpoints showed an increase just before the change of the filament shape observed in Hα images. We argued that the photospheric regions where the filament was rooted might be the preferential ways where the magnetic helicity was injected along the filament itself and where the conditions to trigger the eruption were yielded.

  20. Measurement of toroidal plasma current in RF heated helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besshou, Sakae

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the measurement of toroidal plasma current by a semiflexible Rogowski coil in a helical vacuum chamber. A Rogowski coil measures the toroidal plasma current with a resolution of 0.1 kA, frequency range of up to 1 kHz and sensitivity of 6.5 x 10 -9 V · s/A. We measured the spontaneous toroidal plasma current (from -1.2 to +1.2 kA) under electron cyclotron resonance heating at 0.94 T toroidal field in the Heliotron-E device. We found that the measured direction of toroidal plasma current changes its sign as in the predicted behavior of a neoclassical diffusion-driven bootstrap current, depending on the horizontal position of the plasma column. We explain the observed plasma currents in terms of the compound phenomenon of an ohmic current and a neoclassical diffusion-driven current. The magnitude of the neoclassical current component is smaller than the value predicted by a collisionless neoclassical theory. (author)

  1. Large coil program support structure conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to perform tests on both pool boiling and force cooled superconducting toroidal field coils. The tests will attempt to approximate conditions anticipated in an ignition tokamak. The test requirements resulted in a coil support design which accommodates up to six (6) test coils and is mounted to a structure capable of resisting coil interactions. The steps leading to the present LCP coil support structure design, details on selected structural components, and the basic assembly sequence are discussed

  2. Chirality induction and protonation-induced molecular motions in helical molecular strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomiets, Elena; Berl, Volker; Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The long oligopyridinedicarboxamide strand 9, containing 15 heterocyclic rings has been synthesized and its helical structure determined by X-ray crystallography. It was shown that the shorter analogue 6 displays induced circular dichroism and amplification of induced chirality upon dissolution in an optically active solvent, diethyl-L-tartrate. A novel class of helical foldamers was prepared, strands 14-16, based on two oligopyridine carboxamide segments linked through a L-tartaric acid derived spacer. These tartro strands display internal chirality induction as well as chirality amplification. NMR spectroscopy (on 8 and 9) and circular dichroism (on 16) studies show that the oligopyridine carboxamide strands undergo reversible unfolding/folding upon protonation. The protonation-induced unfolding has been confirmed by X-ray crystallographic determination of the molecular structure of the extended protonated heptameric form 8(+). The molecular-scale mechano-chemical motions of the protonation-induced structural switching consist of a change of the length of the molecule, from 6 angstroms (6, coiled form) to 29 angstroms (8(+), uncoiled form) for the heptamer and from 12.5 angstroms (9, coiled form, X-ray structure) to 57 angstroms (9(+), uncoiled form, from modeling) for the pentadecamer. Similar unfolding/folding motional processes take place in the L-tartro strands 15 and 16 upon protonation/deprotonation, with loss of helicity-induced circular dichroism on unfolding as shown for the protonated form 16(+).

  3. Cooling device of superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, R.; Lottin, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This device is rotating around an horizontal axis. The superconducting coils are contained in a cryogenic enclosure feeded in liquid helium forced circulation. They are related to an electric generator by electric mains each of them comprising a gas exchanger, and an exchanger-evaporator set between the cryogenic device and those exchangers. The exchanger-evaporator is aimed at dissipating the heat arriving by conductors connected to the superconducting coils. According to the invention, the invention includes an annular canalization with horizontal axis in which the connection conductors bathe in liquid helium [fr

  4. New formulae for magnetic relative helicity and field line helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Jean-Jacques

    2018-01-01

    We consider a magnetic field {B} occupying the simply connected domain D and having all its field lines tied to the boundary S of D. We assume here that {B} has a simple topology, i.e., the mapping {M} from positive to negative polarity areas of S associating to each other the two footpoints of any magnetic line, is continuous. We first present new formulae for the helicity H of {B} relative to a reference field {{B}}r having the same normal component {B}n on S, and for its field line helicity h relative to a reference vector potential {{C}}r of {{B}}r. These formulae make immediately apparent the well known invariance of these quantities under all the ideal MHD deformations that preserve the positions of the footpoints on S. They express indeed h and H either in terms of {M} and {B}n, or in terms of the values on S of a pair of Euler potentials of {B}. We next show that, for a specific choice of {{C}}r, the field line helicity h of {B} fully characterizes the magnetic mapping {M} and then the topology of the lines. Finally, we give a formula that describes the rate of change of h in a situation where the plasma moves on the perfectly conducting boundary S without changing {B}n and/or non-ideal processes, described by an unspecified term {N} in Ohm’s law, are at work in some parts of D.

  5. Achieved capability of the superconducting magnet system for the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, T.; Imagawa, S.; Yanagi, N.

    2001-01-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) is a plasma physics experimental device with a magnetic stored energy of 960 MJ, consisting of two sc (superconducting) helical coils and six sc poloidal coils. The trial operation and the first plasma discharge of the eight-year Phase I project for LHD were finished on 31 March 1998 as initially planned. The second experimental campaign was conducted by additional heating using two NBI devices. The third campaign started in June 1999 and was finished in January 2000. Many plasma heating tests up to a plasma field of 2.90 T were carried out. Major test results on the sc magnet system for LHD are as follows: (1) The LHD cryogenic system succeeded in 13,400-hour operation and proved its high reliability. (2) A central field of 2.91 T at a radius of 3.60 m was achieved at an H-I current of 11.08 kA, H-M current of 11.83 kA and an H-O current of 12.02 kA. (3) All six poloidal coils were excited stably. (4) Nine flexible sc bus-lines with a total length of 497 m were operated stably and safe. (author)

  6. Effect of insertion depth on helical antenna performance in a muscle-equivalent phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J W; Meeson, S; Birch, M J [Department of Clinical Physics, Royal London Hospital, 56-76 Ashfield Street, London, E1 1BB (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-21

    Barrett's oesophagus is considered to increase the risk of cancer 30 fold. A set of helical microwave antennas was designed to investigate their potential use in the thermal therapy of Barrett's oesophagus. For treatment, a balloon filled with muscle-equivalent material encapsulates the antenna. The effects of insertion depth and coil-spacing on the thermal distribution produced by the antennas (20-35 mm) were characterized. The 35 mm helical antenna, with a coil-spacing of 3.6 mm resulted in uniform heating for an insertion depth of 40 mm. It was observed that the resultant temperature distribution produced, by the antennas, was dependent on the insertion depth within the phantom. For all antennas studied, deeper insertion resulted in two high intensity regions, approximately 1/4 and 3/4 along the antenna length. In contrast, shallow insertion resulted in predominant tip heating with undesirable heating at the phantom entry point. However, by manipulating the coil-spacing of the helix, uniform temperature profiles were achieved for a range of insertion depths.

  7. Large Coil Program magnetic system design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.D.; Johnson, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting coils to provide a basis for the design principles, materials, and fabrication techniques proposed for the toroidal magnets for the THE NEXT STEP (TNS) and other future tokamak devices. This paper documents a design study of the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) in which the structural response of the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils and the supporting structure was evaluated under simulated reactor conditions. The LCP test facility structural system consists of six TF Coils, twelve coil-to-coil torsional restraining beams (torque rings), a central bucking post with base, and a Pulse Coil system. The NASTRAN Finite Element Structural Analysis computer Code was utilized to determine the distribution of deflections, forces, and stresses for each of the TF Coils, torque rings, and the central bucking post. Eleven load conditions were selected to represent probable test operations. Pulse Coils suspended in the bore of the test coil were energized to simulate the pulsed field environment characteristic of the TNS reactor system. The TORMAC Computer Code was utilized to develop the magnetic forces in the TF Coils for each of the eleven loading conditions examined, with or without the Pulse Coils energized. The TORMAC computer program output forces were used directly as input load conditions for the NASTRAN analyses. Results are presented which demonstrate the reliability of the LCTF under simulated reactor operating conditions

  8. Influence of external 3D magnetic fields on helical equilibrium and plasma flow in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovesan, P; Bonfiglio, D; Bonomo, F; Cappello, S; Carraro, L; Cavazzana, R; Gobbin, M; Marrelli, L; Martin, P; Martines, E; Momo, B; Piron, L; Puiatti, M E; Soppelsa, A; Valisa, M; Zanca, P; Zaniol, B

    2011-01-01

    A spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium with an electron internal transport barrier is observed in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 1 MA (Lorenzini R et al 2009 Nature Phys. 5 570). The helical magnetic equilibrium can be controlled with external three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by 192 active coils, providing proper helical boundary conditions either rotating or static. The persistence of the helical equilibrium is strongly increased in this way. A slight reduction in the energy confinement time of about 15% is observed, likely due to the increased plasma-wall interaction associated with the finite radial magnetic field imposed at the edge. A global helical flow develops in these states and is expected to play a role in the helical self-organization. In particular, its shear may contribute to the ITB formation and is observed to increase with the externally applied radial field. The possible origins of this flow, from nonlinear visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or ambipolar electric fields, will be discussed.

  9. MHD stability analysis of helical system plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    Several topics of the MHD stability studies in helical system plasmas are reviewed with respect to the linear and ideal modes mainly. Difference of the method of the MHD stability analysis in helical system plasmas from that in tokamak plasmas is emphasized. Lack of the cyclic (symmetric) coordinate makes an analysis more difficult. Recent topic about TAE modes in a helical system is also described briefly. (author)

  10. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation in SCET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Nikhef, Amsterdam

    2016-05-01

    Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries.

  11. Mechanism for in-pipe inspection; Dispositivo para inspecao de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros; Dutra, Max Suell [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The internal inspection of pipes is becoming a routine activity thanks to their importance on transportation of substances such as oil and natural gas. This paper addresses a mechanism capable of working inside pipes of different diameters that may present extreme curves and inclinations. The mechanism is composed of modules with devices that provide adjustable contact with the duct, using wheels on the contact points. The robot moves inside the pipe creating a virtual spindle. For that, two parts are used: the first one, guided along the pipe by a set of wheels, moves parallel to the axis of the pipe; the second part is attached to a motor. The motor rotation forces the mechanism to follow a helical motion, with tilted wheels rotating about the axis of the pipe. Each adjustable contact device works like a lever, pressing the wheel against the pipe. The base of the device can be actively rotated, modifying the angle of the wheel in relation to the pipe (equivalent to the step of the spindle), permitting the motion of the system in both directions, with specific velocity. According to the applied angle, the robot changes the relation between torque and displacement velocity. (author)

  12. Finite element coiled cochlea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.

  13. BPX toroidal field coil design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzenvoeder, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the toroidal field (TF) coil system of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) which consists of (18) beryllium copper magnets arrayed in a wedged configuration with a major radius of 2.6 meters and a field strength capability on axis of 9.0 Tesla. The toroidal array is constructed from six (3)-coil modules to facilitate remote recovery in the event of a magnet failure after nuclear activation precludes hands-on servicing. The magnets are of a modified Bitter plate design with partial cases of type 316-LN stainless steel welded with Inconel 182 weld wire. The coil turn plates are fabricated from CDA C17510 beryllium copper with optimized mechanical, thermal, and electrical characteristics. joints within the turns and between turns are made by welding with C17200 filler wire. Cryogenic cooling is employed to reduce power dissipation and to enhance performance. The magnets are cooled between experimental pulses by pressurized liquid nitrogen flowing through channels in the edges of the coil turns. This arrangement makes possible one full-power pulse per hour. Electrical insulation consists of polyimide-glass sheets bonded in place with vacuum-pressure impregnated epoxy/glass

  14. Demonstration poloidal coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiko; Kawano, Katumi; Tada, Eisuke

    1989-01-01

    A new compact cryogenic cold compressor was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in collaboration with Isikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI) in order to produce the supercritical helium below 4.2 K for Demonstration Poloidal Coils (DPC) which are forced-flow cooled type superconducting pulse coils. This compressor is one of key components for DPC test facility. The cold compressor reduces pressure in liquid helium bath, which contains liquid helium of around 3,000 l, down to 0.5 atm efficiently. Consequently, supercritical helium down to 3.5 K is produced and supplied to the DPC coils. A centrifugal compressor with dynamic gas bearing is selected as a compressor mechanism to realize high adiabatic efficiency and large flow rate. In this performance tests, the compressor was operated for 220 h at saturated condition from 0.5 to 1.0 atm without any failure. High adiabatic efficiency (more than 60 %) is achieved with wide flow range (25-65 g/s) and the design value is fully satisfied. The compressor can rotate up to 80,000 rpm at maximum then the coil supply temperature of supercritical helium is 3.5 K. (author)

  15. Open-Coil Retraction Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. “Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS” is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.. A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement.

  16. PDX toroidal field coils stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Smith, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method used in the stress analysis of the PDX toroidal field coil is developed. A multilayer coil design of arbitrary dimensions in the shape of either a circle or an oval is considered. The analytical model of the coil and the supporting coil case with connections to the main support structure is analyzed using the finite element technique. The three dimensional magnetic fields and the non-uniform body forces which are a loading condition on a coil due to toroidal and poloidal fields are calculated. The method of analysis permits rapid and economic evaluations of design changes in coil geometry as well as in coil support structures. Some results pertinent to the design evolution and their comparison are discussed. The results of the detailed stress analysis of the final coil design due to toroidal field, poloidal field and temperature loads are presented

  17. Heat pipe heat exchanger and its potential to energy recovery in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Yat H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat recovery by the heat pipe heat exchangers was studied in the tropics. Heat pipe heat exchangers with two, four, six, and eight numbers of rows were examined for this purpose. The coil face velocity was set at 2 m/s and the temperature of return air was kept at 24°C in this study. The performance of the heat pipe heat exchangers was recorded during the one week of operation (168 hours to examine the performance data. Then, the collected data from the one week of operation were used to estimate the amount of energy recovered by the heat pipe heat exchangers annually. The effect of the inside design temperature and the coil face velocity on the energy recovery for a typical heat pipe heat exchanger was also investigated. In addition, heat pipe heat exchangers were simulated based on the effectiveness-NTU method, and their theoretical values for the thermal performance were compared with the experimental results.

