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Sample records for helianthus petiolaris results

  1. Reconstructing the origin of Helianthus deserticola: Survival and selection on the desert floor

    Gross, B.L.; Kane, D.L.; Lexer, C.; Ludwig, F.; Rosenthal, D.R.; Donovan, L.A.; Rieseberg, L.H.

    2004-01-01

    The diploid hybrid species Helianthus deserticola inhabits the desert floor, an extreme environment relative to its parental species Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris. Adaptation to the desert floor may have occurred via selection acting on transgressive, or extreme, traits in early

  2. Translocation of 11C from leaves of Helianthus: preliminary results

    Fensom, D.S.; Aikman, D.; Scobie, J.; Drinkwater, A.; Ledingham, K.W.O.

    1977-01-01

    11 C fed to leaves as 11 CO 2 was used to study the dynamics of short-term translocation of photosynthate in Helianthus. As in 14 C studies small amounts of tracer were often detected in the stem close to the fed leaf in th first 5 min, followed by a larger mass flow after 15 min. The speed of mass flow of tracer movement was calculated to be 60 to 400 cm.h -1 depending on the method of calculation. There was no evidence in the premass flow for discrete spots along the stem or petiole where tracer accumulated. Neither was there firm evidence for pulses of tracer moving steadily forward, but there were point fluctuations of greater variability than would be expected by chance alone, which suggest the possibility of aberrations of movement superimposed on the mass flow. Details of these aberrations could not be assessed with certainty from these preliminary experiments owing to the rather low tracer activity. The translocation profiles were sensitive to the prior light conditioning of the plant and above all to chilling. In Helianthus the latter produced temporary restrictions in translocation which lasted for some 10-12 min. (author)

  3. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  4. Rapid screening and distribution of bioactive compounds in different parts of Berberis petiolaris using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Awantika Singh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berberis petiolaris Wall. ex G. Don, an unexplored medicinal plant belonging to the family Berberidaceae, is a large deciduous shrub found in Western Himalaya between 1800–3000 m. Chemical profiling of fruit, leaf, root and stem was done by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analysis for discrimination among the plant parts. The bioactive compounds, including magnoflorine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, thalifendine/berberrubine, demethyleneberberine, reticuline, 8-oxoberberine, N-methyltetrahydroberberine, tetrahydropalmatine, tetrahydroberberine and palmatine, were identified by their exact mass measurement and the corresponding molecular formula of each compound. A comparative study of distribution pattern for all these bioactive alkaloids showed qualitative and quantitative variations in different parts of B. petiolaris. Principal component analysis clearly discriminated each part of B. petiolaris plant. Keywords: Berberis petiolaris, Alkaloids, Profiling, DART–TOF–MS, Statistical analysis

  5. Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... The first frost kills the stems and leaves, but tubers withstand freezing for months. Average tuber yields of 16 to 20 ton/ha may be expected from crops grown under ordinary farm conditions. Yields of tops for forage average are 18 to 28 ton/ha green weight (Duke,. 1983). The effect of cutting of Helianthus ...

  6. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  7. Genotyping-by-sequencing uncovers the introgression alien segments associated with Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance from wild species—I. Helianthus argophyllus and H. petiolaris

    Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease in sunflower worldwide. The progress of breeding for Sclerotinia BSR resistance has been hampered due to the lack of effective sources of resistance for cultivated sunflower. Our objective was to transfer BSR resista...

  8. MEDICAL IMPORTANCE OF HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS- A REVIEW

    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2018-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of Helianthus tuberosus showed that it contained coumarins, unsaturated fatty acids, polyacetylenic derivatives, phenols, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, protein, amino acid, reducing sugars, organic acids, lactones and cardiac glycoside. The pharmacological investigations revealed that Helianthus tuberosus exerted antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal and α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity, as well as it produced inulin which used as functional food and possesse...

  9. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP.

  10. Triploid Production from Interspecific Crosses of Two Diploid Perennial Helianthus with Diploid Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Liu, Zhao; Seiler, Gerald J; Gulya, Thomas J; Feng, Jiuhuan; Rashid, Khalid Y; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2017-04-03

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. & G. and H. maximiliani Schr. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analyses indicated that the triploid F 1 s had two genomes from the wild pollen sources and one from the cultivated line. Mitotic chromosome analyses indicated that the frequency of triploid progenies from the crosses of cultivated lines × H. nuttallii accession 102 (N102) was significantly higher than those of unexpected polyploid progenies from the crosses of wild perennial species × N102, and no unexpected polyploids were obtained from the reverse crosses. Pollen stainability analysis suggested the existence of a low percentage of unreduced (2 n ) male gametes in some accessions, especially N102 and H. maximiliani accession 1113 (M1113), which were generated at the telophase II and tetrad stages of meiosis. The triploid F 1 s could be the results of preferred fertilization of the low frequency of 2 n male gametes with the female gametes of the cultivated sunflower, due to the dosage factors related to recognition and rejection of foreign pollen during fertilization. The triploids have been used to produce amphiploids and aneuploids. Future studies of the male gametes' fate from pollination through fertilization will further uncover the mechanism of this whole genome transmission. Studies of the genetic control of this trait will facilitate research on sunflower polyploidy speciation and evolution, and the utilization of this trait in sunflower breeding. Copyright © 2017 Liu et al.

  11. Enhanced phytoextraction: II. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on heavy metal uptake by Helianthus annuus from a calcareous soil.

    Lesage, E; Meers, E; Vervaeke, P; Lamsal, S; Hopgood, M; Tack, F M G; Verloo, M G

    2005-01-01

    High biomass producing plant species, such as Helianthus annuus, have potential for removing large amounts of trace metals by harvesting the aboveground biomass if sufficient metal concentrations in their biomass can be achieved However, the low bioavailability of heavy metals in soils and the limited translocation of heavy metals to the shoots by most high biomass producing plant species limit the efficiency of the phytoextraction process. Amendment of a contaminated soil with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citric acid increases soluble heavy metal concentrations, potentially rendering them more available for plant uptake. This article discusses the effects of EDTA and citric acid on the uptake of heavy metals and translocation to aboveground harvestable plant parts in Helianthus annuus. EDTA was included in the research for comparison purposes in our quest for less persistent alternatives, suitable for enhanced phytoextraction. Plants were grown in a calcareous soil moderately contaminated with Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd and treated with increasing concentrations of EDTA (0.1, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 mmol kg(-1) soil) or citric acid (0.01, 0.05, 0.25, 0.442, and 0.5 mol kg(-1) soil). Heavy metal concentrations in harvested shoots increased with EDTA concentration but the actual amount of phytoextracted heavy metals decreased at high EDTA concentrations, due to severe growth depression. Helianthus annuus suffered heavy metal stress due to the significantly increased bioavailable metal fraction in the soil. The rapid mineralization of citric acid and the high buffering capacity of the soil made citric acid inefficient in increasing the phytoextracted amounts of heavy metals. Treatments that did not exceed the buffering capacity of the soil (heavy metal concentrations. Treatments with high concentrations resulted in a dissolution of the carbonates and compaction of the soil. These physicochemical changes caused growth depression of Helianthus annuus. EDTA and citric

  12. Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons activity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    2009-01-01

    Background Retrotransposons are heterogeneous sequences, widespread in eukaryotic genomes, which refer to the so-called mobile DNA. They resemble retroviruses, both in their structure and for their ability to transpose within the host genome, of which they make up a considerable portion. Copia- and Gypsy-like retrotransposons are the two main classes of retroelements shown to be ubiquitous in plant genomes. Ideally, the retrotransposons life cycle results in the synthesis of a messenger RNA and then self-encoded proteins to process retrotransposon mRNA in double stranded extra-chromosomal cDNA copies which may integrate in new chromosomal locations. Results The RT-PCR and IRAP protocol were applied to detect the presence of Copia and Gypsy retrotransposon transcripts and of new events of integration in unstressed plants of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) selfed line. Results show that in sunflower retrotransposons transcription occurs in all analyzed organs (embryos, leaves, roots, and flowers). In one out of sixty-four individuals analyzed, retrotransposons transcription resulted in the integration of a new element into the genome. Conclusion These results indicate that the retrotransposon life cycle is firmly controlled at a post transcriptional level. A possible silencing mechanism is discussed. PMID:20030800

  13. Growth and phenology of jerusalem artichoke (helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Paungbut, D.; Vorasoot, N.; Patanothai, A.; Jogloy, S.

    2015-01-01

    A standardized, accurate, and easy system is needed to describe Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) plant development. Therefore, this study was designed to define stages of development descriptions for Jerusalem artichoke. Field experiments were conducted during early rainy season and the post rainy season of 2011 and 2012. Data were collected and uniform growth stage descriptions, based on visually observable events, were developed for the vegetative (V), reproductive (R) and tuberization (T) stages. The V stage was determined by counting the number of developed nodes on the main axis of the Jerusalem artichoke, beginning with emergence of the sprout seedling and ending with the initial visual appearance of the inflorescence. The proposed R stages include R1 (Floral bud formation), R2 (beginning bloom), R3 (flowering), R4 (beginning of anthesis), R5 (seed set) and R6 (seed maturity). The T stage include T1 (stolonization), T2 (tuber initiation), T3 (tuber formation), T4 (tuber bulking), T5 (skin set) and T6 (tuber maturity). The V, R and T stages can be measured separately and concurrently and apply to populations or single plants. The present study revealed that reproductive and tuberization development occurred more rapidly in the post-rainy season than in the early-rainy season. The proposed standard descriptions of Jerusalem artichoke development will help research and extension personnel better communicate results and recommendations related to this crop. (author)

  14. Allelopathic potential of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) on soil ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... The effect of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) variety, namely Hysun 38, on metals and of aqueous extracts of its leaves on germination in two varieties of wheat, namely Margalla 99 and Chakwall 97, were studied under laboratory conditions. In particular, the effect of leaf extract on hormones produced ...

  15. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance breeding utilizing wild Helianthus species

    Wild Helianthus species possess valuable resistance genes for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.), especially the 39 largely under-utilized perennial species. Resistance to race F has been transferred into cultivated background via bridging of interspecific amphiploids. More recently, a si...

  16. Triploid production from interspecific crosses of two diploid perennial Helianthus with cultivated sunflower

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic source for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. &. G. ...

  17. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  18. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower

    Terzić Sreten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.

  19. Effects of gamma radiation on stem diameter growth, carbon gain and biomass partitioning in Helianthus annuus

    Thiede, M.E.; Link, S.O.; Fellows, R.J.; Beedlow, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the effects of gamma radiation on stem diameter growth, carbon gain, and biomass partitioning, 19-day-old dwarf sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus, variety NK894) were given variable doses (0–40 Gy) from a 60Co gamma source. Exposure of plants to gamma radiation caused a significant reduction in stem growth and root biomass. Doses as low as 5 Gy resulted in a significant increase in leaf density, suggesting that very low doses of radiation could induce morphological growth changes. Carbohydrate analysis of plants exposed to 40 Gy demonstrated significantly more starch content in leaves and significantly less in stems 18 days after exposure compared with control plants. In contrast, the carbohydrate content of the roots of plants exposed to 40 Gy was not significantly different from non-irradiated plants 18 days after exposure. (author)

  20. Elimination of natural uranium and 226Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration using Helianthus annuus L

    Vera Tome, F.; Blanco Rodriguez, P.; Lozano, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The elimination of natural uranium and 226 Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium. Different experiments were designed to determine the optimum age of the seedlings for the remediation process, and also to study the principal way in which the radionuclides are removed from the solution by the sunflower roots. In every trial a precipitate appeared which contained a major fraction of the natural uranium and 226 Ra. The results indicated that the seedlings themselves induced the formation of this precipitate. When four-week-old seedlings were exposed to contaminated water, a period of only 2 days was sufficient to remove the natural uranium and 226 Ra from the solution: about 50% of the natural uranium and 70% of the 226 Ra were fixed in the roots, and essentially the rest was found in the precipitate, with only very small percentages fixed in the shoots and left in solution

  1. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide.

  2. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductase genes.

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the enoyl-[ACP]-reductase, which reduces the dehydrated product of β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydrase using NADPH or NADH. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two enoyl-[ACP]-reductase genes have been identified and cloned from developing seeds with 75 % identity: HaENR1 (GenBank HM021137) and HaENR2 (HM021138). The two genes belong to the ENRA and ENRB families in dicotyledons, respectively. The genetic duplication most likely originated after the separation of di- and monocotyledons. RT-qPCR revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Highest expression of HaENR1 was in roots, stems and developing cotyledons whereas that of H a ENR2 was in leaves and early stages of seed development. Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single-copy genes. In vivo activity of the ENR enzymes was tested by complementation experiments with the JP1111 fabI(ts) E. coli strain. Both enzymes were functional demonstrating that they interacted with the bacterial FAS components. That different fatty acid profiles resulted infers that the two Helianthus proteins have different structures, substrate specificities and/or reaction rates. The latter possibility was confirmed by in vitro analysis with affinity-purified heterologous-expressed enzymes that reduced the crotonyl-CoA substrate using NADH with different V max.

  3. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Michael Benjamin Kantar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives (CWR are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap and asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L. were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups, geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation.

  4. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Kantar, Michael B.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Khoury, Colin K.; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C.; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  5. Solid phase fermentation of Helianthus tuberosus for ethanol

    Baerwald, G.; Hamad, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    The direct fermentation of pure inulin and hammer mill crushed Helianthus tuberosus tubers (topinambur, Jerusalem artichoke) was studied using two heat-tolerant yeasts, namely Kluyveromyces marxianus and Candida kefyr. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae was included in the study so as to compare the yields of these two yeasts with that of a commercial distiller's yeast. The inulin fermentation was carried out in an 18-L bioreactor using the fed-batch and the batch-fermentation methods. The final ethanol concentration was 6.1% (L/L) which represents 82% of the theoretical yield. Commercial scale experiments with hammer mill crushed tubers gave yields lower than those found in the laboratory: 69% of the theoretical yield for direct fermentation without enzyme addition, and about 91% when cellolytic enzymes were added.

  6. Seed Germination and Physiological Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cultivars under Saline Conditions

    Carmen BEINSAN

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to highlight the germination of sunflower seeds affected by the presence of saline stress and the identification of tolerant genotypes. The biological material was represented by sunflower cvs. (Helianthus annuus L.: Coril, Select, Santiago and Fundulea-206. To simulate the saline conditions, germination solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl were used with concentrations corresponding to the osmotic pressures -6 and -10 atm and the control seed hydration was performed with distilled water. Determination of seed germination, growth of seedling, percentage of plumules dry matter, chlorophyll content and free proline were performed. The experimental data obtained suppose the existence in the assimilation apparatus of sunflowers seedling subjected to stress a competitive chlorophyll/free proline biosynthesis processes. The experimental results regarding the effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth revealed important differences between genotypes. The radicle growth in the germination process were strongly affected by saline excess, with significant differences between cultivars. Saline stress results in significant reductions in the amount of chlorophyll, and high levels of free proline. It can be observed that with the increase of the stress level the percentage of the dry matter increases, indicating an accentuated water deficit.

  7. Biosurfactant-assisted phytoremediation of multi-contaminated industrial soil using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Liduino, Vitor S; Servulo, Eliana F C; Oliveira, Fernando J S

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of commercial rhamnolipid biosurfactant supplementation in the phytoremediation of a soil via sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivation. The soil, obtained from an industrial area, was co-contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons. The remediation tests were monitored for 90 days. The best results for removal of contaminants were obtained from the tests in which the sunflower plants were cultivated in soil with 4 mg kg -1 of the rhamnolipid. Under these conditions, reductions of 58% and 48% were obtained in the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, respectively; reductions in the concentrations of the following metals were also achieved: Ni (41%), Cr (30%), Pb (29%), and Zn (20%). The PCR-DGGE analysis of soil samples collected before and after the treatments verified that the plant cultivation and biosurfactants supplementation had little effect on the structure of the dominant bacterial community in the soil. The results indicated that sunflower cultivation with the addition of a biosurfactant is a viable and efficient technology to treat soils co-contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  8. IN VITRO PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS BY Helianthus annuus L. PLANTS

    Marcos V. de Almeida

    Full Text Available Plant model systems are needed to properly conduct basic laboratory studies prior to field applications of phytoremediation. In vitro plant cultures are a useful tool for such research. This study focuses on the removal and/or degradation of 24 persistent organic pollutants under in vitro conditions by Helianthus annuus L (sunflower. The main purpose of exploiting this plant for phytoremediation process is due to its strong adaptability to adverse environments conditions such as resistance to pests, disease, and others. The study of bioremediation effects of all chemical molecules under in vitro conditions showed promising results. Sixteen out of twenty-four compounds evaluated reached up to 87% for remediation. The highest accumulation of pollutants was observed in the roots, showing that these results are consistent with the current literature. Through the study, it was observed effective absorption of POPs with logKow ranging from 4.50 to 6.91. Sunflower phytoremediation process efficiently detected heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, trans-chlordane, chlordane, dieldrin, DDE, DDT, methoxychlor, mirex and decachlorobiphenyl.

  9. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs and 60Co by Helianthus annuus

    Hornik, M.; Pipiska, M.; Vrtoch, L.; Augustin, J.; Lesny, J.

    2005-01-01

    The 60 Co and 137 Cs bioaccumulation by Helianthus annuus L. was measured during 9 day cultivation at 20 ± 2 o C in hydroponic Hoagland medium. Previous starvation for K + and for NH 4 + 2.2 and 2.7 times, respectively, enhanced 137 Cs uptake rate. Previous cultivation in surplus of K + ions 50 mmol·l -1 has no effect on 137 Cs bioaccumulation rate. Both 137 Cs and 60 Co bioaccumulation significantly increase with dilution of basic Hoagland medium up to 1:7 for caesium and up to 1:3 for cobalt followed by mild decrease at higher dilutions. Root to shoot specific 137 Cs radioactivity ratio (Bq.g -1 /Bq·g -1 , fresh wt.) increased with dilution from 1.46 to 9.6-9.8. The values root to shoot specific radioactivity ratio for 60 Co were less dependent on the nutrient concentrations and were within the range 5.7 to 8.5. 137 Cs was localized mainly in young leaves (30%) and roots (39%) and 60 Co mainly in roots (67%) and leaves (20%). Obtained data showed less sensitivity of 60 Co uptake by sunflower on nutrient concentration in hydroponic media. (author)

  10. Helianthus annuus L. production using organic fertilization with manipueira

    Thiago Costa Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an annual plant native to the Americas. Is a grain-producing species with a high oil content, which can be used as a source of biodiesel as well as fodder. The cassava is a liquid derived from the cassava flour production. This organic waste can be used in agriculture due to its high content of nutrients such as, K, N, P, Ca, Mg and S and also avoiding harm the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the productivity of sunflower using organic fertilization with cassava. The experiment was conducted under field conditions at Lagoa Seca, PB State, and were analyzed the total production (PS, dry mass of the inflorescence (FCA, dry mass of seeds and inflorescence (FSC and total dry biomass (FT. The highest yield (934.52 kg ha-1 was obtained with no applied cassava. The dosage of 250 mL of cassava yielded maximum values for dry mass of the inflorescence (2,380 kg ha-1 and dry matter of the seeds and inflorescence (3,432 kg ha-1, promoting a increase of 32.03% and 132.55% respectively when compared to the control treatment. The higher value of total biomass was 28,017 kg ha-1 when applied 375 mL of manipueria. The cassava as a source of organic fertilizer favors the dry matter accumulation of sunflower without raising the grain yield.

  11. Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser (Asteraceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We document the naturalization of the New World Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser in central Taiwan. A taxonomic treatment, line drawings, and color photographs of this species from the wild are provided to aid in identification. This represents the first report of Helianthus species in Taiwan. The colony of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius was first observed in Taiwan in 1999. During our field survey in 2007 we witnessed the significant range expansion though the coast of Changhua County. The potential of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius to become an invasive species in Taiwan is worthy of attention.

  12. Phytoremediation of heavy metal copper (Cu2+) by sunflower (Helianthus annuus l.)

    Mahardika, G.; Rinanti, A.; Fachrul, M. F.

    2018-01-01

    A study in microcosmic condition has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of Helianthus annuus as a hyperaccumulator plant for heavy metal, Copper (Cu2+), that exposed in the soil. Artificial pollutants containing Copper (Cu2+) 0, 60, 120, 180 ppm are exposed to uncontaminated soil. The 12-weeks old H. annuus seedling were grown in Cu2+ contaminated soil, with variations of absorption time 3, 6, and 9 weeks. Analysis of Cu2+ concentration on soil and H. annuus (root, stem, leaf) was analised by Atomic Absorbtion Spectrometry (AAS). H. annuus are capable for Cu2+ removal, and the highest removal of Cu2+ is 85.56%, the highest metal accumulation/bioconcentration factor (BCF) is 0.99 occurred at roots with 9 weeks of exposure time and the highest translocation factor (TF) is 0.71. This highest removal is five times better than absorption by stems and leaves. The results concluded, the use of H. annuus for phytoextraction of heavy metals Cu2+ in contaminated soil can be an alternative to the absorption of heavy metal Cu2+ with low concentration metals which is generally very difficult to do in physical-chemical removal.

  13. Sorption characteristics of pectin isolated from Jerusalem Artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    N. Toshkov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the present study is the isolation of pectin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. and the analysis of its sorption characteristics Materials and methods. Research was carried out on the pectin content of the tubers of Jerusalem artichoke plants cultivated in Bulgaria. The polyuronide content (PUC was determined via the МсCready method. The static gravimetric method was used for analysis of the sorption characteristics of pectins. Results and discussion. The polysaccharide was extracted. The isolated pectins were analyzed in physical terms: the equilibrium sorption isotherms, belonging to type II in Brunauer’s classification, were obtained experimentally. The entire isotherm length demonstrated statistically significant hysteresis. The Henderson and Chung-Pfost models provided adequate isotherm description. The pectin content of the three Jerusalem artichoke samples is 14.8, 9.2 and 11.9 % a.d.m., respectively. The monomolecular moisture content of pectin was within the 7.42 – 7.92% dry basis range, its corresponding water activity value –within the 0.14 –0.16 range. Conclusion. The resultsof research are advisablefor use indevelop of functional food ingredient which is used pectin as a gelling agent and a stabilizer.

  14. Ultrastructure and autoradiography of dormant and activated parenchyma of Helianthus tuberosus

    Favali, M.A.; Sartorato, P.; Serafini-Fracassini, D.

    1984-01-01

    Parenchyma cells of dormant tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. OB 1 (Jerusalem artichoke) contain a very low amount of hormones, therefore they respond to 2.4-D or IAA treatment by dividing and synthesizing RNA, DNA, and polyamines. In particular the activation of the dormant tissues induces an early synthesis of DNA, which reaches the maximum at 3 hours, much before the beginning of the S phase (12 hours). By supplying [6- 3 H] thymidine and carrying out electron microscopic autoradiography, we were able to determine that plastids and mitochondria were the organelles responsible for this early synthesis while the DNA in the nucleus first appeared labeled at 15 hours. In addition, ultrastructural observations carried out to compare the dormant cells with activated ones, showed an increase in the nucleolar volume, a different organization of the tubular complex of the plastids and several other ultrastructural changes which indicate that at 3 hours some fundamental metabolic processes are already active; they become even more evident later on. The implication of these results in the physiology of the tuber cells during activation are discussed. (Author)

  15. Ultrastructure and autoradiography of dormant and activated parenchyma of Helianthus tuberosus

    Favali, M.A.; Sartorato, P. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Serafini-Fracassini, D. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1984-01-01

    Parenchyma cells of dormant tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. OB/sup 1/ (Jerusalem artichoke) contain a very low amount of hormones, therefore they respond to 2.4-D or IAA treatment by dividing and synthesizing RNA, DNA, and polyamines. In particular the activation of the dormant tissues induces an early synthesis of DNA, which reaches the maximum at 3 hours, much before the beginning of the S phase (12 hours). By supplying (6-/sup 3/H) thymidine and carrying out electron microscopic autoradiography, we were able to determine that plastids and mitochondria were the organelles responsible for this early synthesis while the DNA in the nucleus first appeared labeled at 15 hours. In addition, ultrastructural observations carried out to compare the dormant cells with activated ones, showed an increase in the nucleolar volume, a different organization of the tubular complex of the plastids and several other ultrastructural changes which indicate that at 3 hours some fundamental metabolic processes are already active; they become even more evident later on. The implication of these results in the physiology of the tuber cells during activation are discussed.

  16. Direct Analyses of Secondary Metabolites by Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Trichomes.

    Brentan Silva, Denise; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Spring, Otmar

    2017-05-10

    Helianthus annuus (sunflower) displays non-glandular trichomes (NGT), capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), and linear glandular trichomes (LGT), which reveal different chemical compositions and locations in different plant tissues. With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques, efficient methods were developed to analyze the tissue distribution of secondary metabolites (flavonoids and sesquiterpenes) and proteins inside of trichomes. Herein, we analyzed sesquiterpene lactones, present in CGT, from leaf transversal sections using the matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (mixture 1:1) with sodium ions added to increase the ionization in positive ion mode. The results observed for sesquiterpenes and polymethoxylated flavones from LGT were similar. However, upon desiccation, LGT changed their shape in the ionization source, complicating analyses by MSI mainly after matrix application. An alternative method could be applied to LGT regions by employing LDI (without matrix) in negative ion mode. The polymethoxylated flavones were easily ionized by LDI, producing images with higher resolution, but the sesquiterpenes were not observed in spectra. Thus, the application and viability of MALDI imaging for the analyses of protein and secondary metabolites inside trichomes were confirmed, highlighting the importance of optimization parameters.

  17. The 134Cs uptake by sunflower (Helianthus anuus, Less) cultivated on soil contaminated with 134Cs

    Poppy Intan Tjahaja; Putu Sukmabuana

    2008-01-01

    One of the methods for remediation of contaminated environment is phytoremediation techniques, i.e. the environmental remediation using plants. In this research the bioavailability of sunflower plant (Helianthus anuus, Less) in radiocaesium uptake from soil was studied for being considered as a phytoremediator later. Sunflower plants were cultivated on soil contaminated with 134 Cs with the concentrations of 29,3 kBq/kg ; 117,2 kBq/kg ; 557 kBq/kg for 45 days. As control the sunflowers were also cultivated on non contaminated soil. Observation was carried out every 5 days by sampling 3 plants and soils. The plant and soil samples were dried using infra red lamp for 24 hours, and then counted using gamma spectrometer. The counting results i.e. 134 Cs concentration on soil and plant parts were then analyzed to obtain transfer factor (TF) values. The highest TF values was reached on 26 th day, i.e. 0,87; 1,89 ; 2,82 for initial soil 134 Cs concentrations of 29,3 Bq/g ; 117,2 Bq/g ; 557 Bq/g, respectively. The TF values obtained expressed the capability of plants to accumulate 134 Cs from soils. The observation to the plants growth showed that the plants grew normally on the 134 Cs contaminated soil until the concentration of 557 Bq/g. The sunflower can be considered to be phytoremediator of andosol soil contaminated with Cs radionuclides. (author)

  18. Linearity assumption in soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and radium in Helianthus annuus L

    Rodriguez, P. Blanco; Tome, F. Vera; Fernandez, M. Perez; Lozano, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The linearity assumption of the validation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and 226 Ra was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) grown in a hydroponic medium. Transfer of natural uranium and 226 Ra was tested in both the aerial fraction of plants and in the overall seedlings (roots and shoots). The results show that the linearity assumption can be considered valid in the hydroponic growth of sunflowers for the radionuclides studied. The ability of sunflowers to translocate uranium and 226 Ra was also investigated, as well as the feasibility of using sunflower plants to remove uranium and radium from contaminated water, and by extension, their potential for phytoextraction. In this sense, the removal percentages obtained for natural uranium and 226 Ra were 24% and 42%, respectively. Practically all the uranium is accumulated in the roots. However, 86% of the 226 Ra activity concentration in roots was translocated to the aerial part

  19. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress.

  20. Linearity assumption in soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and radium in Helianthus annuus L

    Rodriguez, P. Blanco [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Tome, F. Vera [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Fernandez, M. Perez [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Lozano, J.C. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    The linearity assumption of the validation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) grown in a hydroponic medium. Transfer of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested in both the aerial fraction of plants and in the overall seedlings (roots and shoots). The results show that the linearity assumption can be considered valid in the hydroponic growth of sunflowers for the radionuclides studied. The ability of sunflowers to translocate uranium and {sup 226}Ra was also investigated, as well as the feasibility of using sunflower plants to remove uranium and radium from contaminated water, and by extension, their potential for phytoextraction. In this sense, the removal percentages obtained for natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra were 24% and 42%, respectively. Practically all the uranium is accumulated in the roots. However, 86% of the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration in roots was translocated to the aerial part.

  1. The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water

    Chacha Joseph Sarima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize, Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew, Helianthus annuus (sunflower and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. annuus and C. bengelensis plant have promising potential for removal of Pb, Cu and Cd from wastewater though their ability to remove Zn from contaminated solutions is not much different from that of Z. mays and A. hybridus.

  2. Influence of silver and titanium nanoparticles on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and accumulation of radiocaesium in Helianthus annuus

    Dubchak, S.; Ogar, A.; Mietelski, J. W.; Turnau, K.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on 1 34Cs uptake by Helianthus annuus was studied in a pilot study under growth chamber conditions. Mycorrhizal plants took up five times more 1 34Cs (up to 250,000 Bq kg - 1 dry weight) than non mycorrhizal plants. Silver and titanium nanoparticles, supplied into the surface soil layer decreased both the mycorrhizal colonization and Cs uptake by mycorrhizal plants. The application of activated carbon attenuated the effect of nanoparticles and increased 1 34Cs uptake in the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (up to 400,000 Bq kg - 1 dry weight). The results underline the possible application of phyto remediation techniques based on mycorrhizas assisted plants in decontamination of both radionuclides and nanoparticles. (Author) 27 refs.

  3. Influence of silver and titanium nanoparticles on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and accumulation of radiocaesium in Helianthus annuus

    Dubchak, S.; Ogar, A.; Mietelski, J. W.; Turnau, K.

    2010-07-01

    The influence of albacore's mycorrhizal fungus on {sup 1}34Cs uptake by Helianthus annuus was studied in a pilot study under growth chamber conditions. Mycorrhizal plants took up five times more {sup 1}34Cs (up to 250,000 Bq kg{sup -}1 dry weight) than non mycorrhizal plants. Silver and titanium nanoparticles, supplied into the surface soil layer decreased both the mycorrhizal colonization and Cs uptake by mycorrhizal plants. The application of activated carbon attenuated the effect of nanoparticles and increased {sup 1}34Cs uptake in the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (up to 400,000 Bq kg{sup -}1 dry weight). The results underline the possible application of phyto remediation techniques based on mycorrhizas assisted plants in decontamination of both radionuclides and nanoparticles. (Author) 27 refs.

  4. 2,3-butanediol production from Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, by Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 12321. Optimization of k/sub L/ a profile

    Fages, J.; Mulard, D.; Rouquet, J.J.; Wilhelm, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    Optimization of D-(-)-2,3-butanediol production from the Jerusalem artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, by Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 12 321 is described. The effects of initial sugar concentration and oxygen transfer rate were examined. The latter appears to be the most important parameter affecting the kinetics of the process. The best results (44 g.l/sup -1/ 2,3-butanediol, productivity of 0.79 g.l/sup -1/.h/sup -1/) were obtained by setting an optimal k/sub L/a profile during batch culture.

  5. The content of protein and of amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety Rote Zonenkugel.

    Cieślik, Ewa; Gębusia, Agnieszka; Florkiewicz, Adam; Mickowska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is grown primarily for its edible tubers, which were first cultivated by native Americans before the arrival of the Europeans. Unlike most tubers, but in common with other members of the Asteraceae, the tubers store fructans instead of starch. Fructans are non-digestible carbohydrates considered functional food ingredients because they affect body processes in ways that result in better health and in many diseases prevention. However, the Jerusalem artichoke deserves attention not only because of the content of fructans, recent studies also indicate a high protein content, including essential amino acids. The aim of the work was to establish the content of protein and amino acids in Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) of red variety--Rote Zonenkugel. The content of protein was estimated by Dumas method. The amino acids composition was analysed with ion-change chromatography with postcolumn derivatisation and detection of ninhydryn reaction with automatic amino acids analyser. The assessed liophylisate was characterised by high protein content (6.36%) in comparison to chicory (which is the main industrial source of fructans) and to commonly consumed potatoes. There was shown a few times higher content of essential amino acids (also of methionine) in comparison to chicory and potato. The examined essential amino acids were present in very advantagenous proportions. In Jerusalem artichoke tubers of Rote Zonenkugel variety of the high content of protein was established in comparison to other plant sources. The high content was found of amino acids with special stress on essential amino acids (esp. sulphur ones).

  6. Sugar yield and composition of tubers from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) irrigated with saline waters

    Currently, major biofuel crops are also food crops that demand fertile soils and good-quality water. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, Asteraceae) produces high tonnage of tubers that are rich in sugars, mainly in the form of inulin. In this study, plants of the cultivar “White Fuseau” grow...

  7. The importance of competition in the isolation and establishment of Helianthus paradoxus (Asteraceae)

    Oscar W. Van Auken; Janis. K. Bush

    2007-01-01

    Helianthus paradoxus (the Pecos or puzzle sunflower) is a threatened, federally listed annual species that is found in a few locations in west Texas and New Mexico. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of H. paradoxus to compete with its progenitors and a with potential ecosystem competitor, ...

  8. Stem cankers on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia reveal a complex of pathogenic Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species

    Thompson, S.M.; Tan, Y.P.; Young, A.J.; Neate, S.M.; Aitken, E.A.B.; Shivas, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of Diaporthe (anamorph Phomopsis) species associated with stem canker of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in Australia was studied using morphology, DNA sequence analysis and pathology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three clades that did not correspond with known taxa, and these are

  9. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification.

    Saurabh Sudha Dhiman

    Full Text Available Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil. The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4% was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt, whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (% as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7% from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.

  10. Metal accumulation by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and the efficacy of its biomass in enzymatic saccharification.

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Zhao, Xin; Li, Jinglin; Kim, Dongwook; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Kim, Jae Young; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of metal contaminants in soil as a result of various industrial and anthropogenic activities has reduced soil fertility significantly. Phytoextraction of metal contaminants can improve soil fertility and provide inexpensive feedstock for biorefineries. We investigated the hyperaccumulation capacity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) biomass by cultivating these plants in various concentrations of metal contaminants. Sunflowers were grown in soils contaminated with various levels of heavy metals (10-2,000 mg/kg dry soil). The degree of metal uptake by different parts of the biomass and the residual concentration in the soil were estimated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An almost 2.5-fold hyperaccumulation of Zn2+ was observed in the leaf and flower biomass compared with the concentration in the soil. For the subsequent saccharification of biomass with hyperaccumulated contaminants, a fungal lignocellulosic consortium was used. The fungal consortium cocktail retained more than 95% filter paper activity with 100 mM Ni2+ ions even after 36 h. The highest saccharification yield (SY, 87.4%) was observed with Ni2+ as the contaminant (10 mg/kg dry wt), whereas Pb2+ (251.9 mg/kg dry wt) was the strongest inhibitor of biomass hydrolysis, resulting in only a 30% SY. Importantly, the enzyme cocktail produced by the fungal consortium resulted in almost the same SY (%) as that obtained from a combination of commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase. Significant sugar conversion (61.7%) from H. annuus biomass hydrolysate occurred, resulting in the production of 11.4 g/L of bioethanol. This is the first study to assess the suitability of phytoremediated sunflower biomass for bioethanol production.

  11. Root water transport of Helianthus annuus L. under iron oxide nanoparticle exposure.

    Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Barroso, Didac; Komárek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The application of nanomaterials in commercially available products is increasing rapidly for agriculture, phytoremediation and biotechnology. Since plants suppose the first sink for the accumulation of nanoparticles from the environment, emerging studies have focused on the general consequences for plants and their effects on the biomass production. However, effects on the root surface, as well as blockage of nutrients and water uptake by the roots, may also occur. This experiment was designed to prove if the plant water relations can be affected by the adsorption of nanoparticles on the root surface, causing a consequent stress for the plants. With this goal, plants of Helianthus annuus were previously grown in a hydroponic culture, and at age of 55 days, their roots were exposed to three different concentrations of nanomaghemite (NM) in the hydroponic solution for 5 days: control without NM; 50 and 100 mg l(-1) NM. The main effect was related to the reduction of the root hydraulic conductivity (Lo) and the nutrients uptake. The concentrations of the macronutrients Ca, K, Mg and S in the shoot were reduced relative to the control plants, which resulted in lower contents of chlorophyll pigments. Although stress was not detected in the plants, after the analysis of stress markers like the accumulation of proline or ascorbate in the tissues, reduction of the root functionality by nanoparticles has been identified here, manifested as the effect of NM on Lo. The treatment with 50 mg l(-1) NM significantly reduced the Lo, by up to 57% of its control value, and it was reduced by up to 26% at 100 mg l(-1) NM. These results will be an important factor to take into account with regard to the applicability of NM for long-term use in crops, particularly during privative water conditions.

  12. Development and characterization of novel EST-SSR markers and their application for genetic diversity analysis of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Mornkham, T; Wangsomnuk, P P; Mo, X C; Francisco, F O; Gao, L Z; Kurzweil, H

    2016-10-24

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is a perennial tuberous plant and a traditional inulin-rich crop in Thailand. It has become the most important source of inulin and has great potential for use in chemical and food industries. In this study, expressed sequence tag (EST)-based simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from 40,362 Jerusalem artichoke ESTs retrieved from the NCBI database. Among 23,691 non-redundant identified ESTs, 1949 SSR motifs harboring 2 to 6 nucleotides with varied repeat motifs were discovered from 1676 assembled sequences. Seventy-nine primer pairs were generated from EST sequences harboring SSR motifs. Our results show that 43 primers are polymorphic for the six studied populations, while the remaining 36 were either monomorphic or failed to amplify. These 43 SSR loci exhibited a high level of genetic diversity among populations, with allele numbers varying from 2 to 7, with an average of 3.95 alleles per loci. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.096 to 0.774, with an average of 0.536; polymorphic index content ranged from 0.096 to 0.854, with an average of 0.568. Principal component analysis and neighbor-joining analysis revealed that the six populations could be divided into six clusters. Our results indicate that these newly characterized EST-SSR markers may be useful in the exploration of genetic diversity and range expansion of the Jerusalem artichoke, and in cross-species application for the genus Helianthus.

  13. Sugar yield and composition of tubers from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) irrigated with saline waters.

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Kothari, Ninad; Nunez, Angelica; Liu, Xuan; da Silva Dias, Nildo; Suarez, Donald L; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2018-06-01

    Currently, major biofuel crops are also food crops that demand fertile soils and good-quality water. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, Asteraceae) produces high tonnage of tubers that are rich in sugars, mainly in the form of inulin. In this study, plants of the cultivar "White Fuseau" grown under five salinity levels were evaluated for tuber yield. Results indicated that this cultivar is moderately salt-tolerant if the goal is tuber production. Hydraulic pressings of the tubers produced juice that contained 15% (wet weight) or 55% (dry weight) free sugars, with 70% of these in the form of inulin and the rest as fructose, sucrose, and glucose. Importantly, salinity did not affect the total free sugar or inulin content of the tubers. Tubers were composed of about 12% dry washed bagasse (wet weight) or 44% (dry matter basis) and bagasse retained such high quantities of free sugars after pressing that washing was required for complete sugar recovery. Chemical composition analysis of tuber bagasse suggested that it had low lignin content (11-13 wt%), and its structural sugar composition was similar to chicory root bagasse. Because of the high hemicellulose and pectin content of the bagasse, adding xylanase and pectinase to cellulase substantially improved sugar yields from enzymatic hydrolysis compared to at the same protein loading as cellulase alone. In addition to the high total sugar yield of tuber, these first findings on the sugar and lignin content and enzymatic hydrolysis of tuber bagasse can lead to low-cost production of ethanol for transportation fuels. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaf surface defenses to exogenous methyl jasmonate.

    Rowe, Heather C; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness.

  15. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  16. Physiology and proteomics of drought stress acclimation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Fulda, S; Mikkat, S; Stegmann, H; Horn, R

    2011-07-01

    An easy and manageable in vitro screening system for drought tolerance of sunflower seedlings based on MS media supplemented with polyethylene glycol 6000 was evaluated. Morphological and physiological parameters were compared between control (-0.05 MPa) and drought-stressed (-0.6 MPa) seedlings of Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovick. There was a significant growth deficit in drought-stressed plants compared to control plants in terms of hypocotyl length, and shoot and root fresh mass. Shoot growth was more restricted than root growth, resulting in an increased root/shoot ratio of drought-stressed plants. Accumulation of osmolytes such as inositol (65-fold), glucose (58-fold), proline (55-fold), fructose (11-fold) and sucrose (eightfold), in leaves of drought-stressed plants could be demonstrated by gas-liquid chromatography. Soluble protein patterns of leaves were analysed with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A set of 46 protein spots allowed identification of 19 marker proteins. Quantitative changes in protein expression of drought-stressed versus control plants were detected. In leaves of drought-stressed sunflower seedlings six proteins were significantly up-regulated more than twofold: a putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (4.5-fold), a fructokinase 3 (3.3-fold), a vegetative storage protein (2.5-fold), a glycine-rich RNA binding protein (2.2-fold), a CuZn-superoxide dismutase (2.1-fold) and an unknown low molecular weight protein (2.3-fold). These proteins represent general stress proteins induced under drought conditions or proteins contributing to basic carbon metabolism. The up-regulated proteins are interesting candidates for further physiological and molecular investigations regarding drought tolerance in sunflower. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Genotyping-by-sequencing targeting of a novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 20 from wild Helianthus argophyllus for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Ma, G J; Markell, S G; Song, Q J; Qi, L L

    2017-07-01

    Genotyping-by-sequencing revealed a new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 20 , from wild Helianthus argophyllus located on linkage group 8 of the sunflower genome and closely linked to SNP markers that facilitate the marker-assisted selection of resistance genes. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most devastating and yield-limiting diseases of sunflower. Downy mildew resistance identified in wild Helianthus argophyllus accession PI 494578 was determined to be effective against the predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii occurring in the United States. The evaluation of 114 BC 1 F 2:3 families derived from the cross between HA 89 and PI 494578 against P. halstedii race 734 revealed that single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Genotyping-by-sequencing analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population indicated that the DM resistance gene derived from wild H. argophyllus PI 494578 is located on the upper end of the linkage group (LG) 8 of the sunflower genome, as was determined single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with DM resistance. Analysis of 11 additional SNP markers previously mapped to this region revealed that the resistance gene, named Pl 20 , co-segregated with four markers, SFW02745, SFW09076, S8_11272025, and S8_11272046, and is flanked by SFW04358 and S8_100385559 at an interval of 1.8 cM. The newly discovered P. halstedii resistance gene has been introgressed from wild species into cultivated sunflower to provide a novel gene with DM resistance. The homozygous resistant individuals were selected from BC 2 F 2 progenies with the use of markers linked to the Pl 20 gene, and these lines should benefit the sunflower community for Helianthus improvement.

  18. Fytochemický výzkum Helianthus annuus L. II

    Niedobová, Soňa

    2007-01-01

    OF THE DIPLOMA THESIS My diploma thesis was intended on phytochemical study of polar extract of Helianthus annuus L. leaves and simultaneously biological tests were done (so-called bioassay - guided separation) - acute toxicity, antioxidant activity (DPPH test, FRAP metod) and antifungal activity. The Fraction 29 showed the highest antioxidant activity. The Fraction 22-24/3, obtained by preparative chromatography, was analyzed by gas chromatography. This analysis shows present of the oil-acid...

