WorldWideScience

Sample records for heliadapter sound blaster

  1. Tracing Technique for Blaster Attack

    OpenAIRE

    S., Siti Rahayu; Y., Robiah; S., Shahrin; A., Faizal M.; M, Mohd Zaki; R, Irda

    2009-01-01

    Blaster worm of 2003 is still persistent, the infection appears to have successfully transitioned to new hosts as the original systems are cleaned or shut off, suggesting that the Blaster worm, and other similar worms, will remain significant Internet threats for many years after their initial release. This paper is to propose technique on tracing the Blaster attack from various logs in different OSI layers based on fingerprint of Blaster attack on victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log...

  2. The Astro-Blaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Richard V.; Long, Kevin R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Astro-Blaster as a method of the laws of conservation of momentum and energy during the creation of a supernova. Several elastic balls are aligned for a drop, followed by multiple collisions which result in the top ball reaching tremendous heights relative to the drop height. (JRH)

  3. Training and licensing requirements for blasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippincott, S.L. [Explosives Educational Services, Inc., Granbury, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A number of Federal and State agencies require formal training for blasters. Federal agencies often specify the need for initial training involving all job responsibilities as well as periodic refresher training to assure adherence to current operating procedures. Failure to provide and document such training can result in substantial penalties. State governments vary regarding blaster training and licensing requirements. Many states issue licenses if applicants pay a fee and swear not to be a felon or a drug user. Other states require a written test, which may or may not specify prior formal training. Training and licensing requirements may vary depending on where the blaster works; i.e., construction, metal, non-metal or coal mining. For example, a state may require a written test for blasting in Surface Coal and have no requirements for other explosive consuming industries. This paper will identify and discuss the various regulatory agencies involved in formulating and enforcing blaster training and licensing requirements.

  4. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo H C G de Sá

    Full Text Available The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  5. Concrete Cleaning, Inc. centrifugal shot blaster: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The centrifugal shot blaster technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The centrifugal shot blaster is an electronically operated shot blast machine that has been modified to remove layers of concrete to varying depths. A hardened steel shot propelled at a high rate of speed abrades the surface of the concrete. The depth of material removed is determined by the rate of speed the machine is traveling and the volume of shot being fired into the blast chamber. The steel shot is recycled and used over until it is pulverized into dust, which ends up in the waste container with the concrete being removed. Debris is continually vacuumed by a large dust collection system attached to the shot blaster. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  6. Concrete Cleaning, Inc. centrifugal shot blaster: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The centrifugal shot blaster technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The centrifugal shot blaster is an electronically operated shot blast machine that has been modified to remove layers of concrete to varying depths. A hardened steel shot propelled at a high rate of speed abrades the surface of the concrete. The depth of material removed is determined by the rate of speed the machine is traveling and the volume of shot being fired into the blast chamber. The steel shot is recycled and used over until it is pulverized into dust, which ends up in the waste container with the concrete being removed. Debris is continually vacuumed by a large dust collection system attached to the shot blaster. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  7. Bowlers, ballads, bells, and blasters: Living history and fandom [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Soderstrom

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In many people's lives the disposition to create community around historical interest or reenacted historical community practices, or even just entertainment in a mythic-history setting, intersects with a related and similar interest in science fiction/fantasy literature and participation on some level in the related fandoms and social activities of SF/F. The bowlers, ballads, bells, and blasters of my title come together not just in current steampunk scenes but also in the storied and genred lives of many reenactors and fans. Or, as a friend of mine suggested when discussing this essay, "historical reenactment is the trade secret to fandom."

  8. IBPAT/OSHA Health and Safety Education Quiz Book. Painters, Abrasive Blasters, Tapers, Paint Makers, Floorcoverers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades, Washington, DC.

    Designed for use by instructors using the "Health and Safety Education Book" (International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades/Occupational Safety and Health Act), this book contains quizzes specifically for painters, abrasive blasters, tapers, paint makers, and floorcoverers. Quizzes included in the book focus on testing areas such as (1)…

  9. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  10. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Sound has the power to soothe, excite, warn, protect, and inform. Indeed, the transmission and reception of audio signals pervade our daily lives. Readers will examine the mechanics and properties of sound and provides an overview of the "interdisciplinary science called acoustics." Also covered are functions and diseases of the human ear.

  11. MANAJEMEN PENGELOLAAN WAHANA REKREASI OLAHRAGA DI WISATA WATER BLASTER SEMARANG TAHUN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Syahroni Firdiansyah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the process and the management of existing resources in the recreational vehicle Blaster Water sports in Semarang . This study is a qualitative research methodology . Collecting data using observation , questionnaires , interviews , documents and documentation . The data analysis technique used is descriptive percentage ( DP and the method of triangulation . The results of a descriptive study using a percentage , obtained planning process including criteria results 75 % higher , organizing the results obtained 76.3 % including high criteria , the results obtained leadership criteria included a low 53.8 % , controls 83.8 % obtained results are included in the very high criteria . Human resources results obtained 68.8 % including high criteria , the results obtained infrastructure including high criteria 74.6 % , 61.0 % of funds obtained results include lower criteria , and marketing of 70.3 % obtained results including high criteria . The conclusions in this study are the sights properly implement management processes .

  12. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...

  13. Searching Sound with Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Martin; Chapman, A.

    2010-01-01

    A sound installation developed to accompany Anna Chapman's sound installtion "Subjects for Melancholy Retrospection" that was presented t the Edinburgh Art Festrival in August 2010 at the National Trust for Scotland's Newhailes estate.

  14. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  15. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  16. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  17. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  18. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  19. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  20. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  1. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  2. Sound settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  3. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  4. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 3. Second Sound - Waves of Entropy and Temperature. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 3 March 1999 pp 16-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/03/0016-0024 ...

  5. Unidentified Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    , contextualised and conceptualised in an era of transmission. Observing that urban sounds until late 1930es are rarely heard in Danish radio compared to German and English broadcasting, I argue that an urban and auditory aesthetics incorporating noise, heterogeneity and unpredictability did not really develop......This article investigates how urban spaces and its noises are approached by radio reporters in the first decades of public radio production in Denmark. Focussing on the period before reel tape was incorporated in production by late 1940es, I ask how urban space and urban sounds are heard...... in Danish radio until early post-war years. Yet I trace early attempts at managing noisy urban conditions and demonstrate how reporters experimented with available technological repositories and developed techniques in order to make sense in and through urban environments. Inspired by Michel Serres idea...

  6. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  7. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  8. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim of the res......The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...

  9. Sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  10. Calculating Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2017-01-01

    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  11. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  12. Multichannel Sound Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkki, Ville

    Spatial reproduction of sound is a field in which the spatial attributes of a real recording room or a virtual space are reproduced to the listener. Spatial attributes include for example directions of sound sources, directions of reflections and envelopment by reverberation. Many such systems employ more than two loudspeakers to create virtual sources. This is called multichannel sound or spatial sound reproduction.

  13. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  14. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  15. Synthesized size-sound sound symbolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Hagoort, P.; Dingemanse, M.; Papafragou, A.; Grodner, D.; Mirman, D.; Trueswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of sound symbolism have shown that people can associate sound and meaning in consistent ways when presented with maximally contrastive stimulus pairs of nonwords such as bouba/kiki (rounded/sharp) or mil/mal (small/big). Recent work has shown the effect extends to antonymic words from

  16. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  17. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  18. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  19. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  20. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  1. Form Follows Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Caramiaux, Baptiste; Altavilla, Alessandro; Pobiner, Scott G.; Tanaka, Atau

    2015-01-01

    Sonic interaction is the continuous relationship between user actions and sound, mediated by some technology. Because interaction with sound may be task oriented or experience-based it is important to understand the nature of action-sound relationships in order to design rich sonic interactions. We propose a participatory approach to sonic interaction design that first considers the affordances of sounds in order to imagine embodied interaction, and based on this, generates interaction models...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.901 - Blaster qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... furnish satisfactory evidence of competency in handling explosives and performing in a safe manner the... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.901... the field of transporting, storing, handling, and use of explosives, and have a working knowledge of...

  3. Underwater Sound Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutger van Aalst; Ines Simic

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a possible solution to the underwater sound filtering problem, using Blind Source Separation. The problem regards splitting sound from a boat engine and the water waves to prove the possibility to extract one sound fragment from the other on the open sea. The illustrations shown

  4. Sound art and the annihilation of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Shaun

    This thesis describes the way in which sound is taken up and subsequently suppressed within the visual arts. The idealisation and development of sound as a plastic material is able to be traced within the modernist trajectory, which, reflecting a set of cultural practices and having developed its own specific terminologies, comes to regard any material, or anything conceived of as material, as appropriate and adequate to the expression of its distinctive and guiding concepts and metaphors. These concepts and metaphors are discussed as already having at their bases strongly visualist biases, the genealogies of which are traced within traditional or formal philosophies. Here, the marginalising tendency of ocularcentrism is exposed, but the very nature and contingency of marginalisation is found to work for the sound artist (where the perpetuation of the mythologised 'outsider' figure is desired) but against sound which is positioned in a purely differential and negative relation. In this epistemological and ontological reduction, sound becomes simply a visual metaphor or metonymic contraction which forecloses the possibility of producing other ways of articulating its experience or of producing any markedly alternative 'readings'. Rather than simply attempting to reverse the hierarchisation of the visual over the aural, or of prefacing sound within a range of artistic practices (each which would keep the negative tradition going) sound's ambiguous relation to the binarism of presence/absence, system and margin, is, however oddly, elaborated. The strategy which attempts to suspend sound primarily within and under the mark of the concept is interrogated and its limits exposed. The sound artist, the 'margin surfer' is revealed as a perhaps deeply conservative figure who may in the end desire the suppression of sound, and who, actually rejecting any destabilising and threatening notion of 'radical alterity' anxiously clings to the 'marginalised' modernist pretence. It is

  5. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering.......The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...

  6. Priming Gestures with Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge.

  7. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  8. The sound of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglia, Cristina D; Maglio, Sam J; Krehm, Madelaine; Seok, Jin H; Trope, Yaacov

    2016-07-01

    Human languages may be more than completely arbitrary symbolic systems. A growing literature supports sound symbolism, or the existence of consistent, intuitive relationships between speech sounds and specific concepts. Prior work establishes that these sound-to-meaning mappings can shape language-related judgments and decisions, but do their effects generalize beyond merely the linguistic and truly color how we navigate our environment? We examine this possibility, relating a predominant sound symbolic distinction (vowel frontness) to a novel associate (spatial proximity) in five studies. We show that changing one vowel in a label can influence estimations of distance, impacting judgment, perception, and action. The results (1) provide the first experimental support for a relationship between vowels and spatial distance and (2) demonstrate that sound-to-meaning mappings have outcomes that extend beyond just language and can - through a single sound - influence how we perceive and behave toward objects in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  10. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  11. Orcas in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Washington. Mumford, T.F. 2007. Kelp and Eelgrass in Puget Sound. Puget Sound Nearshore Partnership Report No. 2007-05. Published by Seattle District, U.S...2006). Wild Chinook populations continue to decline due to dam con- struction, overall habitat loss , loss of prey and historical over-fishing...Sanford (2006) pointed out that current mean weight of adult Chinook salmon returning to their spawn- ing grounds in Puget Sound is only 56 percent of

  12. Notes on Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Jones

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bonnie Jones creates improvised and composed text-sound performances that explore the fluidity and function of electronic noise (field recordings, circuit bending and text (poetry, found, spoken. She is interested in how people perceive, “read” and interact with these sounds and texts given our current technological moment.

  13. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  14. Shadow of sound

    OpenAIRE

    Prvacki, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Shadow of sound is a musical flip book, an attempt to move sound through pages and to measure music visually. Prvacki demonstrates that 40 seconds of Bach's Minuet in G Major fit on 150 pages.".

  15. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  16. The sounds of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norah; Deane, Cormac; Murphy, Padraig

    2017-07-01

    Public perceptions of nanotechnology are shaped by sound in surprising ways. Our analysis of the audiovisual techniques employed by nanotechnology stakeholders shows that well-chosen sounds can help to win public trust, create value and convey the weird reality of objects on the nanoscale.

  17. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  18. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  19. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  20. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  1. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories...... of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel....... The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  2. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form.......Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...

  3. Categorization of environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastavino, Catherine

    2007-03-01

    This paper investigates the way in which people categorize environmental sounds in their everyday lives. Previous research has shown that isolated environmental sounds are categorized on the basis of high-level semantic features when the sounds can be attributed to specific sound sources. However, in the presence of numerous sound sources, as occur in most real-world situations, the process of source identification is often hindered. In the present study, a free categorization task with open-ended verbal descriptions was used to investigate auditory categories for environmental sounds in complex real-world sonic environments. Two main categories emerged from the free-sort, reflecting the absence or presence of human activity in relation to hedonic judgments. At a subordinate level, subcategories were mediated by the participant's reported interactions with the environment through socialized activities. The spontaneous verbal descriptors collected were successful in discriminating categories. These findings indicate that complex environmental sounds are processed and categorized as meaningful events providing relevant information about the environment. The relevance of situational factors in categorization and the notion of auditory category in its relation to linguistic labeling are then discussed.

  4. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; Conley, Benjamin; Hogan, Roy; Boslough, Mark; Gonzales, Gigi; Spurný, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with -11 to -13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that -12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs.

  5. Sound as artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jeffrey L.

    A distinguishing feature of the discipline of archaeology is its reliance upon sensory dependant investigation. As perceived by all of the senses, the felt environment is a unique area of archaeological knowledge. It is generally accepted that the emergence of industrial processes in the recent past has been accompanied by unprecedented sonic extremes. The work of environmental historians has provided ample evidence that the introduction of much of this unwanted sound, or "noise" was an area of contestation. More recent research in the history of sound has called for more nuanced distinctions than the noisy/quiet dichotomy. Acoustic archaeology tends to focus upon a reconstruction of sound producing instruments and spaces with a primary goal of ascertaining intentionality. Most archaeoacoustic research is focused on learning more about the sonic world of people within prehistoric timeframes while some research has been done on historic sites. In this thesis, by way of a meditation on industrial sound and the physical remains of the Quincy Mining Company blacksmith shop (Hancock, MI) in particular, I argue for an acceptance and inclusion of sound as artifact in and of itself. I am introducing the concept of an individual sound-form, or sonifact , as a reproducible, repeatable, representable physical entity, created by tangible, perhaps even visible, host-artifacts. A sonifact is a sound that endures through time, with negligible variability. Through the piecing together of historical and archaeological evidence, in this thesis I present a plausible sonifactual assemblage at the blacksmith shop in April 1916 as it may have been experienced by an individual traversing the vicinity on foot: an 'historic soundwalk.' The sensory apprehension of abandoned industrial sites is multi-faceted. In this thesis I hope to make the case for an acceptance of sound as a primary heritage value when thinking about the industrial past, and also for an increased awareness and acceptance

  6. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    As an acoustic signal travels from the source to a receiver, it is affected by a variety of physical processes, all dictated by properties of the signal and the environment. The signal energy is weakened by geometric attenuation as well as absorption by the medium. The temporal and spectral prope...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  7. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the productions of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...... and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces. Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become...

  8. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  9. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  10. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  11. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  12. SOUND MORPHING BY FEATURE INTERPOLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas Caetano, Marcelo; Rodet, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The goal of sound morphing by feature interpolation is to obtain sounds whose values of features are intermediate between those of the source and target sounds. In order to do this, we should be able to resynthesize sounds that present a set of predefined feature values, a notoriously difficult problem. In this work, we present morphing techniques to obtain hybrid musical instrument sounds whose feature values correspond as close as possible to the ideal interpolated v...

  13. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  14. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  15. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  16. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological construction...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  17. Beacons of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  18. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  19. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    are colored by contextual information. This can be longterm contextual information, such as knowledge of phonological or emotional categories, but can also be short-term local expectancies, such as the previous sound heard. In this paper, I present original electrophysiological data illustrating the early...

  20. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  1. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig unders...

  2. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  3. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...

  4. Neurobiology: Sounding the Alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Pascal; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-09-21

    Acoustical analysis has revealed a peculiar pattern of energy distribution in human screams; behavioral and neuroimaging data suggest that this pattern is associated with rapid and enhanced processing of sound cues signalling fear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sounds of the Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough-Brabson, Ellen; Achilles, Elayne; Ashcraft, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the program called "Sounds of the Desert" that celebrates the Southwest indigenous culture and focuses on understanding music in relation to history and culture. Emphasizes the study of Mariachi music that is being taught alongside band, orchestra, and chorus from the third grade to senior high in many Tucson (Arizona) schools.…

  6. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live...

  7. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  8. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  9. Making Sense of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  10. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  11. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  12. MULTIMEDIA CARTOGRAPHY: MAPS WITH SOUND DESIGN AND SOUND MAPS

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Medvedev

    2013-01-01

     Today,sound maps is not so popular like other and not so interested for social oriented projects. Basically only these typesof thematic maps are use sound like the way of representation: political, zoogeographical, vegetation, ethnographic isthe most meeting application of sound registration to maps. In this article a new way of presenting the terrain with sound that is designed for interactive maps with audio support for disabled people is described. The method is based on a comparison betw...

  13. Just How Does Sound Wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    When children first hear the term "sound wave" perhaps they might associate it with the way a hand waves or perhaps the squiggly line image on a television monitor when sound recordings are being made. Research suggests that children tend to think sound somehow travels as a discrete package, a fast-moving invisible thing, and not something that…

  14. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  15. Data sonification and sound visualization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.; Wiebel, E.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Illinois

    1999-07-01

    Sound can help us explore and analyze complex data sets in scientific computing. The authors describe a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis (Diass) and a program to visualize sounds in a virtual reality environment (M4Cave). Both are part of a comprehensive music composition environment that includes additional software for computer-assisted composition and automatic music notation.

  16. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  17. Sound spectral analysis of voice-transmitted sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, R P; Loudon, R G

    1986-07-01

    There is a change in voice-generated sound heard over an area of pulmonary consolidation described as the "e" to "a" change. The lung may act as a low pass filter with properties that are changed by consolidation. We studied 5 patients with pneumonia. Using an electronic stethoscope, we recorded the voice-generated sounds "e" and "9-9-9." Sound spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transformation technique was used to characterize the frequency spectrum of the recorded sound. This technique allowed us to evaluate the filter properties of the normal and consolidated lung. We found that the normal lung allowed transmission of sound as high as 250 Hz with a gradual cutoff by 400 Hz. The consolidated lung allowed transmission of sound of a higher frequency; however, there was no significant transmission of sound with a frequency higher than 1,000 Hz.

  18. Sound for Health

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  19. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    -max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  20. Synchronization of sound sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Markus; Ahnert, Karsten; Bergweiler, Steffen

    2009-09-11

    Sound generation and interaction are highly complex, nonlinear, and self-organized. Nearly 150 years ago Rayleigh raised the following problem: two nearby organ pipes of different fundamental frequencies sound together almost inaudibly with identical pitch. This effect is now understood qualitatively by modern synchronization theory M. Abel et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2467 (2006)10.1121/1.2170441]. For a detailed investigation, we substituted one pipe by an electric speaker. We observe that even minute driving signals force the pipe to synchronization, thus yielding three decades of synchronization-the largest range ever measured to our knowledge. Furthermore, a mutual silencing of the pipe is found, which can be explained by self-organized oscillations, of use for novel methods of noise abatement. Finally, we develop a reconstruction method which yields a perfect quantitative match of experiment and theory.

  1. Optimal Sound Absorbing Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Min; Fu, Caixing; Sheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Causal nature of the acoustic response, for any materials or structures, dictates an inequality that relates the absorption spectrum of the sample to its thickness. We present a general recipe for constructing sound-absorbing structures that can attain near-equality for the causal relation with very high absorption performance; such structures are denoted optimal. Our strategy involves using carefully designed acoustic metamaterials as backing to a thin layer of conventional sound absorbing material, e.g., acoustic sponge. By using this design approach, we have realized a 12 cm-thick structure that exhibits broadband, near-perfect flat absorption spectrum starting at around 400 Hz. From the causal relation, the calculated minimum sample thickness is 11.5 cm for the observed absorption spectrum. We present the theory that underlies such absorption performance, involving the evanescent waves and their interaction with a dissipative medium, and show the excellent agreement with the experiment.

  2. Synchronization of Sound Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Markus; Ahnert, Karsten; Bergweiler, Steffen

    2009-09-01

    Sound generation and interaction are highly complex, nonlinear, and self-organized. Nearly 150 years ago Rayleigh raised the following problem: two nearby organ pipes of different fundamental frequencies sound together almost inaudibly with identical pitch. This effect is now understood qualitatively by modern synchronization theory M. Abel et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2467 (2006)JASMAN0001-496610.1121/1.2170441]. For a detailed investigation, we substituted one pipe by an electric speaker. We observe that even minute driving signals force the pipe to synchronization, thus yielding three decades of synchronization—the largest range ever measured to our knowledge. Furthermore, a mutual silencing of the pipe is found, which can be explained by self-organized oscillations, of use for novel methods of noise abatement. Finally, we develop a reconstruction method which yields a perfect quantitative match of experiment and theory.

  3. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  4. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors ......, and can therefore be utilized outside the laboratory setting. A first experimental evaluation indicates that the device can effectively modulate the perception of the ground surface during walking, thereby, inducing changes in the gait of healthy subjects....

  5. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  6. Synaesthetic metaphors and sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Primožič

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a phenomenon called synaesthetic metaphors, in which one sensory modality is described in terms of another (e.g. bright sound, sharp taste, sweet smell. The aim of the research, based on the contrastive analysis of Slovenian and French music reviews, is to determine which sense domains are employed for (synaesthetic description of sound, more precisely music, and how frequent they are. In this regard the paper examines the directionality principle according to which more concrete and more accessible lower senses (touch, taste, smell tend to map onto less concrete and less accessible higher senses (sound, sight. Furthermore, the analysis focuses on two other aspects: the conventionality of synaesthetic metaphors and their connotative meaning. Since the source and target domain in synaesthetic transfers belong to sense domains, the paper emphasizes the experiential – i.e. perceptive, cognitive, and sociocultural – dimension of this phenomenon, with regard to which rises the main question concerning the universal and cultural tendencies of synaesthetic metaphors.

  7. Feedback control of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    This thesis is concerned with the development an application of feedback control techniques for active sound control. Both fixed and adaptive controllers are considered. The controller design problem for active sound control is formulated as a constrained optimisation problem with an H2 performance objective, of minimising the variance of the control error, and H2 and H∞ design constraints involving control power output, disturbance enhancement, and robust stability. An Internal Model Controller with an FIR control filter is assumed. Conventional H2 design methods for feedback controllers are studied first. Although such controllers can satisfy the design constraints by employing effort terms in the quadratic cost function, they do not achieve the best possible performance, and when adapted using LMS-based algorithms, they suffer from instabilities if the plant response varies significantly. Improved H2/H∞ design methods for fixed and adaptive controllers are then developed, which achieve the best H2 performance under the design constraints, offer an improved stability when made adaptive, and in general outperform the conventional H2 controllers. The H2/H∞ design problems employ convex programming to ensure a unique solution. The Sequential Quadratic Programming methods is used for the off-line design of fixed controllers, and penalty and barrier function methods, together with frequency domain LMS-based algorithms are employed in the H2/H∞ adaptive controllers. The controllers studied and developed here were applied to three active sound control systems: a noise-reducing headset, an active headrest, and a sound radiating panel. The emphasis was put on developing control strategies that improve system performance. First, a high performance controller for the noise-reducing headset was implemented in real-time, which combines analogue and adaptive digital controllers, and can thus reject disturbances which has both broad-band and periodic components. Then

  8. Interpolated Sounding and Gridded Sounding Value-Added Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toto, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Standard Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sounding files provide atmospheric state data in one dimension of increasing time and height per sonde launch. Many applications require a quick estimate of the atmospheric state at higher time resolution. The INTERPOLATEDSONDE (i.e., Interpolated Sounding) Value-Added Product (VAP) transforms sounding data into continuous daily files on a fixed time-height grid, at 1-minute time resolution, on 332 levels, from the surface up to a limit of approximately 40 km. The grid extends that high so the full height of soundings can be captured; however, most soundings terminate at an altitude between 25 and 30 km, above which no data is provided. Between soundings, the VAP linearly interpolates atmospheric state variables in time for each height level. In addition, INTERPOLATEDSONDE provides relative humidity scaled to microwave radiometer (MWR) observations.

  9. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...

  10. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  11. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  12. THE SOUNDING WATERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2018-01-01

    Church as harmonious moving waters. This vision is shared both by the Eastern and the Western world. With its renewed marble revetments, Aquasgrani still conveys the appearance of the Ambrosian vision of the primordial waters. The church is constructed according to propria dispositione, this is...... and non-sounding phenomena (the figures of choreography). Finally, the paper unveils a dramatization of two choreographies (one physical, another incorporeal, of the soul) unfolding in the space of Aachen which becomes the stage for a Gesamtkunstwerk performance where music and words, and each stone joins...