  18. Conformational plasticity of the coiled-coil domain of BmrR is required for bmr operator binding: the structure of unliganded BmrR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Newberry, Kate J; Brennan, Richard G

    2010-04-30

    The multidrug-binding transcription regulator BmrR from Bacillus subtilis is a MerR family member that binds to a wide array of cationic lipophilic toxins to activate the transcription of the multidrug efflux pump gene bmr. Transcription activation from the sigma(A)-dependent bmr operator requires BmrR to remodel the nonoptimal 19-bp spacer between the -10 promoter element and the -35 promoter element in order to facilitate productive RNA polymerase binding. Despite the availability of several structures of BmrR bound to DNA and drugs, the lack of a BmrR structure in its unliganded or apo (DNA free and drug free) state hinders our full understanding of the structural transitions required for DNA binding and transcription activation. Here, we report the crystal structure of the constitutively active, unliganded BmrR mutant BmrR(E253Q/R275E). Superposition of the ligand-free (apo BmrR(E253Q/R275E)) and DNA-bound BmrR structures reveals that apo BmrR must undergo significant rearrangement in order to assume the DNA-bound conformation, including an outward rotation of minor groove binding wings, an inward movement of helix-turn-helix motifs, and a downward relocation of pliable coiled-coil helices. Computational analysis of the DNA-free and DNA-bound structures reveals a flexible joint that is located at the center of the coiled-coil helices. This region, which is composed of residues 94 through 98, overlaps the helical bulge that is observed only in the apo BmrR structure. This conformational hinge is likely common to other MerR family members with large effector-binding domains, but appears to be missing from the smaller metal-binding MerR family members. Interestingly, the center-to-center distance of the recognition helices of apo BmrR is 34 A and suggests that the conformational change from the apo BmrR structure to the bmr operator-bound BmrR structure is initiated by the binding of this transcription activator to a more B-DNA-like conformation. (c) 2010 Elsevier

  19. Bow-shaped toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, P.

    1981-05-01

    Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case

  20. Design and modelling of a SMES coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Weijia; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A, E-mail: wy215@cam.ac.u [EPEC Superconductivity group, Engineering Department, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    The design of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil wound by coated conductors has been presented. Based on an existing model for coated conductor pancake coils, this paper analysed the magnetic field and current density distribution of the coil at two different operation temperatures, 77K and 22K. A comparison table of the critical currents and AC losses at these two temperatures has been presented. Several steps to improve the transport current of the coil have been suggested as well.

  1. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  2. Failure analysis of cracked head spray piping from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Dragel, G.M.

    1983-07-01

    Several sections of Type 304 stainless steel head spray piping, 6.25 cm (2.5 in.) in diameter, from the Dresden Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor were examined to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages detected during hydrostatic tests. Extensive pitting was observed on the outside surface of the piping, and three cracks, all located at a helical stripe apparently rubbed onto the outer surface of the piping, were also noted. Metallographic examination revealed that the cracking had initiated at the outer surface of the pipe, and showed it to be transgranular and highly branched, characteristic of chloride stress corrosion cracking. The surface pitting also appeared to have been caused by chlorides. A scanning electron microprobe x-ray analysis of the corrosion product in the cracks confirmed the presence of chlorides and also indicated the presence of calcium

  3. Modelling and experimental validation for off-design performance of the helical heat exchanger with LMTD correction taken into account

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phu, Nguyen Minh; Trinh, Nguyen Thi Minh [Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-07-15

    Today the helical coil heat exchanger is being employed widely due to its dominant advantages. In this study, a mathematical model was established to predict off-design works of the helical heat exchanger. The model was based on the LMTD and e-NTU methods, where a LMTD correction factor was taken into account to increase accuracy. An experimental apparatus was set-up to validate the model. Results showed that errors of thermal duty, outlet hot fluid temperature, outlet cold fluid temperature, shell-side pressure drop, and tube-side pressure drop were respectively +-5%, +-1%, +-1%, +-5% and +-2%. Diagrams of dimensionless operating parameters and a regression function were also presented as design-maps, a fast calculator for usage in design and operation of the exchanger. The study is expected to be a good tool to estimate off-design conditions of the single-phase helical heat exchangers.

  4. Pipe whip: a summary of the damage observed in BNL pipe-on-pipe impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes examples of the damage resulting from the impact of a whipping pipe on a nearby pressurised pipe. The work is a by-product of a study of the motion of a whipping pipe. The tests were conducted with small-diameter pipes mounted in rigid supports and hence the results are not directly applicable to large-scale plant applications where flexible support mountings are employed. The results illustrate the influence of whipping pipe energy, impact position and support type on the damage sustained by the target pipe. (author)

  5. Sensitive quench detection of the HTS coil using a co-winding coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Tomohiro; Ariyama, Takahiro; Takao, Tomoaki; Tsukamoto, Osami

    2017-01-01

    The authors have studied the co-winding coil method (CW method) using the co-wound coil electrically insulated from the HTS coil. In this method, the quench is detected by the voltage difference between the coil of the HTS tape (HTS coil) and the coil of the normal conductor (CW coil). The voltage induced in the CW coil caused by the change of the magnetic field is almost the same as that in the HTS coil because the coils are magnetically coupled close to each other. Therefore, it is expected that the induced voltage will be canceled with high accuracy and that the resistive voltage in the HTS coil will be detected with greater sensitivity compared to the bridge balance method, which is used commonly. In this study, quench detection applying the CW method is demonstrated using an experimental double-pancake coil. A tape with the copper layer deposited on the polymer substrate was used as the insulated conductor wire to form the CW coil. An additional pancake coil was used to expose the experimental double-pancake coil to the external magnetic field asymmetrically. It was shown that the CW method can detect the resistive voltage with greater sensitivity even when the HTS coil was exposed to the changing asymmetric external magnetic field. (author)

  6. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  7. Status of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss coil is a forced flow coil cooled by supercritical helium. A brief review of the design considerations, some of its specific features, and the progress in fabrication are described. A discussion of both the instrumentation and the cryogenic characteristics of the coil is presented

  8. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  9. Split Coil Forms for Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W. T.

    1982-01-01

    Split cores for rotor and stator windings of rotary transformer mounted around their respective coils (which are in bobbins) and cemented together. This arrangement simplifies winding of stator coil to go in a slot in inner diameter of stator coil. One practical application of rotary transformers fabricated according to this technique is for centrifuges, in which conventional sliprings are of uncertain reliability.

  10. Startup of large coil test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Bohanan, R.E.; Fietz, W.A.; Luton, J.N.; May, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being used to test superconducting toroidal field coils about one-third the size of those for INTOR. Data were obtained on performance of refrigerator, helium distribution, power supplies, controls, and data acquisition systems and on the acoustic emission, voltages, currents, and mechanical strains during charging and discharging the coils. (author)

  11. Novel method of aligning ATF-1 coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.; Neilson, G.H.; Jernigan, T.C.

    1983-08-01

    The coils for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF-1) torsatron may be easily aligned before the machine is placed under vacuum. This is done by creating nulls in the magnetic field by energizing the coils in various configurations. All of the nulls in vertical bar B vector vertical bar occur on the z-axis. When the nulls coincide, the coils are properly aligned

  12. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenekhe, S

    1999-01-01

    ... the self-assembly of new rod-coil diblock, rod- coil-rod triblock, and coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers from solution and the resulting discrete and periodic mesostmctares with sizes in the 100...

  13. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  14. Pipe-to-pipe impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bampton, M C.C.; Alzheimer, J M; Friley, J R; Simonen, F A

    1985-11-01

    Existing licensing criteria express what damage shall be assumed for various pipe sizes as a consequence of a postulated break in a high energy system. The criteria are contained in Section 3.6.2 of the Standard Review Plan, and the purpose of the program described with this paper is to evaluate the impact criteria by means of a combined experimental and analytical approach. A series of tests has been completed. Evaluation of the test showed a deficiency in the range of test parameters. These deficiencies are being remedied by a second series of tests and a more powerful impact machine. A parallel analysis capability has been developed. This capability has been used to predict the damage for the first test series. The quality of predictions has been improved by tests that establish post-crush and bending relationships. Two outputs are expected from this project: data that may, or may not, necessitate changes to the criteria after appropriate value impact evaluations and an analytic capability for rapidly evaluating the potential for pipe whip damage after a postulated break. These outputs are to be contained in a value-impact document and a program final report. (orig.).

  15. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Longguang [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  16. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  17. Performance of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  18. Effect of GFRP spacer on local deformation of large superconductor in coil pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Arata; Tamura, Hitoshi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Junya

    1994-01-01

    Design and construction of the Large Helical Device (LHD) are in progress at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan. The LHD has superconducting poloidal and helical coils, and many efforts have been undertaken to develop these large superconductors. When designing a large superconducting magnet, the mechanical behavior of the wound structure becomes a very important factor since the apparent rigidity affects the design of a coil support structure and the superconducting coil needs to endure the large electro-magnetic force it creates. Also, non-linear mechanical behavior should yield the instability of the magnet. In this paper, local deformation in a large conductor caused by GFRP spacers and epoxy adhesives was investigated after compressive rigidity testing. The epoxy adhesive used for attaching the GFRP spacers to the superconductor changed shape from an almost square sheet into a lens-like sheet during deformation, and a dent appeared on the surface of the superconductor. Three-dimensional FEM analysis showed that a compressive stress in the vertical direction of the loading axis existed in the adhesive plane. This stress component makes the adhesive lens-like and it results in the dent created during the compressive testing. This local deformation should yield a part of the permanent deformation observed after the compressive load cycle at 4.2 K

  19. The design construction and installation of the helical winding for the CLEO stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.R.; Bayes, D.V.

    1979-03-01

    The CLEO stellarator has a torus 900mm major radius and 166mm minor radius, fitted externally with a 7 field period, l = 3, 120kAT helical winding of 179mm mean radius. The winding and torus have to withstand the large forces produced by the interaction of the current flowing in the winding with the toroidal magnetic field of 2 tesla produced by 24 coils spaced around the torus. To allow the torus to be divided the winding has to be split requiring a total of 240 demountable current-carrying joints at the torus vacuum joint positions. The design, development, manufacture, installation and operation of the helical winding is discussed. From the early development stages to installation took four years. When completed this was the largest installation of its type in Europe. (author)

  20. Coil Migration through a Neuroform 3 Stent during Endovascular Coiling. A Case Report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2009-07-29

    Summary: A 43-year-old woman attended for stent assisted coiling. A Neuroform 30 x 4.5 mm stent had been successfully placed over the left periophthalmic aneurysm. During the coiling the first coil migrated through the crowns in the stent, lodging at the MCA bifurcation. We believe that the coil herniated through the overlying stent due to the carotid siphon curvature and the open cell design. Furthermore the distal markers of the stent impeded coil extraction with a MERCI device.

  1. Clamp for use in winding large magnet coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L.; Kenney, Walter J.

    1983-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is a novel arrangement for applying forces to urns of a vertically extending helical coil which is wound about a support. The apparatus includes a first rigid member extending towards the turns. A second rigid member extends transversely from the end of the first and has a vertically extending face provided with a generally straight groove extending transversely of the turns. A longitudinal passage in the first member connects to the groove to form therewith a continuous guideway for rollable articles. A rigid lug longitudinally movable in the groove is provided with a projection which extends out of the groove and beneath the bottom of a selected turn of the coil. A train of rigid, rollable articles is disposed in the guideway inwardly of the lug. Means are provided for applying force to that end of the train which is relatively remote from the lug, to urge the latter against the bottom face of the selected turn. As a result, that turn is moved upward along the face of the support, establishing a selected spacing between that turn and the previously formed turn of the coil. When upward movement of the selected turn stops, the force applied to the lug immediately translates to a force which urges the above-mentioned grooved face against all of the formed turns, thus compressing them against the support. The above-mentioned first and second members are swingably mounted so that they can be temporarily moved out of the winding path, thus permitting continuous winding.

  2. An inflatable surface coil for rectal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.F.; Hajek, P.C.; Baker, L.L.; Gylys-Morin, V.; Mattrey, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Surface coils have become ubiquitous in MR imaging of the body because of substantial gains in signal-to-noise ratio. Unfortunately, there are some anatomic regions, such as the prostate, for which surface coils have insufficient depth sensitivity. The authors have developed an inflatable, distributed capacitance, passively decoupled surface coil which is collapsed for insertion and reinflated for imaging. Images of the prostate are dramatically improved due to proximity of the coil. Lesions in cadaver specimens were observed which were not seen with body coil imaging. Clinical trials are expected to begin in September

  3. Beta-helical polymers from isocyanopeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Donners, J.J.J.M.; Gelder, de R.; Graswinckel, W.S.; Metselaar, G.A.; Rowan, A.E.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymerization of isocyanopeptides results in the formation of high molecular mass polymers that fold in a proteinlike fashion to give helical strands in which the peptide chains are arranged in ß-sheets. The ß-helical polymers retain their structure in water and unfold in a cooperative process at

  4. Magnetic islands created by resonant helical windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.S.; Heller, M.V.; Caldas, I.L.

    1986-01-01

    The triggering of disruptive instabilities by resonant helical windings in large aspect-ratio tokamaks is associated to destruction of magnetic surfaces. The Chirikov condition is applied to estimate analytically the helical winding current thresholds for ergodization of the magnetic field lines. (Autor) [pt

  5. Helicity amplitudes for matter-coupled gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Novaes, S.F.; Spehler, D.