  19. Analysis of transposons and repeat composition of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome.

    Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia; Zuccolo, Andrea; Giordani, Tommaso; Jurman, Irena; Ferrillo, Veronica; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Sarri, Vania; Cattonaro, Federica; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cionini, Pier Giorgio; Morgante, Michele

    2010-02-01

    A sample-sequencing strategy combined with slot-blot hybridization and FISH was used to study the composition of the repetitive component of the sunflower genome. One thousand six hundred thirty-eight sequences for a total of 954,517 bp were analyzed. The fraction of sequences that can be classified as repetitive using computational and hybridization approaches amounts to 62% in total. Almost two thirds remain as yet uncharacterized in nature. Of those characterized, most belong to the gypsy superfamily of LTR-retrotransposons. Unlike in other species, where single families can account for large fractions of the genome, it appears that no transposon family has been amplified to very high levels in sunflower. All other known classes of transposable elements were also found. One family of unknown nature (contig 61) was the most repeated in the sunflower genome. The evolution of the repetitive component in the Helianthus genus and in other Asteraceae was studied by comparative analysis of the hybridization of total genomic DNAs from these species to the sunflower small-insert library and compared to gene-based phylogeny. Very little similarity is observed between Helianthus species and two related Asteraceae species outside of the genus. Most repetitive elements are similar in annual and perennial Helianthus species indicating that sequence amplification largely predates such divergence. Gypsy-like elements are more represented in the annuals than in the perennials, while copia-like elements are similarly represented, attesting a different amplification history of the two superfamilies of LTR-retrotransposons in the Helianthus genus.

  20. Potential of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    Violina R. Angelova; Mariana N. Perifanova-Nemska; Galina P. Uzunova; Krasimir I. Ivanov; Huu Q. Lee

    2016-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Field experiments with a randomized, complete block design with five treatments (control, compost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa, and vemicompost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa) were carried out. The accumulation of heavy metals...

  1. Accumulation of radioiodine from aqueous solution by hydroponically cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Soudek, Petr; Tykva, Richard; Vaňková, Radomíra; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2006), s. 220-225 ISSN 0098-8472 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : radiophytoremediation * Helianthus annuus * radioiodine Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.820, year: 2006

  2. IN VITRO PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS BY Helianthus annuus L. PLANTS

    Almeida, Marcos V. de; Rissato, Sandra R.; Galhiane, Mário S.; Fernandes, João R.; Lodi, Paulo C.; Campos, Marcelo C. de

    2018-01-01

    Plant model systems are needed to properly conduct basic laboratory studies prior to field applications of phytoremediation. In vitro plant cultures are a useful tool for such research. This study focuses on the removal and/or degradation of 24 persistent organic pollutants under in vitro conditions by Helianthus annuus L (sunflower). The main purpose of exploiting this plant for phytoremediation process is due to its strong adaptability to adverse environments conditions such as resistance t...

  3. PERENNIAL HELIANTHUS TAXA IN TÂRGU-MURES CITY AND ITS SURROUNDINGS

    FILEP RITA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although in the neighbouring countries several perennial Helianthus taxa have been recorded in the last decade, in Romania only three have been identified so far. The literature and herbaria data of Târgu-Mures date back to the end of the XIXth century, and only refer to H. × multiflorus and H. tuberosus. The aim of this study was to identify the perennial Helianthus taxa in this region and to prepare their current distribution map. The survey was conducted in Târgu Mures city and the neighbouring villages: Livezeni, Sântana de Mures, Sâncraiu de Mures, Sângeorgiu de Mures, and Corunca. Four taxa were identified: H. pauciflorus Nutt., H. × laetiflorus Pers., H. tuberosus L. s.str., and Helianthus tuberosus L. s.l. The first two taxa are cultivated as ornamental plants, H. tuberosus s. str. is cultivated in a few farms, whereas H. tuberosus s. l. is an invasive species that spreads along the rivers.

  4. [Protective effect of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) on myocardial infarction in New Zealand rabbit].

    Guardia-Espinoza, Edith; Herrera-Hurtado, Gianina Liseth del Carmen; Garrido-Jacobi, Saúl; Cárdenas-Peralta, Danitza; Martínez-Romero, Christian; Hernández-Figueroa, Pedro; Condori-Calizaya, Mary; La Barrera-Llacchua, Juan; Flores-Ángeles, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Determine the protective effect of oil Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were randomized into five groups (8 per group): blank, negative control, experimental 1 (10 mg / kg), experimental 2 (20 mg / kg) and three experimental (40 mg/ kg). Experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 received Helianthus annuus oil for two weeks. Epinephrine (2 mg/Kg) to the negative, Experimental Control 1, 2 and 3 groups was given over two consecutive days with an interval of 24 h after pretreatment with oil. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the rabbits were anesthetized and sacrificed. Serum troponin I and polymorphonuclear evaluated by .mu.m.sup.2. Significant difference between the negative control group and the experimental groups 1, 2 and 3 was found in the serum variables troponin I and polymorphonuclear by .mu.m.sup.2. Helianthus annuus oil at doses of 20 mg/kg has protective effect on myocardial infarction induced by epinephrine in New Zealand rabbits.

  5. Possibilities of the management of Helianthus tuberosus species in Poodri PLA (Czech Republic)

    Svehlakova, H.; Janikova, A.; Kupka, J.; Sotkova, N.; Rajdus, T.

    2017-10-01

    This article deals with the possibilities of population management of invasive and in Czech Republic no - native species Helianthus tuberosus. We have chosen study areas in Poodri PLA, it is located near the industrial city Ostrava (Moravian-Silesian region). Invasive Helianthus tuberosus forms monodominant vegetation, excludes the original and often rare plant species and reduces biodiversity. It is a risk for the further development of the landscape of Poodri PLA. There is no known effective way to dispose of invasive Helianthus tuberosus so far. We have applied the proposed management works on 15 monitoring areas and then evaluated their effectiveness. We have used chemical (herbicides) and mechanical (mowing, digging up) methods and their combinations. The most effective was the combination of 3 interventions: manual mowing - spraying - mowing by mechanization, just mowing itself rather promotes the spread of the population. We can say this is a pilot study from a long-term project dealing with the effectiveness of different ways of invasive plants management.

  6. Sorting through the chaff, nDNA gene trees for phylogenetic inference and hybrid identification of annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus).

    Moody, Michael L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    The annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus) present a formidable challenge for phylogenetic inference because of ancient hybrid speciation, recent introgression, and suspected issues with deep coalescence. Here we analyze sequence data from 11 nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes for multiple genotypes of species within the section to (1) reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, (2) explore the utility of nDNA gene trees for detecting hybrid speciation and introgression; and (3) test an empirical method of hybrid identification based on the phylogenetic congruence of nDNA gene trees from tightly linked genes. We uncovered considerable topological heterogeneity among gene trees with or without three previously identified hybrid species included in the analyses, as well as a general lack of reciprocal monophyly of species. Nonetheless, partitioned Bayesian analyses provided strong support for the reciprocal monophyly of all species except H. annuus (0.89 PP), the most widespread and abundant annual sunflower. Previous hypotheses of relationships among taxa were generally strongly supported (1.0 PP), except among taxa typically associated with H. annuus, apparently due to the paraphyly of the latter in all gene trees. While the individual nDNA gene trees provided a useful means for detecting recent hybridization, identification of ancient hybridization was problematic for all ancient hybrid species, even when linkage was considered. We discuss biological factors that affect the efficacy of phylogenetic methods for hybrid identification.

  7. The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.

    Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method.

  8. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Lee, Minhee, E-mail: heelee@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Minjune [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyondong, Namgu, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 {mu}g/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  9. Effects of Azospirillum lipoferum on seedling characteristics derived from sunflower (Helianthus annus L. seed water deficit conditions

    H. Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Seedling characteristics of different sunflower (Helianthus annus L. cultivars under drought stress and inoculation with the Azospirillum lipoferum in a spilt-factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications were evaluated. Treatments included dehydration stress (seed produced on maternal plants which irrigated after 60 (desirable irrigation, 120 (medium stress, 180 mm (severe stress evaporation from evaporation pan class A, different sunflower cultivars (Lakomka, Master, Favorite, Soor and Armavirosky and inoculation with bacteria (Azospirillum lipoferum and control. Bacteria allocated in the main plots and seeds which derived from dehydration stress conditions and different cultivars were allocated in sub plots as a factorial layout. Results showed that the time of seedling emergence, seedling vigor index, leaf petiole, stem and seedling dry weight were increased 14, 44, 30, 31, 22 and 27 percent by inoculating with bacteria, respectively. The percent of Seedling emergence of seeds derived from medium stress 48 percent was more than optimal irrigation conditions. Final appearance, speed of emergence, emergence index, dry weight and stamina seedling resulting from severe stress conditions were decreased compared with optimal irrigation. Seedling emergence of seeds derived from medium stress which inoculated with bacteria increased by 9 percent. Emergence speed index, appearance, stamina and seedling dry weights of seeds which inoculated with bacteria increased at medium and sever water stress. With consideration of the effect of dehydration stress on germination and seedling emergence, seed inoculation with bacteria improved seedling emergence and seedling vigor of seeds derived from dehydration stress conditions.

  10. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  11. Rhizofiltration using sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) to remediate uranium contaminated groundwater

    Lee, Minhee; Yang, Minjune

    2010-01-01

    The uranium removal efficiencies of rhizofiltration in the remediation of groundwater were investigated in lab-scale experiments. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris) were cultivated and an artificially uranium contaminated solution and three genuine groundwater samples were used in the experiments. More than 80% of the initial uranium in solution and genuine groundwater, respectively, was removed within 24 h by using sunflower and the residual uranium concentration of the treated water was lower than 30 μg/L (USEPA drinking water limit). For bean, the uranium removal efficiency of the rhizofiltration was roughly 60-80%. The maximum uranium removal via rhizofiltration for the two plant cultivars occurred at pH 3-5 of solution and their uranium removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. The lab-scale continuous rhizofiltration clean-up system delivered over 99% uranium removal efficiency, and the results of SEM and EDS analyses indicated that most uranium accumulated in the roots of plants. The present results suggested that the uranium removal capacity of two plants evaluated in the clean-up system was about 25 mg/kg of wet plant mass. Notably, the removal capacity of the root parts only was more than 500 mg/kg.

  12. The effect of EDTA and citric acid on phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from soil using Helianthus annuus

    Turgut, Cafer; Katie Pepe, M.; Cutright, Teresa J.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility to clean heavy metal contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants has shown great potential. One of the most recently studied species used in phytoremediation applications are sunflowers. In this study, two cultivars of Helianthus annuus were used in conjunction with ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as chelators. Two different concentrations of the chelators were studied for enhancing the uptake and translocation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from a silty-clay loam soil. When 1.0 g/kg CA was used, the highest total metal uptake was only 0.65 mg. Increasing the CA concentration posed a severe phytotoxicity to both cultivars as evidenced by stunted growth and diminished uptake rates. Decreasing the CA concentration to 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg yielded results that were not statistically different from the control. EDTA at a concentration of 0.1 g/kg yielded the best results for both cultivars achieving a total metal uptake of ∼0.73 mg compared to ∼0.40 mg when EDTA was present at 0.3 g/kg

  13. The effect of EDTA and citric acid on phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from soil using Helianthus annuus.

    Turgut, Cafer; Katie Pepe, M; Cutright, Teresa J

    2004-09-01

    The possibility to clean heavy metal contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants has shown great potential. One of the most recently studied species used in phytoremediation applications are sunflowers. In this study, two cultivars of Helianthus annuus were used in conjunction with ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as chelators. Two different concentrations of the chelators were studied for enhancing the uptake and translocation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from a silty-clay loam soil. When 1.0 g/kg CA was used, the highest total metal uptake was only 0.65 mg. Increasing the CA concentration posed a severe phytotoxicity to both cultivars as evidenced by stunted growth and diminished uptake rates. Decreasing the CA concentration to 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg yielded results that were not statistically different from the control. EDTA at a concentration of 0.1 g/kg yielded the best results for both cultivars achieving a total metal uptake of approximately 0.73 mg compared to approximately 0.40 mg when EDTA was present at 0.3 g/kg.

  14. The effect of EDTA and citric acid on phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from soil using Helianthus annuus

    Turgut, Cafer; Katie Pepe, M.; Cutright, Teresa J

    2004-09-01

    The possibility to clean heavy metal contaminated soils with hyperaccumulator plants has shown great potential. One of the most recently studied species used in phytoremediation applications are sunflowers. In this study, two cultivars of Helianthus annuus were used in conjunction with ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) as chelators. Two different concentrations of the chelators were studied for enhancing the uptake and translocation of Cd, Cr, and Ni from a silty-clay loam soil. When 1.0 g/kg CA was used, the highest total metal uptake was only 0.65 mg. Increasing the CA concentration posed a severe phytotoxicity to both cultivars as evidenced by stunted growth and diminished uptake rates. Decreasing the CA concentration to 0.1 and 0.3 g/kg yielded results that were not statistically different from the control. EDTA at a concentration of 0.1 g/kg yielded the best results for both cultivars achieving a total metal uptake of {approx}0.73 mg compared to {approx}0.40 mg when EDTA was present at 0.3 g/kg.

  15. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L..

    Sebastian Moschen

    Full Text Available Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2 previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1 and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could

  16. Identification of candidate genes associated with leaf senescence in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Moschen, Sebastian; Bengoa Luoni, Sofia; Paniego, Norma B; Hopp, H Esteban; Dosio, Guillermo A A; Fernandez, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), an important source of edible vegetable oil, shows rapid onset of senescence, which limits production by reducing photosynthetic capacity under specific growing conditions. Carbon for grain filling depends strongly on light interception by green leaf area, which diminishes during grain filling due to leaf senescence. Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the progression of leaf senescence in plants and have been well explored in model systems, but information for many agronomic crops remains limited. Here, we characterize the expression profiles of a set of putative senescence associated genes (SAGs) identified by a candidate gene approach and sunflower microarray expression studies. We examined a time course of sunflower leaves undergoing natural senescence and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to measure the expression of 11 candidate genes representing the NAC, WRKY, MYB and NF-Y TF families. In addition, we measured physiological parameters such as chlorophyll, total soluble sugars and nitrogen content. The expression of Ha-NAC01, Ha-NAC03, Ha-NAC04, Ha-NAC05 and Ha-MYB01 TFs increased before the remobilization rate increased and therefore, before the appearance of the first physiological symptoms of senescence, whereas Ha-NAC02 expression decreased. In addition, we also examined the trifurcate feed-forward pathway (involving ORE1, miR164, and ethylene insensitive 2) previously reported for Arabidopsis. We measured transcription of Ha-NAC01 (the sunflower homolog of ORE1) and Ha-EIN2, along with the levels of miR164, in two leaves from different stem positions, and identified differences in transcription between basal and upper leaves. Interestingly, Ha-NAC01 and Ha-EIN2 transcription profiles showed an earlier up-regulation in upper leaves of plants close to maturity, compared with basal leaves of plants at pre-anthesis stages. These results suggest that the H. annuus TFs characterized in this work could play important

  17. Effect of Irrigation with Contaminated Water by Cloth Detergent on Seed Germination Traits and Early Growth of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Hassan HEIDARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the sources for irrigation is sewage. Contaminated water may affect seed germination and plant growth. A laboratory experiment and a pot experiment were conducted in 2012 to determine the effect of different doses of detergent on seed germination traits and early growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.. The experiments included eight doses of cloth detergent (0, 0.00002, 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 g/L. Results showed that 20 and 2 g/L of detergent severely reduced seed germination, plant height, leaf number per plant, total biomass and stem weight. 20 g/L of detergent reduced shoot length, root length, seedling weight and seed vigor. Seed germination stage was more sensitive to contaminated water than early growth stage. The results demonstrated that irrigating sunflower by contaminated water with household cleaning products at high concentration should be avoided.

  18. In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower

    Nelma de Mello Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102 were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10–200 μl/plate and the negative controls, regardless of S9+ and S9−, and included all of the S. typhimurium strains. Chromatographic analysis showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated, saturated and total trans-isomers. Among the polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids predominated. The results suggest that the sunflower oil is not genotoxic as indicated by frameshift mutations and base pair substitutions regardless of the treatment dose, but shows dose-dependent toxicity. The oxidative properties of the sunflower oil were consistent with the requirements of national and international standards. However, its composition could also indicate phytotherapeutic properties. Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., Sunflower oil, Genetic toxicity, Gas chromatography

  19. The sensitivity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants to UV-B radiation is altered by nitrogen status

    Inês Cechin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Interaction effects between nitrogen and UV-B radiation were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. variety IAC-Iarama plants grown in a greenhouse under natural photoperiod conditions. Plants were irradiated with 0.8W m-2 (control or 8.0W m-2 (+UV-B of UV-B radiation for 7h per day. The plants were grown in pots containing vermiculite and watered with 70% of full strength nitrogen-free Long Ashton solution, containing either low (42.3ppm or high (282ppm nitrogen as ammonium nitrate. High nitrogen increased dry matter of stem, leaves and shoot, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthesis (A without any alteration in stomatal conductance (gs nor transpiration (E while it reduced the intercellular CO2 (Ci concentration, and malondialdehyde (MDA content. High UV-B radiation had negative effects on dry matter production, A, gs and E with the effects more marked under high nitrogen, whereas it increased Ci under high nitrogen. Activity of PG-POD was reduced by high UV-B radiation under low nitrogen but it was not changed under high nitrogen. The UV-B radiation increased the MDA content independently of nitrogen level. Results indicate that the effects of UV-B radiation on sunflower plants are dependent of nitrogen supply with high nitrogen making their physiological processes more sensitive to UV-B radiation.

  20. Translatome profiling in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds highlights post-transcriptional regulation of germination.

    Layat, Elodie; Leymarie, Juliette; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Caius, José; Langlade, Nicolas; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    Seed dormancy, which blocks germination in apparently favourable conditions, is a key regulatory control point of plant population establishment. As germination requires de novo translation, its regulation by dormancy is likely to be related to the association of individual transcripts to polysomes. Here, the polysome-associated mRNAs, that is, the translatome, were fractionated and characterized with microarrays in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) embryos during their imbibition at 10°C, a temperature preventing germination of dormant embryos. Profiling of mRNAs in polysomal complexes revealed that the translatome differs between germinating and nongerminating embryos. Association of transcripts with polysomes reached a maximum after 15 h of imbibition; at this time-point 194 polysome-associated transcripts were specifically found in nondormant embryos and 47 in dormant embryos only. The proteins corresponding to the polysomal mRNAs in nondormant embryos appeared to be very pertinent for germination and were involved mainly in transport, regulation of transcription or cell wall modifications. This work demonstrates that seed germination results from a timely regulated and selective recruitment of mRNAs to polysomes, thus opening novel fields of investigation for the understanding of this developmental process. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Plant domestication and the assembly of bacterial and fungal communities associated with strains of the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    Leff, Jonathan W; Lynch, Ryan C; Kane, Nolan C; Fierer, Noah

    2017-04-01

    Root and rhizosphere microbial communities can affect plant health, but it remains undetermined how plant domestication may influence these bacterial and fungal communities. We grew 33 sunflower (Helianthus annuus) strains (n = 5) that varied in their extent of domestication and assessed rhizosphere and root endosphere bacterial and fungal communities. We also assessed fungal communities in the sunflower seeds to investigate the degree to which root and rhizosphere communities were influenced by vertical transmission of the microbiome through seeds. Neither root nor rhizosphere bacterial communities were affected by the extent of sunflower domestication, but domestication did affect the composition of rhizosphere fungal communities. In particular, more modern sunflower strains had lower relative abundances of putative fungal pathogens. Seed-associated fungal communities strongly differed across strains, but several lines of evidence suggest that there is minimal vertical transmission of fungi from seeds to the adult plants. Our results indicate that plant-associated fungal communities are more strongly influenced by host genetic factors and plant breeding than bacterial communities, a finding that could influence strategies for optimizing microbial communities to improve crop yields. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Cultivar and Metal-Specific Effects of Endophytic Bacteria in Helianthus tuberosus Exposed to Cd and Zn

    Blanca Montalbán

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPB isolated from Brassica napus were inoculated in two cultivars of Helianthus tuberosus (VR and D19 growing on sand supplemented with 0.1 mM Cd or 1 mM Zn. Plant growth, concentrations of metals and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reactive compounds were determined. Colonization of roots of H. tuberosus D19 by Pseudomonas sp. 262 was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 significantly enhanced growth of H. tuberosus D19 exposed to Cd or Zn. Pseudomonas sp. 228 significantly increased Cd concentrations in roots. Serratia sp. 246, and Pseudomonas sp. 256 and 228 resulted in significantly decreased contents of TBA reactive compounds in roots of Zn exposed D19 plants. Growth improvement and decrease of metal-induced stress were more pronounced in D19 than in VR. Pseudomonas sp. 262-green fluorescent protein (GFP colonized the root epidermis/exodermis and also inside root hairs, indicating that an endophytic interaction was established. H. tuberosus D19 inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. 228, Serratia sp. 246 and Pseudomonas sp. 262 holds promise for sustainable biomass production in combination with phytoremediation on Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

  3. Elimination of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration using Helianthus annuus L

    Vera Tome, F. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Blanco Rodriguez, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Lozano, J.C. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The elimination of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra from contaminated waters by rhizofiltration was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium. Different experiments were designed to determine the optimum age of the seedlings for the remediation process, and also to study the principal way in which the radionuclides are removed from the solution by the sunflower roots. In every trial a precipitate appeared which contained a major fraction of the natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra. The results indicated that the seedlings themselves induced the formation of this precipitate. When four-week-old seedlings were exposed to contaminated water, a period of only 2 days was sufficient to remove the natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra from the solution: about 50% of the natural uranium and 70% of the {sup 226}Ra were fixed in the roots, and essentially the rest was found in the precipitate, with only very small percentages fixed in the shoots and left in solution.

  4. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Qi, L L; Foley, M E; Cai, X W; Gulya, T J

    2016-04-01

    A novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), was introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower and genetically mapped to linkage group 2 of the sunflower genome. The new germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. Sunflower downy mildew (DM) is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl 18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflower was mapped to linkage group (LG) 2 of the sunflower genome using bulked segregant analysis with 869 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Phenotyping 142 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of HA 89 and H. argophyllus confirmed the single gene inheritance of resistance. Since no other Pl gene has been mapped to LG2, this gene was novel and designated as Pl (18). SSR markers CRT214 and ORS203 flanked Pl(18) at a genetic distance of 1.1 and 0.4 cM, respectively. Forty-six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the Pl(18) region were surveyed for saturation mapping of the region. Six co-segregating SNP markers were 1.2 cM distal to Pl(18), and another four co-segregating SNP markers were 0.9 cM proximal to Pl(18). The new BC2F4-derived germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. This new line is highly resistant to all Plasmopara halstedii races identified in the USA providing breeders with an effective new source of resistance against downy mildew in sunflower. The molecular markers that were developed will be especially useful in marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of Pl resistance genes because of their close proximity to the gene and the availability of high-throughput SNP detection assays.

  5. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper...... focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals...

  6. Role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in Sunflower (helianthus annusl.)

    Iqbal, A.; Iftikhar, I.I.; Nawaz, H.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The potted experiment was conducted to determine the exogenous role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Salinity levels (0, 60 and 120 mmol) were created according to the saturation percentage of soil. Different levels (0, 30, 60 mmol) of proline were applied as a foliar spray on sunflower under saline and non saline conditions. Application of proline as a foliar spray ameliorated the toxic effects of salinity on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of sunflower. Among different levels of proline, 60 mmol was found to be the most effective in ameliorating the toxic effects of salinity on sunflower. (author)

  7. Somatic embryogenesis from corolla tubes of interspecific amphiploids between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its wild species

    Somatic embryogenesis in vitro provides an efficient means of plant multiplication, facilitating sunflower improvement and germplasm innovation. In the present study, using interspecific amphiploids (2n=4x=68) between cultivated sunflower and wild perennial Helianthus species as explant donors, soma...

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered whorled sunflower, Helianthus verticillatus, at two sites in Georgia

    Helianthus verticillatus, the whorled sunflower, is an endangered species endemic to only a few locations in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia. This sunflower is an aggressive grower and attractive to both plant enthusiasts and pollinators with its multiple, small yellow flowers in late fall. There is...

  9. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Rec...

  10. High genetic diversity and low population structure in Porter's sunflower (Helianthus porteri).

    Gevaert, Scott D; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Granite outcrops in the southeastern United States are rare and isolated habitats that support edaphically controlled communities dominated by herbaceous plants. They harbor rare and endemic species that are expected to have low genetic variability and high population structure due to small population sizes and their disjunct habitat. We test this expectation for an annual outcrop endemic, Helianthus porteri (Porter's sunflower). Contrary to expectation, H. porteri has relatively high genetic diversity (H e = 0.681) and relatively low genetic structure among the native populations (F ST = 0.077) when compared to 5 other Helianthus species (N = 288; 18 expressed sequence tag-SSR markers). These findings suggest greater gene flow than expected. The potential for gene flow is supported by the analysis of transplant populations established with propagules from a common source in 1959. One population established close to a native population (1.5 km) at the edge of the natural range is genetically similar to and shares rare alleles with the adjacent native population and is distinct from the central source population. In contrast, a transplant population established north of the native range has remained similar to the source population. The relatively high genetic diversity and low population structure of this species, combined with the long-term success of transplanted populations, bode well for its persistence as long as the habitat persists.

  11. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Diurnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Juan P. Torretta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfoespecies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica (Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an important oilseed crop in Argentina. During three agricultural years, the diversity and abundance of diurnal floral visitors of sunflower heads were determined in eight sites spanning much of this crop's cultivation area in Argentina. Seventysix morpho-species of floral visitors, belonging to eight orders, were captured on sunflower. The principal order was Hymenoptera, with 37 species or morpho-species, of which 32 were bees (Apoidea. The most represented bee families were Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 and Halictidae (7. The domestic bee (Apis mellifera L. accounted for 93% of the visits. Floral visitor composition did not show an identifiable variation pattern either throughout the day or

  12. Comparisons of Photosynthetic Responses of Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus to Chronic and Acute Water Stress in Sun and Shade.

    Ben, G Y; Osmond, C B; Sharkey, T D

    1987-06-01

    We have examined the effects of mild, chronic water stress and acute water stress on two water stress sensitive plants, Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus. Using a combination of the leaf disc O(2) electrode to measure the light responses of photosynthesis and 77 K fluorescence to monitor damage to the primary photochemistry, we have found the following: (a) The CO(2) saturated rate of photosynthesis at high light is the most water stress sensitive parameter measured. (b) The apparent quantum yield (moles O(2) per mole photons) was slightly, if at all, affected by mild water stress (>-1.5 megapascals). (c) Severe water stress (<-1.5 megapascals) reduced the quantum yield of photosynthesis regardless of whether the stress was applied in sun or shade. The light independent reduction of quantum yield was not associated with a reduction in 77 K fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)) indicating that the quantum yield reduction was not the result of damage to primary photochemistry. (d) The diel fluctuation in 77 K fluorescence seen in sun-exposed control leaves was greatly exaggerated in water stressed leaves because of enhanced decline in 77 K fluorescence in the morning. The rate of recovery was similar in both control and water stressed leaves. Shaded leaves showed no change in 77 K fluorescence regardless of whether water stress was imposed or not. (e) The water stress sensitive plants used in these experiments did not recover from acute water stress severe enough to reduce the quantum yield or chronic water stress which lasted long enough that light dependent damage to primary photochemistry occurred.

  13. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  15. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten Rahr

    2013-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory...... evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated...... enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical...

  16. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Bach, Vibe; Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne C; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-11-15

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical parameters investigated could explain the discolouration of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  18. Sensory Evaluation of Meatballs with Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    I. Gedrovica; D. Karklina

    2013-01-01

    Meat and meat products for human consumption are one of main sources of protein, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Popular variety of meat product is meatballs, which can be enriched with valuable product – Jerusalem artichoke powder, made from dried and grinded Jerusalem artichoke tubers, it is raw material with low-calorie, low fat, rich in dietary fibres, minerals, and vitamins. The results of this study indicate that that people could accept the new product - meatballs wit...

  19. The effect of culinary preparation on carbohydrate composition, texture and sensory quality of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Kidmose, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber is a root vegetable with excellent gastronomic qualities, however the culinary properties are underexploited. Carbohydrate content, instrumental texture analysis and sensory profiling were used to study the effects of culinary preparation...... in three different varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers at two different harvest times. Texture attributes and sweetness were the best sensory attributes to discriminate between varieties, although differences in texture and taste were somewhat evened out during boiling and baking. Instrumentally...

  20. Creating Sunflower Mutant Lines (Helianthus Annuus L.) Using Induced Mutagenesis

    Encheva, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immature sunflower zygotic embryos of sunflower fertility restorer line 374 R were treated with ultrasound and gamma radiation before plating embryos to culture medium. All plants were isolated and self-pollinated for several generations. New sunflower forms with inherited morphological and biochemical changes were obtained. The genetic changes occurring during the mutation procedure included fourteen morphological and biochemical characters. In comparison to the check line 374 R, decreasing of the mean value of the indexes was registered for 33 % of the total number of characters and vise verse, significant increasing was observed for 60 %. Mutation for resistance to the local population of Orobanche cumana race A-E was obtained from the susceptible Bulgarian control line 374 R. Two investigated mutant lines possessed 100 % resistance to Orobanche and stable inheritance in the next generations. Our results showed that induced mutagenesis in sunflower can be successfully used to develop new lines useful for heterosis breeding

  1. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus is an oilseed crop pollinated by Apis mellifera L. and other diurnal bees in different regions of the world. However, their flowers are also visited by insects active at night. During three agricultural years, the diversity of nocturnal visitors to sunflower heads was assessed in five different sites in Argentina. The foraging behavior of the main visitors as well as the stigmatic receptivity variations along

  2. Effect of polyethylene and organic mulches in different intervals of irrigation on morphological characteristics and grain yield of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.

    R. Mahdipour Afra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of polyethylene and organic mulches in different Irrigation intervals on morphological characteristics and seed grain of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. hybrid Azrgol, an experiment was conducted in split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications at research farm of college of Aboureihan, University of Tehran during year of 2009. Main factor was three irrigation interval including of 7, 12 and 17 days and sub-factors were treatments without mulch as control and different types of mulch (polyethylene, cow manure including of 8.5 t.ha-1,17 t.ha-1, 25 t.ha-1, wheat stubble mulch in three levels of 2.5, 5.5 and 7.5 t.ha-1. Plant height, head diameter, seed number in each head, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil yield, harvest index were investigated. The results indicated that the effect of irrigation period and the effect of mulches for all measured traits were significant. Highest seed yield with average of 2.965 t.ha-1 was obtained from 7 days irrigation and also polyethylene mulch and stubble mulch level three in different irrigation periods, had the highest yield. The overall results showed that, using mulches by reducing irrigation water use can increases the quality and quantity seed yield. Regarding the results of the study and non-toxic effects of stubble mulches in agriculture, we suggest their usage.

  3. Genotype by environment interaction in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) to optimize trial network efficiency

    Gonzalez-Barrios, P.; Castro, M.; Pérez, O.; Vilaró, D.; Gutiérrez, L.

    2017-07-01

    Modeling genotype by environment interaction (GEI) is one of the most challenging aspects of plant breeding programs. The use of efficient trial networks is an effective way to evaluate GEI to define selection strategies. Furthermore, the experimental design and the number of locations, replications, and years are crucial aspects of multi-environment trial (MET) network optimization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and performance of a MET network of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Specifically, we evaluated GEI in the network by delineating mega-environments, estimating genotypic stability and identifying relevant environmental covariates. Additionally, we optimized the network by comparing experimental design efficiencies. We used the National Evaluation Network of Sunflower Cultivars of Uruguay (NENSU) in a period of 20 years. MET plot yield and flowering time information was used to evaluate GEI. Additionally, meteorological information was studied for each sunflower physiological stage. An optimal network under these conditions should have three replications, two years of evaluation and at least three locations. The use of incomplete randomized block experimental design showed reasonable performance. Three mega-environments were defined, explained mainly by different management of sowing dates. Late sowings dates had the worst performance in grain yield and oil production, associated with higher temperatures before anthesis and fewer days allocated to grain filling. The optimization of MET networks through the analysis of the experimental design efficiency, the presence of GEI, and appropriate management strategies have a positive impact on the expression of yield potential and selection of superior cultivars.

  4. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  5. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States.

    Mathew, Febina M; Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Jordahl, James G; Meyer, Scott M; Castlebury, Lisa A; Gulya, Thomas J; Markell, Samuel G

    2015-07-01

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe helianthi was assumed to be the sole causal agent in the United States, a newly described species, D. gulyae, was found to be the primary cause of Phomopsis stem canker in Australia. To determine the identity of Diaporthe spp. causing Phomopsis stem canker in the Northern Great Plains, 275 infected stems were collected between 2010 and 2012. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, elongation factor subunit 1-α, and actin gene regions of representative isolates, in comparison with those of type specimens, confirmed two species (D. helianthi and D. gulyae) in the United States. Differences in aggressiveness between the two species were determined using the stem-wound method in the greenhouse; overall, D. helianthi and D. gulyae did not vary significantly (P≤0.05) in their aggressiveness at 10 and 14 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that both Diaporthe spp. have emerged as sunflower pathogens in the United States, and have implications on the management of this disease.

  6. Combined linkage and association mapping of flowering time in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Cadic, Elena; Coque, Marie; Vear, Felicity; Grezes-Besset, Bruno; Pauquet, Jerôme; Piquemal, Joël; Lippi, Yannick; Blanchard, Philippe; Romestant, Michel; Pouilly, Nicolas; Rengel, David; Gouzy, Jerôme; Langlade, Nicolas; Mangin, Brigitte; Vincourt, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Association mapping and linkage mapping were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and/or causative mutations involved in the control of flowering time in cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus. A panel of 384 inbred lines was phenotyped through testcrosses with two tester inbred lines across 15 location × year combinations. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 273 lines was phenotyped both per se and through testcrosses with one or two testers in 16 location × year combinations. In the association mapping approach, kinship estimation using 5,923 single nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be the best covariate to correct for effects of panel structure. Linkage disequilibrium decay ranged from 0.08 to 0.26 cM for a threshold of 0.20, after correcting for structure effects, depending on the linkage group (LG) and the ancestry of inbred lines. A possible hitchhiking effect is hypothesized for LG10 and LG08. A total of 11 regions across 10 LGs were found to be associated with flowering time, and QTLs were mapped on 11 LGs in the RIL population. Whereas eight regions were demonstrated to be common between the two approaches, the linkage disequilibrium approach did not detect a documented QTL that was confirmed using the linkage mapping approach.

  7. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico

    Lentz, David L.; Pohl, Mary DeLand; Alvarado, José Luis; Tarighat, Somayeh; Bye, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (Cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal B.C. followed by many other plants, such as maize (Zea mays), peppers (Capsicum annuum), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 cal B.C., that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico and extended as far south as El Salvador by the first millennium B.C., that it was well known to the Aztecs, and that it is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. The sunflower's association with indigenous solar religion and warfare in Mexico may have led to its suppression after the Spanish Conquest. The discovery of ancient sunflower in Mexico refines our knowledge of domesticated Mesoamerican plants and adds complexity to our understanding of cultural evolution. PMID:18443289

  8. Transcriptome resources for the perennial sunflower Helianthus maximiliani obtained from ecologically divergent populations.

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Darby, Brian J; Ungerer, Mark C

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a rapid means to generate genomic resources for species exhibiting interesting ecological and evolutionary variation but for which such resources are scant or nonexistent. In the current report, we utilize 454 pyrosequencing to obtain transcriptome information for multiple individuals and tissue types from geographically disparate and ecologically differentiated populations of the perennial sunflower species Helianthus maximiliani. A total of 850 275 raw reads were obtained averaging 355 bp in length. Reads were assembled, postprocessing, into 16 681 unique contigs with an N50 of 898 bp and a total length of 13.6 Mb. A majority (67%) of these contigs were annotated based on comparison with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome (TAIR10). Contigs were identified that exhibit high similarity to genes associated with natural variation in flowering time and freezing tolerance in other plant species and will facilitate future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of clinal life history variation and adaptive differentiation in H. maximiliani. Large numbers of gene-associated simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also were identified that can be deployed in mapping and population genomic analyses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Transcriptome changes induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) roots.

    Vangelisti, Alberto; Natali, Lucia; Bernardi, Rodolfo; Sbrana, Cristiana; Turrini, Alessandra; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Hughes, David; Cavallini, Andrea; Giovannetti, Manuela; Giordani, Tommaso

    2018-01-08

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are essential elements of soil fertility, plant nutrition and productivity, facilitating soil mineral nutrient uptake. Helianthus annuus is a non-model, widely cultivated species. Here we used an RNA-seq approach for evaluating gene expression variation at early and late stages of mycorrhizal establishment in sunflower roots colonized by the arbuscular fungus Rhizoglomus irregulare. mRNA was isolated from roots of plantlets at 4 and 16 days after inoculation with the fungus. cDNA libraries were built and sequenced with Illumina technology. Differential expression analysis was performed between control and inoculated plants. Overall 726 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between inoculated and control plants were retrieved. The number of up-regulated DEGs greatly exceeded the number of down-regulated DEGs and this difference increased in later stages of colonization. Several DEGs were specifically involved in known mycorrhizal processes, such as membrane transport, cell wall shaping, and other. We also found previously unidentified mycorrhizal-induced transcripts. The most important DEGs were carefully described in order to hypothesize their roles in AM symbiosis. Our data add a valuable contribution for deciphering biological processes related to beneficial fungi and plant symbiosis, adding an Asteraceae, non-model species for future comparative functional genomics studies.

  10. Effects of sewage sludge fertilizer on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Belhaj, Dalel; Elloumi, Nada; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Zouari, Mohamed; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Ayadi, Habib; Kallel, Monem

    2016-10-01

    Use of sewage sludge, a biological residue produced from sewage treatment processes in agriculture, is an alternative disposal technique of waste. To study the usefulness of sewage sludge amendment for Helianthus annuus, a pot experiment was conducted by mixing sewage sludge at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 % (w/w) amendment ratios to the agricultural soil. Soil pH decreased whereas electrical conductivity, organic matter, total N, available P, and exchangeable Na, K, and Ca increased in soil amended with sewage sludge in comparison to unamended soil. Sewage sludge amendment led to significant increase in Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations of soil. The increased concentration of heavy metals in soil due to sewage sludge amendment led to increases in shoot and root concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in plant as compared to those grown on unamended soil. Accumulation was more in roots than shoots for most of the heavy metals. Moreover, high metal removal for the harvestable parts of the crops was recorded. Sewage sludge amendment increased root and shoot length, leaves number, biomass, and antioxidant activities of sunflower. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, and soluble sugar content in response to amendment with sewage sludge may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress. Graphical abstract Origin, fate and behavior of sewage sludge fertilizer.

  11. Alleviation of adverse impact of cadmium stress in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    ALLAH, E.F.; Alqarawi, A.A.; Hend, A.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important ornamental plant and good source of vegetable oil, widely accepted as potential promising plant for phytoremediation. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of cadmium on the growth and some biochemical attributes of sunflower and role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in assuaging the cadmium stress induced changes. Cadmium treatment reduced growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability. AMF inoculated plants showed increased growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability and also mitigated changes caused due to cadmium. Cadmium caused increase in lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide production. An increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed due to cadmium treatment which was further enhanced by inoculation of AMF. Increase in proline and total phenols due to cadmium stress was obvious. Cadmium stressed plants showed enhanced fatty acid content. AMF inoculated plants showed higher activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases which were reduced by cadmium stress. However palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3) reduced in cadmium treated plants and the negative impact of cadmium was mitigated by AMF. (author)

  12. A time-series phytoremediation experiment with sunflowers (Helianthus annuus on a former uranium mining site

    Kötschau A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available On a test field situated at a former uranium mining site near Ronneburg (Thuringia, Germany a small scale time-series field experiment with sunflowers (Helianthus annuus was carried out. This area ghas elevated contents for the heavy metals Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn including the radionuclides U and Th. Over a time period of 24 weeks the sunflowers were cultivated on homogenized soil substrate and regularly harvested. The aim was to find the ideal moment to harvest the sunflowers, being defined as having the best balance between the extraction of the contaminants and a high biomass produced. The contents of the elements were determined in soil, roots and above-ground plant parts. The contents in the above-ground plant showed no clear increasing or decreasing trend over time, so they were not the appropriate values to determine the best moment to harvest. Instead the total extracted masses (content in μg/g x biomass in g of the contaminants in the above-ground plant parts were calculated. According to this the best moment to harvest the sunflower plants was reached after 24 weeks of vegetation, because the highest extracted masses for all contaminants were calculated to this time. Additionally the biomass, which could be used e.g. for bio-fuel production, was highest at this time.

  13. Hairy roots of Helianthus annuus: a model system to study phytoremediation of tetracycline and oxytetracycline.

    Gujarathi, Ninad P; Haney, Bryan J; Park, Heidi J; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Linden, James C

    2005-01-01

    The release of antibiotics to the environment has to be controlled because of serious threats to human health. Hairy root cultures of Helianthus annuus (sunflower), along with their inherent rhizospheric activity, provide a fast growing, microbe-free environment for understanding plant-pollutant interactions. The root system catalyzes rapid disappearance of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) from aqueous media, which suggests roots have potential for phytoremediation of the two antibiotics in vivo. In addition, in vitro modifications of the two antibiotics by filtered, cell- and microbe-free root exudates suggest involvement of root-secreted compounds. The modification is confirmed from changes observed in UV spectra of exudate-treated OTC. Modification appears to be more dominant at the BCD chromophore of the antibiotic molecule. Kinetic analyses dismiss direct enzyme catalysis; the modification rates decrease with increasing OTC concentrations. The rates increase with increasing age of cultures from which root exudates are prepared. The decrease in modification rates upon addition of the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) suggests involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the antibiotic modification process.

  14. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina

    Juan P. TORRETTA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El girasol ( Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfo- especies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica ( Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas ( Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.

  15. Μetal Uptake by Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Irrigated with Water Polluted with Chromium and Nickel.

    Stoikou, Vasiliki; Andrianos, Vangelis; Stasinos, Sotiris; Kostakis, Marios G; Attiti, Sofia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2017-07-17

    The water aquifers of the regions of Asopos River in Viotia and Messapia in Evia (Greece) have been contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) and bivalent nickel (Ni (II)). Given that these areas are the two biggest tuber producing regions of Greece, in our previous work, the cross-contamination of the food chain with these two heavy metals was quantified. In the present study, the potential of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) cultivation in these regions is evaluated. The scope of our study was to investigate the uptake of chromium and nickel by sunflower, in a greenhouse experiment. The study included two cultivation periods of plants in six irrigation lines with different levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) ranging from 0 μg/L (control) to 10,000 μg/L. In all plant parts, statistically significant increased levels of Cr (VI) and Ni (II) were found when compared to control ones. Also, a positive correlation, both for Cr and Ni, between levels of heavy metals in irrigation water and plants was observed. Following European Food Safety Authority recommendations, the obtained oil was evaluated as safe for consumption, therefore, sunflower cultivation could be a valid bioremediation solution for the Asopos and Messapia regions.

  16. THE EFFECT OF SPRUCE BARK POLYPHENOLS EXTRACT IN COMBINATION WITH DEUTERIUM DEPLETED WATER (DDW ON GLYCINE MAX L. AND HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. DEVELOPMENT

    Corneliu Tanase

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spruce bark aqueous extract and deuterium depleted water (DDW as bioregulators on the plant growth Glycine max L. and Helianthus annuus. The following specific parameteres were closely monitorised: germination energy and germination capacity, plants vegetative organelles growth and development and photoassimilatory pigments concentrations. The results have shown that DDW presents different effects depending on tested plant species. In the case of soybean, DDW presented stimulatory effects on both germination energy and capacity, radicles elongation, primary leaves growth and development but inhibitory effects on photoassimilatory pigments. Spruce bark extract reduced the germination capacity of soybean seeds, but accelerated the germination process of sunflower seeds and present stimulatory effects on plantlets biomass accumulation. The combination of DDW with Picea abies polyphenolic extract promoted soybean plantlet elongation, especially the rootlets ones and stimulated green biomass accumulation for both soybean and sunflower plantlets. Analyzing the photoassimilatory pigments concentration for sunflower, it can be observed an increasing trend (almost 100% comparing with control when introduce into the growth medium DDW and P. abies polyphenolic extract. DDW and P. abies bark extract have shown an important role in plant growth and development, improving photoassimiliation process.

  17. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P eggs (P egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. [Analysis of mineral elements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on saline land in Hetao Irrigation District by ICP-AES].