  13. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  14. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having...... to the immediate demands of the sounding environment. The resulting neural adaptations in musicians closely depend on the duration of the interactions, the starting age, the involvement of attention, the amount of motor practice and the musical genre played....

  15. Looming sounds are perceived as faster than receding sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhoff, John G

    2016-01-01

    Each year thousands of people are killed by looming motor vehicles. Throughout our evolutionary history looming objects have posed a threat to survival and perceptual systems have evolved unique solutions to confront these environmental challenges. Vision provides an accurate representation of time-to-contact with a looming object and usually allows us to interact successfully with the object if required. However, audition functions as a warning system and yields an anticipatory representation of arrival time, indicating that the object has arrived when it is still some distance away. The bias provides a temporal margin of safety that allows more time to initiate defensive actions. In two studies this bias was shown to influence the perception of the speed of looming and receding sound sources. Listeners heard looming and receding sound sources and judged how fast they were moving. Listeners perceived the speed of looming sounds as faster than that of equivalent receding sounds. Listeners also showed better discrimination of the speed of looming sounds than receding sounds. Finally, close sounds were perceived as faster than distant sounds. The results suggest a prioritization of the perception of the speed of looming and receding sounds that mirrors the level of threat posed by moving objects in the environment.

  16. Walrus Movements in Smith Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Flora, Janne; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2017-01-01

    Fifty of 58 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) instrumented with satellite-linked transmitters in four areas in eastern Smith Sound, Northwest Greenland, during May and June of 2010 – 13 and 2015 provided data for this study. These animals departed from the feeding banks along the Greenland...... coast in June – July (average 14th June), simultaneously with the disappearance of sea ice from these areas. Most of them moved to Canadian waters in western Smith Sound. The most frequently used summering grounds were along the coasts of Ellesmere Island: on the eastern coast, the area around Alexandra...... of Jones Sound and Lancaster Sound for short periods during the summer, though this cannot be confirmed with certainty. The return migration from western Smith Sound to the wintering area in eastern Smith Sound takes place in October. The tracked walrus showed high affinity to coastal areas, while walruses...

  17. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-02-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are most familiar to students, such as human voices and musical instruments. Fortunately, several sound spectrum analysis programs are available that can bridge this gap.2

  18. Statistics of Natural Binaural Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor Młynarski; Jürgen Jost

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment....

  19. Natural statistics of binaural sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural time (ITD) and level (ILD) disparities at pure frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. In order to process...

  20. Sound simulaton of granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Marko, Matej

    2013-01-01

    Title: Sound simulation of granular materials Author: Matej Marko Department: Department of Software and Computer Science Education Supervisor: doc. Ing. Jaroslav Křivánek Ph.D., Department of Software and Computer Science Education Abstract: In recent years, methods for simulating sounds of solid objects, fluids, fire and cloth have been developed. These methods extend existing methods for simulation of the visual behaviour of the respective phenomena and add physically based sounds that cor...

  1. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  2. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  3. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  4. Interpolated Sounding and Gridded Sounding Value-Added Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toto, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jensen, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Standard Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sounding files provide atmospheric state data in one dimension of increasing time and height per sonde launch. Many applications require a quick estimate of the atmospheric state at higher time resolution. The INTERPOLATEDSONDE (i.e., Interpolated Sounding) Value-Added Product (VAP) transforms sounding data into continuous daily files on a fixed time-height grid, at 1-minute time resolution, on 332 levels, from the surface up to a limit of approximately 40 km. The grid extends that high so the full height of soundings can be captured; however, most soundings terminate at an altitude between 25 and 30 km, above which no data is provided. Between soundings, the VAP linearly interpolates atmospheric state variables in time for each height level. In addition, INTERPOLATEDSONDE provides relative humidity scaled to microwave radiometer (MWR) observations.The INTERPOLATEDSONDE VAP, a continuous time-height grid of relative humidity-corrected sounding data, is intended to provide input to higher-order products, such as the Merged Soundings (MERGESONDE; Troyan 2012) VAP, which extends INTERPOLATEDSONDE by incorporating model data. The INTERPOLATEDSONDE VAP also is used to correct gaseous attenuation of radar reflectivity in products such as the KAZRCOR VAP.

  5. A Study of Sound Contents Development based On Analysis and Compare Foley Sound to Actual Sound of Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Ik-Soo Ahn; Seong-Geon Bae; Myung-Jin Bae

    2015-01-01

    Foley sound of wind is often used as a background sound of radio drama in early period of broadcasting. It is one of the tools that has applied the most creative and scientific theory. This research provides scientific proof on similarities and creativity of Foley sound of wind through comparison and analysis of Foley sound and the actual wind sound.

  6. The monster sound pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  7. Sound, memory and interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...... attending to the project’s material form as a time-based sonic work designed to last one hundred years, and through considering its dynamic relations with the pasts, presents and futures of the area as the city itself changes....

  8. Basic semantics of product sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  9. Entropic "sound" in the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Apostol, B. -F.; Stefan, S.; Apostol, M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that small, local disturbances of entropy in the atmosphere may give rise to "sound" waves propagating with a velocity which depends on the amplitude ratio of the local relative variations of temperature and volume. This velocity is much smaller than the mean molecular velocity and the usual, adiabatic sound velocity.

  10. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  11. Applications of Sound Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    The physics of sound is often studied in introductory physics class experiments involving a tube of resonating air. In typical setups, pistons control the length of a cylindrical space or a microphone is moved within a tube. While these activities are useful and can be made very quantitative, they don't directly demonstrate the sounds that are…

  12. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  13. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  14. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  15. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    -scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview......Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create...

  16. Dimensions of vehicle sounds perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Foehl, Ulrich

    2017-10-01

    Vehicle sounds play an important role concerning customer satisfaction and can show another differentiating factor of brands. With an online survey of 1762 German and American customers, the requirement characteristics of high-quality vehicle sounds were determined. On the basis of these characteristics, a requirement profile was generated for every analyzed sound. These profiles were investigated in a second study with 78 customers using real vehicles. The assessment results of the vehicle sounds can be represented using the dimensions "timbre", "loudness", and "roughness/sharpness". The comparison of the requirement profiles and the assessment results show that the sounds which are perceived as pleasant and high-quality, more often correspond to the requirement profile. High-quality sounds are characterized by the fact that they are rather gentle, soft and reserved, rich, a bit dark and not too rough. For those sounds which are assessed worse by the customers, recommendations for improvements can be derived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  18. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  19. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  20. Neural processing of natural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Frédéric E; Elie, Julie E

    2014-06-01

    We might be forced to listen to a high-frequency tone at our audiologist's office or we might enjoy falling asleep with a white-noise machine, but the sounds that really matter to us are the voices of our companions or music from our favourite radio station. The auditory system has evolved to process behaviourally relevant natural sounds. Research has shown not only that our brain is optimized for natural hearing tasks but also that using natural sounds to probe the auditory system is the best way to understand the neural computations that enable us to comprehend speech or appreciate music.

  1. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    drill Brushing teeth Coin in glass Electric lock Bubbles Coins falling Electric saw cutting Bugle Coins shook Falling stone Burp Comb Fan...report is to establish what properties of environmental sounds are important to document for the purposes of a database. We end this discussion by...measurement standards for those recordings are included here. It is important to point out that creation of an environmental sound database is a complex

  2. Understanding the developing sound system: interactions between sounds and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne; Zamuner, Tania S

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of the first 2 years of life, infants are learning a great deal about the sound system of their native language. Acquiring the sound system requires the infant to learn about sounds and their distributions, sound combinations, and prosodic information, such as syllables, rhythm, and stress. These aspects of the phonological system are being learned simultaneously as the infant experiences the language around him or her. What binds all of the phonological units is the context in which they occur, namely, words. In this review, we explore the development of phonetics and phonology by showcasing the interactive nature of the developing lexicon and sound system with a focus on perception. We first review seminal research in the foundations of phonological development. We then discuss early word recognition and learning followed by a discussion of phonological and lexical representations. We conclude by discussing the interactive nature of lexical and phonological representations and highlight some further directions for exploring the developing sound system. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:589-602. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1307 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Wind turbine sound power measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides experimental validation of the sound power level data obtained from manufacturers for the ten wind turbine models examined in Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study (CNHS). Within measurement uncertainty, the wind turbine sound power levels measured using IEC 61400-11 [(2002). (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva)] were consistent with the sound power level data provided by manufacturers. Based on measurements, the sound power level data were also extended to 16 Hz for calculation of C-weighted levels. The C-weighted levels were 11.5 dB higher than the A-weighted levels (standard deviation 1.7 dB). The simple relationship between A- and C- weighted levels suggests that there is unlikely to be any statistically significant difference between analysis based on either C- or A-weighted data.

  4. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  5. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  6. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals.

  7. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  8. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummer, Steven A.; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity-time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field.

  9. [Sound levels in nursery schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysel-Gosepath, K; Pape, H G; Erren, T; Thinschmidt, M; Lehmacher, W; Piekarski, C

    2010-10-01

    Children and teenagers often suffer from hearing loss because of exposure to sound levels above 100 dB generated by toys, portable music players and stereo equipment in discotheques. Even in nursery schools and schools, considerable noise levels are produced by children's voices. Sound levels were measured in a nursery school in Cologne in four different rooms, each with 22 children aged between 3 and 6 years and two teachers. Sound dosimeters detected sound levels in each room for 5 days of the week. These were positioned in the room above the playing children as well as near the teachers' ears. The same measurements were repeated after the children had been instructed about noise and possible noise damage. In addition, the children were now able watch the "noise lights", an instrument resembling traffic lights which translated the sound levels actually measured in their room into optical signals. A questionnaire containing 13 questions about noise and sensitivity to noise was distributed to 35 teachers at nursery schools in the Cologne municipal area. Mean sound levels of an 8-h/day measuring period (L(eq)) were 80.1 ± 2.3 dB(A) near the ear of the teacher and 70.87 ± 2.5 dB(A) measured in the room. The maximal sound level for 1 s, L(max) dB(A), was 112.55 ± 2.3 dB(A) near the ear and 103.77 ± 8.1 dB(A) in the room. After the children had learned about noise and were able to check the sound level they produced with the help of the "noise lights", a tendency towards a reduction of sound levels in the room and near the teachers' ears could be seen. An evaluation of the questionnaire revealed the high physical strain and emotional stress the teachers were subjected to due to noise. Children and teachers in nursery schools are subjected to high sound levels. Therefore, the education and early sensitization of children to noise in order to prevent prospective hearing damage, e.g. using the "noise light", should be set as a goal. Soundproofing measures are also

  10. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  11. Auditory Perception of Statistically Blurred Sound Textures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    Sound textures have been identified as a category of sounds which are processed by the peripheral auditory system and captured with running timeaveraged statistics. Although sound textures are temporally homogeneous, they offer a listener with enough information to identify and differentiate...... sources. This experiment investigated the ability of the auditory system to identify statistically blurred sound textures and the perceptual relationship between sound textures. Identification performance of statistically blurred sound textures presented at a fixed blur increased over those presented...... as a gradual blur. The results suggests that the correct identification of sound textures is influenced by the preceding blurred stimulus. These findings draw parallels to the recognition of blurred images....

  12. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...... separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...

  13. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  14. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  15. Sound source tracking device for telematic spatial sound field reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Bruno

    This research describes an algorithm that localizes sound sources for use in telematic applications. The localization algorithm is based on amplitude differences between various channels of a microphone array of directional shotgun microphones. The amplitude differences will be used to locate multiple performers and reproduce their voices, which were recorded at close distance with lavalier microphones, spatially corrected using a loudspeaker rendering system. In order to track multiple sound sources in parallel the information gained from the lavalier microphones will be utilized to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio between each performer and the concurrent performers.

  16. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  17. Tracheal Sounds Acquisition Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersain A. Reyes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal sounds have received a lot of attention for estimating ventilation parameters in a non-invasive way. The aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of extracting accurate airflow, and automating the detection of breath-phase onset and respiratory rates all directly from tracheal sounds acquired from an acoustic microphone connected to a smartphone. We employed the Samsung Galaxy S4 and iPhone 4s smartphones to acquire tracheal sounds from N = 9 healthy volunteers at airflows ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 L/s. We found that the amplitude of the smartphone-acquired sounds was highly correlated with the airflow from a spirometer, and similar to previously-published studies, we found that the increasing tracheal sounds’ amplitude as flow increases follows a power law relationship. Acquired tracheal sounds were used for breath-phase onset detection and their onsets differed by only 52 ± 51 ms (mean ± SD for Galaxy S4, and 51 ± 48 ms for iPhone 4s, when compared to those detected from the reference signal via the spirometer. Moreover, it was found that accurate respiratory rates (RR can be obtained from tracheal sounds. The correlation index, bias and limits of agreement were r2 = 0.9693, 0.11 (−1.41 to 1.63 breaths-per-minute (bpm for Galaxy S4, and r2 = 0.9672, 0.097 (–1.38 to 1.57 bpm for iPhone 4s, when compared to RR estimated from spirometry. Both smartphone devices performed similarly, as no statistically-significant differences were found.

  18. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Liping; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  19. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...... and discusses the sources of error in measurement of sound intensity and the resulting limitations imposed on various applications of such measurements. Finally, some unresolved problems are mentioned, and the possibility of improving the instrumentation is discussed....

  20. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  1. Patterns of fish sound production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David A.

    2003-04-01

    While vocalization and chorusing behavior has been intensively studied in frogs and birds, little has been done with fishes. This paper presents patterns of sound production in damselfish, toadfish, and spotted seatrout on seasonal, daily, and subdaily time scales. Chorus behavior ranges from highly coordinated behavior between neighboring toadfish to uncoordinated behavior in spotted seatrout. Differences in coordination of sound production (i.e., the degree of overlap in calls) can be related to differences in territoriality and modes of reproduction. Toadfish and damselfish are territorial fishes in which males guard benthic eggs laid in nests. Sciaenids (croakers and drums) spawn planktonic eggs, and form temporary aggregations of calling males.

  2. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  3. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...... with microphones mounted on the musician’s ears and recorded digitally. The recorded sound was analysed and the specific sound exposure of the left and the right ear was determined for the musicians. A total of 114 measurements covering 106 h were recorded in two symphony orchestras.Results: Sound exposure depends...

  4. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  5. Transcoding sound to spelling: single or multiple sound unit correspondence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, D M; Warrington, E K

    1987-03-01

    We report a detailed analysis of the written spelling of an aphasic patient, KT, in whom no viable comprehension could be demonstrated despite accurate repetition and fluent speech (transcortical sensory aphasia). His spelling conformed in all respects with the definition of an orthographic/lexical dysgraphic such that his writing of regular, orthographically unambiguous words and nonsense syllables was entirely satisfactory. Lexical variables such as word class or word frequency had no effect on his performance. Irregular or ambiguously spelled words were selectively impaired. An independent measure of orthographical ambiguity was defined in relation to the frequency with which a phoneme was represented by a particular grapheme and the number of alternative graphemes for the same sound. For the majority of sounds studied, KT was able to demonstrate the use of all the most frequent alternative transcoding units for each sound but he did not use them in the same frequency with which they occurred in written English. Thus his performance bore little or no relationship to predictions based on single phoneme/grapheme counts and there was unequivocal evidence for his ability to use multiple sound-unit correspondences.

  6. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  7. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lemaitre

    Full Text Available Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by through a different system (the voice apparatus. The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products, human vocal imitations, and computational "auditory sketches" (created by algorithmic computations. The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access

  8. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  9. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"

  10. Product sound design in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, L.H.; Jansen, R.J.; van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product Sound Design is an elective course of the Master of Industrial Design Engineering at the Delft University of Technology. The educational goal of the course is to make students consciously aware of constructive parts in the design of appliances. The paper details the experience and the design

  11. Optical Measurement Of Sound Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene H.; Gaspar, Mark; Leung, Emily W.

    1989-01-01

    Noninvasive technique does not disturb field it measures. Sound field deflects laser beam proportionally to its amplitude. Knife edge intercepts undeflected beam, allowing only deflected beam to reach photodetector. Apparatus calibrated by comparing output of photodetector with that of microphone. Optical technique valuable where necessary to measure in remote, inaccessible, or hostile environment or to avoid perturbation of measured region.

  12. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interestingly, anatomical studies of the adult human brain indi- cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, speech and environment noise are processed in areas that are anatomically distinct [2]. However, the reasons for this kind of functional organization are not clearly identified.

  13. Sounding Off and Lighting Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Teaching about light and sound is to teach about the processes of hearing and seeing. In considering the kinds of leading questions that we might ask in teaching, I suggest that a rethinking of how we consider the contribution of the energetic descriptions to this area will probably help to make these questions more fruitful. A subtly changed…

  14. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  15. The actuation of sound change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinget, A.C.H.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is a sociophonetic study on sound change in progress. It addresses the actuation problem, i.e. the question as to why a particular change takes place in a particular language at a given time. The study is implemented in the framework of exemplar-based theories, which incorporates

  16. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  17. Sound is Multi-Dimensional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive Music at Music Therapy, AAU. 20 of these have sound files as well. The work thus serves as an anthology of this form of composition. All the compositions are systematically presented according to parameters: pitch, duration, dynamics, timbre, density, pulse-no pulse, tempo, stylistic...

  18. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  19. Intercepting a sound without vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Vercillo

    Full Text Available Visual information is extremely important to generate internal spatial representations. In the auditory modality, the absence of visual cues during early infancy does not preclude the development of some spatial strategies. However, specific spatial abilities might result impaired. In the current study, we investigated the effect of early visual deprivation on the ability to localize static and moving auditory stimuli by comparing sighted and early blind individuals' performance in different spatial tasks. We also examined perceptual stability in the two groups of participants by matching localization accuracy in a static and a dynamic head condition that involved rotational head movements. Sighted participants accurately localized static and moving sounds. Their localization ability remained unchanged after rotational movements of the head. Conversely, blind participants showed a leftward bias during the localization of static sounds and a little bias for moving sounds. Moreover, head movements induced a significant bias in the direction of head motion during the localization of moving sounds. These results suggest that internal spatial representations might be body-centered in blind individuals and that in sighted people the availability of visual cues during early infancy may affect sensory-motor interactions.

  20. The Sound/Music Dilemma: Why Is It That All Music Is Sound but Only Some Sounds Are Music?

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Velardo

    2014-01-01

    Even if sound and music are deeply intertwined phenomena, it is still fiercely debated whether all music is made up of sound, and vice versa, whether all sound can be deemed as music. Researchers from many different backgrounds have proposed numerous solutions to the conundrum; however, most of them analyse music and sound out of their natural context, ignoring not negligible variables such as listeners and cognitive constraints. \\ud \\ud This paper fills this gap, by introducing a theoretical...

  1. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  2. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  3. Water sound recognition based on physical models

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Patrice; PINQUIER, Julien; André-Obrecht, Régine

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an audio signal processing algorithm to detect water sounds, built in the context of a larger system aiming to monitor daily activities of elderly people. While previous proposals for water sound recognition relied on classical machine learning and generic audio features to characterize water sounds as a flow texture, we describe here a recognition system based on a physical model of air bubble acoustics. This system is able to recognize a wide variety of water sounds a...

  4. The loudness of decaying impulsive sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Rice, C. G.

    1987-08-01

    In the case of short duration sounds it is well known that temporal loudness summation occurs within a certain time period (i.e., critical duration), and a trade-off relationship is established between the sound intensity and the duration of the sound. Therefore, for the estimation of the loudness of brief sounds such as impulsive noise the temporal loudness summation must be considered. This paper deals with artificial impulsive sounds with a relatively short rise time and a long decay, as usually observed for actual impulsive sounds, and whether the loudness of an impulsive sound is determined by the peak level of the sound or by the total energy of the sound including the decaying part. L AX in ISO 1996, which is the single event exposure level, is chosen as an energy index of the sound in this paper. It is probable, however, that the time varying pattern of the sound or auditory after effect has an effect on the loudness of impulsive sounds. Such effects, however, are not reflected either in L AX or in the peak level measurement. Accordingly additional experiments have been carried out to examine the temporal characteristics of the hearing mechanism in relation to the loudness of impulsive sounds. As a result, it seems that L AX is a good measure of the loudness of impulsive sounds which are not too short, but when the duration of the sound is less than 60 ms the contribution of the auditory after-effect on the loudness needs to be taken into consideration. No relation could be found between the peak level and the loudness of impulsive sounds.

  5. Sound objects in time, space and action

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, N.

    2011-01-01

    SOUND OBJECTS IN TIME, SPACE AND ACTIONThe term "sound object" describes an auditory experience that is associated with an acoustic event produced by a sound source. At cortical level, sound objects are represented by temporo-spatial activity patterns within distributed neural networks. This investigation concerns temporal, spatial and action aspects as assessed in normal subjects using electrical imaging or measurement of motor activity induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).Hear...

  6. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments N. Ross...our understanding of the interaction of sound with the ocean bottom is the frequency dependence of sound speed and attenuation in marine sediments...The long term goals of this research project are related to the investigation of dispersion of sound speed and attenuation at low frequencies (< 2

  7. SOME FEATURES OF PERCEPTION OF SCREEN SOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poznin Vitaly F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the specifics psychological features of a viewer's perception of screen image and screen sound. Also it reveals the degree of an artistic convention which is necessary for creating the sound image in films. Using extensive empirical material, the author explores the evolution of sound aesthetics in movies and he analyzes some aspects of the interaction between technological and creative parts of the on-screen sounds.

  8. MegaSound: Sound in Irish megalithic buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijs, Victor

    2002-11-01

    Stimulated by the studies done by Paul Deveraux and Robert Jahn, research has been conducted on the sound properties of two megalithic chambers is Ireland: Dowth South and Fourknocks I. As reference measurements two normal rooms (bed- and bathroom) have been studied. The following aspects will be covered in the presentation: some theoretical background on acoustical modes (within a passage, a chamber, and a combination of them: Helmholtz resonator); tips for doing sound experiments inside megalithic chambers (like: equipment, measurement software, power provisioning and calibrating); frequency response measurements (between 20 and 200 Hz) for the surveyed chambers/rooms; comparison of the results with other researchers' results; background on the pitch of the human (male, female, and child) voices in neolithic times and recommendations for future research. The presentation also provides insight in the aeralization (simulation) of sound in a megalithic chamber, covering: software that can do these simulations; issues in finding the basic information, e.g., acoustic absorption coefficients and provide examples of the results. I would like to thank all the people who have provided constructive feedback on my work (http://www.iol.ie/approxgeniet/eng/megasound.htm).

  9. Refraction of Sound in the Atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2006-01-01

    It is natural to think that the path sound travels is more or less straight. Certainly sound “leaks” around buildings and reflects from walls but, for the most part, when you hear a sound, you know where to look to find the source...

  10. REFLECTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES FROM SOUND WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reflection of electromagnetic waves normally incident on the wavefronts of a semi-infinite standing sound wave is discussed. By analogy with the...with the sound frequency. An experiment is described in which the Bragg reflection of 3 cm electromagnetic waves from a standing sound wave beneath a water surface is observed.

  11. 46 CFR 108.701 - Sounding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sounding equipment. 108.701 Section 108.701 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.701 Sounding equipment. Each self-propelled unit must have a mechanical or electronic sounding apparatus. ...

  12. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  13. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  14. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  15. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William Sound...

  16. Research on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous metal materials are widely used in noise control with high sound pressure applications such as aircraft engine liners and combustion chambers for rocket engines due to their excellent performance of sound absorption characteristics and distinguished advantages in heat resistance, lightness, and stiffness. Understanding the effect of sound pressure on the acoustic properties of these materials is crucial when attempting to predict silencer performance. In this article, we experimentally investigate the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure level. The effects of material parameters on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials under high sound pressure level are further explored experimentally. Measurements are carried out by using a standard impedance tube that has been modified to accommodate sound pressure level of up to 150 dB. The experimental results show that with the increase in sound pressure level, the effect of sound pressure level on the sound absorption characteristics yields different variation regularities in different frequencies. The sound absorption performance of porous metal materials increases with the increase in sound pressure level in low frequency, which is reasonably consistent with the theoretical results. Under high sound pressure level, the sound absorption characteristics are significantly dependent upon the material parameters such as the metal fiber diameter, the material porosity, and the material thickness. It could provide a reliable experimental validation for the applications of porous metal materials in the area of vibration and noise control at high sound pressure levels.

  17. SOUNDS OF MODERN TALK AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the role of broadcasting from inception to the present day; he means a new historical round of mass media that links modern radio with 1920-30s radio. Art genres of broadcasting and TV news covered in the direct synthesis with information radio genres. In this case, a more organized and balanced sounding of contemporary information radio (order of texts, music-speech structure, and sound design has a more limited, local space in society. Radio is not only within national boundaries, but also within cultural, subcultural, narrow consumer boundaries. Hence the clear dominance of the road radio audience, as well as a return to the private broadcasting (mobiles, web-channels, podcasts.