    1992-07-01

    The Weyl-van der Waerden spinor formalism is applied to the evaluation of helicity invariant amplitudes in the framework of linearized gravitation. The graviton couplings to spin-0, 1 - 2 , 1, and 3 - 2 particles are given, and, to exhibit the reach of this method, the helicity amplitudes for the process electron + positron → photon + graviton are obtained. (author)

  6. Stiffness versus architecture of single helical polyisocyanopeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buul, van A.M.; Schwartz, E.; Brocorens, P.; Koepf, M.; Beljonne, D.; Maan, J.C.; Christianen, P.C.M.; Kouwer, P.H.J.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Engelkamp, H.; Blank, K.; Rowan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Helical structures play a vital role in nature, offering mechanical rigidity, chirality and structural definition to biological systems. Little is known about the influence of the helical architecture on the intrinsic properties of polymers. Here, we offer an insight into the nano architecture of

  7. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  8. Quick profile-reorganization driven by helical field perturbation for suppressing tokamak major disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Kawahata, K.; Ando, R.

    1986-09-01

    Disruptive behavior of magnetic field configuration leading to tokamak major disruption is found to be controlled by a mild ''mini-disruption'' which is induced by the compact external modular multipole-field coils with m = 3/n = 2 dominant helical field component in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. This mini-disruption ergodizes the m = 2/n = 1 magnetic island quickly but mildly and then prevents the profile of electron temperature from flattening. This quick profile-reorganization is effective to avoid the two-step disruption (pre- and major disuptions) responsible for the chatastrophic current termination. (author)

  9. The mechanical design and validation of the helical tube boilers for Hartlepool and Heysham AGR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, V.R.

    1983-01-01

    The 32 helically coiled once-through boiler units at Hartlepool and Heysham represent a major advance in the technologies of boiler design, manufacture and site construction. They are particularly complex in that they incorporate integral reheaters; they employ three different tubing materials and five different structural materials, each with operating temperature limitations; and they must fit compactly into pods in the reactor pressure vessel walls. A general description of the boilers is followed by a review of external factors which influenced the mechanical design and validation programme over 15 years. Against this background selected components are discussed in detail in terms of particular loading conditions and stress analysis. (author)

  10. Effects of Resonant Helical Field on Toroidal Field Ripple in IR-T1 Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavipour, B.; Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2018-02-01

    The toroidal magnetic field which is created by toroidal coils has the ripple in torus space. This magnetic field ripple has an importance in plasma equilibrium and stability studies in tokamak. In this paper, we present the investigation of the interaction between the toroidal magnetic field ripple and resonant helical field (RHF). We have estimated the amplitude of toroidal field ripples without and with RHF (with different q = m/n) ( m = 2, m = 3, m = 4, m = 5, m = 2 & 3, n = 1) using “Comsol Multiphysics” software. The simulations show that RHF has effects on the toroidal ripples.

  11. Thermal-Hydraulic Design of the Modular Once Through Helical Steam Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazufri, C.M

    2000-01-01

    The steam generator system of the CAREM reactor consists of twelve individual modules located in the annular place between the pressure vessel and barrel walls. Each steam generator module consists of a tube system, an upper header, an external shroud, a collector and a lower seal.The tube system is an arrangement of several multi-start cylindrical coils.In the present work the computation of the necessary heat transfer area to fulfill the heat removal requirements from the primary circuit, and the pressure drop in the primary and secondary side of the helical design of a modular steam generator is presented. Additionally, a first order estimation of the restriction to be used in the secondary side to assure the thermal-hydraulic stability is also made.It is concluded that an array of 6 concentric cylindrical coils fulfills the necessary design requirements

  12. Device for forced lowering of pipes into a well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device is proposed for forced lowering of pipes into a well which includes a load-lifting unit with boom, winch and cable of the block and tackle system, elevator, fixed and mobile tool grab coils, of which the latter is connected by tie cables to the drum of its drive and the reverse cables through rollers with weight-counterweights. In order to reduce metal consumption and to improve convenient operation, the drum of the drive of the mobile tool grab coil is connected to the winch shaft through a clutch and the rollers of the weights-counterweights are installed on the boom of the load-lifting unit in the plane of the block and tackle system.

  13. ANL experimental program for pulsed superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Krieger, C.I.

    1978-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) had recognized the clear advantage of a superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coil and started in aggressive development program in FY 1977. The main objectives for FY 1977 are to develop cryostable basic cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to develop 12 kA cryostable cable, using it to design and build a 1.5 MJ pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat for the 1.5 MJ pulsed coil. The principal objective in building the 1.5 MJ ac coil is to demonstrate ac cryostability of a large coil ranging from 2 T/s up to 12 T/s. Another objective in the pulsed coil program is to determine the feasibility of parallel coil operation in order to avoid excessive voltage and current requirements and to minimize the number of turns for the equilibrium field (EF) coils, should the EF coils be connected in parallel with the OH coils. A two-coil section model using the 11 kA cable will be built and tested

  14. Pulse coil concepts for the LCP Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.E.; Burn, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    The pulse coils described in this paper are resistive copper magnets driven by time-varying currents. They are included in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) portion of the Large Coil Program (LCP) to simulate the pulsed field environment of the toroidal coils in a tokamak reactor. Since TNS (a 150 sec, 5MA, igniting tokamak) and the Oak Ridge EPR (Experimental Power Reactor) are representative of the first tokamaks to require the technology developed in LCP, the reference designs for these machines, especially TNS, are used to derive the magnetic criteria for the pulse coils. This criteria includes the magnitude, distribution, and rate of change of pulsed fields in the toroidal coil windings. Three pulse coil concepts are evaluated on the basis of magnetic criteria and factors such as versatility of design, ease of fabrication and cost of operation. The three concepts include (1) a pair of poloidal coils outside the LCTF torus, (2) a single poloidal coil threaded through the torus, and (3) a pair of vertical axis coil windings inside the bore of one or more of the toroidal test coils

  15. ANL experimental program for pulsed superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Krieger, C.I.

    1977-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) had recognized the clear advantage of a superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coil and started an aggressive development program in FY 1977. The main objectives for FY 1977 are to develop cryostable basic cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to develop 12 kA cryostable cable, using it to design and build a 1.5 MJ pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat for the 1.5 MJ pulsed coil. The principal objective in building the 1.5 MJ ac coil is to demonstrate ac cryostability of a large coil ranging from 2 T/s up to 12 T/s. Another objective in the pusled coil program is to determine the feasibility of parallel coil operation in order to avoid excessive voltage and current requirements and to minimize the number of turns for the equilibrium field (EF) coils, should the EF coils be connected in parallel with the OH coils. A two-coil section model using the 11 kA cable will be built and tested

  16. Performance evaluation of matrix gradient coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Feng; Schultz, Gerrit; Testud, Frederik; Welz, Anna Masako; Weber, Hans; Littin, Sebastian; Yu, Huijun; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new performance measure of a matrix coil (also known as multi-coil) from the perspective of efficient, local, non-linear encoding without explicitly considering target encoding fields. An optimization problem based on a joint optimization for the non-linear encoding fields is formulated. Based on the derived objective function, a figure of merit of a matrix coil is defined, which is a generalization of a previously known resistive figure of merit for traditional gradient coils. A cylindrical matrix coil design with a high number of elements is used to illustrate the proposed performance measure. The results are analyzed to reveal novel features of matrix coil designs, which allowed us to optimize coil parameters, such as number of coil elements. A comparison to a scaled, existing multi-coil is also provided to demonstrate the use of the proposed performance parameter. The assessment of a matrix gradient coil profits from using a single performance parameter that takes the local encoding performance of the coil into account in relation to the dissipated power.

  17. Dynamics of zonal flows in helical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, H; Watanabe, T-H

    2005-03-25

    A theory for describing collisionless long-time behavior of zonal flows in helical systems is presented and its validity is verified by gyrokinetic-Vlasov simulation. It is shown that, under the influence of particles trapped in helical ripples, the response of zonal flows to a given source becomes weaker for lower radial wave numbers and deeper helical ripples while a high-level zonal-flow response, which is not affected by helical-ripple-trapped particles, can be maintained for a longer time by reducing their bounce-averaged radial drift velocity. This implies a possibility that helical configurations optimized for reducing neoclassical ripple transport can simultaneously enhance zonal flows which lower anomalous transport.

  18. The use of helical heat exchanger for heat recovery domestic water-cooled air-conditioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Xiaowen; Lee, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study on the performance of a domestic water-cooled air-conditioner (WAC) using tube-in-tube helical heat exchanger for preheating of domestic hot water was carried out. The main aims are to identify the comprehensive energy performance (space cooling and hot water preheating) of the WAC and the optimum design of the helical heat exchanger taking into account the variation in tap water flow rate. A split-type WAC was set up for experimental study at different indoor and outdoor conditions. The cooling output, the amount of recovered heat, and the power consumption for different hot water flow rates were measured. The experimental results showed that the cooling coefficient of performance (COP) of the WAC improves with the inclusion of the heat recovery option by a minimum of 12.3%. This can be further improved to 20.6% by an increase in tap water flow rate. Same result was observed for the comprehensive COP of the WAC. The maximum achievable comprehensive COP was 4.92 when the tap water flow rate was set at 7.7 L/min. The overall heat transfer coefficient of the helical heat exchanger under various operating conditions were determined by Wilson plot. A mathematical model relating the over all heat transfer coefficient to the outer pipe diameter was established which provides a convenient way of optimising the design of the helical heat exchanger

  19. Transient simulation of a helical-coil sodium/water steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Iwashita, T.

    1982-01-01

    The MINET (Momentum Integral Network) code heat exchanger model was used to analyze transient test data provided by PNC of Japan. Testing of the MINET model is part of a larger effort to facilitate and validate the use of the SSC/MINET code for MONJU plant transient analysis. In MINET, a heat exchanger is modeled using one or more representative tubes, with each tube consisting of the fluid inside the tube, the tube wall, and the fluid outside that is associated with the tube. The heat exchanger tube is divided into one or more axial nodes of equal length. Five time dependent equations are utilized per node, including the wall heat conduction equation and donor-cell differenced conservation of mass and energy equations for the fluids on both sides of the tube. These nodal equations are used to constrain the tube wall temperature, fluid mass flow rates, and fluid enthalpies

  20. Residual stresses in cold-coiled helical compression springs for automotive suspensions measured by neutron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Brand, P. C.; Drews, A. R.; Krause, A.; Lowe-Ma, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 367, 1-2 (2004), s. 306-311 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : residual stress, automotive springs, neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004

  1. ANALYSIS OF HOLLOW COIL HELICAL EXTENSION SPRING AND THE STUDY OF OPTIMIZING THE WEIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Naman Gupta*1, Manas purohit2 & Deepika potghan3

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the study which deals with the weight reduction for tensile extension spring by changing the solid spring to hollow one. The springs which are generally used are in solid form due to which the weight of entire body in which the spring is attached gets increased. The forces which can be act on spring may be linear push or linear pull or radial type. This spring deflect by pulling and regain its shape when pulling is neglect. The weight of tensile spring is reduced by changing ...

  2. Review of Dissimilar Metal Welding for the NGNP Helical-Coil Steam Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, John N.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently funding research and development of a new high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) that is capable of providing high temperature process heat for industry. The steam generator of the HTGR will consist of an evaporator economizer section in the lower portion and a finishing superheater section in the upper portion. Alloy 800H is expected to be used for the superheater section, and 2.25Cr 1Mo steel is expected to be used for the evaporator economizer section. Dissimilar metal welds (DMW) will be needed to join these two materials. It is well known that failure of DMWs can occur well below the expected creep life of either base metal and well below the design life of the plant. The failure time depends on a wide range of factors related to service conditions, welding parameters, and alloys involved in the DMW. The overall objective of this report is to review factors associated with premature failure of DMWs operating at elevated temperatures and identify methods for extending the life of the 2.25Cr 1Mo steel to alloy 800H welds required in the new HTGR. Information is provided on a variety of topics pertinent to DMW failures, including microstructural evolution, failure mechanisms, creep rupture properties, aging behavior, remaining life estimation techniques, effect of environment on creep rupture properties, best practices, and research in progress to improve DMW performance. The microstructure of DMWs in the as welded condition consists of a sharp chemical concentration gradient across the fusion line that separates the ferritic and austenitic alloys. Upon cooling from the weld thermal cycle, a band of martensite forms within this concentration gradient due to high hardenability and the relatively rapid cooling rates associated with welding. Upon aging, during post weld heat treatment (PWHT), and/or during high temperature service, C diffuses down the chemical potential gradient from the ferritic 2.25Cr 1Mo steel toward the austenitic alloy. This can lead to formation of a soft C denuded zone near the interface on the ferritic steel, and nucleation and growth of carbides on the austenitic side that are associated with very high hardness. These large differences in microstructure and hardness occur over very short distances across the fusion line (∼ 50-100 μm). A band of carbides also forms along the fusion line in the ferritic side of the joint. The difference in hardness across the fusion line increases with increasing aging time due to nucleation and growth of the interfacial carbides. Premature failure of DMWs is generally attributed to several primary factors, including: the sharp change in microstructure and mechanical properties across the fusion line, the large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the ferritic and austenitic alloys, formation of interfacial carbides that lead to creep cavity formation, and preferential oxidation of the ferritic steel near the fusion line. In general, the large gradient in mechanical properties and CTE serve to significantly concentrate the stress along the fusion where a creep susceptible microstructure has evolved during aging. Presence of an oxide notch can concentrate the stress even further. Details of the failure mechanism and the relative importance of each factor varies.

  3. Development of a helium/helium intermediate heat exchanger with helical coil tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czimczik, A.; Hirschle, G.