    Tong, Wen-Jie; Chen, Fu; Wen, Xin-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of ten mineral elements in four kinds of organs (root, steam, leaf and flower disc) in Helianthus annuus L. plants cultured in Hetao Irrigation District under different level of salinity stress were determined by ICP-AES with wet digestion (HNO3 + HClO4). The results showed that: (1) The contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Na were highest in roots, so was K in stems, B and Mg in leaves and P in flower discs, while no significant difference was detected in the content of Cu among these organs; (2) The cumulants of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, B and Zn were highest in flower discs, so were Na, Fe and Mn in roots and K in stems; (3) In sunflower plants, the proportion of mineral element cumulant for K : Ca : Mg : P : Na was 16.71 : 5.23 : 3.86 : 1.23 : 1.00, and for Zn : Fe : B : Mn: Cu was 56.28 : 27.75 : 1.93 : 1.17 : 1.00, respectively; (4) The effect of salinity stress on absorption of mineral elements differed according to the kind of organ and element, root was the most sensitive to soil salt content, followed by stem and leaf, and the effect on flower disc seemed complex.

  19. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  20. Comparison of MP AES and ICP-MS for analysis of principal and selected trace elements in nitric acid digests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Ogar, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrogen as plasma gas for microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP AES) is an interesting development in analytical science since the running cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to the inductively coupled argon plasma. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument for the analysis of principal metals (Ca, K, Mg, and Na), lithogenic metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) and selected trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in nitric acid plant digests. The digests were prepared by microwave-assisted dissolution of dry plant material from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in concentrated nitric acid. Comparisons are made with analysis of the same solutions with ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cx) using the octopole reaction system (ORS) in the collision mode for As, Fe, and V. The limits of detection were usually in the low µg L(-1) range and all principal and lithogenic metals were successfully determined with the MP AES and provided almost identical results with the ICP-MS. The same applies for the selected trace metals except for As, Co and Mo where the concentrations were below the detection limit with the MP AES. For successful analysis we recommend that (i) only atom lines are used, (ii) ionization is minimized (e.g. addition of CsNO3) and (iii) the use of internal standards should be considered to resolve spectral interferences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. AS AFFECTED BY THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND INOCULATION WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    Apolino José Nogueira da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers and the inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi in the cultivation of oil crops is essential to reduce production costs and minimize negative impacts on natural resources. A field experiment was conducted in an Argissolo Amarelo (Ultisol with the aim of evaluating the effects of fertilizer application and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth attributes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and on soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replicates in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of four treatments in regard to application of organic fertilizer (liquid biofertilizer, cow urine, mineral fertilizer, and unfertilized control and two treatments in regard to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (with and without mycorrhizal fungi. The results showed that the physiological attributes of relative growth rate and leaf weight ratio were positively influenced by fertilization, compared to the control treatment, likely brought about by the supply of nutrients from the fertilizers applied. The growth and productivity attributes were positively affected by mycorrhization.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    López-Valdez, F.; Fernández-Luqueño, F.; Luna-Suárez, S.; Dendooven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO 2 and N 2 O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO 2 and N 2 O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N 2 O emissions but not CO 2 emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  4. Evidence of correlated evolution and adaptive differentiation of stem and leaf functional traits in the herbaceous genus, Helianthus.

    Pilote, Alex J; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Patterns of plant stem traits are expected to align with a "fast-slow" plant economic spectrum across taxa. Although broad patterns support such tradeoffs in field studies, tests of hypothesized correlated trait evolution and adaptive differentiation are more robust when taxa relatedness and environment are taken into consideration. Here we test for correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits and their adaptive differentiation across environments in the herbaceous genus, Helianthus. Stem and leaf traits of 14 species of Helianthus (28 populations) were assessed in a common garden greenhouse study. Phylogenetically independent contrasts were used to test for evidence of correlated evolution of stem hydraulic and biomechanical properties, correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits, and adaptive differentiation associated with source habitat environments. Among stem traits, there was evidence for correlated evolution of some hydraulic and biomechanical properties, supporting an expected tradeoff between stem theoretical hydraulic efficiency and resistance to bending stress. Population differentiation for suites of stem and leaf traits was found to be consistent with a "fast-slow" resource-use axis for traits related to water transport and use. Associations of population traits with source habitat characteristics supported repeated evolution of a resource-acquisitive "drought-escape" strategy in arid environments. This study provides evidence of correlated evolution of stem and leaf traits consistent with the fast-slow spectrum of trait combinations related to water transport and use along the stem-to-leaf pathway. Correlations of traits with source habitat characteristics further indicate that the correlated evolution is associated, at least in part, with adaptive differentiation of Helianthus populations among native habitats differing in climate. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Fitoextracción De Plomo, Zinc y Cadmio de Relaves Mineros Utilizando Helianthus annuus L. (Girasol)

    Lizarbe Asmat, Katherine; Rivera López, Yaslin; Mendoza Bobadilla, Jorge; Vera Herrera, Manuel; Rodríguez Espinoza, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el crecimiento de Helianthus annuus L. (girasol), especie bioacumuladora de metales pesados, mediante la adición de acondicionadores orgánicos e inorgánicos al relave minero artesanal, para la fitoextracción de plomo, zinc y cadmio. Métodos: Se probaron cuatro tratamientos de diferentes proporciones relave – acondicionador (100 - 0%, 75 - 25%, 50 – 50%, 25 – 75% respectivamente), con seis repeticiones cada uno, para periodos de tiempo de 30, 60 y 90 días y mediante dos métod...

  6. The sensitivity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants to UV-B radiation is altered by nitrogen status

    Cechin, Inês; Gonzalez, Gisely Cristina; Corniani, Natália; Fumis, Terezinha de Fátima

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Interaction effects between nitrogen and UV-B radiation were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. variety IAC-Iarama) plants grown in a greenhouse under natural photoperiod conditions. Plants were irradiated with 0.8W m-2 (control) or 8.0W m-2 (+UV-B) of UV-B radiation for 7h per day. The plants were grown in pots containing vermiculite and watered with 70% of full strength nitrogen-free Long Ashton solution, containing either low (42.3ppm) or high (282ppm) nitrogen as ammoniu...

  7. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  8. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species.

    Bowsher, Alan W; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments.

  9. Vulnerability of photosynthesis and photosystem I in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) exposed to waterlogging.

    Yan, Kun; Zhao, Shijie; Cui, Mingxing; Han, Guangxuan; Wen, Pei

    2018-04-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is an important energy crop for utilizing coastal marginal land. This study was to investigate waterlogging tolerance of Jerusalem artichoke through photosynthetic diagnose with emphasis on photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) performance. Potted plants were subjected to severe (liquid level 5 cm above vermiculite surface) and moderate (liquid level 5 cm below vermiculite surface) waterlogging for 9 days. Large decreased photosynthetic rate suggested photosynthesis vulnerability upon waterlogging. After 7 days of severe waterlogging, PSII and PSI photoinhibition arose, indicated by significant decrease in the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and PSI (△MR/MR 0 ), and PSI seemed more vulnerable because of greater decrease in △MR/MR 0 than Fv/Fm. In line with decreased △MR/MR 0 and unchanged Fv/Fm after 9 days of moderate waterlogging, the amount of PSI reaction center protein rather than PSII reaction center protein was lowered, confirming greater PSI vulnerability. According to positive correlation between △MR/MR 0 and efficiency that an electron moves beyond primary quinone and negative correlation between △MR/MR 0 and PSII excitation pressure, PSI inactivation elevated PSII excitation pressure by depressing electron transport at PSII acceptor side. Thus, PSI vulnerability induced PSII photoinhibition and endangered the stability of whole photosynthetic apparatus under waterlogging. In agreement with photosystems photoinhibition, elevated H 2 O 2 concentration and lipid peroxidation in the leaves corroborated waterlogging-induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, Jerusalem artichoke is a waterlogging sensitive species in terms of photosynthesis and PSI vulnerability. Consistently, tuber yield was tremendously reduced by waterlogging, confirming waterlogging sensitivity of Jerusalem artichoke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne).

    Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke.

  11. The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genome reflects a recent history of biased accumulation of transposable elements.

    Staton, S Evan; Bakken, Bradley H; Blackman, Benjamin K; Chapman, Mark A; Kane, Nolan C; Tang, Shunxue; Ungerer, Mark C; Knapp, Steven J; Rieseberg, Loren H; Burke, John M

    2012-10-01

    Aside from polyploidy, transposable elements are the major drivers of genome size increases in plants. Thus, understanding the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), especially given its large genome size (∼3.5 Gb) and the well-documented cases of amplification of certain transposons within the genus, is of considerable importance for understanding the evolutionary history of this emerging model species. By analyzing approximately 25% of the sunflower genome from random sequence reads and assembled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, we show that it is composed of over 81% transposable elements, 77% of which are long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. Moreover, the LTR retrotransposon fraction in BAC clones harboring genes is disproportionately composed of chromodomain-containing Gypsy LTR retrotransposons ('chromoviruses'), and the majority of the intact chromoviruses contain tandem chromodomain duplications. We show that there is a bias in the efficacy of homologous recombination in removing LTR retrotransposon DNA, thereby providing insight into the mechanisms associated with transposable element (TE) composition in the sunflower genome. We also show that the vast majority of observed LTR retrotransposon insertions have likely occurred since the origin of this species, providing further evidence that biased LTR retrotransposon activity has played a major role in shaping the chromatin and DNA landscape of the sunflower genome. Although our findings on LTR retrotransposon age and structure could be influenced by the selection of the BAC clones analyzed, a global analysis of random sequence reads indicates that the evolutionary patterns described herein apply to the sunflower genome as a whole. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives. 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina

    Juan P TORRETTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.

  14. Analysis of Phenolic Acids of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. Responding to Salt-Stress by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Fujia Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu. Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals.

  15. results

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  16. Physiological and biochemical responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) exposed to nano-CeO2 and excess boron: Modulation of boron phytotoxicity.

    Tassi, E; Giorgetti, L; Morelli, E; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L; Barbafieri, M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with soil constituents and their effects in plants. Boron (B), an essential micronutrient that reduces crop production at both deficiency and excess, has not been investigated with respect to its interaction with cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO 2 ). Considering conflicting results on the nano-CeO 2 toxicity and protective role as antioxidant, their possible modulation on B toxicity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated. Sunflower was cultivated for 30 days in garden pots containing original or B-spiked soil amended with nano-CeO 2 at 0-800 mg kg -1 . At harvest, Ce and B concentrations in tissues, biomass, and activities of stress enzymes in leaves were determined. Results showed that in the original soil, Ce accumulated mainly in roots, with little translocation to stems and leaves, while reduced root Ce was observed in plants from B-spiked soil. In the original soil, higher levels of nano-CeO 2 reduced plant B concentration. Although morphological effects were not visible, changes in biomass and oxidative stress response were observed. Sunflower leaves from B-spiked soil showed visible symptoms of B toxicity, such as necrosis and chlorosis in old leaves, as well as an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, at high nano-CeO 2 level, SOD activity decreased reaching values similar to that of the control. This study has shown that nano-CeO 2 reduced both the B nutritional status of sunflower in original soil and the B phytotoxicity in B-spiked soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The analysis on of the effect of urea, iron sulfate and vermicompost fertilizers on the growth characteristics and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. The city Darreh Gaz

    mahdiyeh zomorrodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of vermicompost and urea and iron sulfate fertilizers on the growth characteristics and yield of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus L. an pediment was conducted in Darreh Gaz located in Khorasan Razavi province in 2012. Factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three factors and three repetition. In this experiment three levels of urea (50; 150 and 250 kg per hectare as the first factor and two level of vermicompost (7 tons per hectare consumption and non-consumption as the second factor and two iron sulfate (80 kilogram per hectare consumption and non- consumption were considered as the third factor. The results showed that the effect of urea × vermicompost treatment combination on stem height, head diameter, stem dry weight and yield was significantly at one percent probability level. The treatment combination of 250 kg. ha-1 × iron sulfate× vermicompost increased plant height, head diameter, petiole dry weight. Vermicompost × iron sulfate treatment combination on the dry weight’s leaf, petiole, stem and head were the highest significant (p≤0.01. The application of vermicompost × iron sulfate treatment combination resulted in the highest rate of stem diameter, leaf dry weight and stem the highest yield belonged to 250 kg.ha-1 × vermicompost. Iron sulfate use different amounts of urea fertilizer redact yield. The lowest yield of 250 kg.ha-1× iron sulfate was related to treatment combination. So it seems that the combined application of organic vermicompost fertilizer and urea and iron sulfate fertilizers on the growth and yield of sunflower Darreh Gaz can be effective in improving properties.

  18. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  19. Comparative uptake of plutonium from soils by Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus

    Lee, J.H.; Hossner, L.R.; Attrep, M.; Kung, K.S.

    2002-01-01

    Extractability of Pu from soils was most affected by pH and amounts of clay, salts, and carbonates. - Plutonium uptake by Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) from soils with varying chemical composition and contaminated with Pu complexes (Pu-nitrate [ 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 ], Pu-citrate [ 239 Pu(C 6 H 5 O 7 ) + ], and Pu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Pu-DTPA [ 239 Pu-C 14 H 23 O 10 N 3 ]) was investigated. Sequential extraction of soils incubated with applied Pu was used to determine the distribution of Pu in the various soil fractions. The initial Pu activity levels in soils were 44.40-231.25 Bq g -1 as Pu-nitrate , Pu-citrate, or Pu-DTPA. A difference in Pu uptake between treatments of Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate without chelating agent was observed only with Indian mustard in acidic Crowley soil. The uptake of Pu by plants was increased with increasing DTPA rates, however, the Pu concentration of plants was not proportionally increased with increasing application rate of Pu to soil. Plutonium uptake from Pu-DTPA was significantly higher from the acid Crowley soil than from the calcareous Weswood soil. The uptake of Pu from the soils was higher in Indian mustard than in sunflower. Sequential extraction of Pu showed that the ion-exchangeable Pu fraction in soils was dramatically increased with DTPA treatment and decreased with time of incubation. Extractability of Pu in all fractions was not different when Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate were applied to the same soil. More Pu was associated with the residual Pu fraction without DTPA application. Consistent trends with time of incubation for other fractions were not apparent. The ion-exchangeable fraction, assumed as plant-available Pu, was significantly higher in acid soil compared with calcareous soil with or without DTPA treatment. When the calcareous soil was treated with DTPA, the ion-exchangeable Pu was comparatively less influenced. This fraction in the soil was more affected with time

  20. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: β-hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratase genes.

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sánchez, Rosario; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    Two sunflower hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratases evolved into two different isoenzymes showing distinctive expression levels and kinetics' efficiencies. β-Hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein (ACP)]-dehydratase (HAD) is a component of the type II fatty acid synthase complex involved in 'de novo' fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. This complex, formed by four intraplastidial proteins, is responsible for the sequential condensation of two-carbon units, leading to 16- and 18-C acyl-ACP. HAD dehydrates 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP generating trans-2-enoyl-ACP. With the aim of a further understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydratase genes have been cloned from developing seeds, HaHAD1 (GenBank HM044767) and HaHAD2 (GenBank GU595454). Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single copy genes. Differences in their expression patterns across plant tissues were detected. Higher levels of HaHAD2 in the initial stages of seed development inferred its key role in seed storage fatty acid synthesis. That HaHAD1 expression levels remained constant across most tissues suggest a housekeeping function. Heterologous expression of these genes in E. coli confirmed both proteins were functional and able to interact with the bacterial complex 'in vivo'. The large increase of saturated fatty acids in cells expressing HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 supports the idea that these HAD genes are closely related to the E. coli FabZ gene. The proposed three-dimensional models of HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 revealed differences at the entrance to the catalytic tunnel attributable to Phe166/Val1159, respectively. HaHAD1 F166V was generated to study the function of this residue. The 'in vitro' enzymatic characterization of the three HAD proteins demonstrated all were active, with the mutant having intermediate K m and V max values to the wild-type proteins.

  1. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R(12) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Gong, L; Hulke, B S; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is resistant to both of the most predominant and most virulent rust races identified in the Northern Great Plains of the USA. The gene conditioning rust resistance in RHA 464 originated from wild Helianthus annuus L., but has not been molecularly marked or determined to be independent from other rust loci. The objectives of this study are to identify molecular markers linked to the rust resistance gene and to investigate the allelism of this gene with the unmapped rust resistance genes present in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397. Virulence phenotypes of seedlings for the F(2) population and F(2:3) families suggested that a single dominant gene confers rust resistance in RHA 464, and this gene was designated as R(12). Bulked segregant analysis identified ten markers polymorphic between resistant and susceptible bulks. In subsequent genetic mapping, the ten markers covered 33.4 cM of genetic distance on linkage group 11 of sunflower. A co-dominant marker CRT275-11 is the closest marker distal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 1.0 cM, while ZVG53, a dominant marker linked in the repulsion phase, is proximal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 9.6 cM. The allelism test demonstrated that R(12) is not allelic to the rust resistance genes in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397, and it is also not linked to any previously mapped rust resistance genes. Discovery of the R(12) novel rust resistance locus in sunflower and associated markers will potentially support the molecular marker-assisted introgression and pyramiding of R(12) into sunflower breeding lines.

  2. Myco-phytoremediation of arsenic- and lead-contaminated soils by Helianthus annuus and wood rot fungi, Trichoderma sp. isolated from decayed wood.

    Govarthanan, M; Mythili, R; Selvankumar, T; Kamala-Kannan, S; Kim, H

    2018-04-30

    In the present study, Helianthus annuus grown in arsenic- (As) and lead- (Pb) contaminated soil were treated with plant-growth promoting fungi Trichoderma sp. MG isolated from decayed wood and assessed for their phytoremediation efficiency. The isolate MG exhibited a high tolerance to As (650mg/L) and Pb (500mg/L), and could remove > 70% of metals in aqueous solution with an initial concentration of 100mg/L each. In addition, the isolate MG was screened for plant-growth-promoting factors such as siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, and phosphate solubilisation. Phytoremediation studies indicated that treatment of H. annuus with the isolate MG had the maximum metal-accumulation in shoots (As; 67%, Pb; 59%). Furthermore, a significant increase in the soil extracellular enzyme-activities was observed in myco-phytoremediated soils. The activities of phosphatase (35 U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (41mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.2mg glucose/g/2h), urease (55.4mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (49.3mg glucose/g/2h) and invertase (45.3mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 12%, 14%, 12%, 22%, 19% and 14% in As contaminated soil, respectively. Similarly, the activities of phosphatase (31.4U/g dry soil), dehydrogenase (39.3mg TPF/g soil), cellulase (37.1mg glucose/g/2h), urease (49.8mgN/g soil/2h), amylase (46.3mg glucose/g/2h), and invertase (42.1mg glucose/g/2h) significantly increased by 11%, 15%, 11%, 18%, 20% and 14% in Pb contaminated soil, respectively. Obtained results indicate that the isolate MG could be a potential strain for myco-phytoremediation of As and Pb contaminated soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers

    Lopez-Valdez, F., E-mail: flopez2072@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Fernandez-Luqueno, F. [Natural and Energetic Resources, Cinvestav-Saltillo, C.P. 25900, Coahuila (Mexico); Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Luna-Suarez, S. [Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology, CIBA, IPN, Tepetitla de Lardizabal, C.P. 90700, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Dendooven, L. [Laboratory of Soil Ecology, GIB, Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-Zacatenco, C.P. 07360, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions but not CO{sub 2} emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern.

  4. Agronomic performance and chemical response of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) to some organic nitrogen sources and conventional nitrogen fertilizers under sandy soil conditions

    Helmy, A. M.; Fawzy Ramadan, M. F.

    2009-07-01

    Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) is an option for oilseed production, particularly in dry land areas due to good root system development. In this study, two field experiments were performed in the El-Khattara region (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt) during the 2005 season. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of organic nitrogen (ON) sources and their combinations as well as to compare the effect of ON and ammonium sulfate (AS) as a conventional fertilizer added individually or in combination on growth, yield components, oil percentage and the uptake of some macro nutrients by sunflowers grown on sandy soil.The treatments of chicken manure (CM) and a mixture of farmyard manure (FYM) with CM were superior to the other treatments and gave the highest yield, dry matter yield, NPK uptake by plants at all growth stages along with seed yield at the mature stage. The effect of the different ON on crop yield and its components may follow the order; CM> palma residues (PR)> FYM. This was more emphasized when the materials were mixed with AS at a ratio of 3:1 and 1:1. The uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) by plants was affected by the addition of different N sources and treatments. The highest nutrient content and uptake by straw were obtained when treated with CM followed by PR at all growth stages, while it was PR followed by CM for seeds. Oil recovery was shown to respond to the N supply and the changes in individual fatty acids were not statistically different. However, it seems that the application of organic fertilizers resulted in an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids compared to the control. (Author) 58 refs.

  5. Comparisons of Photosynthetic Responses of Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus to Chronic and Acute Water Stress in Sun and Shade 1

    Ben, Gui-Ying; Osmond, C. Barry; Sharkey, Thomas D.

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the effects of mild, chronic water stress and acute water stress on two water stress sensitive plants, Xanthium strumarium and Helianthus annuus. Using a combination of the leaf disc O2 electrode to measure the light responses of photosynthesis and 77 K fluorescence to monitor damage to the primary photochemistry, we have found the following: (a) The CO2 saturated rate of photosynthesis at high light is the most water stress sensitive parameter measured. (b) The apparent quantum yield (moles O2 per mole photons) was slightly, if at all, affected by mild water stress (>−1.5 megapascals). (c) Severe water stress (<−1.5 megapascals) reduced the quantum yield of photosynthesis regardless of whether the stress was applied in sun or shade. The light independent reduction of quantum yield was not associated with a reduction in 77 K fluorescence (Fv/Fm) indicating that the quantum yield reduction was not the result of damage to primary photochemistry. (d) The diel fluctuation in 77 K fluorescence seen in sun-exposed control leaves was greatly exaggerated in water stressed leaves because of enhanced decline in 77 K fluorescence in the morning. The rate of recovery was similar in both control and water stressed leaves. Shaded leaves showed no change in 77 K fluorescence regardless of whether water stress was imposed or not. (e) The water stress sensitive plants used in these experiments did not recover from acute water stress severe enough to reduce the quantum yield or chronic water stress which lasted long enough that light dependent damage to primary photochemistry occurred. PMID:16665465

  6. Prebiotic potential of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in Wistar rats: effects of levels of supplementation on hindgut fermentation, intestinal morphology, blood metabolites and immune response.

    Samal, Lipismita; Chaturvedi, Vishwa Bandhu; Saikumar, Guttula; Somvanshi, Ramesh; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted using purified prebiotics such as inulin or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as nutraceuticals, but there is very little information available on the prebiotic potential of raw products rich in inulin and FOS, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus L.). The present experiment aimed to evaluate the prebiotic effects of JA tubers in rats. Seventy-two Wistar weanling rats divided into four groups were fed for 12 weeks on a basal diet fortified with pulverized JA tubers at 0 (control), 20, 40 and 60 g kg(-1) levels. Enhanced cell-mediated immunity in terms of skin indurations (P = 0.082) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte population (P = 0.002) was observed in the JA-supplemented groups compared with the control group. Blood haemoglobin (P = 0.017), glucose (P = 0.001), urea (P = 0.004) and calcium (P = 0.048) varied favourably upon inclusion of JA. An increasing trend (P = 0.059) in the length of large intestine was apparent in the JA-fed groups. The tissue mass of caecum (P = 0.069) and colon (P = 0.003) was increased in the JA-supplemented groups, accompanied by higher (P = 0.007) caecal crypt depth. The pH and ammonia concentrations of intestinal digesta decreased and those of lactate and total volatile fatty acids increased in the JA-fed groups. The results suggest that JA had beneficial effects on immunity, blood metabolites, intestinal morphometry and hindgut fermentation of rats. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Study of qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response of seed inoculation with PGPR in various levels of nitrogen fertilizer

    H. Nazarly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the qualitative and quantitative yield and some agronomic characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in response to seed inoculation with PGPR under various levels of nitrogen fertilizer, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in field experimental University of Mohaghegh Ardabili during growing season of 2009-2010. Factors were nitrogen fertilizer in three levels (0, 80 and 160 kg N ha-1 as urea and seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in four levels containing, without inoculation (as control, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5, Azospirillum lipoferum strain OF, Psedomunas strain 186. Results indicated that nitrogen levels and seed inoculation with Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR had significant effects on all of characteristics studied (except grain 1000 weight and stem diameter. Grain yield, plant height, head diameter, seed number per head, , yield and oil percentage, yield and protein percentage increased with increasing of nitrogen fertilizer and application of seed inoculation with PGPR. Response of grain yield wasn't the same for various levels of nitrogen fertilizer and seed inoculation with PGPR. The highest grain yield belonged to application of 160 kg N ha-1 and seed inoculation with Azotobacter. Means comparison showed that treatment compounds N160 × without inoculation with PGPR and N80 × seed inoculation with PGPR Azotobacter had similar grain yields. Thus, it can be suggested that in order to increasing of grain yield seed should be inoculated with Azotobacter bacteria × 80 kg N/ha in conditions of Ardabil region.

  8. effect of gamma irradiation, antitranspirants and packages on the storage ability of jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus Tuberosus,L.)

    Abd-Elhak, T.S.F.E.

    2005-01-01

    two experiments were carried out in the summer seasons of 2001 and 2002 on the cultivar Fuseau of jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus Tuberosus,L.) to follow the models of changes that occurred in the vegetative growth and tubers during development to determine the most suitable age for harvesting . irradiation, antitranspirant and package size either provided with polyethylene sheets or not were examined to improve the storage ability of tubers. studies on the models of developmental stages showed that the plant height and fresh weight increased till the last examined age of 180 days while the number of stems increased till the age of 150 days. the total carbohydrates and inulin contents accumulated up to the age of 120 days then decreased till the age of 180 days whereas the protein percentage increased up to the age of 180 days

  9. Genome-wide analysis of LTR-retrotransposon diversity and its impact on the evolution of the genus Helianthus (L.).

    Mascagni, Flavia; Giordani, Tommaso; Ceccarelli, Marilena; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2017-08-18

    Genome divergence by mobile elements activity and recombination is a continuous process that plays a key role in the evolution of species. Nevertheless, knowledge on retrotransposon-related variability among species belonging to the same genus is still limited. Considering the importance of the genus Helianthus, a model system for studying the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation, we performed a comparative analysis of the repetitive genome fraction across ten species and one subspecies of sunflower, focusing on long terminal repeat retrotransposons at superfamily, lineage and sublineage levels. After determining the relative genome size of each species, genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to Illumina sequencing. Then, different assembling and clustering approaches allowed exploring the repetitive component of all genomes. On average, repetitive DNA in Helianthus species represented more than 75% of the genome, being composed mostly by long terminal repeat retrotransposons. Also, the prevalence of Gypsy over Copia superfamily was observed and, among lineages, Chromovirus was by far the most represented. Although nearly all the same sublineages are present in all species, we found considerable variability in the abundance of diverse retrotransposon lineages and sublineages, especially between annual and perennial species. This large variability should indicate that different events of amplification or loss related to these elements occurred following species separation and should have been involved in species differentiation. Our data allowed us inferring on the extent of interspecific repetitive DNA variation related to LTR-RE abundance, investigating the relationship between changes of LTR-RE abundance and the evolution of the genus, and determining the degree of coevolution of different LTR-RE lineages or sublineages between and within species. Moreover, the data suggested that LTR-RE abundance in a species was affected by the annual or perennial

  10. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Genetic variability of concentration of microelements in wild sunflower species and hybrids

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate genetic specificity of sunflower nutrition with microelements. Therefore, concentrations of essential (Zn, B, Mn, Cu, Fe and Ni and non-essential (Cr, Al, Cd, As, Pb and Ba micronutrients were analyzed. Five sunflower hybrids the most grown in Serbia and different populations of wild sunflower species originating from North America: Helianthus neglectus Heiser (3, Helianthus agrophyllus T&G (3, Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. (2, Helianthus annuus L. (4 were included in the experiment. Populations of wild sunflower species and hybrids differed significantly with respect to the concentration of analyzed elements. Manganese concentration was significantly higher in hybrids than in wild species. In all genotypes Fe, B and Mn had the highest concentration. Coefficient of variation of microelement concentration depended on genotype and particular element. In wild populations, for essential microelements, it was between 3.7 and 59.5, whereas in hybrids it varied from 10.0 to 48.8. Coefficient of variation of concentration of non-essential microelements in wild populations varied from 7.7 to 73.8, and in hybrids from 15.1 to 48.8. Average coefficient of variation in both wild species and hybrids was the lowest for Mn and Pb. It was the highest for Cr, Ni, and Zn in hybrids and for Cd, Ni, and Cr in wild species. The results suggest that genetic specificity with respect to uptake of microelements in wild species and hybrids is highly expressed. Broad genetic variability of concentrations of microelements in wild species and hybrids indicate that their reactions to deficiency and/or excess of those elements probably are not the same either. This finding may be used in breeding process aimed specifically at improvement of tolerance and capacity to accumulate microelements in sunflower. Phytoremediation technology designed to reduce the amount of microelements in the soil could thus be advanced by utilization of such

  12. Evaluating the Competitive Ability of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Cultivars against Tumble Pigweed (Amaranthus albus L. in Birjand Region

    mohammad javad babaie zarch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using crop species and cultivars with high competitive ability against weeds is one of the effective strategies for sustainable weed management. Emergence rate, rapid root growth, seed vigor, development rate of leaves, rapid root and shoot biomass accumulation, rapid canopy closure and plant height are important traits in relation to the competitiveness between different cultivars of crops. Competitive ability is measured using two indices including the weed growth prevention ability or weed biomass reduction index and crop tolerance to weed or yield reduction preventing index. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the competitive ability of six oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cultivars and also introducing the most important morpho-physiological attributes affecting their competitive ability with tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus L. in Birjand. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand in 2012. Treatments were included six sunflower oilseed cultivars (Azargol, Jame esfehan, Farrokh, Syrna, Progress, Euroflor and tumble pigweed densities in four levels (zero (control, 5, 10 and 15 plants per square meter. The number of days and cumulative degree days were recorded from sowing to emergence. Plant height, leaf area and dry matter were recorded at four stages from emergence to 75 days after it. Sunflower seeds were harvested after physiological maturity. Preventing indices were used to evaluate the competitive ability of cultivars, competitive tolerance (Watson et al., 2002 and weed biomass. Data were analyzed with the SAS software and cluster analysis was performed using SPSS software. FLSD test was employed for comparison of the means at the 5% significance level. The graphs were prepared by Excel. Results and Discussion Analysis of variance showed that there was a

  13. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression patterns of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR-LIKE and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION-LIKE genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Fambrini, Marco; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    The wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants develop a highly branched form with numerous small flowering heads. The origin of a no branched sunflower, producing a single large head, has been a key event in the domestication process of this species. The interaction between hormonal factors and several genes organizes the initiation and outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs). From sunflower, we have isolated two genes putatively involved in this process, LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LS)-LIKE (Ha-LSL) and REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEM FORMATION (ROX)-LIKE (Ha-ROXL), encoding for a GRAS and a bHLH transcription factor (TF), respectively. Typical amino acid residues and phylogenetic analyses suggest that Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL are the orthologs of the branching regulator LS and ROX/LAX1, involved in the growth habit of both dicot and monocot species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed a high accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts in roots, vegetative shoots, and inflorescence shoots. By contrast, in internodal stems and young leaves, a lower amount of Ha-LSL transcripts was observed. A comparison of transcription patterns between Ha-LSL and Ha-ROXL revealed some analogies but also remarkable differences; in fact, the gene Ha-ROXL displayed a low expression level in all organs analyzed. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis showed that Ha-ROXL transcription was strongly restricted to a small domain within the boundary zone separating the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the leaf primordia and in restricted regions of the inflorescence meristem, beforehand the separation of floral bracts from disc flower primordia. These results suggested that Ha-ROXL may be involved to establish a cell niche for the initiation of AMs as well as flower primordia. The accumulation of Ha-LSL transcripts was not restricted to the boundary zones in vegetative and inflorescence shoots, but the mRNA activity was expanded in other cellular domains of primary shoot apical meristem as well as AMs. In addition, Ha

  14. Growth and N2-fixation of dhaincha (Sesbania aculata) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in an inter cropping system using natural abundances of 15N and 13C

    Kurdali, F.

    2010-06-01

    A field experiment on dhaincha (Sesbania aculata) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) plants grown in mono cropping and inter cropping systems was conducted to evaluate seed yield , oil content, dry matter production (DM), land equivalent ratio (LER), N- yield, competition for soil N uptake and N 2 -fixation using 13 C and 15 N natural abundance techniques. Three different combinations of sesbania (ses) and sunflower (sun) were investigated in the inter cropping system (1ses:1sun; 1ses:2sun, and 2ses:1sun, row ratio). The results showed that: From productivity standpoint, the 1ses:1sun surpassed the other treatments in terms of N and DM yields and exhibited a similar distribution of total DM and N uptake in the sesbania and sunflower plant species. The 1ses:2sun was next in order in terms of DM and N uptake showing also a similar distribution of total N in both plant species. On the other hand, the 1ses:2sun gave the greatest seed and oil production and together with 1ses:1sun treatment were satisfactory in terms of LER for DM in both species having almost similar values. However, the former treatment was more appropriate than the latter because of its higher LER value for seed and oil yield of sunflower plants. Nevertheless, 2ses:1sun treatment seemed not to be an appropriate treatment due to the divergence of LER values in both species, where sunflower plants had a low value as compared to sesbania. From ecological standpoint, the best treatment was 1ses:2sun which showed the greatest N 2 -fixation. Sesbania plants fixed almost identical amounts of atmospheric N 2 in both the mono cropping and inter cropping systems although the density of these plants in the latter was only 1/3 that of the former system. Moreover, soil N-uptake in the 1ses:2sun was the lowest among other treatments. These results give an advantage to the 1ses:2sun treatment over other treatments in terms of soil N consumption and N 2 fixation to meet sesbania's N requirements. %Δ 13 C in the

  15. Aseptic hydroponics to assess rhamnolipid-Cd and rhamnolipid-Zn bioavailability for sunflower (Helianthus annuus): a phytoextraction mechanism study.

    Wen, Jia; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stacey, Samuel P; Kirby, Jason K

    2016-11-01

    The availability of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated in rhamnolipid- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-buffered solutions in order to evaluate the influence of aqueous speciation of the metals on their uptake by the plant, in relation to predictions of uptake by the free ion activity model (FIAM). Free metal ion activity was estimated using the chemical equilibrium program MINTEQ or measured by Donnan dialysis. The uptake of Cd followed the FIAM for the EDTA-buffered solution at EDTA concentrations below 0.4 μM; for the rhamnolipid-buffered solution, the uptake of both metals in roots was not markedly affected by increasing rhamnolipid concentrations in solution. This suggests rhamnolipid enhanced metal accumulation in plant roots (per unit free metal in solution) possibly through formation and uptake of lipophilic complexes. The addition of normal Ca concentrations (low millimetre range) to the rhamnolipid uptake solutions reduced Cd accumulation in shoots by inhibiting Cd translocation, whereas it significantly increased Zn accumulation in shoots. This study confirms that although rhamnolipid could enhance accumulation of Cd in plants roots at low Ca supply, it is not suitable for Cd phytoextraction in contaminated soil environments where Ca concentrations in soil solution are orders of magnitude greater than those of Cd.

  16. Seed yield, N-uptake and oil quality in Helianthus annuus as affected by N-fertilizer

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Attar, J.

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the impact of different nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha as urea) on dry matter yield, N uptake, seed yield, grain oil content and properties of sunflower Helianthus annuus using the 15 N labeling technique. Sunflower plants responded strongly to increasing N supply with respect to growth performance. Dry matter yield and total N uptake were significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Partitioning of N yield in different plant parts showed that capitulum was the principle sink of N (60%) followed by leaves (30%) and stem (10%) regardless of N-fertilizer rates. Seed yield of sunflower was significantly increased at higher N-supply. However, oil concentration was significantly reduced in the N-fertilized treatments. Decreasing of grain oil content due to N addition was overcompensated by the seed yield increase. Consequently, no significant effect of N supply on oil yield was observed. The effect of N supply on iodine number was small, and only a small trend towards lower iodine value in the N100 was observed. No clear trend of the effect of N supply on other oil quality parameters was observed. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff) was significantly increased with increasing N-supply. Recovery of fertilizer 15 N was of 64% regardless of N-rates. This efficiency was less pronounced in stem and leaves than that in capitulum which had a greater value at higher N-supply. (Author)

  17. Analysis of Essential Oil in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Leaves and Tubers by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Helmi, Zead; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Tsymbalista, Yuliya; Ghazleh, Refat Abo; Shaibah, Hassan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil of the tubers and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), a species of sunflower native to eastern North America, growing in Ukraine. A hydrodistillation apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components and then it was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with a split-splitless injector (split ratio, 1:50) and flame ionization detector (FID). The oil was analyzed under linear temperature programming applied at 4°C/min from 50°C - 340°C. Temperatures of the injector and FID detector were maintained at 280°C and 300°C, respectively. The chemical analysis of the oil was carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to determine the chemical composition of the volatile fraction. The essential oils content ranged from 0.00019 to 0.03486 and 0.00011 to 0.00205 (g/100g), in leaves and tubers, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis led to the identification of 17 components in both species samples. The major component found in leaves and tubers was (-)-β-bisabolene with 70.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Essential oil profile of Jerusalem artichoke species showed significant differences between leaves and tubers species. Additionally, the leaves of Jerusalem artichoke are a promising source of natural β-bisabolene.

  18. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of three phosphoglycerate kinase isoforms from developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds.

    Troncoso-Ponce, M A; Rivoal, J; Venegas-Calerón, M; Dorion, S; Sánchez, R; Cejudo, F J; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2012-07-01

    Three cDNAs encoding different phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, EC 2.7.2.3) isoforms, two cytosolic (HacPGK1 and HacPGK2) and one plastidic (HapPGK), were cloned and characterized from developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. The expression profiles of these genes showed differences in heterotrophic tissues, such as developing seeds and roots, where HacPGK1 was predominant, while HapPGK was highly expressed in photosynthetic tissues. The cDNAs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding proteins purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and biochemically characterized. Despite the high level of identity between sequences, the HacPGK1 isoform showed strong differences in terms of specific activity, temperature stability and pH sensitivity in comparison to HacPGK2 and HapPGK. A polyclonal immune serum was raised against the purified HacPGK1 isoform, which showed cross-immunoreactivity with the other PGK isoforms. This serum allowed the localization of high expression levels of PGK isozymes in embryo tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad; Hussain, Mumtaz

    2011-01-30

    The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  2. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus PlARG introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus

    Wieckhorst, S.; Bachlava, E.; Dußle, C. M.; Tang, S.; Gao, W.; Saski, C.; Knapp, S. J.; Schön, C.-C.; Hahn, V.

    2010-01-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus PlARG originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped PlARG on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F2 individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with PlARG as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOSsel × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F2 individuals that does not segregate for PlARG. A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with PlARG. Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the PlARG region on LG 1. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1416-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700574

  4. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on diazotrophic communities in the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    Meng, Xianfa; Wang, Lin; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zed, Rengel

    2012-06-01

    Diazotrophs in the soil may be influenced by plant factors as well as nitrogen (N) fertilization. In this study, we investigated potential diazotrophic communities in the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) supplied with differing amounts of N. The community structure of N(2)-fixing bacteria was profiled using the length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on a variation in the nifH gene. Higher numbers of diazotrophs were detected by T-RFLP compared to LH-PCR. The lowest number of N(2)-fixing bacteria was observed in the rhizosphere soil with high N fertilization. T-RFLP was a better method than LH-PCR for profiling microbial diversity of diazotrophs using multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) of fingerprints as well as diversity measures. The supply of N fertilizer appeared to negatively influence the abundance of diazotrophs in the rhizophere of the Jerusalem artichoke. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  5. Root biomass response to foliar application of imazapyr for two imidazolinone tolerant alleles of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Sala, Carlos A; Bulos, Mariano; Altieri, Emiliano; Ramos, María Laura

    2012-09-01

    Imisun and CLPlus are two imidazolinone tolerance traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) determined by the expression of two alleles at the locus Ahasl1. Both traits differed in their tolerance level to imazapyr -a type of imidazolinone herbicide- when aboveground biomass is considered, but the concomitant herbicide effect over the root system has not been reported. The objective of this work was to quantify the root biomass response to increased doses of imazapyr in susceptible (ahasl1/ahasl1), Imisun (Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-1) and CLPlus (Ahasl1-3/Ahasl1-3) homozygous sunflower genotypes. These materials were sprayed at the V2-V4 stage with increased doses of imazapyr (from 0 to 480 g active ingredient ha(-1)) and 14 days after treatment root biomass of each plant was assessed. Genotype at the Ahasl1 locus, dose of imazapyr and their interaction significantly contributed (P < 0.001) to explain the reduction in root biomass accumulation after herbicide application. Estimated dose of imazapyr required to reduce root biomass accumulation by fifty percent (GR(50)) differed statistically for the three genotypes under study (P < 0.001). CLPlus genotypes showed the highest values of GR(50), 300 times higher on average than the susceptible genotypes, and almost 8 times higher than Imisun materials, demonstrating that both alleles differ in their root biomass response to foliar application of increased doses of imazapyr.

  6. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  7. Comparative effect of Al, Se, and Mo toxicity on NO3(-) assimilation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    Ruiz, Juan M; Rivero, Rosa M; Romero, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Here, we study the effect caused by three trace elements--Al, Se, and Mo--applied at the same concentration (100 microM) and in their oxyanionic forms--NaAl(OH)(4), Na(2)SeO(4), and Na(2)MoO(4)--on NO(3)(-) assimilation (NO(3)(-), nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities, and concentrations of amino acids and proteins) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. var. Kasol) plants. The most harmful element for sunflower plants proved to be selenate, followed by aluminate. On the contrary, the application of molybdate had no negative effect on the growth of this plant, suggesting the possibility of using sunflower for the phytoremediation of this metal, mainly in agricultural zones used for grazing where the excess of this element can provoke problems of molybdenosis in ruminants (particularly in cattle). In addition, we found that the alteration of NO(3)(-) assimilation by SeO(4)(2-) and Al(OH)(4)(-) directly influences the growth and development of plants, foliar inhibition of NR activity by SeO(4)(2-) being more harmful than the decrease in foliar availability of NO(3)(-) provoked by Al(OH)(4)(-).

  8. Comparative analysis of tannery-effluent contaminated soil and mixed culture bacterial inoculation on helianthus annuus L. growth

    Yasin, M.; Faisal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we reported the effect of four strains Bacillus pumilus-CrK08, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans-CrK16, Exiguobacterium-CrK19 and Bacillus cereus-CrK20 and tannery contaminated soil on Helianthus annuus L. var Hysun-33 growth parameters. Plants growing in tannery effluent contaminated soil have shown slowed leaf growth, reduced shoot length, burning of leaf margins and tips compared to plants growing in normal garden soil. The inoculated plants had shown overall increase in root length (15%), shoot length (33%) and fresh weight shoot (135%) compared to un-inoculated plants growing in stress conditions. Plants growing in tannery contaminated soil have shown increase in soluble proteins contents (9%), acid phosphatase activity (200%), peroxidase activity (203%) and decrease in chlorophyll a (39%), chlorophyll b (23%) and carotenoids contents (28%) compare to plants growing in normal control soil. Inoculated plants grown in contaminated soil have shown an increased in peroxidase activity, soluble proteins contents, acid phosphatase activity, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid contents compare to respective un-inoculated plants. (author)

  9. Agronomic performance and chemical response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. to some organic nitrogen sources and conventional nitrogen fertilizers under sandy soil conditions

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an option for oilseed production, particularly in dry land areas due to good root system development. In this study, two field experiments were performed in the El-Khattara region (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt during the 2005 season. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of organicnitrogen (ON sources and their combinations as well as to compare the effect of ON and ammonium sulfate (AS as a conventional fertilizer added individually or in combination on growth, yield components, oil percentage and the uptake of some macronutrients by sunflowers grown on sandy soil. The treatments of chicken manure (CM and a mixture of farmyard manure (FYM with CM were superior to the other treatments and gave the highest yield, dry matter yield, NPK uptake by plants at all growth stages along with seed yield at the mature stage. The effect of the different ON on crop yield and its components may follow the order; CM> palma residues (PR> FYM. This was more emphasized when the materials were mixed with AS at a ratio of 3:1 and 1:1. The uptake of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K by plants was affected by the addition of different N sources and treatments. The highest nutrient content and uptake by straw were obtained when treated with CM followed by PR at all growth stages, while it was PR followed by CM for seeds. Oil recovery was shown to respond to the N supply and the changes in individual fatty acids were not statistically different. However, it seems that the application of organic fertilizers resulted in an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids compared to the control.El girasol (Helianthus annuus es una opción para la producción de semillas oleaginosas, en particular en terrenos arenosos debido al buen desarrollo de sus raíces. En este trabajo, dos estudios de campo fueron realizados en la región de El-Ishattara (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt durante la estación 2005. El efecto de

  10. Effect of Chlorocholine Chloride (CCC on the Plants’ Height and Inulin Content in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Mikołaj Wawrzyniak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. is herbaceous perennial plant rich in inulin and useful source of biomass. Due to its low agricultural requirements and high adaptability, it can provide very high biomass yields even on low quality sites. The plant is used in food industry, bio-fuel production, forage, pharmacy and nutrition. Its tubers accumulate approx. 10-20% of inulin in fresh weight. Currently, the use of the Helianthius tuberosus L. as a potential dietary strategy in patients affected by type 2 Diabetes is challenge. Moreover, deep understanding of the relationship between diet and composition of gut microbiota can bring the new insight in the treatment of inflammatory dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to examine an effect of plant growth retardant Chlorocholine Chloride (CCC on the plants’ height of H. tuberosus and inulin content in the tubers. We examined in the field a procedure for its shoots reduction. Material for the experiment were bought in a Polish commercial company and 528 tubers were planted in field in the middle of April 2014. Then, half of them were sprayed with 0.75% retardant of CCC . Furthermore, every week for 12 following weeks, the plants’ heights were measured. After the vegetation was over, 6 tubers for each treatment were dug out and chemically analyzed for inulin content using High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography. After first week of CCC use, 16% decrease of the heights plants was observed. Height of plants sprayed with CCC were significantly different comparing to Control. Weekly growth was significantly  slower in plants sprayed with CCC on first three weeks after applying retardant. Differences in plants height sustain to the end of measurements. Used retardant and its concentration did not affect the inulin content of the tubers.