  18. The Jindalee ionospheric sounding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, G. F.

    The objectives, geometry, and principles of the Jindalee FMCW ionospheric sounding system are described. The system is intended to collect sounding data (backscatter, oblique, vertical incidence) for a synoptic study of propagation conditions; data collection is to operate unattended 24 hours a day; all data are to be calibrated in absolute units; there are to be on-line displays and automated interpretation for real-time frequency management; and data are to be tape-recorded for off-line statistical analysis. The system provides the main radar with real-time propagating advice for the selection of optimum operating frequencies and acquires a synoptic data base for the off-line analysis of propagation conditions. Facilities of the system are located at Mt Everard (20 km northwest of Alice Springs), at Harts Range (100 km northeast of Alice Springs), and at Darwin. Ionograms and ionogram plots after computer cleanup are given.

  19. Sound Localization in Multisource Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    restricted sets of sound source locations are tested. Mounted directly in front of each loudspeaker on the sphere is a square cluster of four LEDs. 2.2.3...Stimuli The auditory stimuli employed in this experiment were 50 phonetically balanced (PB) monosyllabic words drawn from a single list of the PB50 word...5 which was subsequently used to record both detection and localization responses. An LED cluster , co-located with this reference loudspeaker, was

  20. SOUND ATTENUATION IN FERROELECTRIC SOLIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, U.; Semwal, B.

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the sound-attenuation constant in doped displacive ferroelectrics, in the presence of an external electric field, is obtained by using the double-time thermal- Green's -functions technique. The mass and force constant changes between the impurity and the host lattice atoms are taken into account in the Silverman Hamiltonian augmented with higher -order anharmonic and electric-moment terms. The defect-dependent, electric- field-dependent, and anharmonic contributions to the a...

  1. Sound Propagation in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Keith

    Propagation of sound close to the ground outdoors involves geometric spreading, air absorption, interaction with the ground, barriers, vegetation and refraction associated with wind and temperature gradients. After a brief survey of historical aspects of the study of outdoor sound and its applications, this chapter details the physical principles associated with various propagation effects, reviews data that demonstrate them and methods for predicting them. The discussion is concerned primarily with the relatively short ranges and spectra of interest when predicting and assessing community noise rather than the frequencies and long ranges of concern, for example, in infrasonic global monitoring or used for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Specific phenomena that are discussed include spreading losses, atmospheric absorption, diffraction by barriers and buildings, interaction of sound with the ground (ground waves, surface waves, ground impedance associated with porosity and roughness, and elasticity effects), propagation through crops, shrubs and trees, wind and temperature gradient effects, shadow zones and incoherence due to atmospheric turbulence. The chapter concludes by suggesting a few areas that require further research.

  2. Transient electromagnetic sounding for groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; Stewart, Mark T.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using the transient electromagnetic sounding (TS or TDEM) method for groundwater exploration can be studied by means of numerical models. As examples of its applicability to groundwater exploration, we study four groundwater exploration problems: (1) mapping of alluvial fill and gravel zones over bedrock; (2) mapping of sand and gravel lenses in till; (3) detection of salt or brackish water interfaces in freshwater aquifers; and (4) determination of hydrostratigraphy. These groundwater problems require determination of the depth to bedrock; location of resistive, high‐porosity zones associated with fresh water; determination of formation resistivity to assess water quality; and determination of lithology and geometry, respectively. The TS method is best suited for locating conductive targets, and has very good vertical resolution. Unlike other sounding techniques where the receiver‐transmitter array must be expanded to sound more deeply, the depth of investigation for the TS method is a function of the length of time the transient is recorded. Present equipment limitations require that exploration targets with resistivities of 50 Ω ⋅ m or more be at least 50 m deep to determine their resistivity. The maximum depth of exploration is controlled by the geoelectrical section and background electromagnetic (EM) noise. For a particular exploration problem, numerical studies are recommended to determine if the target is detectable.

  3. Sound oscillation of dropwise cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A.V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V.A.; Romanyuk, S.N. [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-04

    There was registered sound oscillation of a dropwise cluster formed over the warmed-up water surface. We have calculated the electrical charge of drops on the basis of experimental data on ion-sound oscillation. It was demonstrated that the charge is proportional to surface area of the drops and does not depend on intensity of their evaporation (condensation) in the range of 60–100 °C. The charge of drops reaches 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} units of elementary charge and coincides on magnitude order with the literary value of a charge calculated by another method. -- Highlights: ► The present investigation registered short-wave sound oscillations of water drops in a dropwise cluster in the range of 60–100 °C. ► We have found autocorrelation functions and Fourier transforms of time series of interdroplet distance; defined oscillation frequencies. ► Calculated electrical charge of drops and specified that the charge is proportional to the drop surface area.

  4. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  5. Looming sounds enhance orientation sensitivity for visual stimuli on the same side as such sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Fabrizio; Romei, Vincenzo; Freeman, Elliot; Ladavas, Elisabetta; Driver, Jon

    2011-09-01

    Several recent multisensory studies show that sounds can influence visual processing. Some visual judgments can be enhanced for visual stimuli near a sound occurring around the same time. A recent TMS study (Romei et al. 2009) indicates looming sounds might influence visual cortex particularly strongly. But unlike most previous behavioral studies of possible audio-visual exogenous effects, TMS phosphene thresholds rather than judgments of external visual stimuli were measured. Moreover, the visual hemifield assessed relative to the hemifield of the sound was not varied. Here, we compared the impact of looming sounds to receding or "static" sounds, using auditory stimuli adapted from Romei et al. (2009), but now assessing any influence on visual orientation discrimination for Gabor patches (well-known to involve early visual cortex) when appearing in the same hemifield as the sound or on the opposite side. The looming sounds that were effective in Romei et al. (2009) enhanced visual orientation sensitivity (d') here on the side of the sound, but not for the opposite hemifield. This crossmodal, spatially specific effect was stronger for looming than receding or static sounds. Similarly to Romei et al. (2009), the differential effect for looming sounds was eliminated when using white noise rather than structured sounds. Our new results show that looming structured sounds can specifically benefit visual orientation sensitivity in the hemifield of the sound, even when the sound provides no information about visual orientation itself.

  6. Sound production by singing humpback whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Eduardo; Schneider, Jennifer N; Pack, Adam A; Herman, Louis M

    2010-04-01

    Sounds from humpback whale songs were analyzed to evaluate possible mechanisms of sound production. Song sounds fell along a continuum with trains of discrete pulses at one end and continuous tonal signals at the other. This graded vocal repertoire is comparable to that seen in false killer whales [Murray et al. (1998). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 1679-1688] and human singers, indicating that all three species generate sounds by varying the tension of pneumatically driven, vibrating membranes. Patterns in the spectral content of sounds and in nonlinear sound features show that resonating air chambers may also contribute to humpback whale sound production. Collectively, these findings suggest that categorizing individual units within songs into discrete types may obscure how singers modulate song features and illustrate how production-based characterizations of vocalizations can provide new insights into how humpback whales sing.

  7. Material sound source localization through headphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, Larisa; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Lengua, Ismael Lengua; Montaña, Ignacio Tortajada

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper a study of sound localization is carried out, considering two different sounds emitted from different hit materials (wood and bongo) as well as a Delta sound. The motivation of this research is to study how humans localize sounds coming from different materials, with the purpose of a future implementation of the acoustic sounds with better localization features in navigation aid systems or training audio-games suited for blind people. Wood and bongo sounds are recorded after hitting two objects made of these materials. Afterwards, they are analysed and processed. On the other hand, the Delta sound (click) is generated by using the Adobe Audition software, considering a frequency of 44.1 kHz. All sounds are analysed and convolved with previously measured non-individual Head-Related Transfer Functions both for an anechoic environment and for an environment with reverberation. The First Choice method is used in this experiment. Subjects are asked to localize the source position of the sound listened through the headphones, by using a graphic user interface. The analyses of the recorded data reveal that no significant differences are obtained either when considering the nature of the sounds (wood, bongo, Delta) or their environmental context (with or without reverberation). The localization accuracies for the anechoic sounds are: wood 90.19%, bongo 92.96% and Delta sound 89.59%, whereas for the sounds with reverberation the results are: wood 90.59%, bongo 92.63% and Delta sound 90.91%. According to these data, we can conclude that even when considering the reverberation effect, the localization accuracy does not significantly increase.

  8. Sound sensitivity of neurons in rat hippocampus during performance of a sound-guided task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Ekaterina; Honey, Christian; Schnupp, Jan; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how hippocampal neurons encode sound stimuli, and the conjunction of sound stimuli with the animal's position in space, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they performed a sound discrimination task. Four different sounds were used, two associated with water reward on the right side of the animal and the other two with water reward on the left side. This allowed us to separate neuronal activity related to sound identity from activity related to response direction. To test the effect of spatial context on sound coding, we trained rats to carry out the task on two identical testing platforms at different locations in the same room. Twenty-one percent of the recorded neurons exhibited sensitivity to sound identity, as quantified by the difference in firing rate for the two sounds associated with the same response direction. Sensitivity to sound identity was often observed on only one of the two testing platforms, indicating an effect of spatial context on sensory responses. Forty-three percent of the neurons were sensitive to response direction, and the probability that any one neuron was sensitive to response direction was statistically independent from its sensitivity to sound identity. There was no significant coding for sound identity when the rats heard the same sounds outside the behavioral task. These results suggest that CA1 neurons encode sound stimuli, but only when those sounds are associated with actions. PMID:22219030

  9. Propagation of sound in oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Advilkar, P.J.

    to him for motivating me towards new ideas and I take this opportunity to express my indebtedness and respect to him. I would like to thank The Director of NIO, Dr. Satish Shetye for giving me a golden opportunity to carry out my internship in such a.... Thus, there are many reasons to study the oceans and benefit from it. Oceanographers map the sea floor features by using an echo- sounder. It emits sound pulses from the ship towards the bottom from where they are reflected to the surface...

  10. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  11. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  12. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... incident intensity distribution (directional diffusion or isotropy). In practice, reverberation chambers are assumed to be acoustically diffuse, and important acoustic quantities measured in there, i.e., sound absorption, scattering, transmission, and power, etc. However, the measured quantities vary...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....

  13. Sound and emotion in Milton's Paradise lost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2011-08-01

    This research was designed to test the hypothesis that Milton's poem Paradise Lost is meaningfully patterned with respect to sound. Thirty-six segments from 12 Books of Paradise Lost were scored (Whissell, 2000) in terms of their proportional use of Pleasant, Cheerful, Active, Nasty, Unpleasant, Sad, Passive, and Soft sounds. Paradise Lost includes more Active, Nasty, and Unpleasant sounds and fewer Pleasant, Passive, Soft, and Sad sounds than a representative sample of anthologized poetry. The way in which emotional sounds are patterned (e.g., the rise and fall in the proportion of Pleasant sounds across Books) suggests the presence of three narratives within the work: Sin and Salvation-Foreseen in Heaven (Books I-II), The Fall of Man (Books IV-IX), and Sin and Salvation-Foretold on Earth (Books X-XI). The poem analyzed had updated spelling, and the author's exact intentions when creating it are not accessible to direct investigation, for this among other reasons.

  14. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse sound field is a popular, yet widely misused concept. Although its definition is relatively well established, acousticians use this term for different meanings. The diffuse sound field is defined by a uniform sound pressure distribution (spatial diffusion or homogeneity) and uniform...... of mixing and diffuse sound field. Acousticians often refer diffuse reflections from surfaces to diffuseness in rooms, and vice versa. Subjective aspects of diffuseness have not been much investigated. Finally, ways to realize a diffuse sound field in a finite space are discussed....... incident intensity distribution (directional diffusion or isotropy). In practice, reverberation chambers are assumed to be acoustically diffuse, and important acoustic quantities measured in there, i.e., sound absorption, scattering, transmission, and power, etc. However, the measured quantities vary...

  15. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Launay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social.

  16. Vortices and sound waves in superfluids

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kimyeong

    1994-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of vortex strings and sound waves in superfluids in the phenomenological Landau-Ginzburg equation. We first derive the vortex equation where the velocity of a vortex is determined by the average fluid velocity and the density gradient near the vortex. We then derive the effective action for vortex strings and sound waves by the dual formulation. The effective action might be useful in calculating the emission rate of sound waves by moving vortex strings.

  17. The Automation of Sound Absorption Coefficient Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawanto, Denny; Suwandi, Achmad

    2006-01-01

    By manual method, the sound absorption coefficient measurement should be done by utilizing many type of equipment such as: measuring amplifier, level recorder, band-pass filter, protactor, etc. However it caused inefficient and need longer time in processing measurement data, therefore the automation system of sound absorption coefficient has been realized. An acoustical real time analyzer type B&K 2144 has been used to record the decay of sound pressure level, thus the processing data is dri...

  18. Physical measures of sound and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The physical measurement of sound is examined through basic definitions and measuring techniques. The terminology of acoustics is presented with noise characterization, graphs, and mathematical formulas included.

  19. Anisotropy and sound propagation in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1999-01-01

    Sound propagation in glass wool is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical computation of attenuation and phase velocity for plane, harmonic waves will be presented. Glass wool is a highly anisotropic material, and sound waves propagating in different directions in the material...... by regarding it as a continuous medium described by its elastic moduli and mass density. The computed attenuation of sound waves, for frequencies 50–5000 Hz, will be compared with experimental results for glass wool with fiber diameters of 6.8 micrometers, mass density of 15 and 30 kg/m3, and elastic moduli...... of 2000 and 16 000 Pa (sound wave vector perpendicular to fibers)....

  20. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  1. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  2. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part 1: Perception of Sound and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents the first of a series of articles that discuss the perception of sound and music. This series of articles is intended to provide an introduction to the broad subject of high-fidelity sound recording and reproduction. (HM)

  3. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound......-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound...... from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect...

  4. Sounds Scary? Lack of Habituation following the Presentation of Novel Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Biedenweg, Tine A.; Parsons, Michael H.; Fleming, Patricia A.; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Animals typically show less habituation to biologically meaningful sounds than to novel signals. We might therefore expect that acoustic deterrents should be based on natural sounds. METHODOLOGY: We investigated responses by western grey kangaroos (Macropus fulignosus) towards playback of natural sounds (alarm foot stomps and Australian raven (Corvus coronoides) calls) and artificial sounds (faux snake hiss and bull whip crack). We then increased rate of presentation to examine wh...

  5. Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Eja [Halmstad University and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 823, SE-301 18 Halmstad (Sweden); Van den Berg, Frits [GGD Amsterdam, P.O. Box 2200, 1000 CE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, A. Deusinglaan 1, 7913 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n=725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low. (author)

  6. Sound Synthesis and Evaluation of Interactive Footsteps and Environmental Sounds Rendering for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based ...... a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment....

  7. A modular wideband sound absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, G. D.

    The absorption coefficients were measured of various depths of RW2 grade Rockwool laid directly on the floor of the ISO-Standard reverberation room at BBC Research Department. The Rockwool was very effective as a wideband sound absorber. A new absorber was designed and tested, having the dimensions of the existing BBC type A modular absorbers and containing RW2 Rockwool. The new absorber has a smoother absorption coefficient curve, a less complicated construction, and weighs less than the existing BBC wideband absorber (type A8/A9). It has been named type A11 and has an equivalent performance to that of BBC type A2 and A3 absorbers combined. It complements, very well, the performance of the A10 very low frequency absorber, described in a companion Report (BBC RD No. 1992/10).

  8. Evaluation of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted with the goal of quantifying auditory attributes which underlie listener preference for multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to a panel of forty selected listeners. Scaling of auditory attributes......, as well as overall preference, was based on consistency tests of binary paired-comparison judgments and on modeling the choice frequencies using probabilistic choice models. As a result, the preferences of non-expert listeners could be measured reliably at a ratio scale level. Principal components derived...... from the quantified attributes predict overall preference well. The findings allow for some generalizations within musical program genres regarding the perception of and preference for certain spatial reproduction modes, but for limited generalizations across selections from different musical genres....

  9. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced......-intensity ultrasounds “whispered” by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked...

  10. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters. PMID:27312175

  11. Tuning sound with soft dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Eliana; Shmuel, Gal

    2017-04-01

    Soft dielectric tubes undergo large deformations when subjected to radial voltage. Using the theory of nonlinear electroelasticity, we investigate how voltage-controlled deformations of these tubes in an array alter acoustic wave propagation through it. We show that the propagation is annihilated across a certain audible frequency range, referred to as a sonic band gap. We carry out a numerical study, to find that the band gap depends nonlinearly on the voltage, owing to geometrical and material nonlinearities. By analyzing different mechanical constraints, we demonstrate that snap-through instabilities resulting from these nonlinearities can be harnessed to achieve sharp transitions in the gap width. Our conclusions hint at a new strategy to adaptively filter sound using a simple control parameter—an applied voltage.

  12. Visual illusion induced by sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Ladan; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2002-06-01

    We present the first cross-modal modification of visual perception which involves a phenomenological change in the quality-as opposed to a small, gradual, or quantitative change-of the percept of a non-ambiguous visual stimulus. We report a visual illusion which is induced by sound: when a single flash of light is accompanied by multiple auditory beeps, the single flash is perceived as multiple flashes. We present two experiments as well as several observations which establish that this alteration of the visual percept is due to cross-modal perceptual interactions as opposed to cognitive, attentional, or other origins. The results of the second experiment also reveal that the temporal window of these audio-visual interactions is approximately 100 ms.

  13. Sound Radiation of Cylindrical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Alzahabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic signature of submarines is very critical in such high performance structure. Submarines are not only required to sustain very high dynamic loadings at all time, but also being able maneuver and perform their functions under sea without being detected by sonar systems. Submarines rely on low acoustic signature level to remain undetected. Reduction of sound radiation is most efficiently achieved at the design stage. Acoustic signatures may be determined by considering operational scenarios, and modal characteristics. The acoustic signature of submarines is generally of two categories; broadband which has a continuous spectrum; and a tonal noise which has discrete frequencies. The nature of sound radiation of submarine is fiction of its speed. At low speed the acoustic signature is dominated by tonal noise, while at high speed, the acoustic signature is mainly dominated by broadband noise. Submarine hulls are mainly constructed of circular cylindrical shells. Unlike that of simpler structures such as beams and plates, the modal spectrum of cylindrical shell exhibits very unique characteristics. Mode crossing, the uniqueness of modal spectrum, and the redundancy of modal constraints are just to name a few. In cylindrical shells, the lowest natural frequency is not necessarily associated with the lowest wave index. In fact, the natural frequencies do not fall in ascending order of the wave index either. Solution of the vibration problem of cylindrical shells also indicates repeated natural frequencies. These modes are referred to as double peak frequencies. Mode shapes associated with each one of the natural frequencies are usually a combination of Radial (flexural, Longitudinal (axial, and Circumferential (torsional modes. In this paper, the wave equation will be set up in terms of the pressure fluctuations, p(x, t. It will be demonstrated that the noise radiation is a fluctuating pressure wave.

  14. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the psychophysics of sound localization and the spatial attributes of sound, attempting to explain some of the methods used to produce more realistic sound images. Topics include: direct and indirect sound; localization and sound images; precedence effect; and techniques for creating spaciousness and for sonic image enhancement. (JM)

  15. Dr. Seuss's Sound Words: Playing with Phonics and Spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Traci

    Boom! Br-r-ring! Cluck! Moo!--exciting sounds are everywhere. Whether visiting online sites that play sounds or taking a "sound hike," ask your students to notice the sounds they hear, then write their own book, using sound words, based on Dr. Seuss's "Mr. Brown Can MOO! Can You?" During the three 45-minute sessions, grade K-2…

  16. Product sounds : Basic concepts and categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.; Jacobs, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigated which categories of product sounds listeners can distinguish. We explored the perceptual domain of product sounds in order to be able to derive perceptually similar categories and determine how users are able to describe these categories by merely listening to them.

  17. The fundamentals of sound and its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Larry F

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide directors of animal care facilities with a basic understanding of some of the principles of acoustics and the measurement of sound. This knowledge likely will enable directors to work effectively with sound and hearing specialists at their institutions to monitor and control the acoustic environments of laboratory animal facilities.

  18. Nonexponential sound decay in concert halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanev, N. G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents acoustic measurement results for two concert halls in which nonexponential sound decay is observed. Quantitative estimates are given for how the obtained decay laws differ from exponential. Problems are discussed that arise when using reverberation time to assess the quality of room acoustics with nonexponential sound decay.

  19. Measuring the 'complexity'of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We categorize sounds with slowly varying spectral dynamics as simple and those with rapidly changing spectral dynamics as complex. We propose rate of spectral dynamics as a possible scheme to categorize sounds in the environment. ... National Brain Research Centre, NH-8, Nainwal Mode, Manesar 122 050, India ...

  20. Prospect of electric generation using sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qingyu

    2017-05-01

    Noise is also an important energy, but has been controlled for its harm. If noise can be made effective use of at the same time, there would be a large change in social life. Based on studies on converting sound to electricity over the years, some effective implements of electric generation using sound are put forward for the new situation of utilizing of noise.

  1. Representations of Sound in American Deaf Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and…

  2. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally

  3. Soundness of Timed-Arc Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Jose Antonio; Srba, Jiri; Sørensen, Mathias Grund

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of workflow processes with quantitative aspects like timing is of interest in numerous time-critical applications. We suggest a workflow model based on timed-arc Petri nets and study the foundational problems of soundness and strong (time-bounded) soundness. We explore the decidability o...

  4. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  5. ISEE : An Intuitive Sound Editing Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vertegaal, R.P.H.; Bonis, E.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents ISEE, an intuitive sound editing environment, as a general sound synthesis model based on expert auditory perception and cognition of musical instruments. It discusses the backgrounds of current synthesizer user interface design and related timbre space research. Of the three

  6. Effects of Sound on the Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    receptors and directly affects central nervous system nuclei. Visual, olfactory, and gustatory responses would be expected if sound directly affected the...AMRL-TR-75-89 EFFECTS OF SOUND ON THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM MIAMI UNIVERSITY NO OXFORD, OHIO 45056 MARCH 1976 | j...Approvedrfor public release: distribution unlimited AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY AEROSPACE MEDICAL DMSION Air Force Systems Command Wright.Patterson

  7. Waves and Sound, An Experiment that Walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunschwig, Fernand

    An experiment on sound waves, developed for non-science majors in a college physics course, is described. The student investigates the interference of two sound waves and measures and wavelength as he uses a prerecorded tape and a cassette player. The student is tutored by the cassette tape recorder, which also produces the overlapping sound…

  8. Long Island Sound Curricular Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Diana, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Long Island Sound is an estuary of national significance and provides important economic, recreational, and aesthetic value to the citizens of Connecticut and New York. Investigations have been conducted regarding living marine resources and nutrient loading. However, Long Island Sound is often overlooked as an educational resource. This guide is…

  9. The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    This thesis is about the perception of space in recorded music, with particular reference to stereo recordings of popular music. It explores how sound engineers create imaginary musical environments in which sounds appear to listeners in different ways. It also investigates some of the conditions...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR 51721, Nov...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr...

  12. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  13. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina Port...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.) ...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2298 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2298 Section 29.2298 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2298 Sound...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage. [37 FR 13626...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982, and at 49...

  18. 33 CFR 62.47 - Sound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.47 Sound signals. (a) Often sound signals are located on or adjacent to aids to navigation. When visual signals are obscured...

  19. Understanding Why People Enjoy Loud Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David; Fremaux, Guy

    2017-11-01

    Sounds at levels that can injure the ear are regarded as enjoyable by many people. In many societies, a common form of this behavior is listening to loud music, either via personal audio systems or at music venues. Drawing on theory from the literature around loud sound and emotional responses to music, and combining it with concepts of physiological sound adaptation and classical conditioning, we developed a model of the process that may underlie people's enjoyment of loud sound, particularly loud music in nightclubs. The Conditioning, Adaptation, and Acculturation to Loud Music (CAALM) model proposes that the benefits associated with loud sound, alongside other desirable aspects of nightclubs, provide the unconditioned stimuli. Over time regular clubbers become conditioned to enjoy loud sound in itself. Exposure to loud sound also causes adaptation within the auditory system, so there is both a desire for, and tolerance of, loud sound during leisure time. This sets up an expectation of loud music as a cultural norm, and staff of leisure venues, who are themselves part of that culture, set music levels to meet customer expectations; and a cycle is perpetuated. This theory may be a useful consideration for health promotion and hearing conservation interventions.

  20. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  1. THE SOUND OF CINEMA: TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poznin Vitaly F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is a means of creating any product. However, in the onscreen art, it is one of the elements creating the art space of film. Considering the main stages of the development of cinematography, this article explores the influence of technology of sound recording on the creating a special artistic and physical space of film (the beginning of the use a sound in movies; the mastering the artistic means of an audiovisual work; the expansion of the spatial characteristics for the screen sound; and the sound in a modern cinema. Today, thanks to new technologies, the sound in a cinema forms a specific quasirealistic landscape, greatly enhancing the impact on the viewer of the virtual screen images.