    1984-01-01

    Besides the research and development work leading to the design basis for the reference heat exchanger, the stages of development up to the realisation of a nuclear He/He intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) include selected experiments in manufacturing techniques and with individual test components, as well as the design, fabrication and testing of representative prototype component. The process of manufacturing and experiences gained so far are described

  4. Methodology for failure assessment of SMART SG tube with once-through helical-coiled type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Shin Beom; Cho, Doo Ho; Chang, Yoon Suk

    2010-09-01

    In this research project, existing integrity evaluation method for SMART steam generator tube with crack-like flaw was reviewed to determine subject analysis model and investigate possibility of failure under crack closure behavior. Furthermore, failure pressure estimation was proposed for SMART steam generator tubes containing wear-type defects. For each subject, the following issues are addressed: 1. Determination of subject analysis model for SMART SG tube contaning crack-like flaw 2. Applicability review on existing integrity evaluation method and investigation of failure possibility for SMART SG tube containing crack-like flaw 3. Development of failure pressure estimation model for SMART SG tube with wear type defect It is anticipated that if the technologies developed in this study are applied, structural integrity can be estimated accurately

  5. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  6. NRC Information No. 89-43: Permanent deformation of torque switch helical springs in Limitorque SMA-type motor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Problems with the helical springs were discovered during a series of dynamic tests that were conducted with a motor-operated wedge-gate valve from the decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station (Shippingport). The valve was installed in a portion of the piping system that had been modified to simulate the stiffness of a typical US piping system. The valve was 30 years old and had its original Limitorque SMA-type motor operator. One of the main objectives of these tests was to determine the operating capability of the valve when subjected to simultaneous internal hydraulic and seismic loadings. This was typically accomplished by operating the valve to achieve maximum hydraulic loading during maximum seismic loading. During testing, an operability problem with the valve motor operator occurred. The design of the SMA-type motor operator is such that the torque switch helical spring is in its most compressed condition when the valve is closed. Thus, a normally closed valve is more likely to experience permanent deformation of the helical torque spring. A review of the Shippingport records indicated that both of these valves had been used as normally closed valves at Shippingport. Thus, normally closed, safety-related valves with Limitorque SMA-type motor operators may not accomplish their intended safety-related function because the original torque switch setting may result in lower output torque caused by the permanent deformation of their torque switch helical springs

  7. Effect of sublethal doses of gamma radiation on DNA super helicity and survival of human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koceva-Chyla, A.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of sublethal doses of gamma radiation on cell survival and DNA super helicity in human fibroblasts was studied. Cell survival was estimated on the basis the basis of clonal growth of irradiated fibroblasts in monolayer culture in vitro. The nucleoid sedimentation technique was used to study ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage in vivo as well as to examine DNA super helicity. Increased concentrations of ethidium bromine (EB) were used to titrate the DNA super coiling response in non-irradiated cells. This response consisted of a relaxation phase (1-5 μg/ml EB) and rewinding phase (5-20 μg/ml EB). Observed biphasic dependence of sedimentation distance of nucleoid on the concentration of EB suggests the dye altered the amount of DNA super coiling in situ. The degree of DNA super coiling and thus the sedimentation rate of nucleoid in absence of EB was very sensitive to strand break induced in DNA by the doses of gamma radiation employed in the cell survival assay. Doses of 2-8 Gy of gamma radiation induced a dose -dependent reduction in the sedimentation of nucleoid. Loss of negative DNA super coiling was initially rapid (about 30% after the dose of 2 Gy) and then proceeded at a slower rate (about 35% and 48% after the doses of 4 Gy and 8 Gy respectively), indicating a significant relaxation of nucleoid structure at the doses of gamma radiation greater than 4 Gy, at which also significant decrease in fibroblasts survival occurred. Significant loss of negative DNA super coiling within the range of doses of gamma radiation resulting in significant decrease of cell survival suggests that destabilizing effect of radiation on DNA tertiary- and quaternary structures (extensive DNA breaks and relaxation of nucleonic super helicity) disturb normal functions and replications of genomic DNA, in consequence leading to a reproductive death of cells. Considering the sensitivity and simplicity of the method, the nucleoid sedimentation technique might be also a useful tool

  8. Completion of designing and manufacturing of the coil support structure of W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, Didier; Koppe, Torsten; Cardella, Antonio; Missal, Bernd; Pilopp, Dirk; Di Bartolo, Giovanni; Camin, Rocio; Gonzales, Ivan; Giordano, Luca; Langone, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In February 2000, the project called coil support structure for the Wendelstein 7-X fusion machine was started. Since October 2009 the full production of this big (80 tons) and complex component is now completed and delivered at IPP Greifswald. The W7-X coil system consists of 20 planar and 50 non-planar coils. They are supported by a pentagonal 10 m diameter, 2.5 m high called coil support structure (CSS). The CSS is divided into five modules and each module consists of two equal half modules around the radial axis. Currently, the five modules were successfully assembled with the coils meeting the tight manufacturing tolerances. Designing, structural calculation, raw material procurement, welding and soldering technologies, milling, drilling, accurate machining, helium cooling pipe forming, laser metrology, ultra sonic cleaning and vacuum test are some of the key points used all along this successful manufacturing process. The lessons learned in the large scale production of this difficult kind of support structure will be presented as relevant experience for the realization of similar systems for future fusion devices, such as ITER.

  9. Flow-induced vibration of steam generator helical tubes subjected to external liquid cross flow and internal two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Chull Jo; Myung Jo Jhung; Woong Sik Kim; Hho Jung Kim

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper addresses the potential flow-induced vibration problems in a helically-coiled tube steam generator of integral-type nuclear reactor, of which the tubes are subjected to liquid cross flow externally and multi-phase flow externally. The thermal-hydraulic conditions of both tube side and shell side flow fields are predicted using a general purpose computational fluid dynamics code employing the finite volume element modeling. To get the natural frequency and corresponding mode shape of the helical type tubes with various conditions, a finite element analysis code is used. Based on the results of both helical coiled tube steam generator thermal-hydraulic and coiled tube modal analyses, turbulence-induced vibration and fluid-elastic instability analyses are performed. And then the potential for damages on the tubes due to either turbulence-induced vibration or fluid-elastic instability is assessed. In the assessment, special emphases are put on the detailed investigation for the effects of support conditions, coil diameter, and helix pitch on the modal, vibration amplitude and instability characteristics of tubes, from which a technical information and basis needed for designers and regulatory reviewers can be derived. (authors)

  10. Topology of helical fluid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten; Brøns, Morten

    2014-01-01

    function for the topology of the streamline pattern in incompressible flows. On this basis, we perform a comprehensive study of the topology of the flow field generated by a helical vortex filament in an ideal fluid. The classical expression for the stream function obtained by Hardin (Hardin, J. C. 1982...... the zeroes of a single real function of one variable, and we show that three different flow topologies can occur, depending on a single dimensionless parameter. By including the self-induced velocity on the vortex filament by a localised induction approximation, the stream function is slightly modified...... and an extra parameter is introduced. In this setting two new flow topologies arise, but not more than two critical points occur for any combination of parameters....

  11. The quantum Hall effect helicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Keshav N., E-mail: keshav1001@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2015-04-16

    The quantum Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures is explained by two signs in the angular momentum j=l±s and g=(2j+1)/(2l+1) along with the Landau factor (n+1/2). These modifications in the existing theories explain all of the fractional charges. The helicity which is the sign of the product of the linear momentum with the spin p.s plays an important role for the understanding of the data at high magnetic fields. In particular it is found that particles with positive sign in the spin move in one direction and those with negative sign move in another direction which explains the up and down stream motion of the particles.

  12. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  13. Conformational switching in the coiled-coil domains of a proteasomal ATPase regulates substrate processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoberger, Aaron; Brettrager, Evan J; Smith, David M

    2018-06-18

    Protein degradation in all domains of life requires ATPases that unfold and inject proteins into compartmentalized proteolytic chambers. Proteasomal ATPases in eukaryotes and archaea contain poorly understood N-terminally conserved coiled-coil domains. In this study, we engineer disulfide crosslinks in the coiled-coils of the archaeal proteasomal ATPase (PAN) and report that its three identical coiled-coil domains can adopt three different conformations: (1) in-register and zipped, (2) in-register and partially unzipped, and (3) out-of-register. This conformational heterogeneity conflicts with PAN's symmetrical OB-coiled-coil crystal structure but resembles the conformational heterogeneity of the 26S proteasomal ATPases' coiled-coils. Furthermore, we find that one coiled-coil can be conformationally constrained even while unfolding substrates, and conformational changes in two of the coiled-coils regulate PAN switching between resting and active states. This switching functionally mimics similar states proposed for the 26S proteasome from cryo-EM. These findings thus build a mechanistic framework to understand regulation of proteasome activity.

  14. Nuclear piping and pipe support design and operability relating to loadings and small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.H.; Tubbs, J.M.; Callaway, W.O.; Tang, H.T.; Van Duyne, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present nuclear piping system design practices for loadings, multiple support design and small bore piping evaluation are overly conservative. The paper discusses the results developed for realistic definitions of loadings and loading combinations with methodology for combining loads under various conditions for supports and multiple support design. The paper also discusses a simplified method developed for performing deadweight and thermal evaluations of small bore piping systems. Although the simplified method is oriented towards the qualification of piping in older plants, this approach is applicable to plants designed to any edition of the ASME Section III or B31.1 piping codes

  15. Structural design and analysis for the ISX-C/ATF tokamak of the vacuum vessel, coil joints, and supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, J.A.; Cain, W.D.; Hammonds, C.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Gray, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The ISX-C/ATF is being designed as a test bed for advanced toroidal concepts. Because of numerous design concepts being evaluated, a flexible, easily changeable structural-design math-model was needed to afford quick evalution of the structural feasibility of the many proposed concepts. To satisfy this need, the NASTRAN Automated Multi-Stage Substructures technique was used to build a quick-changeable math model. This technique was especially needed because all the coils, first wall and diagnostic devices are to be supported by the vacuum vessel, requiring the entire structure to be analyzed as a system. Without the use of the substructuring technique, the required man hours and computer core would have made timely design analysis impossible. To illustrate the technique, the detailed design analysis of the concept Torsatron (with helical coils and T.F. coils) is presented

  16. Remote maintenance of tandem mirror hybrid coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid Coils (superconducting coils with normal conducting inserts) are being employed with increasing frequency on Tandem Mirror Devices to obtain high field strengths. The normal conducting copper inserts are short lived in comparison to their encircling superconductors. It becomes desirable, therefore, to devise design features and maintenance procedures to replace the inner normal conducting coils without simultaneously replacing the longer lived (and significantly more costly) superconducting coils. The high neutron wall loadings require that the task be accomplished by remote control. The approach is to permanently mount the coil assemblies on track mounted carriages which serve, during machine operation merely as structural supports, but during maintenance procedures as moveable transport devices. The carriages incorporate all necessary provisions to facilitate remote maintenance operations and to adjust and align the coil assemblies with respect to adjacent machine components. The vacuum vessel is severed on both sides of the hybrid coil by means of a remote cutting machine. The entire coil is transported horizontally, normal to the machine axis to a nearby repair station. Prepositioned carriage mounted repair equipment at the repair station withdraws the damaged normal coil as a single entity and inserts a preassembled spare unit. The repaired hybrid coil is reassembled to the reactor. A cost and risk effective procedure has been evolved to maintain one of the more critical components of a Tandem Mirror Machine

  17. Discussion of discrete D shape toroidal coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiho, Katsuyuki; Ohara, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Ko; Onishi, Toshitada

    1988-01-01

    A novel design for a toroidal coil, called the D shape coil, was reported by J. File. The coil conductors are in pure tension and then subject to no bending moment. This leads to a smaller number of emf supports in a simpler configuration than that with the conventional toroidal coil of circular cross-section. The contours of the D shape are given as solutions of a differential equation. This equation includes the function of the magnetic field distribution in the conductor region which is inversely proportional to the winding radius. It is therefore important to use the exact magnetic field distribution. However the magnetic field distribution becomes complicated when the D shape toroidal coil is comprised of discrete coils and also depends on the D shape configuration. A theory and a computer program for designing the practical pure-tension toroidal coil are developed. Using this computer code, D shape conductors are calculated for various numbers of discrete coils and the results are compared. Electromagnetic forces in the coils are also calculated. It is shown that the hoop stress in the conductors depends only on the total ampere-turns of the coil when the contours of the D shape are similar. (author)

  18. Large coil test facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, L.W.; Thompson, P.B.; Mann, T.L.

    1978-02-01

    In the development of a superconducting toroidal field (TF) magnet for The Next Step (TNS) tokamak reactor, several different TF coils, about half TNS size, will be built and tested to permit selection of a design and fabrication procedure for full-scale TNS coils. A conceptual design has been completed for a facility to test D-shaped TF coils, 2.5 x 3.5-m bore, operating at 4-6 K, cooled either by boiling helium or by forced-flow supercritical helium. Up to six coils can be accommodated in a toroidal array housed in a single vacuum tank. The principal components and systems in the facility are an 11-m vacuum tank, a test stand providing structural support and service connections for the coils, a liquid nitrogen system, a system providing helium both as saturated liquid and at supercritical pressure, coils to produce a pulsed vertical field at any selected test coil position, coil power supplies, process instrumentation and control, coil diagnostics, and a data acquisition and handling system. The test stand structure is composed of a central bucking post, a base structure, and two horizontal torque rings. The coils are bolted to the bucking post, which transmits all gravity loads to the base structure. The torque ring structure, consisting of beams between adjacent coils, acts with the bucking structure to react all the magnetic loads that occur when the coils are energized. Liquid helium is used to cool the test stand structure to 5 K to minimize heat conduction to the coils. Liquid nitrogen is used to precool gaseous helium during system cooldown and to provide thermal radiation shielding

  19. Evidence for Mixed Helicity in Erupting Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglach, K.; Wang, Y.-M.; Kliem, B.

    2009-09-01

    Erupting filaments are sometimes observed to undergo a rotation about the vertical direction as they rise. This rotation of the filament axis is generally interpreted as a conversion of twist into writhe in a kink-unstable magnetic flux rope. Consistent with this interpretation, the rotation is usually found to be clockwise (as viewed from above) if the post-eruption arcade has right-handed helicity, but counterclockwise if it has left-handed helicity. Here, we describe two non-active-region filament events recorded with the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in which the sense of rotation appears to be opposite to that expected from the helicity of the post-event arcade. Based on these observations, we suggest that the rotation of the filament axis is, in general, determined by the net helicity of the erupting system, and that the axially aligned core of the filament can have the opposite helicity sign to the surrounding field. In most cases, the surrounding field provides the main contribution to the net helicity. In the events reported here, however, the helicity associated with the filament "barbs" is opposite in sign to and dominates that of the overlying arcade.