  11. Selectivity and stability of herbicides and their tank mixtures for the seed yield of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.

    G. Delchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 – 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation were 4 sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L.: hybrid Bacardy (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField plus technology, hybrid Estiva (an imitolerant hybrid by ClearField technology, hybrid Sumico (a tribenuron-methyl tolerant hybrid by ExpessSun technology and hybrid Arizona (a hybrid by conventional technology. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B, herbicides and tank mixtures, included 20 rates. It includes 3 variants by ClearField plus technology, 5 variants by ClearField technology, 5 variants by ExpessSun technology and 7 variants by conventional technology. All variants are on herbicide Gardoprim plus gold 500 SC (Smetolachlor + terbuthylazine – 3.5 l/ha, which treated after sowing before emergence of the sunflower. It is found that the highest seed yield is obtained at herbicide tank mixture Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua by ClearField plus technology. Tank mixture Listego + Dash + Sharpen by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super by ExpressSun technology also lead to obtaining high seed yields. The most unstable are secondary weed infested checks by the fourth technologies for sunflower growing which are treated with soil-applied herbicide Gardoprim plus gold only. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Pulsar plus + Stomp aqua and herbicide Pulsar by ClearField plus technology, tank mixtures Listego + Dash + Sharpen and Listego + Dash by ClearField technology and Express + Trend + Select super and Express + Lactofol B + Select super by ExpressSun technology. Tank mixtures of herbicides Smerch, Pendigan, Wing, Raft, Pledge and Modown with Amalgerol premium by conventional technology have low estimates due to insufficient control of some weeds in sunflower crops.

  12. Elicitation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) cell suspension culture for enhancement of inulin production and altered degree of polymerisation.

    Ma, Chunquan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Haitao; Han, Dongming; Wang, Yang; Yan, Xiufeng

    2017-01-01

    Plant cell suspension cultures have emerged as a potential source of secondary metabolites for food additives and pharmaceuticals. In this study inulin accumulation and its degree of polymerisation (DP) in the treated cells in the same medium were investigated after treatment with six types of elicitors. An in vitro cell suspension culture of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) was optimised by adding an extra nitrogen source. According to the growth kinetics, a maximum biomass of 5.48 g L -1 was obtained from the optimal cell suspension medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog basic medium (MS) + 1.0 mg L -1 α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) + 1.0 mg L -1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) + 0.5 mg L -1 proline + 1.0 mg L -1 glutamine. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 250 µmol L -1 ) treatment for 15 days led to the highest levels of inulin (2955.27 ± 9.81 mg L -1 compared to control of 1217.46 ± 0.26 mg L -1 ). The elicited effect of five elicitors to the suspension cells of Jerusalem artichoke is as follows: AgNO 3 (Ag, 10 µmol L -1 ), salicylic acid (SA, 75 µmol L -1 ), chitosan (KJT, 40 mg L -1 ), Trichoderma viride (Tv, 90 mg L -1 ), yeast extract (YE, 0.25 mg L -1 ), and the corresponding content of inulin is increased by 2.05-, 1.93-, 1.76-, 1.44- and 1.18-fold compared to control, respectively. The obvious effect on the percentage of lower DP in inulin was observed in cells treated with 40 mg L -1 KJT, 0.25 mg L -1 YE and 10 µmol L -1 Ag. Among the six types of elicitors, the descending order of inulin content is MeJA > Ag > SA > KJT > Tv > YE. For the purpose inulin with lower DP and its application to prebiotic food, three elicitors, including KJT, YE and Ag, can be used for the elicitation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Tatarková, Veronika; Hiller, Edgar; Vaculík, Marek

    2013-06-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils might increase the sorption of herbicides, and therefore, affect other sorption-related processes such as leaching, dissipation and toxicity for plants. In this study, the impact of wheat straw biochar on the sorption, leaching and dissipation in a soil, and toxicity for sunflower of (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), a commonly used ionizable herbicide, was investigated. The results showed that MCPA sorption by biochar and biochar-amended soil (1.0wt% biochar) was 82 and 2.53 times higher than that by the non-amended soil, respectively. However, desorption of MCPA from biochar-amended soil was only 1.17 times lower than its desorption in non-amended soil. Biochar addition to soil reduced both MCPA leaching and dissipation. About 35% of the applied MCPA was transported through biochar-amended soil, while up to 56% was recovered in the leachates transported through non-amended soil. The half-life value of MCPA increased from 5.2d in non-amended soil to 21.5 d in biochar-amended soil. Pot experiments with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown in MCPA-free, but biochar-amended soil showed no positive effect of biochar on the growth of sunflower in comparison to the non-amended soil. However, biochar itself significantly reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b) in sunflower. There was no significant difference in the phytotoxic effects of MCPA on sunflowers between the biochar-amended soil and the non-amended soil. Furthermore, MCPA had no effect on the photosynthetic pigment contents in sunflower. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 19 in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Zhang, Z W; Ma, G J; Zhao, J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2017-01-01

    A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414, introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC 1 F 2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed that a single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Bulked segregant analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population with 860 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the resistance derived from wild H. annuus was associated with SSR markers located on linkage group (LG) 4 of the sunflower genome. To map and tag this resistance locus, designated Pl 19 , 140 BC 1 F 2 individuals were used to construct a linkage map of the gene region. Two SSR markers, ORS963 and HT298, were linked to Pl 19 within a distance of 4.7 cM. After screening 27 additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers previously mapped to this region, two flanking SNP markers, NSA_003564 and NSA_006089, were identified as surrounding the Pl 19 gene at a distance of 0.6 cM from each side. Genetic analysis indicated that Pl 19 is different from Pl 17 , which had previously been mapped to LG4, but is closely linked to Pl 17 . This new gene is highly effective against the most predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in North America and is the first downy mildew resistance gene that has been transferred to confection sunflower. The selected resistant germplasm derived from homozygous BC 2 F 3 progeny provides a novel gene for use in confection sunflower breeding programs.

  15. Metabolic aspects of growth in HU-treated crown-gall tissue cultures. II. Helianthus annuus

    Aldona Rennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of growth and changes in nucleic acid and protein contents in sunflower calluses and tumours cultured in hydroxyurea (HU containing media were examined. HU-induced changes in healthy tissues ran in parallel always in the same direction, in tumourous ones however an uncoupling between DNA synthesis and tissue growth on one hand and RNA and protein synthesis on the other took place. A detailed analysis of the results allows to suppose that the specific activity of HU on tumourous tissue could be an index of: 1 quantitative disturbances in its genes function (2 degree of the lass of sensitivity to the factors of regulation.

  16. Modeling Phytoremediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil with Sunflower (Helianthus annus) Under Salinity Stress

    Motesharezadeh, B.; Navabzadeh, M.; Liyaghat, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out as a factorial experiment with 5 levels of cadmium (Cd) (o, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg), 5 levels of salinity (Control, 4, 5, 6, and 7 dS/m), and two soil textures (sandy loam and clay loam). The results showed that the amount of Cd in root and shoot of sunflower increased as soil salinity and Cd concentration increased. The best concentrations for Cd phytoremediation were 75 mg/kg in sandy loam and 100 mg/kg in clay loam. Mass-Hoffman model in simulating transpiration Cd stress as well as Homaee model in simulating salt stress indicated the best results in light soils. By multiplying the salinity stress model by Cd stress model, the simultaneous model for each soil was calculated. These models in light soil (r2=0.68) and heavy soil (r2=0.81) were compatible with measured values. In the heavy soil, absorbed Cd by plant along with increased salinity reflected low changes, but changes in Cd absorbed by plants in the heavy soil were more uniform than in the light soil. In conclusion, for estimating the Cd uptake, the model had a better performance in the heavy soil (under salt stress).

  17. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  18. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-12-31

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}) or high PAR (HL; 800 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F{sub v}/F{sub max} and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  19. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]) or high PAR (HL; 800 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F[sub v]/F[sub max] and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  20. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 μmol m -2 s -1 ) or high PAR (HL; 800 μmol m -2 s -1 ). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F v /F max and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.)

  1. Sensory quality and appropriateness of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Thybo, Anette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensory attributes, dry matter and sugar content of five varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers and their relation to the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. RESULTS: Sensory evaluation of raw and boiled...... Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed by a trained sensory panel and a semi-trained consumer panel of 49 participants, who also evaluated the appropriateness of the tubers for raw and boiled preparation. The appropriateness of raw Jerusalem artichoke tubers was related to Jerusalem artichoke flavour...... attributes can be used as predictors of the appropriateness of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for raw and boiled consumption. Knowledge on the quality of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be used to inform consumers on the right choice of rawmaterial and thereby increase the consumption...

  2. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Otozai, Kiyotaka; Taniguchi, Hajime; Nakamura, Michinori

    1973-01-01

    UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase of Jerusalem artichoke tubers was purified 90-fold over the crude extract. The purified enzyme preparation absolutely required magnesium ions for activity. Cobalt ions were 60% as effective as magnesium ions; other divalent cations including manganese showed little or no effect. This enzyme had a pH optimum of 8.5 and a temperature optimum of 40 deg C. ATP and UDP inhibited the activity of this enzyme in both forward and backward directions. Km values for UDP-glucose, inorganic pyrophosphate, glucose-1-phosphate - 14 C and UTP were determined to be 4.45 x 10 -4 , 2.33 x 10 -4 , 9.38 x 10 -4 and 2.98 x 10 -4 M, respectively. These results are discussed in comparison with those of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylases isolated from other plants. (author)

  3. Growth under elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration accelerates leaf senescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants.

    de la Mata, Lourdes; Cabello, Purificación; de la Haba, Purificación; Agüera, Eloísa

    2012-09-15

    Some morphogenetic and metabolic processes were sensitive to a high atmospheric CO(2) concentration during sunflower primary leaf ontogeny. Young leaves of sunflower plants growing under elevated CO(2) concentration exhibited increased growth, as reflected by the high specific leaf mass referred to as dry weight in young leaves (16 days). The content of photosynthetic pigments decreased with leaf development, especially in plants grown under elevated CO(2) concentrations, suggesting that high CO(2) accelerates chlorophyll degradation, and also possibly leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) concentration increased the oxidative stress in sunflower plants by increasing H(2)O(2) levels and decreasing activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The loss of plant defenses probably increases the concentration of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast, decreasing the photosynthetic pigment content as a result. Elevated CO(2) concentration was found to boost photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, especially in young leaves. High CO(2) also increased the starch and soluble sugar contents (glucose and fructose) and the C/N ratio during sunflower primary leaf development. At the beginning of senescence, we observed a strong increase in the hexoses to sucrose ratio that was especially marked at high CO(2) concentration. These results indicate that elevated CO(2) concentration could promote leaf senescence in sunflower plants by affecting the soluble sugar levels, the C/N ratio and the oxidative status during leaf ontogeny. It is likely that systemic signals produced in plants grown with elevated CO(2), lead to early senescence and a higher oxidation state of the cells of these plant leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon conversion efficiency and central metabolic fluxes in developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) embryos.

    Alonso, Ana P; Goffman, Fernando D; Ohlrogge, John B; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2007-10-01

    The efficiency with which developing sunflower embryos convert substrates into seed storage reserves was determined by labeling embryos with [U-(14)C6]glucose or [U-(14)C5]glutamine and measuring their conversion to CO2, oil, protein and other biomass compounds. The average carbon conversion efficiency was 50%, which contrasts with a value of over 80% previously observed in Brassica napus embryos (Goffman et al., 2005), in which light and the RuBisCO bypass pathway allow more efficient conversion of hexose to oil. Labeling levels after incubating sunflower embryos with [U-(14)C4]malate indicated that some carbon from malate enters the plastidic compartment and contributes to oil synthesis. To test this and to map the underlying pattern of metabolic fluxes, separate experiments were carried out in which embryos were labeled to isotopic steady state using [1-(13)C1]glucose, [2-(13)C1]glucose, or [U-(13)C5]glutamine. The resultant labeling in sugars, starch, fatty acids and amino acids was analyzed by NMR and GC-MS. The fluxes through intermediary metabolism were then quantified by computer-aided modeling. The resulting flux map accounted well for the labeling data, was in good agreement with the observed carbon efficiency, and was further validated by testing for agreement with gas exchange measurements. The map shows that the influx of malate into oil is low and that flux through futile cycles (wasting ATP) is low, which contrasts with the high rates previously determined for growing root tips and heterotrophic cell cultures.

  5. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    López, R; Vaca, M; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Morales, J; Flores, J; Chávez, S

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product

  6. HISTORY OF in vitro CULTURE STUDIES ON Helianthus annuus L. IN TURKEY

    Sergun DAYAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue culture techniques offer important approaches about sunflower breeding and germplasm conservation. The available data on the subject in Turkey was reviewed in order to encourage the researchers to study on tissue culture of sunflower. In vitro studies on sunflower in Turkey started in the first half of the 90s. A large number of in vitro culture studies on sunflower using anthers, hypocotyls, cotyledons, petioles of cotyledon, shoot-tips, mature embryos, immature embryos, leaves, petioles, immature cotyledons and microspores as different explants have been published. Microspore culture, anther culture, embryo culture, slow growth storage, micropropagation and gene transfer with Agrobacterium were also used in these culture studies. Although these studies formed an important scientific knowledge about sunflower tissue culture in the country, it is still not sufficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need to make more in vitro studies on sunflower which is an important agricultural plant for Turkey. The transfer of the results of these studies to agricultural applications is also essential from a sectoral standpoint.

  7. The physiological effect of fluorene on Triticum aestivum, Medicago sativa, and Helianthus annus

    Seyed Yahya Salehi-Lisar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread pollutants and can negatively affect plants. Fluorene is a prevalent PAH in the contaminated environment. In this study, the effects of higher concentrations of fluorene in soil on rate of seed germination, growth, and the physiological parameters of wheat, sunflower, and alfalfa were studied. The results showed that the higher concentration of fluorene decreased rate of seed germination and seedlings growth of plants. Wheat showed the highest resistance at seed germination and seedlings growth phases, and sunflower was the most sensitive species at both stages. Therefore, it was concluded that higher resistance at seed germination could be followed by the higher resistance of seedlings. Fluorene toxicity also induced oxidative stress in plants as shown by MDA accumulation in the plants. There was a significant correlation between the lower activity of CAT and MDA accumulation in the studied plants. Therefore, CAT could be an important enzyme involved in detoxification of ROS and plants resistance to fluorene toxicity. Depending on plant species and fluorene concentration, photosynthetic pigments content was differently affected.

  8. Physiological and gene expression responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants differ according to irrigation placement.

    Aguado, Ana; Capote, Nieves; Romero, Fernando; Dodd, Ian C; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate effects of soil moisture heterogeneity on plant physiology and gene expression in roots and leaves, three treatments were implemented in sunflower plants growing with roots split between two compartments: a control (C) treatment supplying 100% of plant evapotranspiration, and two treatments receiving 50% of plant evapotranspiration, either evenly distributed to both compartments (deficit irrigation - DI) or unevenly distributed to ensure distinct wet and dry compartments (partial rootzone drying - PRD). Plants receiving the same amount of water responded differently under the two irrigation systems. After 3 days, evapotranspiration was similar in C and DI, but 20% less in PRD, concomitant with decreased leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and increased leaf xylem ABA concentration. Six water-stress responsive genes were highly induced in roots growing in the drying soil compartment of PRD plants, and their expression was best correlated with local soil water content. On the other hand, foliar gene expression differed significantly from that of the root and correlated better with xylem ABA concentration and Ψleaf. While the PRD irrigation strategy triggered stronger physiological and molecular responses, suggesting a more intense and systemic stress reaction due to local dehydration of the dry compartment of PRD plants, the DI strategy resulted in similar water savings without strongly inducing these responses. Correlating physiological and molecular responses in PRD/DI plants may provide insights into the severity and location of water deficits and may enable a better understanding of long-distance signalling mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  10. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (psunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  11. Assessment of RAPD Markers to Analyse the Genetic Diversity among Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genotypes

    Ali Raza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity estimation among different species is an important tool for genetic improvement to maximize the yield, desirable quality, wider adaptation, pest and insect resistance that ultimately boosting traditional plant breeding methods. The most efficient way of diversity estimation is application of molecular markers. In this study, twenty random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers were utilized to estimate the genetic diversity between ten sunflower genotypes. Overall 227 bands were amplified by 20 primers with an average of 11.35 bands per primer. RAPD data showed 86.34% polymorophic bands and 13.65% of monomorophic bands. Genetic similarity was ranged from 50.22% to 87.22%. The lowest similarity (50.22% was observed between FH-352 and FH-359 and the maximum similarity 87.22% was observed between A-23 and G-46. Polymorphic information content (PIC values were varying from 0.05 to 0.12 with a mean of 0.09. Cluster analysis based on RAPD results displayed two major distinct groups 1 and 2. Group-2 contains FH-352 which was the most diverse genotype, while group-1 consists of few sub groups with all other genotypes. Ample diversity was found in all the genotypes. Present study reveals novel information about sunflower genome which can be used in future studies for sunflower improvement.

  12. Growth and yield response of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) to sulphur and boron application

    Tahir, M.; Shah, S.A.; Tanveer, A.; Rehman, H.U.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the growth and yield response of sunflower to sulphur and boron application. Sulphur (control, 15, 30 kg/ha) and foliar sprays of 1% boron solution (control, spray at 4 week after emergence, 20 days after first spray, at 4 weeks after germination + 20 days after first spray) was applied in soil. The results showed significant increase of all growth and yield parameters by varying levels of sulphur and boron application. Application of 30 kg sulphur/ha enhanced stem diameter (1.99 cm), number of achene per head (765.75) and oil content (36.42%). In case of combined use of sulphur and boron application, maximum plant height (171 cm), head diameter (20.71 cm), 1000-achene weight (54.56 g), biological yield (16.49 t/ha) and achene yield (3.99 t/ha) was recorded by the application of 2 sprays of boron solution (1%) at 4 weeks after germination and reproductive stage. (author)

  13. Effects of antimony on redox activities and antioxidant defence systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants.

    Alfonso Ortega

    Full Text Available The alterations induced by the toxicity of antimony (Sb in the roots and leaves of sunflower plants were determined. The plants were grown hydroponically with different concentrations of Sb, a heavy metal which reduces biomass production and growth. There was preferential accumulation of Sb in the tissues of the roots, with the concentrations in the leaves being much lower. The accumulation of other mineral elements was also altered, especially that of Fe and Zn. Chlorophyll content declined, as also did the photosynthetic efficiency, but the carotenoid content remained unaltered. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides rose, evidence of their participation in the defence response. Increases were observed in the amount of superoxide anion in both roots and leaves, and in lipid peroxidation levels, especially with the highest Sb concentration of 1.0 mM. The induced oxidative stress leads to a strong increase in the SOD, POX and APX antioxidant activities, while the GR activity was only increased in the leaves and at the 1.0 mM Sb concentration. In contrast, the DHAR activity increased considerably in both organs. The GSNOR activity increased only in roots, and the total RSNOs increased. The total amount of AsA + DHA increased in roots and remained unaltered in leaves, whereas that of GSH + GSSG decreased considerably in all cases. As a whole, these results are evidence for the development of a strong oxidative stress induced by Sb, with there being a clear imbalance in the content of the compounds that constitute the AsA/GSH cycle. 0.5 mM Sb enhances GST expression, especially in leaves. This, together with the increase that was observed in the amount of GSH, may play an important part in detoxification. This oxidative stress affects both the phenolic and the ROS/RNS metabolic processes, which seems to implicate their involvement in the plant's defence and response to the stress.

  14. Potential of sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of nickle (Ni) and lead (Pb) contaminated water

    Mukhtar, S.M.; HAQ Bhatti, H.N.; Khalid, M.; Haq, M.A; Shahzad, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy metals are contaminants of much environmental apprehension, as they are hazardous to human being and other biota. Buildup of heavy metals in crop plants is of great concern due to the probability of food contamination through the soil-root interface. For this purpose, a hydroponic study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sunflower plant to phytoremediate Pb and Ni contaminated water in the absence and presence of synthetic chelator. Results showed that application of Ni and Pb reduced the dry weights of shoot and root (up to 55.1 and 38.3%; 50.5 and 33.6%), shoot and root length (up to 64.5 and 58.1%; 64.1 and 55.8%), chlorophyll content (up to 63.8 and 54.4%), and photosynthetic activity (up to 66.1 and 62.7%), respectively with EDTA as compared to control. While, maximum concentration of Ni and Pb in shoot and root (up to 18.43 and 20.73 mg kg/sup -1/; 12.82 and 18.67 mg kg/sup -1/), total accumulation (up to 55.82 and 72.28 mg kg/sup -1/), and proline content (up to 128.2 and 98.3%) were recorded in the presence of EDTA respectively as compared to control. Generally, it was observed that concentration and total accumulation of Pb was more than Ni in sunflower plant. The study concludes that the use of synthetic chelator increased the uptake and translocation of heavy metals in plant biomass that could enhance the phytoremediation of Ni and Pb from contaminated water. (author)

  15. Viability of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Escherichia coli in Versus Prebiotic Effects of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus

    Elaheh Mansouri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In this study, in vitro prebiotic effects of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans on the survivability and activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Escherichia coli were investigated and compared with HP-Inulin (a high molecular-weight fraction of chicory-derived inulin. Objectives The prebiotic potential of poly-fructans extracted from native Jerusalem artichoke tubers on the survivability of B. bifidum and E. coli was evaluated in this study. Methods In this experimental study, 24 treatments divided to 2 groups (Extracted poly-fructose from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and standard inulin randomly. The turbidity and pH variations during 48 hours incubation were determined using final concentrations of each group (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v. The data were analyzed by MINITAB 14 and MSTATC statistical software, one way ANOVA and Duncan’s test. Results This study suggests that Jerusalem artichoke tuber fructooligosaccharides (JA-Fr had the potential to be used as a prebiotic component. The growth of B. bifidum improved significantly in the presence of Jerusalem artichoke fructans compared to the control. There was no significant differences (P < 0.05 in Bifidobacterium population in different concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans, but the population was significantly higher than the count in the presence of HP-inulin. The pH decreased in both media during 48 hours incubation time. Specific rate of growth and doubling time determined for E. coli demonstrated that the efficacy of various carbon sources in stimulating bacterial growth were influenced by the concentration and DP (degree of polymerization of fructan chains in the media. Conclusions Jerusalem artichoke fructooligosaccharides can provide the greater stability of probiotics and acid production, so it can be considered as a potential source of high-yielding oligosaccharide for commercial prebiotic production to develop food industry and improve host health.

  16. Genetic variability and heritability for resistance to black stem (Phoma macdonaldii) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Abou Al Fadil, T.; Dechamp-Guillaume, G.; Poormohammad Kiani, S.; Sarrafi, A.

    2004-01-01

    Black stem, caused by Phoma macdonaldii, is one of the most important diseases of sunflower in many Countries. In order to study the genetic control of the disease, seeds of the inbred line AS-613 were exposed to 75 Grays of gamma rays and M1 and M2 plants were self-pollinated to obtain the M3 generation. Among M3 mutants, M3-8, a relatively resistant line to black stem, was crossed with AS-613. Seeds from this cross were grown and F1 plants were self-pollinated to produce F2 seeds from which the F3 generation was produced. Eighty-eight F3 families and two parents were used to determine the genetic variability of partial resistance to black stem in sunflower. Twelve-day-old seedlings were inoculated at the junction of the cotyledon petiole and hypocotyl with 20 micronl of pycniospore suspension. Seven days after inoculation, both cotyledon petioles of the seedling were scored according to the percentage of petiole area exhibiting symptoms (necrosis). Significant difference in resistance between the two parents, M3-8 and AS-613, indicates that mutagenesis can be considered as important tool to produce genetic variation for resistance to Phoma in sunflower. Results showed that F3 families included extreme genotypes with a relatively high resistance rate compared with the parents. Ten percent of F3 families showed a resistance rate higher than the one of the best parent, indicating transgressive segregation for resistance to black stem among families. The percentage of heritability was 69.6, which indicates that progeny selection for resistance to the disease is possible [it

  17. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de. The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons. The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0 was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01 allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  18. Hydroponic phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Ni, As, and Fe: can Helianthus annuus hyperaccumulate multiple heavy metals?

    January, Mary C; Cutright, Teresa J; Van Keulen, Harry; Wei, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Sundance sunflowers were subjected to contaminated solutions containing 3, 4, or 5 heavy metals, with and without EDTA. The sunflowers exhibited a metal uptake preference of Cd=Cr>Ni, Cr>Cd>Ni>As and Fe>As>Cd>Ni>Cr without EDTA and Cr>Cd>Ni, Fe>As>Cd>Cr>Ni with EDTA. As uptake was not affected by other metals, but it decreased Cd and Ni concentration in the stems. The presence of Fe improved the translocation of the other metals regardless of whether EDTA was present. In general, EDTA served as a hindrance to metal uptake. For the experiment with all five heavy metals, EDTA decreased Cd in the roots and stems from 2.11 to 1.36 and from 2.83 to 2.3 2mg g(-1) biomass, respectively. For the same conditions, Ni in the stems decreased from 1.98 to 0.94 mg g(-1) total metal uptake decreased from 14.95 mg to 13.89 mg, and total biomass decreased from 2.38 g to 1.99 g. These results showed an overall negative effect in addition of EDTA. However it is unknown whether the negative effect was due to toxicity posed by EDTA or the breaking of phytochelatin-metal bonds. The most important finding was the ability of Sundance sunflowers to achieve hyperaccumulator status for both As and Cd under all conditions studied. Ni hyperaccumulator status was only achieved in the presence of three metals without EDTA.

  19. Helianthus annuus L

    moj

    Maximum and minimum reductions were observed in the cases ... markers were identified (P≤0.05) for the studied characters under natural and ..... characters did not provide sufficient information about the functional relations between the.

  20. Whole-plant utilization of sunflowers

    Adams, R P [Univ. of Texas, Austin; Seiler, G J

    1984-01-01

    Forty-eight accessions representing 39 taxa of the genus Helianthus (sunflower) were collected from a common garden and whole plants examined for yields of non-polar extractables. (hydrocarbons, rubber, etc.), polar extractables (resins, sugars, etc.) and crude protein. This study revealed several promising species for obtaining hydrocarbons: H. agrestis, H. annuus, H. argophyllus, and H. arizonensis. Species highest in methanol extractables were H. ciliaris, H. leavigtus, H. occidentalis ssp. plantagineus, H. paradoxus, H. petiolaris, and H. silphioides. Species with greater than 16% protein yields were H. arizonensis, H. grosseserratus, H. neglectus, H. petiolaris ssp. fallax, and H. simulans. Since this genus is well known agronomically, the development of one of the species for whole-plant utilization may be easier than the domestication of some lesser-known genera. 42 references, 3 tables

  1. ROLE OF SOME CHEMICAL MATERIALS ON THE PHYTO-EXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS)

    ABD EL-BARY, S.A.; EL-NAKA, E.A.; RIZK, M.A.; LOTFY, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Chelation and complexation of heavy metals were evaluated as practical ways to solubilize, detoxify and enhance heavy metals accumulation by plants. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was selected as potential heavy metals accumulator for metals phyto-extraction in two selected soils (clayey and sandy). To enhance metals phyto-extraction, ammonium nitrate and organic chelates such as EDTA and citric acid were added to soils at the rates from 0 to 20 mmol/kg soil as extracting solutions and applied to the soil by mixing thoroughly before planting. Dry matter production and metals concentrations in shoots and roots and soil pH were measured after 60 days.Plant dry matter production and metals accumulation were varied with soil contamination, chelate / organic acid form and rate, and soil type. The highest metals concentration was obtained in plants grown on clayey soil, however, the lowest content was observed in case of sandy soil. Addition of citric acid increased metals accumulation and translocation to the shoots significantly. Addition of 20 mmol/kg of citric acid to clayey soils increased metals concentration in shoots several folds of magnitude, but addition of ammonium nitrate had little effect on metal translocation to shoots. Citric acid was the most effective chelate in plant accumulation of tested metals.

  2. Comparative study of SOS2 and a novel PMP3-1 gene expression in two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines differing in salt tolerance.

    Saadia, Mubshara; Jamil, Amer; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2013-06-01

    Gene expression pattern of two important regulatory proteins, salt overly sensitive 2 (SOS2) and plasma membrane protein 3-1 (PMP3-1), involved in ion homeostasis, was analyzed in two salinity-contrasting sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines, Hysun-38 (salt tolerant) and S-278 (moderately salt tolerant). The pattern was studied at selected time intervals (24 h) under 150 mM NaCl treatment. Using reverse transcription PCR, SOS2 gene fragment was obtained from young leaf and root tissues of opposing lines while that for PMP3-1 was obtained only from young root tissues. Both tolerant and moderately tolerant lines showed a gradual increase in SOS2 expression in sunflower root tissues. Leaf tissues showed the gradually increasing pattern of SOS2 expression in tolerant plants as compared to that for moderately tolerant ones that showed a relatively lower level of expression for this gene. We found the highest level of PMP 3-1 expression in the roots of tolerant sunflower line at 6 and 12 h postsalinity treatment. The moderately tolerant line showed higher expression of PMP3-1 at 12 and 24 h after salt treatment. Overall, the expression of genes for both the regulator proteins varied significantly in the two sunflower lines differing in salinity tolerance.

  3. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-11-24

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. A new method for in-situ monitoring of the underground development of Orobanche cumana in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) with a mini-rhizotron.

    Eizenberg, H; Shtienberg, D; Silberbush, M; Ephrath, J E

    2005-11-01

    To develop an in-situ, non-destructive method for observation and monitoring of the underground developmental stages of the root parasite Orobanche cumana. The parasitic weed Orobanche causes severe damage to vegetables and field crops. Most of the damage caused to the crops occurs during the underground, unobservable parasitism stage. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus 'Adi') plants were planted in soil that was artificially inoculated with O. cumana seeds. Clear Plexiglas mini-rhizotron plastic observation tubes were inserted into the soil. Seed germination, early stage of penetration, and formation of tubercles and spikes were observed non-destructively and were monitored throughout the growing season by mean of a mini-rhizotron camera. Use of this technology enabled the complete individual parasite life cycle from the very early development (including germination) to Orobanche shoot to be monitored. In addition, the effect of the systemic herbicide Cadre (imazapic) on the development of O. cumana was inspected and quantified. This novel methodology facilitates the in-situ study of major aspects of the host-parasite interaction and of parasite suppression, such as parasitism dynamics, parasite growth rate, and the effect of chemical treatments on the parasite.

  5. Effect of different levels of foliar application of potassium on hysun-33 and ausigold-4 sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) cultivars under salt stress

    Arshadullah, M.; Ali, A.; Hyder, I.; Mahmood, I.A.; Zaman, B.U.

    2014-01-01

    A hydroponic study was conducted to see the growth response of two cultivars of sunflower (Hysun-33 and Ausigold-4) to K+ nutrition under salt stress during the growing season 2011, at National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. Nursery of Helianthus annuus was raised in sand and ten-day old seedlings per hole were transplanted in each pot having four holes per pot lid. Half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution was filled in each pot. After the establishment of seedlings, salt stress (6 dS/m) was developed artificially. The treatments were, control, 2 and 4 % K + as K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ foliar applications. Salt present in the growing medium caused a significant (P<0.00l), reduction in fresh and dry weights of sunflower. Salt stress suppresses the K uptake from pot. Application of varying levels of K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ improved the fresh and dry weights of sunflower under both control and saline conditions. However, the highest increase in fresh and dry weight of control and stressed plants was observed when 2% K was applied. Further increase in the level of K application did not improve fresh and dry weights of salt stress and unstressed plants. The growth medium salts reduced sunflower growth. (author)

  6. Inoculating Helianthus annuus (sunflower) grown in zinc and cadmium contaminated soils with plant growth promoting bacteria--effects on phytoremediation strategies.

    Marques, Ana P G C; Moreira, Helena; Franco, Albina R; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-06-01

    Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reducing the toxicity of heavy metals to plants in polluted environments. In this work the effects of inoculating metal resistant and plant growth promoting bacterial strains on the growth of Helianthus annuus grown in Zn and Cd spiked soils were assessed. The PGPR strains Ralstonia eutropha (B1) and Chrysiobacterium humi (B2) reduced losses of weight in metal exposed plants and induced changes in metal bioaccumulation and bioconcentration - with strain B2 decreasing up to 67% Zn accumulation and by 20% Zn bioconcentration factor (BCF) in the shoots, up to 64% Zn uptake and 38% Zn BCF in the roots, and up to 27% Cd uptake and 27% Cd BCF in plant roots. The impact of inoculation on the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of the plant was also assessed. Bacterial community diversity decreased with increasing levels of metal contamination in the soil, but in rhizosphere soil of plants inoculated with the PGPR strains, a higher bacterial diversity was kept throughout the experimental period. Inoculation of sunflower, particularly with C. humi (B2), appears to be an effective way of enhancing the short term stabilization potential of the plant in metal contaminated land, lowering losses in plant biomass and decreasing aboveground tissue contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    Loren H. Rieseberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp. and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis, with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi. We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the

  8. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  9. Ridge sowing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a minimum till system improves the productivity, oil quality, and profitability on a sandy loam soil under an arid climate.

    Sher, Ahmad; Suleman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul; Sattar, Abdul; Wasaya, Allah; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a major oilseed crop grown for its edible oil across the globe including Pakistan. In Pakistan, the production of edible oil is less than the required quantity; the situation is being worsened with the increasing population. Thus, there is dire need to grow those sunflower genotypes which perform better under a given set of agronomic practices. In this 2-year study, we compared four sunflower genotypes, viz., Armoni, Kundi, Sinji, and S-278 for their yield potential, oil contents, fatty acid composition, and profitability under three sowing methods, viz., bed sowing, line sowing, and ridge sowing and two tillage system, viz., plow till and minimum till. Among the sunflower genotypes, the genotype Armoni produced the highest plant height, number of leaves, head diameter, 1000-achene weight, and achene yield; the oil contents and oleic acid were the highest in genotype Sinji. Among the sowing methods, the highest number of leaves per plant, head diameter, number of achenes per head, achene yield, and oil contents were recorded in ridge sowing. Among the tillage systems, the highest head diameter 16. 2 cm, 1000-achene weight (57.2 g), achene yield (1.8 t ha -1 ), oil contents (35.2%), and oleic acid (15.2%) were recorded in minimum till sunflower. The highest net benefits and benefit to cost ratio were recorded in minimum till ridge sown Armoni genotype. In conclusion, the genotype Armoni should be grown on ridges to achieve the highest achene yield, oil contents, and net profitability.

  10. Osmotic and Salt Stresses Modulate Spontaneous and Glutamate-Induced Action Potentials and Distinguish between Growth and Circumnutation in Helianthus annuus Seedlings

    Maria Stolarz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Action potentials (APs, i.e., long-distance electrical signals, and circumnutations (CN, i.e., endogenous plant organ movements, are shaped by ion fluxes and content in excitable and motor tissues. The appearance of APs and CN as well as growth parameters in seedlings and 3-week old plants of Helianthus annuus treated with osmotic and salt stress (0–500 mOsm were studied. Time-lapse photography and extracellular measurements of electrical potential changes were performed. The hypocotyl length was strongly reduced by the osmotic and salt stress. CN intensity declined due to the osmotic but not salt stress. The period of CN in mild salt stress was similar to the control (~164 min and increased to more than 200 min in osmotic stress. In sunflower seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium, spontaneous APs (SAPs propagating basipetally and acropetally with a velocity of 12–20 cm min−1 were observed. The number of SAPs increased 2–3 times (7–10 SAPs 24 h−1plant−1 in the mild salt stress (160 mOsm NaCl and KCl, compared to the control and strong salt stress (3–4 SAPs 24 h−1 plant−1 in the control and 300 mOsm KCl and NaCl. Glutamate-induced series of APs were inhibited in the strong salt stress-treated seedlings but not at the mild salt stress and osmotic stress. Additionally, in 3-week old plants, the injection of the hypo- or hyperosmotic solution at the base of the sunflower stem evoked series of APs (3–24 APs transmitted along the stem. It has been shown that osmotic and salt stresses modulate differently hypocotyl growth and CN and have an effect on spontaneous and evoked APs in sunflower seedlings. We suggested that potassium, sodium, and chloride ions at stress concentrations in the nutrient medium modulate sunflower excitability and CN.

  11. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs.

    Talukder, Zahirul I; Hulke, Brent S; Qi, Lili; Scheffler, Brian E; Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; McPhee, Kevin; Gulya, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Functional markers for Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower were obtained using gene-level information from the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Sclerotinia stalk rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers for genes controlling resistance to S. sclerotiorum will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana defense genes known to be associated with Sclerotinia disease resistance in a sunflower association mapping population evaluated for Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance. The total candidate gene sequence regions covered a concatenated length of 3,791 bp per individual. A total of 187 polymorphic sites were detected for all candidate gene sequences, 149 of which were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 38 were insertions/deletions. Eight SNPs in the coding regions led to changes in amino acid codons. Linkage disequilibrium decay throughout the candidate gene regions declined on average to an r (2) = 0.2 for genetic intervals of 120 bp, but extended up to 350 bp with r (2) = 0.1. A general linear model with modification to account for population structure was found the best fitting model for this population and was used for association mapping. Both HaCOI1-1 and HaCOI1-2 were found to be strongly associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance and explained 7.4 % of phenotypic variation in this population. These SNP markers associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance can potentially be applied to the selection of favorable genotypes, which will significantly improve the efficiency of MAS during the development of stalk rot resistant cultivars.

  12. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Effect of postirradiation storage of seeds on the structural chromosomal mutations in chlorophyll mutants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L)

    Sizova, L.I.

    1976-01-01

    The paper comprises the results of the investigation of the storage effect in irradiated seeds on the frequency and the spectrum of structural mutations of chromosomes in normal green plants and in spontaneous chlorophyll mutants of sunflower. The seeds of chlorophyll mutants lutescens and xantha and those of green plants stored for 3 years have been 60 Co gamma-irradiated with doses of 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; 5.0 and 10 kr. After the irradiation the seeds have been stored for a year under conventional laboratory conditions. As a result of the post-irradiation storage of seeds for a year the decrease in the proportion of aberrant cells by 3 to 6% at the expense of cells with paired fragments has been observed in green plants. In chlorophyll mutants the storage of seeds after the irradiation results in the 9 to 37% increase of the proportion of aberrant cells at the expense of cells with single and paired bridges and with paired fragments. This gives evidence in favour of the assumption that in spontaneous chlorophyll mutants the processes of the post-irradiation recovery either fail altogether, or proceed at a very low level

  14. The effect of species, planting date, and management of cover crops on weed community in hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus

    M. Bolandi Amoughein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies showed that if mixed populations of annual weeds grow with the sunflower, for every 10% increase in weed biomass, seed yield would decrease by 13% (Van Gessel & Renner, 2000. In addition to control weeds using herbicides multi-stage spraying is required. In organic farming systems mulch is used to control weeds, protection, fertility and improve soil quality (Glab & Kulig, 2008; Kuchaki et al., 2001. Surface mulches from cover crops suppress weed growth by reducing light levels at the soil surface, thereby slowing photosynthesis. In return, these conditions reduce seed germination and act as a physical barrier to seedling emergence and growth (Teasdale et al., 2007. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in Ardabil Agricultural Research Station, as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 1390-1391. The first factor was considered four types of cover crops including winter rye (Secale cereal, spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and control (no cover crop, no weeding.The second factor was mulch management at two levels (living mulch and dead mulch and the third factor was two planting dates for cover crops (synchronous with sunflower planting and 45 days after sunflower planting. Sunflower seeding performed manually on 23 May on the ridges with 50 cm row distance and spacing between plants was 25 cm in depth of 5 cm. Cover crops seeds, rye, barley and wheat, were planted between rows of sunflower. Due to the low density of weeds in study field, complete weeding and sampling of weeds in one session was performed (60 days after planting date sunflower. Statistical analysis of data performed using SAS software and mean comparison performed using Duncan's test with probability level of 5% and 1%. Diagrams drawn using Excel (Version 8.2. Results and Discussion\t: Density and dry weight of Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L

  15. Optimization of microwave-assisted drying of Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L. by response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    E. KARACABEY

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate microwave-assisted drying of Jerusalem artichoke tubers to determine the effects of the processing conditions. Drying time (DT and effectivemoisture diffusivity (EMD were determined to evaluate the drying process in terms of dehydration performance, whereas the rehydration ratio (RhR was considered as a significant quality index. A pretreatment of soaking in a NaCl solution was applied before all trials. The output power of the microwave oven, slice thickness and NaCl concentration of the pretreatment solution werethe three investigated parameters. The drying process was accelerated by altering the conditions while obtaining a higher quality product. For optimization of the drying process, response surface methodology (RSM and genetic algorithms (GA were used. Model adequacy was evaluated for each corresponding mathematical expression developed for interested responses by RSM. The residual of the model obtained by GA was compared to that of the RSM model. The GA was successful in high-performance prediction and produced results similar to those of RSM. The analysis and results of the present study show that both RSM and GA models can be used in cohesion to gain insight into the bioprocessing system.

  16. Rhizosphere colonization and arsenic translocation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by arsenate reducing Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L.

    Cavalca, Lucia; Corsini, Anna; Bachate, Sachin Prabhakar; Andreoni, Vincenza

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, six arsenic-resistant strains previously isolated were tested for their plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, in order to choose one model strain as an inoculum for sunflower plants in pot experiments. The aim was to investigate the effect of arsenic-resistant strain on sunflower growth and on arsenic uptake from arsenic contaminated soil. Based on plant growth promoting characteristics and heavy metal resistance, Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L was chosen as an inoculum. Beside the ability to reduce arsenate to arsenite via an Ars operon, the strain exhibited 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity and it was also able to produce siderophore and indole acetic acid. Pot experiments were conducted with an agricultural soil contaminated with arsenic (214 mg kg⁻¹). A real time PCR method was set up based on the quantification of ACR3(2) type of arsenite efflux pump carried by Alcaligenes sp. strain Dhal-L, in order to monitor presence and colonisation of the strain in the bulk and rhizospheric soil. As a result of strain inoculation, arsenic uptake by plants was increased by 53 %, whereas ACR3(2) gene copy number in rhizospheric soil was 100 times higher in inoculated than in control pots, indicating the colonisation of strain. The results indicated that the presence of arsenate reducing strains in the rhizosphere of sunflower influences arsenic mobilization and promotes arsenic uptake by plant.

  17. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaves and roots under drought stress by RNA sequencing.