  2. Broadband sound pressure enhancement in passive metafluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Bogdan-Ioan

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic sensors operating in lossy environments, such as water, require significant sensitivity to overcome the sound attenuation in the environment and thus see farther. We show here that a surprisingly large class of passive fluids has the ability to enhance the sound pressure propagating inside them without employing active actuation. Specifically, the general requirements for this remarkable property are fluid impedance higher than the impedance of the environment and negligible insertion loss as sound propagates from the environment into the high impedance fluid. We demonstrate the pressure enhancing effect by designing a broadband isotropic metafluid that increases the pressure of sound waves impinging from water. We validate the design in numerical simulations showing that significant sound pressure level increases are achievable in realistic metafluid structures in large bandwidths covering several octaves. Our approach opens up unexplored avenues towards improving acoustic transducer sensitivity, which is critical in applications, such as medical ultrasound imaging, sonar, and acoustic communications.

  3. Sound, music and gender in mobile games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2016-01-01

    gendered, we show that an investigation of the sounds players can make during gameplay reveals very specific insights into the ways that sound positions players in the world. In each game we ask: what is foregrounded and what backgrounded as regards sound? Sound can be used to signal the personal...... and impersonal and specific kinds of social relations which, we show, is highly gendered. It can also signal priorities, ideas and values, which in both cases, we show, relate to a world where there is simply no time to stop and think. © 2016, equinox publishing.......In everyday life it is now common to find our actions linked to sound, especially using technology, such as when we use mobile devices, or operate more recently manufactured cars, technology in the workplace or simply in an elevator. While we may attend little to these noises, like any semiotic...

  4. Regularity extraction from non-adjacent sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Schröger, Erich; Ritter, Walter; Winkler, István

    2012-01-01

    The regular behavior of sound sources helps us to make sense of the auditory environment. Regular patterns may, for instance, convey information on the identity of a sound source (such as the acoustic signature of a train moving on the rails). Yet typically, this signature overlaps in time with signals emitted from other sound sources. It is generally assumed that auditory regularity extraction cannot operate upon this mixture of signals because it only finds regularities between adjacent sounds. In this view, the auditory environment would be grouped into separate entities by means of readily available acoustic cues such as separation in frequency and location. Regularity extraction processes would then operate upon the resulting groups. Our new experimental evidence challenges this view. We presented two interleaved sound sequences which overlapped in frequency range and shared all acoustic parameters. The sequences only differed in their underlying regular patterns. We inserted deviants into one of the sequences to probe whether the regularity was extracted. In the first experiment, we found that these deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN) component. Thus the auditory system was able to find the regularity between the non-adjacent sounds. Regularity extraction was not influenced by sequence cohesiveness as manipulated by the relative duration of tones and silent inter-tone-intervals. In the second experiment, we showed that a regularity connecting non-adjacent sounds was discovered only when the intervening sequence also contained a regular pattern, but not when the intervening sounds were randomly varying. This suggests that separate regular patterns are available to the auditory system as a cue for identifying signals coming from distinct sound sources. Thus auditory regularity extraction is not necessarily confined to a processing stage after initial sound grouping, but may precede grouping when other acoustic cues are unavailable.

  5. Stimulus coherence influences sound-field localization and fusion/segregation of leading and lagging sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Julian; van de Par, Steven; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    The ability to localize sound sources in reverberant environments is dependent upon first-arriving information, an outcome commonly termed "the precedence effect." For example, in laboratory experiments, the combination of a leading (direct) sound followed by a lagging (reflected) sound is localized in the direction of the leading sound. This study was designed to measure the degree to which stimulus compactness/diffuseness (i.e., coherence as represented by interaural cross correlation) of leading and lagging sounds influences performance. The compactness/diffuseness of leading or lagging sounds was varied by either presenting a sound from a single loudspeaker or by presenting mutually uncorrelated versions of similar sounds from nine adjacent loudspeakers. In separate experiments, the listener's task was to point to the perceived location of leading and lagging 10-ms long low-pass filtered white noises or 2-s long tokens of speech. The leading and lagging stimuli were presented either from speakers located directly in front of the listeners or from speakers located ±45° to the right or left. The results indicate that leading compact (coherent) sounds influence perceived location more so than do leading diffuse (incoherent) sounds. This was true independent of whether the sounds were Gaussian noises or tokens of speech.

  6. Sounding Solid Combustibles: Non-premixed Flame Sound Synthesis for Different Solid Combustibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Liu, Shiguang

    2016-12-21

    With the rapidly growing VR industry, in recent years, more and more attention has been paid for fire sound synthesis. However, previous methods usually ignore the influences of the different solid combustibles, leading to unrealistic sounding results. This paper proposes SSC (sounding solid combustibles), which is a new recording-driven non-premixed flame sound synthesis framework accounting for different solid combustibles. SSC consists of three components: combustion noise, vortex noise and popping sounds. The popping sounds are the keys to distinguish the differences of solid combustibles. To improve the quality of fire sound, we extract the features of popping sounds from the real fire sound examples based on modified Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method. Unlike previous methods, we take both direct combustion noise and vortex noise into account because the fire model is non-premixed flame. In our method, we also greatly resolve the synchronization problem during blending the three components of SSC. Due to the introduction of the popping sounds, it is easy to distinguish the fire sounds of different solid combustibles by our method, with great potential in practical applications such as games, VR system, etc. Various experiments and comparisons are presented to validate our method.

  7. Sound insulation of lightweight partition walls with regard to structural sound transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelyuga Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The known methods of acoustical calculation in buildings disregard the phenomenon of structural sound transmission, whereas its effect can reach from 2 to 12 dB. The purpose of this paper is to develop the calculation method for sound transmission and vibrations in connected vibroacoustic systems. Theoretical research methods were used based on the theory of statistical energy analysis (SEA and the theory of self-consistent sound fields with regard to dual nature of sound formation - resonance and inertia. Based on M. Sedov's method of sound fields consistency, a calculation method for sound insulation was developed with integration in SEA methodology. Use of the developed method allows predicting sound transmission through a double-panel partition with the account of adjacent structures.

  8. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral

  9. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  10. Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds : Masking, Propagation and Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines are an environmentally friendly and sustainable power source. Unfortunately, the noise impact can cause deteriorated living conditions for nearby residents. The audibility of wind turbine sound is influenced by ambient sound. This thesis deals with some aspects of noise from wind turbines. Ambient sounds influence the audibility of wind turbine noise. Models for assessing two commonly occurring natural ambient sounds namely vegetation sound and sound from breaking waves are pres...

  11. The anomalous tides near Broad Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jason H.; Buchwald, V. T.; Huthnance, John M.

    Observations of tidal current and height, in conjunction with theoretical mathematical models are used to investigate the propagation of the tide near Broad Sound, a narrowing estuary situated on a wide section of continental shelf toward the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef. The observations indicate that the dense offshore reefs severely inhibit tidal flow, with the result that tides flood toward Broad Sound from the north and from the south, along the main lagoon. There is a local magnification of the semi-diurnal tides within Broad Sound itself. Models of flow across reefs confirm the effectiveness of dense, shallow, and broad reefs in acting as a barrier to the tide. The diffraction of tides through large gaps in the reef is modelled using conformal mapping techniques and with the inclusion of energy leakage, the diffraction model predicts magnification of the semi-diurnal tidal heights by a factor of about 4 and a phase lag of 3 h on the shelf near Broad Sound, these values being consistent with observation. The observed convergence of the tide close to, and within Broad Sound itself is consistent with the proximity of the semi-diurnal tidal period to the natural period for flow in Broad Sound, considered as a narrowing estuary. This results in further amplification, by an additional factor of about 1.5, so that the tides in Broad Sound are increased by a factor of between 5 and 6, altogether, compared with those elsewhere on the east Australian coast.

  12. Sound radiation around a flying fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Tuck, Elizabeth J.; Robert, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Many insects produce sounds during flight. These acoustic emissions result from the oscillation of the wings in air. To date, most studies have measured the frequency characteristics of flight sounds, leaving other acoustic characteristics-and their possible biological functions-unexplored. Here, using close-range acoustic recording, we describe both the directional radiation pattern and the detailed frequency composition of the sound produced by a tethered flying (Lucilia sericata). The flapping wings produce a sound wave consisting of a series of harmonics, the first harmonic occurring around 190 Hz. In the horizontal plane of the fly, the first harmonic shows a dipolelike amplitude distribution whereas the second harmonic shows a monopolelike radiation pattern. The first frequency component is dominant in front of the fly while the second harmonic is dominant at the sides. Sound with a broad frequency content, typical of that produced by wind, is also recorded at the back of the fly. This sound qualifies as pseudo-sound and results from the vortices generated during wing kinematics. Frequency and amplitude features may be used by flies in different behavioral contexts such as sexual communication, competitive communication, or navigation within the environment.

  13. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  14. Mulcaster’s Tyrant Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wesley

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The privileging of writing, often not simply metaphorically, over the “fantasies” of a pristine orality has been the impetus of much recent scholarship built on the foundations laid in Derrida’s _Of Grammatology_ (1967. But such explicit privileging is not new. Richard Mulcaster (1531/32-1611, an Elizabethan schoolmaster and educational reformer, declared in his _Positions_ (1581 that “though writing in order to traine do succeed reading, yet in nature and time it must needes be elder,” a stance Jonathan Goldberg (1990 has perceptively discovered at work even when Mulcaster claims, one year later in the _Elementarie_ (1582, to tell an allegory of sound’s originary position in the history of writing. While it does not seek to restore the primacy of orality in his works, this essay argues first that Mulcaster’s displacement of sound is not as tidy as both he and Goldberg would suggest, and therefore, second, that the consequent perception of “nature”—here that of children—is not as determinative.

  15. Automatic adventitious respiratory sound analysis: A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renard Xaviero Adhi Pramono; Stuart Bowyer; Esther Rodriguez-Villegas

    2017-01-01

    .... While computerised respiratory sound analysis, specifically for the detection or classification of adventitious sounds, has recently been the focus of an increasing number of studies, a standardised...

  16. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...... of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound...

  17. Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyan, D [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-04-01

    The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.

  18. Development of a Sound Quality Evaluation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Preben; Thomsen, Carsten; Lee, Sanjil

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the first version of the Sound Quality Evaluation System. The purpose of the system is to predict the subjective sound quality of home theater systems from objective measurements. 16 home theater systems were measured in an anechoic room. Several metrics...... expected to correlate w ith the subjective quality were proposed and tested. A model for the sound quality was created by mapping the subjective evaluations of the Home Theater System s with the metrics calculated for each system. Correlation between subjective listening test and the prediction is presente...

  19. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound......The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...

  20. The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the perception of space in recorded music, with particular reference to stereo recordings of popular music. It explores how sound engineers create imaginary musical environments in which sounds appear to listeners in different ways. It also investigates some of the conditions...... theoretical perspectives in turn. In Chapter Two the reader is introduced to the term phonographic space, and the ways it can be described as an acoustic environment. The discussion focuses on the physical properties of sound, and how listeners decode audio signals in order to experience acoustic phenomena...

  1. Robust Design of Sounds in Mechanical Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegedal Jensen, Annemette; Munch, Natasja; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Current practices for creating a desired sound by a mechanical mechanism are irrelative design-build-test processes. It seems that very little guidance is available relating design to the sound output. The focus of this study was to identify, which parameters that affect the sound output of a click...... mechanism consisting of a toothed rack and a click arm. First several geometries of the teeth and the click arm’s head were investigated to identify the most robust and repeatable design. It was found that a flat surface in the valleys between the teeth is very beneficial in relation to repeatability...... mechanisms....

  2. Laser Schlieren System Detects Sounds Of Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy P.; Alwar, A. Vijayaragavan

    1990-01-01

    Hostile environments monitored safely and noninvasively. Modified laser schlieren system acts as microphone to detect sounds of leaks remotely. Sensitive to acoustical frequencies above audible range and especially suited for monitoring leaks of high-pressure steam from boilers or chemical vapors from processing equipment. Does not require placement of delicate equipment in harsh environment monitored, and no contact needed with boiler or other unit being monitored. Detects sound waves via variation of index of refraction of air at acoustical frequencies. Used to monitor sound frequencies beyond range of human hearing.

  3. Perceived loudness of spatially distributed sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Woo-keun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    In noise-control engineering, one is often faced with the task of identifying the most problematic of several simultaneous sound sources. Traditionally, this has been done by deriving sound pressure (or intensity) maps by means of a microphone array. This approach does not, however, take...... psychoacoustic attributes into account. Therefore, a method for deriving loudness maps was developed in an earlier study [Song, Internoise2004, paper 271]. The present experiment investigates to which extent perceived loudness depends on the distribution of individual sound sources. Three loudspeakers were...... positioned 1.5 m from the centre of the listener’s head, one straight ahead, and two 10 degrees to the right and left, respectively. Six participants matched the loudness of either one, or two simultaneous sounds (narrow-band noises with 1-kHz, and 3.15-kHz centre frequencies) to a 2-kHz, 60-dB SPL narrow...

  4. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  5. Benchmark cases for outdoor sound propagation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attenborough, K.; Taherzadeh, S.; Bass, H.E.; Di, X.; Raspet, R.; Becker, G.R.; Gdesen, A.; Chrestman, A.; Daigle, G.A.; Esp‚rance, A. L; Gabillet, Y.; Gilbert, K.E.; Li, Y.L.; White, J.; Naz, P.; Noble, J.M.; Hoof, H.A.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The computational tools available for prediction of sound propagation through the atmosphere have increased dramatically during the past decade. The numerical techniques include analytical solutions for selected index of refraction profiles, ray trace techniques which include interaction with a

  6. Computational Soundness of Formal Encryption in Coq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    We formalize Abadi and Rogaway's computational soundness result in the Coq interactive theorem prover. This requires to model notions of provable cryptography like indistinguishability between ensembles of probability distributions, PPT reductions, and security notions for encryption schemes. Our

  7. AFSC/ABL: Salisbury Sound sponge recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1995, an area of the seafloor near Salisbury Sound was trawled to identify immediate effects on large, erect sponges and sea whips. Video transects were made in...

  8. Long Island Sound Surficial Sediment Data (LISSEDDATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Many scientific questions and policy issues related to sediments in Long Island Sound require data of historical, regional and interdisciplinary scope. Existent data...

  9. Evolutionary Sound Synthesis Controlled by Gestural Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Fornari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the interdisciplinary research involving Computer Music and Generative Visual Art. We describe the implementation of two interactive artistic systems based on principles of Gestural Data (WILSON, 2002 retrieval and self-organization (MORONI, 2003, to control an Evolutionary Sound Synthesis method (ESSynth. The first implementation uses, as gestural data, image mapping of handmade drawings. The second one uses gestural data from dynamic body movements of dance. The resulting computer output is generated by an interactive system implemented in Pure Data (PD. This system uses principles of Evolutionary Computation (EC, which yields the generation of a synthetic adaptive population of sound objects. Considering that music could be seen as “organized sound” the contribution of our study is to develop a system that aims to generate "self-organized sound" – a method that uses evolutionary computation to bridge between gesture, sound and music.

  10. Snowflake Topological Insulator for Sound Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Brendel, Christian; Peano, Vittorio; Painter, Oskar; Marquardt, Florian

    2017-01-01

    We show how the snowflake phononic crystal structure, which has been realized experimentally recently, can be turned into a topological insulator for sound waves. This idea, based purely on simple geometrical modifications, could be readily implemented on the nanoscale.

  11. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  12. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  13. The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the perception of space in recorded music, with particular reference to stereo recordings of popular music. It explores how sound engineers create imaginary musical environments in which sounds appear to listeners in different ways. It also investigates some of the conditions...... for making meaningful descriptions of phonographic space. In doing so, it contributes to the vocabulary we use to describe musical sound, and especially to descriptions of space in recordings. The thesis is divided into six chapters. Following an Introduction, four central chapters look at different...... the use of metaphors and image schemas in the experience and conceptualisation of phonographic space. With reference to descriptions of recordings by sound engineers, I argue that metaphors are central to our understanding of recorded music. This work is grounded in the tradition of cognitive linguistics...

  14. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McWalter, Richard Ian; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations....... In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as "beating" in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture...... model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures-stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures...

  15. Game Sound from Behind the Sofa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garner, Tom Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The central concern of this thesis is upon the processes by which human beings perceive sound and experience emotions within a computer video gameplay context. The potential of quantitative sound parameters to evoke and modulate emotional experience is explored, working towards the development...... that provide additional support of the hypothetical frameworks: an ecological process of fear, a fear-related model of virtual and real acoustic ecologies, and an embodied virtual acoustic ecology framework. It is intended that this thesis will clearly support more effective and efficient sound design...... practices and also improve awareness of the capacity of sound to generate significant emotional experiences during computer video gameplay. It is further hoped that this thesis will elucidate the potential of biometrics/psychophysiology to allow game designers to better understand the player and to move...

  16. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  17. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: BIRDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  18. Sound transit climate risk reduction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Climate Risk Reduction Project assessed how climate change may affect Sound Transit commuter rail, light rail, and express bus : services. The project identified potential climate change impacts on agency operations, assets, and long-term plannin...

  19. Characterizing and Classifying Acoustical Ambient Sound Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    15 12 Threshold of Hearing for the Human Auditory System [2] . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 13 Complex Sound Wave [2...aircraft is heard by an observer, increasing our understanding of how ambient noise affects human hearing will lead to better capabilities in acoustic...noise emission con- sisted of “primarily insect noise and occasional birds”, and the high background noise emission consisted of “sounds of clothing

  20. Spatial coherence in reverberant sound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Roisin, Thibaut

    1999-01-01

    A new method of measuring spatial correlation functions in reverberant sound fields is presented. It is shown that coherence functions determined with appropriate spectral resolution contain the same information as the corresponding correlation functions, and that measuring such coherence functions...... is a far more efficient way of obtaining this information. The technique is used to verify theoretical predictions of the spatial correlation between various components of the particle velocity in a diffuse sound field....

  1. Calculation of sound propagation in fibrous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements.......Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements....

  2. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain, Robert E.

    2018-02-01

    When Yang-Hann Kim received the Rossing Prize in Acoustics Education at the 2015 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, he stressed the importance of offering visual depictions of sound fields when teaching acoustics. Often visualization methods require specialized equipment such as microphone arrays or scanning apparatus. We present a simple method for visualizing angular dependence in sound fields, made possible via the confluence of sensors available via a new smartphone app that the authors have developed.

  3. On the timbre of chaotic algorithmic sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Dimitrios A.; Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.; Sotiropoulos, Vaggelis D.

    Chaotic sound waveforms generated algorithmically are considered to study their timbre characteristics of harmonic and inharmonic overtones, loudness and onset time. Algorithms employed in the present work come from different first order iterative maps with parameters that generate chaotic sound waveforms. The generated chaotic sounds are compared with each other in respect of their waveforms' energy over the same time interval. Interest is focused in the logistic, double logistic and elliptic iterative maps. For these maps, the energy of the algorithmically synthesized sounds is obtained numerically in the chaotic region. The results show that for a specific parameter value in the chaotic region for each one of the first two maps, the calculated sound energy is the same. The energy, though, produced by the elliptic iterative map is higher than that of the other two maps everywhere in the chaotic region. Under the criterion of equal energy, the discrete Fourier transform is employed to compute for the logistic and double logistic iterative maps, a) the generated chaotic sound's power spectral density over frequency revealing the location (frequency) and relative loudness of the overtones which can be associated with fundamental frequencies of musical notes, and b) the generated chaotic sound's frequency dependent phase, which together with the overtones' frequency, yields the overtones' onset time. It is found that the synthesized overtones' loudness, frequency and onset time are totally different for the two generating algorithms (iterative maps) even though the sound's total generated power is equal. It is also demonstrated that, within each one of the iterative maps considered, the overtone characteristics are strongly affected by the choice of initial loudness.

  4. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash ePonnath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms, experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses, excitability (spikes / acoustic stimulus to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted < 2 s and, in different cells, excitability either decreased, increased or shifted in latency. Within cells, the modulatory effect of sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  5. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin; Mattys, Sven L

    2017-10-03

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound specificity effects. In Experiment 1 , we examined two conditions where integrality is high. Namely, the classic voice-specificity effect (Exp. 1a) was compared with a condition in which the intensity envelope of a background sound was modulated along the intensity envelope of the accompanying spoken word (Exp. 1b). Results revealed a robust voice-specificity effect and, critically, a comparable sound-specificity effect: A change in the paired sound from exposure to test led to a decrease in word-recognition performance. In the second experiment, we sought to disentangle the contribution of integrality from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect. Rather, it is conditioned by the extent to which words and sounds are perceived as integral as opposed to distinct auditory objects.

  6. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Farris, Hamilton E

    2014-01-01

    Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds) or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms), experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses), excitability (spikes/acoustic stimulus) to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized) auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  7. Concurrent sound segregation is enhanced in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Alain, Claude

    2009-08-01

    The ability to segregate simultaneously occurring sounds is fundamental to auditory perception. Many studies have shown that musicians have enhanced auditory perceptual abilities; however, the impact of musical expertise on segregating concurrently occurring sounds is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether long-term musical training can improve listeners' ability to segregate sounds that occur simultaneously. Participants were presented with complex sounds that had either all harmonics in tune or the second harmonic mistuned by 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, or 16% of its original value. The likelihood of hearing two sounds simultaneously increased with mistuning, and this effect was greater in musicians than nonmusicians. The segregation of the mistuned harmonic from the harmonic series was paralleled by an object-related negativity that was larger and peaked earlier in musicians. It also coincided with a late positive wave referred to as the P400 whose amplitude was larger in musicians than in nonmusicians. The behavioral and electrophysiological effects of musical expertise were specific to processing the mistuned harmonic as the N1, the N1c, and the P2 waves elicited by the tuned stimuli were comparable in both musicians and nonmusicians. These results demonstrate that listeners' ability to segregate concurrent sounds based on harmonicity is modulated by experience and provides a basis for further studies assessing the potential rehabilitative effects of musical training on solving complex scene analysis problems illustrated by the cocktail party example.

  8. Scanning silence: mental imagery of complex sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzeck, Nico; Wuestenberg, Torsten; Lutz, Kai; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Jancke, Lutz

    2005-07-15

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the neural basis of mental auditory imagery of familiar complex sounds that did not contain language or music. In the first condition (perception), the subjects watched familiar scenes and listened to the corresponding sounds that were presented simultaneously. In the second condition (imagery), the same scenes were presented silently and the subjects had to mentally imagine the appropriate sounds. During the third condition (control), the participants watched a scrambled version of the scenes without sound. To overcome the disadvantages of the stray acoustic scanner noise in auditory fMRI experiments, we applied sparse temporal sampling technique with five functional clusters that were acquired at the end of each movie presentation. Compared to the control condition, we found bilateral activations in the primary and secondary auditory cortices (including Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale) during perception of complex sounds. In contrast, the imagery condition elicited bilateral hemodynamic responses only in the secondary auditory cortex (including the planum temporale). No significant activity was observed in the primary auditory cortex. The results show that imagery and perception of complex sounds that do not contain language or music rely on overlapping neural correlates of the secondary but not primary auditory cortex.

  9. Loudness of steady sounds - A new theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    A new mathematical theory for calculating the loudness of steady sounds from power summation and frequency interaction, based on psychoacoustic and physiological information, assuems that loudness is a subjective measure of the electrical energy transmitted along the auditory nerve to the central nervous system. The auditory system consists of the mechanical part modeled by a bandpass filter with a transfer function dependent on the sound pressure, and the electrical part where the signal is transformed into a half-wave reproduction represented by the electrical power in impulsive discharges transmitted along neurons comprising the auditory nerve. In the electrical part the neurons are distributed among artificial parallel channels with frequency bandwidths equal to 'critical bandwidths for loudness', within which loudness is constant for constant sound pressure. The total energy transmitted to the central nervous system is the sum of the energy transmitted in all channels, and the loudness is proportional to the square root of the total filtered sound energy distributed over all channels. The theory explains many psychoacoustic phenomena such as audible beats resulting from closely spaced tones, interaction of sound stimuli which affect the same neurons affecting loudness, and of individually subliminal sounds becoming audible if they lie within the same critical band.

  10. A sound future for acoustic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummer, Steven

    2017-05-01

    The field of acoustic metamaterials borrowed ideas from electromagnetics and optics to create engineered structures that exhibit desired fluid or fluid-like properties for the propagation of sound. These metamaterials offer the possibility of manipulating and controlling sound waves in ways that are challenging or impossible with conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. And active acoustic metamaterials use external control and power to create effective material properties that are fundamentally not possible with passive structures. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and, critically, converting exciting laboratory experiments into practically useful devices. In this presentation, I will outline the recent history of the field, describe some of the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters, discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound, and finally, provide a personal perspective on future directions in the field.