  20. HEMISPHERIC HELICITY TREND FOR SOLAR CYCLE 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Juan; Zhang Mei

    2011-01-01

    Using vector magnetograms obtained with the Spectro-polarimeter (SP) on board Hinode satellite, we studied two helicity parameters (local twist and current helicity) of 64 active regions that occurred in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. Our analysis gives the following results. (1) The 34 active regions of the solar cycle 24 follow the so-called hemispheric helicity rule, whereas the 30 active regions of the solar cycle 23 do not. (2) When combining all 64 active regions as one sample, they follow the hemispheric helicity sign rule as in most other observations. (3) Despite the so-far most accurate measurement of vector magnetic field given by SP/Hinode, the rule is still weak with large scatters. (4) The data show evidence of different helicity signs between strong and weak fields, confirming previous result from a large sample of ground-based observations. (5) With two example sunspots we show that the helicity parameters change sign from the inner umbra to the outer penumbra, where the sign of penumbra agrees with the sign of the active region as a whole. From these results, we speculate that both the Σ-effect (turbulent convection) and the dynamo have contributed in the generation of helicity, whereas in both cases turbulence in the convection zone has played a significant role.

  1. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  2. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  3. Direct measurement of helical cell motion of the spirochete leptospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shuichi; Leshansky, Alexander; Magariyama, Yukio; Namba, Keiichi; Kudo, Seishi

    2014-01-07

    Leptospira are spirochete bacteria distinguished by a short-pitch coiled body and intracellular flagella. Leptospira cells swim in liquid with an asymmetric morphology of the cell body; the anterior end has a long-pitch spiral shape (S-end) and the posterior end is hook-shaped (H-end). Although the S-end and the coiled cell body called the protoplasmic cylinder are thought to be responsible for propulsion together, most observations on the motion mechanism have remained qualitative. In this study, we analyzed the swimming speed and rotation rate of the S-end, protoplasmic cylinder, and H-end of individual Leptospira cells by one-sided dark-field microscopy. At various viscosities of media containing different concentrations of Ficoll, the rotation rate of the S-end and protoplasmic cylinder showed a clear correlation with the swimming speed, suggesting that these two helical parts play a central role in the motion of Leptospira. In contrast, the H-end rotation rate was unstable and showed much less correlation with the swimming speed. Forces produced by the rotation of the S-end and protoplasmic cylinder showed that these two helical parts contribute to propulsion at nearly equal magnitude. Torque generated by each part, also obtained from experimental motion parameters, indicated that the flagellar motor can generate torque >4000 pN nm, twice as large as that of Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the S-end torque was found to show a markedly larger fluctuation than the protoplasmic cylinder torque, suggesting that the unstable H-end rotation might be mechanically related to changes in the S-end rotation rate for torque balance of the entire cell. Variations in torque at the anterior and posterior ends of the Leptospira cell body could be transmitted from one end to the other through the cell body to coordinate the morphological transformations of the two ends for a rapid change in the swimming direction. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Waste pipe calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid method is presented for calculating transport in a network of one-dimensional flow paths or ''pipes''. The method defines a Green's function for each flow path and prescribes a method of combining these Green's functions to produce an overall Green's function for the flow path network. A unique feature of the method is the use of the Laplace transform of these Green's functions to carry out most of the calculations

  5. Polymorphic transformation of helical flagella of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sookkyung; Howard Berg Collaboration; William Ko Collaboration; Yongsam Kim Collaboration; Wanho Lee Collaboration; Charles Peskin Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria such as E. coli swim in an aqueous environment by utilizing the rotation of flagellar motors and alternate two modes of motility, runs and tumbles. Runs are steady forward swimming driven by bundles of flagellar filaments whose motors are turning CCW; tumbles involve a reorientation of the direction of swimming triggered by motor reversals. During tumbling, the helical flagellum undergoes polymorphic transformations, which is a local change in helical pitch, helical radius, and handedness. In this work, we investigate the underlying mechanism of structural conformation and how this polymorphic transition plays a role in bacterial swimming. National Science Foundation.

  6. Modelling simple helically delivered dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenwick, John D; Tome, Wolfgang A; Kissick, Michael W; Mackie, T Rock

    2005-01-01

    In a previous paper, we described quality assurance procedures for Hi-Art helical tomotherapy machines. Here, we develop further some ideas discussed briefly in that paper. Simple helically generated dose distributions are modelled, and relationships between these dose distributions and underlying characteristics of Hi-Art treatment systems are elucidated. In particular, we describe the dependence of dose levels along the central axis of a cylinder aligned coaxially with a Hi-Art machine on fan beam width, couch velocity and helical delivery lengths. The impact on these dose levels of angular variations in gantry speed or output per linear accelerator pulse is also explored

  7. Pipe damping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is conducting a research program to assist the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in determining best-estimate damping values for use in the dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems. This paper describes four tasks in the program that were undertaken in FY-86. In the first task, tests were conducted on a 5-in. INEL laboratory piping system and data were analyzed from a 6-in. laboratory system at the ANCO Engineers facility to investigate the parameters influencing damping in the seismic frequency range. Further tests were conducted on 3- and 5-in. INEL laboratory piping systems as the second task to determine damping values representative of vibrations in the 33 to 100 Hz range, typical of hydrodynamic transients. In the third task a statistical evaluation of the available damping data was conduted to determine probability distributions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and the final task evaluated damping data at high strain levels

  8. Pipe clamp effects on thin-walled pipe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Clamp induced stresses in FFTF piping are sufficiently large to require structural assessment. The basic principles and procedures used in analyzing FFTF piping at clamp support locations for compliance with ASME Code rules are given. Typical results from a three-dimensional shell finite element pipe model with clamp loads applied over the clamp/pipe contact area are shown. Analyses performed to categorize clamp induced piping loads as primary or secondary in nature are described. The ELCLAMP Computer Code, which performs analyses at clamp locations combining clamp induced stresses with stresses from overall piping system loads, is discussed. Grouping and enveloping methods to reduce the number of individual clamp locations requiring analysis are described

  9. Development of a new error field correction coil (C-coil) for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.I.; Scoville, J.T.

    1995-12-01

    The C-coil recently installed on the DIII-D tokamak was developed to reduce the error fields created by imperfections in the location and geometry of the existing coils used to confine, heat, and shape the plasma. First results from C-coil experiments include stable operation in a 1.6 MA plasma with a density less than 1.0 x 10 13 cm -3 , nearly a factor of three lower density than that achievable without the C-coil. The C-coil has also been used in magnetic braking of the plasma rotation and high energy particle confinement experiments. The C-coil system consists of six individual saddle coils, each 60 degree wide toroidally, spanning the midplane of the vessel with a vertical height of 1.6 m. The coils are located at a major radius of 3.2 m, just outside of the toroidal field coils. The actual shape and geometry of each coil section varied somewhat from the nominal dimensions due to the large number of obstructions to the desired coil path around the already crowded tokamak. Each coil section consists of four turns of 750 MCM insulated copper cable banded with stainless steel straps within the web of a 3 in. x 3 in. stainless steel angle frame. The C-coil structure was designed to resist peak transient radial forces (up to 1,800 Nm) exerted on the coil by the toroidal and ploidal fields. The coil frames were supported from existing poloidal field coil case brackets, coil studs, and various other structures on the tokamak

  10. Argonne National Laboratory superconducting pulsed coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Kim, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The main objectives are to develop high current (approx. 100 kA) cryostable cable configurations with reasonably low ac losses, to build a demonstration pulsed coil, and to develop a rather inexpensive large fiberglass reinforced helium cryostat. A 1.5-MJ cryostable pulsed superconducting coil has been developed and constructed at ANL. The coil has a peak field of 4.5 T at an operating current of 11.0 kA. A large inexpensive plastic cryostat has been developed for testing the pulsed coil. The coil has been pulsed with a maximum dB/dt of 11 T/s. The coil was pulsed more than 4000 cycles. Detailed results of the ac loss measurements and the current sharing of the cryostability will be described

  11. Test facility for PLT TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearney, J.; File, J.; Dreskin, S.

    1975-01-01

    Past experience with the model C stellerator and other toroidal field devices indicates that mechanical and electrical tests of a toroidal field coil prior to maximum field operation of the device is prudent and desirable. This paper describes a test program for the PLT-TF coils. The test stand consists of one test coil, two background coils and a steel supporting structure. The three coil configuration produces a 67.5 kG field at the inner conductor (38 kG at the bore center) and simulates a 1/R field distribution in the bore of the test coil. The resolution of the field force system and resultant stresses within the test structure are discussed. A test procedure is described which maximizes the information obtained from a 100,000 pulse program

  12. Power loss problems in EXTRAP coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1977-02-01

    The Ohmic power loss in the coils of external ring traps is minimized with respect to the thermonuclear power production. In the case of the DT-reaction this leads to dimensions and power densities being relevant to full-scale reactors. Not only superconducting or refrigerated coil windings can thus be used, but also hot-coil systems which are operated at several hundred degrees centrigrade and form part of a steam cycle and power extraction system. For hot coils the problems of void formation and tritium regeneration have to be further examined. The high beta value leads to moderately large coil stresses. Finally, replacement and repair become simplified by the present coil geometry. (Auth.)

  13. Coil supporting device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Minoru; Ando, Toshiro; Ota, Mitsuru; Ishimura, Masabumi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the bending stress exerted on coils thereby preventing the coils from deformation by branching the outer circumferential support frames of coil support frames disposed at an equal pitch circumferentially to the coils into plurality, and integrally forming them to the inner circumferential support frames. Constitution: Each of the support frames for supporting poloidal coils winding around a vacuum vessel is bisected at the radial midway so that the outer circumferential branches are disposed at an equal pitch and they are formed integrally with the inner circumferential support frames. The inner circumferential support frames are fixed by support posts on a bed and the outer circumferential support frames are mounted to the outer edge of wedge-like support posts. Accordingly, if the coils expand outwardly upon increase in the temperature, the stress exerted on the support frame can be decreased. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  15. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  16. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  17. Split-coil-system SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.

    1992-08-01

    The high field superconductor test facility SULTAN started operation successfully in May 1992. Originally designed for testing full scale conductors for the large magnets of the next generation fusion reactors, the SULTAN facility installed at PSI (Switzerland) was designed as a common venture of three European Laboratories: ENEA (Italy), ECN (Netherlands) and PSI, and built by ENEA and PSI in the framework of the Euratom Fusion Technology Program. Presently the largest facility in the world, with its superconducting split coil system generating 11 Tesla in a 0.6 m bore, it is ready now for testing superconductor samples with currents up to 50 kA at variable cooling conditions. Similar tests can be arranged also for other applications. SULTAN is offered by the European Community as a contribution to the worldwide cooperation for the next step of fusion reactor development ITER. First measurements on conductor developed by CEA (Cadarache) are now in progress. Others like those of ENEA and CERN will follow. For 1993, a test of an Italian 12 TZ model coil for fusion application is planned. SULTAN is a worldwide unique facility marking the competitive presence of Swiss technology in the field of applied superconductivity research. Based on development and design of PSI, the high field Nb 3 Sn superconductors and coils were fabricated at the works of Kabelwerke Brugg and ABB, numerous Swiss companies contributed to the success of this international effort. Financing of the Swiss contribution of SULTAN was made available by NEFF, BEW, BBW, PSI and EURATOM. (author) figs., tabs., 20 refs

  18. An analysis of the temperature distribution in the pipe bending using high frequency induction heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukue, Hisayoshi; Mochizuki, Yoji; Nakamura, Harushige; Kobo, Hiroshi; Nitta, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    1986-01-01

    A pipe bending apparatus has recently been developed by applying high frequency induction heating. However, the smaller the radius of pipe bending, the greater becomes the reduction in wall thickness and the ovality of the pipe form. This makes it impossible to manufacture pipe bending which will meet the nuclear pipe design code. In order to solve this problem it is crucial to obtain a temperature distributions in a pipe which is moving. It is calculated by giving the following boundary conditions : distribution of the heat generation rate, and that of heat transfer of cooling water. In the process of analyzing these distributions, the following results were obtained. (1) The distribution of the heat generation rate is determined by the sink of energy flux of Poynting vectors. The coil efficiency thus calculated was sixty percent. This figure accords with the test data. (2) The distribution of heat transfer coefficient of cooling water is mainly determined by the rate of liquid film heat transfer, but departure from nucleate boiling and dryout has to be taken into consideration. (3) TRUMP CODE is modified so that the temperature distribution in moving pipes can be calculated by taking the boundary conditions into account. The calculated results were in accordance with the test data. (author)

  19. Plasmoid behavior in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, R.; Nakajima, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that an ablation cloud; a high density and low temperature plasmoid, drifts to the lower field side in tokamak plasmas, which leads to a good performance on fueling in tokamak. Such a good performance, however, has not been obtained yet in the planar axis heliotron; Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, even if a pellet has been injected from the high field side. The purpose of the study is to clarify the difference on the plasmoid motion between tokamak and LHD plasmas by using the MHD simulation including ablation processes. It is found in tokamaks that the drift motion is induced by a tire tube force and 1/R force in the major radius direction, and that the pressure and density of the plasmoid have oscillation due to fast compressional Alfven wave. On the other hand, the upper and lower portions surrounding the plasmoid center drift to the higher field side, because 1/R force by magnetic field becomes negative in the major radius direction since the magnetic field surrounding the plasmoid is accumulated by the extremely large ablation pressure and the magnetic pressure perturbation becomes positive. It is also found that the plasmoid does not drift when the perturbation of the plasmoid is small. In addition, the motion of the plasmoid is investigated in LHD plasmas in four cases that the plasmoids are initially located at the inner and outer sides of the torus on the vertically and horizontally elongated poloidal cross sections. The plasmoids drift to the lower field sides in all cases. However, in the case that it is located at the inner side of the torus on the horizontally elongated poloidal cross section, it is found that the plasmoid drifts in the negative direction of the major radius and subsequently drifts in the positive direction of it. In other words, the plasmoid finally drifts in the positive direction of the major radius the same as the plasmoid located at the outer side of the torus. This fact might be one of the