    Liang, Chunbo; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Jing; Ma, Jun; Li, Cen; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Shuquan; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Liguo; Li, Weizhong; Huang, Xutang

    2017-10-25

    Sunflower is recognized as one of the most important oil plants with strong tolerance to drought in the world. In order to study the response mechanisms of sunflower plants to drought stress, gene expression profiling using high throughput sequencing was performed for seedling leaves and roots (sunflower inbred line R5) after 24 h of drought stress (15% PEG 6000). The transcriptome assembled using sequences of 12 samples was used as a reference. 805 and 198 genes were identified that were differentially expressed in leaves and roots, respectively. Another 71 genes were differentially expressed in both organs, in which more genes were up-regulated than down-regulated. In agreement with results obtained for other crops or from previous sunflower studies, we also observed that nine genes may be associated with the response of sunflower to drought. The results of this study may provide new information regarding the sunflower drought response, as well as add to the number of known genes associated with drought tolerance.

  18. Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to N-application and Bio fertilization with Assessment of Fertilizer N Recovery by 15N Versus Subtraction Methods

    Abdel-Salam, A. A.; Zahra, W.R.; Soliman, S. M.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Moursy, A.A.; Hekal, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    A factorial field experiment was conducted on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on a sand soil (98% sand) supplied the different combinations of 4 N rates of 0, 105, 140 and 175 kg N ha -1 i.e. N 0 , N 1 , N 2 , and N 3 respectively - as (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 4 bio fertilization inoculation (B) of none, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus megaterium. i.e. B 0 ,B 1 ,B 2 , and B 3 respectively. Labeled ammonium sulphate with 2% 15 N atom excess was used for 15 N assessment. All plots were supplied with 21 Mg compost +24 kg P +80 kg K ha - '1. Non-treated plants gave 0.534 Mg seeds ha -1 while the treated ones - especially those of N or N + bio fertilizers - gave increases of up to 403% (N 2 B). Main effect response patterns were: N: N 3 >N 2 >N 1 , for B: B 1 ≥B 3 ≥B 2 . Seed oil content in the N 0 B 0 treatment was 222 gkg -1 increased reaching as high as 445 gkg -1 by N 2 B 3 ; with N main effect of N 2 >N 3 >N 1 and B main effect of B 2 >B 3 >B 1 . Seed oil yield was 113 kg ha -1 by N 0 B 0 increased to as high as 1105 kg ha -1 by N 2 B 1 with main effects of N 2 >N 3 >N 1 and B 3 ≥B 2 >B 1 .Uptake of N (in total plant parts of roots + stems + leaves + discs + seeds) increased by N application; averages for non-N were 18.1 kg ha -1 18.5,14.7,17.4 by N 0 B 0 , N 0 B 1 , N 0 B 2 , and N 0 B 3 respectively; increased considerably by up to 667% (N 3 B 3 ) upon N application. Plants recovered a portion of fertilizer N of 19.6 to 40.9% by N 1 B 1 and N 2 B 1 respectively as determined by 15 N technique, but 27.7 to 59.6% respectively as calculated by subtraction of non-N from N treatments. The subtraction estimation considerably exceeded the 15 N determined ones by + 39.5% to as high as + 194.6% indicating a non-real estimation of recovered fertilizer-N in crops. Thus, in studies using non-tracer techniques, estimation of uptake of fertilizer N could be erroneous. The reason in the current study could most certainly be a greater

  19. Simultaneous production of bioethanol and value-added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    Song, Younho; Oh, Chihoon; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the production of bioethanol and value added d-psicose from Jerusalem artichoke (JA) was attempted by an enzymatic method. An enzyme mixture used for hydrolysis of 100mgmL -1 JA. The resulting concentrations of released d-fructose and d-glucose were measured at approximately 56mgmL -1 and 15mgmL -1 , respectively. The d-psicose was epimerized from the JA hydrolyzate, and the conversion rate was calculated to be 32.1%. The residual fructose was further converted into ethanol at 18.0gL -1 and the yield was approximately 72%. Bioethanol and d-psicose were separated by pervaporation. This is the first study to report simultaneous d-psicose production and bioethanol fermentation from JA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of some irradiated populations of sunflower (Helianthus Annus) in M4 and M5 generation. Vol. 4

    Atia, Z.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds of the M 3 generation of irradiated and irradiated populations were divided into three parts, the first part was sown on 28/8/1993, the second on 1/1/1994, and the third part on 1/5/1995 to evaluate seed yield and other characters for the three dates of planting. Results showed significant increase in head and seed weight, head and stem diameter and seed index in the first and third time of planting. On the contrast shelling percentage, and plant height decreased significantly in the two times of planting. In the second time of planting 1/1/1995, head and seed weight, shelling percentage, sterility zone, plant and stem diameter decreased significantly in the irradiated populations as compared with control especially using doses of gamma rays (120 and 160 Gy). Number of rows/head was not significantly affected for the three dates of planting. 2 tabs

  1. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Rahman, Motior M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54%) and Cu (34-38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  2. TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, L. EMERGENCE, YIELD, QUALITY, AND FUEL CONSUMPTION IN DOUBLE CROPPING SYSTEM

    ABDULLAH SESSIZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between crop growing and soil tillage treatment are play important role in agricultural production. Soils under conventional tillage (CT generally have lower bulk density and associated higher total porosity within the plough layer than under no tillage (NT. No-till farming can reduce soil erosion, conserve soil moisture and minimize labor and fuel consumption. The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of conventional, reduced and notillage methods on soil physical properties, sunfl ower yield and yield components, protein and oil content and fuel consumption in Southeastern of Turkey. Six tillage methods for the second crop sunfl ower were tested and compared each other within after lentil harvesting at 2003 and 2004 years in a clay loam soil. According to results, the fi rst year, the bulk density had decreased from 1.29 to 1.09 g cm-3, the second year the δb had decreased from 1.41 to 1.23 g cm-3. Differences between years and tillage methods in terms of yield were found signifi cant (p<0.05. However, no differences were found between the NT and CT. There were also no signifi cance differences in content of protein, oil and ash among six tillage methods. The highest fuel consumption was measured in conventional method (CT whereas the lowest value was found in direct seeding method as 33.48 L ha-1 and 6.6 L ha-1, respectively.

  3. A comparison of fast and reactive pyrolysis with insitu derivatisation of fructose, inulin and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus).

    Mattonai, Marco; Ribechini, Erika

    2018-08-09

    Reactive pyrolysis is a technique that provides mechanistic information by performing pyrolysis of the substrate in a sealed glass capsule at elevated temperature and pressure for relatively long time. This technique has already shown great potential for the analysis of biomass, favouring the formation of only the most thermostable compounds. In this work, both fast and reactive pyrolysis with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (Py-GC/MS) are used to study fructose, inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Heliantus tuberosus). Interesting differences were found between the two systems, and became even more evident as the reaction time was increased. The most striking result was the formation of di-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs), a class of compounds with interesting biological activities. DFAs were obtained in high yields from reactive pyrolysis, but not from fast pyrolysis. Hypotheses on the pyrolysis mechanisms were made based upon the composition of the pyrolysates. This work describes for the first time the behaviour of fructans under reactive pyrolysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  6. Integration of transcriptomic and metabolic data reveals hub transcription factors involved in drought stress response in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Moschen, Sebastián; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Higgins, Janet; Tohge, Takayuki; Watanabe, Mutsumi; González, Sergio; Rivarola, Máximo; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquin; Hopp, H Esteban; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R; Paniego, Norma; Fernández, Paula; Heinz, Ruth A

    2017-07-01

    By integration of transcriptional and metabolic profiles we identified pathways and hubs transcription factors regulated during drought conditions in sunflower, useful for applications in molecular and/or biotechnological breeding. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that effects crop productivity in many agricultural regions. Sunflower is tolerant to drought conditions but the mechanisms involved in this tolerance remain unclear at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to characterize and integrate transcriptional and metabolic pathways related to drought stress in sunflower plants, by using a system biology approach. Our results showed a delay in plant senescence with an increase in the expression level of photosynthesis related genes as well as higher levels of sugars, osmoprotectant amino acids and ionic nutrients under drought conditions. In addition, we identified transcription factors that were upregulated during drought conditions and that may act as hubs in the transcriptional network. Many of these transcription factors belong to families implicated in the drought response in model species. The integration of transcriptomic and metabolomic data in this study, together with physiological measurements, has improved our understanding of the biological responses during droughts and contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved under this environmental condition. These findings will provide useful biotechnological tools to improve stress tolerance while maintaining crop yield under restricted water availability.

  7. EVALUATION OF YEAR WEATHER CONDITIONS AND HYBRIDS IMPACT ON THE SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. ACHENE YIELD AND FAT CONTENT

    Ivan Černý

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The field polyfactorial trials were carried out on experimental fields of the Plant Biology and Ecology Centre, the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources of the Slovak University of Agriculture (SUA in Nitra Dolná Malanta in two experimental years 2010 and 2011. Experimental locality is situated in the corn production area (climatic region: warm; climatic sub-region dry; climatic zone: warm, dry with mild winter and long sunshine, in altitude 250 m above sea level, with brown soil. On the trials was observed the influence of both temperature and moisture conditions of experimental area on sunflower yield of achenes and fat content. Fore crop of sunflower was spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Technological system of sunflower cultivation was realized in accordance with conventional technology of cultivation. The basic fertilization was made by balance method on the base of agrochemical analysis of soil for expected yield 3 t ha-1. The meteorological data were got out from agro-meteorological station the Faculty of Horticulture and Land Engineering SUA in Nitra. The results show statistically high significant impact of the year weather conditions on the both achenes yield and fat content. In the range of weather conditions, year 2011 have better impact on the values of both indicators than year 2010. The effect of hybrids on monitored production parameters was statistically high significant. In the year 2010 and 2011, in terms of yield quantity but also fat content had hybrid NK Kondi the most stable production. In 2010 and 2011 were reported negative correlations of fat content from achenes yield except of hybrid NK Tristan, which reach positive addiction in 2010.

  8. Prebiotic effect of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus fructans on the growth performance of Bifiobacterium bifium and Escherichia coli

    Mansouri elaheh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and compare in vitro prebiotic effects of Jerusalem artichoke polyfructans on the survivability and activity of Bifiobacterium bifium and Escherichia coli with high performance-inulin (a high molecular weight fraction of chicory-derived inulin. Methods: Extracted polyfructose from Jerusalem artichoke tubers and standard inulin were added to the appropriated culture to achieve final concentrations [0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% (w/v] to determine the turbidity and pH variations during 48 h incubation. Results: This study suggested that Jerusalem artichoke tuber fructooligosaccharides had the potential to be used as a prebiotic component. The growth of Bifidobacterium bifidum improved significantly in the presence of Jerusalem artichoke fructans compared to the control. There was no significant differences (P < 0.05 in Bifidobacterium population in different concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke poly-fructans, but the population was significantly higher than the count in the presence of high performance-inulin. The pH decreased in both media during 48 h incubation time. The specific rate of growth and doubling time determined for Escherichia coli demonstrated that the efficacy of various carbon sources in stimulating bacterial growth was influenced by the concentration and degree of polymerization of fructan chains in the media. Conclusions: Jerusalem artichoke fructooligosaccharides can provide the greater stability of probiotics and acid production, so it can be considered as a potential source of high yielding oligosaccharide for commercial prebiotic production to develop food industry and improve host health.

  9. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11.

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-08-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile bacterium, producing 4.5 μg mL(-1) indole acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium. It utilized 27 out of 95 substrates in BIOLOG GN2 micro plate system. It was able to convert insoluble tri-calcium phosphate to soluble phosphorus up to 43.5 μg mL(-1) with decrease in pH of the medium up to 4.5 after 10 days incubation at 28 ± 2 °C in the Pikovskaya's broth. High performance liquid chromatography of cell free supernatant showed that Fs-11 produced malic acid and gluconic acid (2.43 and 16.64 μg mL(-1), respectively) in Pikovskaya's broth. Analysis of 900 bp fragment of pyrroloquinoline quinine pqqE gene sequence showed 98 % homology with that of E. cloacae pqqE gene. Confocal laser scanning microscope revealed strong colonization of fluorescently labeled Fs-11 with sunflower roots. Sunflower inoculation with Fs-11 and its rifampicin resistant derivative in sterile sand and natural soil showed that Fs-11 colonized sunflower roots up to 30 days after transplanting in both sterile sand as well as natural soil. Moreover, Fs-11 inoculation resulted in increased plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and total phosphorus contents as compared to un-inoculated plants. The data showed that Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 is an efficient phosphate solubilizing and plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and has great potential to be used as bio-inoculant for sunflower under phosphorus deficient conditions.

  10. Siderophores mediate reduced and increased uptake of cadmium by Streptomyces tendae F4 and sunflower (Helianthus annuus), respectively.

    Dimkpa, C O; Merten, D; Svatos, A; Büchel, G; Kothe, E

    2009-11-01

    As a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd) affects microbial and plant metabolic processes, thereby potentially reducing the efficiency of microbe or plant-mediated remediation of Cd-polluted soil. The role of siderophores produced by Streptomyces tendae F4 in the uptake of Cd by bacteria and plant was investigated to gain insight into the influence of siderophores on Cd availability to micro-organisms and plants. The bacterium was cultured under siderophore-inducing conditions in the presence of Cd. The kinetics of siderophore production and identification of the siderophores and their metal-bound forms were performed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy was used to measure iron (Fe) and Cd contents in the bacterium and in sunflower plant grown in Cd-amended soil. Siderophores significantly reduced the Cd uptake by the bacterium, while supplying it with iron. Bacterial culture filtrates containing three hydroxamate siderophores secreted by S. tendae F4 significantly promoted plant growth and enhanced uptake of Cd and Fe by the plant, relative to the control. Furthermore, application of siderophores caused slightly more Cd, but similar Fe uptake, compared with EDTA. Bioinoculation with Streptomyces caused a dramatic increase in plant Fe content, but resulted only in slight increase in plant Cd content. It is concluded that siderophores can help reduce toxic metal uptake in bacteria, while simultaneously facilitating the uptake of such metals by plants. Also, EDTA is not superior to hydroxamate siderophores in terms of metal solubilization for plant uptake. The study showed that microbial processes could indirectly influence the availability and amount of toxic metals taken up from the rhizosphere of plants. Furthermore, although EDTA is used for chelator-enhanced phytoremediation, microbial siderophores would be ideal for this purpose.

  11. Recognition of Orobanche cumana Below-Ground Parasitism Through Physiological and Hyper Spectral Measurements in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Cochavi, Amnon; Rapaport, Tal; Gendler, Tania; Karnieli, Arnon; Eizenberg, Hanan; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Ephrath, Jhonathan E

    2017-01-01

    leaf cross-sections revealed differences in range and in mesophyll structure as a result of different levels of nutrients in sunflower plants, manifesting the presence of O. cumana infections. The findings of an advanced PLS-R analysis emphasized the correlation between specific reflectance changes in the SWIR range and levels of various nutrients in sunflower plants. This work demonstrates potential for the early detection of O. cumana parasitism on sunflower roots using hyperspectral tools.

  12. Recognition of Orobanche cumana Below-Ground Parasitism Through Physiological and Hyper Spectral Measurements in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Amnon Cochavi

    2017-06-01

    parasitism. Analysis of leaf cross-sections revealed differences in range and in mesophyll structure as a result of different levels of nutrients in sunflower plants, manifesting the presence of O. cumana infections. The findings of an advanced PLS-R analysis emphasized the correlation between specific reflectance changes in the SWIR range and levels of various nutrients in sunflower plants. This work demonstrates potential for the early detection of O. cumana parasitism on sunflower roots using hyperspectral tools.

  13. Marcha de absorção de macronutrientes na cultura do girassol Macronutrient uptake of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Luiz Henrique Saes Zobiole

    2010-04-01

    of Paraná. The plots consisted of 14 25 m long rows spaced 0.70 m apart, resulting in a total area of 245 m², with four replications. Prior to sowing a fertilization seeding of 300 kg ha-1 of 05-20-20 NPK fertilizer was applied. Fertilization was split in two applications of 25 + 1 kg ha-1 N and B, which were applied 21 and 35 days after sowing, respectively. The hybrid BRS 191 and a final plant density of 40,000 plants ha-1 were used. Plant samples were collected every two weeks after emergence and separated in the different parts (petioles, leaves, stems and, when applicable, capitula and achenes. After drying, each plant part was weighed and ground to determine the N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S content. From the contents of these nutrients and dry mass of each plant, the accumulation curve was obtained. It was found that for yields > 3,000 kg ha-1, BRS 191 extracted about 150, 24, 286, 116, 42, and 24 kg ha-1 of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, in the following order of extraction: K> N> Ca> P = S. In addition to the relation to exportation, the nutrient order was: N> P = K> S = Mg> Ca. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the maintenance of an adequate supply of N, K and Ca, due to the high demand of sunflower.

  14. Plant growth promotion properties of bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) adapted to saline-alkaline soils and their effect on wheat growth.

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Xiangyue; Li, Yan; Li, Runzhi; Xie, Zhihong

    2017-03-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (JA; Helianthus tuberosus), known to be tolerant to saline-alkaline soil conditions, has been cultivated for many years in the Yellow River delta, Shandong Province coastal zone, in China. The aim of our study was to isolate nitrogen-fixing bacteria colonizing the rhizosphere of JA and to characterize other plant growth promotion properties. The ultimate goal was to identify isolates that could be used as inoculants benefiting an economic crop, in particular for improving wheat growth production in the Yellow River delta. Bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of JA on the basis of growth on nitrogen-free Ashby medium. Identification and phylogenetic analysis was performed after nucleotide sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Plant-growth-promoting traits, such as nitrogen fixation activity, phosphate solubilization activity, indole-3-acetic acid production, were determined using conventional methods. Eleven strains were isolated and 6 of them were further examined for their level of salt tolerance and their effect on plant growth promotion. Inoculation of Enterobacter sp. strain N10 on JA and wheat led to significant increases in both root and shoot dry mass and shoot height. Enterobacter sp. strain N10 appeared to be the best plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria to increase wheat productivity in future field applications.

  15. [Agrobacterium-mediated sunflower transformation (Helianthus annuus L.) in vitro and in Planta using strain of LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBi2E with dsRNA-suppressor proline dehydrogenase gene].

    Tishchenko, E N; Komisarenko, A G; Mikhal'skaia, S I; Sergeeva, L E; Adamenko, N I; Morgun, B V; Kochetov, A V

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of proline dehydrogenase gene suppression towards increasing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tolerance level to water deficit and salinity, we employed strain LBA4404 harboring pBi2E with double-stranded RNA-suppressor, which were prepared on basis arabidopsis ProDH1 gene. The techniques of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in vitro and in planta during fertilization sunflower have been proposed. There was shown the genotype-depended integration of T-DNA in sunflower genome. PCR-analysis showed that ProDH1 presents in genome of inbred lines transformed in planta, as well as in T1- and T2-generations. In trans-genic regenerants the essential accumulation of free L-proline during early stages of in vitro cultivation under normal conditions was shown. There was established the essential accumulation of free proline in transgenic regenerants during cultivation under lethal stress pressure (0.4 M mannitol and 2.0% sea water salts) and its decline upon the recovery period. These data are declared about effectiveness of suppression of sunflower ProDH and gene participation in processes connected with osmotolerance.

  16. Molecular aspects of zygotic embryogenesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): correlation of positive histone marks with HaWUS expression and putative link HaWUS/HaL1L.

    Salvini, Mariangela; Fambrini, Marco; Giorgetti, Lucia; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The link HaWUS/ HaL1L , the opposite transcriptional behavior, and the decrease/increase in positive histone marks bond to both genes suggest an inhibitory effect of WUS on HaL1L in sunflower zygotic embryos. In Arabidopsis, a group of transcription factors implicated in the earliest events of embryogenesis is the WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) protein family including WUSCHEL (WUS) and other 14 WOX protein, some of which contain a conserved WUS-box domain in addition to the homeodomain. WUS transcripts appear very early in embryogenesis, at the 16-cell embryo stage, but gradually become restricted to the center of the developing shoot apical meristem (SAM) primordium and continues to be expressed in cells of the niche/organizing center of SAM and floral meristems to maintain stem cell population. Moreover, WUS has decisive roles in the embryonic program presumably promoting the vegetative-to-embryonic transition and/or maintaining the identity of the embryonic stem cells. However, data on the direct interaction between WUS and key genes for seed development (as LEC1 and L1L) are not collected. The novelty of this report consists in the characterization of Helianthus annuus WUS (HaWUS) gene and in its analysis regarding the pattern of the methylated lysine 4 (K4) of the Histone H3 and of the acetylated histone H3 during the zygotic embryo development. Also, a parallel investigation was performed for HaL1L gene since two copies of the WUS-binding site (WUSATA), previously identified on HaL1L nucleotide sequence, were able to be bound by the HaWUS recombinant protein suggesting a not described effect of HaWUS on HaL1L transcription.

  17. Contaminação por Aspergillus flavus e A. fumigatus em sementes de girassol (Helianthus annuus utilizados na alimentação de psitacídeos

    Alexsandro Machado Conceição

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p145 Amplamente difundido na alimentação de psitacídeos em razão do preço baixo, elevada palatabilidade, e por razões culturais, o Helianthus annuus, conhecido como girassol, vem se mostrando importante na clínica aviária em decorrência do excesso de calorias, e da alta incidência na contaminação por alguns fungos, principalmente do gênero Aspergillus, especificamente A. flavus e A. fumigatus. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a contaminação por Aspegillus ssp. em sementes de girassol destinada à alimentação de psitacídeos comercializadas em Aracaju, estado de Sergipe. As análises foram realizadas no Laboratório de Microbiologia, do Hospital Veterinário Dr. Vicente Borreli, na Faculdade Pio Décimo. Avaliaram-se quatro amostras de sementes de girassol, sendo uma comercializada no mercado público municipal, de forma granel e três marcas comerciais, envasadas e de diferentes hipermercados, processadas segundo Forsythe (2002. De acordo com a pesquisa realizada, foi possível observar um elevado desenvolvimento de A. flavus e A. fumigatus nas sementes de girassol. Esta contaminação pode estar relacionada a vários fatores: colheita e fases de secagem, beneficiamento e armazenamento do grão inadequado. Além disso, é importante destacar a necessidade de que haja um melhor armazenamento de grãos, com controle de temperatura e umidade relativa, visando reduzir a possibilidade de contaminação por Aspergillus spp. que causa prejuízos na alimentação de psitacídeos, e de outras espécies animais.

  18. Réponse de deux variétés de tournesol (Helianthus sp. à la fertilisation à base de fiente de poule sur un Hapli-Humic Ferralsol du Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden Park (YWHRGP Nkwen-Bamenda, Cameroun, Afrique centrale

    Yerima, BPK.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of Two Sunflower (Helianthus sp. Varieties to Poultry Manure Fertilization on a Hapli-Humic Ferralsol at the Yongka Western Highlands Research Garden-Park (YWHRGP Nkwen-Bamenda, Cameroon, Central Africa. An experiment on a Hapli-Humic Ferralsol was conducted at the YWHRGP, Nkwen-Bamenda, to evaluate the response of two sunflower varieties (Helianthus sp. to five levels of poultry manure (0; 1.2; 2.8; 4.2 and 5.6 Tons/ha. Italian White and African Giant varieties were used. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three and six replications for African Giant and Italian White varieties, respectively. Poultry manure was analyzed and growth, development and yield parameters were collected. The acid soil (pH≤5.5 showed nutrient deficiencies. The poultry manure (pH=7.8 is rich in essential nutrients and had a significant effect on sunflower growth parameters. The 4.2 Tons/ha manure level maximised growth and yield parameters of the African Giant variety. For the Italian White variety, 5.6 Tons/ha manure level gave a head weight yield (0.74 Tons/ha lower than that of the African Giant (1.33 Tons/ha. Significant differences were also observed between the two varieties. However, the African Giant variety appears to be more adapted for seed production, while the Italian White variety appears to be best indicated for use as an ornamental plant or to produce cut flowers.

  19. Efecto y tolerancia de semillas de Helianthus Annuus (Asteraceae), Mentha Pepirita (Lamiaceae) y Medicago Sativa (Fabaceae) a diferentes concentraciones de Cadmio

    Panchi Campues, Fabiola Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal, which by their nature have a high threat to not be chemically or biologically degradable, why is one of the causes of environmental degradation, and causes direct damage in man. In Ecuador this metal is as a result of industrial activities present in the effluents and soil, causing an environmental impact due to their involvement to be directly related to water sources. At present there are proposed various types of wastewater treatment for removal of ...

  20. Influence of thiourea application on some physiological and molecular criteria of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants under conditions of heat stress.

    Akladious, Samia Ageeb

    2014-05-01

    High temperature is a major factor limiting the growth of plant species during summer. Understanding the mechanisms of plant tolerance to high temperature would help in developing effective management practices and heat-tolerant cultivars through breeding or biotechnology. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of thiourea in enhancing the tolerance of sunflower plants to heat stress. Sunflower plants were subjected to temperature stress by exposing plants to 35 or 45 °C for 12 h. Two levels of thiourea (10 and 20 mM) were applied before sowing (seed treatment). The results indicated that the plants exposed to temperature stress exhibited a significant decline in growth parameters, chlorophylls, relative leaf water content, oil content, leaf nutrient status, and nitrate reductase activity. Treatment with thiourea, especially when applied at 10 mM, improved the above parameters and induced non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants responsible for antioxidation. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that high-temperature treatments alone or in combination with thiourea were associated with the disappearance of some bands or the appearance of unique ones. The result of RAPD analysis using five primers showed variable qualitative and quantitative changes. These findings confirm the effectiveness of applying thiourea on alleviating heat injuries in sunflower plants.

  1. Evaluation of some irradiated populations of sunflower (Helianthus Annus) in M{sub 4} and M{sub 5} generation. Vol. 4

    Atia, Z M.A. [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Seeds of the M{sub 3} generation of irradiated and irradiated populations were divided into three parts, the first part was sown on 28/8/1993, the second on 1/1/1994, and the third part on 1/5/1995 to evaluate seed yield and other characters for the three dates of planting. Results showed significant increase in head and seed weight, head and stem diameter and seed index in the first and third time of planting. On the contrast shelling percentage, and plant height decreased significantly in the two times of planting. In the second time of planting 1/1/1995, head and seed weight, shelling percentage, sterility zone, plant and stem diameter decreased significantly in the irradiated populations as compared with control especially using doses of gamma rays (120 and 160 Gy). Number of rows/head was not significantly affected for the three dates of planting. 2 tabs.

  2. Genetic control of water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope discrimination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) subjected to two drought scenarios.

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production.

  3. Safety and quality parameters of ready-to-cook minced pork meat products supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers fermented by BLIS producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Stimbirys, Arturas; Bartkiene, Elena; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Augeniene, Dovile; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Maruska, Audrius; Stankevicius, Mantas; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives of Jerusalem artichoke (JA), fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9, L. sakei KTU05-6, on the quality and safety parameters of ready - to cook - minced pork (RCMP). Fermented JA additives reduced pH of the meat products and decreased water holding capacity (WHC) from 2.01 till 2.93 %. Concentrations of biogenic amines in RCMP with additives of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - fermented JA were significantly lower comparing with control sample. The number of pathogenic bacteria in artificially contaminated meat samples was significantly reduced in case of LAB-fermented JA additives. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained using P. acidilactici fermented JA additives. The amounts of microbial pathogens E. coli and Ent. faecalis, S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were determined 3.41, 3.38, 3,96 and 4.74 log CFU/g correspondingly, whereas without LAB-fermented JA additives were 8.94, 7.75, 8.82 and 8.58 log CFU/g, correspondingly. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavor) of RCMP using LAB fermented JA additives was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of RCMP without additive and with LAB-fermented JA additives was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of sensory evaluation of meat products supplemented with fermented JA additives revealed specific odor, which is pleasant and acceptable for consumers might be explainable that LAB-fermented JA additives have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of volatiles such as toluene, ethylbenzene, decane, undecane, 2 methyl undecane. N-morpholinomethyl-isopropyl-sulfide, 6-undecilamine and N,N-dimethyl-1-pentadecanamine were not determined in RCMP with LAB-fermented JA additives. The results obtained show, that P. acidilactici fermented JA 5 % additive is most suitable for the RCMP processing in order to prevent microbiological spoilage, increase

  4. Nutritional evaluation of Zambia indigenous soy bean (Glycine max) and sunflower (Helianthus annus) as protein sources in poultry and pigs diets.

    Aregheore, E M

    1998-10-01

    Two trials were carried out to compare the nutritional values of two Zambian indigenous plant protein sources--soy bean cake (SBC) and sunflower meal (SFM) in the diets of broilers and growing pigs. In trial 1, 120 one week old chickens (Abbor acre strain) were used. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between chickens on SBC and SFM in voluntary feed intake. Average daily gain of SBC chickens differed (P < 0.05) from those of SFM. The protein source had an effect (P < 0.05) on N retained [g/day]. Carcasses dry matter and crude protein were higher (P < 0.05) in SBC chickens, but ash, ether extract, Ca and P were the same as SFM. In trial 2, 12 Large white x Landrace growing barrows 1-2 months old were used. In this trial, SBC diet was consumed more than SFM. Pigs on SBC and SFM gained 0.526 and 0.284 g/head/day, respectively (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in SBC diet. Trial 1, demonstrated that SBC and SFM could be used for broilers without adverse effect on growth rate and body conformation. However, for growing pigs SBC is a better protein source than SFM in the tropical environment of Zambia. Finally, results obtained seem to suggest that SBC and SFM can be used as plant protein sources, but SFM is not an ideal plant protein source for growing pigs.

  5. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. [Polymorphism among RFL-PPR homologs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines with varying ability for the suppression of the cytoplasmic male sterility phenotype].

    Anisimova, I N; Alpatieva, N V; Rozhkova, V T; Kuznetsova, E B; Pinaev, A G; Gavrilova, V A

    2014-07-01

    A complex comparative genetic approach was used for the investigation of the structural and functional diversity of genes for the restoration of sunflower pollen fertility. It includes (i) hybridological analysis; (ii) analysis of polymorphism among EST fragments.homologous to the known Rf genes that contain repeated motives of 35 amino acids (RFL-PPR); (iii) the development of molecular markers. Monogenic segregation in three interline cross combinations and the results of molecular marker analysis confirmed the allelic differences of parental lines in the Mendelian locus for CMS PET1 pollen fertility restoration. Introns were found in two RFL-PPR fragments. Two allelic variants of the QHL12D20 fragment were detected among the sixty lines of the sunflower genetic collection. An intron of QHL12D20 fragment was homologous to an intron of the AHBP-1B gene; the product of this gene-has a similarity with the transcription factor of the bZIP-family of Arabidopsis. A relationship between the QHL12D20 polymorphism and the functional state of the Rfl locus was revealed.

  7. Potential of Brassic rapa, Cannabis sativa, Helianthus annuus and Zea mays for phytoextraction of heavy metals from calcareous dredged sediment derived soils.

    Meers, E; Ruttens, A; Hopgood, M; Lesage, E; Tack, F M G

    2005-10-01

    Remediation of soil pollution is one of the many current environmental challenges. Anthropogenic activity has resulted in the contamination of extended areas of land, the remediation of which is both invasive and expensive by conventional means. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils has the prospect of being a more economic in situ alternative. In addition, phytoextraction targets ecotoxicologically the most relevant soil fraction of these metals, i.e. the bioavailable fraction. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the potential of four high biomass crop species in their potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals, with or without with the use of soil amendments (EDTA or EDDS). A calcareous dredged sediment derived surface soil, with high organic matter and clay content and moderate levels of heavy metal pollution, was used in the experiments. No growth depression was observed in EDTA or EDDS treated pots in comparison to untreated controls. Metal accumulation was considered to be low for phytoextraction purposes, despite the use of chelating agents. The low observed shoot concentrations of heavy metals were attributed to the low phytoavailability of heavy metals in this particular soil substrate. The mobilising effects induced by EDTA in the soil were found to be too long-lived for application as a soil amendment in phytoextraction. Although EDDS was found to be more biodegradable, higher effect half lives were observed than reported in literature or observed in previous experiments. These findings caution against the use of any amendment, biodegradable or otherwise, without proper investigation of its effects and the longevity thereof.

  8. Effect of Planting Date and Weed Control Methods on Yield and Agronomic Traits of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in Khoy Region

    M. Akbari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of planting dates and weed control methods on yield and agronomic traits of sunflower was investigated. A factorial experiment based on a complete randomized blocks design with four replications was conducted in 2009. Treatments consisted of three planting date (April 4th, May5th and Juns5th and five weed control methods, Trifluralin (2 Lit/ha + Fokus (1.5 Lit/ha, Trifluralin+Nabu-s (3Lit/ha, Trifluralin, Hand weeding and without control. Results indicated that planting dates and weed control methods significantly affected head diameter, 100 grain weight, seed number per head and grain yield. Harvest index and oil percent was affected only by planting dates. The highest grain yield (630.1 g/m2, was produced in the second planting date (May 5 by using Trifluralin+Fokus. Delaying sowing date (after May 5 significantly decreased grain yield. The most important weeds in the experimental site were common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album, field bind weed (Convolvulus arvensis, bastard cabbage (Rapistrum rugosum, flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum, cockspur grass (Echinochloa colorum and green bristle grass (Setaria verticillata. It was observed that the dry matter weight sharply varied in all weed species in different planting dates, that is, in the 4th April the dry matter production of common lambsquarter and bastard cabbage, in June 5th planting date were maximum. Dry matter of broad leaf and narrow leaf weeds in the date of May 5th was lower than the other two planting dates. The interaction of planting date ×control methods on head diameter, seed number per head, grain yield and weeds dry matter was significant.

  9. 1998 results

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the financial and commercial results of Gaz de France (GdF) company for 1998. The following points are presented successively: financial results (budget results, turnover, self-financing capacity, investments, debt situation), commercial results (some remarkable numbers and records, the tertiary and residential market, the industrial market, cogeneration and natural gas for vehicles), the strategy, 1998 realizations and perspectives (the natural gas energy in the 21. century, the development of GdF, the gas distribution and services (development of the French distribution system, export of the know-how, development of services), the transportation and storage systems threw Europe (densification of the pipeline network, the key-position of France, the north-south equilibrium of the distribution network), the natural gas production by GdF, the diversification of supplies, and the main daughter companies abroad). (J.S.)

  10. (Helianthus annuus L.) on physiology of wheat

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (15), pp. 3555-3559, 4 ... physiology of wheat seedlings including protein, proline, sugars, DNA, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and .... (1956) as modified by Johnson et al. (1966).

  11. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  12. Extraordinary results

    Cicova, V.

    2012-01-01

    For the first time in the history, Slovenske elektrarne became the first winner in a new category Business and Biodiversity in the competition of European companies aimed at the environment protection. Excellent results were achieved by a long-term co-operation with the Tatras National Park, in particular in saving the endangered animals.

  13. Ganil results

    Tamain, B.

    1992-06-01

    Recent Ganil results are presented: hot nuclei properties and multifragmentation, study of flow change around the inversion energy. Mesons and hard photons production are also briefly discussed. Correlations with studies that have been led in Saturne energy range, and the developments that can be foreseen in the future have been discussed

  14. SAGE results

    Gavrin, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69+/-10(stat)+5/-7(syst) SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU. The initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies are also discussed by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93+0.15, -0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. (author)

  15. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from the sunflower (Helianthus annus L. rhizosphere according to their capacity to hydrolyse inulin Identificação e caracterização de fungos filamentosos isolados de rizosfera de girassol (Helianthus annus L. de acordo com a capacidade de hidrolisar inulina

    Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi able to hydrolyse inulin have been isolated from the rhizosphere of plants whose roots contain this polysaccharide. This study reports results concerning the isolation and identification of filamentous fungi from the soil used for sunflower cultivation and from the sunflower rhizosphere cultivated in field and in greenhouse. Fungi were evaluated according to their capacity to hydrolyse inulin and the variation in the diversity of these fungi during the plant's life cycle was also accessed. Forty-nine species of filamentous fungi were isolated. Penicillium and Aspergillus were the genera that presented higher number of species, nine and seven, respectively. At the end of the sunflower life cycle, cultivated both in field and in the greenhouse, a lower numbers of species were isolated. One hundred and fifty nine strains of filamentous fungi were isolated from soil and from the sunflower rhizosphere; from these, 79 (49.7% were able to hydrolyse inulin. There was not significant difference in the proportion of species able to hydrolyse this polysaccharide during the sunflower's life cycle, in plants cultivated in field or in greenhouse. Although the sunflower's rhizosphere is a source of filamentous fungi able to hydrolyse inulin, that might be used in biotechnological processes. This system does not present a higher density of such microorganisms. Species of Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Cunninghamella, Emericela, Eupenicillium, Fusarium, Myrothecium, Neosartorya, Neocosmospora, Penicillium and Thielavia are being related by first time as inulinase producers.Fungos filamentosos capazes de hidrolisar inulina tem sido isolados de rizosfera de plantas que acumulam esse polissacarídeo nas raízes. Este estudo compreendeu o isolamento e identificação de fungos filamentosos do solo utilizado para o cultivo do girassol e da rizosfera de girassol cultivado em campo e em casa de vegetação, a fim de verificar se há variação na

  16. Energy from biomass: Results of two-years trials on annual and perennial Herba ceous species

    Angelini, L.; Ceccarini, L.; Oggiano, N.; Bonari, E.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of the PRisCa Project (Alternative Crops Research Project) a number of germ plasm collections were set up at the Department of Agronomy of the University of Pisa in order to identify annual and perennial herbaceous species utilizable for electric energy production. The first results deriving from trials carried out in 1992-93 are reported. The following species were used: 1) Annual: Sorghum bicolor, Hibiscus cannabinus, Pennisetum americanum, Kochia scoparia. 2) Perennial: Cynara cardunculus, Helianthus tuberosus, Miscantus sinensis, Arundo donax. Almost all species tested were represented by several genotypes. The total amount of species and genotype tested was 16. On all species, main phenological, biometric and productive determinations were performed. The hypothesized final use was intended to be electric power production by direct combustion and/or gasification. In addition, specific calorific value was also determined by adiabatic calorimeter as well as chemical composition of dry matter and ash composition. Species showing high yield potential, both from the quantitative and qualitative point of view, were Sorghum bicolor and Kochia scoparia (among annuals), as well as Miscanthus sinensis and Arundo donax (among perennials). Total dry matter yield ranged from about 23 tha -1 in the annual species to about 56 tha -1 in the perennials. The highest total calorific power obtainable from dry epigeic biomass was measured in Sorghum bicolor and Arundo donax - 4023 Kcal Kg -1 and 4166 Kcal Kg -1 respectively. The preliminary results suggest that vegetable biomass is environmentally-friendly and could contribute significantly to the world energy needs. (author)

  17. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (ii early results from the in situ experiment of torviscosa (udine

    Luca Marchiol

    Full Text Available Two annual high biomass yield crops – Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus – were grown in a soil polluted by pyrite cinders. Specific aims of this work were: to observe the concentration of metals in plants during the crop cycle and to establish the amount of metal removal by the crops. The field trial was arranged in a randomized block design. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were: As 309, Cd 4.90, Co 50.9, Cu 1527, Pb 233 and Zn 980 mg kg-1. The crops received respectively mineral fertilization and organic amendment while plants in control soil did not receive any input. The phytoextraction potential of crops was estimated during the whole growth cycle; the concentration of the metals in the plant roots and in the harvestable biomass and two bioconcentration factors are reported. The amelioration of the nutritive status of soil resulted highly effective for the biomass yield but not in the concentration of metals in plant fractions. The evaluation of the potential of phytoremediation of our plants compared to other crops in terms of metal removal, was positive. Sorghum performed better than sunflower removing from the soil 220 g ha-1 of As, 5.6 g ha-1 of Cd, 30.2 g ha-1 of Co, 820 g ha-1 of Cu, 107 g ha-1 of Pb and 1944 g ha-1 of Zn.

  18. Phytoremediation of soils polluted by heavy metals and metalloids using crops: (ii early results from the in situ experiment of torviscosa (udine

    Giuseppe Zerbi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two annual high biomass yield crops – Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus – were grown in a soil polluted by pyrite cinders. Specific aims of this work were: to observe the concentration of metals in plants during the crop cycle and to establish the amount of metal removal by the crops. The field trial was arranged in a randomized block design. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were: As 309, Cd 4.90, Co 50.9, Cu 1527, Pb 233 and Zn 980 mg kg-1. The crops received respectively mineral fertilization and organic amendment while plants in control soil did not receive any input. The phytoextraction potential of crops was estimated during the whole growth cycle; the concentration of the metals in the plant roots and in the harvestable biomass and two bioconcentration factors are reported. The amelioration of the nutritive status of soil resulted highly effective for the biomass yield but not in the concentration of metals in plant fractions. The evaluation of the potential of phytoremediation of our plants compared to other crops in terms of metal removal, was positive. Sorghum performed better than sunflower removing from the soil 220 g ha-1 of As, 5.6 g ha-1 of Cd, 30.2 g ha-1 of Co, 820 g ha-1 of Cu, 107 g ha-1 of Pb and 1944 g ha-1 of Zn.

  19. Identificação e caracterização de fungos filamentosos isolados de rizosfera de girassol (Helianthus annus L.) de acordo com a capacidade de hidrolisar inulina

    Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria de; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora de Queiroz; Fernandes, Maria José dos Santos; Lima, Débora Maria Massa; Nascimento, João Paulo; Laranjeira, Delson

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi able to hydrolyse inulin have been isolated from the rhizosphere of plants whose roots contain this polysaccharide. This study reports results concerning the isolation and identification of filamentous fungi from the soil used for sunflower cultivation and from the sunflower rhizosphere cultivated in field and in greenhouse. Fungi were evaluated according to their capacity to hydrolyse inulin and the variation in the diversity of these fungi during the plant's life cycle was...

  20. Effect of feeding Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) root as prebiotic on nutrient utilization, fecal characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) fed a meat-on-bone diet.

    Pradhan, S K; Das, A; Kullu, S S; Saini, M; Pattanaik, A K; Dutta, N; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of incorporating Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as a prebiotic in the diet of Indian leopards (n = 11 adults) fed a meat-on-bone diet. The trial consisted of three periods (A1 , B, and A2 ). Each period comprised 17 days of adaptation and four days of collection. During the control periods (A1 and A2 ), the leopards were fed their normal zoo diets of 2.5-3 kg of buffalo meat-on-bone six days a week without any supplement. During trial B, meat-on-bone diets of the leopards were supplemented with JA at 2% of dietary dry matter (DM). Meat consumption was similar among the treatments. Supplementation of JA decreased the digestibility of crude protein (P < 0.01). Digestibilities of organic matter and ether extract were similar among the treatments. Serum concentrations of urea and triglycerides were lower (P < 0.05) when JA was added to the diet. Incorporation of JA to the basal diet increased fecal concentrations of acetate (P < 0.01), butyrate (P < 0.01), lactate (P < 0.01), Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. (P < 0.01) with a simultaneous decrease in the concentration of ammonia (P < 0.01), Clostridia spp. (P < 0.01), and fecal pH (P < 0.01). Fecal microbial profiles and hind gut fermentation were improved, without any adverse effects on feed consumption, nutrient utilization, and serum metabolite profiles. Results of this experiment showed that feeding JA at 2% DM in the whole diet could be potentially beneficial for captive Indian leopards fed meat-on-bone diets. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) interference in soybean (Glycine max)

    Geier, P.W.; Maddux, L.D.; Moshier, L.J.; Stahlman, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple weed species in the field combine to cause yield losses and can be described using one of several empirical models. Field studies were conducted to compare observed corn yield loss caused by common sunflower and shattercane populations with predicted yield losses modeled using a multiple species rectangular hyperbola model, an additive model, or the yield loss model in the decision support system, WeedSOFT, and to derive competitive indices for common sunflower and shattercane. Common sunflower and shattercane emerged with corn and selected densities established in field experiments at Scandia and Rossville, KS, between 2000 and 2002. The multiple species rectangular hyperbola model fit pooled data from three of five location–years with a predicted maximum corn yield loss of 60%. Initial slope parameter estimate for common sunflower was 49.2 and 4.2% for shattercane. A ratio of these estimates indicated that common sunflower was 11 times more competitive than shattercane. When common sunflower was assigned a competitive index (CI) value of 10, shattercane CI was 0.9. Predicted yield losses modeled for separate common sunflower or shattercane populations were additive when compared with observed yield losses caused by low-density mixed populations of common sunflower (0 to 0.5 plants m −2 ) and shattercane (0 to 4 plants m −2 ). However, a ratio of estimates of these models indicated that common sunflower was only four times as competitive as shattercane, with a CI of 2.5 for shattercane. The yield loss model in WeedSOFT underpredicted the same corn losses by 7.5%. Clearly, both the CI for shattercane and the yield loss model in WeedSOFT need to be reevaluated, and the multiple species rectangular hyperbola model is proposed. (author)

  2. FORTIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FORTIFICATION OF SUNFL

    Petr Škarpa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element which in small amounts is necessary for human and animal nutrition. In the organism it helps a number of antioxidant enzymes to function normally. In many parts of the world, including the Central European region, its content in agricultural products is very low. Attempts are therefore made to increase its content and cover human requirements with biologically valuable products by incorporating selenium into the system of plant nutrition. In a vegetation trial established in 2010 and 2011 we explored the effect of foliar applications of Se (IV on achenes yields and on content of selenium in the seeds and the uptake of selenium by the sunflower stand. Solutions of sodium selenite at 0.16 and 0.5 g Se.he-1 were applied at rates 50 and 150 g Se.ha-1 at the beginning of elongation growth (stage R-1. Sunflower achenes yields were significantly influenced by the weather in the experimental years. In 2011 sunflower production was by 29.4% lower than in 2010. Se fortification in dose 50 g Se.ha-1 increased sunflower achenes yield by 3.1%. The higher dose of selenium (150 g Se.ha-1 reduced yields by 6.8% compared with the no-fertilized treatment. Due to the effect of foliar Se nutrition the content of selenium in sunflower achenes increased highly significantly from 123 µg.kg-1 to 6,004 µg.kg-1 of achenes. The weight of 1000 achenes, oil content and content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic acids were not significantly affected by selenium application. Fortification of Se increased stearic acid content from 3.16% to 3.47%.