  11. Wavelets in Recognition of Bird Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha T. Tanttu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to recognize inharmonic and transient bird sounds efficiently. The recognition algorithm consists of feature extraction using wavelet decomposition and recognition using either supervised or unsupervised classifier. The proposed method was tested on sounds of eight bird species of which five species have inharmonic sounds and three reference species have harmonic sounds. Inharmonic sounds are not well matched to the conventional spectral analysis methods, because the spectral domain does not include any visible trajectories that computer can track and identify. Thus, the wavelet analysis was selected due to its ability to preserve both frequency and temporal information, and its ability to analyze signals which contain discontinuities and sharp spikes. The shift invariant feature vectors calculated from the wavelet coefficients were used as inputs of two neural networks: the unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM and the supervised multilayer perceptron (MLP. The results were encouraging: the SOM network recognized 78% and the MLP network 96% of the test sounds correctly.

  12. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Lana; Tudor, Anton; Radman, Ivan; Kasović, Mario; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2) were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Focused sound from three-dimensional sound propagation effects over a submarine canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Linus Y S; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Fang; Duda, Timothy F; Calder, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Ship noise data reveal an intensification of the near-surface sound field over a submarine canyon. Numerical modeling of sound propagation is used to study the effect. The noise data were collected during an ocean acoustic and physical oceanography experiment northeast of Taiwan in 2009. In situ measurements of water sound-speed profiles and a database of high-resolution bathymetry are used in the modeling study. The model results suggest that the intensification is caused by three-dimensional sound focusing by the concave canyon seafloor. Uncertainties in the model results from unsampled aspects of the environment are discussed. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  14. Structure-borne sound structural vibrations and sound radiation at audio frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Cremer, L; Petersson, Björn AT

    2005-01-01

    Structure-Borne Sound"" is a thorough introduction to structural vibrations with emphasis on audio frequencies and the associated radiation of sound. The book presents in-depth discussions of fundamental principles and basic problems, in order to enable the reader to understand and solve his own problems. It includes chapters dealing with measurement and generation of vibrations and sound, various types of structural wave motion, structural damping and its effects, impedances and vibration responses of the important types of structures, as well as with attenuation of vibrations, and sound radi

  15. SoundCompass: A Distributed MEMS Microphone Array-Based Sensor for Sound Source Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer Tiete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound source localization is a well-researched subject with applications ranging from localizing sniper fire in urban battlefields to cataloging wildlife in rural areas. One critical application is the localization of noise pollution sources in urban environments, due to an increasing body of evidence linking noise pollution to adverse effects on human health. Current noise mapping techniques often fail to accurately identify noise pollution sources, because they rely on the interpolation of a limited number of scattered sound sensors. Aiming to produce accurate noise pollution maps, we developed the SoundCompass, a low-cost sound sensor capable of measuring local noise levels and sound field directionality. Our first prototype is composed of a sensor array of 52 Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS microphones, an inertial measuring unit and a low-power field-programmable gate array (FPGA. This article presents the SoundCompass’s hardware and firmware design together with a data fusion technique that exploits the sensing capabilities of the SoundCompass in a wireless sensor network to localize noise pollution sources. Live tests produced a sound source localization accuracy of a few centimeters in a 25-m2 anechoic chamber, while simulation results accurately located up to five broadband sound sources in a 10,000-m2 open field.

  16. AVE/VAS 4: 25-mb sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    The rawinsonde sounding program is described and tabulated data at 25 mb intervals for the 24 stations and 14 special stations participating in the experiment is presented. Sounding were taken at 3 hr intervals. An additional sounding was taken at the normal synoptic observation time. Some soundings were computed from raw ordinate data, while others were interpolated from significant level data.

  17. 46 CFR 153.979 - Gauging with a sounding tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gauging with a sounding tube. 153.979 Section 153.979... Procedures § 153.979 Gauging with a sounding tube. (a) No person may remove the cover of a sounding tube... cargo transfer may not authorize removal of the cover from a sounding tube gauge unless all tank...

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-90 - Sounding devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sounding devices. 56.50-90 Section 56.50-90 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-90 Sounding devices. (a) Each tank must... operating, must be fitted with a sounding pipe. (b) Where sounding pipes terminate below the freeboard deck...

  19. Cognitive Control of Involuntary Distraction by Deviant Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Fabrice B. R.; Hebrero, Maria

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that a task-irrelevant sound (deviant sound) departing from an otherwise repetitive sequence of sounds (standard sounds) elicits an involuntary capture of attention and orienting response toward the deviant stimulus, resulting in the lengthening of response times in an ongoing task. Some have argued that this type of…

  20. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal sounds...

  1. Sound Equipment Fabrication and Values in Nigerian Theatre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main points of this paper is to discover ways of fabricating sound and sound effects equipment for theatrical productions in Nigeria have become of essence since most educational theatres cannot afford western sound and sound effects equipment. Even when available, they are old fashioned, compared to the ...

  2. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  3. Sound Synthesis of Objects Swinging through Air Using Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Selfridge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A real-time physically-derived sound synthesis model is presented that replicates the sounds generated as an object swings through the air. Equations obtained from fluid dynamics are used to determine the sounds generated while exposing practical parameters for a user or game engine to vary. Listening tests reveal that for the majority of objects modelled, participants rated the sounds from our model as plausible as actual recordings. The sword sound effect performed worse than others, and it is speculated that one cause may be linked to the difference between expectations of a sound and the actual sound for a given object.

  4. Sex difference in subjective duration of looming and receding sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Looming sounds (sounds increasing in intensity over time) are more salient than receding sounds (a looming sound reversed in time). For example, they are estimated as being longer, louder, and more changing in loudness than receding sounds. Some authors interpret the looming salience as evolutionarily adaptive, because it increases the margins of safety of the perceiver in the case of preparatory behaviours (e.g., a motor reaction to an approaching sound source). Recently, Neuhoff et al (2009, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 35 225-234) found that females more than males show overestimation of the spatiotemporal properties of virtually simulated looming sound sources. Here, I investigated whether the sex difference could be observed for the subjective duration of looming and receding sounds, and found that females more than males overestimate the duration of looming sounds in comparison to receding sounds.

  5. Robust Sound-Reproduction-System Design Against The Head Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Atsunobu Kamumira; Shiro Ise; Kiyohiro Shikano

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes a new sound field reproduction system. Multi-channel sound field reproduction is one of the most promising methods to realize a sound reproduction system robustly against a head movement. Multi-channel sound field reproduction can reproduce the same acoustic field as the recording area by using several controlled points. However, such sound field reproduction systems have not been developed due to poor understanding of the behavior of multiple channel systems. In this pape...

  6. Investigating the amplitude of interactive footstep sounds and soundscape reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the perception of amplitude of soundscapes and interactively generated footstep sounds provided both through headphones and a surround sound system. In particular, we investigate whether there exists a value for the amplitude of soundscapes and footstep sounds which...... of soundscapes does not significantly affect the selected amplitude of footstep sounds. Similarly, the perception of the soundscapes amplitude is not significantly affected by the selected amplitude of footstep sounds....

  7. Noise Radiation Measure-Sound Power and its Test Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Xianren; Zuo Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    This study mainly aims to study the characteristics and theory of sound radiation of steady-state vibration. Study shows that sound radiation power of steady-state vibration is constant. And taking excavator for experimental object by hemisphere surface method, the radiated sound power of the excavator is the same as testing the sound pressure on various surfaces based on relevant international standard. Finally, a test method of radiated sound power for cylindrical vibration object is proposed.

  8. Added Mastication Sound Affects Food Texture and Pleasantness

    OpenAIRE

    Mami Masuda; Katsunori Okajima

    2011-01-01

    When eating, specific sounds are generated depending on the food, thus strong associations between food and mastication-sound exist. In the present study, we investigated how the sound of chewing affects the perceived texture and pleasantness of food. Mastication sounds were recorded prior to the experiment for each subject while chewing several foods. These artificial mastication sounds were then presented to subjects during the experiment while they chewed several foods. The onset of the ar...

  9. Of Sound Mind: Mental Distress and Sound in Twentieth-Century Media Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, Carolyn; Siewert, Senta

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis article seeks to specify the representation of mental disturbance in sound media during the twentieth century. It engages perspectives on societal and technological change across the twentieth century as crucial for aesthetic strategies developed in radio and sound film production. The

  10. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-02-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching pre-school children to decode, or read, single letters. The study compared a control group, which received the preschool's standard letter-sound instruction, to an intervention group which received a 3-step letter-sound instruction intervention. The children's growth in letter-sound reading and CVC word decoding abilities were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. When compared to the control group, the growth of letter-sound reading ability was slightly higher for the intervention group. The rate of increase in letter-sound reading was significantly faster for the intervention group. In both groups, too few children learned to decode any CVC words to allow for analysis. Results of this study support the use of the intervention strategy in preschools for teaching children print-to-sound processing.

  11. PROTAX-Sound: A probabilistic framework for automated animal sound identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Ulisses Moliterno; Somervuo, Panu; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous audio recording is stimulating new field in bioacoustics, with a great promise for conducting cost-effective species surveys. One major current challenge is the lack of reliable classifiers capable of multi-species identification. We present PROTAX-Sound, a statistical framework to perform probabilistic classification of animal sounds. PROTAX-Sound is based on a multinomial regression model, and it can utilize as predictors any kind of sound features or classifications produced by other existing algorithms. PROTAX-Sound combines audio and image processing techniques to scan environmental audio files. It identifies regions of interest (a segment of the audio file that contains a vocalization to be classified), extracts acoustic features from them and compares with samples in a reference database. The output of PROTAX-Sound is the probabilistic classification of each vocalization, including the possibility that it represents species not present in the reference database. We demonstrate the performance of PROTAX-Sound by classifying audio from a species-rich case study of tropical birds. The best performing classifier achieved 68% classification accuracy for 200 bird species. PROTAX-Sound improves the classification power of current techniques by combining information from multiple classifiers in a manner that yields calibrated classification probabilities.

  12. On the sound absorption coefficient of porous asphalt pavements for oblique incident sound waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Bekke, Dirk; Davy, J.; Don, Ch.; McMinn, T.; Dowsett, L.; Broner, N.; Burgess, M.

    2014-01-01

    A rolling tyre will radiate noise in all directions. However, conventional measurement techniques for the sound absorption of surfaces only give the absorption coefficient for normal incidence. In this paper, a measurement technique is described with which it is possible to perform in situ sound

  13. The sound of emotions-Towards a unifying neural network perspective of affective sound processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Trost, Wiebke; Kotz, Sonja A

    2016-09-01

    Affective sounds are an integral part of the natural and social environment that shape and influence behavior across a multitude of species. In human primates, these affective sounds span a repertoire of environmental and human sounds when we vocalize or produce music. In terms of neural processing, cortical and subcortical brain areas constitute a distributed network that supports our listening experience to these affective sounds. Taking an exhaustive cross-domain view, we accordingly suggest a common neural network that facilitates the decoding of the emotional meaning from a wide source of sounds rather than a traditional view that postulates distinct neural systems for specific affective sound types. This new integrative neural network view unifies the decoding of affective valence in sounds, and ascribes differential as well as complementary functional roles to specific nodes within a common neural network. It also highlights the importance of an extended brain network beyond the central limbic and auditory brain systems engaged in the processing of affective sounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phonological Awareness and Types of Sound Errors in Preschoolers with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD by using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method:…

  15. How Pleasant Sounds Promote and Annoying Sounds Impede Health : A Cognitive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Tjeerd C.; Lanser, J. Jolie L.

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical paper addresses the cognitive functions via which quiet and in general pleasurable sounds promote and annoying sounds impede health. The article comprises a literature analysis and an interpretation of how the bidirectional influence of appraising the environment and the feelings of

  16. Survey of the Oyster Regions of St. Vincent Sound, Apalachicola Bay, and St. George Sound, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An oyster survey was conducted at St. Vincent Sound and St. George Sound in1896, and the results of the survey are presented in this report. The object of the survey...

  17. Sound maps of the Dutch North Sea for natural and anthropogenic sound sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.O.; Aarts, G.; Brasseur, S.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Cate, C.ten; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von; Ainslie, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Regulations for protecting and preserving the marine environment (e.g. in the USA and EU) often require investigating the potential effect of anthropogenic sound on marine life. The origin of underwater sound can be natural as well as anthropogenic. To assess the potential importance of various

  18. The effect of sound speed profile on shallow water shipping sound maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertlek, H.Ö.; Binnerts, B.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sound mapping over large areas can be computationally expensive because of the large number of sources and large source-receiver separations involved. In order to facilitate computation, a simplifying assumption sometimes made is to neglect the sound speed gradient in shallow water. The accuracy of

  19. Letter-Sound Reading: Teaching Preschool Children Print-to-Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gail Marie

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study investigated the growth of letter sound reading and growth of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) word decoding abilities for a representative sample of 41 US children in preschool settings. Specifically, the study evaluated the effectiveness of a 3-step letter-sound teaching intervention in teaching preschool children to…

  20. Of Sound Mind: Mental Distress and Sound in Twentieth-Century Media Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birdsall, C.; Siewert, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to specify the representation of mental disturbance in sound media during the twentieth century. It engages perspectives on societal and technological change across the twentieth century as crucial for aesthetic strategies developed in radio and sound film production. The analysis

  1. Visual presentation effects on identification of multiple environmental sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko eMasakura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how the contents and timing of a visual stimulus affect the identification of mixed sounds recorded in a daily life environment. For experiments, we presented four environment sounds as auditory stimuli for 5 s along with a picture or a written word as a visual stimulus that might or might not denote the source of one of the four sounds. Three conditions of temporal relations between the visual stimuli and sounds were used. The visual stimulus was presented either (a for 5 s simultaneously with the sound, (b for 5 s 6 s before the sound, or (c for 33 ms 6 s before the sound. Participants reported all identifiable sounds for those audio-visual stimuli. To characterize the effects of visual stimuli on sound identification, the following were used: the identification rates of sounds for which the visual stimulus denoted its sound source, the rates of other sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source, and the frequency of false hearing of a sound that was not presented for each sound set.Results of the four experiments demonstrated that a picture or a written word promoted identification of the sound when it was related to the sound, particularly when the visual stimulus was presented for 5 s simultaneously with the sounds. However, a visual stimulus preceding the sounds had a benefit only for the picture, not for the written word. Furthermore, presentation with a picture denoting a sound simultaneously with the sound reduced the frequency of false hearing. These results suggest three ways that presenting a visual stimulus affects identification of the auditory stimulus. First, activation of the visual representation extracted directly from the picture promotes identification of the denoted sound and suppresses the processing of sounds for which the visual stimulus did not denote the sound source. Second, effects based on processing of the conceptual information promote identification of the denoted sound

  2. CAVITATION SOUNDS DURING CERVICOTHORACIC SPINAL MANIPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, James; Mourad, Firas; Zingoni, Andrea; Iorio, Raffaele; Perreault, Thomas; Zacharko, Noah; de Las Peñas, César Fernández; Butts, Raymond; Cleland, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    No study has previously investigated the side, duration or number of audible cavitation sounds during high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation to the cervicothoracic spine. The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of cavitations, the duration of cervicothoracic thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Quasi-experimental study. Thirty-two patients with upper trapezius myalgia received two cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations targeting the right and left T1-2 articulation, respectively. Two high sampling rate accelerometers were secured bilaterally 25 mm lateral to midline of the T1-2 interspace. For each manipulation, two audio signals were extracted using Short-Time Fourier Transformation (STFT) and singularly processed via spectrogram calculation in order to evaluate the frequency content and number of instantaneous energy bursts of both signals over time for each side of the CTJ. Unilateral cavitation sounds were detected in 53 (91.4%) of 58 cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations and bilateral cavitation sounds were detected in just five (8.6%) of the 58 thrust manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (pcavitation was significantly (pcavitations per manipulation was 4.35 (95% CI 2.88, 5.76). The mean duration of a single manipulation was 60.77 ms (95% CI 28.25, 97.42) and the mean duration of a single audible cavitation was 4.13 ms (95% CI 0.82, 7.46). In addition to single-peak and multi-peak energy bursts, spectrogram analysis also demonstrated high frequency sounds, low frequency sounds, and sounds of multiple frequencies for all 58 manipulations. Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur unilaterally, and on the side contralateral to the short-lever applicator contact, during cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulation. Clinicians should expect multiple

  3. CAVITATION SOUNDS DURING CERVICOTHORACIC SPINAL MANIPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Firas; Zingoni, Andrea; Iorio, Raffaele; Perreault, Thomas; Zacharko, Noah; de las Peñas, César Fernández; Butts, Raymond; Cleland, Joshua A.

    2017-01-01

    Background No study has previously investigated the side, duration or number of audible cavitation sounds during high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation to the cervicothoracic spine. Purpose The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of cavitations, the duration of cervicothoracic thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Study Design Quasi-experimental study Methods Thirty-two patients with upper trapezius myalgia received two cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations targeting the right and left T1-2 articulation, respectively. Two high sampling rate accelerometers were secured bilaterally 25 mm lateral to midline of the T1-2 interspace. For each manipulation, two audio signals were extracted using Short-Time Fourier Transformation (STFT) and singularly processed via spectrogram calculation in order to evaluate the frequency content and number of instantaneous energy bursts of both signals over time for each side of the CTJ. Result Unilateral cavitation sounds were detected in 53 (91.4%) of 58 cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulations and bilateral cavitation sounds were detected in just five (8.6%) of the 58 thrust manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (pmanipulation was 4.35 (95% CI 2.88, 5.76). The mean duration of a single manipulation was 60.77 ms (95% CI 28.25, 97.42) and the mean duration of a single audible cavitation was 4.13 ms (95% CI 0.82, 7.46). In addition to single-peak and multi-peak energy bursts, spectrogram analysis also demonstrated high frequency sounds, low frequency sounds, and sounds of multiple frequencies for all 58 manipulations. Discussion Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur unilaterally, and on the side contralateral to the short-lever applicator contact, during cervicothoracic HVLA thrust manipulation. Clinicians should expect

  4. Frequency Dynamics of the First Heart Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John Charles

    Cardiac auscultation is a fundamental clinical tool but first heart sound origins and significance remain controversial. Previous clinical studies have implicated resonant vibrations of both the myocardium and the valves. Accordingly, the goals of this thesis were threefold, (1) to characterize the frequency dynamics of the first heart sound, (2) to determine the relative contribution of the myocardium and the valves in determining first heart sound frequency, and (3) to develop new tools for non-stationary signal analysis. A resonant origin for first heart sound generation was tested through two studies in an open-chest canine preparation. Heart sounds were recorded using ultralight acceleration transducers cemented directly to the epicardium. The first heart sound was observed to be non-stationary and multicomponent. The most dominant feature was a powerful, rapidly-rising frequency component that preceded mitral valve closure. Two broadband components were observed; the first coincided with mitral valve closure while the second significantly preceded aortic valve opening. The spatial frequency of left ventricular vibrations was both high and non-stationary which indicated that the left ventricle was not vibrating passively in response to intracardiac pressure fluctuations but suggested instead that the first heart sound is a propagating transient. In the second study, regional myocardial ischemia was induced by left coronary circumflex arterial occlusion. Acceleration transducers were placed on the ischemic and non-ischemic myocardium to determine whether ischemia produced local or global changes in first heart sound amplitude and frequency. The two zones exhibited disparate amplitude and frequency behavior indicating that the first heart sound is not a resonant phenomenon. To objectively quantify the presence and orientation of signal components, Radon transformation of the time -frequency plane was performed and found to have considerable potential for pattern

  5. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  6. Extraterrestrial sound for planetaria: A pedagogical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, T G; Banda, N; Berges, B; Joseph, P F; White, P R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to supply an acoustical simulation device to a local planetarium for use in live shows aimed at engaging and inspiring children in science and engineering. The device plays audio simulations of estimates of the sounds produced by natural phenomena to accompany audio-visual presentations and live shows about Venus, Mars, and Titan. Amongst the simulated noise are the sounds of thunder, wind, and cryo-volcanoes. The device can also modify the speech of the presenter (or audience member) in accordance with the underlying physics to reproduce those vocalizations as if they had been produced on the world under discussion. Given that no time series recordings exist of sounds from other worlds, these sounds had to be simulated. The goal was to ensure that the audio simulations were delivered in time for a planetarium's launch show to enable the requested outreach to children. The exercise has also allowed an explanation of the science and engineering behind the creation of the sounds. This has been achieved for young children, and also for older students and undergraduates, who could then debate the limitations of that method.

  7. Natural sound archives: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranft Richard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recordings of wild animals were first made in the Palearctic in 1900, in the Nearctic in 1929, in Antarctica in 1934, in Asia in 1937, and in the Neotropics in the 1940s. However, systematic collecting did not begin until the 1950s. Collections of animal sound recordings serve many uses in education, entertainment, science and nature conservation. In recent years, technological developments have transformed the ways in which sounds can be sampled, stored and accessed. Now the largest collections between them hold altogether around 0.5 million recordings with their associated data. The functioning of a major archive will be described with reference to the British Library Sound Archive. Preserving large collections for the long term is a primary concern in the digital age. While digitization and digital preservation has many advantages over analogue methods, the rate of technology change and lack of standardization are a serious problem for theworld's major audio archives. Another challenge is to make collections more easily and widely accessible via electronic networks. On-line catalogues and access to the actual sounds via the internet are already available for some collections. Case studies describing the establishment and functioning of sound libraries inMexico, Colombia and Brazil are given in individually authored sections in an Appendix.

  8. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates o...

  9. Fetal exposures to sound and vibroacoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, K J; Abrams, R M

    2000-12-01

    Sounds in the environment of a pregnant woman penetrate the tissues and fluids surrounding the fetal head and stimulate the inner ear through a bone conduction route. The sounds available to the fetus are dominated by low-frequency energy, whereas energy above 0.5 kHz is attenuated by 40 to 50 dB. The fetus easily detects vowels, whereas consonants, which are higher in frequency and less intense than vowels, are largely unavailable. Rhythmic patterns of music are probably detected, but overtones are missing. A newborn human shows preference for his/her mother's voice and to musical pieces to which he/she was previously exposed, indicating a capacity to learn while in utero. Intense, sustained noises or impulses produce changes in the hearing of the fetus and damage inner and outer hair cells within the cochlea. The damage occurs in the region of the inner ear that is stimulated by low-frequency sound energy.

  10. Testing Cosmology with Cosmic Sound Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano

    2008-01-01

    WMAP observations have accurately determined the position of the first two peaks and dips in the CMB temperature power spectrum. These encode information on the ratio of the distance to the last scattering surface to the sound horizon at decoupling. However pre-recombination processes can contaminate this distance information. In order to assess the amplitude of these effects we use the WMAP data and evaluate the relative differences of the CMB peaks and dips multipoles. We find that the position of the first peak is largely displaced with the respect to the expected position of the sound horizon scale at decoupling. In contrast the relative spacings of the higher extrema are statistically consistent with those expected from perfect harmonic oscillations. This provides evidence for a scale dependent phase shift of the CMB oscillations which is caused by gravitational driving forces affecting the propagation of sound waves before recombination. By accounting for these effects we have performed a MCMC likelihoo...

  11. Interactively Evolving Compositional Sound Synthesis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved......, CPPNs can theoretically compute any function and can build on those present in traditional synthesizers (e.g. square, sawtooth, triangle, and sine waves functions) to produce completely novel timbres. Evolved with NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), the aim of this paper is to explore...... the space of potential sounds that can be generated through such compositional sound synthesis networks (CSSNs). To study the effect of evolution on subjective appreciation, participants in a listener study ranked evolved timbres by personal preference, resulting in preferences skewed toward the first...

  12. Modern pollen deposition in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuning, Kristina R.M.; Fransen, Lindsey; Nakityo, Berna; Mecray, Ellen L.; Bucholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.

    2000-01-01

    Palynological analyses of 20 surface sediment samples collected from Long Island Sound show a pollen assemblage dominated by Carya, Betula, Pinus, Quercus, Tsuga, and Ambrosia, as is consistent with the regional vegetation. No trends in relative abundance of these pollen types occur either from west to east or associated with modern riverine inputs throughout the basin. Despite the large-scale, long-term removal of fine-grained sediment from winnowed portions of the eastern Sound, the composition of the pollen and spore component of the sedimentary matrix conforms to a basin-wide homogeneous signal. These results strongly support the use of select regional palynological boundaries as chronostratigraphic tools to provide a framework for interpretation of the late glacial and Holocene history of the Long Island Sound basin sediments.

  13. Ecologically Sound Procedural Generation of Natural Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Onrust

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current techniques for the creation and exploration of virtual worlds are largely unable to generate sound natural environments from ecological data and to provide interactive web-based visualizations of such detailed environments. We tackle this challenge and propose a novel framework that (i explores the advantages of landscape maps and ecological statistical data, translating them to an ecologically sound plant distribution, and (ii creates a visually convincing 3D representation of the natural environment suitable for its interactive visualization over the web. Our vegetation model improves techniques from procedural ecosystem generation and neutral landscape modeling. It is able to generate diverse ecological sound plant distributions directly from landscape maps with statistical ecological data. Our visualization model integrates existing level of detail and illumination techniques to achieve interactive frame rates and improve realism. We validated with ecology experts the outcome of our framework using two case studies and concluded that it provides convincing interactive visualizations of large natural environments.