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF COILED TUBING STRESS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Matanović

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of coiled tubing is increasing rapidly with drilling of horizontal wells. To satisfy all requirements (larger mechanical stresses, larger fluid capacities the production of larger sizes and better material qualities was developed. Stresses due to axial forces and pressures that coiled tubing is subjected are close to its performance limits. So it is really important to know and understand the behaviour of coiled tubing to avoid its break, burst or collapse in the well.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structures of GCN4p Are Largely Conserved When Ion Pairs Are Disrupted at Acidic pH but Show a Relaxation of the Coiled Coil Superhelix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Anne R; Brady, Megan R; Maciejewski, Mark W; Kammerer, Richard A; Alexandrescu, Andrei T

    2017-03-21

    To understand the roles ion pairs play in stabilizing coiled coils, we determined nuclear magnetic resonance structures of GCN4p at three pH values. At pH 6.6, all acidic residues are fully charged; at pH 4.4, they are half-charged, and at pH 1.5, they are protonated and uncharged. The α-helix monomer and coiled coil structures of GCN4p are largely conserved, except for a loosening of the coiled coil quaternary structure with a decrease in pH. Differences going from neutral to acidic pH include (i) an unwinding of the coiled coil superhelix caused by the loss of interchain ion pair contacts, (ii) a small increase in the separation of the monomers in the dimer, (iii) a loosening of the knobs-into-holes packing motifs, and (iv) an increased separation between oppositely charged residues that participate in ion pairs at neutral pH. Chemical shifts (HN, N, C', Cα, and Cβ) of GCN4p display a seven-residue periodicity that is consistent with α-helical structure and is invariant with pH. By contrast, periodicity in hydrogen exchange rates at neutral pH is lost at acidic pH as the exchange mechanism moves into the EX1 regime. On the basis of 1 H- 15 N nuclear Overhauser effect relaxation measurements, the α-helix monomers experience only small increases in picosecond to nanosecond backbone dynamics at acidic pH. By contrast, 13 C rotating frame T 1 relaxation (T 1ρ ) data evince an increase in picosecond to nanosecond side-chain dynamics at lower pH, particularly for residues that stabilize the coiled coil dimerization interface through ion pairs. The results on the structure and dynamics of GCNp4 over a range of pH values help rationalize why a single structure at neutral pH poorly predicts the pH dependence of the unfolding stability of the coiled coil.

  2. Manufacturing development of the Westinghouse Nb3Sn coil for the Large Coil Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.L.; Vota, T.L.; Singh, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Westinghouse Nb 3 Sn Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Large Coil Program (LCP) is currently well into the manufacturing phase. This paper identifies the manufacturing processes and development tasks for his unique, advanced coil

  3. Optimization of the ECT background coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, J.K.; Luton, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    This study was begun to optimize the Eccentric Coil Test (ECT) background coil. In the course of this work a general optimization code was obtained, tested, and applied to the ECT problem. So far this code has proven to be very satisfactory. The results obtained with this code and earlier codes have illustrated the parametric behavior of such a coil system and that the optimum for this type system is broad. This study also shows that a background coil with a winding current density of less than 3000 A/cm 2 is not feasible for the ECT models presented in this paper

  4. Magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Takano, Hirohisa.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide an electrical-insulatively stabilized magnetic field coil in nuclear fusion device, restraining an increase in voltage when plasma current is rapidly changed. Structure: A magnetic field coil comprises coils arranged coaxial with respective vacuum vessels, said coils being wound in positive and reverse polarities so as to form a vertical magnetic field within the plasma. The coils of the positive polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel inside of an axis vertical in section of the annular plasma and are arranged symmetrically up and down of a horizontal axis. On the other hand, the coils of the reverse polarity are arranged along the vacuum vessel outside of a vertical axis and arranged symmetrically up and down of the horizontal axis. These positive and reverse polarity coils are alternately connected in series, and lead portions of the coils are connected to a power source by means of connecting wires. In this case, lead positions of the coils are arranged in one direction, and the connecting wires are disposed in closely contact relation to offset magnetic fields formed by the connecting wires each other. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. A precise technique for manufacturing correction coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, L.

    1992-01-01

    An automated method of manufacturing correction coils has been developed which provides a precise embodiment of the coil design. Numerically controlled machines have been developed to accurately position coil windings on the beam tube. Two types of machines have been built. One machine bonds the wire to a substrate which is wrapped around the beam tube after it is completed while the second machine bonds the wire directly to the beam tube. Both machines use the Multiwire reg-sign technique of bonding the wire to the substrate utilizing an ultrasonic stylus. These machines are being used to manufacture coils for both the SSC and RHIC

  6. Tesla coil theoretical model and experimental verification

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkans, Janis; Voitkans, Arnis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract – In this paper a theoretical model of a Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wired format, where the line voltage is measured against electrically neutral space. It is shown that equivalent two-wired scheme can be found for a single-wired scheme and already known long line theory can be applied to a Tesla coil. Formulas for calculation of voltage in a Tesla coil by coordinate and calculation of resonance fre...

  7. Pipe support program at Pickering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahazizian, L.A.; Jazic, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the pipe support program at Pickering. The program addresses the highest priority in operating nuclear generating stations, safety. We present the need: safety, the process: managed and strategic, and the result: assurance of critical piping integrity. In the past, surveillance programs periodically inspected some systems, equipment, and individual components. This comprehensive program is based on a managed process that assesses risk to identify critical piping systems and supports and to develop a strategy for surveillance and maintenance. The strategy addresses all critical piping supports. Successful implementation of the program has provided assurance of critical piping and support integrity and has contributed to decreasing probability of pipe failure, reducing risk to worker and public safety, improving configuration management, and reducing probability of production losses. (author)

  8. Helicity and Filament Channels? The Straight Twist!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and most puzzling features of the coronal magnetic field is that it appears to have smooth magnetic structure with little evidence for non-potentiality except at special locations, photospheric polarity inversions lines where the non-potentiality is observed as a filament channel. This characteristic feature of the closed-field corona is highly unexpected given that photospheric motions continuously tangle its magnetic field. Although reconnection can eliminate some of the injected structure, it cannot destroy the helicity, which should build up to produce observable complexity. We propose that an inverse cascade process transports the injected helicity from the interior of closed flux regions to their boundaries, polarity inversion lines, creating filament channels. We describe how the helicity is injected and transported and calculate the relevant rates. We argue that one process, helicity transport, can explain both the observed lack and presence of structure in the coronal magnetic field.

  9. Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Mekhfi, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.

  10. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Park, S.Y.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude

  11. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  12. Using helical compressors for coke gas condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalov, V E; Rezunenko, Yu I; Lelyanov, N V; Zarnitzkii, G Eh; Gordienko, A A; Derebenko, I F; Venzhega, A G; Leonov, N P; Gorokhov, N N

    1982-08-01

    Coke oven gas compression is discussed. Presently used multilevel piston compressors are criticized. The paper recommends using helical machines which combine advantages of using volume condensing compressors and compact high-efficiency centrifugal machines. Two kinds of helical compressors are evaluated: dry and oil-filled; their productivities and coke oven gas chemical composition are analyzed. Experiments using helical compressors were undertaken at the Yasinovskii plant. Flowsheet of the installation is shown. Performance results are given in a table. For all operating conditions content of insolubles in oil compounds is found to be lower than the acceptable value (0.08%). Compressor productivity measurements with variable manifold pressure are evaluated. Figures obtained show that efficient condensation of raw coke oven gas is possible. Increasing oil-filled compressor productivity is recommended by decreasing amount of oil injected and simultaneously increasing rotation speed. The dry helical compressor with water seal is found to be most promising for raw coke oven gas condensation. (10 refs.)

  13. Importance of helical pitch parameter in LHD-type heliotron reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Yanagi, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Imagawa, S.; Sagara, A.

    2010-11-01

    In the design studies of the LHD-type heliotron reactors, one of the key issues is to secure sufficient blanket spaces. In this respect, helical pitch parameter γ is quite important because it significantly affects both the coil and plasma shapes. In order to understand the effect of helical pitch parameter on the design window quantitatively, a system design code for the LHD-type heliotron reactors has been developed and parametric scans were carried out with 3 cases of γ=1.15, 1.20 and 1.25. It becomes clear that the possible design window of heliotron reactors strongly depends on the engineering constraints: stored magnetic energy of coil system, blanket space, and neutron wall load. γ=1.20 is optimum from the viewpoint of moderating the physics requirements, but γ=1.15 has a robustness to the change in the physics and engineering conditions. Since the design windows are quite sensitive to the engineering constraints and physics conditions, the further detailed study on design feasibility of advanced engineering components and the effect of γ on the physics conditions is expected to optimize the value of γ. (author)

  14. Helicity evolution at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Pitonyak, Daniel; Sievert, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    We construct small-x evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the g 1 structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of α s ln 2  (1/x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of α s ln (1/x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. While the equations do not close in general, they become closed and self-contained systems of non-linear equations in the large-N c and large-N c   N f limits. As a cross-check, in the ladder approximation, our equations map onto the same ladder limit of the infrared evolution equations for the g 1 structure function derived previously by Bartels, Ermolaev and Ryskin http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002880050285.

  15. Dynamics of helicity transport and Taylor relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Malkov, M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of the dynamics of Taylor relaxation is derived using symmetry principles alone. No statistical closure approximations are invoked or detailed plasma model properties assumed. Notably, the model predicts several classes of nondiffusive helicity transport phenomena, including traveling nonlinear waves and superdiffusive turbulent pulses. A universal expression for the scaling of the effective magnetic Reynolds number of a system undergoing Taylor relaxation is derived. Some basic properties of intermittency in helicity transport are examined

  16. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvi......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  17. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  18. Detection of wall thinning of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation using Pulsed Eddy Current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Duckgun; Kishore, M. B.; Lee, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    The test sample is a ferromagnetic carbon steel pipe having different thickness, covered with a 10 cm plastic insulation laminated by 0.4 mm Al plate to simulate the pipelines in NPPs. The PEC Probe used for the wall thinning detection consists of an excitation coil and a Hall sensor. The excitation coils in the probe is driven by a rectangular bipolar current pulse and the Hall-sensor will detects the resultant field. The Hall sensor output is considered as PEC signal. Results shows that the PEC system can detect wall thinning in an insulated pipeline of the NPPs. Local wall thinning in pipelines affects the structural integrity of industries like nuclear power plants (NPPs). In the present study a pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology to detect the wall thing of carbon steel pipe covered with insulation is developed

  19. Damping in LMFBR pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.; Lindquist, M.R.; Renkey, E.J.; Ryan, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    LMFBR pipe systems typically utilize a thicker insulation package than that used on water plant pipe systems. They are supported with special insulated pipe clamps. Mechanical snubbers are employed to resist seismic loads. Recent laboratory testing has indicated that these features provide significantly more damping than presently allowed by Regulatory Guide 1.61 for water plant pipe systems. This paper presents results of additional in-situ vibration tests conducted on FFTF pipe systems. Pipe damping values obtained at various excitation levels are presented. Effects of filtering data to provide damping values at discrete frequencies and the alternate use of a single equivalent modal damping value are discussed. These tests further confirm that damping in typical LMFBR pipe systems is larger than presently used in pipe design. Although some increase in damping occurred with increased excitation amplitude, the effect was not significant. Recommendations are made to use an increased damping value for both the OBE and DBE seismic events in design of LMFBR pipe systems

  20. Dynamic experiments on cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.; Brunet, G.; Buland, P.

    1991-01-01

    In order to apply the leak before break concept to piping systems, the behavior of cracked pipes under dynamic, and especially seismic loading must be studied. In a first phase, an experimental program on cracked stainless steel pipes under quasi-static monotonic loading has been conducted. In this paper, the dynamic tests on the same pipe geometry are described. These tests have been performed on a shaking table with a mono frequency input signal. The main parameter of the tests is the frequency of excitation versus the frequency of the system

  1. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  2. On the helicity of open magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, C.; Yeates, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We reconsider the topological interpretation of magnetic helicity for magnetic fields in open domains, and relate this to the relative helicity. Specifically, our domains stretch between two parallel planes, and each of these ends may be magnetically open. It is demonstrated that, while the magnetic helicity is gauge-dependent, its value in any gauge may be physically interpreted as the average winding number among all pairs of field lines with respect to some orthonormal frame field. In fact, the choice of gauge is equivalent to the choice of reference field in the relative helicity, meaning that the magnetic helicity is no less physically meaningful. We prove that a particular gauge always measures the winding with respect to a fixed frame, and propose that this is normally the best choice. For periodic fields, this choice is equivalent to measuring relative helicity with respect to a potential reference field. However, for aperiodic fields, we show that the potential field can be twisted. We prove by construction that there always exists a possible untwisted reference field.