  3. Patterns of microsatellite evolution inferred from the Helianthus ...

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... selection has favoured the maintenance of microsatellites in these genes over others. This study shows that .... Materials and methods. Data collection ... sequences and different microsatellite motifs should code for specific ...

  4. Evaluation of potential deer browsing impact on sunflower (Helianthus annus)

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav; Cerkal, R.; Heroldová, Marta; Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Dvořák, J.; Vejražka, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2009), s. 583-588 ISSN 1612-4642 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF4192; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Game damages * Wild herbivores * Oil crop * Yield loss Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.136, year: 2009

  5. Impact of allelopathy of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) roots ...

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. E-mail: ... and carbon dioxide and also interfere with its normal ...... The ability of the plants to absorb nutrients.

  6. Total 2004 results

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  7. Total 2004 results

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  8. Recent results from TASSO

    Foster, B.

    1982-03-01

    Results are presented on the inclusive production of π 0 , K 0 and antiK 0 and lambda and antilambda in e + e - annihilation. These results, together with those on inclusive charged hadron production are used to obtain information on fragmentation mechanisms and the production of heavy quark flavours in e + e - annihilation. (author)

  9. Recent results from TRISTAN

    Enomoto, Ryoji [National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-01-01

    TRISTAN results on {gamma}{gamma} physics from 1994 to 1995 are reviewed in this report. We have systematically investigated jet production, the {gamma}-structure function, and charm pair production in {gamma}{gamma} processes. The results are discussed, and future prospects are presented.

  10. Annual results 2004

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  11. Tevatron physics results

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    I will summarize the physics results from the Tevatron experiments with particular emphasis on the experimental methods used in different kinds of analysis. In particular, the Tevatron is a proton-antiproton collider that has now accumulated more than 2 fb^-1 of luminosity in the two experiments, called CDF and D0. In this lecture I will review the results on inclusive productions of jets, W- and Z-bosons, the results in the flavor sector, the measurements of top production, searches for Higgs boson production and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. In each case I will explain the basic experimental concepts and methods needed for making the measurement.

  12. CMS Higgs boson results

    Bluj, Michal Jacek

    2018-01-01

    In this report we review recent Higgs boson results obtained with pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=\\,$13 TeV recorded by the CMS detector in 2016 for an integrated luminosity of 35.9fb$^{\\text{-1}}$. The 2016 data allowed the observation of the $H \\to \\tau\\tau$ and $H \\to WW$ decays with high significance. We also present a combined measurement based on a full set of CMS analyses performed with 2016 data. These results are compatible with the standard model predictions with precision of several measurements exceeding results from combination of ATLAS and CMS data collected in 2011 and 2012.

  13. Arsenic speciation results

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Linear combination fitting results of synchrotron data to determine arsenic speciation in soil samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  14. Haiti DevResults

    US Agency for International Development — DevResults is a web-based portfolio management system that tracks program data for the Haiti Mission that was awarded in April of 2013. (The Mozambique and/or...

  15. ATLAS soft QCD results

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  16. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  17. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  18. New particles: experimental results

    Augustin, J.E.

    The results of studies on production and properties of psi(3100) and psi(3700) resonances are presented, particular attention being given to spin, parity, g-parity and isospin determination. Evidence obtained in the SPEAR and DORIS storage rings in psi'→γ chi and psi→γX intermediate states are presented, together with SPEAR results on e-μ events and high energy jet production. (39 references) [fr

  19. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  20. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....

  1. Compilation of results 1987

    1987-01-01

    A compilation is carried out which in concentrated form presents reports on research and development within the nuclear energy field covering a two and a half years period. The foregoing report was edited in December 1984. The projects are presendted with title, project number, responsible unit, person to contact and short result reports. The result reports consist of short summaries over each project. (L.F.)

  2. Higgs results from ATLAS

    Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The updated Higgs measurements in various search channels with ATLAS Run 1 data are reviewed. Both the Standard Model (SM) Higgs results, such as H → γγ, ZZ, WW, ττ, μμ, bb-bar, and Beyond Standard Model (BSM) results, such as the charged Higgs, Higgs invisible decay and tensor couplings, are summarized. Prospects for future Higgs searches are briefly discussed

  3. Unfavorable results in replantation

    Abraham G Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reattachment of amputated parts of the body (Replantation has become a reality since the first arm replant was carried out six decades ago. Failures were not uncommon in the beginning, leading on to the analysis of the problem and refinements in technique. Improvements in sutures, instrumentation and better microscopes further helped the surgeons to do replantation with better finesse and functional results. Evaluation of results and particularly failure and long term results help the younger surgeons to learn from the difficulties faced earlier to do better in the future. An attempt is made to list various aspects of replantation experienced by the author during the past 30 years, particularly in reference to unfavorable results, which had been occasionally total failure, or a partial failure, with poor function and cosmesis due to infection. An insensate limb with poor function is the result of inadequate or improper nerve coaptation or infection destroying the whole repair. It is apt to mention that infection is mostly the result of poor vascularity due to devitalized tissue. Difficulties arise often in identifying the viable tissue, particularly while debriding in the distal amputated part since there is no bleeding. Experience counts in this, specifically to identify the viable muscle. The factors that may lead to complications are listed with remarks to avoid them.

  4. Total 2003 Results

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  5. Results from EQAS 2002

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, A.B.

    An international external quality assurance program on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv (WHO GSS). In 2002 a total of 117 laborator......An international external quality assurance program on serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of eight Salmonella enterica strains was performed to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories in WHO Global Salm-Surv (WHO GSS). In 2002 a total of 117...... laboratories from 67 countries participated. For serotyping, almost 90 % of the results were correct. For susceptibility testing, 91 % of the results were in agreement with the expected results, and 86 % of the performed tests with the reference strain E. coli ATCC 25922 were inside the quality control range...

  6. RTE - 2012 financial results

    Ricour, Olivia; Marguier, Marina; Lartigau, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's financial results for 2012: increase of investments for services to clients, performance results, financial balance, stability of the economical model. RTE's regulated economical model, main financial indicators, 2007-2012 investments, 2012 investments by category, 2012 turnover, 2012 costs structure, taxes, financial balance sheet at the end of 2012, and the share of electricity transport in the electricity price are presented in appendixes

  7. Geochemical investigations and results

    Herbert, H.J.; Sander, W.

    1986-01-01

    The following information can be derived from results so far for a final store: - With known mineralogy, precise information can be given on the solution metamorphosis processes to be expected. The previous results of this in-situ experiment have confirmed the theoretical considerations. - Sensors were developed and tested, which make possible continuous monitoring under hydrostatic pressure in a final store in the case of incoming solution, i.e. for exploration bores. - The collection of physical and chemical parameters in open sections and shafts creates the basis for assessing the effect of backfilling from the chemical point of view. (orig./PW) [de

  8. Results from SAGE II

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66 -13 +18 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73 -16 +18 (stat) -7 5 (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69 -11 +11 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  9. First AFP results

    Staszewski, Rafal; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) are detectors dedicated to measurements of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at small angles in inelastic processes. The first arm of AFP was installed in 2016. The installation of the full system was finished in 2017. Since 2016 AFP has collected data is special and standard runs. The presentation shows the first results obtained with data collected by AFP.

  10. Recent results of BABAR

    Bernard, D.

    2001-01-01

    The BABAR detector at SLAC's PEP-II storage ring has collected data amounting to about 30.4 fb -1 until june 2001. Results on CP violation, and in particular search for direct CP violation, and measurement of rare B decays are presented

  11. Roadmap of Infinite Results

    Srba, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive summary of equivalence checking results for infinite-state systems. References to the relevant papers will be updated continuously according to the development in the area. The most recent version of this document is available from the web-page http://www.brics.dk/~srba/roadmap....

  12. IRU Results and Perspectives

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the disciplines within USOBuilt Graduate School as organized in International Research and Design Units, the fora where research and design at a (post)doctorate level is performed and taught. A fixed template was used to self-assess results and perspectives, consisting of

  13. Results of CPLEAR

    Rickenbach, R.; Adler, R.; Alhalel, T.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Aslanides, E.; Backenstoss, G.; Bargassa, P.; Bee, C.P.; Behnke, O.; Benelli, A.; Bertin, V.; Blanc, F.; Bloch, P.; Carlson, P.; Carroll, M.; Carvalho, J.; Cawley, E.; Charalambous, S.; Chardin, G.; Chertok, M.B.; Cody, A.; Danielsson, M.; Dejardin, M.; Derre, J.; Ealet, A.; Eckart, B.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Evangelou, I.; Faravel, L.; Fassnacht, P.; Felder, C.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fetscher, W.; Fidecaro, M.; Filipcic, A.; Francis, D.; Fry, J.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Garreta, D.; Gerber, H.-J.; Go, A.; Guyot, C.; Haselden, A.; Hayman, P.J.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hollander, R.W.; Hubert, E.; Jon-And, K.; Kettle, P.-R.; Kochowski, C.; Kokkas, P.; Kreuger, R.; Le Gac, R.; Leimgruber, F.; Liolios, A.; Machado, E.; Mandic, I.; Manthos, N.; Marel, G.; Mikuz, M.; Miller, J.; Montanet, F.; Nakada, T.; Pagels, B.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Policarpo, A.; Polivka, G.; Roberts, B.L.; Ruf, T.; Sakeliou, L.; Sanders, P.; Santoni, C.; Schaefer, M.; Schaller, L.A.; Schietinger, T.; Schopper, A.; Schune, P.; Soares, A.; Tauscher, L.; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.; Touramanis, C.; Triantis, F.; Van Beveren, E.; Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Vlachos, S.; Weber, P.; Wigger, O.; Wolter, M.; Yeche, C.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zimmerman, D.

    1997-01-01

    The CPLEAR experiment uses tagged K 0 and K 0 produced in pp annihilation at rest to measure CP-, T- and CPT-violation parameters in the neutral kaon system. The results of these measurements and some implications are reported. (orig.)

  14. Same query - different results

    Nevyjel, A.

    1983-10-01

    On behalf of a case study a simple truncated adjacency phrase search was executed in the online versions of Chemical Abstracts on five different host computers (DATA-STAR, DIALOG, ESA, SDC, TELESYSTEMES). The reasons for the differences in the appearing results are discussed. (Author) [de

  15. Management Values Survey Results.

    Duffy, Barbara; Payne, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Describes results of a survey conducted to compare values of members of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) with managers in business and industry. Issues discussed include job satisfaction, opportunities for advancement, attitudes toward management, and salary; a summary of each value system is provided. (LRW)

  16. Plan Merging : Experimental results

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; Zutt, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of a plan merging algorithm. This algorithm coordinates the plans of multiple, autonomous agents, each able to independently find a plan. This algorithm is evaluated using realistic data from a taxi company. We show that when we allow passengers to be a few

  17. First results at GSI

    Bock, R.

    1977-01-01

    UNILAC, and accelerator for heavy ions up to uranium with energies up to 10 MeV/nucleon became operational January 1976. A report is given on results so far in various fields of heavy ion physics, in particular on search for new nuclides, deep-inelastic collisions, spectroscopy of high-spin states and some selected topics of atomic physics. (orig.) [de

  18. Communicating research results

    Jan Fryk

    1999-01-01

    A research finding is of little value until it is known and applied. Hence) communication of results should be regarded as a natural, integrated part of research) and thus addressed in the research plans from the very beginning. A clearly defined information strategy and operational goals for information activities are needed for successful communication. For maximum...

  19. Review of LEP results

    Parodi, F

    2001-01-01

    I present a review of the results obtained during 10 years of activity in b-physics at LEP. Special emphasis is put on measurements that attained precisions not even envisaged at the beginning of the LEP programme (V/sub ub/ and Delta m/sub s/). Finally the impact of these measurements on the CKM parameters determination is presented. (16 refs).

  20. [The applicability of results].

    Marín-León, I

    2015-11-01

    The ultimate aim of the critical reading of medical literature is to use the scientific advances in clinical practice or for innovation. This requires an evaluation of the applicability of the results of the studies that have been published, which begins with a clear understanding of these results. When the studies do not provide sufficient guarantees of rigor in design and analysis, the conditions necessary for the applicability of the results are not met; however, the fact that the results are reliable is not enough to make it worth trying to use their conclusions. This article explains how carrying out studies in experimental or artificial conditions often moves them away from the real conditions in which they claim to apply their conclusions. To evaluate this applicability, the article proposes evaluating a set of items that will enable the reader to determine the likelihood that the benefits and risks reported in the studies will yield the least uncertainty in the clinical arena where they aim to be applied. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutrino mass: Recent results

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Some recent developments in the experimental search for neutrino mass are discussed. Simpson and Hime report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the β decay of 3 H and 35 S. New data from Los Alamos on the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay give an upper limit of 13.5 eV at the 95% confidence level. This result is not consistent with the long-standing ITEP result of 26(5) eV within a ''model-independent'' range of 17 to 40 eV. It now appears that the electron neutrino is not sufficiently massive to close the universe by itself. 38 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Experimental results from Stripa

    Hood, M.

    1979-06-01

    The results indicate that the temperature fields in a rock mass containing geologic discontinuities can be predicted accurately using the simple theory of heat conduction. Geologic discontinuities appear to introduce significant nonlinear thermomechanical deformation into the rock mass, as a result of which the thermally induced displacements are much less than those predicted by the simple theory of thermo-elasticity. In addition, the assumption that the rock properties are temperature independent appears to increase the values predicted for these displacements significantly. Therefore, it is important that the temperature dependence of these properties is known and that these values be used in the calculations. The onset of significant thermal spalling along the walls of the heater boreholes appears to be related to conditions where the maximum induced compressive stress exceeds the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock. 7 figures

  3. Envirhom: stakes and results

    2006-01-01

    After a recall of the evolution of the international system for the protection against ionizing radiations, this report discusses the evolution of a new societal context (evolution of risk perception, concern about accidental situations). It also discusses the emerging scientific issues and challenges regarding the knowledge about biological and health effects of ionizing radiations, which requires investigations on the ecosystems, the effects of chronic low level exposures, and the propagation of effects at different biological levels (cells, tissue, individual, population, communities, and ecosystems). Then, it presents the IRSN environment-health research program, ENVIRHOM, its objectives, and its results concerning the environment on the one side, and health on the other side. The 'environment' side and the 'health' side of this program are then more precisely presented as well as their results

  4. Solar results purchasing

    Sanders, J.

    2001-01-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  5. Final NOMAD results on $\

    Astier, P.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, Barry J.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, Malcolm; Feldman, G.J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrere, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Gosset, J.; Gossling, C.; Gouanere, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kustov, D.; Kuznetsov, V.E.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakic, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubicic, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Mechain, X.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Meyer, J.P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S.R.; Moorhead, G.F.; Naumov, D.; Nedelec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L.S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipcevic, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G.N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.M.; Tovey, S.N.; Tran, M.T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K.E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F.V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F.F.; Winton, L.J.; Yabsley, Bruce D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; Krasnoperov, A V

    2001-01-01

    Results from the nu_tau appearance search in a neutrino beam using the full NOMAD data sample are reported. A new analysis unifies all the hadronic tau decays, significantly improving the overall sensitivity of the experiment to oscillations. The "blind analysis" of all topologies yields no evidence for an oscillation signal. In the two-family oscillation scenario, this sets a 90% C.L. allowed region in the sin^2(2theta)-Delta m^2 plane which includes sin^2(2theta)nu_tau oscillation hypothesis results in sin^2(2theta)<1.5 x 10^{-2} at large Delta m^2 and Delta m^2 < 5.9 eV^2/c^4 at sin^2(2theta)=1. We also derive limits on effective couplings of the tau lepton to nu_mu or nu_e.

  6. Results from LEP

    Pohl, M.

    1995-01-01

    Selected results from LEP on electroweak neutral currents and strong interactions are reviewed. In the first part, total cross sections, angular and polarization symmetries are interpreted in terms of basic electroweak parameters, like the mass, total and partial widths of the Z and neutral current couplings. Special attention is given to two apparent problems: the discrepancy between the measurements with final state vs. initial state polarization; and the deviation of the measured width of the Z into heavy quarks from Standard Model expectations. These discrepancies are not very significant, but they are the only ones observed at this point and thus deserve attention. In the second part, I outline results on final state strong interactions, namely measurements pertaining to differences between quark and gluon jets and the QCD group structure. (author) 19 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs

  7. EPA's radon study results

    Dowd, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Last winter, in cooperation with agencies in 10 states and two metropolitan area counties, EPA measured the indoor air radon concentrations of 14,000 houses, some chosen statistically at random and some by request of the homeowner. Passive measurement methodologies were used, such as exposing a charcoal canister to the air for a few days and allowing the air to migrate in to the charcoal naturally. To reduce dilution of radon by the outside air, the protocol required that the house be shut up; therefore, the study was conducted during winter. The measuring device was placed in the lowest livable area (usually the basement) of each house to maximize potential concentration. It should be noted that these procedures are generally considered to be screening tests because they result in a worst-case measurement rather than a best value. The results of these findings are presented

  8. Solar results purchasing

    Sanders, J.

    2001-07-01

    Solar Thermal water heating has made little market penetration in some European countries. The main barriers to market development are: Long payback periods for the technology; Difficulties for the end-user in meeting the initial capital costs of the installation; Lack of confidence in the delivered energy that can be expected from the technology. The third barrier has been addressed using the concept of Guaranteed Solar Results (GSR). This project has addressed the other two main barriers using the concept of Solar Results Purchasing, (SRP) which combines GSR with Third Party Financing. The work was carried out in the UK, France, and Spain. The project used a uniform approach across the three countries. Each team calculated solar performance using an English version of the SOLO programme developed by TECSOL in France to encode the methodology for GSR model contracts. (author)

  9. Results from SAGE

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Gavrin, V.N.; Girin, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. Beginning in September 1992, SAGE II data were taken with 55 tons of Ga and with significantly reduced backgrounds. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October 1993 is presented. The result of 69 ± 10 +5/-7 SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU

  10. Statistical mechanics rigorous results

    Ruelle, David

    1999-01-01

    This classic book marks the beginning of an era of vigorous mathematical progress in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Its treatment of the infinite system limit has not been superseded, and the discussion of thermodynamic functions and states remains basic for more recent work. The conceptual foundation provided by the Rigorous Results remains invaluable for the study of the spectacular developments of statistical mechanics in the second half of the 20th century.

  11. Recent results from JADE

    Nozaki, M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent results from JADE are reported. The JADE experiment is being carried out by a collaboration of DESY, Universities of Hamburg, Heidelburg, Lancaseter and Manchester, Rutherford Laboratory and University of Tokyo. It was proposed in 1976 and after 3 years construction, the JADE started data taking at the e/sup +/e/sup -/ colliding beam facility PETRA with a complete set of detector components in June 1979

  12. Assessing ultrasonic examination results

    Deutsch, V.; Vogt, M.

    1977-01-01

    Amongst nondestructive examination methods, the ultrasonic examination plays an important role. The reason why its scope of application is so wide is because the sound conducting capacity is the only property the material of a test specimen has to have. As the fields are so manifold, only main aspects can be described briefly. The list of references, however, is very extensive and gives plenty of information of all the problems concerning the assessment of ultrasonic examination results. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Recent results from LHCb

    Oblakowska-Mucha, A

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a single-arm forward spectrometer that collects data at the LHC. In this review, a few of recent results in the field of $b$-hadron decays performed by the LHCb Collaboration are presented. The analyses use proton-proton collision data corresponding to 3 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb detector during 2011 and 2012 physics runs with the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV.

  14. Pressure locking test results

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  15. Pressure locking test results

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

  16. Scientific results report 1980

    1981-01-01

    The report describes in concise form the research tasks and results of the work groups pulsed irradiation, reaction kinematics and insulators and plastics in the field of 'radiation chemistry' of the Hahn-Meitner Institute, Berlin. The main topic of investigation was the kinetics and dynamics of fast chemical processes, the setting-up of chemical reaction mechanisms and research of chemical physical properties of highly reactive species (radicals, ions, electrons). A list of publications and lectures as well as teaching contributions of the institute's scientists, diploma and doctor theses performed in the institute and guest lectures held there is also given. (RB) [de

  17. Recent CLEO Results

    Ecklund, Karl M.

    2004-01-01

    I report B physics results from the CLEO collaboration, highlighting measurements of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements vertical bar Vcb vertical bar and vertical bar Vub vertical bar. I report a recent measurement of vertical bar Vub vertical bar through study of the q2 dependence of B-bar → πlv-bar and B-bar → ρlv-bar. I also describe new measurements of the inclusive semileptonic branching fraction B(B-bar → Xev-bar) and of moments of the hadronic invariant mass spectrum in B-bar → Xlv-bar, with impact on vertical bar Vcb vertical bar

  18. New results from CERES

    Adamova, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V V; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S C; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holender, J M; Kushpil, V; Lenkeit, B C; Maas, A; Marin, A; Messer, F; Milosevic, J; Milov, A; Miskowiec, D; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O Yu; Petracek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schükraft, Jürgen; Sedykh, S N; Seipp, W; Shimansky, S S; Slivova, J; Specht, H J; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Windelband, B; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V I

    2002-01-01

    We will focus here on results from the 1999 data taking period, where 8 M Pb+Au events at 40 AGeV were recorded. Since the new readout system of the TPC was not yet properly working, this data set is limited in terms of statistics, and momentum resolution. Nevertheless, this data sample at lower beam energy allows to study initial conditions different from the ones at top SPS energy. This can be very useful to disentangle temperature and baryon density driven modifications of the dilepton spectrum. (15 refs).

  19. Latest results from JET

    Bickerton, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is a large tokamak designed with the essential objective of obtaining and studying plasmas with parameters close to those envisaged for an eventual power-generating, nuclear-fusion reactor. JET is situated on a site near Abingdon, Oxon, UK. JET is the largest single project of the nuclear fusion research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The tokamak started operation in mid 1983 after a five year construction period. The scientific and technical results achieved so far are summarised in this article. (orig.)

  20. Recent results from SPEAR

    Wacker, K.

    1983-09-01

    The first part of this talk is an experimental review of the properties of the THETA meson. Results or upper limits come from radiative j/psi decays and γγ scattering for the final states eta eta, ππ, K anti K and rho rho. In the second part, an upper limit is given for the production of low-mass particles in radiative J/psi decays. Constraints for the existence of low-mass gluonic and Higgs mesons are derived

  1. Results of railgun experiments

    Hawke, R.S.; Brooks, A.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.

    1983-04-01

    During the 1979 Megagauss II conference the hypervelocity potential of railguns and the pulsed power technology needed to power them were discussed. Since then, many laboratories have initiated railgun R and D projects for a variety of potential applications. Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories initiated a collaborative experimental railgun project which resulted in several successes in accelerating projectiles to high velocities, emphasized the limits on railgun operation, and indicated that the numerical modeling of railgun operation was in good agreement with the experiments

  2. Results from neutrino experiments

    Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1993-11-01

    Recent (first or/and the best) results from the neutrino experiments are reviewed and their implications for the theory are discussed. The sense of the experiments is the searching for neutrino masses, mixing and interactions beyond the standard model. Present laboratory experiments give upper bounds on the masses and the mixing which are at the level of predictions of the ''electroweak see-saw''. Positive indications of nonzero lepton mixing follow from studies of the solar and atmospheric neutrinos. (author). 95 refs, 11 figs

  3. Results from AMANDA

    Wiebusch, C; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Becka, T; Becker, K H; Bertrand, D; Bernadini, E; Binon, Freddy G; Biron, A; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Bouhali, O; Burgess, T; Carius, S; Castermans, T; Chen, A; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Cowen, D F; Davour, A; De Clercq, C; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Doksus, P; Ekstrom, P; Feser, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaug, M; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; Hauschildt, T; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hulth, P O; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Karle, A; Koci, B; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Kühn, K; Lamoureux, J I; Leich, H; Leuthold, M J; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Matis, H S; McParland, C P; Minaeva, Y; Minocinovic, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Neunhoffer, T; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ögelman, H B; Olbrechts, P; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pohl, A C; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Ross, D; Sander, H G; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schwarz, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Sudhoff, P; Sulanke, K H; Taboada, I; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Walck, C; Weinheimer, C; Wiebusch, C; Wiedemann, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Yodh, G B; Young, S

    2002-01-01

    The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a high- energy neutrino telescope operating at the geographic South Pole. It is a lattice of photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the polar ice. The primary goal of this detector is to discover astrophysical sources of high energy neutrinos. We describe the detector methods of operation and present results from the AMANDA-B10 prototype. We demonstrate the improved sensitivity of the current AMANDA-II detector. We conclude with an outlook to the envisioned sensitivity of the future IceCube detector. (37 refs).

  4. Results from PAMELA

    Mocchiutti, E.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.C.; Bazilevskaya, G.A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E.A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Borisov, S.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.

    2011-01-01

    The PAMELA satellite experiment was launched into low earth orbit on June 15th 2006. The combination of a permanent magnet silicon strip spectrometer and a silicon-tungsten imaging calorimeter allows precision studies of the charged cosmic radiation to be conducted over a wide energy range (100 MeV - several hundred GeV). A primary scientific goal is to search for dark matter particle annihilation by measuring the energy spectra of cosmic ray antiparticles. Latest results from the PAMELA experiment are presented with a particular focus on cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons.

  5. Overview of Tokamak Results

    Unterberg, Bernhard; Samm, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    An overview is given of recent results obtained in tokamak devices. We introduce basic confinement scenarios as L-mode, H-mode and plasmas with an internal transport barrier and discuss methods for profile control. Important findings in DT-experiments at JET as α-particle heating are described. Methods for power exhaust like plasma regimes with a radiating mantle and radiative divertor scenarios are discussed. The overall impact of plasma edge conditions on the general plasma performance in tokamaks is illustrated by describing the impact of wall conditions on confinement and the edge operational diagram of H-mode plasmas

  6. Recent CDF results

    Conway, J.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary results form the CDF detector, based on analysis of data collected in Run 1a and Run 1b at the Tevatron, totaling 110 pb - 1 integrated luminosity, place new limits on the masses and couplings of new particles including charged Higgs bosons, supersymmetric gauge particles and quarks, and new vector bosons. One of the observed events, having an e + e - pair, two photons, and large missing energy would not occur with significant rate in the Standard Model, leading to speculation regarding its origin and the possible existence of related events

  7. Recent BABAR Results

    Eigen, Gerald [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Physics

    2015-04-29

    We present herein the most recent BABAR results on direct CP asymmetry measurements in B → Xsγ, on partial branching fraction and CP asymmetry measurements in B → Xs+-, on a search for B → π/ηℓ+- decays, on a search for lepton number violation in B+ → X-+ℓ'+ modes and a study of B0 →ωω and B0 → ωφ decays.

  8. Spacelab Science Results Study

    Naumann, R. J.; Lundquist, C. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Horwitz, J. L.; Germany, G. A.; Cruise, J. F.; Lewis, M. L.; Murphy, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with OSTA-1 in November 1981 and ending with Neurolab in March 1998, a total of 36 Shuttle missions carried various Spacelab components such as the Spacelab module, pallet, instrument pointing system, or mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments carried out during these flights included astrophysics, solar physics, plasma physics, atmospheric science, Earth observations, and a wide range of microgravity experiments in life sciences, biotechnology, materials science, and fluid physics which includes combustion and critical point phenomena. In all, some 764 experiments were conducted by investigators from the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The purpose of this Spacelab Science Results Study is to document the contributions made in each of the major research areas by giving a brief synopsis of the more significant experiments and an extensive list of the publications that were produced. We have also endeavored to show how these results impacted the existing body of knowledge, where they have spawned new fields, and if appropriate, where the knowledge they produced has been applied.

  9. Results from TOTEM

    Eggert Karsten

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC is focussed on the measurement of the elastic proton-proton scattering, the total pp cross-section, and all kinds of diffractive phenomena. Detectors housed in “Roman Pots” which can be moved close to the outgoing proton beams allow to trigger on elastic and diffractive protons and to determine their parameters like the momentum loss and the transverse momentum transfer. In addition, charged particle detectors in the forward regions detect almost all inelastic events. Together with the CMS detector, a large solid angle is covered enabling precise studies of Min. Bias as well as Single Diffractive and Double Pomeron Interactions. The results will considerably help the interpretation of the Cosmic Ray Showers at highest energies and will give insight into the proton structure and the QCD theory of strong interactions. TOTEM measured the elastic pp- scattering over a large range of t (the squared momentum transfer from 10-3 – 4 GeV2. Noneof the considered models could yield a satisfactory fit over the complete range. However, the exponential slope at low |t|-values and the position of the diffractiveminimum are well within the extrapolation from lower energies. The total pp cross-section has been determined in different ways from the extrapolation of the elasticscattering to t=0 (optical point and the inelastic rate: (i From the elastic scattering using the optical theorem and the CMS, (ii luminosity independently, usingthe inelastic rate, elastic scattering and the optical theorem, (iiiρ independently, by using elastic scattering, inelastic rate and the CMS luminosity. The results for the total crosssection obtained from the different methods are in excellent agreement with each other. First studies of the data on diffractive phenomena havebeen performed by correlating the momentum loss of the forward protons with the topology of the particle flux. The data look very promising and further studies will

  10. EIGER characterization results

    Dinapoli, Roberto; Bergamaschi, Anna; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Horisberger, Roland; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Tinti, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    Characterization and performance measurements have been done on several EIGER detector systems, produced with chips coming from two different lots, both with a lab X-ray source and at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). Results on the detector calibration, electronic noise, threshold dispersion, minimum achievable energy threshold, maximum detectable incoming photon flux and maximum frame rate are presented. An EIGER module is constructed from a ∼4×8cm 2 monolithic silicon sensor bump-bonded to 2 ×4 readout chips and contains 0.5 Mpixel. The first EIGER 500 K systems have been produced and images taken with these detectors are shown. Modules can be tiled together to form large area detectors; both a 9 Mpixel and a 16 Mpixel systems are at present under development for the coherent small angle X-ray scattering and protein crystallography beamlines of the SLS

  11. EIGER characterization results

    Dinapoli, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.dinapoli@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bergamaschi, Anna; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Horisberger, Roland; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Radicci, Valeria [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); ESRF, 6 Rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Tinti, Gemma [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); ESRF, 6 Rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2013-12-11

    Characterization and performance measurements have been done on several EIGER detector systems, produced with chips coming from two different lots, both with a lab X-ray source and at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). Results on the detector calibration, electronic noise, threshold dispersion, minimum achievable energy threshold, maximum detectable incoming photon flux and maximum frame rate are presented. An EIGER module is constructed from a ∼4×8cm{sup 2} monolithic silicon sensor bump-bonded to 2 ×4 readout chips and contains 0.5 Mpixel. The first EIGER 500 K systems have been produced and images taken with these detectors are shown. Modules can be tiled together to form large area detectors; both a 9 Mpixel and a 16 Mpixel systems are at present under development for the coherent small angle X-ray scattering and protein crystallography beamlines of the SLS.

  12. Recent results from CMS

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    With the increase in center-of-mass energy, a new energy frontier has been opened by the Large Hadron Collider. More than 25 fb^-1 of proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=13 TeV have been delivered to both ATLAS and CMS experiments during 2016. This enormous dataset can be used to test the Standard Model in a complete new regime with tremendous precision and it has the potential to unveil new physics or set strong bounds on it. In this talk some of the most recent results made public by the CMS Collaboration will be presented. The focus will mainly be on searches for physics beyond the Standard Model, with particular emphasis on searches for dark matter candidates.

  13. Scientific results - report 1981

    1982-01-01

    During the year under report 1981, five working groups were active in the field of nuclear chemistry: neutron diffraction, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace element research in bio-medicine and geo-chemistry. The objectives of the R+D projects ranged from the more basic research to the development of technological processes. Nuclear inspection methodes that have already been developed (e.g. neutron diffraction, trace element analysis) have increasingly been used in an interdisciplinary way. Besides these R+D projects the project of increase of power of the BER II was pursued also in 1981, and further planning documents on the extension of the BER II have been established. The report informs about the most important results of the single sections. A list of the publications (with abstracts) and lectures, also by guest scientists, is attached. (RB) [de

  14. Payment by Results

    Brendan A. Rapple

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the public is demanding that it exercise more control over how tax dollars are spent in the educational sphere, with multitudes also canvassing that education become closely aligned to the marketplace's economic forces. In this paper I examine an historical precedent for such demands, i.e. the comprehensive 19th century system of accountability, "Payment by Results," which endured in English and Welsh elementary schools from 1862 until 1897. Particular emphasis is focused on the economic market-driven aspect of the system whereby every pupil was examined annually by an Inspector, the amount of the governmental grant being largely dependent on the answering. I argue that this was a narrow, restrictive system of educational accountability though one totally in keeping with the age's pervasive utilitarian belief in laissez-faire. I conclude by observing that this Victorian system might be suggestive to us today when calls for analogous schemes of educational accountability are shrill.

  15. Latest results from LUNA

    Depalo, Rosanna; LUNA Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the cross section of nuclear fusion reactions is a crucial ingredient in understanding stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. At stellar temperatures, fusion cross sections are extremely small and difficult to measure. Measuring nuclear cross sections at astrophysical energies is a challenge that triggered a huge amount of experimental work. A breakthrough in this direction was the first operation of an underground accelerator at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) in Gran Sasso, Italy. The 1400 meters of rocks above the laboratory act as a natural shield against cosmic radiation, suppressing the background by orders of magnitude. The latest results achieved at LUNA are discussed, with special emphasis on the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction. Future perspectives of the LUNA experiment are also illustrated.

  16. Overview of HERMES results

    Van Hulse Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The HERMES experiment has collected a wealth of deep-inelastic scattering data using the 27.6 GeV polarized lepton beam at HERA and various pure gas targets, both unpolarized and polarized. This allowed for a series of diverse and unique measurements. Among them are measurements that provide information on the threedimensional structure of the nucleon, both in momentum space and in position space. Results of measurements of exclusive ω production on an unpolarized and transversely polarized nucleon target, sensitive to the distribution in transverse-position and longitudinalmomentum space, are discussed as well as the three-dimensional extraction of azimuthal asymmetries measured in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, sensitive to twist-2 and twist-3 distributions in three-dimensional momentum space.

  17. Latest results from ALICE

    Scapparone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper selected results obtained by the ALICE experiment at the LHC will be presented. Data collected during the pp runs taken at sqrt(s)=0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and Pb-Pb runs at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV allowed interesting studies on the properties of the hadronic and nuclear matter: proton runs gave us the possibility to explore the ordinary matter at very high energy and up to very low pt, while Pb-Pb runs provided spectacular events where several thousands of particles produced in the interaction revealed how a very dense medium behaves, providing a deeper picture on the quark gluon plasma(QGP) chemical composition and dynamics.

  18. Recent Results from Phobos

    García, Edmundo; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.

    2007-02-01

    The PHOBOS detector is one of four heavy ion experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper we will review some of the results of PHOBOS from the data collected in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies up to 200 GeV. Evidence is found of the formation of a very high energy density and highly interactive system, which can not be described in terms of hadrons, and has a relatively low baryon density. There is evidence that the system formed is thermalized to a certain degree. Scaling with the number of participants and extended longitudinal scaling behavior are also observed in distributions of produced charged particles.

  19. Recent results from LHCf

    Menjo H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHCf experiment is one of the LHC forward experiments. The aim of LHCf is to provide critical calibration data of hadronic intraction models used in air shower simulations. The LHCf has completed the operations for p-p collisions with a collision energy of √s = 0.9 and 7 TeV p-p in 2010 and for p-Pb collisions with a collision energy per nucleon of √sNN = 5.02. The recent LHCf result of forward neutron energy spectra at 7 TeV p-p collision and forward π0 spectra at p-Pb collisions are presented in this paper.

  20. Results and discussion

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  1. Areva - 2011 Annual results

    Marie, Patricia; Briand, Pauline; Michaut, Maxime; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2012-01-01

    Areva's backlog established at 45.6 billion euros at the end of 2011, significantly increasing at the end of a year marked by the Fukushima accident, confirms the commercial dynamism of the group alongside its customers and reinforces the visibility on its future business level. In a difficult context, the slight decline in revenue in 2011 demonstrates the robustness of Areva's integrated model, resting mainly on recurring business generated in relation to Areva's customers' nuclear installed base, and benefiting from the development of Areva's renewable energies operations. Free operating cash flow before tax, although down over the whole year in 2011, improved in the second half, showing the first effects of Areva's stronger focus on cash generation and debt management. After the success of Areva's bond issue in September 2011, the Group's liquidity remains high at the end of 2011. The Areva teams are now dedicating all of their efforts to the deployment of the 'Action 2016' strategic action plan, which had already yielded its first positive results at the end of 2011, with an improvement in the cost structure of Areva's operations, an increase in order intake, and the launch of several disposals of minority interests. Summary of the 2011 financial results: - Backlog: euro 45.6 bn, +3.1% vs. 2010, i.e +6.7% over 3 months; - Revenue: euro 8.872 bn, i.e -2.6% vs. 2010; - Operating income: - euro 1.923 bn; - Net income attributable to equity owners of the parent: - euro 2.424 bn; - EBITDA: euro 1.068 bn ( euro 420 m excluding Siemens impact); - Free operating cash flow before tax: - euro 2.397 bn (- euro 1.366 bn excluding Siemens impacts), improvement over the second half; - Decrease in net debt of euro 124 m for the year; - Significant drop in general and administrative expenses, with a noticeable reduction between the first and the second half; - Launch of several disposals of minority interests

  2. Report on Results 2000

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report discusses work being carried out in Norway to promote energy efficiency and the production of new renewable energy. An overall review of the quantifiable results of last year's activities at national level is available. It will serve to initiate an annual reporting tradition. The report represents a step towards an ongoing process for improved targeting and management of national efforts. During the course of the year 2000, NVE has evaluated and adjusted its activities and established a system involving indicators and reporting procedures. It is also important to take notice of the long-term work being undertaken to influence people's attitudes, even though this work is difficult to assess. NVE is investing in i.a. measures aimed at children and young people. Apart from directly influencing future energy users, this investment is also having an effect due to the children's encouragement of their parents to engage in more energy and environment-friendly behaviour. Published in 2000, the IEA report ''Trends in Norwegian Stationary Energy Use'' shows that total Norwegian energy consumption per GDP is not much higher than in other IEA countries, when adjusted for cold climate and industrial structure. However, Norwegians do stand out as intensive users of electricity. The IEA report shows a reduction of 10 TWh in energy usage when compared to the projected post 1990 figures. Energy efficiency activities have contributed towards this reduction. However, the potential for a more rational use of energy in Norway is still substantial and well documented. Based on experience most enterprises could save around 10% of energy used just by making changes to their operations, i.e. without major investments. Furthermore, the potential is growing because of massive technological developments in respect of energy usage, production and distribution. With this in mind, it is necessary to take full advantage of the extensive knowledge

  3. URAT South Parallax Results

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Jao, Wei-Chun

    2018-04-01

    We present 916 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of newly discovered nearby stars from the United States Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT). Observations were taken at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory over a 2-year period from 2015 to 2017 October covering the entire sky south of about +25° decl. SPM4 and UCAC4 early epoch catalog data were added to extend the temporal coverage for the parallax and proper motion fit up to 48 years. Using these new URAT parallaxes, optical and near-IR photometry from the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey and Two Micron All-Sky Survey catalogs, we identify possible new nearby dwarfs, young stars, low-metallicity subdwarfs and white dwarfs. Comparison to known trigonometric parallaxes shows a high quality of the URAT-based results confirming the error in parallax of the URAT south parallaxes reported here to be between 2 and 13 mas. We also include additional 729 trigonometric parallaxes from the URAT north 25 pc sample published in Finch & Zacharias here after applying the same criterion as for the southern sample to have a complete URAT 25 pc sample presented in this paper.

  4. ESR teleradiology survey: results.

    2016-08-01

    With recent developments of teleradiology technology and services, it has become necessary to better evaluate its extent and use among different countries in Europe. With this goal in mind, the ESR launched two specific surveys intended to gather the current state of adoption and implementation of teleradiology in clinical practice. A special focus on differentiating between insourcing teleradiology services among partners of the same organisation and outsourcing to external services was an essential part of the design of these surveys. The first survey was addressed to 44 national societies of different countries in Europe, while the second survey was intended for all practicing radiologist ESR members. While the results of these surveys reported here may provide a wealth of information to better understand the trends in adoption of teleradiology in Europe, they only represent a snapshot at a certain point in time. The rapid development of telecommunication tools as well as a fundamental change in practice and healthcare economics will certainly influence these observations in the upcoming years. These data, however, will provide objective and relevant parameters for supporting the efforts of experts and policy makers in promoting appropriate criteria and guidelines for adequate use of teleradiology in clinical practice. Main Messages • Understand concepts and challenges of teleradiology • Provide insight into current trends and solutions for teleradiology • Compare differences in teleradiolgy strategies between countries in Europe • Establish a reference on statistical data of usage of teleradiology in Europe.

  5. [Maraviroc: clinical trials results].

    Chidiac, C; Katlama, C; Yeni, P

    2008-03-01

    Just over a decade after identification of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 as coreceptors for HIV, maraviroc (Celsentri), the first CCR5 antagonist, has recently obtained its Marketing Authorization in the United States and Europe, for treatment of treatment-experienced adult patients infected with only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 detectable. CCR5 antagonists, after fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide available since 2003, also belong to entry inhibitors. These molecules, unlike previous antiretrovirals, do not target the virus but its target cell by blocking viral penetration. Maraviroc has shown its clinical efficacy in patients failing other antiretroviral classes. Its safety profile was similar to placebo in two large phase III trials. However, careful assessment of both hepatic and immunologic safety of this new therapeutic class is needed. Viral tropism testing has to be investigated before using maraviroc in the clinic, because CCR5 antagonists are not active against CXCR4 viruses. For the moment indicated for the treatment-experienced patient population, maraviroc could in the future benefit to other types of patients, depending on ongoing trials results.