  14. Eigenbeamforming array systems for sound source localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    D study aims at enhancing the performance of uniform circular ar- rays, and to a lesser extent, spherical arrays, for two- and three-dimensional localization problems, respectively. These array geometries allow to perform eigenbeamforming, beamforming based on the decomposition of the sound field......Microphone array technology has been widely used for the localization of sound sources. In particular, beamforming is a well-established signal processing method that maps the position of acoustic sources by steering the array transducers toward different directions electronically. The present Ph...... scatterer is recommended instead. A better visualization in the entire frequency range can be achieved with deconvo- lution methods, as they allow the recovery of the sound source distribution from a given beamformed map. Three efficient methods based on spectral procedures, originally conceived for planar...

  15. Sound Localization Strategies in Three Predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare some of the neural strategies for sound localization and encoding interaural time differences (ITDs) in three predatory species of Reptilia, alligators, barn owls and geckos. Birds and crocodilians are sister groups among the extant archosaurs, while geckos are lepidosaurs....... Despite the similar organization of their auditory systems, archosaurs and lizards use different strategies for encoding the ITDs that underlie localization of sound in azimuth. Barn owls encode ITD information using a place map, which is composed of neurons serving as labeled lines tuned for preferred...

  16. The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    theoretical perspectives in turn. In Chapter Two the reader is introduced to the term phonographic space, and the ways it can be described as an acoustic environment. The discussion focuses on the physical properties of sound, and how listeners decode audio signals in order to experience acoustic phenomena....... Chapter Four outlines a phenomenological approach to recorded music. Drawing from Merleau-Ponty’s account of bodily directedness towards the world, it examines the ways listeners organise phonographic space in relation to the sounds within it. This then forms a backdrop to chapter five, which discusses...

  17. Sound Propagation An impedance Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    2010-01-01

    In Sound Propagation: An Impedance Based Approach , Professor Yang-Hann Kim introduces acoustics and sound fields by using the concept of impedance. Kim starts with vibrations and waves, demonstrating how vibration can be envisaged as a kind of wave, mathematically and physically. One-dimensional waves are used to convey the fundamental concepts. Readers can then understand wave propagation in terms of characteristic and driving point impedance. The essential measures for acoustic waves, such as dB scale, octave scale, acoustic pressure, energy, and intensity, are explained. These measures are

  18. Evaluation of the stallion for breeding soundness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtgen, J P

    1992-04-01

    The breeding soundness evaluation of a stallion is a thorough investigation of a stallion's libido, mating ability, and semen quality. The evaluation should include historical data about the medical aspects of the horse's performance and breeding career, observations and breeding behavior characteristics, collection and evaluation of semen, tests to determine freedom from infectious or contagious disease, and production of foals free of genetic defects. This information should allow the examiner to anticipate the impact of the stallion on the reproductive efficiency of a group of mares. The breeding soundness evaluation should also assist farm management in optimizing stallion, mare, veterinary, and management influences on total herd breeding performance.

  19. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Feng [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  20. Real time analysis of voiced sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J. P. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A power spectrum analysis of the harmonic content of a voiced sound signal is conducted in real time by phase-lock-loop tracking of the fundamental frequency, (f sub 0) of the signal and successive harmonics (h sub 1 through h sub n) of the fundamental frequency. The analysis also includes measuring the quadrature power and phase of each frequency tracked, differentiating the power measurements of the harmonics in adjacent pairs, and analyzing successive differentials to determine peak power points in the power spectrum for display or use in analysis of voiced sound, such as for voice recognition.

  1. Machine learning analysis of binaural rowing sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johard, Leonard; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition metho...... methodology and the evaluation of different machine learning techniques for classifying rowing-sound data. We see that a combination of principal component analysis and shallow networks perform equally well as deep architectures, while being much faster to train....

  2. Sound and recording applications and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rumsey, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Providing vital reading for audio students and trainee engineers, this guide is ideal for anyone who wants a solid grounding in both theory and industry practices in audio, sound and recording. There are many books on the market covering ""how to work it"" when it comes to audio equipment-but Sound and Recording isn't one of them. Instead, you'll gain an understanding of ""how it works"" with this approachable guide to audio systems.New to this edition:Digital audio section revised substantially to include the latest developments in audio networking (e.g. RAVENNA, AES X-192, AVB), high-resolut

  3. Machine Learning Analysis of Binaural Rowing Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippeschi Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition methodology and the evaluation of different machine learning techniques for classifying rowing-sound data. We see that a combination of principal component analysis and shallow networks perform equally well as deep architectures, while being much faster to train.

  4. New perspectives on mechanisms of sound generation in songbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goller, Franz; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2002-01-01

    The physical mechanisms of sound generation in the vocal organ, the syrinx, of songbirds have been investigated mostly with indirect methods. Recent direct endoscopic observation identified vibrations of the labia as the principal sound source. This model suggests sound generation in a pulse-tone...... atmosphere) as well as direct (labial vibration during tonal sound) measurements of syringeal vibrations support a vibration-based soundgenerating mechanism even for tonal sounds.......The physical mechanisms of sound generation in the vocal organ, the syrinx, of songbirds have been investigated mostly with indirect methods. Recent direct endoscopic observation identified vibrations of the labia as the principal sound source. This model suggests sound generation in a pulse......-tone mechanism similar to human phonation with the labia forming a pneumatic valve. The classical avian model proposed that vibrations of the thin medial tympaniform membranes are the primary sound generating mechanism. As a direct test of these two hypotheses we ablated the medial tympaniform membranes in two...

  5. Sounds in the ocean at 1-100 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, William S D; Stafford, Kathleen M; Andrew, Rex K; Odom, Robert I

    2014-01-01

    Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained by breaking waves, and the deformation of sea ice. Earthquakes generate sound in geologically active regions, and earthquake T waves propagate throughout the oceans. Blue and fin whales generate long bouts of sounds near 20 Hz that can dominate regional ambient noise levels seasonally. Anthropogenic sound sources include ship propellers, energy extraction, and seismic air guns and have been growing steadily. The increasing availability of long-term records of ocean sound will provide new opportunities for a deeper understanding of natural and anthropogenic sound sources and potential interactions between them.

  6. [Cough sound detection bases on EMD analysis and HMM recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiping; Lai, Kefang; Du, Minghui; Chen, Ruchong; Zhong, Shijung; Chen, Rongchang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2009-04-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms of many respiratory diseases; the characteristics of intensity and frequency of cough sound offer important clinical messages. When using these messages, we have need to differentiate the cough sound from the other sounds such as speech voice, throat clearing sound and nose clearing sound. In this paper, based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM), we proposed a novel method to analyze and detect cough sound. Employing the property of adaptive dyadic filter banks of EMD, we gained the mean energy distribution in the frequency domain of the signals in order to analyze the statistical characteristics of cough sound and of other sounds not accompanied by cough, and then we found the optimal characteristics for the recognition using HMM. The experiments on clinical date showed that this optimal characteristic method effectively improved the detective rate of cough sound.

  7. A note on measurement of sound pressure with intensity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter; Jacobsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    be improved under a variety of realistic sound field conditions by applying a different weighting of the two pressure signals from the probe. The improved intensity probe can measure the sound pressure more accurately at high frequencies than an ordinary sound intensity probe or an ordinary sound level meter......The effect of scattering and diffraction on measurement of sound pressure with "two-microphone" sound intensity probes is examined using an axisymmetric boundary element model of the probe. Whereas it has been shown a few years ago that the sound intensity estimated with a two-microphone probe...... is reliable up to 10 kHz when using 0.5 in. microphones in the usual face-to-face arrangement separated by a 12 mm spacer, the sound pressure measured with the same instrument will typically be underestimated at high frequencies. It is shown in this paper that the estimate of the sound pressure can...

  8. Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Eja; van den Berg, Frits; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road

  9. Remembering that big things sound big: Sound symbolism and associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Melissa A; Coane, Jennifer H

    2017-01-01

    According to sound symbolism theory, individual sounds or clusters of sounds can convey meaning. To examine the role of sound symbolic effects on processing and memory for nonwords, we developed a novel set of 100 nonwords to convey largeness (nonwords containing plosive consonants and back vowels) and smallness (nonwords containing fricative consonants and front vowels). In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants rated the size of the 100 nonwords and provided definitions to them as if they were products. Nonwords composed of fricative/front vowels were rated as smaller than those composed of plosive/back vowels. In Experiment 2, participants studied sound symbolic congruent and incongruent nonword and participant-generated definition pairings. Definitions paired with nonwords that matched the size and participant-generated meanings were recalled better than those that did not match. When the participant-generated definitions were re-paired with other nonwords, this mnemonic advantage was reduced, although still reliable. In a final free association study, the possibility that plosive/back vowel and fricative/front vowel nonwords elicit sound symbolic size effects due to mediation from word neighbors was ruled out. Together, these results suggest that definitions that are sound symbolically congruent with a nonword are more memorable than incongruent definition-nonword pairings. This work has implications for the creation of brand names and how to create brand names that not only convey desired product characteristics, but also are memorable for consumers.

  10. Sound Stuff? Naïve materialism in middle-school students' conceptions of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, Haim; Schwartz, Judah L.

    2006-06-01

    Few studies have dealt with students’ preconceptions of sounds. The current research employs Reiner et al. (2000) substance schema to reveal new insights about students’ difficulties in understanding this fundamental topic. It aims not only to detect whether the substance schema is present in middle school students’ thinking, but also examines how students use the schema’s properties. It asks, moreover, whether the substance schema properties are used as islands of local consistency or whether one can identify more global coherent consistencies among the properties that the students use to explain the sound phenomena. In-depth standardized open-ended interviews were conducted with ten middle school students. Consistent with the substance schema, sound was perceived by our participants as being pushable, frictional, containable, or transitional. However, sound was also viewed as a substance different from the ordinary with respect to its stability, corpuscular nature, additive properties, and inertial characteristics. In other words, students’ conceptions of sound do not seem to fit Reiner et al.’s schema in all respects. Our results also indicate that students’ conceptualization of sound lack internal consistency. Analyzing our results with respect to local and global coherence, we found students’ conception of sound is close to diSessa’s “loosely connected, fragmented collection of ideas.” The notion that sound is perceived only as a “sort of a material,” we believe, requires some revision of the substance schema as it applies to sound. The article closes with a discussion concerning the implications of the results for instruction.

  11. Sound propagation in a continuously stratified laboratory ocean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry L

    2017-05-01

    The propagation of sound in a density-stratified fluid is examined in an experiment with a tank of salty water whose density increases continuously from the fluid surface to the tank bottom. Measurements of the height dependence of the fluid density are used to calculate the height dependence of the fluid salinity and sound speed. The height-dependent sound speed is then used to calculate the refraction of sound rays. Sound propagation in the fluid is measured in three dimensions and compared with the ray analysis. This study provides a basis for laboratory modeling of underwater sound propagation in the fluctuating stratified oceans.

  12. Singlid. Albumid : Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1998-01-01

    Uutest singlitest Babybird "If Yoùll Be Mine", Funkmaster Flex "From the Upcoming Album:The Mix Tape Vol III", Supergrass "We Still Need More" (Than Anyone Can Give) ja albumitest "The Sound Of Gran Turismo" ja 'MTV's "Amp 2"

  13. Breeding soundness evaluation and reproductive management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assisted reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination (AI) have been used to improve genetic diversity and performance in equines. Employment of breeding soundness evaluation is critical in the selection of the best animal. Semen evaluation in equine includes gross evaluation of raw semen for color.

  14. Sound Art. Klang als Medium der Kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forskningsformidling på udstilling om lydkunst på ZKM i Karlsruhe. Lavet i samarbejde med Mats Lindström, leder af elektronmusikstudiet EMS (Stockholm). Udstillingen er en del af Morten Søndergaards (AAU) præsentation af skandinavisk lydkunst under titlen 'Unheard Avantgarde', der igen er en del ...... den store udstilling 'Sound as a Medium of Art'....

  15. Binaural loudness summation for directional sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In an earlier study (1), the loudness of directional sounds presented in an anechoic chamber was investigated by having listeners make loudness matches to a frontal reference source. The listeners' individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) were also measured, in an attempt to model...

  16. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings...

  17. Learning about the Dynamic Sun through Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Luhmann, J.; MacCallum, J.

    2008-06-01

    Can we hear the Sun or its solar wind? Not in the sense that they make sound. But we can take the particle, magnetic field, electric field, and image data and turn it into sound to demonstrate what the data tells us. We present work on turning data from the two-satellite NASA mission called STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) into sounds and music (sonification). STEREO has two satellites orbiting the Sun near Earth's orbit to study the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Corona. One sonification project aims to inspire musicians, museum patrons, and the public to learn more about CMEs by downloading STEREO data and using it to make music. We demonstrate the software and discuss the way in which it was developed. A second project aims to produce a museum exhibit using STEREO imagery and sounds from STEREO data. We demonstrate a "walk across the Sun" created for this exhibit so people can hear the features on solar images. We show how pixel intensity translates into pitches from selectable scales with selectable musical scale size and octave locations. We also share our successes and lessons learned.

  18. Vibration and Sound Damping in Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    characterization and applications of nano- multiferroics, nano- semiconductors, nano- composites, nanophosphors and nanosensors. 4Sabu Thomas is at the. Mahatma ... elastic solid obeys Hooke's Law, i.e., within the elastic limit, stress is directly .... Hence, sound travels fast in solids, but it is slow in liquids and gases.

  19. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings....

  20. Kelp and Eelgrass in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    pass through Puget Sound; the beds provide both protection from preda- tors and abundant food, such as the small crustaceans associated with eelgrass...is prohibited. With mutual approval from the Washington departments of Natural Resources (WDNR) and Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), how- ever

  1. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  2. Sound exposure during outdoor music festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tron V Tronstad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival’s duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization’s recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization’s recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure.

  3. Sounding Relationships. Conference programme & Book of abstracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Content: Welcome to Aalborg.  Inge Nygaard Pedersen: Welcome from the chair of the organizing committee Tony Wigram Wlcome from the chair of the scientific committee Rita Cancino: Welcome from the head of faculty Hanne Mette Ridder: Welcome from the Danish Association of Music Therapists (MTL) So......) Sounding Relationships General Information Daily Program Social Program List of Participants Scientific Program Book of Abstracts...

  4. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    2014-01-01

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  5. The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    for making meaningful descriptions of phonographic space. In doing so, it contributes to the vocabulary we use to describe musical sound, and especially to descriptions of space in recordings. The thesis is divided into six chapters. Following an Introduction, four central chapters look at different...

  6. Sound propagation in fluids and neutron spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilhof, M.J.; Cohen, E.G.D.; Schepper, I.M. de

    1984-01-01

    Using a model kinetic equation the properties of very short wavelength sound modes in fluids are studied over a wide range of wavenumbers and densities. The main features, in particular propagation gaps at high densities, agree with those found in real fluids and molecular dynamics simulations.

  7. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, V.M., E-mail: vadamyan@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Bondarev, V.N., E-mail: bondvic@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Zavalniuk, V.V., E-mail: vzavalnyuk@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Department of Fundamental Sciences, Odessa Military Academy, 10 Fontanska Road, Odessa 65009 (Ukraine)

    2016-11-11

    Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  8. Letter-Sound Relationships of Phonic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Louis

    Using 17, 211 words drawn from the word list compiled for the Stanford Spelling Study (1963) and drawing upon the "American Heritage Dictionary of the American Language" as the pronunciation reference, a researcher approached the language as if little was known about its letter-sound relationships and examined by computer the letter-sound…

  9. Sound Pollution-Another Urban Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Peter A.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that sound pollution constitutes a severe problem to the urban dweller. Excessive exposure of humans to noise produces both physical and psychological manifestations. Suggests that control of industrial, aircraft, and community noise must be recognized and accepted as a major factor in urban planning and development. Bibliography. (LC)

  10. Telephonic analysis of the snoring sound spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seren, Erdal; Ilhanlı, Ilker; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Cingi, Cemal; Hanci, Deniz

    2014-11-01

    Snoring is a sound caused by vibration of collapsed and/or unsteady airway walls of the pharynx and soft palate. We compared stored spectra of snoring sounds recorded via cell phone (CP) and a microphone placed over the head (head phone [HP]). Thirty-four snoring patients were included in this prospective study. Groups were identified by reference to body mass index (BMI) values: group 1, BMI obese patients of group 3, almost all F(max) and SSIL values were higher than those of groups 1 and 2. In particular, the CP F(max) values were elevated in such patients. The advanced technologies used in modern CPs may allow some snoring sounds in susceptible individuals to be defined as oronasal. Cell phone technology allows snoring to be evaluated in patients located in areas remote from a hospital. To explore the intensity of snoring and to postoperatively monitor the efficacy of surgery used to treat snoring, telephonic sound analysis is both new and effective and reduces the need for patient attendance at a hospital. Those experiencing severe snoring and/or who are obese should be told of what can be done to solve such problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Spectrogram analysis of animal sound production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elemans, C.P.H.; Heeck, K.; Muller, M.

    2008-01-01

    Spectrograms visualise the time-frequency content of a signal. They are commonly used to analyse animal vocalisations. Here, we analyse how far we can deduce the mechanical origin of sound generation and modulation from the spectrogram. We investigate the relationship between simple mathematical

  12. The Sound Pattern of Japanese Surnames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Compound surnames in Japanese show complex phonological patterns, which pose challenges to current theories of phonology. This dissertation proposes an account of the segmental and prosodic issues in Japanese surnames and discusses their theoretical implications. Like regular compound words, compound surnames may undergo a sound alternation known…

  13. Topology optimized cloak for airborne sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Directional acoustic cloaks that conceal an aluminum cylinder for airborne sound waves are presented in this paper. Subwavelength cylindrical aluminum inclusions in air constitute the cloak design to aid practical realizations. The positions and radii of the subwavelength cylinders are determined...

  14. March 1964 Prince William Sound, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Prince William Sound magnitude 9.2 Mw earthquake on March 28, 1964 at 03:36 GMT (March 27 at 5:36 pm local time), was the largest U.S. earthquake ever recorded...

  15. Transfer of structureborne sound to ship's cabins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regt, M.J.A.M. de

    1979-01-01

    In the laboratory the transfer of structureborne sound from a ship-like steel structure to cabin bulkheads has heen investigated for three types of bulkhead material: chipboard, plastic faced calcium silicate and steel plates sandwiching a rock wool core. The most relevant results of the

  16. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Lynn, Ed.; McLeod, Sharynne, Ed.; McCauley, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early…

  17. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  18. Sound exposure during outdoor music festivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronstad, Tron V; Gelderblom, Femke B

    2016-01-01

    Most countries have guidelines to regulate sound exposure at concerts and music festivals. These guidelines limit the allowed sound pressure levels and the concert/festival's duration. In Norway, where there is such a guideline, it is up to the local authorities to impose the regulations. The need to prevent hearing-loss among festival participants is self-explanatory, but knowledge of the actual dose received by visitors is extremely scarce. This study looks at two Norwegian music festivals where only one was regulated by the Norwegian guideline for concert and music festivals. At each festival the sound exposure of four participants was monitored with noise dose meters. This study compared the exposures experienced at the two festivals, and tested them against the Norwegian guideline and the World Health Organization's recommendations. Sound levels during the concerts were higher at the festival not regulated by any guideline, and levels there exceeded both the national and the Worlds Health Organization's recommendations. The results also show that front-of-house measurements reliably predict participant exposure.

  19. Communicative and narrative sound in Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2010-01-01

    The soundtrack of the TV spot Village tells a story of its own. Some of the sounds communicate meaning very close to the visuals, for example by creating an African soundscape. But the soundtrack also supplies narrative elements of its own, which is most remarkable when it adds a happy ending...

  20. Social sciences in Puget Sound recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine F. Wellman; Kelly Biedenweg; Kathleen Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Advancing the recovery of large-scale ecosystems, such as the Puget Sound inWashington State, requires improved knowledge of the interdependencies between nature and humans in that basin region. As Biedenweg et al. (this issue) illustrate, human wellbeing and human behavior do not occur independently of the biophysical environment. Natural environments contribute to...

  1. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain, Robert E., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    When Yang-Hann Kim received the Rossing Prize in Acoustics Education at the 2015 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, he stressed the importance of offering visual depictions of sound fields when teaching acoustics. Often visualization methods require specialized equipment such as microphone arrays or scanning apparatus. We present a…

  2. Sound and Music Computing at KTH

    OpenAIRE

    Bresin, Roberto; Askenfelt, Anders; Friberg, Anders; Hansen, Kjetil; Ternström, Sten

    2012-01-01

    The SMC Sound and Music Computing group at KTH (formerly the Music Acoustics group) is part of the Department of Speech Music and Hearing, School of Computer Science and Communication. In this short report we present the current status of the group mainly focusing on its research. tmh_import_13_01_02, tmh_id_3757 QC 20130503

  3. FeelSound: interactive acoustic music making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Hakvoort, Michiel; Hakvoort, M.C.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2009-01-01

    FeelSound is a multi-user, multi-touch application that aims to collaboratively compose, in an entertaining way, acoustic music. Simultaneous input by each of up to four users enables collaborative composing. This process as well as the resulting music are entertaining. Sensor-packed intelligent

  4. Physiological and psychological assessment of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihashi, R.; Ohira, Masayoshi; Kimura, Teiji; Fujiwara, Takayuki

    The psycho-physiological effects of several sound stimulations were investigated to evaluate the relationship between a psychological parameter, such as subjective perception, and a physiological parameter, such as the heart rate variability (HRV). Eight female students aged 21-22 years old were tested. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the movement of the chest-wall for estimating respiratory rate were recorded during three different sound stimulations; (1) music provided by a synthesizer (condition A); (2) birds twitters (condition B); and (3) mechanical sounds (condition C). The percentage power of the low-frequency (LF; 0.05<=0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15<=0.40 Hz) components in the HRV (LF%, HF%) were assessed by a frequency analysis of time-series data for 5 min obtained from R-R intervals in the ECG. Quantitative assessment of subjective perception was also described by a visual analog scale (VAS). The HF% and VAS value for comfort in C were significantly lower than in either A and/or B. The respiratory rate and VAS value for awakening in C were significantly higher than in A and/or B. There was a significant correlation between the HF% and the value of the VAS, and between the respiratory rate and the value of the VAS. These results indicate that mechanical sounds similar to C inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system and promote a feeling that is unpleasant but alert, also suggesting that the HRV reflects subjective perception.

  5. Sound Affects the Speed of Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of a task-irrelevant sound on visual processing. Participants were presented with revolving clocks at or around central fixation and reported the hand position of a target clock at the time an exogenous cue (1 clock turning red) or an endogenous cue (a line pointing toward 1 of the clocks) was presented. A…

  6. Measuring sound absorption using local field assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    To more effectively apply acoustically absorbing materials, it is desirable to measure angle-dependent sound absorption coefficients, preferably in situ. Existing measurement methods are based on an overall model of the acoustic field in front of the absorber, and are therefore sensitive to

  7. Optimization of Spatiotemporal Apertures in Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels; Pedersen, Claus; Yin, Xuefeng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the impact of the spatio-temporal aperture of a channel sounding system equipped with antenna arrays at the transmitter and receiver on the accuracy of joint estimation of Doppler frequency and bi-direction. The contribution of this work is three-fold. Firstly, we state...

  8. Environmental Sciences Electrical resistivity soundings to determine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four Wenner apparent pseudosections and a vertical electrical sounding were made at the Orita Aperin refuse dump site, Ibadan, South West Nigeria, to map the gross layered structure of the refuse as well as the extent of groundwater contamination. Wood, leaves, newspaper, cloth, polythene bags, plastics, glass and ...

  9. Sound insulation requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    of current projects and initiatives are: AkuLite ‐ Sound and vibrations in lightweight buildings (Swedish project 2009‐2012) http://www.sp.se/sv/index/services/sptrateklibrary/newsletter/Documents/Nr%2030%20dec%2009%20NY.pdf http://www.vinnova.se/upload/EPiStorePDF/vi‐10‐03.pdf (Pilot study, p.83) Silent...

  10. From Particle Data to Particular Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on recent notions about data sonification within sound based experimental and artistic practices. The intention is not to survey the current state of data sonification methods and techniques as such, but rather to suggest a number of selected points of critique for addressin...

  11. EEG sensorimotor correlates of translating sounds into actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Pineda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the actions of others is a necessary foundational cornerstone for effective and affective social interactions. Such understanding may result from a mapping of observed actions as well as heard sounds onto one’s own motor representations of those events. To examine the electrophysiological basis of action-related sounds, EEG data were collected in two studies from adults who were exposed to auditory events in one of three categories: action (either hand- or mouth-based sounds, non-action (environmental sounds, and control sounds (scrambled versions of action sounds. In both studies, triplets of sounds of the same category were typically presented, although occasionally, to insure an attentive state, trials containing a sound from a different category were presented within the triplet and participants were asked to respond to this oddball event either covertly in one study or overtly in another. Additionally, participants in both studies were asked to mimic hand- and mouth-based motor actions associated with the sounds (motor task. Action sounds elicited larger EEG mu rhythm (8-13 Hz suppression, relative to control sounds, primarily over left hemisphere, while non-action sounds showed larger mu suppression primarily over right hemisphere. Furthermore, hand-based sounds elicited greater mu suppression over the hand area in sensorimotor cortex compared to mouth-based sounds. These patterns of mu suppression across cortical regions to different categories of sounds and to effector-specific sounds suggest differential engagement of a mirroring system in the human brain when processing sounds.