  3. Design of the coolant system for the Large Coil Test Facility pulse coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgman, C.; Ryan, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The pulse coils will be a part of the Large Coil Test Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which is designed to test six large tokamak-type superconducting coils. The pulse coil set consists of two resistive coaxial solenoid coils, mounted so that their magnetic axis is perpendicular to the toroidal field lines of the test coil. The pulse coils provide transient vertical fields at test coil locations to simulate the pulsed vertical fields present in tokamak devices. The pulse coils are designed to be pulsed for 30 s every 150 s, which results in a Joule heating of 116 kW per coil. In order to provide this capability, the pulse coil coolant system is required to deliver 6.3 L/s (100 gpm) of subcooled liquid nitrogen at 10-atm absolute pressure. The coolant system can also cool down each pulse coil from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperature. This paper provides details of the pumping and heat exchange equipment designed for the coolant system and of the associated instrumentation and controls

  4. Diffusion in a tokamak with helical magnetic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, Masahiro

    1975-05-01

    In a tokamak with helical magnetic cells produced by a resonant helical magnetic field, diffusion in the collisional regime is studied. The diffusion coefficient is greatly enhanced near the resonant surface even for a weak helical magnetic field. A theoretical model for disruptive instabilities based on the enhanced transport due to helical magnetic cells is discussed. This may explain experiments of the tokamak with resonant helical fields qualitatively. (author)

  5. Measurement of heating coil temperature for e-cigarettes with a "top-coil" clearomizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Wang, Ping; Ito, Kazuhide; Fowles, Jeff; Shusterman, Dennis; Jaques, Peter A; Kumagai, Kazukiyo

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of applied power settings, coil wetness conditions, and e-liquid compositions on the coil heating temperature for e-cigarettes with a "top-coil" clearomizer, and to make associations of coil conditions with emission of toxic carbonyl compounds by combining results herein with the literature. The coil temperature of a second generation e-cigarette was measured at various applied power levels, coil conditions, and e-liquid compositions, including (1) measurements by thermocouple at three e-liquid fill levels (dry, wet-through-wick, and full-wet), three coil resistances (low, standard, and high), and four voltage settings (3-6 V) for multiple coils using propylene glycol (PG) as a test liquid; (2) measurements by thermocouple at additional degrees of coil wetness for a high resistance coil using PG; and (3) measurements by both thermocouple and infrared (IR) camera for high resistance coils using PG alone and a 1:1 (wt/wt) mixture of PG and glycerol (PG/GL). For single point thermocouple measurements with PG, coil temperatures ranged from 322 ‒ 1008°C, 145 ‒ 334°C, and 110 ‒ 185°C under dry, wet-through-wick, and full-wet conditions, respectively, for the total of 13 replaceable coil heads. For conditions measured with both a thermocouple and an IR camera, all thermocouple measurements were between the minimum and maximum across-coil IR camera measurements and equal to 74% ‒ 115% of the across-coil mean, depending on test conditions. The IR camera showed details of the non-uniform temperature distribution across heating coils. The large temperature variations under wet-through-wick conditions may explain the large variations in formaldehyde formation rate reported in the literature for such "top-coil" clearomizers. This study established a simple and straight-forward protocol to systematically measure e-cigarette coil heating temperature under dry, wet-through-wick, and full-wet conditions. In addition to applied power, the

  6. Progress on large superconducting toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Luton, J.N.; Thompson, P.B.; Beard, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Large superconducting toroidal field coils of competing designs are being produced by six major industrial teams. In the US, teams headed by General Dynamics Convair, General Electric, and Westinghouse are under contract to design and fabricate one coil each to specifications established by the Large Coil Program. A facility for testing 6 coils in a toroidal array at fields to 8 to 12 tesla is under construction at Oak Ridge. Through an international agreement, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland will produce one coil each for testing with the US coils. Each test coil will have a 2.5 x 3.5 m D-shape winding bore and is designed to operate at a current of 10 to 18 kA at a peak field of 8T while subjected to pulsed fields of 0.14 T applied in 1.0 s. There are significant differences among the six coil designs: five use NbTi, one Nb 3 Sn; three are cooled by pool boiling helium, three by forced flow; five have welded or bolted stainless steel coil cases, one has aluminum plate structure. All are designed to be cryostable at 8T, with structural margin for extended operation. The three US coil teams are almost or completely finished with detailed design and are now procuring materials and setting up manufacturing equipment. The non-US teams are at various stages of verification testing and design. The GDC and GE coils are scheduled for delivery in the spring of 1981 and the others will be completed a year later. The 11-m diameter vessel at the test facility has been completed and major components of the test stand are being procured. Engineering and procurement to upgrade the helium liquifier-refrigerator system are under way

  7. Plastics pipe couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.B.

    1980-07-01

    A method is described of making a pipe coupling of the type comprising a plastics socket and a resilient annular sealing member secured in the mouth thereof, in which the material of at least one component of the coupling is subjected to irradiation with high energy radiation whereby the material is caused to undergo cross-linking. As examples, the coupling may comprise a polyethylene or plasticised PVC socket the material of which is subjected to irradiation, and the sealing member may be moulded from a thermoplastic elastomer which is subjected to irradiation. (U.K.)

  8. Outcomes with single-coil versus dual-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Nicholas; Kaura, Amit; Murgatroyd, Francis; Dhillon, Para; Scott, Paul A

    2018-03-01

    Dual-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads have traditionally been used over single-coil leads due to concerns regarding high defibrillation thresholds (DFT) and consequent poor shock efficacy. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this position may be unfounded and that dual-coil leads may also be associated with higher complication rates during lead extraction. This meta-analysis collates data comparing dual- and single-coil ICD leads. Electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomized studies comparing single-coil and dual-coil leads. The mean differences in DFT and summary estimates of the odds-ratio (OR) for first-shock efficacy and the hazard-ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality were calculated using random effects models. Eighteen studies including a total of 138,124 patients were identified. Dual-coil leads were associated with a lower DFT compared to single coil leads (mean difference -0.83J; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.39--0.27; P = 0.004). There was no difference in the first-shock success rate with dual-coil compared to single-coil leads (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.45-1.21; P=0.22). There was a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality associated with single-coil leads (HR 0.91; 95%CI 0.86-0.95; P dual-coil leads. The mortality benefit with single-coil leads most likely represents patient selection bias. Given the increased risk and complexity of extracting dual-coil leads, centres should strongly consider single-coil ICD leads as the lead of choice for routine new left-sided ICD implants. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. HydroCoil as an adjuvant to bare platinum coil treatment of 100 cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, Noel F.; Berentei, Zsolt; Brennan, Paul R.; Thornton, John

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The overall safety of the HydroCoil, an expansile hybrid hydrogel-platinum coil, is unknown. We report a prospective observational study of our first 100 cerebral aneurysms treated with HydroCoils, focusing on safety and initial efficacy.Methods Indications, procedural complications, clinical and angiographic outcomes were recorded. Packing density, number of coils deployed and angiographic results were compared with those in a matched control group of 100 aneurysms treated solely with bare platinum coils. HydroCoil complication rates were compared to bare platinum coil rates at our institution and in published series. Results Adjuvant HydroCoil treatment led to increased mean percentage aneurysm filling compared to controls (50 ± 21% versus 27 ± 13%, P < 0.001). Immediate posttreatment angiographic results showed significantly (P < 0.001) more complete occlusions and fewer incomplete (<95%) occlusions compared to controls. Intermediate follow-up angiograms (median 7.5 months) in 63 aneurysms showed a trend towards fewer incomplete occlusions with HydroCoil treatment. There were significantly fewer major recurrences with HydroCoil treatment compared to the control treatment (9.5% versus 22.6%, P 0.046). In the adjuvant HydroCoil group, major recurrent aneurysms had significantly less percentage volume packing with HydroCoils than non-recurrent aneurysms (50.3 ± 5.0% versus 65.3 ± 18.0%, P = 0.04). There was a 12% procedural complication rate, 6% procedural morbidity and 1% mortality rate, similar to institutional and reported bare platinum coil complication rates.Conclusion HydroCoils can be safely deployed with a similar complication rate to bare platinum coils. They result in improved aneurysm filling. Intermediate follow-up angiography showed significantly fewer major recurrences. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm initial improved stability. (orig.)

  10. Design of central control system for large helical device (LHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Kaneko, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Motojima, O.

    1993-11-01

    The world largest superconducting fusion machine LHD (Large Helical Device) is under construction in Japan, aiming at steady state operations. Its basic control system consists of UNIX computers, FDDI/Ethernet LANs, VME multiprocessors and VxWorks real-time OS. For flexible and reliable operations of the LHD machine a cooperative distributed system with more than 30 experimental equipments is controlled by the central computer and the main timing system, and is supervised by the main protective interlock system. Intelligent control systems, such as applications of fuzzy logic and neural networks, are planed to be adopted for flexible feedback controls of plasma configurations besides the classical PID control scheme. Design studies of its control system and related R and D programs with coil-plasma simulation systems are now being performed. The construction of the LHD Control Building in a new site will begin in 1995 after finishing the construction of the LHD Experimental Building, and the hardware construction of the LHD central control equipments will be started in 1996. A first plasma production by means of this control system is expected in 1997. (author)

  11. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  12. Heat pipe and method of production of a heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The heat pipe consists of a copper pipe in which a capillary network or wick of heat-conducting material is arranged in direct contact with the pipe along its whole length. Furthermore, the interior space of the tube contains an evaporable liquid for pipe transfer. If water is used, the capillary network consists of, e.g., a phosphorus band network. To avoid contamination of the interior of the heat pipe during sealing, its ends are closed by mechanical deformation so that an arched or plane surface is obtained which is in direct contact with the network. After evacuation of the interior space, the remaining opening is closed with a tapered pin. The ratio wall thickness/tube diameter is between 0.01 and 0.6. (TK/AK) [de

  13. Toroidal field coils for the PDX machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering design features of the TF coils for the PDX machine. Included are design details of the electrical insulation, water cooling, and coil segment joint which allows access to the central machine area. A discussion of the problems anticipated in the manufacture and the planned solutions are presented

  14. Operator coil monitoring Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhart, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The readiness of the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) to provide monitoring and control of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) abort coils from the Master and RSS stations will be systematically tested during performance of this procedure. It should be noted that these are not physical abort coils but software coils controlled by the software's ladder logic. The readiness of the DACS to properly interface with the ENRAF wire level gauge installed in the SY-101 storage tank will also be tested. During this test, a verification of all abort coil indications will be conducted at the DACS Development Facility in the 306E Building by injecting an input signal for each DACS sensor that has an associated abort coil until the abort coil actuates, and then ensuring that the status of the abort coil indicated at the Master and RSS stations is correct. Each abort coil will also be tested to ensure that the ''ENABLE'' and ''DISABLE'' controls from the Master and RSS stations function correctly, and only with the use of proper passwords

  15. Coil Optimization for High Temperature Superconductor Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents topology optimization of HTS racetrack coils for large HTS synchronous machines. The topology optimization is used to acquire optimal coil designs for the excitation system of 3 T HTS machines. Several tapes are evaluated and the optimization results are discussed. The optimiz...

  16. Novel transcranial magnetic stimulation coil for mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Stephen; Stark, Spencer; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) shows potential for non-invasive treatment of various neurological disorders. Significant work has been performed on the design of coils used for TMS on human subjects but few reports have been made on the design of coils for use on the brains of animals such as mice. This work is needed as TMS studies utilizing mice can allow rapid preclinical development of TMS for human disorders but the coil designs developed for use on humans are inadequate for optimal stimulation of the much smaller mouse brain. A novel TMS coil has been developed with the goal of inducing strong and focused electric fields for the stimulation of small animals such as mice. Calculations of induced electric fields were performed utilizing an MRI derived inhomogeneous model of an adult male mouse. Mechanical and thermal analysis of this new TMS helmet-coil design have also been performed at anticipated TMS operating conditions to ensure mechanical stability of the new coil and establish expected linear attraction and rotational force values. Calculated temperature increases for typical stimulation periods indicate the helmet-coil system is capable of operating within established medical standards. A prototype of the coil has been fabricated and characterization results are presented.

  17. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorodzki, P.; Piatkowski, A.; Wasielewski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  18. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T Y

    2010-12-01

    The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.

  19. Composite coils for toroidal field coils and method of using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R. G.; Trujillo, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    A composite toroidal field (TF) generating means consisting of segmented magnetic coil windings is disclosed. Each coil winding of the TF generating means consists of a copper or copper alloy conductor segment and an aluminum or aluminum alloy conductor segment. The conductor segments are joined at a high strength, low electrical resistance joint and the joint may either be a mechanical or metallurgical one. The use of the aluminum or aluminum alloy conductor segments improves the neutron economy of the reactor with which the TF coil is associated and reduces TF coil nuclear heating and heating gradients, and activation in the TF coils

  20. Startup of Large Coil Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Bohanan, R.E.; Fietz, W.A.; Luton, J.N.; May, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being used to test superconducting toroidal field coils about one-third the size of those for INTOR. Eventually, six different coils from four countries will be tested. Operations began in 1983 with acceptance testing of the helium refrigerator/liquefier system. Comprehensive shakedown of the facility and tests with the first three coils (from Japan, the United States, and Switzerland) were successfully accomplished in the summer of 1984. Currents up to 10,200 A and fields up to 6.4 T were reached. Data were obtained on performance of refrigerator, helium distribution, power supplies, controls, and data acquisition systems and on the acoustic emission, voltages, currents, and mechanical strains during charging and discharging the coils

  1. Startup of Large Coil Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Bohanan, R.E.; Fietz, W.A.; Luton, J.N.; May, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) is being used to test superconducting toroidal field coils about one-third the size of those for INTOR. Eventually, six different coils from four countries will be tested. Operations began in 1983 with acceptance testing of the helium refrigerator/liquefier system. Comprehensive shakedown of the facility and tests with the first three coils (from Japan, the United States, and Switzerland) were successfully accomplished in the summer of 1984. Currents up to 10,200 A and fields up to 6.4 T were reached. Data were obtained on performance of refrigerator, helium distribution, power supplies, controls, and data acquisition systems and on the acoustic emission, voltages, currents, and mechanical strains during charging and discharging the coils

  2. Effects of passive coils on spheromak gross MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, C.; Janos, A.; Paul, S.; Wysocki, F.; Yamada, M.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental investigation of the effectiveness of figure-8 coils in stabilizing the n=1 tilting mode of spheromak plasmas in Proto S-1 A/B is extended. In addition, another coil configuration, the saddle coil, is examined

  3. Numerical study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of slush nitrogen in a corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. J.; Wu, S. Q.; Jin, T.