  6. COBE observations and results

    Smoot, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the COBE satellite mission. Nine years have passed since the launch of COBE and six years since the announcement of the discovery of cosmic microwave background anisotropies by the COBE DMR instrument. This is still a relatively short time to look back and understand the implications of COBE and the anisotropy discovery; however, this 3K Cosmology Conference provides some context. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has made a major contribution to the field of cosmology and has help create the confidence and high level of interest that propels the field today. Two major CMB observations, the thermal spectrum of the CMB and the CMB anisotropies, plus a host of other observations and conclusions are the basis and a major but not exclusive portion of the legacy of COBE. The recent detection and observation of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) are also part of COBE close-quote s major contribution to cosmology. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  7. esophageal cancer: preliminary results

    Afsaneh Maddah Safaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dysphagia is a common initial presentation in locally advanced esophageal cancer and negatively impacts patient quality of life and treatment compliance. To induce fast relief of dysphagia in patients with potentially operable esophageal cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy was applied prior to definitive radiochemotherapy. Material and methods : In this single arm phase II clinical trial between 2013 to 2014 twenty patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (17 squamous cell and 3 adenocarcinoma were treated with upfront 10 Gy HDR brachytherapy, followed by 50.4 Gy external beam radiotherapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. Results : Tumor response, as measured by endoscopy and/or computed tomography scan, revealed complete remission in 16 and partial response in 4 patients (overall response rate 100%. Improvement of dysphagia was induced by brachytherapy within a few days and maintained up to the end of treatment in 80% of patients. No differences in either response rate or dysphagia resolution were found between squamous cell and adenocarcinoma histology. The grade 2 and 3 acute pancytopenia or bicytopenia reported in 4 patients, while sub-acute adverse effects with painful ulceration was seen in five patients, occurring after a median of 2 months. A perforation developed in one patient during the procedure of brachytherapy that resolved successfully with immediate surgery. Conclusions : Brachytherapy before EBRT was a safe and effective procedure to induce rapid and durable relief from dysphagia, especially when combined with EBRT.

  8. Results from SNO

    Chan, Yuen-dat

    2001-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is an underground heavy water Cherenkov detector for studying solar neutrinos. SNO is capable of performing both flavor sensitive and flavor blind measurements of the solar neutrino flux. The first charged current (CC) measurement is found to be: ψ SNO CC (ν e ) = 1.75 ± 0.07(stat.) -0.11 +0.12 (sys.) ± 0.05 (theor.) x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 and the elastic scattering fluxes (ES) is: ψ SNO ES (ν x ) = 2.39 ± 0.34(stat.) -0.14 +0.16 (sys.) x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 . The ψ SNO CC (ν e ) result, when combined with the high statistics elastic scattering (ES) measurement from Super-Kamiokande, provide a strong evidence for solar neutrino flavor transformation (3.3σ). The deduced total solar neutrino flux is in good agreement with standard solar model predictions. No significant distortion in the energy spectrum is observed

  9. Results from VENUS

    Ogawa, K.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results from VENUS experiments on e + e - reactions at energies between 52 and 60.8 GeV are presented. The R-values, the ratio of the total hadronic cross section to that of μ pair production, look slightly high within the present energy region. To understand this observation, a detailed study was carried out on the production of a heavy quark with |Q|=e/3. By using a next-to-leading log. approximation, the QCD cut-off parameter, Λ MS , was obtained as being Λ MS =208 MeV(+80MeV, -62MeV). The differential cross sections for e + e - → e + e - , γγ, μ + μ - , and τ + τ - were found to be consistent with predictions of the standard model. The average charge asymmetry for e + e - → qq-bar was also measured and found to be consistent with the prediction of the standard model. No evidence was observed indicating new particle production. No single photon production was observed and the upper limit of the number of light neutrino types was set to be N ν < 17.8 (90 % CL). (author)

  10. Results from SNO

    Chan, Yuen-dat

    2001-10-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is an underground heavy water Cherenkov detector for studying solar neutrinos. SNO is capable of performing both flavor sensitive and flavor blind measurements of the solar neutrino flux. The first charged current (CC) measurement is found to be: {psi}{sub SNO}{sup CC}({nu}{sub e}) = 1.75 {+-} 0.07(stat.){sub -0.11}{sup +0.12}(sys.) {+-} 0.05 (theor.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the elastic scattering fluxes (ES) is: {psi}{sub SNO}{sup ES}({nu}{sub x}) = 2.39 {+-} 0.34(stat.){sub -0.14}{sup +0.16} (sys.) x 10{sup 6} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The {psi}{sub SNO}{sup CC}({nu}{sub e}) result, when combined with the high statistics elastic scattering (ES) measurement from Super-Kamiokande, provide a strong evidence for solar neutrino flavor transformation (3.3{sigma}). The deduced total solar neutrino flux is in good agreement with standard solar model predictions. No significant distortion in the energy spectrum is observed.

  11. Overview of MAGIC results

    Rico, Javier; MAGIC Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    MAGIC is a system of two 17-m diameter Cherenkov telescopes, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, in the Canary island La Palma (Spain). MAGIC performs astronomical observations of gamma-ray sources in the energy range between 50 GeV and 10 TeV. The first MAGIC telescope has been operating since 2004, and in 2009 the system was completed with the second one. During 2011 and 2012 the electronics for the readout system were fully upgraded, and the camera of the first telescope replaced. After that, no major hardware interventions are foreseen in the next years, and the experiment has undertaken a final period of steady astronomical observations. MAGIC studies particle acceleration in the most violent cosmic environments, such as active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, supernova remnants or binary systems. In addition, it addresses some fundamental questions of Physics, such as the origin of Galactic cosmic rays and the nature of dark matter. Moreover, by observing the gamma-ray emission from sources at cosmological distances, we measure the intensity and evolution of the extragalactic background radiation, and perform tests of Lorentz Invariance. In this paper I present the status and some of the latest results of the MAGIC gamma-ray telescopes.

  12. Results from LHCf Experiment

    Tricomi, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    The LHCf experiment has taken data in 2009 and 2010 p-p collisions at LHC at $\\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. The measurement of the forward neutral particle spectra produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC up to an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass system are of fundamental importance to calibrate the Monte Carlo models widely used in the high energy cosmic ray (HECR) field, up to an equivalent laboratory energy of the order of $10^{17}$ eV. In this paper the first results on the inclusive photon spectrum measured by LHCf is reported. Comparison of this spectrum with the model expectations show significant discrepancies, mainly in the high energy region. In addition, perspectives for future analyses as well as the program for the next data taking period, in particular the possibility to take data in p-Pb collisions, will be discussed.

  13. Climax granite test results

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-01-15

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) program, is carrying out in situ rock mechanics testing in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This summary addresses only those field data taken to date that address thermomechanical modeling for a hard-rock repository. The results to be discussed include thermal measurements in a heater test that was conducted from October 1977 through July 1978, and stress and displacement measurements made during and after excavation of the canister storage drift for the Spent Fuel Test (SFT) in the Climax granite. Associated laboratory and field measurements are summarized. The rock temperature for a given applied heat load at a point in time and space can be adequately modeled with simple analytic calculations involving superposition and integration of numerous point source solutions. The input, for locations beyond about a meter from the source, can be a constant thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The value of thermal conductivity required to match the field data is as much as 25% different from laboratory-measured values. Therefore, unless we come to understand the mechanisms for this difference, a simple in situ test will be required to obtain a value for final repository design. Some sensitivity calculations have shown that the temperature field is about ten times more sensitive to conductivity than to diffusivity under the test conditions. The orthogonal array was designed to detect anisotropy. After considering all error sources, anisotropic efforts in the thermal field were less than 5 to 10%.

  14. Areva: 2014 annual results

    Repaire, Philippine du

    2015-01-01

    The scale of the net loss for 2014 illustrates the twofold challenge confronting AREVA: continuing stagnation of the nuclear operations, lack of competitiveness and difficulties in managing the risks inherent in large projects. The group understands how serious this situation is. A comprehensive strategic review of operations was undertaken beginning in November 2014 and is being carried out without compromise. As a result, AREVA is now able to announce a solid transformation plan that sets a challenging but economically realistic course for its teams. First, AREVA will refocus on its core business: mastery of key nuclear processes essential to operators around the globe. This strategic redeployment will lead to the revision of certain goals, whether in the management of new reactor projects or in renewable energies. AREVA's objective is to achieve excellence as a high value-added supplier of products and services. Secondly, AREVA, whose resources had been marshaled to support a spurt of growth in nuclear power, must now adapt to new market realities and become competitive once again. The group's most urgent task is recovery and securing its future by immediately launching a far-reaching competitiveness plan founded on organizational simplification, quality of operations, and a completely revamped approach to managing risk in large projects. Last but not least, AREVA must ensure sustainable financing for its activities. A financing plan will be clarified before publication of the half-year financial statements. This document presents the key financial data of the group, its strategic road-map and its operating and financing plans

  15. PDX experimental results

    Meade, D.; Arunasalam, V.; Barnes, C.

    1981-01-01

    During the initial period of operation PDX has obtained the following results: (a) Production of macroscopically stable poloidal divertor configurations with dee, inverse-dee and single null plasma shapes. (b) Determined vertical positional instability growth rates for passively stabilized elongated dee-shaped plasmas with surface elongations from 1 to 1.4. (c) Production of Z approximately equal to 1 plasmas in a diverted dee configuration with confinement times approaching 80 ms for plasmas with Isub(p) approximately equal to 300 kA, Bsub(T)=17 kG, a=38 cm, q approximately equal to 3 and anti nsub(e) approximately equal to 4x10 13 cm -3 . (d) Extended the Ohmic heating regime to q approximately equal to 2 at nsub(e)R/Bsub(T) approximately equal to 10 15 cm -2 T -1 and q approximately equal to 3 at anti nsub(e)R/Bsub(T) approximately equal to 4.5x10 15 cm -2 T -1 . Neutral beam injection has extended anti nsub(e)R/Bsub(T) to approximately 6x10 15 cm -2 T -1 . (e) Initial neutral beam injection experiments with 1-2 MW injected perpendicularly have been used to study ion and electron heating with divertor control of density and impurities. (f) Divertor physics studies indicate that the divertor captures approximately 70% of the input power, while approximately 30% of the power is radiated. (g) Particle and energy flow onto the divertor neutralizer plate is in qualitative agreement with a simple sheath model. (author)

  16. AREVA annual results 2009

    2009-01-01

    AREVA expanded its backlog and increased its revenues compared with 2008, on strong installed base business and dynamic major projects, fostering growth in operating income of 240 million euros. As announced previously, Areva is implementing a financing plan suited to its objectives of profitable growth. The plan was implemented successfully in 2009, including the conclusion of an agreement, under very satisfactory terms, to sell its Transmission and Distribution business for 4 billion euros, asset sales for more than 1.5 billion euros, and successful bond issues of 3 billion euros. The plan will continue in 2010 with a capital increase, the completion of asset disposals and cost reduction and continued operational performance improvement programs. Areva bolstered its Renewable Energies business segment by supplementing its offshore wind power and biomass businesses with the acquisition of Ausra, a California-based leader in concentrated solar power technology. Despite the sale of T and D, Areva is maintaining its financial performance outlook for 2012: 12% average annual revenue growth to 12 billion euros in 2012, double digit operating margin and substantially positive free operating cash flow. Annual results 2009: - For the group as a whole, including Transmission and Distribution: Backlog: euros 49.4 bn (+2.5%), Revenues: euros 14 bn (+6.4%), Operating income: euros 501 m (+20.1%); - Nuclear and Renewable Energies perimeter: Backlog: euros 43.3 bn (+1.8%), Strong revenue growth: +5.4% to euros 8.5 bn, Operating income before provision for the Finnish project in the first half of 2009: euros 647 m, Operating income: euros 97 m, for a euros 240 m increase from 2008; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euros 552 m, i.e. euros 15.59 per share; - Net debt: euros 6,193 m; - Pro-forma net debt, including net cash to be received from the sale of T and D in 2010: euros 3,022 m; - Dividend of euros 7.06 per share to be proposed during the Annual

  17. Overview of MAST results

    Counsell, G.F.; Akers, R.J.; Appel, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    field. Early edge localized mode activity on MAST is associated with the formation of narrow filamentary structures following field lines in the edge. These filaments rotate toroidally with the edge plasma and, away from the X-points, accelerate radially outwards from the edge up to 20 cm. Studies of disruptions on MAST demonstrate a complex evolution of core energy loss and resultant divertor power loads, including phases where the target heat flux width is broadened by a factor of 8. Observations of energetic particle modes driven by super-Alfvenic beam ions provide support for a model for the non-linear evolution of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) forming Bernstein-Green-Krushal waves. The AE activity reduces to low levels with increasing β. Plasma start-up without a central solenoid and in a manner compatible with future large spherical tokamak (ST) devices has been demonstrated using breakdown at a quadrupole magnetic null. Closed flux surface plasmas with peak plasma currents up to 370 kA have been generated and sustained for 0.3 s. New error field correction coils have extended the operational space for low density plasmas and enabled scaling studies of error field induced locked mode formation in the ST

  18. Overview of MAST results

    Counsell, G.F.; Akers, R.J.; Appel, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    filamentary structures following field lines in the edge. These filaments rotate toroidally with the edge plasma and, away from the X-points, accelerate radially outwards from the edge up to 20cm. Studies of disruptions on MAST demonstrate a complex evolution of core energy loss and resultant divertor power loads, including phases where the target heat flux width is broadened by a factor 8. Observations of energetic particle modes driven by super-Alfvenic beam ions provide support for a model for the non-linear evolution of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (AE) forming BGK waves. AE activity reduces to low levels with increasing β. Plasma start-up without a central solenoid and in a manner compatible with future large ST devices has been demonstrated using breakdown at a quadrupole magnetic null. Closed flux surface plasmas with peak plasma currents up to 370 kA have been generated and sustained for 0.3s. New error field correction coils have extended the operational space for low density plasmas and enabled scaling studies of error field induced locked mode formation in the ST. (author)

  19. Promising pesticide results

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    of DDT in soil. Given its 'sticky' quality, DDT is difficult to isolate and treat in the solid matrix of soil. “Our ViroFlow Technology has been designed to overcome both these problems by using a chemical, not bacterial, agent and by separating DDT from the structure of the soil matrix, thereby making it vulnerable to decomposition,” said Barros. As a result of these findings, Virotec is conducting a series of tests in conjunction with the NSW EPA and Department of Primary Industries to examine ways its solution can be applied to treating DDT in soil.

  20. Result

    With reference to the detailed evaluation of bids submitted the following agencies has been selected to award the contract on L1 ( lowest bidder) basis. 1. M/s . CITO INFOTECH, Bengaluru ( for procurement of desktop computers). 2. M/s. MCCANNINFO SOLUTION, Mumbai ( for procurement of laptops computers)

  1. Result

    Tsinuel

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal deaths in general, early neonatal deaths in particular now represent two- third of infant deaths and one-third of under-five deaths worldwide. Therefore, improving newborn survival is a major priority in child health today. Negotiation of improved neonatal health care practice into the community ...

  2. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    -natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora. Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.

  3. LHC physics results and prospects

    Kono, Takanori; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This talk presents the latest results from LHC Run-2 as of May 2018 which include Standard Model measurements, Higgs boson properties and beyond Standard Model search results. The prospects for future LHC runs are also shown.

  4. Recent SUSY Results from CMS

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    We present a summary of the recent results of searches for supersymmetry conducted by the CMS experiment. Several searches are reported using complementary final states and methods. The results presented include searches for stops and sbottoms, production of charginos and neutralinos, and R-parity violating signatures. Several of them are the first results of their kind from CMS, while others increased the mass reach significantly over previously published results from the LHC.

  5. An overview of JET results

    Adams, J.M.; Alladio, F.; Altmann, H.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is given of experimental results obtained on JET during 1988, and in particular of results at high total power input into plasmas with various configurations. An account is given of the various interpretations of these results and some of the difficulties encountered are related. The progress is summarised in terms of the projected D-T performance. (author)

  6. Aesthetic rhinoplasty: Avoiding unfavourable results

    Kulwant S Bhangoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in plastic surgery. It is not surprising that a significant number of patients end up with unfavourable outcomes. Many of these unfavourable outcomes could be the result of poor judgment and wrong decision making. Most frequently, the unfavourable outcome is the result of errors in surgical technique. In this paper, unfavourable outcomes resulting from errors in surgical technique are discussed under the heading of each operative step. Poor placement of intra-nasal incision can result in internal valve obstruction. Bad columellar scars can result from errors during open rhinoplasty. Unfavourable results associated with skeletonisation are mentioned. Tip plasty, being the most difficult part of rhinoplasty, can result in lack of tip projection, asymmetry and deformities associated with placement of tip grafts. Over-resection of the lower lateral cartilages during tip plasty can also result in pinched nose, alar collapse causing external valve obstruction and other alar rim deformities. Humpectomy can result in open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and over-resection resulting in saddle nose. The so-called poly beak deformity is also a preventable unfavourable outcome when dealing with a large dorsal hump. Complications resulting from osteotomies include narrowing of nasal airway, open roof deformity, inverted V deformity and asymmetry of the bony wall resulting from incomplete or green stick fractures. Judicious use of grafts can be very rewarding. By the same token, grafts also carry with them the risk of complications. Allografts can result in recurrent infection, atrophy of the overlying skin and extrusion resulting in crippling deformities. Autografts are recommended by the author. Unfavourable results from autografts include displacement of graft, visibility of the graft edges, asymmetry, warping, and resorption.

  7. Solar neutrino results from SAGE

    Gavrin, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    The results of ten years of solar neutrino observation by the Russian-American gallium solar neutrino experiment (SAGE) are reported. The overall result of 70 runs during the measurement period from January 1990 to October 1999 is 75.4 -6.8 +7.0 (stat.) -3.0 +3.5 (syst) SNU. This represents only slightly more than half of the predicted standard solar model rate of 129 SNU. The individual results on each run, and the results of combined analysis of all runs during each year, as well as the results of combined analysis of all runs during monthly and bimonthly periods are presented

  8. Solar neutrino results from SAGE

    Gavrin, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of ten years of solar neutrino observation by the Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE). The overall result of 70 runs during the measurement period January 1990 to October 1999 is 75.4 + 7.0/-6.8 (stat.) +3.5/-3.0 (syst.) SNU. This represents only slightly more than half of the predicted standard solar model rate of 129 SNU. The individual results of each run, and the results of combined analysis of all runs during each year, as well as the results of combined analysis of all runs during monthly and bimonthly periods are presented

  9. CCTF CORE I test results

    Murao, Yoshio; Sudoh, Takashi; Akimoto, Hajime; Iguchi, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Kazuo; Hirano, Kenmei

    1982-07-01

    This report presents the results of the following CCTF CORE I tests conducted in FY. 1980. (1) Multi-dimensional effect test, (2) Evaluation model test, (3) FLECHT coupling test. On the first test, one-dimensional treatment of the core thermohydrodynamics was discussed. On the second and third tests, the test results were compared with the results calculated by the evaluation model codes and the results of the corresponding FLECHT-SET test (Run 2714B), respectively. The work was performed under contracts with the Atomic Energy Bureau of Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  10. New results from NA49

    Afanasiev, S V; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Behler, M; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Blyth, C O; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Carr, L; Cebra, D; Cerny, V; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferenc, D; Filip, P; Fischer, H G; Foder, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Lasiuk, B; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mischke, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Oldenburg, M; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Perl, K; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Poskanzer, A M; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Putschke, J; Reid, J G; Renfordt, A; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Snellings, R; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Voloshin, S A; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Xu, N; Yates, T A; Koo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J

    2002-01-01

    Recent results of the NA49 experiment are presented. These cover first results on pion and kaon production, HBT, and charge fluctuations from Pb+Pb reactions at 40 AGeV and their comparison to 158 AGeV beam energy. Furthermore a study on baryon number transfer in p+p, centrality selected p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions at 158 AGeV and new results on the system size dependence of kaon yields, including C+C and Si+Si data, are presented. Additionally, a first result on Lambda Lambda correlations is shown. (11 refs).

  11. Retirement Applicant Satisfaction Survey Results

    Social Security Administration — This dataset contains information about the Retirement Applicant Survey (RAS). The survey measured satisfaction results with the retirement application process. The...

  12. Recent physics results from LEP

    Augustin, J.E.

    1990-12-01

    The LEP machine operations, the recent observation of transverse beam polarization, and the luminosity measurements are summarized. The results obtained up to now on the tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model are reviewed. This includes the Z neutral boson excitation curve parameters in hadronic and leptonic modes, the forward-backward asymmetries of the leptons, the detection of the polarization of the taus, and the corresponding results on the number of light neutrinos, on the electroweak coupling constants and mixing angle, and on the top quark mass. Some hadronic physics results and QCD studies are reported. The results for particle searches, notably the Higgs boson are summarized

  13. Heavy ion results from ATLAS

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00241915; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings provide an overview of the new results obtained with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC, which are presented in the Quark Matter 2017 conference. These results are covered in twelve parallel talks, one flash talk and eleven posters, and they are grouped into five areas: initial state, jet quenching, quarkonium production, longitudinal flow dynamics, and collectivity in small systems.

  14. FORWARD PHYSICS AND BRAHMS RESULTS.

    DEBBE, R.; (FOR THE BRAHMS COLLABORATION)

    2005-02-03

    We report here the BRAHMS measurements of particle production in d+Au and p+p collisions at RHIC. The results presented here are compared to previous p+A measurements at lower energies in fixed target mode. Some preliminary results on abundances of identified particles at high rapidity are also presented.

  15. Possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D. (AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Ehksperimental' noj Morfologii)

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H/sup 3/-thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough investigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient.

  16. CDF results on B decays

    Skarha, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    The authors present recent CDF results on B lifetimes, B meson mass measurements, ratios of branching ratios, and rare decays. In addition, they present the first measurement of time-dependent B d mixing at CDF. Several results have been updated and a few new ones included since the workshop

  17. RESULTS, RESPONSIBILITY, FAULT AND CONTROL

    Evgeniy Stoyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the responsibility arising from the registered financial results. The analysis of this responsibility presupposes its evaluation and determination of the role of fault in the formation of negative results. The search for efficiency in this whole process is justified by the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the behavior of economic actors.

  18. First neutron results from SNS

    Leadbetter, A.J.; Abbley, D.; Bailey, I.F.

    1985-05-01

    The report summarises the analyses of the first neutron results on the pulsed spallation source SNS. The source parameters; aspects of the instrumentation; and experimental results particular to a given beamline; are all discussed. General conclusions based on these data, the detectors and the computing system, are also examined. (U.K.)

  19. Graphical presentation of participants' results

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The results obtained by 19 participating dosimetry systems are presented in this section. Section 3 of the preceding report, ''Evaluation of the Results of the First IAEA Coordinated Research Program on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring'', explains the format and conventions used for the graphical presentation. The system number appearing in the upper left hand corner of each page can be used to correlate the dosimeter design information found in Table 2 of the preceding report with the results. However, care should be used in drawing inferences from this correlation, since system performance depends on a number of factors other than detector selection and design characteristics. (orig.)

  20. Customer interruption cost and results

    Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  1. Solar neutrino results from SAGE

    Gavrin, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    We report the status of the Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE). The solar neutrino result for SAGE III, 20 runs during the measuring period May 1995 through December 1997, is 56.7 +9.3/-8.7(stat.)+4.6/-4.8(syst.) SNU. The combined result for 57 measurements from 1990 through 1997 (SAGE I+II+III) is 66.9 +7.1/-6.8 (stat) +5.4/-5.7 (syst) SNU. The final result of the SAGE 51 Cr experiment to check the response of SAGE to low energy neutrinos is also presented

  2. Cell emulation and preliminary results.

    2016-07-01

    This report details preliminary results of the testing plan implemented by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV battery cells ar...

  3. New results from old spectroscopy

    Hemingway, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented of some of the major experimental results during the last year in the field of old spectroscopy. Included are properties, quark model, multiplets, particle interactions, and cross sections. 34 references

  4. Electroweak results from the tevatron

    Wood, D.

    1997-01-01

    Electroweak results are presented from the CDF and DO experiments based on data collected in recent runs of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurements include the mass and width of the W boson, the production cross sections of the W and Z bosons, and the W charge asymmetry. Additional results come from studies of events with pairs of electroweak gauge bosons and include limits on anomalous couplings

  5. Electroweak results from the tevatron

    Wood, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Electroweak results are presented from the CDF and DO experiments based on data collected in recent runs of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurements include the mass and width of the W boson, the production cross sections of the W and Z bosons, and the W charge asymmetry. Additional results come from studies of events with pairs of electroweak gauge bosons and include limits on anomalous couplings.

  6. Consolidated results 2000. Forecasts 2001

    2001-01-01

    This document presents an economic analysis of the Group Gaz De France consolidated results for the year 2000. The main topics are the evolution of the energy market, the great economic growth for the five businesses of the Group (exploration-production, trade, transport, distribution and services), financial results affected by the supply costs increase, the position reinforcement among the gas leaders in Europe and the highlights of 2000. (A.L.B.)

  7. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J.W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Smoot, G.F.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Watson, C.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for some of these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different fr...

  8. Planck 2015 results: I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data...... and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The data products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact...... against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy...

  9. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    , and the science data products and papers in the release. Scientific results include robust support for the standard, six parameter LCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements for the parameters that define this model, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power......The ESA's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early universe, was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and submillimetre sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.......5 months of Planck operations, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper describes the mission and its performance, and gives an overview of the processing and analysis of the data, the characteristics of the data, the main scientific results...

  10. Automated, computer interpreted radioimmunoassay results

    Hill, J.C.; Nagle, C.E.; Dworkin, H.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Wetzel, R.; Sawyer, N.; Ferry, D.; Hershberger, D.

    1984-01-01

    90,000 Radioimmunoassay results have been interpreted and transcribed automatically using software developed for use on a Hewlett Packard Model 1000 mini-computer system with conventional dot matrix printers. The computer program correlates the results of a combination of assays, interprets them and prints a report ready for physician review and signature within minutes of completion of the assay. The authors designed and wrote a computer program to query their patient data base for radioassay laboratory results and to produce a computer generated interpretation of these results using an algorithm that produces normal and abnormal interpretives. Their laboratory assays 50,000 patient samples each year using 28 different radioassays. Of these 85% have been interpreted using our computer program. Allowances are made for drug and patient history and individualized reports are generated with regard to the patients age and sex. Finalization of reports is still subject to change by the nuclear physician at the time of final review. Automated, computerized interpretations have realized cost savings through reduced personnel and personnel time and provided uniformity of the interpretations among the five physicians. Prior to computerization of interpretations, all radioassay results had to be dictated and reviewed for signing by one of the resident or staff physicians. Turn around times for reports prior to the automated computer program generally were two to three days. Whereas, the computerized interpret system allows reports to generally be issued the day assays are completed

  11. Presentation of economic evaluation results.

    Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2014-05-01

    The first HTA guidelines for Thailand included a chapter outlining a set of guidelines on how best to report the findings of health economic evaluations, based on a review of best practice and existing guidelines on the presentation of economic evaluation results from around the world. In this second edition of HTA guidelines for Thailand, the recommendations build on the first edition by using a case study to illustrate how the guidelines can be applied in a real research context. The guidelines propose that all reporting include ten key elements: defining the scope of the study, selection of comparator(s), defining the type of economic evaluation, measurement of costs, measurement of clinical effects, handling time in economic evaluation studies, handling uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, presentation of the results, discussion of the results, and disclosure of funding and authors conflict of interest.

  12. Recent results from hadron colliders

    Frisch, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This is a summary of some of the many recent results from the CERN and Fermilab colliders, presented for an audience of nuclear, medium-energy, and elementary particle physicists. The topics are jets and QCD at very high energies, precision measurements of electroweak parameters, the remarkably heavy top quark, and new results on the detection of the large flux of B mesons produced at these machines. A summary and some comments on the bright prospects for the future of hadron colliders conclude the talk. 39 refs., 44 figs., 3 tabs

  13. First results from SAGE II

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76 -18 +21 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74 -12 +13 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  14. Impossibility results for distributed computing

    Attiya, Hagit

    2014-01-01

    To understand the power of distributed systems, it is necessary to understand their inherent limitations: what problems cannot be solved in particular systems, or without sufficient resources (such as time or space). This book presents key techniques for proving such impossibility results and applies them to a variety of different problems in a variety of different system models. Insights gained from these results are highlighted, aspects of a problem that make it difficult are isolated, features of an architecture that make it inadequate for solving certain problems efficiently are identified

  15. Turning Science Results into News

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Do you want to get into the New York Times? Aside from writing an angry letter or robbing a bank, getting into the news (with your science result) requires a well-crafted press release. Reaching out to reporters is very different from reaching out to fellow scientists. Scientific significance is not the same as newsworthiness, but many science results can be molded into interesting stories that reporters can relate to their audience. This presentation will present examples of science stories that made it big and some that flopped. We will also examine what makes a story attractive to newspaper and magazine editors.

  16. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    Layton, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  17. Experimental results surprise quantum theory

    White, C.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in results from Darmstadt that positron-electron pairs are created in nuclei with high atomic numbers (in the Z range from 180-188) lies in the occurrence of a quantized positron kinetic energy peak at 300. The results lend substance to the contention of Erich Bagge that the traditionally accepted symmetries in positron-electron emission do not exist and, therefore, there is no need to posit the existence of the neutrino. The search is on for the decay of a previously unknown boson to account for the findings, which also points to the need for a major revision in quantum theory. 1 figure

  18. First results from SAGE II

    Aburashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Gusev, A.O.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shalagin, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Nico, J.S.; Teasdale, W.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.; Daily, T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Wildenhain, P.W.; Elliott, S.R.; Cherry, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76 +21 -18 (stat) +5 -7 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74 +13 -12 (stat) +5 -7 (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  20. Recent Results from the Tevatron

    Demorden, L.

    1998-06-01

    We review recent results from fixed-target and collider experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron. Among the topics discussed are jet production rates, α S measurements, the anti d/anti u ratio in the proton sea, diffraction, heavy quark physics and leptoquark searches

  1. New ATLAS Higgs physics results

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    New Higgs physics results from the ATLAS experiment using the full Run-1 LHC dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 25 fb-1, of proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV and 8 TeV, will be presented.

  2. FFTF startup: status and results

    Noordhoff, B.H.; Moore, C.E.

    1980-03-01

    Startup testing on the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) during the past three years has progressed beyond initial criticality toward the principal goal of power demonstration in 1980. An overview is presented of technical results to date and project plans to achieve power demonstration and complete the startup test program

  3. Recent results on howard's algorithm

    Miltersen, P.B.

    2012-01-01

    is generally recognized as fast in practice, until recently, its worst case time complexity was poorly understood. However, a surge of results since 2009 has led us to a much more satisfactory understanding of the worst case time complexity of the algorithm in the various settings in which it applies...

  4. Latest results from EXO-200

    TOSI, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) is an experimental program searching for neutrino-less double beta decay in xenon-136. The first stage of this program, EXO-200, has been in operation since early 2011. I present here the latest physics results from the experiment.

  5. LHCb time-dependent results

    Calvi, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review reports preliminary results of time-dependent measurements of decays of $B^0$ mesons and $B^0_s$ mesons coming from the analysis of about 36 pb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment during the 2010 run of the Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV.

  6. LHCb time-dependent results

    Calvi, Marta; Collaboration, for the LHCb

    2011-01-01

    This review reports preliminary results of time-dependent measurements of decays of B^0 mesons and B^0_s mesons coming from the analysis of about 36 pb^-1 of data collected by the LHCb experiment during the 2010 run of the Large Hadron Collider at sqrt(s)=7 TeV.

  7. Report of scientific results 1977

    1977-01-01

    The scientific progress report of the HMI for 1977 gives a survey of the main results of HMI research in the fields of neutron scattering, radiation damage in solids, reactor chemistry, trace element research in biomedicine, geochemistry, reactor operation, and radionuclide production. After this, short summaries are given of HMI publications and papers in the above fields. (HK) [de

  8. STANFORD (SLAC): Precision electroweak result

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Precision testing of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model has intensified with the recent publication* of results from the SLD collaboration's 1993 run on the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC. Using a highly polarized electron beam colliding with an unpolarized positron beam, SLD physicists measured the left-right asymmetry at the Z boson resonance with dramatically improved accuracy over 1992

  9. HADES results in elementary reactions

    Ramstein B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results obtained with the HADES experimental set-up at GSI are presented with a focus on dielectron production and strangeness in pp and quasi-free np reactions. Perspectives related to the very recent experiment using the pion beam at GSI are also discussed.

  10. Latest results from B factories

    Ben Haim, Eli

    2015-01-01

    I will briefly review recent results from Babar and Belle. For example, I will discuss probes for new physics in radiative penguin decays and the CP asymmetry in B0-B0bar mixing. I will also discuss direct searches for new physics, such as a light Higgs resonance or long lived particles.

  11. Electroweak results from hadron colliders

    Demarteau, Marcel

    1997-01-01

    A review of recent electroweak results from hadron colliders is given. Properties of the W ± and Z 0 gauge bosons using final states containing electrons and muons based on large integrated luminosities are presented. The emphasis is placed on the measurement of the mass of the W boson and the measurement of trilinear gauge boson couplings

  12. Juridical utilization of dosimetric results

    Hebert, J.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of the legal use of the results of dosimetry, for the solution of an action for instance, are considered first with respect to civil and occasionally administrative third part liability law making a distinction between common law and the special regime of civil liability for nuclear damage, secondly with respect to social security law [fr

  13. Recent results from DORIS II

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into γγ physics. 18 refs., 10 figs

  14. CMS results on soft diffraction

    INSPIRE-00086121

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of soft single- and double-diffractive cross sections, as well as of forward rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV at the LHC, and compare the results to other measurements and to theoretical predictions implemented in various Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    Borrel, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  16. Complexity Results in Epistemic Planning

    Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm; Schwarzentruber, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Epistemic planning is a very expressive framework that extends automated planning by the incorporation of dynamic epistemic logic (DEL). We provide complexity results on the plan existence problem for multi-agent planning tasks, focusing on purely epistemic actions with propositional preconditions...

  17. Stability of Global Geodetic Results

    Herring, T.

    The precision of global geodetic techniques has reached unprecedented levels. Sys- tems capable of millimeter level horizontal and several millimeter vertical precisions are now deployed. The Global Positioning System (GPS) has the most deployed continuously-operating receivers with several hundred providing data through the in- ternet for analysis. However, the satellite system used with GPS evolves with time as new generations of GPS satellites are launched. During the 1990's, the constellation evolved from Block I to Block II and IIA with the most recent generation being Block IIR. There are considerable differences in the size and antenna configurations in the different generations of satellites. The antenna configuration specifically could cause systematic changes in the terrestrial reference system. Results from the ITRF2000 combinations suggest that there are significant time variations in the scale of GPS system possibly due to phase center variations in GPS transmission antennas. These variations could result in height changes of up to 3 mm/yr. We will investigate the stability of the GPS system through combination of GPS results with results from VLBI and SLR. All components of the transformation between the systems, rotation, translation and scale will be investigated.

  18. Recent results in strangeonium spectroscopy

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Bienz, T.

    1988-10-01

    Data from exclusive s/bar s/ meson final states are shown. The data were obtained in a 4.1 ev/nb exposure of K - p interactions at 11 GeV/c in the LASS spectrometer at SLAC. The results from the analyses of these data is presented and the spectrum of strangeonium states is discussed. 8 refs., 8 figs

  19. Inheritance of resistance to sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in an interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus and Helianthus debilis subsp. tardiflorus

    Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) constrains sunflower cultivation in increasing areas of Europe and Asia. Populations classified as race G that overcome all known resistance genes have recently appeared. The objective of this research was to study the inheritance of resistance to broomr...

  20. New results from cosmic rays

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1980-07-01

    Behavior of elementary particles at very high energies and new phenomena observed are discussed in the light of results obtained by cosmic ray studies. Methods of determining hadron-nucleus inelastic cross-sections are described. Proton energy spectra are studied at 2000-50,000 GeV and the hadron-proton total cross section is deduced. Measurement of the cross-section by measurement of the intensity of transition radiation is described. The instrumental effects and the corrections effected are mentioned. The results obtained by different groups of investigators are compared. Observations on the scaling violation at high energies are reported. New particles or phenomena observed include: (i) the long flying component (ii) centauro events, (iii) delayed particles (iv) high energy cascades in underground experiments and (v) charm hadron production in hadron collisions. New experiments being planned for further research are mentioned.

  1. First Physics Results from ALICE

    Peressounko, Dmitri; Castillo Castellanos, Javier; Belikov, Iouri

    2010-01-01

    ALICE is the LHC experiment dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The main purpose of ALICE is to investigate the properties of a state of deconfined nuclear matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma. Heavy flavour measurements will play a crucial role in this investigation. The physics programme of ALICE has started by studying proton-proton collisions at unprecedented high energies. We will present the first results on open heavy flavour and quarkonia in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at both mid- and forward-rapidities. We will conclude with the prospects for heavy flavour and quarkonium measurements in both proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Also presented are first results of neutral meson reconstruction and its perspectives, as well as further physics studies. (author)

  2. Summary of CCTF test results

    Iguchi, T.; Murao, Y.; Sugimoto, J.; Akimoto, H.; Okubo, T.; Hojo, T.

    1987-01-01

    Conservatism of current safety analysis was assessed by comparing the predicted result with cylindrical core test facility (CCTF) test result performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. WREM code was selected for the assessment. The overall conservatism of the WREM code on the peak clad temperature prediction was confirmed against CCTF evaluation model (EM) test which simulated the typical initial and boundary conditions in the safety evaluation analysis. WREM code predicted the reasonable core boundary conditions and the conservatism of the code came mainly from core calculation. The conservatism of the WREM code against CCTF data could be attributed to the following three points: (1) no horizontal mixing assumption between subchannels at each elevation; (2) no modeling on heat transfer enhancement caused by the radial core power profile; and (3) conservative heat transfer correlations in the code

  3. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    Layton, Mark [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Building 705-1C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  4. PREVAIL: latest electron optics results

    Pfeiffer, Hans C.; Golladay, Steven D.; Gordon, Michael S.; Kendall, Rodney A.; Lieberman, Jon E.; Rockrohr, James D.; Stickel, Werner; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kazuya; Umemoto, Takaaki; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Kojima, Shinichi; Hamashima, Muneki

    2002-07-01

    The PREVAIL electron optics subsystem developed by IBM has been installed at Nikon's facility in Kumagaya, Japan, for integration into the Nikon commercial EPL stepper. The cornerstone of the electron optics design is the Curvilinear Variable Axis Lens (CVAL) technique originally demonstrated with a proof of concept system. This paper presents the latest experimental results obtained with the electron optical subsystem at Nikon's facility. The results include micrographs illustrating proper CVAL operation through the spatial resolution achieved over the entire optical field of view. They also include data on the most critical issue of the EPL exposure approach: subfield stitching. The methodology of distortion correction will be described and both micrographs and metrology data of stitched subfields will be presented. This paper represents a progress report of the IBM/Nikon alliance activity on EPL.

  5. CMS results on multijet correlations

    INSPIRE-00008500

    2015-04-10

    We present recent measurements of multijet correlations using forward and low-$p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ jets performed by the CMS collaboration at the LHC collider. In pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV, azimuthal correlations in dijets separated in rapidity by up to 9.4 units were measured. The results are compared to BFKL- and DGLAP-based Monte Carlo generator and analytic predictions. In pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV, cross sections for jets with $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ > 21 GeV and |y| 1 GeV (minijets) are presented. The minijet results are sensitive to the bound imposed by the total inelastic cross section, and are compared to various models for taming the growth of the $2 \\rightarrow 2$ cross section at low $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$.

  6. Forget about data, deliver results

    Walter, Roland

    2015-12-01

    High-energy astrophysics space missions have pioneered and demonstrated the power of legacy data sets for generating new discoveries, especially when analysed in ways original researchers could not have anticipated. The only way to ensure that the data of present observatories can be effectively used in the future is to allow users to perform on-the-fly data analysis to produce straightforwardly scientific results for any sky position, time and energy intervals without requiring mission specific software or detailed instrumental knowledge. Providing a straightforward interface to complex data and data analysis makes the data and the process of generating science results available to the public and higher education and promotes the visibility of the investment in science to the society. This is a fundamental step to transmit the values of science and to evolve towards a knowledge society.

  7. Analytical results for Abelian projection

    Ogilivie, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    Analytic methods for Abelian projection are developed, and a number of results related to string tension measurements are obtained. It is proven that even without gauge fixing, Abelian projection yields string tensions of the underlying non-Abelian theory. Strong arguments are given for similar results in the case where gauge fixing is employed. The subgroup used for projection need only contain the center of the gauge group, and need not be Abelian. While gauge fixing is shown to be in principle unnecessary for the success of Abelian projection, it is computationally advantageous for the same reasons that improved operators, e.g., the use of fat links, are advantageous in Wilson loop measurements

  8. Marshland study brings fruitful results

    1978-03-01

    There are approximately 110,000 square kilometers of marshland in China containing peat and other valuable resources. The results of a marshland study have been presented as a chapter in a book titled Physical Geography of China. In 1970, the Kirin Normal University established an experimental plant for the utilization of peat. Four kinds of peat fertilizers produced by this plant have been used with good results at 20 communes in Kirin Province. Four kinds of construction materials (peat board, peat tiles, peat insulation bricks and peat insulation tubes) were also successfully made. A certain type of peat can be used as fuel to heat malt in the process of whiskey making. New applications of peat have been found in medicine, water purification, and in the manufacturing of electrodes for condensers.

  9. Results on light quark spectroscopy

    Bienlein, J.K.; Harjes, J.; Kolanoski, H.

    1991-12-01

    This report contains a survey article of resonance production by the Crystal Ball Collaboration from J. K. Bienlein, an article on CELLO results for γγΠ*p* +- - from J. Harjes, a survey article on the production of scalar and tensor mesons in two-photon collisions, and an article on the study of the a 1 resonance by τ decays, the last two articles are both from H. Kolanoski. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  10. Interatom results for stage 2

    Coors, D.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the Interatom results for Stage 2 of the ''IWGFR Programme on Intercomparison of LMFBR Core Mechanics Codes'' which was agreed upon on a Consultants Meeting in Vienna, 8-10 December, 1987. The calculations were performed with the 3D core mechanics code system DDT developed at Interatom and with the 2D core mechanics code FIAT. (author). 5 refs, 11 figs, 8 tabs

  11. Supersymmetry results at the Tevatron

    Badaud, Frederique

    2007-01-01

    The results for searches for Supersymmetry by the CDF and D0 collaborations in pp-bar collisions at √s=1.96 TeV are presented here. Searches for chargino/neutralino and the lightest stop, as well as scenarios with R-parity violation are focused here. The integrated luminosity analyzed ranges from 300 to 800 pb -1 depending on the search. Further informations can be found on the public web pages of the two experiments. (author)

  12. Recent results from Daya Bay

    Chua Ming-chung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  13. Recent DIII-D results

    Petersen, P.I.

    1994-07-01

    This paper summarizes the recent DIII-D experimental results and the development of the relevant hardware systems. The DIII-D program focuses on divertor solutions for next generation tokamaks such as International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), and on developing configurations with enhanced confinement and stability properties that will lead to a more compact and economical fusion reactor. The DIII-D program carries out this research in an integrated fashion

  14. Results from the FDIRC prototype

    Roberts, D.A., E-mail: roberts@umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Arnaud, N. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Dey, B. [University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Borsato, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Leith, D.W.G.S.; Nishimura, K.; Ratcliff, B.N. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States); Varner, G. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Va’vra, J. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). This detector was designed as a prototype of the particle identification system for the SuperB experiment, and comprises 1/12 of the SuperB barrel azimuthal coverage with partial electronics implementation. The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking with an angular resolution of ∼1.5 mrad, track position resolution of 5–6 mm, start time resolution of 70 ps, and a muon low-energy cutoff of ∼2 GeV provided by an iron range stack. The quartz focusing photon camera couples to a full-size BaBar DIRC bar box and is read out by 12 Hamamatsu H8500 MaPMTs providing 768 pixels. We used IRS2 waveform digitizing electronics to read out the MaPMTs. We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that the new optics design works very well, including: (a) single photon Cherenkov angle resolutions with and without chromatic corrections, (b) S/N ratio between the Cherenkov peak and background, which consists primarily of ambiguities in possible photon paths to a given pixel, (c) dTOP=TOP{sub measured}–TOP{sub expected} resolutions, and (d) performance of the detector in the presence of high-rate backgrounds. We also describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance. - Highlights: • We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). • The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking. • We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that new optics design works very well. • We describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance.

  15. Results of recent LOFT experiments

    Leach, L.P.; Hanson, D.J.; Batt, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Five experiments were performed in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility during the past year. The experiments conducted spanned a wide range of potential accident scenarios, including large and small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), control rod withdrawal accidents, uncontrolled boron dilution, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). This summary describes these experiments and presents results available from the experiments and experiment prediction calculations. A brief overview is given for the remaining experiment planned in the LOFT Program

  16. CMS results on hard diffraction

    INSPIRE-00107098

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings we present CMS results on hard diffraction. Diffractive dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV is discussed. The cross section for dijet production is presented as a function of $\\tilde{\\xi}$, representing the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The observation of W and Z boson production in events with a large pseudo-rapidity gap is also presented.

  17. First half 2006 financial results

    2006-09-01

    Areva provides technological solutions for highly reliable nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group is the world leader in nuclear power and the only company to cover all industrial activities in this field. This Press release presents the first half 2006 financial results: the overall performance and the performance by division (front end, reactors and services, back end, transmission and distribution). (A.L.B.)

  18. LHC Results Highlights (CLASHEP 2013)

    Gonzalez, O.

    2015-05-22

    The good performance of the LHC provided enough data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV to allow the experiments to perform very competitive measurements and to expand the knowledge about the fundamental interaction far beyond that from previous colliders. This report summarizes the highlights of the results obtained with these data samples by the four large experiments, covering all the topics of the physics program and focusing on those exploiting the possibilities of the LHC.

  19. Energy conservation. Ambitions and results

    2011-01-01

    From results of monitoring it is shown that energy conservation in the Netherlands is behind the ambitions of the Dutch government. The Dutch Court of Audit examined the reasons why energy conservation targets are not met and what the consequences are for the national and European energy and climate goals for 2020. Also the Dutch Court of Audit looked at the possibilities to make energy saving policies more effective. [nl

  20. Presentation of RTE results 2003

    2004-01-01

    For RTE, the financial year 2003 was marked by a number of achievements: our financial performances registered a clear improvement, above objectives, with turnover growing strongly; net income reached levels almost three times higher than those recorded in 2002; the economic rate of return rose to 7.1%; and debt was reduced by 470 Meuros. These results are explained by the substantial improvement in productivity, which has risen by 5% per year on average over the last three years

  1. SPQR - Spectroscopy: Prospects, Questions & Results

    Pennington, M. R.

    2014-06-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in mapping out the spectrum of hadrons over the past decade with plans to make further advances in the decade ahead. Baryons and mesons, both expected and unexpected, have been found, the results of precision experiments often with polarized beams, polarized targets and sometimes polarization of the final states. All these hadrons generate poles in the complex energy plane that are consequences of the strong coupling regime of QCD. They reveal how this works.

  2. Audit result and its users

    Shalimova Nataliya S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies essence of the “audit result” and “users of audit result” notions and characteristics of the key audit results user. It shows that in order to give a wide characteristic of users it is expedient to unite all objects, which could be used (audit report, fact of refusal to conduct audit and information that is submitted to managers in the process of audit with the term “audit result” and classify it depending on the terms of submission by final and intermediate result. The article offers to define audit results user as a person, persons or category of persons for whom the auditor prepares the audit report and, in cases, envisaged by international standards of the audit and domestic legislative and regulatory acts, provides other additional information concerning audit issues. In order to identify the key audit results user the article distributes all audit tasks into two groups depending on possibilities of identification of users. The article proves that the key user should be identified especially in cases of a mandatory audit and this process should go in interconnection with the mechanism of allocation of a key user of financial reports. It offers to consider external users with direct financial interests, who cannot request economic subjects directly to provide information and who should rely on general financial reports and audit report when receiving significant portion of information they need, as the key user. The article makes proposals on specification of the categorical mechanism in the sphere of audit, which are the basis for audit quality assessment, identification of possibilities and conditions of appearance of the necessary and sufficient trust to the auditor opinion.

  3. Analysis of Benchmark 2 results

    Bacha, F.; Lefievre, B.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.

    1994-01-01

    The code GEANT315 has been compared to different codes in two benchmarks. We analyze its performances through our results, especially in the thick target case. In spite of gaps in nucleus-nucleus interaction theories at intermediate energies, benchmarks allow possible improvements of physical models used in our codes. Thereafter, a scheme of radioactive waste burning system is studied. (authors). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. Physics results from polarized DIS

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-01-01

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections

  5. Physics results from polarized DIS.

    Ramsey, G. P.

    1998-03-23

    We have extracted polarized nucleon distributions from recent data at CERN, SLAC and DESY. The flavor-dependent valence and sea quark spin distributions are determined for each experiment. We take into account possible differences in the up and down sea distributions, and assume that the strange sea contribution is suppressed by mass effects. Physics results determined from different experiments are compared, including higher order corrections.

  6. Result-Based Public Governance

    Boll, Karen

    Within the public sector, many institutions are either steered by governance by targets or result-based governance. The former sets up quantitative internal production targets, while the latter advocates that production is planned according to outcomes which are defined as institution-produced ef......Within the public sector, many institutions are either steered by governance by targets or result-based governance. The former sets up quantitative internal production targets, while the latter advocates that production is planned according to outcomes which are defined as institution......-produced effects on individuals or businesses in society; effects which are often produced by ‘nudging’ the citizenry in a certain direction. With point of departure in these two governance-systems, the paper explores a case of controversial inspection of businesses’ negative VAT accounts and it describes...... explores how and why this state of affairs appears and problematizes the widespread use of result-based governance and nudging-techniques by public sector institutions....

  7. Presentation of the results 97

    1998-01-01

    Gaz de France (GDF) presents in a press kit the main results achieved in 1997. The European community has formulated a project of definition of rules concerning the natural gas market. Minima values for annual consumptions have been defined and the consumption and use of natural gas in EC countries is described. The financial results of GDF in 1997 are compared with previous years. Net sales grew by nearly 1 billion french francs to reach 55 billion. Overall sales were down by 4% but the share of natural gas in french energy consumption increased and sales to industrial users went up in particular due to new cogeneration plants installed in 1996. A comparison of gas prices in Europe is given for the years 1985 to 1998. The efforts of GDF to offer increased quality of services concerning in particular safety aspects as checking programs and installation of new safeguard appliances are described. The efforts of GDF to increase the energy market share of natural gas resulted in the development of new products like cogeneration, air conditioning and fuels for automotive needs. (C.B.)

  8. Presentation of RTE results 2003

    2003-01-01

    In 2003, RTE recorded a clear improvement in its financial results, and continued its debt reduction programme. The financial year 2003 was marked by a clear improvement in RTE's financial performance: results exceeded objectives, with turnover growing strongly, net income reached levels almost three times higher than those recorded in 2002, the economic rate of return rose to 7.1%, and debt was reduced by 470 Meuros. These results are explained by the substantial improvement in productivity, which has risen by 5% per year on average over the last three years. Net income has almost tripled due to RTE's improved productivity completed by a significant rise in its turnover and stabilizing operating costs RTE's finances therefore remain healthy, enabling the company to continue its debt reduction programme. Satisfactory economic and financial rates of return. Deadlines facing RTE in 2004: in application of the second European Directive, adopted on 26 June 2003, RTE faces two major deadlines in 2004: - the implementation of the 2. phase in the process of opening up the French electricity market, - its legal independence. On 1 July 2004, the market will be opened up to competition for all professional customers. At that date RTE, like all other electricity transmission system operators (TSOs) in the European Union, should be a legally independent body. The new central role of TSOs in Europe: how are electricity transmission system operators in other EU countries organised?

  9. Results Evaluation in Reduction Rhinoplasty

    Arima, Lisandra Megumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Final results evaluation after rhinoplasty is a not a topic widely studied from the patient's viewpoint. Objective:Evaluate the satisfaction of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty, from the questionnaire Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE. Method: Longitudinal study, retrospective cut type, of the preoperative and postoperative satisfaction. The sample was composed by 28 patients who were submitted to rhinoplasty and answered the ROE questionnaire. Three variables were obtained: satisfaction note that the patient had with his/her image before the surgery; note of satisfaction with the current appearance; the difference of the average satisfaction notes between postoperative and preoperative approaches. Results: The postoperative note was higher than the preoperative in all patients. We noticed a difference between the average of the postoperative and preoperative of 48.3 (p75 considered to be an excellent outcome (67.9%. Conclusions: The ROE questionnaire is a helpful tool to show the satisfaction of the patient submitted to reduction rhinoplasty. About 92% of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty consider the postoperative result to be good or excellent.

  10. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Chluba, J.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P.R.M.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Genova-Santos, R.T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Grainge, K.J.B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Ilic, S.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Ma, Y.Z.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Mak, D.S.Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H.V.; Pelkonen, V.M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y.C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H.S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R.D.E.; Sauve, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B.M.; Schammel, M.P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Shimwell, T.W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14~May 2009 and scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12~August 2009 and 23~October 2013. In February~2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based on data from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic col...

  11. Overview of the FTU results

    Alladio, F.; Angelini, B.; Apicella, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade results during the period 1996-1998 is presented. Most of the activity has been devoted to the investigation of the electron heat transport with flat/nonmonotonic safety factor profiles. Up to 14 keV of electron temperature have been obtained using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on the current ramp. The transport analysis shows a very low electron heat transport in the region with flat/nonmonotonic safety factor profile. The electron thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on the MHD activity and it drops to values of the order 0.1 m 2 /s in the absence of MHD fluctuations. Upon varying the resonance position in steady state conditions the effect of the ECRH on the sawtooth stabilization has been also investigated. Lower hybrid current drive studies have been performed in order to investigate the dependence of the current drive efficiency with density. Previous results of the Alcator C tokamak pointed out that at high density rather low efficiency values were obtained. The investigation carried out on FTU shows that such a result can be explained as due to the electron temperature dependence of the current drive efficiency. No degradation of the current drive efficiency is indeed observed on FTU even at density values of the order 10 20 m -3 . Ion Bernstein wave (IBW) heating studies have been also carried out in order to check the behaviour of wave-plasma coupling which is found in agreement with linear theory. Finally, impurity transport studies have been carried out. It has been possible to have a direct measurement of the flux of Mo33 which turns out to be in agreement with the expectation of quasilinear theory. (author)

  12. Visible nulling coronagraph testbed results

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Woodruff, Robert A.; Vasudevan, Gopal; Thompson, Patrick; Petrone, Peter; Madison, Timothy; Rizzo, Maxime; Melnick, Gary; Tolls, Volker

    2009-08-01

    We report on our recent laboratory results with the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) testbed. We have experimentally achieved focal plane contrasts of 1 x 108 and approaching 109 at inner working angles of 2 * wavelength/D and 4 * wavelength/D respectively where D is the aperture diameter. The result was obtained using a broadband source with a narrowband spectral filter of width 10 nm centered on 630 nm. To date this is the deepest nulling result with a visible nulling coronagraph yet obtained. Developed also is a Null Control Breadboard (NCB) to assess and quantify MEMS based segmented deformable mirror technology and develop and assess closed-loop null sensing and control algorithm performance from both the pupil and focal planes. We have demonstrated closed-loop control at 27 Hz in the laboratory environment. Efforts are underway to first bring the contrast to > 109 necessary for the direct detection and characterization of jovian (Jupiter-like) and then to > 1010 necessary for terrestrial (Earth-like) exosolar planets. Short term advancements are expected to both broaden the spectral passband from 10 nm to 100 nm and to increase both the long-term stability to > 2 hours and the extent of the null out to a ~ 10 * wavelength / D via the use of MEMS based segmented deformable mirror technology, a coherent fiber bundle, achromatic phase shifters, all in a vacuum chamber at the GSFC VNC facility. Additionally an extreme stability textbook sized compact VNC is under development.

  13. Overview of recent ALICE results

    Gunji, Taku

    2016-12-15

    The ALICE experiment explores the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter at extremely high temperatures created in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC and provides further insight into small-system physics in (high-multiplicity) pp and p-Pb collisions. The ALICE collaboration presented 27 parallel talks, 50 posters, and 1 flash talk at Quark Matter 2015 and covered various topics including collective dynamics, correlations and fluctuations, heavy flavors, quarkonia, jets and high p{sub T} hadrons, electromagnetic probes, small system physics, and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  14. Recent QCD results from ATLAS

    Meyer, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has performed studies of a wide range of QCD phenomena, from soft particle to hard photon and jet production. Recent soft-QCD measurements include studies of underlying event and vector meson production. Differential measurements of inclusive and dijet production provide stringent tests of high-order QCD predictions and provide input for determination of parton density functions. Measurements of isolated inclusive and di-photons cross sections for high transverse momentum photons test theoretical predictions of perturbative QCD and constrain parton density functions. An overview of these results is given.

  15. The OPERA Experiment. Latest results

    Hollnagel, Annika [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik (Germany); Collaboration: OPERA-Hamburg-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment OPERA has been designed for the direct observation of ν{sub τ} appearance in the CNGS ν{sub μ} beam. The OPERA detector is located at the LNGS underground laboratory, with a distance of 730 km from the neutrino source at CERN. It is a hybrid detector, combining the micrometric precision of emulsion cloud chambers with electronic detector elements for online readout. While CNGS beam data taking lasted from 2008 to 2012, the neutrino oscillation analysis is still ongoing. Updated results with increased statistics are presented, including the recent observation of ν{sub τ} appearance.

  16. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  17. Overview of recent ALICE results

    Gunji, Taku

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment explores the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter at extremely high temperatures created in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC and provides further insight into small-system physics in (high-multiplicity) pp and p-Pb collisions. The ALICE collaboration presented 27 parallel talks, 50 posters, and 1 flash talk at Quark Matter 2015 and covered various topics including collective dynamics, correlations and fluctuations, heavy flavors, quarkonia, jets and high $p_{\\rm T}$ hadrons, electromagnetic probes, small system physics, and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  18. Data bases for LDEF results

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) carried 57 experiments and 10,000 specimens for some 200 LDEF experiment investigators. The external surface of LDEF had a large variety of materials exposed to the space environment which were tested preflight, during flight, and post flight. Thermal blankets, optical materials, thermal control paints, aluminum, and composites are among the materials flown. The investigations have produced an abundance of analysis results. One of the responsibilities of the Boeing Support Contract, Materials and Systems Special Investigation Group, is to collate and compile that information into an organized fashion. The databases developed at Boeing to accomplish this task is described.

  19. Results of nuclear fusion development

    Yamamoto, Kenzo

    1975-01-01

    Compared with the nuclear fission research which followed that in advanced countries, Japan has treaded on its own track in nuclear fusion development; in the former, she had been far behind other leading countries. Characteristic of the efforts in Japan is the collaboration with educational institutions. Works are now carried out mainly in Tokamak plasma confinement, though other means being studied simultaneously. The nation's fusion research program is the realization of a fusion reactor at the turn of the present century, based on the world-level results attained with Tokamak. Past developments in the nuclear fusion research, the current status, and aspects for the future are discribed. (Mori, K.)

  20. Engineering model cryocooler test results

    Skimko, M.A.; Stacy, W.D.; McCormick, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent testing of diaphragm-defined, Stirling-cycle machines and components has demonstrated cooling performance potential, validated the design code, and confirmed several critical operating characteristics. A breadboard cryocooler was rebuilt and tested from cryogenic to near-ambient cold end temperatures. There was a significant increase in capacity at cryogenic temperatures and the performance results compared will with code predictions at all temperatures. Further testing on a breadboard diaphragm compressor validated the calculated requirement for a minimum axial clearance between diaphragms and mating heads

  1. Recent results for Mark III

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-π 0 's D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to Kππ is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Results from Nikko-Maru

    Kinoshita, K.

    1990-01-01

    At the Nikko area of the TRISTAN storage ring the Search for Highly Ionizing Particles (SHIP) Nikko-Maru employs etchable solid state track detectors to search for heavily ionizing particles produced in the e + e - annihilations. New results are reported from exposures to 13.9 pb -1 integrated luminosity at √s=57-60.8 GeV. New upper limits are established on the production of Dirac monopoles with mass up to 28.8 GeV/c 2 . (author)

  3. Free-electron laser results

    Stein, W.E.; Brau, C.A.; Newnam, B.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.; Young, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier experiment was designed to demonstrate high efficiency for transfer of energy from an electron beam to a light beam in the magnetic field of a tapered wiggler. Initial results indicate an energy transfer consistent with theory. Distinct groups of decelerated electrons as well as accelerated electrons are clearly present in the energy spectrum of electrons emerging from the wiggler when the laser light is present. The observed energy decrease for the electrons captured in the decelerating bucket is approx. 6% and the average decrease of the entire energy distribution is approx. 2% for the conditions of these initial measurements

  4. Recent photon results from ATLAS

    Glasman, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the gluon density function of the proton. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production o f isolated prompt photons at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rap idity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential c ross sections for isolated photon pair production 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators.

  5. Reporting of Diagnostic Cytogenetic Results.

    Giersch, Anne B S; Bieber, Frederick R; Dubuc, Adrian M; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Ligon, Azra H; Mason-Suares, Heather; Morton, Cynthia C; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Xiao, Sheng; Dal Cin, Paola

    2016-04-01

    This appendix, developed by the staff at the Center for Advanced Molecular Diagnostics in the Department of Pathology at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, includes a comprehensive list of current "macros" or standardized statements used to facilitate reporting of cytogenetic results. These are provided as a useful reference for other laboratories. The statements are organized under the general categories of constitutional or acquired abnormalities and subdivided into analysis type (GTG-banding, FISH, or chromosomal microarray). Multi-specimen usage macros are included that can be applied to two or more specimen types. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Optical Array Processor: Laboratory Results

    Casasent, David; Jackson, James; Vaerewyck, Gerard

    1987-01-01

    A Space Integrating (SI) Optical Linear Algebra Processor (OLAP) is described and laboratory results on its performance in several practical engineering problems are presented. The applications include its use in the solution of a nonlinear matrix equation for optimal control and a parabolic Partial Differential Equation (PDE), the transient diffusion equation with two spatial variables. Frequency-multiplexed, analog and high accuracy non-base-two data encoding are used and discussed. A multi-processor OLAP architecture is described and partitioning and data flow issues are addressed.

  7. CELLO results on multiparticle production

    Podobrin, O.

    1991-10-01

    In this talk result from CELLO on multiparticle production in e + e - annihilation are presented. The three-dimensional distribution of charged particles, and its one- and two-dimensional projections, are extensively studied through the bin-size dependence of their factorial moments. The data are found to have an excellent description by standard Monte Carlo models. This implies an explanation of the observed intermittency behaviour in terms of known physics. The study is extended by an analysis of two-particle rapidity correlations. (orig.)

  8. First half 2005 financial results

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the first half 2005 financial results of the group: 1 - overall performance: sales revenue, operating income, consolidated net income, operating cash flow, balance sheet; 2 - outlook; 3 - performance by business division: front-end division, reactors and services division, back end division, transmission and distribution division, connectors division

  9. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  10. Results from the NOMAD experiment

    Popov, B A

    2000-01-01

    The NOMAD experiment has sought nu /sub mu / implies/implied by nu /sub tau / oscillations by looking for the emergence of tau /sup -/ in events from the CERN SPS neutrino beam. With some improvements in the techniques of analysis in relation to the results published previously and with the inclusion of data from the 1998 run, no evidence for the oscillations has been found, which results in an updated limit on the oscillation probability [P( nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau /)<0.5* 10/sup -3/ at a 90% C.L.]. The corresponding limit on the oscillation mixing angle is given by sin/sup 2/2 theta /sub mu tau /<1.0*10/sup -3/ for large Delta m/sup 2/. By using a 1% contamination of nu /sub e/ in the neutrino beam, we can also rule out nu /sub e/ implies/implied by nu /sub tau / oscillations and constrain the probability of the relevant transition as P( nu /sub 3/ to nu /sub tau /)<3*10/sup -2/ at a 90% C.L. (sin/sup 2/2Q/sub e tau /<6*10/sup -2/ at large Delta m/sup 2/). (10 refs).

  11. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty

    Lakshmi Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma, fat necrosis, skin loss, nipple loss and unsightly, painful scars can be the complications of any procedure on the breast. These may result from errors in judgement, wrong surgical plan and imprecise execution of the plan. Though a surfeit of studies are available on breast reduction, very few dwell upon its complications. The following article is a distillation of three decades of experience of the senior author (L.S. in reduction mammoplasty. An effort is made to understand the reasons for unfavourable results. To conclude, most complications can be overcome with proper selection of procedure for the given patient and with gentle tissue handling.

  12. First results of spherical GEMs

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda; Taureg, Hans; Villa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method to make GEM foils with a spherical geometry. Tests of this procedure and with the resulting spherical GEMs are presented. Together with a spherical drift electrode, a spherical conversion gap can be formed. This eliminates the parallax error for detection of x-rays, neutrons or UV photons when a gaseous converter is used. This parallax error limits the spatial resolution at wide scattering angles. Besides spherical GEMs, we have developed curved spacers to maintain accurate spacing, and a conical field cage to prevent edge distortion of the radial drift field up to the limit of the angular acceptance of the detector. With these components first tests are done in a setup with a spherical entrance window but a planar readout structure; results will be presented and discussed. A flat readout structure poses difficulties, however. Therefore we will show advanced plans to make a prototype of an entirely spherical double-GEM detector, including a spherical 2D readout structure. This detector w...

  13. Drug overdose resulting in quadriplegia.

    Wang, Teresa S; Grunch, Betsy H; Moreno, Jessica R; Bagley, Carlos A; Gottfried, Oren N

    2012-06-01

    To describe a case of cervical flexion myelopathy resulting from a drug overdose. A 56-year-old male presented to the emergency department unable to move his extremities following drug overdose. Neurological examination revealed him to be at C6 ASIA A spinal cord injury. The CT of his cervical spine revealed no fracture; however, an MRI revealed cord edema extending from C3 to C6 as well as posterior paraspinal signal abnormalities suggestive of ligamentous injury. The patient underwent a posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion from C3 to C7. Neurologically he regained 3/5 bilateral tricep function and 2/5 grip; otherwise, he remained at ASIA A spinal cord injury at 6 months. Our patient suffered a spinal cord injury likely due to existing cervical stenosis, and in addition to an overdose of sedating medications, he likely sat in flexed neck position for prolonged period of time with the inability to modify his position. This likely resulted in cervical spine vascular and/or neurological compromise producing an irreversible spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a rare finding in patients presenting with drug overdose. The lack of physical exam findings suggestive of trauma may delay prompt diagnosis and treatment, and thus clinicians must have a high index of suspicion when evaluating patients in this setting.

  14. New Results on Cepheid Masses

    Evans, N. R.; Bohm-Vitense, E.; Carpenter, K.; Robinson, R.; Beck-Winchatz, B.

    1996-12-01

    Masses for Cepheid variable stars can be measured by combining the orbital velocity amplitude for the Cepheid (from a ground-based orbit) with the orbital velocity amplitude of a hot main sequence companion (observed in the ultraviolet from satellites such as IUE and HST) and the mass of the companion (inferred from from the ultraviolet energy distribution). Observations of 5 binary systems are now completed or in progress with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Recently completed observations of U Aql lead to a mass of 5.1 +/- 1.1 Msun . We will discuss the results for S Mus, V350 Sgr, U Aql, and Y Car, and the constraints they place on stellar evolution calculations. As would be expected, some of the B companions have high rotational velocities, decreasing the accuracy with which their orbital velocities can be measured. The preliminary conclusion from the 4 HST targets and SU Cyg (mass from IUE observations) is that a weighted mean indicates no convective overshoot but the mode (which reflects the HST results better) agrees with the modest overshoot used in the Geneva evolutionary calculations. Financial Support was provided by a NASA grant GO-4541-01 to EB--V and GO-4541.02 to KGC, a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council, Canada to NRE, from the AXAF Science Center NASA Contract NAS8-39073.

  15. TMX-U experimental results

    Simonen, T.C.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes results from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). Mirror-confined electrons with 30 to 70 keV mean energy densities of 0.5 to 2.0 x 10 12 cm -3 and average betas of 3 to 5% are produced using electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH). These results are consistent with an electron Fokker-Planck code. Improved ion-cyclotron microstability is observed using neutral beam injection at 47 0 to the magnetic axis, rather than at 90 0 as in the previous experiment, TMX. Strong end plugging has been produced using a combination of ECRH gyrotrons with sloshing-ion beam injection. In these low-density central cell experiments (3 x 10 11 cm -3 ) the axial losses (tau/sub parallel/ = 20 to 80 ms) are smaller than the nonambipolar radial losses (tau/sub perpendicular/ = 4 to 8 ms). Plugging has been achieved with a central cell density double that of the end plugs. Although no direct measurements are yet available to determine if a thermal barrier potential dip is generated, these experiments support many theoretical features of the thermal barrier concept

  16. Results of the dosimetry intercomparison

    Dure, Elsa S.

    2000-07-01

    The appropriate way to verify the accuracy of the results of dose reported by the laboratories that offer lend personal dosimetry service is in the periodic participation of round of intercomparison dosimetry, undertaken by laboratories whose standards are trace (Secondary Laboratory). The Laboratory of External Personal Dosimetry of the CNEA-PY has participated in three rounds of intercomparison. The first two were organized in the framework of the Model Project RLA/9/030 RADIOLOGICAL WASTE SECURITY, and the irradiations were carried out in the Laboratory of Regional Calibration of the Center of Nuclear Technology Development, Belo Horizonte-Brazil (1998) and in the National Laboratory of Metrology of the ionizing radiations of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry, Rio de Janeiro-Brazil (1999). The third was organized by the IAEA and the irradiations were made in the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Braunschweig - Federal Republic of Germany (1999-2000) [es

  17. Framatome announces its 1997 results

    1998-01-01

    This press dossier presents the 1997 financial year of Framatome group: turnover and key-numbers, results, sectoral analysis (nuclear engineering (nuclear realizations, fuels, services and equipments); connectors engineering (automotive, electrical, electronic, interconnection and microelectronic industries), industrial equipments). Then, the 1998 objectives are presented with the strategy of the group (Chinese, central and eastern Europe nuclear programs, French-German joint EPR project, services and nuclear fuels, connectors engineering, industrial equipments, manpower, research and development programs). This part is followed by a presentation of some 1997 events and by the text of the press conference from May 18, 1998 which presented the activities of the group, its competences and know-how in the nuclear domain. (J.S.)

  18. Recent results on Tore Supra

    Moreau, D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent results regarding heating, confinement, current drive and profile modifications, heat and particle exhaust are reported. Improved core confinement is obtained after pellet injection (PEP) or Lower Hybrid current drive (LHEP) and may be linked with small - or reversed - central magnetic shear. Conversely, by increasing the magnetic shear in the gradient region, both LHCD and fast wave electron heating (FWEH) have produced improved global confinement was carried by the bootstrap current. Fast wave current drive has been observed at the level of 80 kA in a 0.4 MA discharge. In the ergodic divertor configuration, stable radiative layers were obtained with neon injection. At least 80% of a total of 7 MW injected power were radiated without confinement degradation or impurity accumulation. Finally, the heat exhaust capability of the various actively cooled plasma facing components is briefly described. (author) 14 refs.; 13 figs

  19. First results on fast baking

    Visentin, B. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: bvisentin@cea.fr; Gasser, Y. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Charrier, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM - 91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-07-15

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120deg, C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0} is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the 'fast baking' (145deg, C/3h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to:*time reduction and *possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation.

  20. Cassini at Saturn Huygens results

    Harland, David M

    2007-01-01

    "Cassini At Saturn - Huygens Results" will bring the story of the Cassini-Huygens mission and their joint exploration of the Saturnian system right up to date. Cassini is due to enter orbit around Saturn on the 1 July 2004 and the author will have 8 months of scientific data available for review, including the most spectacular images of Saturn, its rings and satellites ever obtained by a space mission. As the Cassini spacecraft approached its destination in spring 2004, the quality of the images already being returned by the spacecraft clearly demonstrate the spectacular nature of the close-range views that will be obtained. The book will contain a 16-page colour section, comprising a carefully chosen selection of the most stunning images to be released during the spacecraft's initial period of operation. The Huygens craft will be released by Cassini in December 2004 and is due to parachute through the clouds of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in January 2005.

  1. First results on fast baking

    Visentin, B.; Gasser, Y.; Charrier, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    High gradient performances of bulk niobium cavities go through a low-temperature baking during one or two days, the temperature parameter is adjusted in a narrow tuning range around 110 or 120deg, C. With such treatment, the intrinsic quality factor Q 0 is improved at high fields. Assuming the oxygen diffusion is involved in this phenomenon, we have developed the 'fast baking' (145deg, C/3h) as an alternative method. Similar results have been achieved with this method compared to standard baking. Consequently, for the first time, a link between oxygen diffusion and high field Q-slope has been demonstrated. Furthermore, this method open the way to a simpler and better baking procedure for the large-scale cavity production due to:*time reduction and *possibility to combine baking and drying during cavity preparation

  2. Treatment Results of Ovarian Dysqerminoma

    Chung, Eun Ji; Suh, Chang Ok; Seong, Jin Sil; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Gwi Eon

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : We tried to evaluate the clinical characteristics, the treatment methods, the results of treatments, and the patterns of failure in ovarian dysgerminoma retrospectively. According to the results we would like to suggest the proper management guideline of stage la ovarian dysgerminoma patients who want to maintain fertility. Methods and Materials : Between 1975 and 1990, 34 patients with ovarian dysgerminoma were treated at the Yonsei University Hospital. The case records of these patients have been reviewed for presenting symptoms, treatment methods, local control, and survival following treatment. Excluded from analysis were five patients with mixed ovarian germ cell tumors and gonadoblastomas (46,XY). Treatment results of the twenty nine patients were analysed by each treatment modality. Twenty one patients were treated with surgery and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy(group 1). The other eight patients were treated with operation alone (group 2). The median age of twenty-nine patients was 23 years with a range of 8 to 39 years. Presenting symptoms were abdominal mass(20), pelvic discomfort or pain(5) et al. Radiotherapy was performed by 10MV LINAC or Co-60 teletherapy unit. The total radiation dose of the whole abdomen was 20-25 Gy/3 weeks, 1-1.5 Gy/fraction with a boost to the whole pelvis 10-15 Gy / 1-2 weeks1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction. Advanced stage disease (stage II or stage III) patients received prophylactic mediastinal and supraclavicular irradiation to a dose of 16-26 Gy. Median duration of follow-up of living patients was 80 months (range : 13-201 months). Results : All of the twenty one patients of group 1 were alive without disease (100%). Among the eight patients who were not treated with radiotherapy (group 2), six patients developed local recurrence. Four patients referred with recurrent disease were treated with salvage radiotherapy. Three of four patients were salvaged and one patient who had recurrent intra-abdominal disease died of

  3. Latest results from KLOE-2

    Bloise Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The KLOE experiment at the Frascati φ–factory recently obtained results on i CPT and Lorentz invariance tests from the study of quantum interference of the neutral kaon pairs; ii precision measurement of the branching fraction, BR(K+ → π+π−π+(γ = 0.05565 ± 0.00031stat ± 0.00025syst, and iii on dark photon searches with the analysis of the e+e− → µµγ final state. We have also studied the transition form factors of the φ meson to the pseudoscalars, π0 and η, that is presented in a separate contribution to this volume.

  4. The Bigfoot Drive; Experimental Results

    Baker, Kevin; Thomas, Cliff; Khan, Shahab; Casey, Daniel; Spears, Brian; Nora, Ryan; Munro, Davis; Eder, David; Milovich, Jose; Berger, Dick; Strozzi, David; Goyon, Clement; Turnbull, David; Ma, Tammy; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Benedetti, Robin; Millot, Marius; Celliers, Peter; Yeamans, Charles; Hatarik, Robert; Landen, Nino; Hurricane, Omar; Callahan, Debbie

    2016-10-01

    The Bigfoot platform was developed on the National Ignition Facility to investigate low convergence, high adiabat, high rhoR hotspot implosions. This platform was designed to be less susceptible to wall motion, LPI and CBET and to be more robust against capsule hydrodynamic instabilities. To date experimental studies have been carried out at two hohlraum scales, a 5.75 and 5.4 mm diameter hohlraum. We will present experimental results from these tuning campaigns including the shape vs. cone fraction, surrogacy comparisons of self-emission from the capsules vs. radiography of the imploding capsule and doped vs. undoped capsules. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Some results on inverse scattering

    Ramm, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A review of some of the author's results in the area of inverse scattering is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) Property C and applications, (2) Stable inversion of fixed-energy 3D scattering data and its error estimate, (3) Inverse scattering with 'incomplete' data, (4) Inverse scattering for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, (5) Krein's inverse scattering method, (6) Invertibility of the steps in Gel'fand-Levitan, Marchenko, and Krein inversion methods, (7) The Newton-Sabatier and Cox-Thompson procedures are not inversion methods, (8) Resonances: existence, location, perturbation theory, (9) Born inversion as an ill-posed problem, (10) Inverse obstacle scattering with fixed-frequency data, (11) Inverse scattering with data at a fixed energy and a fixed incident direction, (12) Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient and wave-focusing properties. (author)

  6. Selected recent results from AMANDA

    Andrés, E; Bai, X; Barouch, G; Barwick, S W; Bay, R C; Becker, K H; Bergström, L; Bertrand, D; Bierenbaum, D; Biron, A; Booth, J; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Boyce, M M; Carius, S; Chen, A; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Costa, C G S; Cowen, D F; Dailing, J; Dalberg, E; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Doksus, P; Edsjö, J; Ekstrom, P; Erlandsson, B; Feser, T; Gaug, M; Goldschmidt, A; Goobar, A; Gray, L; Haase, H; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; He, Y D; Hellwig, M; Heukenkamp, H; Hill, G C; Hulth, P O; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Kandhadai, V; Karle, A; Kim, J; Koci, B; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Lindahl, P; Liubarsky, I; Loaiza, P; Lowder, D M; Ludvig, J; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Matis, H S; Mihályi, A; Mikolajski, T; Miller, T C; Minaeva, Y; Miocinovic, P; Mock, P C; Morse, R; Neunhoffer, T; Newcomer, F M; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Heros, C P D L; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Rawlins, K; Reed, C; Rhode, W; Richards, A; Richter, S; Martino, J R; Romenesko, P; Ross, D; Rubinstein, H; Sander, H G; Scheider, T; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schneider, E; Schwarzl, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Starinsky, N; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Streicher, O; Sun, A; Taboada, I; Thollander, L; Thon, T; Tilav, S; Usechak, N; Donckt, M V; Walck, C; Weinheimer, C; Wiebusch, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Wu, W; Yodh, G; Young, S

    2001-01-01

    We present a selection of results based on data taken in 1997 with the 302-PMT Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array-B10 ("AMANDA-B10") array. Atmospheric neutrinos created in the northern hemisphere are observed indirectly through their charged current interactions which produce relativistic, Cherenkov-light-emitting upgoing muons in the South Pole ice cap. The reconstructed angular distribution of these events is in good agreement with expectation and demonstrates the viability of this ice-based device as a neutrino telescope. Studies of nearly vertical upgoing muons limit the available parameter space for WIMP dark matter under the assumption that WIMPS are trapped in the earth's gravitational potential well and annihilate with one another near the earth's center.

  7. Cerebral infarcts resulting from trauma

    Busch, G.

    1985-01-01

    Vascular occlusions due to cerebral trauma have always been regarded as great rarities. However, we have found hypo-dense foci of vascular distribution in 3.5% of 3500 CT examinations for trauma during the late phase. Lesions in the vascular territory of the posterior cerebral artery are usually the result of supratentorial pressure rise from epidural and subdural haematomas, leading to compression of the vessels against the edge of the tentorium. Typical infacts in the territory of the medial and anterior cerebral arteries were found only rarely by CT after cerebral trauma. Infarcts at the watersheds between the three vascular territories were found with surprising frequency and small infarcts were found in the basal ganglia. It is assumed that these were due to ischaemic or hypoxic events due to cardiac or pulmonary complications during the initial phase. (orig.) [de

  8. Results from the AMANDA detector

    Ackermann, M; Albrecht, H; Bai, X; Bartelt, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Becka, T; Becker, J K; Becker, K H; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Boersma, D J; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Bouhali, O; Braun, J; Burgess, C; Burgess, T; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Collin, B; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Cowen, D F; Davour, A; De Clercq, C; Pérez de los Heros, C; De Young, T R; Desiati, P; Ekstrom, P; Feser, T; Gaisser, T K; Ganugapati, R; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Gross, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; Harenberg, T; Hauschildt, T; Helbing, K; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hodges, J; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Kampert, K H; Karle, A; Kelley, J; Kestel, M; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kühn, K; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Liubarsky, I; Madsen, J; Mandli, K; Marciniewski, P; Martino, J R; Matis, H S; McParland, C P; Messarius, T; Minaeva, Y; Miocinovic, P; Morse, R; Munich, K; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Neunhoffer, T; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Olbrechts, P; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Sander, H G; Schinarakis, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schneider, D; Schwarz, R; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Sulanke, K H; Taboada, I; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Walter, M; Wang, Y R; Wiebusch, C; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Yodh, G

    2004-01-01

    The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is a high- energy neutrino telescope based at the geographic south pole. It is a lattice of photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the polar ice, which is used as interaction and detection medium. The primary goal of this detector is the observation of astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos. This paper shows the latest results of the search for a diffuse flux of extraterrestrial nu /sub mu /s with energies between 10/sup 11/ eV and 10/sup 18/ eV, nu /sub mu /s emitted from point sources and nu /sub mu /s from dark matter annihilation in the Earth and the Sun.

  9. MITG test procedure and results

    Eck, M.E.; Mukunda, M.

    1983-01-01

    Elements and modules for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator have been performance tested since the inception of the RTG program. These test articles seldom resembled flight hardware and often lacked adequate diagnostic instrumentation. Because of this, performance problems were not identified in the early stage of program development. The lack of test data in an unexpected area often hampered the development of a problem solution. A procedure for conducting the MITG Test was developed in an effort to obtain data in a systematic, unambiguous manner. This procedure required the development of extensive data acquisition software and test automation. The development of a facility to implement the test procedure, the facility hardware and software requirements, and the results of the MITG testing are the subject of this paper

  10. CREAM: Results, Implications and Outlook

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) balloon-borne experiment has accumulated ∼161 days of exposure during six successful flights over Antarctica. Energy measurements are made with a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter. Charge measurements are made with timing scintillators, pixelated Si, and Cherenkov detectors to minimize the effect of backscattered particles. High energy cosmicray data were collected over a wide energy range from ∼ 1010 to ∼ 1015 eV at an average altitude of ∼ 38.5 km, with ∼ 3.9 g/cm2 atmospheric overburden. All cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Recent results from the ongoing analysis including the discrepant hardening of elemental spectra at ∼ 200 GeV/n are presented and their implications on cosmic-ray origin, acceleration and propagation are discussed. The project status and plans are also presented.

  11. Benchmark results in radiative transfer

    Garcia, R.D.M.; Siewert, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Several aspects of the F N method are reported, and the method is used to solve accurately some benchmark problems in radiative transfer in the field of atmospheric physics. The method was modified to solve cases of pure scattering and an improved process was developed for computing the radiation intensity. An algorithms for computing several quantities used in the F N method was done. An improved scheme to evaluate certain integrals relevant to the method is done, and a two-term recursion relation that has proved useful for the numerical evaluation of matrix elements, basic for the method, is given. The methods used to solve the encountered linear algebric equations are discussed, and the numerical results are evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Results from T2K

    Di Luise, S.

    2014-01-01

    T2K is an off-axis long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to measure the θ 13 mixing parameter through the observation of ν e appearance in a ν μ beam. Concurrent measurement of ν μ disappearance allows refined measurements of the atmospheric Δm 23 2 and of the θ 23 mixing parameters. Analysis of data taken from January 2010 to March 2011 led to the first indication to ν μ → ν e appearance, it means θ 13 ≠ 0 (2.5σ significance), opening the way to CP violation searches in the leptonic sector. Measurement for ν μ disappearance were performed as well. Data taking restarted in March 2012 at higher intensities. Results, data taking status and future plans will be discussed. (author)

  13. Recent charmonium results at BESIII

    Guo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Recent results on the charmonium decays based on 1.06*10 8 ψ' events taken with the BESIII (Beijing Spectrometer) detector operating at the BEPCII e + e - collider are presented in this talk. The properties and line-shape of η c , the production rate and properties of h c , and the first observation of the M1 transition φ' → γη' c are reported. In addition, the new decay modes of η' c are searched for in ρρ, K* 0 K-bar* 0 , and φφ final states, and the measurement of the multipole amplitude in ψ' → γχ c2 is presented. (author)

  14. HEAO A-2 extragalactic results

    Boldt, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    The all-sky surveys made with the A-2 instrument aboard HEAO-1 involved spectroscopy over a broad enough band width, with sufficient resolution, to obtain the basic spectral characteristics for two extreme aspects of the extragalactic X-ray sky. The overall spectrum (above 3 KeV) is remarkably well decribed by a thermal model. At the other extreme, the detailed broad-band observations of individual sources are restricted to objects within the present epoch. The objects include several individual active galaxies studied in detail for the first time as well as clusters of galaxies. Relating these results to the vast spatially unresolved hard X-ray flux measured with this instruments as well as the softer X-rays (at less than 3 keV) spatially resolved to high redshifts with the Einstein Observatory remains a challenge.

  15. Recent ATLAS Heavy Ion results

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Lead nucleus collisions in the LHC recreate the state of matter which existed when the universe was a few microseconds old. This super-hot matter, composed of quark and gluons, emits thousands of particles as it expands, cools and converts back into hadrons. The ATLAS detector provides an excellent opportunity to perform detailed studies of this novel state of matter, measuring its bulk properties and its response to penetrating probes. Recent studies of particle correlations and fluctuations shed light on the initial geometry and its evolution into the final state. Studies of jet suppression and fragmentation show how the energetic partons interact with the medium. High precision measurements of boson production and first results on boson-jet correlations are important steps towards quantitative understanding of the parton energy loss mechanism.

  16. Results from ISTC frame work

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Under International Science Research Center (ISTC) projects, JAERI Nuclear Data Center has been taking a role of collaborator and monitor for following items; (1) Measurement of the Fission Neutron Spectra of the Minor Actinides and Spontaneous Fission of Curium Isotopes (ISTC no. 183: V.I. Khlopin Radium Institute, KRI, St. Petersburg, Russia), (2) Measurement and Analysis of the Basic Nuclear Data for Minor Actinides (ISTC no. 304: Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, IPPE, Obninsk, Russia), and Evaluation of Actinide Nuclear Data (ISTC no. CIS-3: Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute, RPCPI, Minsk, Belarus). These are related to the Japanese OMEGA Project and expected to supply minor actinide (MA) nuclear data, since Russia has good quality MA samples, experimental technique and nuclear data evaluation experiences. In this report, out-line and some results of above three projects are reviewed. (author)

  17. Recent SUSY results in ATLAS

    Mamuzic, Judita; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is considered one of the best motivated extensions of the Standard Model. It postulates a fundamental symmetry between fermions and bosons, and introduces a set of new supersymmetric particles at the electroweak scale. It addresses the hierarchy and natu- ralness problem, gives a solution to the gauge couplings unification, and offers a cold dark matter candidate. Different aspects of SUSY searches, using strong, electroweak, third generation production, R-parity violation models, and long lived particles are being studied at the LHC. An overview of most recent results in SUSY searches using Run 2 ATLAS data, at 13 TeV with 36.1 fb−1 of integrated luminosity, was presented.

  18. Results from KASCADE–Grande

    Bertaina, M.; Apel, W.D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.

    2012-01-01

    The KASCADE–Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10 14 –10 18 eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10 16 –10 18 eV range by sampling charged (N ch ) and muon (N μ ) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE–Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  19. Results from KASCADE-Grande

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); and others

    2012-11-11

    The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10{sup 14}-10{sup 18} eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV range by sampling charged (N{sub ch}) and muon (N{sub {mu}}) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE-Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  20. Energy 21. Preconditions and results

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In 1988 the Danish government adopted an action plan for the environment and sustainable development. In 1990, the energy aspects of this plan were embodied in Energy 2000 and, in 1993, in Energy 2000 follow-up. The objective is a 20% reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by the year 2005, compared with the level in 1988. Various measures are therefore being taken as time passes to help achieve this objective. As part of the monitoring of developments in the energy sector, it is necessary to take stock from time to time and to assess the direction in which the sector is moving. The government has therefore drawn up a new energy action plan, Energy 21, both to ensure that the overall objectives in the current plan are actively followed up on and to look ahead at the possibilities for action after the year 2005. The Danish Energy Agency has previously carried out a number of analyses of the technological and behavioural possibilities for reducing energy consumption in the short and the long term, for improving the efficiency of energy supply installations, and for using new and sustainable energy technologies. The results of this work are described in the report Denmark`s Energy Futures. The calculations in the report itself and its appendices. The more detailed assumptions and a description of the methods of analysis etc. are given in Basis for Analysis of Denmark`s Energy Futures. This report contains the assumptions, a description of methods and some of the results of the work on Energy 21. (au)