  12. Modified stethoscope for auscultation of temporomandibular joint sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sanjiv Rajender Singh; Turakiya, Viral; Pakhan, Ashok J; Jaggi, Nitin; Kalra, Amit; Vaidya, Vidya

    2014-04-01

    Purpose of this study was to modify the stethoscope which can auscultate the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds more precisely than conventional stethoscope, and fabrication of stethoscope compatible software which analyses the auscultated sound and gives documentary evidence of that analysis in the form of graph. The conventional stethoscope was modified by attaching a custom made soundscope with a recording device which can be placed in external auditory meatus (EAM) for auscultation of TMJ sounds. When this small and smooth end of custom made soundscope of modified stethoscope is placed in EAM & connected with specially developed software it records the TMJ sounds & analyzes them in form of graph. Fabrication of modified stethoscope with software records the auscultated sound as a sound wave in form of graph and analyses this sound wave graph to give graphic evidence of prominent intensity at prominent frequency as spectrum analysis graph, and duration of that sound as a sound length graph. The use of modified stethoscope with software increases the accuracy of auscultation of TMJ sounds without any patient's discomfort and helps in diagnosis of TMJ disorders. The modified stethoscope with software for auscultation of TMJ sounds results in more precise auscultation & analysis of TMJ for sounds even of low intensity & frequency. How to cite the article: Dagar SR, Turakiya V, Pakhan AJ, Jaggi N, Kalra A, Vaidya V. Modified stethoscope for auscultation of temporomandibular joint sounds. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):40-4.

  13. Precision of working memory for speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sabine; Iverson, Paul; Manohar, Sanjay; Fox, Zoe; Scott, Sophie K; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Memory for speech sounds is a key component of models of verbal working memory (WM). But how good is verbal WM? Most investigations assess this using binary report measures to derive a fixed number of items that can be stored. However, recent findings in visual WM have challenged such "quantized" views by employing measures of recall precision with an analogue response scale. WM for speech sounds might rely on both continuous and categorical storage mechanisms. Using a novel speech matching paradigm, we measured WM recall precision for phonemes. Vowel qualities were sampled from a formant space continuum. A probe vowel had to be adjusted to match the vowel quality of a target on a continuous, analogue response scale. Crucially, this provided an index of the variability of a memory representation around its true value and thus allowed us to estimate how memories were distorted from the original sounds. Memory load affected the quality of speech sound recall in two ways. First, there was a gradual decline in recall precision with increasing number of items, consistent with the view that WM representations of speech sounds become noisier with an increase in the number of items held in memory, just as for vision. Based on multidimensional scaling (MDS), the level of noise appeared to be reflected in distortions of the formant space. Second, as memory load increased, there was evidence of greater clustering of participants' responses around particular vowels. A mixture model captured both continuous and categorical responses, demonstrating a shift from continuous to categorical memory with increasing WM load. This suggests that direct acoustic storage can be used for single items, but when more items must be stored, categorical representations must be used.

  14. First Science Results from MARSIS Subsurface Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, J. J.; Picardi, G.; Calabrese, D.; Cicchetti, A.; Clifford, S.; Farrell, W.; Federico, C.; Frigeri, A.; Gurnett, D.; Huff, R.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, W.; Jordan, R.; Kirchner, D.; Leuschen, C.; Masdea, A.; Orosei, R.; Phillips, R.; Safaeinili, A.; Seu, R.; Stofan, E.; Watters, T.

    2005-12-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS), aboard the Mars Express orbiter, began routine science observations in early July, 2005. The radar operates in two primary modes, subsurface sounding and ionospheric sounding. The objective of the subsurface experiment is to detect and characterize subsurface material discontinuities in the upper several km of the martian crust, some of which may be related to the presence of water (liquid or solid). In the subsurface sounding mode, one or two of four frequency bands in the range of 1.3-5.5 MHz can be selected. The lower frequency bands are expected to penetrate more deeply, but cannot be used when the dayside ionosphere is beneath the spacecraft. The orbit of Mars Express oscillates between periods of day and night peripases; July and August, 2005 included some nightside coverage, while September-November are dayside only. Subsurface sounding data have a lateral resolution of 5-10 km and a vertical resolution of 100 m in free space (about 50 m in crustal materials). The MARSIS radar has been performing nominally since turn-on. Echoes from the surface are typically strong, with signal-to-noise ratios in the range of 30-50 dB. Later returns from off-nadir topographic clutter are evident and easily modeled using MOLA topography data. Many late echoes are observed that cannot be explained as topographic clutter. These features are under investigation as potential subsurface interfaces. As the periapsis of the Mars Express orbit migrates toward the south pole, the polar layered deposits and related landforms will be observed by MARSIS on the nightside. In addition, numerous targets of interest in the southern mid-latitudes will be acquired during the nightside, including the floors of Hellas and Argyre basins, and the regions of strong remnant crustal magnetization.

  15. 2005 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: North Puget Sound Lowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data contributing to the Puget Sound Lowlands project of 2005. Arlington, City of Snohomish, Snohomish...

  16. Enviromental contaminants in Puget Sound fish - Histological Preparation and Chemical Analyses of Puget Sound Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of a long-term contaminant-monitoring program of fish in Puget Sound and Georgia Basin, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and NWFSC have...

  17. Puget Sound Intertidal Habitat Inventory; Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program, 1996 (NODC Accession 9900221)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puget Sound's intertidal areas provide habitat for species of commercial, recreational, biotic, and aesthetic value. Habitat is a critical ecosystem component -- it...

  18. Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds The Sound of Music

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchamp, James W

    2007-01-01

    Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds contains a detailed treatment of basic methods for analysis and synthesis of musical sounds, including the phase vocoder method, the McAulay-Quatieri frequency-tracking method, the constant-Q transform, and methods for pitch tracking with several examples shown. Various aspects of musical sound spectra such as spectral envelope, spectral centroid, spectral flux, and spectral irregularity are defined and discussed. One chapter is devoted to the control and synthesis of spectral envelopes. Two advanced methods of analysis/synthesis are given: "Sines Plus Transients Plus Noise" and "Spectrotemporal Reassignment" are covered. Methods for timbre morphing are given. The last two chapters discuss the perception of musical sounds based on discrimination and multidimensional scaling timbre models.

  19. Transient Sound Intensity Measurements for Evaluating the Spatial Information of Sound Fields in Reverberant Enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdov, Adel Abdel-Moneim

    Over the last twenty years, new subjectively relevant objective room-acoustic indicators for evaluating the acoustical quality of an enclosure have been introduced. While these indicators give new insight into the acoustical "Goodness" of a listener position, in order to design halls, assess or to correct an acoustical defect in an existing enclosure, there is a need to understand to what extent they are influenced by the physical design features of the enclosure. To meet such a need, information about the directional characteristics of sound is required. The spatial distribution of sound energy is usually not considered due to lack of an efficient, accurate and easy to perform measurement method. The main objectives of the present study are, first; to review known and speculative room-acoustic indicators for use in assessing reverberant spaces such as concert halls, opera houses, multi-purpose halls and churches. Second, to introduce an easy to perform measurement method for directional sensing in sound fields. Third, to develop a simple and inexpensive PC-based instrument primarily for the measurement of sound fields directional characteristics as well as contemporary room-acoustic indicators. Fourth, to propose new room-acoustic indicators which have relevance to directional information. This study introduces a three-dimensional sound intensity measurement technique for obtaining spatial information of sound fields in an enclosure. The technique has been validated and its accuracy investigated. The method gives results that provide valuable information regarding the directional behaviour of sound in enclosures. Subsequently both the system and the measurement method were applied to known spaces as example applications in order to assess sound quality, to detect the effect of the surrounding interior features of the space, and to assess potential diagnostic capability with respect to interior physical changes. The study has validated the measurement procedure as

  20. Commented Translation: Home Studio Acoustics (Sound on Sound 12/2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Sedláček, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to translate the article Room For Improvement: A Guide To DIY Studio Acoustics published in the Sound On Sound magazine in December 2007 from English into Czech and then, in the commentary section, to work out its translation analysis, describe the main issues encountered during translation, defend the method of translation we opted for and solutions to individual problems. A reformatted copy of the source text is attached. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  1. The effect of sounds on sleep quality in rooms of varying sound isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Barthe, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise/sounds count as negative influence on sleep quality in current literature. Low sleep quality is known as a negative influence on health and quality of life. The study at hand investigates the influence of three different levels of noise isolation on sleep quality. Objective of the study was to discover if a reduced level of sound and room reverberance can contribute to an improvement in quality of sleep. Methods In a clinical prospective study, 24 heal...

  2. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  3. How should an electric vehicle sound? User and expert perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petiot, Jean-François; Kristensen, Bjørn G.; Maier, Anja

    2013-01-01

    As electric vehicles are moving in on the automobile market, safety relating to acoustic perception is an important issue. It is a growing concern, particularly with respect to pedestrians, cyclists or visually impaired people. This can be addressed by adding sounds to the vehicle whilst at low...... speed. However, adding artificial sounds to an electric vehicle begs the question as to what kind of sound is appropriate. Appropriateness concerns technical specifications and is also linked to affective reactions of recipients of such a sound. Emotional reactions to 17 artificial exterior sounds...... for electric vehicles were investigated in an experimental setting with a total of 40 participants, 34 novice users and six sound experts. Word association was used to elicit emotional reactions to the different sounds. Novice users employ more characterrelated terms to describe the sounds, while experts use...

  4. Sound exposure measurements using hearing-aid technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Boelt; Drastrup, Mads; Morales, Esteban Chávez

    2016-01-01

    Sound exposure is one of the primary causes of preventable hearing loss. Traditionally, sound exposure has been associated to industrial settings, and as such, treated as an occupational safety issue leading to international standards regulating sound exposure to improve working conditions. High...... levels of sound exposures are experienced in modern society in many different situations such as attending concerts, sport events and others. This leads to an interest in measurement devices which are discreet and simple to use, in order to assess sound exposures encountered in typical daily life...... scenarios. The purpose of this work is to document the use of a modified behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing-aid as a portable sound pressure level (SPL) meter. In order to obtain sound level measurements with a BTE device comparable to sound field values that can be used with existing risk assessment strategies...

  5. A Nondimensional Parameterization for Sound Propagation in the Atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mungiole, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Parabolic equation (PE) techniques have been successfully used to obtain numerical solutions of sound pressure attenuation in which sound propagation is affected by turbulence and vertical gradients in wind and temperature...

  6. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP High-Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset was collectd by the High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer...

  7. Crova's Disc: A Way to Make Sound Waves "Visible."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Explained are the differences between and offered are examples of longitudinal and transverse sound waves. Described is the construction of the Crova's Disc, a device used in the teaching of the propagation and properties of sound waves. (DS)

  8. Automated analysis of blood pressure measurements (Korotkov sound)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. P.; Hoffler, G. W.; Wolthuis, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Automatic system for noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure is described. System uses Korotkov sound processor logic ratios to identify Korotkov sounds. Schematic diagram of system is provided to show components and method of operation.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Perceived Pitch of Complex Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; González, Diego L.; Piro, Oreste

    1999-06-01

    We apply results from nonlinear dynamics to an old problem in acoustical physics: the mechanism of the perception of the pitch of sounds, especially the sounds known as complex tones that are important for music and speech intelligibility.

  10. Sound Synthesis Affected by Physical Gestures in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Motivation and strategies for affecting electronic music through physical gestures are presented and discussed. Two implementations are presented and experience with their use in performance is reported. A concept of sound shaping and sound colouring that connects an instrumental performer...

  11. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Perceived Pitch of Complex Sounds

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, J H E; Piro, O; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Gonzalez, Diego L.; Piro, Oreste

    1999-01-01

    We apply results from nonlinear dynamics to an old problem in acoustical physics: the mechanism of the perception of the pitch of sounds, especially the sounds known as complex tones that are important for music and speech intelligibility.

  12. Sound intensity and noise evaluation in a critical care unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Nancy; Thompson, Kim; Saunders, Gabrielle; Saiz, Jaya; Richardson, Jeannette; Brown, Deborah; Ince, Naomi; Caldwell, Marc; Pope, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Sound levels in intensive care units can be high. Unfortunately, high levels of sound tend to result in poor sleep quality, which leads to slower healing, poorer immune response, and decreased cognitive function...

  13. Exploring Sound-Motion Textures in drum set performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godøy, Rolf Inge; song, minho; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    to our perceptions of musical textures. Musical textures could thus be understood as multimodal, with features of both sound and motion, hence the idea here of sound-motion textures in music. The study of such multi- modal sound-motion textures will necessitate collecting and analyzing data of both...... the produced sound and of the sound-producing body motion, thus entailing a number of methodological challenges. In our current work on sound- motion textures in music, we focus on short and idiomatic figures for different instruments (e.g. ornaments on vari- ous instruments), and in this paper, we present......A musical texture, be that of an ensemble or of a solo in- strumentalist, may be perceived as combinations of both simultaneous and sequential sound events. However, we believe that also sensations of the corresponding sound- producing events (e.g. hitting, stroking, bowing, blowing) contribute...

  14. The suitability of internal combustion engine sounds as artificial warning sounds for electric and hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bolkovac

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of adding artificial warning sounds to hybrid and fully electric vehicles, in order to increase traffic safety by making these vehicles audible at low speeds. The goal of this modification is to enable the pedestrians to perceive possible danger coming from such a vehicle in time to respond accordingly. Following the results of previous research which state that the sounds of internal combustion engines are valid candidates for artificial warning sounds to be added to hybrid or fully electric vehicles, a preliminary examination of the suitability and acceptability of different engine sounds in various modes of operation has been conducted. The chosen modes of operation are running in idle, at 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm with the vehicle stopped. Both gasoline and diesel engines were investigated. To expand the range of engine sounds, the type of vehicles was not limited to personal cars. The results show significant differences in suitability of engine sounds for the stated purpose, with vehicle type being the main differentiating factor.

  15. A computational method of evaluating noncompact sound based on vortex sound theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, T; Miyazawa, M; Kato, C

    2007-03-01

    A numerical investigation is made of the production of sound by turbulence interacting with a noncompact body. The problem is formulated in the frequency domain by extending the theory of vortex sound proposed by Howe. The anomalous "numerical" generation of sound by the sudden termination of Lighthill's stress tensor at the outer boundary of a finite computational domain is avoided by identification of "scattered" sound sources that generate sound principally by interaction with the solid surface. It is argued that the boundary element method is the most efficient means of computing the aeroacoustic Green's function for the problem, because it requires a minimum of CPU time, is not prone to numerical errors such as dispersion and dissipation during propagation, and the radiation condition is easily applied at the outer boundary. The method is applied to the problem of sound generation by high Reynolds number flow past a circular cylinder. The "scattered" sources are shown to be confined to the vicinity of the cylinder surface. At low frequencies the radiation has a dipole-like directivity in agreement with the compact approximation. However, the directivity is quite different at high frequencies, where our noncompact method predicts a more complicated "leaf-like" radiation pattern.

  16. Opponent Coding of Sound Location (Azimuth) in Planum Temporale is Robust to Sound-Level Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derey, Kiki; Valente, Giancarlo; de Gelder, Beatrice; Formisano, Elia

    2016-01-01

    Coding of sound location in auditory cortex (AC) is only partially understood. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that neurons in mammalian auditory cortex are characterized by broad spatial tuning and a preference for the contralateral hemifield, that is, a nonuniform sampling of sound azimuth. Additionally, spatial selectivity decreases with increasing sound intensity. To accommodate these findings, it has been proposed that sound location is encoded by the integrated activity of neuronal populations with opposite hemifield tuning ("opponent channel model"). In this study, we investigated the validity of such a model in human AC with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a phase-encoding paradigm employing binaural stimuli recorded individually for each participant. In all subjects, we observed preferential fMRI responses to contralateral azimuth positions. Additionally, in most AC locations, spatial tuning was broad and not level invariant. We derived an opponent channel model of the fMRI responses by subtracting the activity of contralaterally tuned regions in bilateral planum temporale. This resulted in accurate decoding of sound azimuth location, which was unaffected by changes in sound level. Our data thus support opponent channel coding as a neural mechanism for representing acoustic azimuth in human AC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Recognition and characterization of unstructured environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina

    2011-12-01

    Environmental sounds are what we hear everyday, or more generally sounds that surround us ambient or background audio. Humans utilize both vision and hearing to respond to their surroundings, a capability still quite limited in machine processing. The first step toward achieving multimodal input applications is the ability to process unstructured audio and recognize audio scenes (or environments). Such ability would have applications in content analysis and mining of multimedia data or improving robustness in context aware applications through multi-modality, such as in assistive robotics, surveillances, or mobile device-based services. The goal of this thesis is on the characterization of unstructured environmental sounds for understanding and predicting the context surrounding of an agent or device. Most research on audio recognition has focused primarily on speech and music. Less attention has been paid to the challenges and opportunities for using audio to characterize unstructured audio. My research focuses on investigating challenging issues in characterizing unstructured environmental audio and to develop novel algorithms for modeling the variations of the environment. The first step in building a recognition system for unstructured auditory environment was to investigate on techniques and audio features for working with such audio data. We begin by performing a study that explore suitable features and the feasibility of designing an automatic environment recognition system using audio information. In my initial investigation to explore the feasibility of designing an automatic environment recognition system using audio information, I have found that traditional recognition and feature extraction for audio were not suitable for environmental sound, as they lack any type of structures, unlike those of speech and music which contain formantic and harmonic structures, thus dispelling the notion that traditional speech and music recognition techniques can simply

  18. Sound insulation properties of structure designed from apparel cutting waste

    OpenAIRE

    Jordeva, Sonja; Tomovska, Elena; Trajković, Dušan; Popeski-Dimovski, Riste; Zafirova, Koleta

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an insulation structure from apparel cutting waste was designed and its sound insulation properties were investigated. Shredded polyester apparel cuttings were used as the raw material for an insulation structure. The obtained results show that the insulation structure made from apparel cutting waste has good sound absorption compared to standard sound and thermal insulators. The average sound absorption of the samples was from 54.7% to 74.7%, for a frequency range of 250-2000Hz...

  19. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Web Site Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Web Site Development 5b. GRANT NUMBER NOOO 14- 12- 1-0169 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...DOSITS) Web Site Development ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0169 Period of Performance: 01 January 2012- 31 December 2014 Principal Investigator Peter F... developed to help f ill the critical need for scientifically sound , objective information on sound in the sea. 15. SUBJECT TERMS sound in the sea

  20. Series expansions of rotating two and three dimensional sound fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, M A

    2010-12-01

    The cylindrical and spherical harmonic expansions of oscillating sound fields rotating at a constant rate are derived. These expansions are a generalized form of the stationary sound field expansions. The derivations are based on the representation of interior and exterior sound fields using the simple source approach and determination of the simple source solutions with uniform rotation. Numerical simulations of rotating sound fields are presented to verify the theory.

  1. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...... discriminability. Action categories were more accurately decoded in auditory cortex when subjects identified action information. Conversely, the material of the same sound sources was decoded with higher accuracy in the inferior frontal cortex during material identification. Representational similarity analyses...

  2. Form Follows Sound: Designing Interactions from Sonic Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Caramiaux, Baptiste; Altavilla, Alessandro; Pobiner, Scott; Tanaka, Atau

    2015-01-01

    Sonic interaction is the continuous relationship between user actions and sound, mediated by some technology. Because interaction with sound may be task oriented or experience-based it is important to understand the nature of action-sound relationships in order to design rich sonic interactions. We propose a participatory approach to sonic interaction design that first considers the affordances of sounds in order to imagine embodied interaction, and based on this, generates interaction models...

  3. Sound-driven piezoelectric nanowire-based nanogenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Nam; Kim, Seong Min; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Young Jun; Kim, Jong Min [Frontier Research Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin, Gyeonggi, 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ju-Seok; Kim, Sang-Woo [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-09

    Sound-driven power generation using nanogenerators based on piezoelectric ZnO nanowires has been demonstrated. Systematic investigations on the power-generating performance of sound-driven nanogenerators clearly support that the measured output voltage originated from the sound-driven nanogenerator. This study shows that sound can be one of promising energy sources when using highly efficient nanogenerators based on piezoelectric nanowires. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. The WODA guidance paper on underwater sound from dredging (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Witt, P. de; Holtkamp, M.; Goethals, F.; San Martin, E.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Jensen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The World Organisation of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) was established to provide a guidance paper on dredging sound, impact on aquatic biota and advice on

  5. Real, foley or synthetic? An evaluation of everyday walking sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Sikström, Erik; Grani, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    in using foley sounds for a film track. In particular this work focuses on walking sounds: five different scenes of a walking person were video recorded and each video was then mixed with the three different kind of sounds mentioned above. Subjects were asked to recognise and describe the action performed...

  6. Methodology for designing aircraft having optimal sound signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahai, A.K.; Simons, D.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology with which aircraft designs can be modified such that they produce optimal sound signatures on the ground. With optimal sound it is implied in this case sounds that are perceived as less annoying by residents living near airport vicinities. A novel design and

  7. A microscopic description of sound absorption in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    The various mechanisms which contribute to sound absorption in the atmosphere are identified and a technique for computing the contribution from each is presented. The similarities between sound absorption, laser fluorescence measurements, and the opto-acoustic effect are discussed. Finally, experimental sound absorption results are compared to predictions to test the microscopic energy transfer approach.

  8. The Culture Specific Application of Sound in Nigerian Video Movies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for relevant music led to the rise of video movie music composers like Tope Alabi and Shola Allison. The culture specific character of sound in the movies generally include background score, dialogue, songs, noise, sound expressing emotion and silence. However, there is still need to improve the sound quality of ...

  9. Vertical electrical sounding to delineate the potential aquifer zones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joy Choudhury

    2017-09-06

    Sep 6, 2017 ... direct current (DC) resistivity soundings method also known as vertical electrical sounding (VES) is one of the most applied ... Vertical electrical sounding; groundwater; aquifer zones; borehole litholog; Niamey. 1. Introduction. Niger is a ..... Telford M, Geldart L P, Sheriff R E and Keys D A 1976. Applied ...

  10. Geoelectrical Sounding Survey For Aquifer Determination In Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Geoelectrical soundings investigation comprising 17 soundings in Auchi VES 2 and 14 soundings in Igarra VES 3 all in the northern part of Edo State has been carried out. The aim of the survey was to explore the ground water potential of the areas and ascertain the structures that are needed for the occurrence of ...

  11. 46 CFR 28.400 - Radar and depth sounding devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radar and depth sounding devices. 28.400 Section 28.400... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.400 Radar and depth sounding devices. (a) Each vessel... the operating station. (b) Each vessel must be fitted with a suitable echo depth sounding device. ...

  12. 46 CFR 131.965 - Sounding of whistle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sounding of whistle. 131.965 Section 131.965 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 131.965 Sounding of whistle. No vessel may sound its whistle within any harbor limits of the...

  13. Language Experience Affects Grouping of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Anjali; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Agus, Trevor; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Language experience clearly affects the perception of speech, but little is known about whether these differences in perception extend to non-speech sounds. In this study, we investigated rhythmic perception of non-linguistic sounds in speakers of French and German using a grouping task, in which complexity (variability in sounds, presence of…

  14. Elementary Yoruba: Sound Drills and Greetings. Occasional Publication No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Robert G.; Awujoola, Robert L.

    This introduction to elementary Yoruba is divided into two parts. The first section is on sound drills, and the second section concerns Yoruba greetings. The first part includes exercises to enable the student to master the Yoruba sound system. Emphasis is on pronunciation and recognition of the sounds and tones, but not memorization. A tape is…

  15. The relevance of visual information on learning sounds in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, S.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This

  16. Sounding the Nonhuman in Joyce’s “Sirens”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed Tazudeen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores Joyce’s attempt, in “Sirens”, to give articulation to the sounds made by objects and nonhuman beings, with the ultimate goal of destabilizing the boundary separating the human voice (and other forms of human expression from nonhuman sound. The episode itself can be read as a catalogue of sounds, nonhuman and human, that interact with one another in the absence of a qualitative standard of judgment that would separate the human voice from nonhuman sound, music from “noise”, or conceptual language from sonic expression. Human characters in the episode become what Vike Martina Plock has called “soundboards”, or resonating bodies through which the sounds of their material environment achieve expression. Additionally, human bodies are fragmented metonymically into their sounding body “parts” detached from the unity of the human subject, which allows for new forms of sonorous collaboration between sounding objects and sounding body parts. Nonhuman sounds persist in contrapuntal relation with the voices and sounds of the human characters (and their sounding body parts, a phenomenon which forces us to expand our conception of the fugal form of the episode to include nonhuman entities as collaborators, or “voices”, within it. In this way, “Sirens” asks us to consider sound, and by extension music, not simply as the purely intentional product of a human consciousness, but also as a collective composition between human bodies (and body parts and the sonic materials of their environment.

  17. Time and frequency weightings and the assessment of sound exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    of the exposure. This information is being used to investigate metrics that can differentiate temporal characteristics (impulsive, fluctuating) as well as frequency characteristics (narrow-band or tonal dominance) of sound exposures. This presentation gives an overview of the existing sound measurement...... and analysis methods, that can provide a better representation of the effects of sound exposures on the hearing system...

  18. Conceptual Priming for Environmental Sounds and Words: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgs, Guido; Lange, Kathrin; Dombrowski, Jan-Henryk; Heil, Martin

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined conceptual priming using environmental sounds and visually displayed words. Priming for sounds and words was observed in response latency as well as in event-related potentials. Reactions were faster when a related word followed an environmental sound and vice versa. Moreover both stimulus types produced an N400-effect…

  19. Banjo Rim Height and Sound in the Pot

    CERN Document Server

    Politzer, David

    2016-01-01

    Rim and back geometry determine much of the behavior of sound inside the pot, whose effect on total, produced sound is subtle but discernible. The theory of sound inside a cylinder is reviewed and demonstrated. And previous work on the Helmholtz resonance and the interplay between the Helmholtz resonance and the lowest head mode is revisited using some improved techniques.

  20. 75 FR 76275 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 110 RIN 1625-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound AGENCY: Coast... grounds in Long Island Sound. These anchorages are located in Connecticut and New York State waters. This..., particularly deep draft vessels, transiting Long Island Sound or awaiting entry to a port or facility in New...

  1. 33 CFR 117.721 - Grassy Sound Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grassy Sound Channel. 117.721... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.721 Grassy Sound Channel. The draw of the Grassy Sound Channel Bridge, mile 1.0 in Middle Township, shall open on signal from 6 a.m. to 8 p...

  2. 33 CFR 67.25-10 - Sound signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal. 67.25-10 Section 67... signal. (a) The owner of a Class “B” structure shall: (1) Install a sound signal that has a rated range...) Operate the sound signal when the visibility in any direction is less than 3 miles, unless the District...

  3. 33 CFR 67.20-10 - Sound signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signal. 67.20-10 Section 67... signal. (a) The owner of a Class “A” structure shall: (1) Install a sound signal that has a rated range of at least 2 miles; and, (2) Operate the sound signal when the visibility in any direction is less...

  4. Rainsticks: Integrating Culture, Folklore, and the Physics of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine; Fies, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity is for students to build a rainstick out of materials in their own environment and imitate the sound of rain while investigating the physical principles of sound. Students will be able to relate the sound produced by an instrument to the type and quantity of materials used in its construction.

  5. Lexical and perceptual grounding of a sound ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobanova, Anna; Spenader, Jennifer; Valkenier, Bea; Matousek,; Mautner, P

    2007-01-01

    Sound ontologies need to incorporate source unidentifiable sounds in an adequate and consistent manner. Computational lexical resources like WordNet have either inserted these descriptions into conceptual categories, or make no attempt to organize the terms for these sounds. This work attempts to

  6. Kirev kamp / Harri Slip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Slip, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Bluetooth-kõlarid hinnaklassist 150-200 €: Beats Speaker Pill 2.0, Bose SoundLink Mini, Cambridge Audio GoRadio, Creative Sound Blaster Roar, Denon Envaya, Jabra Solemate, JBL Charge 2, SMS Audio SYNCby 50, Sony SRS-X5, TDK Trek Max A34, Ultimate Ears Boom

  7. Curating sound performance as laboratories of envisioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus

    This paper is based on my dissertation research that investigates how sound performance can be presented and represented - in real time, as well as in and through the archive. This double perspective opens a field of curatorial problems related to the simultaneous movements of both envisioning...... and documenting, when curating within the context of the art museum. Acknowledging that performance and sound art has entered the ecologies (and economies) of museum institutions, I explore the conference theme from the perspective of on-going experiments with laboratory-based approaches to curating...... of Contemporary Art, Roskilde, Denmark) 2014. The paper suggests how laboratories and other metaphors of collective artistic and design processes might be adopted in exploring and facilitating experimentation with participatory and performative approaches to central issues of presentation and representation...

  8. Method of fan sound mode structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, G. F.; Sofrin, T. G.; Wells, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A method for the determination of fan sound mode structure in the Inlet of turbofan engines using in-duct acoustic pressure measurements is presented. The method is based on the simultaneous solution of a set of equations whose unknowns are modal amplitude and phase. A computer program for the solution of the equation set was developed. An additional computer program was developed which calculates microphone locations the use of which results in an equation set that does not give rise to numerical instabilities. In addition to the development of a method for determination of coherent modal structure, experimental and analytical approaches are developed for the determination of the amplitude frequency spectrum of randomly generated sound models for use in narrow annulus ducts. Two approaches are defined: one based on the use of cross-spectral techniques and the other based on the use of an array of microphones.

  9. Modular and Adaptive Control of Sound Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nort, Douglas

    This dissertation presents research into the creation of systems for the control of sound synthesis and processing. The focus differs from much of the work related to digital musical instrument design, which has rightly concentrated on the physicality of the instrument and interface: sensor design, choice of controller, feedback to performer and so on. Often times a particular choice of sound processing is made, and the resultant parameters from the physical interface are conditioned and mapped to the available sound parameters in an exploratory fashion. The main goal of the work presented here is to demonstrate the importance of the space that lies between physical interface design and the choice of sound manipulation algorithm, and to present a new framework for instrument design that strongly considers this essential part of the design process. In particular, this research takes the viewpoint that instrument designs should be considered in a musical control context, and that both control and sound dynamics must be considered in tandem. In order to achieve this holistic approach, the work presented in this dissertation assumes complementary points of view. Instrument design is first seen as a function of musical context, focusing on electroacoustic music and leading to a view on gesture that relates perceived musical intent to the dynamics of an instrumental system. The important design concept of mapping is then discussed from a theoretical and conceptual point of view, relating perceptual, systems and mathematically-oriented ways of examining the subject. This theoretical framework gives rise to a mapping design space, functional analysis of pertinent existing literature, implementations of mapping tools, instrumental control designs and several perceptual studies that explore the influence of mapping structure. Each of these reflect a high-level approach in which control structures are imposed on top of a high-dimensional space of control and sound synthesis

  10. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    . Specifically, it is suggested that the phase differential of the source driving signals should be in agreement with the phase differential of the desired sound pressure field. The performance of the suggested method is compared with that of conventional effort regularization, wave field synthesis (WFS......In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  11. On the Vortex Sound from Rotating Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, E. Y.

    1947-01-01

    The motion of different bodies imersed in liquid or gaseous media is accompanied by characteristic sound which is excited by the formation of unstable surfaces of separation behind the body, usually disintegrating into a system of discrete vortices(such as the Karman vortex street due to the flow about an infintely long rod, etc.).In the noise from fans,pumps,and similar machtnery, vortexnQif3eI?Yequently predominates. The purpose of this work is to elucidate certain questions of the dependence ofthis sound upon the aerodynamic parameters and the tip speed of the rotating rods,or blades. Although scme material is given below,insufficientto calculate the first rough approximation to the solution of this question,such as the mechanics of vortex formation,never the less certain conclusions maybe found of practical application for the reduction of noise from rotating blades.

  12. Popcorn: critical temperature, jump and sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emmanuel; Ponomarenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-06

    Popcorn bursts open, jumps and emits a 'pop' sound in some hundredths of a second. The physical origin of these three observations remains unclear in the literature. We show that the critical temperature 180°C at which almost all of popcorn pops is consistent with an elementary pressure vessel scenario. We observe that popcorn jumps with a 'leg' of starch which is compressed on the ground. As a result, popcorn is midway between two categories of moving systems: explosive plants using fracture mechanisms and jumping animals using muscles. By synchronizing video recordings with acoustic recordings, we propose that the familiar 'pop' sound of the popcorn is caused by the release of water vapour. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    In everyday environments, listeners perceive sound sources as externalized. In listening conditions where the spatial cues that are relevant for externalization are not represented correctly, such as when listening through headphones or hearing aids, a degraded perception of externalization may...... occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources......) for noise estimation. Intelligibility weighted improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 6 dB and 18 dB were found for diffuse multi-talker babble noise and speech shaped directional noise, respectively, at input SNRs close to the speech reception threshold (SRT) of hearing impaired listeners. Overall...

  14. Simulation of sound waves using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for fluid flow: Benchmark cases for outdoor sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases:

  15. Simulation of Sound Waves Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flow: Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Erik M; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equations of acoustics. It is found that the LBM works well for sound waves, but dissipation of sound waves with the LBM is generally much larger than real dissipation of sound waves in air. To circumvent this problem it is proposed here to use the LBM for assessing the excess sound level, i.e. the difference between the sound level and the free-field sound level. The effect of dissipation on the excess sound level is much smaller than the effect on the sound level, so the LBM can be used to estimate the excess sound level for a non-dissipative atmosphere, which is a useful quantity in atmospheric acoustics. To reduce dissipation in an LBM simulation two approaches are considered: i) reduction of the kinematic viscosity and ii) reduction of the lattice spacing.

  16. Students' Learning of a Generalized Theory of Sound Transmission from a Teaching-Learning Sequence about Sound, Hearing and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Eva; Wallin, Anita

    2013-04-01

    Learning abstract concepts such as sound often involves an ontological shift because to conceptualize sound transmission as a process of motion demands abandoning sound transmission as a transfer of matter. Thus, for students to be able to grasp and use a generalized model of sound transmission poses great challenges for them. This study involved 199 students aged 10-14. Their views about sound transmission were investigated before and after teaching by comparing their written answers about sound transfer in different media. The teaching was built on a research-based teaching-learning sequence (TLS), which was developed within a framework of design research. The analysis involved interpreting students' underlying theories of sound transmission, including the different conceptual categories that were found in their answers. The results indicated a shift in students' understandings from the use of a theory of matter before the intervention to embracing a theory of process afterwards. The described pattern was found in all groups of students irrespective of age. Thus, teaching about sound and sound transmission is fruitful already at the ages of 10-11. However, the older the students, the more advanced is their understanding of the process of motion. In conclusion, the use of a TLS about sound, hearing and auditory health promotes students' conceptualization of sound transmission as a process in all grades. The results also imply some crucial points in teaching and learning about the scientific content of sound.

  17. 33 CFR 334.412 - Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. 334.412 Section 334.412 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.412 Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound, Harvey Point and adjacent waters, NC; restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning on the north shore of Albemarle Sound and the easternmost tip of Harvey Point...

  18. A Comparative Study of Sound Speed in Air at Room Temperature between a Pressure Sensor and a Sound Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the comparison of sound speed measurements in air using two types of sensor that are widely employed in physics and engineering education, namely a pressure sensor and a sound sensor. A computer-based laboratory with pressure and sound sensors was used to carry out measurements of air through a 60 ml syringe. The fast Fourier…

  19. 77 FR 37318 - Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Eighth Coast Guard District Annual Safety Zones; Sound of Independence; Santa Rosa Sound; Fort Walton Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the Sound of Independence...

  20. Measurement of sound propagation in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1995-01-01

    A new acoustic method for directly measuring the flow resistance, and the compressibility of fibrous materials such as glass wool, is given. Measured results for monochromatic sound in glass wool are presented and compared with theoretically calculated results. The agreement between experimental...... results and theory is good. Results of measurements of characteristic impedance, attenuation, and phase shift for plane monochromatic traveling waves are presented and compared with theoretically calculated ones. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was found....

  1. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    or rendering, the soundtrack . Using MIDI devices, the output may be generated directly, without the need for an explicit musical score. We have used...soundtrack. Evaluation of timbre trees in the temporal domain is much like evaluation of shade trees in the spatial domain. At each sample point in the ... soundtrack , evaluation is performed by a post order traversal of the tree. The output from the root of the tree is the computed value of the sound for that

  3. Marine Riparian Vegetation Communities of Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    sporadically. Both western white pine and shore pine occur on glacial drift in the Puget Sound area. Hardwoods, such as red alder and big leaf maple, are not...dar, and understory shrubs such as red huckleberry, Oregon grape, trailing blackberry , and salal (Kruckeberg 1991). Other common trees in this zone...include big leaf maple, vine maple, red alder, black cottonwood and madrone. A list of the most common plants of the Western Hemlock Zone, along

  4. Linguistic documents synchronizing sound and text

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Michel; Michailovsky, Boyd; Lowe, John

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the LACITO linguistic archive project is to conserve and to make available for research recorded and transcribed oral traditions and other linguistic materials in (mainly) unwritten languages, giving simultaneous access to sound recordings and text annotation. The project uses simple, TEI-inspired XML markup for the kinds of annotation traditionally used in field linguistics. Transcriptions are segmented at the levels of, roughly, the sentence and the word, and annotation associat...

  5. (and Sound) of SiMPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania

    As contemporary smartphones become ubiquitous, their nature changes from mere function to a tool for self- expression, creativity, or play. Mobile application development embraces this change, as evidenced by the popularity and profits of sound and music applications and games in various applicat....... The positive assessment of the participants and the appreciation of data providers are among the results that encourage in future development. Yet, there is room for improvement in combining the technical development with the design practices and user studies....

  6. Study of Sound Attenuation in Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    experimental difficulties. In the ocean, the sediment is inaccesible , the propagation path is inhomoveneonis, and information on lavering usually has to... STANDARDS 1963 A RFPRODUCED AT GOVERNMENT EXPENSE Ln ~STUDY OF SOUND ATTENUATION IN SEDIMENTS Stephen R. Addison and Henry F. Bass PARGUM Report 84-03*A 4*I...measured porosity decreased to 0.39. The standard deviation in all these porosity measurements was 0.01. A porosity of 0.40 is used in all subsequent

  7. Underwater tunable organ-pipe sound source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Andrey K; Webb, Douglas C

    2007-08-01

    A highly efficient frequency-controlled sound source based on a tunable high-Q underwater acoustic resonator is described. The required spectrum width was achieved by transmitting a linear frequency-modulated signal and simultaneously tuning the resonance frequency, keeping the sound source in resonance at the instantaneous frequency of the signal transmitted. Such sound sources have applications in ocean-acoustic tomography and deep-penetration seismic tomography. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation show the Helmholtz resonator's ability for instant resonant frequency switching and quick adjustment of its resonant frequency to the instantaneous frequency signal. The concept of a quick frequency adjustment filter is considered. The discussion includes the simplest lumped resonant source as well as the complicated distributed system of a tunable organ pipe. A numerical model of the tunable organ pipe is shown to have a form similar to a transmission line segment. This provides a general form for the principal results, which can be applied to tunable resonators of a different physical nature. The numerical simulation shows that the "state-switched" concept also works in the high-Q tunable organ pipe, and the speed of frequency sweeping in a high-Q tunable organ pipe is analyzed. The simulation results were applied to a projector design for ocean-acoustic tomography.

  8. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eSignoret

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo words and complex non phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2 that was followed by a two alternative forced choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo words were better detected than non phonological stimuli (complex sounds, presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  9. Sound attenuation of tanker’s headphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Młyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crew of military vehicles, which is exposed to the noise associated with the engine running, as well as to shots from firearms, is equipped with headphones. The article presents the results of noise reduction by HC-98 headphone for steady state and impulsive noise. Two methods of research were used: sound attenuation measurements with participation of subjects and transmission loss measurements with the use of acoustic test fixture — device reflecting the properties of the head. Data for headphone were compared with noise reduction of two different, commonly used earmuffs (one light, the other strong limiting noise. The results indicated that measured headphone meets the requirements that allow for treating it as hearing protection, however, this headphone does not provide hearing protection such as earmuffs. Relatively low values of attenuation of acoustic impulses through the headphone versus the results for earmuffs were observed. Furthermore, in the case of headphone, in the frequency range 63-2000 Hz, the lower values of steady state noise sound attenuation, from about 2 up to even a 19 dB with respect to the attenuation of ear muffs were measured.[b]Keywords[/b]: acoustics, noise control, noise, sound attenuation

  10. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  11. Experimental study on HVAC sound parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujoreanu, C.; Benchea, M.

    2016-08-01

    HVAC system represent major source of buildings internal noise and therefore they are designed to provide a human acoustic comfort besides the thermal and air quality requirements. The paper experimentally investigates three types of commercial air handler units (AHU) with different ducts cross-section sizes and inlet-outlet configuration. The measurements are performed in an anechoic room. The measurements are carried out at different fan's speeds, ranging the power-charge from 30-100% while the duct air flow is slowly adjusted from full open to full closed, between 0-500 Pa. The sound pressure levels of the radiant units are rated using NR curves. Also, the supply and the outdoor ducts sound levels are compared in order to point the frequencies where the noise must be reduced. Third-octave band analysis of random noise of an air handling unit from a HVAC system is realized, using measurement procedures that agrees the requirements of the ISO 3744:2011 and ISO 5136:2010 standards. The comparatively results highlight the effects of the geometry, air flow pressure and power-charging dependencies upon the sound level. This is the start for a noise reduction strategy.

  12. Nonlocal nonlinear coupling of kinetic sound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lyubchyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We study three-wave resonant interactions among kinetic-scale oblique sound waves in the low-frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived in the framework of a two-fluid plasma model. Because of dispersive modifications at small wavelengths perpendicular to the background magnetic field, these waves become a decay-type mode. We found two decay channels, one into co-propagating product waves (forward decay, and another into counter-propagating product waves (reverse decay. All wavenumbers in the forward decay are similar and hence this decay is local in wavenumber space. On the contrary, the reverse decay generates waves with wavenumbers that are much larger than in the original pump waves and is therefore intrinsically nonlocal. In general, the reverse decay is significantly faster than the forward one, suggesting a nonlocal spectral transport induced by oblique sound waves. Even with low-amplitude sound waves the nonlinear interaction rate is larger than the collisionless dissipation rate. Possible applications regarding acoustic waves observed in the solar corona, solar wind, and topside ionosphere are briefly discussed.

  13. Sound to meaning correspondences facilitate word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Lynne C; Cook, Allison E; Namy, Laura L

    2009-07-01

    A fundamental assumption regarding spoken language is that the relationship between sound and meaning is essentially arbitrary. The present investigation questioned this arbitrariness assumption by examining the influence of potential non-arbitrary mappings between sound and meaning on word learning in adults. Native English-speaking monolinguals learned meanings for Japanese words in a vocabulary-learning task. Spoken Japanese words were paired with English meanings that: (1) matched the actual meaning of the Japanese word (e.g., "hayai" paired with fast); (2) were antonyms for the actual meaning (e.g., "hayai" paired with slow); or (3) were randomly selected from the set of antonyms (e.g., "hayai" paired with blunt). The results showed that participants learned the actual English equivalents and antonyms for Japanese words more accurately and responded faster than when learning randomly paired meanings. These findings suggest that natural languages contain non-arbitrary links between sound structure and meaning and further, that learners are sensitive to these non-arbitrary relationships within spoken language.

  14. Freezing in Touch: Sound Enhances Tactile Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yeh Tsai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual segregation in rapidly changing visual displays can be facilitated by a synchronized salient sound that segregates itself from other sounds in the sequence (Vroomen & de Gelder, 2000. We examined whether this “freezing” phenomenon can also be found in tactile perception. Three vibrators were placed on the participant's palm to produce four different tactile patterns. Four sounds were presented separately and simultaneously with each of the four tactile patterns. Among the three same-pitch tones, an abrupt high-pitch tone was presented simultaneously with the designated temporal position of the target pattern in the sequence of tactual stimuli that was presented rapidly and repeatedly. The task was to identify the tactile pattern of the target. Results showed that participants responded faster and more accurately with the high-pitch tone, compared to the condition when all the tones were of the same pitch. However, the result reversed when an extra tactile cue was presented on the wrist. This suggests that a salient auditory signal can improve perceptual segregation not only in vision but also in touch. That is, it is a cross-modal facilitation, not an alerting or attentional cueing effect.

  15. Evolution of sound localisation in land vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppl, Christine

    2009-08-11

    The story of the evolution of hearing in land vertebrates is fascinating but complex. The water-to-land transition changed the physical environment in which hearing happens so dramatically that both the peripheral receptor structures and the central auditory circuits underwent a revolution, leading to the sensitive hearing of higher-frequency airborne sound. This (r)evolution took a very long time indeed. Most of it happened after the early divergence of the major clades of land vertebrates. Hearing, at least hearing as we commonly understand it today, is the youngest of the major senses and much of its evolutionary history is not shared between amphibians, lepidosauromorphs (lizards and snakes), archosauromorphs (birds and crocodilians) and mammals. There was no linear evolution of complexity from 'lower' to 'higher' vertebrates. We are only just beginning to appreciate the implications of this for central auditory processing. There is no consensus, yet, on the evolution of sound localisation. The multitude of physical cues involved in sound localisation means that different selective pressures interact and need to be considered. The use and neural processing of interaural time differences is just one example. It has taught us that long-standing assumptions, such as the homology of the mammalian medial superior olive and the avian nucleus laminaris, need to be questioned and that important insights may arise from unexpected directions, such as the paleontology of middle-ear ossicles. There is still much to discover.

  16. Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

  17. Nonlinearities in mating sounds of American crocodiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Tina P; Perc, Matjaz

    2009-09-01

    We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyze the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). We capture its dynamics by analyzing a recording of the singing activity during mating time. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and thereby reveal that the attractor needs no less than five degrees of freedom to fully evolve in the embedding space, which suggests that a rather complex nonlinear dynamics underlies its existence. Prior to investigating the dynamics more precisely, we test whether the reconstructed attractor satisfies the notions of determinism and stationarity, as a lack of either of these properties would preclude a meaningful further analysis. After positively establishing determinism and stationarity, we proceed by showing that the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the recording is positive, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behavior of the system, confirming that dynamical nonlinearities are an integral part of the examined sound-producing apparatus. At the end, we discuss that methods of nonlinear time series analysis could yield instructive insights and foster the understanding of vocal communication among certain reptile species.

  18. Low-power wearable respiratory sound sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oletic, Dinko; Arsenali, Bruno; Bilas, Vedran

    2014-04-09

    Building upon the findings from the field of automated recognition of respiratory sound patterns, we propose a wearable wireless sensor implementing on-board respiratory sound acquisition and classification, to enable continuous monitoring of symptoms, such as asthmatic wheezing. Low-power consumption of such a sensor is required in order to achieve long autonomy. Considering that the power consumption of its radio is kept minimal if transmitting only upon (rare) occurrences of wheezing, we focus on optimizing the power consumption of the digital signal processor (DSP). Based on a comprehensive review of asthmatic wheeze detection algorithms, we analyze the computational complexity of common features drawn from short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and decision tree classification. Four algorithms were implemented on a low-power TMS320C5505 DSP. Their classification accuracies were evaluated on a dataset of prerecorded respiratory sounds in two operating scenarios of different detection fidelities. The execution times of all algorithms were measured. The best classification accuracy of over 92%, while occupying only 2.6% of the DSP's processing time, is obtained for the algorithm featuring the time-frequency tracking of shapes of crests originating from wheezing, with spectral features modeled using energy.

  19. Low-Power Wearable Respiratory Sound Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinko Oletic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the findings from the field of automated recognition of respiratory sound patterns, we propose a wearable wireless sensor implementing on-board respiratory sound acquisition and classification, to enable continuous monitoring of symptoms, such as asthmatic wheezing. Low-power consumption of such a sensor is required in order to achieve long autonomy. Considering that the power consumption of its radio is kept minimal if transmitting only upon (rare occurrences of wheezing, we focus on optimizing the power consumption of the digital signal processor (DSP. Based on a comprehensive review of asthmatic wheeze detection algorithms, we analyze the computational complexity of common features drawn from short-time Fourier transform (STFT and decision tree classification. Four algorithms were implemented on a low-power TMS320C5505 DSP. Their classification accuracies were evaluated on a dataset of prerecorded respiratory sounds in two operating scenarios of different detection fidelities. The execution times of all algorithms were measured. The best classification accuracy of over 92%, while occupying only 2.6% of the DSP’s processing time, is obtained for the algorithm featuring the time-frequency tracking of shapes of crests originating from wheezing, with spectral features modeled using energy.

  20. Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2017-08-24

    Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization. Sound symbolism also provides a mechanism by which words' forms can have nonarbitrary, iconic relationships with their meanings. Although various proposals have been put forth for how phonetic features (both acoustic and articulatory) come to be associated with stimuli, there is as yet no generally agreed-upon explanation. We review five proposals: statistical co-occurrence between phonetic features and associated stimuli in the environment, a shared property among phonetic features and stimuli; neural factors; species-general, evolved associations; and patterns extracted from language. We identify a number of outstanding questions that need to be addressed on this topic and suggest next steps for the field.