    2017-12-01

    Slush nitrogen has lower temperature, higher density and higher heat capacity than that of liquid nitrogen at normal boiling point. It is considered to be a potential coolant for high-temperature superconductive cables (HTS) that would decrease nitrogen consumption and storage cost. The corrugated pipe can help with the enhancement of heat transfer and flexibility of the coolants for HTS cables. In this paper, a 3-D Euler-Euler two-fluid model has been developed to study the flow and heat transfer characteristics of slush nitrogen in a horizontal helically corrugated pipe. By comparing with the empirical formula for pressure drop, the numerical model is confirmed to be effective for the prediction of slush nitrogen flow in corrugated pipes. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of slush nitrogen in a horizontal pipe at various working conditions (inlet solid fraction of 0-20%, inlet velocity of 0-3 m/s, heat flux of 0-12 kW/m2) have been analyzed. The friction factor of slush nitrogen is lower than that of subcooled liquid nitrogen when the slush Reynolds number is higher than 4.2×104. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient of slush nitrogen flow in the corrugated pipe is higher than that of subcooled liquid nitrogen at velocities which is higher than that 1.76 m/s, 0.91 m/s and 0.55 m/s for slush nitrogen with solid fraction of 5%, 10% and 20%, respectively. The slush nitrogen has been confirmed to have better heat transfer performance and lower pressure drop instead of using liquid nitrogen flowing through a helically corrugated pipe.

  4. Impact analyses after pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, R.C.; Chuang, T.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two of the French pipe whip experiments are reproduced with the computer code WIPS. The WIPS results are in good agreement with the experimental data and the French computer code TEDEL. This justifies the use of its pipe element in conjunction with its U-bar element in a simplified method of impact analyses

  5. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven

  6. Pulsed TIG welding of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killing, U.

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigates into the effects of impulse welding parameters on weld geometry in the joint welding of thin-walled sheets and pipes (d=2.5 mm), and it uses random samples of thick-walled sheets and pipes (d=10 mm), in fixed positions. (orig./MM) [de

  7. Functional capability of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, D.; Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1992-11-01

    General Design Criterion I of Appendix A to Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations requires, in part, that structures, systems, and components important to safety be designed to withstand the effects of earthquakes without a loss of capability to perform their safety function. ne function of a piping system is to convey fluids from one location to another. The functional capability of a piping system might be lost if, for example, the cross-sectional flow area of the pipe were deformed to such an extent that the required flow through the pipe would be restricted. The objective of this report is to examine the present rules in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, and potential changes to these rules, to determine if they are adequate for ensuring the functional capability of safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants

  8. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  9. A ferrite LTCC based dual purpose helical antenna providing bias for tunability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2015-03-30

    Typically, magnetically tunable antennas utilize large external magnets or coils to provide the magneto-static bias. In this work, we present a novel concept of combining the antenna and the bias coil in one structure. A helical antenna has been optimized to act as the bias coil in a ten layer ferrite LTCC package, thus performing two functions. This not only reduces the overall size of the system by getting rid of the external bias source but also eliminates demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-to-substrate interface), which reduces the required magneto-static field strength and makes the design efficient. RF choking inductor and DC blocking capacitor have been monolithically integrated as package elements to allow the magnetostatic and microwave excitation at the same time. The design has been optimized for its low frequency and high frequency performance in two different simulators. A measured tuning range of 10% is achieved at a center frequency of 13 GHz. The design is highly suitable for low cost, compact, light-weight and tunable microwave systems. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

  10. A ferrite LTCC based dual purpose helical antenna providing bias for tunability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Typically, magnetically tunable antennas utilize large external magnets or coils to provide the magneto-static bias. In this work, we present a novel concept of combining the antenna and the bias coil in one structure. A helical antenna has been optimized to act as the bias coil in a ten layer ferrite LTCC package, thus performing two functions. This not only reduces the overall size of the system by getting rid of the external bias source but also eliminates demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-to-substrate interface), which reduces the required magneto-static field strength and makes the design efficient. RF choking inductor and DC blocking capacitor have been monolithically integrated as package elements to allow the magnetostatic and microwave excitation at the same time. The design has been optimized for its low frequency and high frequency performance in two different simulators. A measured tuning range of 10% is achieved at a center frequency of 13 GHz. The design is highly suitable for low cost, compact, light-weight and tunable microwave systems. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

  11. Control of the Resistive Wall Mode with Internal Coils in the DIII-D Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabayashi, M.; Bialek, J.; Bondeson, A.

    2005-01-01

    New coils were installed inside the vacuum vessel of the DIII-D device for producing nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields. These 'Internal-Coils' are predicted to stabilize the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) branch of the long-wavelength external kink mode with plasma beta close to the ideal wall limit. Feedback using these new Internal-Coils was found to be more effective when compared with using the External-Coils located outside the vacuum vessel, because the location inside the vessel allows faster response and their geometry also couples better to the helical mode structure. A proper choice of feedback gain increased the plasma beta above the no-wall limit to C β ≥ 0.9, where C β is a measure of achievable beta above no-wall limit defined as (β-β no-wall.limit )/(β ideal.wall.limit )-)/(β no.wall.limit ). The feedback system with Internal-Coils can suppress the RWM up to the normalized growth rate γτ w > or ∼ 10 (τ w is the resistive flux penetration time of the wall). The feedback-driven dynamic error field correction helps to stabilize the RWM by reducing the rotational drag for Ω rot > Ω crit , where Ω rot is the angular rotation frequency of plasma and Ω crit is the critical value for the rotational stabilization. When Ω rot crit /2, the feedback system must stabilize the RWM mainly through direct magnetic control of the mode. The estimated Ω crit /Ω A is ∼ 2.5% by the MARS-F code analysis with experimentally observed profiles, where /Ω A is the Alfven angular rotational frequency at q 2 surface. The MARS-F code also predicts that for successful RWM magnetic feedback control the power supply characteristic time should be a fraction of the growth time of the targeted RWM. (author)

  12. Dynamic helical CT mammography of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira; Fukushima, Hitoshi; Okamura, Ryuji; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Morimoto, Taisuke; Urata, Yoji; Mukaihara, Sumio; Hayakawa, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dynamic helical computed tomography (CT)-mammography could assist in selecting the most appropriate surgical method in women with breast cancer. Preoperative contrast-enhanced helical CT scanning of the breast was performed on 133 female patients with suspicion of breast cancer at the same time as clinical, mammographic, and/or ultrasonographic examinations. The patients were scanned in the prone position with a specially designed CT-compatible device. A helical scan was made with rapid intravenous bolus injection (3 ml/s) of 100 ml of iodine contrast material. Three-dimensional maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were reconstructed, and CT findings were correlated with surgical and histopathological findings. Histopathological analysis revealed 84 malignant lesions and seven benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy levels of the CT scanning were 94.6%, 58.6%, and 78.9%. Helical scanning alone revealed additional contralateral carcinomas in three of four patients and additional ipsilateral carcinomas in three of five patients. However, the technique gave false-positive readings in 24 patients. The preoperative CT-mammogram altered the surgical method in six patients. Dynamic helical CT-mammography in the prone position may be one of the choices of adjunct imaging in patients with suspected breast cancer scheduled for surgery. (author)

  13. Introduction to the m = 1 helicity source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platts, D.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Wright, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The m = 1 Helicity Source, formerly called the Kinked Z-pinch, was developed as part of the Electrode Studies program at Los Alamos. The Electrode Studies program was initiated to study the control of electrode erosion in long discharge duration spheromak sources. Erosion control is necessary to reduce plasma impurities and to obtain adequate electrode lifetimes. The first task of the Electrode Studies program is to determine, from among a variety of configurations including the coaxial one, a helicity source geometry with good prospects for erosion control. The more efficient the helicity source the easier it will be to control erosion, but the source most also be easy to diagnose and modify if it is to be a useful test bed. The various erosion control techniques which have been proposed will require extensive experimentation to evaluate and optimize. Proposed techniques include, using refractory metals, profiling of the electrodes and magnetic fields, and various gas injection schemes including porous electrodes. It is considered necessary to do these experiments on an optimized helicity source so that the electrode geometries and plasma properties will be relevant. Therefore the present Electrode Studies program is aimed at developing an improved helicity source design

  14. Minimization of the external heating power by long fusion power rise-up time for self-ignition access in the helical reactor FFHR2m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitarai, O.; Sagara, A.; Chikaraishi, H.; Imagawa, S.; Shishkin, A.A.; Motojima, O.

    2006-10-01

    Minimization of the external heating power to access self-ignition is advantageous to increase the reactor design flexibility and to reduce the capital and operating costs of the plasma heating device in a helical reactor. In this work we have discovered that a larger density limit leads to a smaller value of the required confinement enhancement factor, lower density limit margin reduces the external heating power, and over 300 s of the fusion power rise-up time makes it possible to reach a minimized heating power. While the fusion power rise-up time in a tokamak is limited by the OH transformer flux or the current drive capability, any fusion power rise-up time can be employed in a helical reactor for reducing the thermal stresses of the blanket and shields, because the confinement field is generated by the external helical coils. (author)

  15. Missense mutation in DISC1 C-terminal coiled-coil has GSK3β signaling and sex-dependent behavioral effects in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachtler, James; Elliott, Christina; Rodgers, R. John; Baillie, George S.; Clapcote, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk factor for schizophrenia and affective disorders. The full-length DISC1 protein consists of an N-terminal ‘head’ domain and a C-terminal tail domain that contains several predicted coiled-coils, structural motifs involved in protein-protein interactions. To probe the in vivo effects of missense mutation of DISC1’s C-terminal tail, we tested mice carrying mutation D453G within a predicted α-helical coiled-coil region. We report that, relative to wild-type littermates, female DISC1D453G mice exhibited novelty-induced hyperlocomotion, an anxiogenic profile in the elevated plus-maze and open field tests, and reduced social exploration of unfamiliar mice. Male DISC1D453G mice displayed a deficit in passive avoidance, while neither males nor females exhibited any impairment in startle reactivity or prepulse inhibition. Whole brain homogenates showed normal levels of DISC1 protein, but decreased binding of DISC1 to GSK3β, decreased phospho-inhibition of GSK3β at serine 9, and decreased levels of β-catenin in DISC1D453G mice of either sex. Interrupted GSK3β signaling may thus be part of the mechanism underlying the behavioral phenotype associated with D453G, in common with the previously described N-terminal domain mutations Q31L and L100P in mice, and the schizophrenia risk-conferring variant R264Q in humans. PMID:26728762

  16. Measurement of the ductile to brittle transition temperature for waste tank cooling coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.

    1992-09-01

    Charpy impact tests were conducted on ASTM A106 carbon steel archived from SRS waste tanks to determine the susceptibility of the cooling coils to brittle fracture during a seismic event. The highest ductile to brittle transition temperature measured was -5 degree F and, with the addition of a 30 degree F safety factor, the minimum safe operating temperature was determined to be 25 degree F. Calculations also showed that a pre-existing circumferential flaw that is 2.2in. long would be necessary to initiate brittle fracture of the pipe. These results demonstrate that the pipes will not be susceptible to brittle fracture if the cooling water inlet temperature is lowered to 50 degree F. Visual observation of the inner and outer walls of the pipe showed no localized attack or significant wall thinning. A 100--200 micron zinc coating is probably the reason for the lack of corrosion. A build-up of zinc slag occurred at pipe fittings where the weld had burned through. Although no attack was observed, the slag created several crevices which have the potential to trap the chromated water and initiate localized attack

  17. Switching transients in a superconducting coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to performance tests on the MFTF Yin-yang coils. It is found that the breaker opening time is the critical factor in determining the size and shape of the transient. Instantaneous opening of the breaker causes a lightly damped transient with large amplitude voltages to ground. Increasing the opening time causes the transient to become a monopulse of decreasing amplitude. The voltages at the external terminals are determined by the parameters of the external circuit. For fast opening times the frequency depends on the dump resistor inductance, the circuit capacitance, and the amplitude on the coil current. For slower openings the dump resistor inductance and the current determine the amplitude of the voltage to ground at the terminals. Voltages to ground are less in the interior of the coil, where transients related to the parameters of the coil itself are observed

  18. Correcting coils in end magnets of accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. P. Kassab

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical investigation of the correcting coils behavior used to homogenize the field distribution of the race-track microtron accelerator end magnets. These end magnets belong to the second stage of the 30.0 MeV cw electron accelerator under construction at IFUSP, the race-track microtron booster, in which the beam energy is raised from 1.97 to 5.1 MeV. The correcting coils are attached to the pole faces and are based on the inhomogeneities of the magnetic field measured. The performance of these coils, when operating the end magnets with currents that differ by ±10% from the one used in the mappings that originated the coils copper leads, is presented. For one of the magnets, adjusting conveniently the current of the correcting coils makes it possible to homogenize field distributions of different intensities, once their shapes are practically identical to those that originated the coils. For the other one, the shapes are changed and the coils are less efficient. This is related to intrinsic factors that determine the inhomogeneities. However, we obtained uniformity of 0.001% in both cases.

  19. Waste pipe calculus extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The waste pipe calculus provides a rapid method, using Laplace transforms, to calculate the transport of a pollutant such as nuclear waste, by a network of one-dimensional flow paths. The present note extends previous work as follows: (1) It provides an alternate approximation to the time-domain function (inverse Laplace transform) for the resulting transport. This algebraic approximation may be viewed as a simpler and more approximate model of the transport process. (2) It identifies two scalar quantities which may be used as summary consequence measures of the waste transport (or inversely, waste retention) system, and provides algebraic expressions for them. (3) It includes the effects of radioactive decay on the scalar quantity results, and further provides simplifying approximations for the cases of medium and long half-lives. This algebraic method can be used for quick approximate analyses of expected results, uncertainty and sensitivity, in evaluating selection and design choices for nuclear waste disposal systems

  20. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs