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Sample records for hela 5s rna

  1. Chaperoning 5S RNA assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    ...—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP...

  2. Chaperoning 5S RNA assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madru, Clément; Lebaron, Simon; Blaud, Magali; Delbos, Lila; Pipoli, Juliana; Pasmant, Eric; Réty, Stéphane; Leulliot, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    In eukaryotes, three of the four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs)—the 5.8S, 18S, and 25S/28S rRNAs—are processed from a single pre-rRNA transcript and assembled into ribosomes. The fourth rRNA, the 5S rRNA, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and is assembled into the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP), containing ribosomal proteins Rpl5/uL18 and Rpl11/uL5, prior to its incorporation into preribosomes. In mammals, the 5S RNP is also a central regulator of the homeostasis of the tumor suppressor p53. The nucleolar localization of the 5S RNP and its assembly into preribosomes are performed by a specialized complex composed of Rpf2 and Rrs1 in yeast or Bxdc1 and hRrs1 in humans. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex alone, in complex with the 5S RNA, and within pre-60S ribosomes. We show that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex contains a specialized 5S RNA E-loop-binding module, contacts the Rpl5 protein, and also contacts the ribosome assembly factor Rsa4 and the 25S RNA. We propose that the Rpf2-Rrs1 complex establishes a network of interactions that guide the incorporation of the 5S RNP in preribosomes in the initial conformation prior to its rotation to form the central protuberance found in the mature large ribosomal subunit. © 2015 Madru et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. 5S rRNA and ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, G M

    2011-12-01

    5S rRNA is an integral component of the ribosome of all living organisms. It is known that the ribosome without 5S rRNA is functionally inactive. However, the question about the specific role of this RNA in functioning of the translation apparatus is still open. This review presents a brief history of the discovery of 5S rRNA and studies of its origin and localization in the ribosome. The previously expressed hypotheses about the role of this RNA in the functioning of the ribosome are discussed considering the unique location of 5S rRNA in the ribosome and its intermolecular contacts. Based on analysis of the current data on ribosome structure and its functional complexes, the role of 5S rRNA as an intermediary between ribosome functional domains is discussed.

  4. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen

    2012-01-01

    The ribosome is a large complex containing both protein and RNA which must be assembled in a precise manner to allow proper functioning in the critical role of protein synthesis. 5S rRNA is the smallest of the RNA components of the ribosome, and although it has been studied for decades, we still do not have a clear understanding of its function within the complex ribosome machine. It is the only RNA species that binds ribosomal proteins prior to its assembly into the ribosome. Its transport into the nucleolus requires this interaction. Here we present an overview of some of the key findings concerning the structure and function of 5S rRNA and how its association with specific proteins impacts its localization and function. PMID:21957041

  5. Increased 5S rRNA oxidation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qunxing; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Bing; Soriano, Augusto; Burns, Roxanne; Markesbery, William R

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that oxidative stress is involved in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is one of the most abundant molecules in most cells and is affected by oxidative stress in the human brain. Previous data have indicated that total rRNA levels were decreased in the brains of subjects with AD and mild cognitive impairment concomitant with an increase in rRNA oxidation. In addition, level of 5S rRNA, one of the essential components of the ribosome complex, was significantly lower in the inferior parietal lobule (IP) brain area of subjects with AD compared with control subjects. To further evaluate the alteration of 5S rRNA in neurodegenerative human brains, multiple brain regions from both AD and age-matched control subjects were used in this study, including IP, superior and middle temporal gyro, temporal pole, and cerebellum. Different molecular pools including 5S rRNA integrated into ribosome complexes, free 5S rRNA, cytoplasmic 5S rRNA, and nuclear 5S rRNA were studied. Free 5S rRNA levels were significantly decreased in the temporal pole region of AD subjects and the oxidation of ribosome-integrated and free 5S rRNA was significantly increased in multiple brain regions in AD subjects compared with controls. Moreover, a greater amount of oxidized 5S rRNA was detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of AD subjects compared with controls. These results suggest that the increased oxidation of 5S rRNA, especially the oxidation of free 5S rRNA, may be involved in the neurodegeneration observed in AD.

  6. Cassandra retrotransposons carry independently transcribed 5S RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalendar, Ruslan; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Chang, Wei; Antonius, Kristiina; Sela, Hanan; Peleg, Ofer; Schulman, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    We report a group of TRIMs (terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature), which are small nonautonomous retrotransposons. These elements, named Cassandra, universally carry conserved 5S RNA sequences and associated RNA polymerase (pol) III promoters and terminators in their long terminal repeats (LTRs). They were found in all vascular plants investigated. Uniquely for LTR retrotransposons, Cassandra produces noncapped, polyadenylated transcripts from the 5S pol III promoter. Capped, read-through transcripts containing Cassandra sequences can also be detected in RNA and in EST databases. The predicted Cassandra RNA 5S secondary structures resemble those for cellular 5S rRNA, with high information content specifically in the pol III promoter region. Genic integration sites are common for Cassandra, an unusual feature for abundant retrotransposons. The 5S in each LTR produces a tandem 5S arrangement with an inter-5S spacing resembling that of cellular 5S. The distribution of 5S genes is very variable in flowering plants and may be partially explained by Cassandra activity. Cassandra thus appears both to have adapted a ubiquitous cellular gene for ribosomal RNA for use as a promoter and to parasitize an as-yet-unidentified group of retrotransposons for the proteins needed in its lifecycle. PMID:18408163

  7. Resurrection of an ancestral 5S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Fox, George E

    2011-07-22

    In addition to providing phylogenetic relationships, tree making procedures such as parsimony and maximum likelihood can make specific predictions of actual historical sequences. Resurrection of such sequences can be used to understand early events in evolution. In the case of RNA, the nature of parsimony is such that when applied to multiple RNA sequences it typically predicts ancestral sequences that satisfy the base pairing constraints associated with secondary structure. The case for such sequences being actual ancestors is greatly improved, if they can be shown to be biologically functional. A unique common ancestral sequence of 28 Vibrio 5S ribosomal RNA sequences predicted by parsimony was resurrected and found to be functional in the context of the E. coli cellular environment. The functionality of various point variants and intermediates that were constructed as part of the resurrection were examined in detail. When separately introduced the changes at single stranded positions and individual double variants at base-paired positions were also viable. An additional double variant was examined at a different base-paired position and it was also valid. The results show that at least in the case of the 5S rRNAs considered here, ancestors predicted by parsimony are likely to be realistic when the prediction is not overly influenced by single outliers. It is especially noteworthy that the phenotype of the predicted ancestors could be anticipated as a cumulative consequence of the phenotypes of the individual variants that comprised them. Thus, point mutation data is potentially useful in evaluating the reasonableness of ancestral sequences predicted by parsimony or other methods. The results also suggest that in the absence of significant tertiary structure constraints double variants that preserve pairing in stem regions will typically be accepted. Overall, the results suggest that it will be feasible to resurrect additional meaningful 5S rRNA ancestors as well

  8. Distribution of Repetitive and Nonrepetitive Sequence Transcripts in HeLa mRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William H.; Murphy, William; Attardi, Giuseppe; Britten, Roy J.; Davidson, Eric H.

    1974-01-01

    Polyadenylated messenger RNA extracted from HeLa cells was hybridized with a mass excess of HeLa DNA. The kinetics of the hybridization reaction demonstrated that most of the messenger RNA is transcribed from nonrepetitive DNA. The amount of messenger RNA hybridized to DNA was measured both with and without prior RNase treatment. Comparison of the results indicates that within the limits of detection, HeLa messenger RNA does not contain repetitive sequence elements covalently linked to nonrepetitive sequence transcripts. However, a small fraction of the HeLa messenger RNA preparation is transcribed entirely from repetitive DNA sequences. This fraction represents about 6% of the total polyadenylated messenger RNA preparation. PMID:4525461

  9. Human Y5 RNA specializes a Ro ribonucleoprotein for 5S ribosomal RNA quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, J Robert; Collins, Kathleen

    2007-12-01

    Humans express four distinct non-protein-coding Y RNAs (ncRNAs). To investigate Y RNA functional diversification, we exploited an RNA-based affinity purification method to isolate ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) assembled on individual human Y RNAs. Silver staining and mass spectrometry revealed that the Ro and La proteins assemble with all Y RNAs, while additional proteins associate with specific Y RNAs. Unexpectedly, Y5 RNA uniquely copurified ribosomal protein L5 and its binding partner 5S RNA. These findings reveal a contribution of Y5 to 5S surveillance and suggest that interactions between Ro-Y5 and L5-5S RNPs establish 5S RNA as a target of quality control.

  10. Molecular characterization of 5S ribosomal RNA genes and transcripts in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E; Nepomuceno-Mejía, Tomás; Rojas-Sánchez, Saúl; Vélez-Ramírez, Daniel E; Padilla-Mejía, Norma E; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic 5S rRNA, synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit. Most organisms contain hundreds of 5S rRNA genes organized into tandem arrays. However, the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major contains only 11 copies of the 5S rRNA gene, which are interspersed and associated with other Pol III-transcribed genes. Here we report that, in general, the number and order of the 5S rRNA genes is conserved between different species of Leishmania. While in most organisms 5S rRNA genes are normally associated with the nucleolus, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed that 5S rRNA genes are mainly located at the nuclear periphery in L. major. Similarly, the tandemly repeated 5S rRNA genes in Trypanosoma cruzi are dispersed throughout the nucleus. In contrast, 5S rRNA transcripts in L. major were localized within the nucleolus, and scattered throughout the cytoplasm, where mature ribosomes are located. Unlike other rRNA species, stable antisense RNA complementary to 5S rRNA is not detected in L. major.

  11. Fragmentary 5S rRNA gene in the human mitochondrial genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierlich, D.P.

    1982-02-01

    The human mitochondrial genoma contains a 23-nucleodtide sequence that is homologous to a part of the 5S rRNA's of bacteria. This homology, the structure of the likely transcript, and the location of the sequence relative to the mitochondrial rRNA genes suggest that the sequence represents a fragmentary 5S rRNA gene.

  12. An Archaea 5S rRNA analog is stably expressed in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    Mini-genes for 5S-like rRNA were constructed. These genes had a sequence which largely resembles that of the naturally occurring 5S rRNA of a bacterium, Halococcus morrhuae, which phylogenetically belongs to the Archaea. Plasmids carrying the mini-genes were transformed into Escherichia coli (Ec). Ribosomal incorporation was not a prerequisite for stable accumulation of the RNA product. However, only those constructs with a well-base-paired helix I accumulated RNA product. This result strongly implies that this aspect of the structure is likely to be an important condition for stabilizing 5S rRNA-like products. The results are consistent with our current understanding of 5S rRNA processing in Ec. When used in conjunction with rRNA probe technology, the resulting chimeric RNA may be useful as a monitoring tool for genetically engineered microorganisms or naturally occurring organisms that are released into the environment.

  13. The 5S rRNA-histone repeat in the crustacean Artemia: structure, polymorphism and variation of the 5S rRNA segment in different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruces, J; Díaz-Guerra, M; Gil, I; Renart, J

    1989-08-11

    5S rRNA genes are linked to the histone genes in the 13 populations of the crustacean Artemia that we have studied. In all cases, two types of repeat units are found. Southern blot analysis of all populations shows that they can be grouped into three classes: a) American bisexuals; b) Eurasian bisexuals, and c) parthenogenetic organisms (all from Eurasia). Restriction analysis of a bisexual population from San Francisco Bay shows that the two repeat units are of 9.0 and 8.5 kb (with minor heterogeneities of restriction sites). In parthenogenetic organisms, the two repeat units are of approximately 12 kb. Sequencing data from the region of the 5S rRNA from the San Francisco Bay population, shows that in both types of units, the single 5S rRNA gene (315 bp in length), is located 430 bp downstream the 3' regulatory sequences of the H2A gene, the last gene in the histone cluster. We have isolated three clones that contain 5S rRNA sequences. Two of them (one from an American bisexual and the other from a parthenogenetic population) contain histone and 5S rRNA genes, both with the same transcriptional polarity. The third clone, lacking histone genes, is likely to be an orphon derived from the parthenogenetic population.

  14. Time of action of 4.5 S RNA in Escherichia coli translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S

    1989-01-01

    the ribosome following translocation and prior to release of protein synthesis elongation factor G. These results indicate that 4.5 S RNA acts immediately after ribosomal translocation. A model is proposed in which 4.5 S RNA stabilizes the post-translocation state by replacing 23 S ribosomal RNA as a binding......A new class of suppressor mutants helps to define the role of 4.5 S RNA in translation. The suppressors reduce the requirement for 4.5 S RNA by increasing the intracellular concentration of uncharged tRNA. Suppression probably occurs by prolonging the period in which translating ribosomes have...... translocated but not yet released the uncharged tRNA, indicating that this is the point at which 4.5 S RNA enters translation. The release of 4.5 S RNA from polysomes is affected by antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis. The antibiotic-sensitivity of this release indicates that 4.5 S RNA exits...

  15. Genetic selection and DNA sequences of 4.5S RNA homologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S; Thon, G; Tolentino, E

    1989-01-01

    A general strategy for cloning the functional homologs of an Escherichia coli gene was used to clone homologs of 4.5S RNA from other bacteria. The genes encoding these homologs were selected by their ability to complement a deletion of the gene for 4.5S RNA. DNA sequences of the regions encoding...

  16. The 4.5 S RNA gene of Escherichia coli is essential for cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S; Fournier, M J

    1984-01-01

    in 4.5 S RNA, a dramatic loss in protein synthesis activity, and eventual cell death. Tagging of the chromosomal ffs region with a kanamycin-resistance gene allowed mapping of the 4.5 S RNA gene. Results from this analysis place ffs near lon at approximately ten minutes on the E. coli linkage map....

  17. IBTK Differently Modulates Gene Expression and RNA Splicing in HeLa and K562 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Fiume

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The IBTK gene encodes the major protein isoform IBTKα that was recently characterized as substrate receptor of Cul3-dependent E3 ligase, regulating ubiquitination coupled to proteasomal degradation of Pdcd4, an inhibitor of translation. Due to the presence of Ankyrin-BTB-RCC1 domains that mediate several protein-protein interactions, IBTKα could exert expanded regulatory roles, including interaction with transcription regulators. To verify the effects of IBTKα on gene expression, we analyzed HeLa and K562 cell transcriptomes by RNA-Sequencing before and after IBTK knock-down by shRNA transduction. In HeLa cells, 1285 (2.03% of 63,128 mapped transcripts were differentially expressed in IBTK-shRNA-transduced cells, as compared to cells treated with control-shRNA, with 587 upregulated (45.7% and 698 downregulated (54.3% RNAs. In K562 cells, 1959 (3.1% of 63128 mapped RNAs were differentially expressed in IBTK-shRNA-transduced cells, including 1053 upregulated (53.7% and 906 downregulated (46.3%. Only 137 transcripts (0.22% were commonly deregulated by IBTK silencing in both HeLa and K562 cells, indicating that most IBTKα effects on gene expression are cell type-specific. Based on gene ontology classification, the genes responsive to IBTK are involved in different biological processes, including in particular chromatin and nucleosomal organization, gene expression regulation, and cellular traffic and migration. In addition, IBTK RNA interference affected RNA maturation in both cell lines, as shown by the evidence of alternative 3′- and 5′-splicing, mutually exclusive exons, retained introns, and skipped exons. Altogether, these results indicate that IBTK differently modulates gene expression and RNA splicing in HeLa and K562 cells, demonstrating a novel biological role of this protein.

  18. 5S rRNA gene arrangements in protists: a case of nonadaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Guy; Tsang, Corey

    2012-06-01

    Given their high copy number and high level of expression, one might expect that both the sequence and organization of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes would be conserved during evolution. Although the organization of 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes is indeed relatively well conserved, that of 5S rRNA genes is much more variable. Here, we review the different types of 5S rRNA gene arrangements which have been observed in protists. This includes linkages to the other ribosomal RNA genes as well as linkages to ubiquitin, splice-leader, snRNA and tRNA genes. Mapping these linkages to independently derived phylogenies shows that these diverse linkages have repeatedly been gained and lost during evolution. This argues against such linkages being the primitive condition not only in protists but also in other eukaryote species. Because the only characteristic the diverse genes with which 5S rRNA genes are found linked with is that they are tandemly repeated, these arrangements are unlikely to provide any selective advantage. Rather, the observed high variability in 5S rRNA genes arrangements is likely the result of the fact that 5S rRNA genes contain internal promoters, that these genes are often transposed by diverse recombination mechanisms and that these new gene arrangements are rapidly homogenized by unequal crossingovers and/or by gene conversions events in species with short generation times and frequent founder events.

  19. Rapid in vivo exploration of a 5S rRNA neutral network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengdong D; Nayar, Madhavi; Ammons, David; Rampersad, Joanne; Fox, George E

    2009-02-01

    A partial knockout compensation method to screen 5S ribosomal RNA sequence variants in vivo is described. The system utilizes an Escherichia coli strain in which five of eight genomic 5S rRNA genes were deleted in conjunction with a plasmid which is compensatory when carrying a functionally active 5S rRNA. The partial knockout strain is transformed with a population of potentially compensatory plasmids each carrying a randomly generated 5S rRNA gene variant. a The ability to compensate the slow growth rate of the knockout strain is used in conjunction with sequencing to rapidly identify variant 5S rRNAs that are functional as well as those that likely are not. The assay is validated by showing that the growth rate of 15 variants separately expressed in the partial knockout strain can be accurately correlated with in vivo assessments of the potential validity of the same variants. A region of 5S rRNA was mutagenized with this approach and nine novel variants were recovered and characterized. Unlike a complete knockout system, the method allows recovery of both deleterious and functional variants.. The method can be used to study variants of any 5S rRNA in the E. coli context including those of E. coli.

  20. Assessing the 5S ribosomal RNA heterogeneity in Arabidopsis thaliana using short RNA next generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Maciej; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, ribosomal 5S rRNAs are products of multigene families organized within clusters of tandemly repeated units. Accumulation of genomic data obtained from a variety of organisms demonstrated that the potential 5S rRNA coding sequences show a large number of variants, often incompatible with folding into a correct secondary structure. Here, we present results of an analysis of a large set of short RNA sequences generated by the next generation sequencing techniques, to address the problem of heterogeneity of the 5S rRNA transcripts in Arabidopsis and identification of potentially functional rRNA-derived fragments.

  1. The positive transcription factor of the 5S RNA gene proteolyses during direct exchange between 5S DNA sites

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    We have examined the association, dissociation, and exchange of the 5S specific transcription factor (TFIIIA) with somatic- and oocyte-type 5S DNA. The factor associates faster with somatic than with oocyte 5S DNA, and the rate of complex formation is accelerated by vector DNA. Once formed, the TFIIIA-5S DNA complex is stable for greater than 4 h in the absence of free 5S DNA, and its dissociation is identical for somatic and for oocyte 5S DNA. In the presence of free 5S DNA, the factor trans...

  2. In Euglena, spliced-leader RNA (SL-RNA) and 5S rRNA genes are tandemly repeated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M; Tessier, L H; Chan, R L; Weil, J H; Imbault, P

    1992-01-01

    In Euglena gracilis, a 26 nucleotide leader sequence (spliced leader sequence = SL) is transferred by trans-splicing to the 5' end of a vast majority of cytoplasmic mRNAs (8). The SL originates from the 5' extremity of a family of closely related snRNAs (SL-RNAs) which are about 100 nucleotide long. In this paper we present the nucleotide sequences of two SL-RNA genes, confirming the sequences previously established by sequencing purified SL-RNAs. Although some SL-RNA genes are dispersed throughout the genome, we show that the majority of SL-RNA genes are located on 0.6 kb repeated units which also encode the cytoplasmic 5S rRNA. We estimate that the copy number of these repeated units is about 300 per haploid genome. The association of SL-RNA and 5S rRNA genes in tandemly repeated units is also found in nematodes but paradoxically does not exist in trypanosomes which are phylogenically much closer to Euglena. We also show that a high number of sequences analogous to the 26 nucleotide SL are dispersed throughout the genome and are not associated with SL-RNAs. Images PMID:1579464

  3. Common 5S rRNA variants are likely to be accepted in many sequence contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengdong; D'Souza, Lisa M.; Lee, Youn-Hyung; Fox, George E.

    2003-01-01

    Over evolutionary time RNA sequences which are successfully fixed in a population are selected from among those that satisfy the structural and chemical requirements imposed by the function of the RNA. These sequences together comprise the structure space of the RNA. In principle, a comprehensive understanding of RNA structure and function would make it possible to enumerate which specific RNA sequences belong to a particular structure space and which do not. We are using bacterial 5S rRNA as a model system to attempt to identify principles that can be used to predict which sequences do or do not belong to the 5S rRNA structure space. One promising idea is the very intuitive notion that frequently seen sequence changes in an aligned data set of naturally occurring 5S rRNAs would be widely accepted in many other 5S rRNA sequence contexts. To test this hypothesis, we first developed well-defined operational definitions for a Vibrio region of the 5S rRNA structure space and what is meant by a highly variable position. Fourteen sequence variants (10 point changes and 4 base-pair changes) were identified in this way, which, by the hypothesis, would be expected to incorporate successfully in any of the known sequences in the Vibrio region. All 14 of these changes were constructed and separately introduced into the Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA sequence where they are not normally found. Each variant was evaluated for its ability to function as a valid 5S rRNA in an E. coli cellular context. It was found that 93% (13/14) of the variants tested are likely valid 5S rRNAs in this context. In addition, seven variants were constructed that, although present in the Vibrio region, did not meet the stringent criteria for a highly variable position. In this case, 86% (6/7) are likely valid. As a control we also examined seven variants that are seldom or never seen in the Vibrio region of 5S rRNA sequence space. In this case only two of seven were found to be potentially valid. The

  4. Non-canonical binding interactions of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of P34 protein modulate binding within the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (5S RNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamina, Anyango D; Williams, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    RNA binding proteins are involved in many aspects of RNA metabolism. In Trypanosoma brucei, our laboratory has identified two trypanosome-specific RNA binding proteins P34 and P37 that are involved in the maturation of the 60S subunit during ribosome biogenesis. These proteins are part of the T. brucei 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (5S RNP) and P34 binds to 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal protein L5 through its N-terminus and its RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains. We generated truncated P34 proteins to determine these domains' interactions with 5S rRNA and L5. Our analyses demonstrate that RRM1 of P34 mediates the majority of binding with 5S rRNA and the N-terminus together with RRM1 contribute the most to binding with L5. We determined that the consensus ribonucleoprotein (RNP) 1 and 2 sequences, characteristic of canonical RRM domains, are not fully conserved in the RRM domains of P34. However, the aromatic amino acids previously described to mediate base stacking interactions with their RNA target are conserved in both of the RRM domains of P34. Surprisingly, mutation of these aromatic residues did not disrupt but instead enhanced 5S rRNA binding. However, we identified four arginine residues located in RRM1 of P34 that strongly impact L5 binding. These mutational analyses of P34 suggest that the binding site for 5S rRNA and L5 are near each other and specific residues within P34 regulate the formation of the 5S RNP. These studies show the unique way that the domains of P34 mediate binding with the T. brucei 5S RNP.

  5. Direct Regulation of tRNA and 5S rRNA Gene Transcription by Polo-like Kinase 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairley, Jennifer A.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Berg, Tracy; Kenneth, Niall S.; von Schubert, Conrad; Sillje, Herman H. W.; Medema, Rene H.; Nigg, Erich A.; White, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Polo-like kinase Plk1 controls numerous aspects of cell-cycle progression. We show that it associates with tRNA and 5S rRNA genes and regulates their transcription by RNA polymerase Ill (pol Ill) through direct binding and phosphorylation of transcription factor Brit During interphase, Plk1 promotes

  6. Structural similarity of E. coli 5S rRNA in solution and within the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinska, Lidia; Banachowicz, Ewa; Gapiński, Jacek; Patkowski, Adam; Barciszewski, Jan

    2004-02-15

    The article presents translational and rotational diffusion coefficients of 5S rRNA determined experimentally by the method of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and its comparison with the values predicted for different models of this molecule. The tertiary structure of free 5S rRNA was proposed on the basis of the atomic structures of the 5S rRNA from E. coli and H. marismortui extracted from the ribosome. A comparison of the values of DT, tauR, and Rg predicted for different models with experimental results for the free molecule in solution suggests that free 5S rRNA is less compact than that in the complex with ribosomal proteins. In general, the molecules of 5S rRNA consist of three domains: a short one and two longer ones. As follows from a comparison of the results of our simulations with experimental values, in the molecule in solution the two closest helical fragments of the longer domains remain collinear, whereas the short domain takes a position significantly deviated from them. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A critical role for noncoding 5S rRNA in regulating Mdmx stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Muyang; Gu, Wei

    2011-09-16

    Both p53 and Mdmx are ubiquitinated and degraded by the same E3 ligase Mdm2; interestingly, however, while p53 is rapidly degraded by Mdm2, Mdmx is a stable protein in most cancer cells. Thus, the mechanism by which Mdmx is degraded by Mdm2 needs further elucidation. Here, we identified the noncoding 5S rRNA as a major component of Mdmx-associated complexes from human cells. We show that 5S rRNA acts as a natural inhibitor of Mdmx degradation by Mdm2. RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous 5S rRNA, while not affecting p53 levels, significantly induces Mdmx degradation and, subsequently, activates p53-dependent growth arrest. Notably, 5S rRNA binds the RING domain of Mdmx and blocks its ubiquitination by Mdm2, whereas Mdm2-mediated p53 ubiquitination remains intact. These results provide insights into the differential effects on p53 and Mdmx by Mdm2 in vivo and reveal a critical role for noncoding 5S rRNA in modulating the p53-Mdmx axis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction data of Thermus flavus 5S rRNA helices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallazza, Marco; Senge, Andrea; Lippmann, Corinna; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Bald, Rolf; Erdmann, Volker A.

    2001-11-01

    5S rRNA is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its unknown function in the ribosome will eventually be revealed in part by structural studies. To promote crystallization and enhance resolution in X-ray diffraction the molecule was subdivided into five domains A-E. Several RNA oligonucleotides were chemically produced by solid-phase phosphoramidite synthesis in order to construct the domains of the 5S rRNA. An improved RNA-MPD-screen was applied in crystallization which covers a complete 2D matrix for the components used. Crystallization analysis resulted in preferred combinations of pH, polyamine, monovalent and divalent cations for short RNA molecules. Six types of crystals corresponding to the domains B, C and E of Thermus flavus 5S rRNA could be obtained which were suitable for X-ray diffraction. Four RNA helices consist of seven base pairs and two of eight base pairs. As special features, they contain two adenines in a bulge position or G : U wobble base pairs assumed to be involved in RNA-protein recognition. With an increase in crystal size an increase in resolution by X-ray analysis was observed. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and cryogenic cooling techniques.

  9. Overaccumulation of the chloroplast antisense RNA AS5 is correlated with decreased abundance of 5S rRNA in vivo and inefficient 5S rRNA maturation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E.; Hotto, Amber M.; Bollenbach, Thomas J.; Stern, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation in the chloroplast is exerted by nucleus-encoded ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins. One of these ribonucleases is RNR1, a 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease of the RNase II family. We have previously shown that Arabidopsis rnr1-null mutants exhibit specific abnormalities in the expression of the rRNA operon, including the accumulation of precursor 23S, 16S, and 4.5S species and a concomitant decrease in the mature species. 5S rRNA transcripts, however, accumulate to a very low level in both precursor and mature forms, suggesting that they are unstable in the rnr1 background. Here we demonstrate that rnr1 plants overaccumulate an antisense RNA, AS5, that is complementary to the 5S rRNA, its intergenic spacer, and the downstream trnR gene, which encodes tRNAArg, raising the possibility that AS5 destabilizes 5S rRNA or its precursor and/or blocks rRNA maturation. To investigate this, we used an in vitro system that supports 5S rRNA and trnR processing. We show that AS5 inhibits 5S rRNA maturation from a 5S-trnR precursor, and shorter versions of AS5 demonstrate that inhibition requires intergenic sequences. To test whether the sense and antisense RNAs form double-stranded regions in vitro, treatment with the single-strand-specific mung bean nuclease was used. These results suggest that 5S–AS5 duplexes interfere with a sense-strand secondary structure near the endonucleolytic cleavage site downstream from the 5S rRNA coding region. We hypothesize that these duplexes are degraded by a dsRNA-specific ribonuclease in vivo, contributing to the 5S rRNA deficiency observed in rnr1. PMID:21148395

  10. Characterization of medicinal Epimedium species by 5S rRNA gene spacer sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Shi, Dawen; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2004-03-01

    Sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer were used to identify Epimedium brevicornu Maxim., E. sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim., E. wushanense T. S. Ying, E. pubescens Maxim., and E. koreanum Nakai. These species are listed as source plants of Chinese medicine 'Ying Yang Huo' in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The neighbor-joining method was used in a sequence analysis of Epimedium species. A position-specific nucleotide was found in the 5S rRNA gene spacer for E. pubescens, E. wushanense, and E. brevicornu. A 19-bp deletion was found for E. koreanum in the 5S rRNA gene spacer. E. koreanum was most divergent from the other four endemic Chinese species of Epimedium.

  11. The 5S rRNA-histone repeat in the crustacean Artemia: structure, polymorphism and variation of the 5S rRNA segment in different populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruces, Jesús; Díaz-Guerra, Margarita; Gil, Inés; Renart, Jaime

    1989-01-01

    5S rRNA genes are linked to the histonc genes in the 13 populations of the crustacean Artemia that we have studied. In all cases, two types of repeat units arc found. Southern blot analysis of all populations shows that they can be grouped into three classes: a) American bisexuals; b) Eurasian bisexuals, and c) parthenogenetic organisms (all from Eurasia). Restriction analysis of a bisexual population from San Francisco Bay shows that the two repeat units are of 9.0 and 8.5 kb (with minor het...

  12. Inversion of 5S ribosomal RNA genes within the genus Coprinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J R; Pukkila, P J

    1987-01-01

    In the basidiomycete fungus Coprinus cinereus, the 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are found in the rDNA repeat which encodes the other three rRNAs (18S, 5.8S, and 26S), and all genes are transcribed in the same direction (Cassidy et al. 1984). To facilitate examination of the rRNA gene organization in additional species, we developed a method to permit determination of the direction of transcription of the rRNA genes using crude preparations of genomic DNA. We used this method to determine the organization of the rDNA in five other members of the order Agaricales (Flammulina velutipes, Agaricus bisporus, Coprinus micaceus, Coprinus atramentarius, and Coprinus comatus). In four, the organization is the same as it is in Coprinus cinereus. However, in Coprinus comatus, the 5S RNA gene is present in the rDNA repeat, but is transcribed in the opposite direction. This alteration in rDNA organization within the genus Coprinus indicates that inverted 5S genes can arise and become propagated through the tandem array of genes. The presence of orientation-dependent promoter elements within the spacer DNA (Elion and Warner 1984) would be expected to place constraints on such inversions.

  13. Mapping posttranscriptional modifications in 5S ribosomal RNA by MALDI mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirpekar, F; Douthwaite, S; Roepstorff, P

    2000-01-01

    We present a method to screen RNA for posttranscriptional modifications based on Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). After the RNA is digested to completion with a nucleotide-specific RNase, the fragments are analyzed by mass spectrometry. A comparison...... of the observed mass data with the data predicted from the gene sequence identifies fragments harboring modified nucleotides. Fragments larger than dinucleotides were valuable for the identification of posttranscriptional modifications. A more refined mapping of RNA modifications can be obtained by using two...... RNases in parallel combined with further fragmentation by Post Source Decay (PSD). This approach allows fast and sensitive screening of a purified RNA for posttranscriptional modification, and has been applied on 5S rRNA from two thermophilic microorganisms, the bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus...

  14. [Characterization of 5S rRNA gene sequence and secondary structure in gymnosperms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-Lin; Zhang, Da-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2003-01-01

    In higher plants the primary and the secondary structures of 5S ribosomal RNA gene are considered highly conservative. Little is known about the 5S rRNA gene structure, organization and variation in gyimnosperms. In this study we analyzed sequence and structure variation of 5S rRNA gene in Pinus through cloning and sequencing multiple copies of 5S rDNA repeats from individual trees of five pines, P. bungeana, P. tabulaeformis, P. yunnanensis, P. massoniana and P. densata. Pinus bungeana is from the subgenus Strobus while the other four are from the subgenus Pinus (diploxylon pines). Our results revealed variations in both primary and secondary structure among copies of 5S rDNA within individual genomes and between species. 5S rRNA gene in Pinus is 120 bp long in most of the 122 clones we sequenced except for one or two deletions in three clones. Among these clones 50 unique sequences were identified and they were shared by different pine species. Our sequences were compared to 13 sequences each representing a different gymnosperm species, and to six sequences representing both angiosperm monocots and dicots. Average sequence similarity was 97.1% among Pinus species and 94.3% between Pinus and other gymnosperms. Between gymnosperms and angiosperms the sequence similarity decreased to 88.1%. Similar to other molecular data, significant sequence divergence was found between the two Pinus subgenera. The 5S gene tree (neighbor-joining tree) grouped the four diploxylon pines together and separated them distinctly from P. bungeana. Comparison of sequence divergence within individuals and between species suggested that concerted evolution has been very weak especially after the divergence of the four diploxylon pines. The phylogenetic information contained in the 5S rRNA gene is limited due to its shorter length and the difficulties in identifying orthologous and paralogous copies of rDNA multigene family further complicate its phylogenetic application. Pinus densata is a

  15. The nucleotide sequence of Beneckea harveyi 5S rRNA. [bioluminescent marine bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The primary sequence of the 5S ribosomal RNA isolated from the free-living bioluminescent marine bacterium Beneckea harveyi is reported and discussed in regard to indications of phylogenetic relationships with the bacteria Escherichia coli and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Sequences were determined for oligonucleotide products generated by digestion with ribonuclease T1, pancreatic ribonuclease and ribonuclease T2. The presence of heterogeneity is indicated for two sites. The B. harveyi sequence can be arranged into the same four helix secondary structures as E. coli and other prokaryotic 5S rRNAs. Examination of the 5S-RNS sequences of the three bacteria indicates that B. harveyi and P. phosphoreum are specifically related and share a common ancestor which diverged from an ancestor of E. coli at a somewhat earlier time, consistent with previous studies.

  16. 5S rRNA sequences from eight basidiomycetes and fungi imperfecti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W F; Doolittle, W F

    1983-11-11

    The 5S rRNA sequences from the basidiomycetes or fungi imperfecti Rhizoctonia crocorum, Rhizoctonia hiemalis, Exobasidium vaccinii, Trichosporon oryzae, Tilletia controversa, Tilletiaria anomala, Dacrymyces deliquescens and Coprinus radiatus were determined. With the exception of Exobasidium, these sequences conform to the association previously found between septal pore type and sequence. The sequence from the supposed ascomycete anamorph Rhizotonia hiemalis clearly is allied with basidiomycete sequences.

  17. Biological significance of 5S rRNA import into human mitochondria: role of ribosomal protein MRP-L18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexandre; Entelis, Nina; Martin, Robert P; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-06-15

    5S rRNA is an essential component of ribosomes of all living organisms, the only known exceptions being mitochondrial ribosomes of fungi, animals, and some protists. An intriguing situation distinguishes mammalian cells: Although the mitochondrial genome contains no 5S rRNA genes, abundant import of the nuclear DNA-encoded 5S rRNA into mitochondria was reported. Neither the detailed mechanism of this pathway nor its rationale was clarified to date. In this study, we describe an elegant molecular conveyor composed of a previously identified human 5S rRNA import factor, rhodanese, and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18, thanks to which 5S rRNA molecules can be specifically withdrawn from the cytosolic pool and redirected to mitochondria, bypassing the classic nucleolar reimport pathway. Inside mitochondria, the cytosolic 5S rRNA is shown to be associated with mitochondrial ribosomes.

  18. The pre-existing population of 5S rRNA effects p53 stabilization during ribosome biogenesis inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofrillo, Carmine; Galbiati, Alice; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Derenzini, Massimo

    2017-01-17

    Pre-ribosomal complex RPL5/RPL11/5S rRNA (5S RNP) is considered the central MDM2 inhibitory complex that control p53 stabilization during ribosome biogenesis inhibition. Despite its role is well defined, the dynamic of 5S RNP assembly still requires further characterization. In the present work, we report that MDM2 inhibition is dependent by a pre-existing population of 5S rRNA.

  19. Multiple independent insertions of 5S rRNA genes in the spliced-leader gene family of trypanosome species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauparlant, Marc A; Drouin, Guy

    2014-02-01

    Analyses of the 5S rRNA genes found in the spliced-leader (SL) gene repeat units of numerous trypanosome species suggest that such linkages were not inherited from a common ancestor, but were the result of independent 5S rRNA gene insertions. In trypanosomes, 5S rRNA genes are found either in the tandemly repeated units coding for SL genes or in independent tandemly repeated units. Given that trypanosome species where 5S rRNA genes are within the tandemly repeated units coding for SL genes are phylogenetically related, one might hypothesize that this arrangement is the result of an ancestral insertion of 5S rRNA genes into the tandemly repeated SL gene family of trypanosomes. Here, we use the types of 5S rRNA genes found associated with SL genes, the flanking regions of the inserted 5S rRNA genes and the position of these insertions to show that most of the 5S rRNA genes found within SL gene repeat units of trypanosome species were not acquired from a common ancestor but are the results of independent insertions. These multiple 5S rRNA genes insertion events in trypanosomes are likely the result of frequent founder events in different hosts and/or geographical locations in species having short generation times.

  20. Does unpaired adenosine-66 from helix II of Escherichia coli 5S RNA bind to protein L18?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J; Douthwaite, S R; Christensen, A

    1985-01-01

    Adenosine-66 is unpaired within helix II of Escherichia coli 5S RNA and lies in the binding site of ribosomal protein L18. It has been proposed as a recognition site for protein L18. We have investigated further the structural importance of this nucleotide by deleting it. The 5S RNA gene of the r...

  1. Linking Maternal and Somatic 5S rRNA types with Different Sequence-Specific Non-LTR Retrotransposons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Locati, M.D.; Pagano, J.F.B.; Ensink, W.A.; van Olst, M.; van Leeuwen, S.; Nehrdich, U.; Zhu, K.; Spaink, H.P.; Girard, G.; Rauwerda, H.; Jonker, M.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Breit, T.M.

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo and adult tissue,

  2. Transcript levels, alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage of TFIIIA control 5S rRNA accumulation during Arabidopsis thaliana development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layat, Elodie; Cotterell, Sylviane; Vaillant, Isabelle; Yukawa, Yasushi; Tutois, Sylvie; Tourmente, Sylvette

    2012-07-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is critical for eukaryotic cells and requires coordinated synthesis of the protein and rRNA moieties of the ribosome, which are therefore highly regulated. 5S ribosomal RNA, an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit, is transcribed by RNA polymerase III and specifically requires transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). To obtain insight into the regulation of 5S rRNA transcription, we have investigated the expression of 5S rRNA and the exon-skipped (ES) and exon-including (EI) TFIIIA transcripts, two transcript isoforms that result from alternative splicing of the TFIIIA gene, and TFIIIA protein amounts with respect to requirements for 5S rRNA during development. We show that 5S rRNA quantities are regulated through distinct but complementary mechanisms operating through transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of TFIIIA transcripts as well as at the post-translational level through proteolytic cleavage of the TFIIIA protein. During the reproductive phase, high expression of the TFIIIA gene together with low proteolytic cleavage contributes to accumulation of functional, full-length TFIIIA protein, and results in 5S rRNA accumulation in the seed. In contrast, just after germination, the levels of TFIIIA-encoding transcripts are low and stable. Full-length TFIIIA protein is undetectable, and the level of 5S rRNA stored in the embryo progressively decreases. After day 4, in correlation with the reorganization of 5S rDNA chromatin to a mature state, full-length TFIIIA protein with transcriptional activity accumulates and permits de novo transcription of 5S rRNA. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Characterization of a Novel Association between Two Trypanosome-Specific Proteins and 5S rRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen

    2012-01-01

    P34 and P37 are two previously identified RNA binding proteins in the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. RNA interference studies have determined that the proteins are essential and are involved in ribosome biogenesis. Here, we show that these proteins interact in vitro with the 5S rRNA with nearly identical binding characteristics in the absence of other cellular factors. The T. brucei 5S rRNA has a complex secondary structure and presents four accessible loops (A to D) for interactions with RNA-binding proteins. In other eukaryotes, loop C is bound by the L5 ribosomal protein and loop A mainly by TFIIIA. The binding of P34 and P37 to T. brucei 5S rRNA involves the LoopA region of the RNA, but these proteins also protect the L5 binding site located on LoopC. PMID:22253864

  4. Localized frustration and binding-induced conformational change in recognition of 5S RNA by TFIIIA zinc finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei

    2013-12-19

    Protein TFIIIA is composed of nine tandemly arranged Cys2His2 zinc fingers. It can bind either to the 5S RNA gene as a transcription factor or to the 5S RNA transcript as a chaperone. Although structural and biochemical data provided valuable information on the recognition between the TFIIIIA and the 5S DNA/RNA, the involved conformational motions and energetic factors contributing to the binding affinity and specificity remain unclear. In this work, we conducted MD simulations and MM/GBSA calculations to investigate the binding-induced conformational changes in the recognition of the 5S RNA by the central three zinc fingers of TFIIIA and the energetic factors that influence the binding affinity and specificity at an atomistic level. Our results revealed drastic interdomain conformational changes between these three zinc fingers, involving the exposure/burial of several crucial DNA/RNA binding residues, which can be related to the competition between DNA and RNA for the binding of TFIIIA. We also showed that the specific recognition between finger 4/finger 6 and the 5S RNA introduces frustrations to the nonspecific interactions between finger 5 and the 5S RNA, which may be important to achieve optimal binding affinity and specificity.

  5. The Conserved RNA Exonuclease Rexo5 Is Required for 3′ End Maturation of 28S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and snoRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gerstberger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNA biogenesis in higher eukaryotes has not been fully characterized. Here, we studied the Drosophila melanogaster Rexo5 (CG8368 protein, a metazoan-specific member of the DEDDh 3′-5′ single-stranded RNA exonucleases, by genetic, biochemical, and RNA-sequencing approaches. Rexo5 is required for small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA and rRNA biogenesis and is essential in D. melanogaster. Loss-of-function mutants accumulate improperly 3′ end-trimmed 28S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and snoRNA precursors in vivo. Rexo5 is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in somatic metazoan cells but extremely elevated in male and female germ cells. Loss of Rexo5 leads to increased nucleolar size, genomic instability, defective ribosome subunit export, and larval death. Loss of germline expression compromises gonadal growth and meiotic entry during germline development.

  6. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Fabiola R.; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-04-01

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1-RpL5-N-RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1-RpL5-RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP.

  7. Symportin 1 chaperones 5S RNP assembly during ribosome biogenesis by occupying an essential rRNA-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviño, Fabiola R; Kharde, Satyavati; Ori, Alessandro; Hendricks, Astrid; Wild, Klemens; Kressler, Dieter; Bange, Gert; Hurt, Ed; Beck, Martin; Sinning, Irmgard

    2015-04-07

    During 60S biogenesis, mature 5S RNP consisting of 5S RNA, RpL5 and RpL11, assembles into a pre-60S particle, where docking relies on RpL11 interacting with helix 84 (H84) of the 25S RNA. How 5S RNP is assembled for recruitment into the pre-60S is not known. Here we report the crystal structure of a ternary symportin Syo1-RpL5-N-RpL11 complex and provide biochemical and structural insights into 5S RNP assembly. Syo1 guards the 25S RNA-binding surface on RpL11 and competes with H84 for binding. Pull-down experiments show that H84 releases RpL11 from the ternary complex, but not in the presence of 5S RNA. Crosslinking mass spectrometry visualizes structural rearrangements on incorporation of 5S RNA into the Syo1-RpL5-RpL11 complex supporting the formation of a pre-5S RNP. Our data underline the dual role of Syo1 in ribosomal protein transport and as an assembly platform for 5S RNP.

  8. tRNA modifying enzymes, NSUN2 and METTL1, determine sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Okamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonessential tRNA modifications by methyltransferases are evolutionarily conserved and have been reported to stabilize mature tRNA molecules and prevent rapid tRNA decay (RTD. The tRNA modifying enzymes, NSUN2 and METTL1, are mammalian orthologs of yeast Trm4 and Trm8, which are required for protecting tRNA against RTD. A simultaneous overexpression of NSUN2 and METTL1 is widely observed among human cancers suggesting that targeting of both proteins provides a novel powerful strategy for cancer chemotherapy. Here, we show that combined knockdown of NSUN2 and METTL1 in HeLa cells drastically potentiate sensitivity of cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU whereas heat stress of cells revealed no effects. Since NSUN2 and METTL1 are phosphorylated by Aurora-B and Akt, respectively, and their tRNA modifying activities are suppressed by phosphorylation, overexpression of constitutively dephosphorylated forms of both methyltransferases is able to suppress 5-FU sensitivity. Thus, NSUN2 and METTL1 are implicated in 5-FU sensitivity in HeLa cells. Interfering with methylation of tRNAs might provide a promising rationale to improve 5-FU chemotherapy of cancer.

  9. Linking maternal and somatic 5S rRNA types with different sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locati, Mauro D; Pagano, Johanna F B; Ensink, Wim A; van Olst, Marina; van Leeuwen, Selina; Nehrdich, Ulrike; Zhu, Kongju; Spaink, Herman P; Girard, Geneviève; Rauwerda, Han; Jonker, Martijs J; Dekker, Rob J; Breit, Timo M

    2017-04-01

    5S rRNA is a ribosomal core component, transcribed from many gene copies organized in genomic repeats. Some eukaryotic species have two 5S rRNA types defined by their predominant expression in oogenesis or adult tissue. Our next-generation sequencing study on zebrafish egg, embryo, and adult tissue identified maternal-type 5S rRNA that is exclusively accumulated during oogenesis, replaced throughout the embryogenesis by a somatic-type, and thus virtually absent in adult somatic tissue. The maternal-type 5S rDNA contains several thousands of gene copies on chromosome 4 in tandem repeats with small intergenic regions, whereas the somatic-type is present in only 12 gene copies on chromosome 18 with large intergenic regions. The nine-nucleotide variation between the two 5S rRNA types likely affects TFIII binding and riboprotein L5 binding, probably leading to storage of maternal-type rRNA. Remarkably, these sequence differences are located exactly at the sequence-specific target site for genome integration by the 5S rRNA-specific Mutsu retrotransposon family. Thus, we could define maternal- and somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified four additional maternal-type and two new somatic-type MutsuDr subfamilies, each with their own target sequence. This target-site specificity, frequently intact maternal-type retrotransposon elements, plus specific presence of Mutsu retrotransposon RNA and piRNA in egg and adult tissue, suggest an involvement of retrotransposons in achieving the differential copy number of the two types of 5S rDNA loci. © 2017 Locati et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. Phylogenetic origins of the plant mitochondrion based on a comparative analysis of 5S ribosomal RNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, E.; Delihas, N.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Gibson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of 5S ribosomal RNAs from Rhodocyclus gelatinosa, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Pseudomonas cepacia were determined. Comparisons of these 5S RNA sequences show that rather than being phylogenetically related to one another, the two photosynthetic bacterial 5S RNAs share more sequence and signature homology with the RNAs of two nonphotosynthetic strains. Rhodobacter sphaeroides is specifically related to Paracoccus denitrificans and Rc. gelatinosa is related to Ps. cepacia. These results support earlier 16S ribosomal RNA studies and add two important groups to the 5S RNA data base. Unique 5S RNA structural features previously found in P. denitrificans are present also in the 5S RNA of Rb. sphaeroides; these provide the basis for subdivisional signatures. The immediate consequence of obtaining these new sequences is that it is possible to clarify the phylogenetic origins of the plant mitochondrion. In particular, a close phylogenetic relationship is found between the plant mitochondria and members of the alpha subdivision of the purple photosynthetic bacteria, namely, Rb. sphaeroides, P. denitrificans, and Rhodospirillum rubrum.

  11. Characterization of conserved bases in 4.5S RNA of Escherichia coli by construction of new F' factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, James M; Phillips, Gregory J

    2008-12-01

    To more clearly understand the function of conserved bases of 4.5S RNA, the product of the essential ffs gene of Escherichia coli, and to address conflicting results reported in other studies, we have developed a new genetic system to characterize ffs mutants. Multiple ffs alleles were generated by altering positions that correspond to the region of the RNA molecule that interacts directly with Ffh in assembly of the signal recognition particle. To facilitate characterization of the ffs mutations with minimal manipulation, recombineering was used to construct new F' factors to easily move each allele into different genetic backgrounds for expression in single copy. In combination with plasmids that expressed ffs in multiple copy numbers, the F' factors provided an accurate assessment of the ability of the different 4.5S RNA mutants to function in vivo. Consistent with structural analysis of the signal recognition particle (SRP), highly conserved bases in 4.5S RNA are important for binding Ffh. Despite the high degree of conservation, however, only a single base (C62) was indispensable for RNA function under all conditions tested. To quantify the interaction between 4.5S RNA and Ffh, an assay was developed to measure the ability of mutant 4.5S RNA molecules to copurify with Ffh. Defects in Ffh binding correlated with loss of SRP-dependent protein localization. Real-time quantitative PCR was also used to measure the levels of wild-type and mutant 4.5S RNA expressed in vivo. These results clarify inconsistencies from prior studies and yielded a convenient method to study the function of multiple alleles.

  12. Oxidative damage of 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA in digestive gland of mussels exposed to trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kournoutou, Georgia G; Giannopoulou, Panagiota C; Sazakli, Eleni; Leotsinidis, Michel; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2017-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown the ability of trace metals to accumulate in marine organisms and cause oxidative stress that leads to perturbations in many important intracellular processes, including protein synthesis. This study is mainly focused on the exploration of structural changes, like base modifications, scissions, and conformational changes, caused in 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to 40μg/L Cu, 30μg/L Hg, or 100μg/L Cd, for 5 or 15days. 18S rRNA and 5S rRNA are components of the small and large ribosomal subunit, respectively, found in complex with ribosomal proteins, translation factors and other auxiliary components (metal ions, toxins etc). 18S rRNA plays crucial roles in all stages of protein synthesis, while 5S rRNA serves as a master signal transducer between several functional regions of 28S rRNA. Therefore, structural changes in these ribosomal constituents could affect the basic functions of ribosomes and hence the normal metabolism of cells. Especially, 18S rRNA along with ribosomal proteins forms the decoding centre that ensures the correct codon-anticodon pairing. As exemplified by ELISA, primer extension analysis and DMS footprinting analysis, each metal caused oxidative damage to rRNA, depending on the nature of metal ion and the duration of exposure. Interestingly, exposure of mussels to Cu or Hg caused structural alterations in 5S rRNA, localized in paired regions and within loops A, B, C, and E, leading to a continuous progressive loss of the 5S RNA structural integrity. In contrast, structural impairments of 5S rRNA in mussels exposed to Cd were accumulating for the initial 5days, and then progressively decreased to almost the normal level by day 15, probably due to the parallel elevation of metallothionein content that depletes the pools of free Cd. Regions of interest in 18S rRNA, such as the decoding centre, sites implicated in the binding of tRNAs (A- and P-sites) or

  13. Organization and nucleotide sequence of nuclear 5S rRNA genes in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalski, J A; Wiewiorowski, M; Söll, D

    1982-01-01

    Genomic blots of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) DNA digested with restriction nucleases and probed with 32P-labelled Lupinus 5S RNA reveal that 5S DNA is organized as tandemly repeated sequences of one size class, 342 bp. The DNA is extensively methylated. Two cloned BamHI ribosomal repeats were sequenced, revealing sequence divergence within both the coding and spacer regions. Images PMID:7155897

  14. In Vivo Production of Small Recombinant RNAs Embedded in a 5S rRNA-Derived Protective Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Victor G; Fox, George E

    2015-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of RNA is a challenging task that is usually accomplished using either chemical or enzymatic polymerization of ribonucleotides in vitro. Herein, we describe an alternative approach in which RNAs of interest are expressed as a fusion with a 5S rRNA-derived scaffold. The scaffold provides protection against cellular ribonucleases resulting in cellular accumulations comparable to those of regular ribosomal RNAs. After isolation of the chimeric RNA from the cells, the scaffold can be removed if necessary by deoxyribozyme-catalyzed cleavage followed by preparative electrophoretic separation of the cleavage reaction products. The protocol is designed for sustained production of high quality RNA on the milligram scale.

  15. Linkage of 35S and 5S rRNA genes in Artemisia (family Asteraceae): first evidence from angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sònia; Lim, K Yoong; Chester, Michael; Garnatje, Teresa; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Leitch, Andrew R; Kovarík, Ales

    2009-02-01

    Typically in plants, the 5S and 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) encoding two major ribosomal RNA species occur at separate loci. However, in some algae, bryophytes and ferns, they are at the same locus (linked arranged). Southern blot hybridisation, polymerase chain reactions (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridisation, cloning and sequencing were used to reveal 5S and 35S rDNA genomic organisation in Artemisia. We observed thousands of rDNA units at two-three loci containing 5S rDNA in an inverted orientation within the inter-genic spacer (IGS) of 35S rDNA. The sequenced clones of 26-18S IGS from Artemisia absinthium appeared to contain a conserved 5S gene insertion proximal to the 26S gene terminus (5S rDNA-1) and a second less conserved 5S insertion (5S rDNA-2) further downstream. Whilst the 5S rDNA-1 showed all the structural features of a functional gene, the 5S-rDNA-2 had a deletion in the internal promoter and probably represents a pseudogene. The linked arrangement probably evolved before the divergence of Artemisia from the rest of Asteraceae (>10 Myrs). This arrangement may have involved retrotransposons and once formed spread via mechanisms of concerted evolution. Heterogeneity in unit structure may reflect ongoing homogenisation of variant unit types without fixation for any particular variant.

  16. A ribonuclease-resistant region of 5S RNA and its relation to the RNA binding sites of proteins L18 and L25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Garrett, R A; Wagner, R

    1979-01-01

    An RNA fragment, constituting three subfragments of nucleotide sequences 1-11, 69-87 and 89-120, is the most ribonuclease-resistant part of the native 5S RNA of Escherichia coli, at 0 degrees C. A smaller fragment of nucleotide sequence 69-87 and 90-110 is ribonuclease-resistant at 25 degrees....... Degradation of the L25-5S RNA complex with ribonuclease A or T2 yielded RNA fragments similar to those of the free 5S RNA at 0 degrees C and 25 degrees C; moreover L25 remained strongly bound to both RNA fragments and also produced some opening of the RNA structure in at least two positions. Protein L18...... initially protected most of the 5S RNA against ribonuclease digestion, at 0 degrees C, but was then gradually released prior to the formation of the larger RNA fragment. It cannot be concluded, therefore, as it was earlier (Gray et al., 1973), that this RNA fragment contains the primary binding site of L18....

  17. Investigation of histone H4 hyperacetylation dynamics in the 5S rRNA genes family by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlibașa, Liliana; Suciu, Ilinca

    2015-12-01

    Oogenesis is a critical event in the formation of female gamete, whose role in development is to transfer genomic information to the next generation. During this process, the gene expression pattern changes dramatically concomitant with genome remodelling, while genomic information is stably maintained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of H4 acetylation of the oocyte and somatic 5S rRNA genes in Triturus cristatus, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). Our findings suggest that some epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation could be involved in the transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA gene families.

  18. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) variety discrimination and hybridization analysis based on the 5S rRNA region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Lin; Kang, Ho-Min; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Jun-Pill; Zheng, Shi-Lin; Xiang, Jin-Jun; Hong, Soon-Kwan

    2014-05-04

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a major vegetable crop worldwide. To satisfy popular demand, more than 500 tomato varieties have been bred. However, a clear variety identification has not been found. Thorough understanding of the phylogenetic relationship and hybridization information of tomato varieties is very important for further variety breeding. Thus, in this study, we collected 26 tomato varieties and attempted to distinguish them based on the 5S rRNA region, which is widely used in the determination of phylogenetic relations. Sequence analysis of the 5S rRNA region suggested that a large number of nucleotide variations exist among tomato varieties. These variable nucleotide sites were also informative regarding hybridization. Chromas sequencing of Yellow Mountain View and Seuwiteuking varieties indicated three and one variable nucleotide sites in the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rRNA region showing hybridization, respectively. Based on a phylogenetic tree constructed using the 5S rRNA sequences, we observed that 16 tomato varieties were divided into three groups at 95% similarity. Rubiking and Sseommeoking, Lang Selection Procedure and Seuwiteuking, and Acorn Gold and Yellow Mountain View exhibited very high identity with their partners. This work will aid variety authentication and provides a basis for further tomato variety breeding.

  19. Analysis of genes for 5S rRNA from the cricket, Acheta domesticus: two classes of repeating units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, H; Ware, J; Cave, M D

    1985-01-01

    To examine the modulation of 5S rRNA gene activity during development in the cricket, Acheta domesticus, 5S X DNA was isolated from a lambda Charon 4 genomic library and characterized. Southern blot analysis of cloned A. domesticus genomic DNA revealed that restriction fragments of 3.0 and 2.1 kb represent two size classes of 5S X DNA repeating units; over 90% of the repeats measure 3.0 kb. Restriction analysis of two 5S X DNA clones suggests that the 2.1-kb repeats are not randomly interspersed within clusters of the larger 3.0-kb repeating units. Heteroduplex and restriction mapping of several clones indicate that the spacers of both repeating units account for their unusual length. The major difference between the two classes of repeats may lie in 0.9-kb spacer sequences to the 3.0-kb repeats.

  20. Evidence of birth-and-death evolution of 5S rRNA gene in Channa species (Teleostei, Perciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Anindya Sundar; Singh, Mamta; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Lal, Kuldeep Kumar

    2016-12-01

    In higher eukaryotes, minor rDNA family codes for 5S rRNA that is arranged in tandem arrays and comprises of a highly conserved 120 bp long coding sequence with a variable non-transcribed spacer (NTS). Initially the 5S rDNA repeats are considered to be evolved by the process of concerted evolution. But some recent reports, including teleost fishes suggested that evolution of 5S rDNA repeat does not fit into the concerted evolution model and evolution of 5S rDNA family may be explained by a birth-and-death evolution model. In order to study the mode of evolution of 5S rDNA repeats in Perciformes fish species, nucleotide sequence and molecular organization of five species of genus Channa were analyzed in the present study. Molecular analyses revealed several variants of 5S rDNA repeats (four types of NTS) and networks created by a neighbor net algorithm for each type of sequences (I, II, III and IV) did not show a clear clustering in species specific manner. The stable secondary structure is predicted and upstream and downstream conserved regulatory elements were characterized. Sequence analyses also shown the presence of two putative pseudogenes in Channa marulius. Present study supported that 5S rDNA repeats in genus Channa were evolved under the process of birth-and-death.

  1. Stimulation of Pol III-dependent 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA gene expression by AP-1 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Richa; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-07-01

    RNA polymerase III transcribes structurally diverse group of essential noncoding RNAs including 5S ribosomal RNA (5SrRNA) and U6 snRNA. These noncoding RNAs are involved in RNA processing and ribosome biogenesis, thus, coupling Pol III activity to the rate of protein synthesis, cell growth, and proliferation. Even though a few Pol II-associated transcription factors have been reported to participate in Pol III-dependent transcription, its activation by activator protein 1 (AP-1) factors, c-Fos and c-Jun, has remained unexplored. Here, we show that c-Fos and c-Jun bind to specific sites in the regulatory regions of 5S rRNA (type I) and U6 snRNA (type III) gene promoters and stimulate their transcription. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation studies suggested that endogenous AP-1 factors bind to their cognate promoter elements during the G1/S transition of cell cycle apparently synchronous with Pol III transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun with histone acetyltransferase p300 promoted the recruitment of p300/CBP complex on the promoters and facilitated the occupancy of Pol III transcriptional machinery via histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. The findings of our study, together, suggest that AP-1 factors are novel regulators of Pol III-driven 5S rRNA and U6 snRNA expression with a potential role in cell proliferation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. Overexpression of a natural chloroplast-encoded antisense RNA in tobacco destabilizes 5S rRNA and retards plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern David B

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of non-coding RNAs in regulating gene expression have been extensively studied in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, however few reports exist as to their roles in organellar gene regulation. Evidence for accumulation of natural antisense RNAs (asRNAs in chloroplasts comes from the expressed sequence tag database and cDNA libraries, while functional data have been largely obtained from artificial asRNAs. In this study, we used Nicotiana tabacum to investigate the effect on sense strand transcripts of overexpressing a natural chloroplast asRNA, AS5, which is complementary to the region which encodes the 5S rRNA and tRNAArg. Results AS5-overexpressing (AS5ox plants obtained by chloroplast transformation exhibited slower growth and slightly pale green leaves. Analysis of AS5 transcripts revealed four distinct species in wild-type (WT and AS5ox plants, and additional AS5ox-specific products. Of the corresponding sense strand transcripts, tRNAArg overaccumulated several-fold in transgenic plants whereas 5S rRNA was unaffected. However, run-on transcription showed that the 5S-trnR region was transcribed four-fold more in the AS5ox plants compared to WT, indicating that overexpression of AS5 was associated with decreased stability of 5S rRNA. In addition, polysome analysis of the transformants showed less 5S rRNA and rbcL mRNA associated with ribosomes. Conclusions Our results suggest that AS5 can modulate 5S rRNA levels, giving it the potential to affect Chloroplast translation and plant growth. More globally, overexpression of asRNAs via chloroplast transformation may be a useful strategy for defining their functions.

  3. snoU6 and 5S RNAs are not reliable miRNA reference genes in neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Q E; Zhou, L; Ho, Y K; Wan, G; Too, H P

    2011-12-29

    Accurate profiling of microRNAs (miRNAs) is an essential step for understanding the functional significance of these small RNAs in both physiological and pathological processes. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has gained acceptance as a robust and reliable transcriptomic method to profile subtle changes in miRNA levels and requires reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression. 5S and snoU6 RNAs are commonly used as reference genes in microRNA quantification. It is currently unknown if these small RNAs are stably expressed during neuronal differentiation. Panels of miRNAs have been suggested as alternative reference genes to 5S and snoU6 in various physiological contexts. To test the hypothesis that miRNAs may serve as stable references during neuronal differentiation, the expressions of eight miRNAs, 5S and snoU6 RNAs in five differentiating neuronal cell types were analyzed using qPCR. The stabilities of the expressions were evaluated using two complementary statistical approaches (geNorm and Normfinder). Expressions of 5S and snoU6 RNAs were stable under some but not all conditions of neuronal differentiation and thus are not suitable reference genes. In contrast, a combination of three miRNAs (miR-103, miR-106b and miR-26b) allowed accurate expression normalization across different models of neuronal differentiation. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogeny of protozoa deduced from 5S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from three protozoa, Bresslaua vorax, Euplotes woodruffi and Chlamydomonas sp. have been determined and aligned together with the sequences of 12 protozoa species including unicellular green algae already reported by the authors and others. Using this alignment, a phylogenic tree of the 15 species of protozoa has been constructed. The tree suggests that the ancestor for protozoa evolved at an early time of eukaryotic evolution giving two major groups of organisms. One group, which shares a common ancestor with vascular plants, contains a unicellular green flagellate (Chlamydomonas) and unicellular green algae. The other group, which shares a common ancestor with the multicellular animals, includes various flagellated protozoa (including Euglena), ciliated protozoa and slime molds. Most of these protozoa appear to have separated from one another at a fairly early period of eukaryotic evolution.

  5. Mycobacterial RNA isolation optimized for non-coding RNA: high fidelity isolation of 5S rRNA from Mycobacterium bovis BCG reveals novel post-transcriptional processing and a complete spectrum of modified ribonucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hia, Fabian; Chionh, Yok Hian; Pang, Yan Ling Joy; DeMott, Michael S; McBee, Megan E; Dedon, Peter C

    2015-03-11

    A major challenge in the study of mycobacterial RNA biology is the lack of a comprehensive RNA isolation method that overcomes the unusual cell wall to faithfully yield the full spectrum of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) species. Here, we describe a simple and robust procedure optimized for the isolation of total ncRNA, including 5S, 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and tRNA, from mycobacteria, using Mycobacterium bovis BCG to illustrate the method. Based on a combination of mechanical disruption and liquid and solid-phase technologies, the method produces all major species of ncRNA in high yield and with high integrity, enabling direct chemical and sequence analysis of the ncRNA species. The reproducibility of the method with BCG was evident in bioanalyzer electrophoretic analysis of isolated RNA, which revealed quantitatively significant differences in the ncRNA profiles of exponentially growing and non-replicating hypoxic bacilli. The method also overcame an historical inconsistency in 5S rRNA isolation, with direct sequencing revealing a novel post-transcriptional processing of 5S rRNA to its functional form and with chemical analysis revealing seven post-transcriptional ribonucleoside modifications in the 5S rRNA. This optimized RNA isolation procedure thus provides a means to more rigorously explore the biology of ncRNA species in mycobacteria. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Sequence organization and putative regulatory elements in the 5S rRNA genes of two higher plants (Vigna radiata and Matthiola incana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemleben, V; Werts, D

    1988-01-01

    The tandemly arranged and clustered highly repeated 5S rRNA genes are investigated for two plants belonging to different higher plant families: Matthiola incana (Brassicaceae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae; 3600 5S rRNA genes/n) shows a homogeneous repeat size of 510 bp, whereas Vigna radiata (mung bean, former Phaseolus aureus, Fabaceae, Rosidae; approx. 4300 5S rRNA genes) has a repeat size of 215 bp. The mung-bean 5S rRNA coding region starts 5' with AGG and ends with CCT; Matthiola starts with GGG and ends with CCC. Striking is the strict occurrence of a 'TATA' box starting at nucleotide-28 similar to Neurospora crassa 5S rRNA genes. The 3' end is followed by CTTTT or GTTT stretches present in different numbers in the non-transcribed spacer suggesting a function in termination.

  7. Systems biology approach to transplant tolerance: proof of concept experiments using RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down hub genes in Jurkat and HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Wint Wah; Park, Ken; Wauson, Matthew; Gao, Qin; Finn, Patricia W; Perkins, David; Khanna, Ajai

    2012-07-01

    Systems biology is gaining importance in studying complex systems such as the functional interconnections of human genes [1]. To investigate the molecular interactions involved in T cell immune responses, we used databases of physical gene-gene interactions to constructed molecular interaction networks (interconnections) with R language algorithms. This helped to identify highly interconnected "hub" genes AT(1)P5C1, IL6ST, PRKCZ, MYC, FOS, JUN, and MAPK1. We hypothesized that suppression of these hub genes in the gene network would result in significant phenotypic effects on T cells and examined this in vitro. The molecular interaction networks were then analyzed and visualized with Cytoscape. Jurkat and HeLa cells were transfected with siRNA for the selected hub genes. Cell proliferation was measured using ATP luminescence and BrdU labeling, which were measured 36, 72, and 96 h after activation. Following T cell stimulation, we found a significant decrease in ATP production (P cells. However, HeLa cells showed a significant (P cell proliferation when the genes MAPK1, IL6ST, ATP5C1, JUN, and FOS were knocked down. In both Jurkat and HeLa cells, targeted gene knockdown using siRNA showed decreased cell proliferation and ATP production in both Jurkat and HeLa cells. However, Jurkat T cells and HELA cells use different hub genes to regulate activation responses. This experiment provides proof of principle of applying siRNA knockdown of T cell hub genes to evaluate their proliferative capacity and ATP production. This novel concept outlines a systems biology approach to identify hub genes for targeted therapeutics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Investigation of siRNA Nanoparticle Formation Using Mono-Cationic Detergents and Its Use in Gene Silencing in Human HeLa Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yuma; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Harashima, Hideyoshi, E-mail: harashima@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory for Molecular Design of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The focus of recent research has been on the development of siRNA vectors to achieve an innovative gene therapy. Most of the conventional vectors are siRNA nanoparticles complexed with cationic polymers and liposomes, making it difficult to release siRNA. In this study, we report on the use of MCD, a quaternary ammonium salt detergent containing a long aliphatic chain (L-chain) as an siRNA complexation agent using human HeLa cells (a model cancer cell). We prepared siRNA nanoparticles using various MCDs, and measured the diameters and zeta-potentials of the particles. The use of an MCD with a long L-chain resulted in the formation of a positively charged nanoparticle. In contrast, a negatively charged nanoparticle was formed when a MCD with a short L-chain was used. We next evaluated the gene silencing efficiency of the nanoparticles using HeLa cells expressing the luciferase protein. The results showed that the siRNA/MCD nanoparticles showed a higher gene silencing efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000. We also found that the efficiency of gene silencing is a function of the length of the alkyl chain in MCD and zeta-potential of the siRNA/MCD nanoparticles. Such information provides another viewpoint for designing siRNA vectors.

  9. Mutations in the gene for EF-G reduce the requirement for 4.5S RNA in the growth of E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S

    1987-01-01

    A general strategy is described for the isolation of suppressors of essential genes whose functions are unknown. This strategy was used to analyze the role of 4.5S RNA, an essential RNA of E. coli. In this strategy, the structural gene for 4.5S RNA is fused to the Ptac promoter in such a way...... that the strain becomes dependent upon inducers of lac for growth. Mutants mapping to fus, the structural gene for protein synthesis elongation factor G, appear as spontaneous, inducer-independent revertants. These mutants alter the intracellular distribution of 4.5S RNA such that it sediments at 70S or greater....... Furthermore, the increased sedimentation velocity is sensitive to the antibiotic puromycin. These results show that 4.5S RNA physically associates with the ribosome in performing its essential function, and that this association is mediated by elongation factor G....

  10. Mutant forms of Escherichia coli protein L25 unable to bind to 5S rRNA are incorporated efficiently into the ribosome in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikaev, A Y; Korepanov, A P; Korobeinikova, A V; Kljashtorny, V G; Piendl, W; Nikonov, S V; Garber, M B; Gongadze, G M

    2014-08-01

    5S rRNA-binding ribosomal proteins of the L25 family are an evolutional acquisition of bacteria. Earlier we showed that (i) single replacements in the RNA-binding module of the protein of this family result in destabilization or complete impossibility to form a complex with 5S rRNA in vitro; (ii) ΔL25 ribosomes of Escherichia coli are less efficient in protein synthesis in vivo than the control ribosomes. In the present work, the efficiency of incorporation of the E. coli protein L25 with mutations in the 5S rRNA-binding region into the ribosome in vivo was studied. It was found that the mutations in L25 that abolish its ability to form the complex with free 5S rRNA do not prevent its correct and efficient incorporation into the ribosome. This is supported by the fact that even the presence of a very weakly retained mutant form of the protein in the ribosome has a positive effect on the activity of the translational machinery in vivo. All this suggests the existence of an alternative incorporation pathway for this protein into the ribosome, excluding the preliminary formation of the complex with 5S rRNA. At the same time, the stable L25-5S rRNA contact is important for the retention of the protein within the ribosome, and the conservative amino acid residues of the RNA-binding module play a key role in this.

  11. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qing; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qu, Liang-Hu, E-mail: lssqlh@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Gene Engineering of the Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Biocontrol, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-10-23

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  12. Assembly of proteins and 5 S rRNA to transcripts of the major structural domains of 23 S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, P; Phan, H; Johansen, L B

    1998-01-01

    The six major structural domains of 23 S rRNA from Escherichia coli, and all combinations thereof, were synthesized as separate T7 transcripts and reconstituted with total 50 S subunit proteins. Analysis by one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of at least one......+VI. This indicates that there are two major protein assembly centres located at the ends of the 23 S rRNA, which is consistent with an earlier view that in vitro protein assembly nucleates around proteins L24 and L3. Although similar protein assembly patterns were observed over a range of temperature and magnesium...... approach was used to map the putative binding regions on domain V of protein L9 and the 5 S RNA-L5-L18 complex....

  13. Molecular authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii by ITS and 5S rRNA spacer sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Fung, Kwok-Pui

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined nuclear DNA sequences in an attempt to reveal the relationships between Pueraria lobata (Willd). Ohwi, P. thomsonii Benth., and P. montana (Lour.) Merr. We found that internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA are highly divergent in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, and four types of ITS with different length are found in the two species. On the other hand, DNA sequences of 5S rRNA gene spacer are highly conserved across multiple copies in P. lobata and P. thomsonii, they could be used to identify P. lobata, P. thomsonii, and P. montana of this complex, and may serve as a useful tool in medical authentication of Radix Puerariae Lobatae and Radix Puerariae Thomsonii.

  14. Polynucleotide Phosphorylase, RNase E/G, and YbeY Are Involved in the Maturation of 4.5S RNA in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tomoya; Tanaka, Yuya; Wachi, Masaaki; Inui, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum has been applied for the industrial production of various metabolites, such as amino acids. To understand the biosynthesis of the membrane protein in this bacterium, we investigated the process of signal recognition particle (SRP) assembly. SRP is found in all three domains of life and plays an important role in the membrane insertion of proteins. SRP RNA is initially transcribed as precursor molecules; however, relatively little is known about its maturation. In C. glutamicum, SRP consists of the Ffh protein and 4.5S RNA lacking an Alu domain. In this study, we found that 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), and two endo-type RNases, RNase E/G and YbeY, are involved in the 3' maturation of 4.5S RNA in C. glutamicum The mature form of 4.5S RNA was inefficiently formed in ΔrneG Δpnp mutant cells, suggesting the existence of an alternative pathway for the 3' maturation of 4.5S RNA. Primer extension analysis also revealed that the 5' mature end of 4.5S RNA corresponds to that of the transcriptional start site. Immunoprecipitated Ffh protein contained immature 4.5S RNA in Δpnp, ΔrneG, and ΔybeY mutants, suggesting that 4.5S RNA precursors can interact with Ffh. These results imply that the maturation of 4.5S RNA can be performed in the 4.5S RNA-Ffh complex.IMPORTANCE Overproduction of a membrane protein, such as a transporter, is useful for engineering of strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is a workhorse of amino acid production. To understand membrane protein biogenesis in this bacterium, we investigated the process of signal recognition particle (SRP) assembly. SRP contains the Ffh protein and SRP RNA and plays an important role in the membrane insertion of proteins. Although SRP RNA is highly conserved among the three domains of life, relatively little is known about its maturation. We show that PNPase, RNase E/G, and YbeY are involved in the 3' maturation of the SRP RNA (4.5S RNA) in this

  15. DNAzyme-mediated recovery of small recombinant RNAs from a 5S rRNA-derived chimera expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yamei; Stepanov, Victor G; Strych, Ulrich; Willson, Richard C; Jackson, George W; Fox, George E

    2010-12-06

    Manufacturing large quantities of recombinant RNAs by overexpression in a bacterial host is hampered by their instability in intracellular environment. To overcome this problem, an RNA of interest can be fused into a stable bacterial RNA for the resulting chimeric construct to accumulate in the cytoplasm to a sufficiently high level. Being supplemented with cost-effective procedures for isolation of the chimera from cells and recovery of the recombinant RNA from stabilizing scaffold, this strategy might become a viable alternative to the existing methods of chemical or enzymatic RNA synthesis. Sequence encoding a 71-nucleotide recombinant RNA was inserted into a plasmid-borne deletion mutant of the Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA gene in place of helix III - loop C segment of the original 5S rRNA. After transformation into Escherichia coli, the chimeric RNA (3×pen aRNA) was expressed constitutively from E. coli rrnB P1 and P2 promoters. The RNA chimera accumulated to levels that exceeded those of the host's 5S rRNA. A novel method relying on liquid-solid partitioning of cellular constituents was developed for isolation of total RNA from bacterial cells. This protocol avoids toxic chemicals, and is therefore more suitable for large scale RNA purification than traditional methods. A pair of biotinylated 8-17 DNAzymes was used to bring about the quantitative excision of the 71-nt recombinant RNA from the chimera. The recombinant RNA was isolated by sequence-specific capture on beads with immobilized complementary deoxyoligonucleotide, while DNAzymes were recovered by biotin affinity chromatography for reuse. The feasibility of a fermentation-based approach for manufacturing large quantities of small RNAs in vivo using a "5S rRNA scaffold" strategy is demonstrated. The approach provides a route towards an economical method for the large-scale production of small RNAs including shRNAs, siRNAs and aptamers for use in clinical and biomedical research.

  16. Comparative analysis of the 5S rRNA and its associated proteins reveals unique primitive rather than parasitic features in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Mei; Sun, Jun; Xin, De-Dong; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2012-01-01

    5S rRNA is a highly conserved ribosomal component. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA and its associated proteins (5S rRNA system) have become very well understood. Giardia lamblia was thought by some researchers to be the most primitive extant eukaryote while others considered it a highly evolved parasite. Previous reports have indicated that some aspects of its 5S rRNA system are simpler than that of common eukaryotes. We here explore whether this is true to its entire system, and whether this simplicity is a primitive or parasitic feature. By collecting and confirming pre-existing data and identifying new data, we obtained almost complete datasets of the system of three isolates of G. lamblia, two other parasitic excavates (Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma cruzi), and one free-living one (Naegleria gruberi). After comprehensively comparing each aspect of the system among these excavates and also with those of archaea and common eukaryotes, we found all the three Giardia isolates to harbor a same simplified 5S rRNA system, which is not only much simpler than that of common eukaryotes but also the simplest one among those of these excavates, and is surprisingly very similar to that of archaea; we also found among these excavates the system in parasitic species is not necessarily simpler than that in free-living species, conversely, the system of free-living species is even simpler in some respects than those of parasitic ones. The simplicity of Giardia 5S rRNA system should be considered a primitive rather than parasitically-degenerated feature. Therefore, Giardia 5S rRNA system might be a primitive system that is intermediate between that of archaea and the common eukaryotic model system, and it may reflect the evolutionary history of the eukaryotic 5S rRNA system from the archaeal form. Our results also imply G. lamblia might be a primitive eukaryote with secondary parasitically-degenerated features.

  17. 5S rRNA and accompanying proteins in gonads: powerful markers to identify sex and reproductive endocrine disruption in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Bizarro, Cristina; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Cancio, Ibon

    2012-07-17

    In anuran ovaries, 5S rDNA is regulated transcriptionally by transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), which upon transcription, binds 5S rRNA, forming 7S RNP. 5S rRNA can be stockpiled also in the form of 42S RNP bound to 42sp43. The aim of the present study was to assess the differential transcriptional regulation of 5S rRNA and associated proteins in thicklip gray mullet (Chelon labrosus) gonads. Up to 75% of the total RNA from mullet ovaries was 5S rRNA. qPCR quantification of 5S rRNA expression, in gonads of histologically sexed individuals from different geographical areas, successfully sexed animals. All males had expression levels that were orders of magnitude below expression levels in females, throughout an annual reproductive cycle, with the exception of two individuals: one in November and one in December. Moreover, intersex mullets from a polluted harbor had expression levels between both sexes. TFIIIA and 42sp43 were also very active transcriptionally in gonads of female and intersex mullets, in comparison to males. Nucleocytoplasmatic transport is important in this context and we also analyzed transcriptional levels of importins-α1, -α2, and -β2 and different exportins. Importin-αs behaved similarly to 5S rRNA. Thus, 5S rRNA and associated proteins constitute very powerful molecular markers of sex and effects of xenosterogens in fish gonads, with potential technological applications in the analysis of fish stock dynamics and reproduction as well as in environmental health assessment.

  18. Identification of HPV integration and gene mutation in HeLa cell line by integrated analysis of RNA-Seq and MS/MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Han; Chen, Chen; Lian, Baofeng; Zhang, Menghuan; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Bing; Li, Yixue; Yang, Pengyuan; Xie, Lu

    2015-04-03

    HeLa cell line, which was derived from cervical carcinoma, provides an idea platform to study both the integration of human papillomavirus and the massive mutations occurring on the cancer cell genome. Proteogenomics is a field with the intersection of proteomics and genomics to perform gene annotation and identify gene mutation. In this work, we first identified the SNV/INDEL, structural variation (SV), and virus infection/integration events from RNA-Seq data of HeLa cell line; then, by applying proteogenomics strategy, we were able to detect some of the genomic events with the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data from the same sample. Furthermore, some of the mutated peptides were experimentally validated using multiple reaction monitoring technology. The integrated analysis of the RNA-Seq and MS/MS data not only renders the discovery of HeLa cell genome variations more credible but also illustrates a practical workflow for protein-coding mutation discovery in cancer-related studies.

  19. Determination of the chromatin domain structure in arrayed repeat regions: organization of the somatic 5S RNA domain during embryogenesis in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Alan; Vassetzky, Yegor

    2007-12-01

    The size of the DNA loop containing the Xenopus laevis somatic 5S RNA gene cluster has been estimated using a simple, precise and sensitive method that we have developed for use on any tandemly arrayed DNA repeat region, and was found to increase during development We have found that after the mid-blastula transition, when transcription is activated in the embryo, a subset of somatic 5S RNA genes becomes specifically associated with the nuclear matrix. This association correlates with the transcriptional activity of the 5S genes. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. The origin of the 5S ribosomal RNA molecule could have been caused by a single inverse duplication: strong evidence from its sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciamore, Sergio; Di Giulio, Massimo

    2012-04-01

    The secondary structure of the 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) molecule shows a high degree of symmetry. In order to explain the origin of this symmetry, it has been conjectured that one half of the 5S rRNA molecule was its precursor and that an indirect duplication of this precursor created the other half and thus the current symmetry of the molecule. Here, we have subjected to an empirical test both the indirect duplication model, analysing a total of 684 5S rRNA sequences for complementarity between the two halves of the 5S rRNA, and the direct duplication model analysing in this case the similarity between the two halves of this molecule. In intra- and inter-molecule and intra- and inter-domain comparisons, we find a high statistical support to the hypothesis of a complementarity relationship between the two halves of the 5S rRNA molecule, denying vice versa the hypothesis of similarity between these halves. Therefore, these observations corroborate the indirect duplication model at the expense of the direct duplication model, as reason of the origin of the 5S rRNA molecule. More generally, we discuss and favour the hypothesis that all RNAs and proteins, which present symmetry, did so through gene duplication and not by gradualistic accumulation of few monomers or segments of molecule into a gradualistic growth process. This would be the consequence of the very high propensity that nucleic acids have to be subjected to duplications.

  1. Genes for 7S RNAs can replace the gene for 4.5S RNA in growth of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, S

    1991-01-01

    4.5S RNAs of eubacteria and 7S RNAs of archaebacteria and eukaryotes exist in a hairpin conformation. The apex of this hairpin displays structural and sequence similarities among both 4.5S and 7S RNAs. Furthermore, a hyphenated sequence of 16 nucleotides is conserved in all eubacterial 4.5S RNAs...

  2. A Novel Association between Two Trypanosome-Specific Factors and the Conserved L5-5S rRNA Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganda, Martin; Prohaska, Kimberly; Hellman, Kristina; Williams, Noreen

    2012-01-01

    P34 and P37 are two previously identified RNA binding proteins in the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. RNA interference studies have determined that the proteins are involved in and essential for ribosome biogenesis. The proteins interact with the 5S rRNA with nearly identical binding characteristics. We have shown that this interaction is achieved mainly through the LoopA region of the RNA, but P34 and P37 also protect the L5 binding site located on LoopC. We now provide evidence to show that these factors form a novel pre-ribosomal particle through interactions with both 5S rRNA and the L5 ribosomal protein. Further in silico and in vitro analysis of T. brucei L5 indicates a lower affinity for 5S rRNA than expected, based on other eukaryotic L5 proteins. We hypothesize that P34 and P37 complement L5 and bridge the interaction with 5S rRNA, stabilizing it and aiding in the early steps of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:22859981

  3. What does the 5S rRNA multigene family tell us about the origin of the annual Triticeae (Poaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B R; Edwards, T; Johnson, D A

    2013-05-01

    We have investigated the complex relationships among the annual genera within the tribe Triticeae through phylogenetic analyses of the 5S rRNA multigene family. Cloned sequences were assigned to groups of orthologous sequences, called unit classes, that were subjected to several analyses including BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) searches to assess possible ancestral relationships with perennial genera; phylogenetic analyses using parsimony (Pars), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian methods; and minimum reticulation networks from the Pars, ML, and Bayesian trees. In this study, we included genera with both annual and perennial species, such as Dasypyrum, Hordeum, and Secale. BLAST pointed to Pseudoroegneria (carrier of the St genome) and possibly Thinopyrum (carrier of the J genome) as the potential next of kin. However, Thinopyrum and Pseudoroegneria have never fallen together on the individual trees with the former generally associated with Crithopsis, Aegilops, Triticum, and Dasypyrum, while the latter is usually associated with the rest of the genera within Triticeae. The "long" unit classes placed Dasypyrum breviaristatum together with Dasypyrum villosum, whereas the "short" unit classes put them far apart on the trees. None of the gene trees alone was able to summarize the complex relationships among the genera, in line with previous results in the Triticeae. However, the application of tools designed to display phylogenetic networks was able to depict the complex links among the genera based on the short and the long gene trees, including the close link between Thinopyrum and Pseudoroegneria suggested by the phylogenetic analyses. In addition, our analyses provide support for the hypothesis that at least some annual Triticeae taxa are derived from their perennial relatives.

  4. 5S ribosomal RNA is an essential component of a nascent ribosomal precursor complex that regulates the Hdm2-p53 checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giulio; Peddigari, Suresh; Mercer, Carol A; Thomas, George

    2013-07-11

    Recently, we demonstrated that RPL5 and RPL11 act in a mutually dependent manner to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53 following impaired ribosome biogenesis. Given that RPL5 and RPL11 form a preribosomal complex with noncoding 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the three have been implicated in the p53 response, we reasoned they may be part of an Hdm2-inhibitory complex. Here, we show that small interfering RNAs directed against 5S rRNA have no effect on total or nascent levels of the noncoding rRNA, though they prevent the reported Hdm4 inhibition of p53. To achieve efficient inhibition of 5S rRNA synthesis, we targeted TFIIIA, a specific RNA polymerase III cofactor, which, like depletion of either RPL5 or RPL11, did not induce p53. Instead, 5S rRNA acts in a dependent manner with RPL5 and RPL11 to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53. Moreover, depletion of any one of the three components abolished the binding of the other two to Hdm2, explaining their common dependence. Finally, we demonstrate that the RPL5/RPL11/5S rRNA preribosomal complex is redirected from assembly into nascent 60S ribosomes to Hdm2 inhibition as a consequence of impaired ribosome biogenesis. Thus, the activation of the Hdm2-inhibitory complex is not a passive but a regulated event, whose potential role in tumor suppression has been recently noted. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 5S Ribosomal RNA Is an Essential Component of a Nascent Ribosomal Precursor Complex that Regulates the Hdm2-p53 Checkpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Donati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we demonstrated that RPL5 and RPL11 act in a mutually dependent manner to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53 following impaired ribosome biogenesis. Given that RPL5 and RPL11 form a preribosomal complex with noncoding 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA and the three have been implicated in the p53 response, we reasoned they may be part of an Hdm2-inhibitory complex. Here, we show that small interfering RNAs directed against 5S rRNA have no effect on total or nascent levels of the noncoding rRNA, though they prevent the reported Hdm4 inhibition of p53. To achieve efficient inhibition of 5S rRNA synthesis, we targeted TFIIIA, a specific RNA polymerase III cofactor, which, like depletion of either RPL5 or RPL11, did not induce p53. Instead, 5S rRNA acts in a dependent manner with RPL5 and RPL11 to inhibit Hdm2 and stabilize p53. Moreover, depletion of any one of the three components abolished the binding of the other two to Hdm2, explaining their common dependence. Finally, we demonstrate that the RPL5/RPL11/5S rRNA preribosomal complex is redirected from assembly into nascent 60S ribosomes to Hdm2 inhibition as a consequence of impaired ribosome biogenesis. Thus, the activation of the Hdm2-inhibitory complex is not a passive but a regulated event, whose potential role in tumor suppression has been recently noted.

  6. The acquired radioresistance in HeLa cells under conditions mimicking hypoxia was attenuated by a decreased expression of HIF subunit genes induced by RNA interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Nobutaka [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); New Products Research & Development, Gene Engineering Division, NIPPON GENE Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ogawa, Ryohei, E-mail: ogawa@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Cui, Zheng-Guo [Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama (Japan); Morii, Akihiro; Watanabe, Akihiko [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama (Japan); Kanayama, Shinji; Yoneda, Yuko [New Products Research & Development, Gene Engineering Division, NIPPON GENE Co., Ltd. (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    The cancer cells residing in the hypoxic layer are resistant to radiation and these are ones responsible for cancer recurrence after radiation therapy. One of the reasons why hypoxic cancer cells acquire radioresistance may be attributable to changes in the gene expression profile by the activation of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). However, the details underlying this process remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of knockdown of HIF subunit genes to elucidate how HIF subunit genes may be involved in the radioresistance acquired by HeLa cells following exposure to a hypoxia mimic. Interestingly, HIF-1α and HIF-2α seemed mutually complementary for each other when either of them was suppressed. We thus suppressed the expression of both genes simultaneously. To do this, we developed a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting a high homology region between HIF-1α and HIF-2α. It was shown that the expression of the shRNA effectively suppressed the acquisition of radioresistance following the hypoxia mimic. Moreover, it was confirmed that suppression of both subunits resulted in the downregulation of stem cell markers and the suppression of spheroid formation during the hypoxia mimicking-conditions. This shRNA-mediated knockdown method targeting a common region shared by a family of genes may offer a new candidate cancer treatment. - Highlights: • Incubation with CoCl{sub 2} confers radioresistance to HeLa cells. • Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α are involved in the acquisition of radioresistance. • An shRNA to a homology region of HIF-1α and HIF-2α suppressed the radioresistance. • The shRNA decreased cells with stem cell markers and a stem cell phenotype.

  7. DNAzyme-mediated recovery of small recombinant RNAs from a 5S rRNA-derived chimera expressed in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willson Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manufacturing large quantities of recombinant RNAs by overexpression in a bacterial host is hampered by their instability in intracellular environment. To overcome this problem, an RNA of interest can be fused into a stable bacterial RNA for the resulting chimeric construct to accumulate in the cytoplasm to a sufficiently high level. Being supplemented with cost-effective procedures for isolation of the chimera from cells and recovery of the recombinant RNA from stabilizing scaffold, this strategy might become a viable alternative to the existing methods of chemical or enzymatic RNA synthesis. Results Sequence encoding a 71-nucleotide recombinant RNA was inserted into a plasmid-borne deletion mutant of the Vibrio proteolyticus 5S rRNA gene in place of helix III - loop C segment of the original 5S rRNA. After transformation into Escherichia coli, the chimeric RNA (3×pen aRNA was expressed constitutively from E. coli rrnB P1 and P2 promoters. The RNA chimera accumulated to levels that exceeded those of the host's 5S rRNA. A novel method relying on liquid-solid partitioning of cellular constituents was developed for isolation of total RNA from bacterial cells. This protocol avoids toxic chemicals, and is therefore more suitable for large scale RNA purification than traditional methods. A pair of biotinylated 8-17 DNAzymes was used to bring about the quantitative excision of the 71-nt recombinant RNA from the chimera. The recombinant RNA was isolated by sequence-specific capture on beads with immobilized complementary deoxyoligonucleotide, while DNAzymes were recovered by biotin affinity chromatography for reuse. Conclusions The feasibility of a fermentation-based approach for manufacturing large quantities of small RNAs in vivo using a "5S rRNA scaffold" strategy is demonstrated. The approach provides a route towards an economical method for the large-scale production of small RNAs including shRNAs, siRNAs and aptamers for use

  8. Comparative Analysis of the 5S rRNA and Its Associated Proteins Reveals Unique Primitive Rather Than Parasitic Features in Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, De-Dong; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2012-01-01

    Background 5S rRNA is a highly conserved ribosomal component. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA and its associated proteins (5S rRNA system) have become very well understood. Giardia lamblia was thought by some researchers to be the most primitive extant eukaryote while others considered it a highly evolved parasite. Previous reports have indicated that some aspects of its 5S rRNA system are simpler than that of common eukaryotes. We here explore whether this is true to its entire system, and whether this simplicity is a primitive or parasitic feature. Methodology/Principal Findings By collecting and confirming pre-existing data and identifying new data, we obtained almost complete datasets of the system of three isolates of G. lamblia, two other parasitic excavates (Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma cruzi), and one free-living one (Naegleria gruberi). After comprehensively comparing each aspect of the system among these excavates and also with those of archaea and common eukaryotes, we found all the three Giardia isolates to harbor a same simplified 5S rRNA system, which is not only much simpler than that of common eukaryotes but also the simplest one among those of these excavates, and is surprisingly very similar to that of archaea; we also found among these excavates the system in parasitic species is not necessarily simpler than that in free-living species, conversely, the system of free-living species is even simpler in some respects than those of parasitic ones. Conclusion/Significance The simplicity of Giardia 5S rRNA system should be considered a primitive rather than parasitically-degenerated feature. Therefore, Giardia 5S rRNA system might be a primitive system that is intermediate between that of archaea and the common eukaryotic model system, and it may reflect the evolutionary history of the eukaryotic 5S rRNA system from the archaeal form. Our results also imply G. lamblia might be a primitive eukaryote with secondary parasitically-degenerated features. PMID

  9. Dancing together and separate again: gymnosperms exhibit frequent changes of fundamental 5S and 35S rRNA gene (rDNA) organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S; Kovařík, A

    2013-07-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the 5S rRNA genes occur in tandem units and are arranged either separately (S-type arrangement) or linked to other repeated genes, in most cases to rDNA locus encoding 18S-5.8S-26S genes (L-type arrangement). Here we used Southern blot hybridisation, PCR and sequencing approaches to analyse genomic organisation of rRNA genes in all large gymnosperm groups, including Coniferales, Ginkgoales, Gnetales and Cycadales. The data are provided for 27 species (21 genera). The 5S units linked to the 35S rDNA units occur in some but not all Gnetales, Coniferales and in Ginkgo (∼30% of the species analysed), while the remaining exhibit separate organisation. The linked 5S rRNA genes may occur as single-copy insertions or as short tandems embedded in the 26S-18S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS). The 5S transcript may be encoded by the same (Ginkgo, Ephedra) or opposite (Podocarpus) DNA strand as the 18S-5.8S-26S genes. In addition, pseudogenised 5S copies were also found in some IGS types. Both L- and S-type units have been largely homogenised across the genomes. Phylogenetic relationships based on the comparison of 5S coding sequences suggest that the 5S genes independently inserted IGS at least three times in the course of gymnosperm evolution. Frequent transpositions and rearrangements of basic units indicate relatively relaxed selection pressures imposed on genomic organisation of 5S genes in plants.

  10. Experimental discovery of sRNAs in Vibrio cholerae by direct cloning, 5S/tRNA depletion and parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane M; Livny, Jonathan; Lawrence, Michael S; Kimball, Marc D; Waldor, Matthew K; Camilli, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Direct cloning and parallel sequencing, an extremely powerful method for microRNA (miRNA) discovery, has not yet been applied to bacterial transcriptomes. Here we present sRNA-Seq, an unbiased method that allows for interrogation of the entire small, non-coding RNA (sRNA) repertoire in any prokaryotic or eukaryotic organism. This method includes a novel treatment that depletes total RNA fractions of highly abundant tRNAs and small subunit rRNA, thereby enriching the starting pool for sRNA transcripts with novel functionality. As a proof-of-principle, we applied sRNA-Seq to the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Our results provide information, at unprecedented depth, on the complexity of the sRNA component of a bacterial transcriptome. From 407 039 sequence reads, all 20 known V. cholerae sRNAs, 500 new, putative intergenic sRNAs and 127 putative antisense sRNAs were identified in a limited number of growth conditions examined. In addition, characterization of a subset of the newly identified transcripts led to the identification of a novel sRNA regulator of carbon metabolism. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that the number of sRNAs in bacteria has been greatly underestimated and that future efforts to analyze bacterial transcriptomes will benefit from direct cloning and parallel sequencing experiments aided by 5S/tRNA depletion.

  11. Comparative characterization of Santolina insularis chemotypes by essential oil composition, 5S-rRNA-NTS sequencing and EcoRV RFLP-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnavi, Giorgio; Bertea, Cinzia M; Usai, Marianna; Maffei, Massimo E

    2010-06-01

    Santolina insularis (Genn ex Fiori) Arrig. is a medicinal plant whose essential oil shows antiviral and antibacterial activities and potent and selective cytotoxic activity against the human colon carcinoma cell line. The occurrence of several chemotypes makes the taxonomic identification of S. insularis hard to achieve. GC-MS essential oil analyses of four chemotypes (SI1, SI2, SI3 and SI4) revealed the presence of different percentages of santolina triene, beta-pinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, artemisia ketone and cis-chrysanthemol, allowing a chemical discrimination. Single fragments of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region of approximately 150, 170, 260 and 280bp were produced by SI1, SI2, SI3 and SI4, respectively, and the sequence alignment of the 5S-rRNA spacer region flanked by the 3'-and 5'-ends of the coding region confirmed a consistent difference between chemotypes. Furthermore, a PCR-RFLP method was applied. From the identified sequences, an EcoRV site could be found in chemotypes SI1, SI2 and SI3 in the 5S-rRNA spacer regions at 81 bp position; however, this site was absent in the chemotype SI4. This study, by showing remarkable chemical variation in the terpenoid profile and consistent genomic difference in the 5S-rRNA spacer regions, identified four chemotypes of S. insularis which could be grouped into two ecotypes, based on chemical and genomic analyses. The identification of specific gene sequences of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region and of a EcoRV site identified in this work can be used for a rapid and precise identification of the plant chemo-/ecotypes, complementing the essential oil chemical analysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Insights into reticulate evolution in Machaerantherinae (Asteraceae: Astereae): 5S ribosomal RNA spacer variation, estimating support for incongruence, and constructing reticulate phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David R; Korn, Randi-Lynn; Mugleston, Spencer L

    2009-05-01

    Although reticulate evolution has been a frequent occurrence during the history of plants, determining how it has contributed to plant evolution will require analyzing many nuclear loci and developing effective analytical methods. The objective of this study was to make progress toward meeting these requirements in the evolutionarily complex subtribe Machaerantherinae. The 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) spacer was investigated to characterize its structure and variation. Analysis of the spacer supported relationships that were mostly the same as those supported by ITS and ETS sequence data. Two methods were used to estimate support for 11 occurrences of incongruence between 5S/ITS/ETS and cpDNA data sets. The five best-supported incongruences were proposed to have had reticulate evolutionary histories. For Arida blepharophylla, Xanthisma rhizomatum, and Pyrrocoma, 5S and ITS/ETS evidence supported the same or similar relationships, indicating that these two regions of the nuclear genome were descended from the same ancestor or from two closely related ancestors, with cpDNA coming from a more distantly related ancestor. The 5S and ITS/ETS evidence disagreed on the relationships of Arida riparia, suggesting that its ITS/ETS region came from one ancestor and its 5S region and cpDNA from a different ancestor.

  13. Analysis of gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in response to overexpression or siRNA-mediated depletion of NASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseev Oleg

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NASP (Nuclear Autoantigenic Sperm Protein is a linker histone chaperone required for normal cell division. Changes in NASP expression significantly affect cell growth and development; loss of gene function results in embryonic lethality. However, the mechanism by which NASP exerts its effects in the cell cycle is not understood. To understand the pathways and networks that may involve NASP function, we evaluated gene expression in HeLa cells in which NASP was either overexpressed or depleted by siRNA. Methods Total RNA from HeLa cells overexpressing NASP or depleted of NASP by siRNA treatment was converted to cRNA with incorporation of Cy5-CTP (experimental samples, or Cy3-CTP (control samples. The labeled cRNA samples were hybridized to whole human genome microarrays (Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, Delaware, USA. Various gene expression analysis techniques were employed: Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM, Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE, and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA. Results From approximately 36 thousand genes present in a total human genome microarray, we identified a set of 47 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated genes as a result of NASP overexpression. Similarly we identified a set of 56 up-regulated and 71 down-regulated genes as a result of NASP siRNA treatment. Gene ontology, molecular network and canonical pathway analysis of NASP overexpression demonstrated that the most significant changes were in proteins participating in organismal injury, immune response, and cellular growth and cancer pathways (major "hubs": TNF, FOS, EGR1, NFκB, IRF7, STAT1, IL6. Depletion of NASP elicited the changed expression of proteins involved in DNA replication, repair and development, followed by reproductive system disease, and cancer and cell cycle pathways (major "hubs": E2F8, TP53, FGF, FSH, FST, hCG, NFκB, TRAF6. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that NASP belongs to a network of genes and

  14. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region: a rapid and precise method for plant identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertea, Cinzia Margherita; Gnavi, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Molecular genetic methods have several advantages over classical morphological and chemical analyses. The genetic method requires genotype instead than phenotype, therefore PCR-based techniques have been widely used for a rapid identification of plant species, varieties and chemotypes. Recently, the molecular discrimination of some higher plant species has been evaluated using sequences of a 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. The variation in the nontranscribed sequence (NTS) region has been used in a number of plant species for studying intraspecific variation, genome evolution, and phylogenetic reconstruction. Here, we describe a rapid method based on the use of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region as a tool for plant DNA fingerprinting, which combines PCR, sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses.

  15. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA) and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae), a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing), gene copy number (quantitative PCR) and chromosomal position (FISH) of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in ~200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Results Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases), tribe Gnaphalieae (100%) and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%). The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic structure of rDNA units

  16. PCR and PCR-RFLP of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region and salvinorin A analyses for the rapid and unequivocal determination of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertea, Cinzia M; Luciano, Pino; Bossi, Simone; Leoni, Francesca; Baiocchi, Claudio; Medana, Claudio; Azzolin, Chiara M M; Temporale, Giovanni; Lombardozzi, Maria Antonietta; Maffei, Massimo E

    2006-02-01

    Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M. is a perennial herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family; its active ingredient, the neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, is a psychotropic molecule that produces hallucinations. A comparative evaluation of S. divinorum fresh and dried leaves, S. officinalis fresh leaves, and dried powdered leaves claimed to be S. divinorum was done. HPLC-MS data confirmed the presence of salvinorin A in both S. divinorun leaf extracts and the powdered leaves, whereas no salvinorin A was found in S. officinalis. The non-transcribed spacer (NTS) in the 5S-rRNA gene of all leaf samples and the dried powdered leaves was amplified by PCR using a pair of primers located at the 3' and 5' ends of the coding sequence of 5S-rRNA gene. The resulting PCR products (about 500bp for S. divinorum and 300bp for S. officinalis) were gel purified, subcloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and sequenced. By aligning the isolated nucleotide sequences, great diversities were found in the spacer region of the two species. Specific S. divinorum primers were designed on the sequence of the 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. In addition, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied using NdeI and TaqI restriction enzymes. An NdeI site, absent in S. officinalis, was found in S. divinorum NTS region at 428-433bp. For TaqI, multiple sites (161-164, 170-173, and 217-220bp) were found in S. officinalis, whereas a unique site was found in S. divinorum (235-238bp). The results of this work show that the combined use of analytical chemical (HPLC-MS) and molecular (DNA fingerprinting) methods lead to the precise and unequivocal identification of S. divinorum.

  17. Comparative chromosome mapping of U2 snRNA and 5S rRNA genes in Gymnotus species (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): evolutionary dynamics and sex chromosome linkage in G . pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Scacchetti, Priscilla C; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    A comparative mapping of U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was performed in 6 Gymnotus species. All species analyzed presented the U2 snDNA organized in conspicuous blocks and not co-located with rRNA genes. In addition, 5 species showed the U2 snDNA located in a single pair of chromosomes, which seems to be a conserved trait in this genus. Conversely, G. pantanal was the only species displaying several terminal signals in different chromosome pairs, including the X1 sex chromosome but not the Y chromosome. This is the first report of U2 snRNA genes in sex chromosomes of fishes. The absence of sites in the Y chromosome of G. pantanal indicates a possible loss of terminal segments of the chromosomes involved in the Y formation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNA Sequences in Five Species of Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) Reveals Independent Location of U1 and U2 snRNA Sites and Association of U1 snRNA and 5S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Duilio M Z A; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Oliveira, Cláudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    Astyanax is a genus of Characidae fishes currently composed of 155 valid species. Previous cytogenetic studies revealed high chromosomal diversification among them, and several studies have been performed using traditional cytogenetic techniques to investigate karyotypes and chromosomal locations of 18S and 5S rDNA genes. However, only a few studies are currently available about other repetitive sequences. Here, the chromosomal location of small nuclear RNA genes, identified as U1 and U2 snRNA clusters, was established and compared to the distribution of 5S rDNA and histone clusters in 5 Astyanax species (A. paranae, A. fasciatus, A. bockmanni, A. altiparanae, and A. jordani) using FISH. The cytogenetic mapping of U1 and U2 snRNA demonstrated a conserved pattern in the number of sites per genome independent of the location in Astyanax species. The location of the U1 snRNA gene was frequently associated with 5S rDNA sequences, indicating a possible interaction between the distinct repetitive DNA families. Finally, comparisons involving the location of U1 and U2 snRNA clusters in the chromosomes of Astyanax species revealed a very diverse pattern, suggesting that many rearrangements have occurred during the diversification process of this group. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Simultaneous separation of five major ribonucleic acids by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence in the presence of electroosmotic flow: application to the rapid screening of 5S rRNA from ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chu; Liao, Ching-Ru; Chung, I-Che; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chang, Po-Ling

    2014-10-17

    RNA integrity is important in RNA studies because poor RNA quality may impact downstream methodologies. This study proposes a rapid and cost-effective method for the determination of RNA integrity based on CE-LIF in the presence of electroosmotic flow. The proposed method uses poly(ethylene) oxide (Mavg=4,000,000 Da) as a sieving matrix for total RNA separation. Ethidium bromide (μg mL(-1)) was dissolved in a polymer solution as an interchelating dye for on-column fluorescent labeling. The 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA from the total human RNA extracted from the cells were fully separated using the proposed method. The lowest detectable concentration of total RNA achieved was 100 pg μL(-1) with a 6 min sample injection followed by on-column concentration. In addition, the temperature-induced degradation of total RNA was observed by CE-LIF. The electropherograms revealed more fragmentation of 28S and 18S rRNAs by temperature-induced hydrolysis compared with the 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA. Therefore, the results indicated that RNA degradation should be considered for long-term, high-temperature incubations in RNA-related experiments involving RNA hybridization. The proposed method is furthermore, applied to the determination of 5S rRNA overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells as compared to the cervical cancer cells. Overall, CE-LIF is highly promising for rapid screening of ovarian cancers without tedious pre-amplification steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. FISH and AgNor mapping of the 45S and 5S rRNA genes in wild and cultivated species of Capsicum (Solananceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldaferro, Marisel A; da Cruz, M Victoria Romero; Cecchini, Nicolás M; Moscone, Eduardo A

    2016-02-01

    Chromosome number and position of rDNA were studied in 12 wild and cultivated species of the genus Capsicum with chromosome numbers x = 12 and x = 13 (22 samples). For the first time in these species, the 5S and 45S rRNA loci were localized and physically mapped using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and AgNOR banding. We focused on the comparison of the results obtained with both methods with the aim of accurately revealing the real functional rRNA genes. The analyzes were based on a previous work that reported that the 18S-5.8S-25S loci mostly coincide with GC-rich heterochromatic regions and likely have given rise to satellite DNAs, which are not active genes. These data show the variability of rDNA within karyotypes of the genus Capsicum, providing anchor points for (comparative) genetic maps. In addition, the obtained information might be useful for studies on evolution of repetitive DNA.

  1. SOT1, a pentatricopeptide repeat protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for correct processing of plastid 23S-4.5S rRNA precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjuan; Liu, Sheng; Ruwe, Hannes; Zhang, Delin; Melonek, Joanna; Zhu, Yajuan; Hu, Xupeng; Gusewski, Sandra; Yin, Ping; Small, Ian D; Howell, Katharine A; Huang, Jirong

    2016-03-01

    Ribosomal RNA processing is essential for plastid ribosome biogenesis, but is still poorly understood in higher plants. Here, we show that SUPPRESSOR OF THYLAKOID FORMATION1 (SOT1), a plastid-localized pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein with a small MutS-related domain, is required for maturation of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron. Loss of SOT1 function leads to slower chloroplast development, suppression of leaf variegation, and abnormal 23S and 4.5S processing. Predictions based on the PPR motif sequences identified the 5' end of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistronic precursor as a putative SOT1 binding site. This was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and by loss of the abundant small RNA 'footprint' associated with this site in sot1 mutants. We found that more than half of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistrons in sot1 mutants contain eroded and/or unprocessed 5' and 3' ends, and that the endonucleolytic cleavage product normally released from the 5' end of the precursor is absent in a sot1 null mutant. We postulate that SOT1 binding protects the 5' extremity of the 23S-4.5S rRNA dicistron from exonucleolytic attack, and favours formation of the RNA structure that allows endonucleolytic processing of its 5' and 3' ends. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pyrosequencing Using SL and 5S rRNA as Molecular Markers for Identifying Zoonotic Filarial Nematodes in Blood Samples and Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Intapan, Pewpan M; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-05-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is principally caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, and Brugia malayi. The other two filarial nematode species, Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis, possibly cause human zoonotic diseases. We propose the development of a PCR assay linked with DNA pyrosequencing as a rapid tool to identify W. bancrofti, B. malayi, B. pahangi, and D. immitis in blood samples and mosquitoes. Primers targeting the fragment of the 5S ribosomal RNA and spliced leader sequences were newly designed and developed to identify these four filarial nematodes. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Pyrosequencing determination of nucleotide variations within 36 nucleotides for B. malayi and B. pahangi, and 32 nucleotides for W. bancrofti and D. immitis is sufficient for differentiation of those filarial nematodes, and for detection of intraspecies genetic variation of B. malayi. This analysis could detect a single B. malayi, B. pahangi, W. bancrofti, and D. immitis microfilaria in blood samples. Overall, the PCR-linked pyrosequencing-based method was faster than direct sequencing and less expensive than real-time PCR or direct sequencing. This is the possibility of choice that can be applied in a high-throughput platform for identification and surveillance of reservoirs and vectors infected with lymphatic filaria in endemic areas.

  3. Familial dysautonomia (FD) patients have reduced levels of the modified wobble nucleoside mcm(5)s(2)U in tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsborn, Tony; Tükenmez, Hasan; Chen, Changchun; Byström, Anders S

    2014-11-21

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a recessive neurodegenerative genetic disease. FD is caused by a mutation in the IKBKAP gene resulting in a splicing defect and reduced levels of full length IKAP protein. IKAP homologues can be found in all eukaryotes and are part of a conserved six subunit protein complex, Elongator complex. Inactivation of any Elongator subunit gene in multicellular organisms cause a wide range of phenotypes, suggesting that Elongator has a pivotal role in several cellular processes. In yeast, there is convincing evidence that the main role of Elongator complex is in formation of modified wobble uridine nucleosides in tRNA and that their absence will influence translational efficiency. To date, no study has explored the possibility that FD patients display defects in formation of modified wobble uridine nucleosides as a consequence of reduced IKAP levels. In this study, we show that brain tissue and fibroblast cell lines from FD patients have reduced levels of the wobble uridine nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U). Our findings indicate that FD could be caused by inefficient translation due to lower levels of wobble uridine nucleosides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Down-regulation of 5S rRNA by miR-150 and miR-383 enhances c-Myc-rpL11 interaction and inhibits proliferation of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Ren, Yanli; Wang, Zhiqiong; Xiong, Xiangyu; Han, Sichong; Pan, Wenting; Chen, Hongwei; Zhou, Liqing; Zhou, Changchun; Yuan, Qipeng; Yang, Ming

    2015-12-21

    5S rRNA plays an important part in ribosome biology and is over-expression in multiple cancers. In this study, we found that 5S rRNA is a direct target of miR-150 and miR-383 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Overexpression of miR-150 and miR-383 inhibited ESCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, 5S rRNA silencing by miR-150 and miR-383 might intensify rpL11-c-Myc interaction, which attenuated role of c-Myc as an oncogenic transcriptional factor and dysregulation of multiple c-Myc target genes. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of miRNAs in ribosomal regulation during tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. How Mg(2+) ion and water network affect the stability and structure of non-Watson-Crick base pairs in E. coli loop E of 5S rRNA: a molecular dynamics and reference interaction site model (RISM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Sudhanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2017-08-01

    The non-Watson-Crick (non-WC) base pairs of Escherichia coli loop E of 5S rRNA are stabilized by Mg(2+) ions through water-mediated interaction. It is important to know the synergic role of Mg(2+) and the water network surrounding Mg(2+) in stabilizing the non-WC base pairs of RNA. For this purpose, free energy change of the system is calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as Mg(2+) is pulled from RNA, which causes disturbance of the water network. It was found that Mg(2+) remains hexahydrated unless it is close to or far from RNA. In the pentahydrated form, Mg(2+) interacts directly with RNA. Water network has been identified by two complimentary methods; MD followed by a density-based clustering algorithm and three-dimensional-reference interaction site model. These two methods gave similar results. Identification of water network around Mg(2+) and non-WC base pairs gives a clue to the strong effect of water network on the stability of this RNA. Based on sequence analysis of all Eubacteria 5s rRNA, we propose that hexahydrated Mg(2+) is an integral part of this RNA and geometry of base pairs surrounding it adjust to accommodate the [Formula: see text]. Overall the findings from this work can help in understanding the basis of the complex structure and stability of RNA with non-WC base pairs.

  6. Mapping of the 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the upper Paraná river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was undertaken in order to determinate the chromosomal distribution pattern of 18S and 5S ribosomal DNAs (rDNA in four populations of the characid fish Astyanax altiparanae from the upper Paraná river basin, Brazil. The 18S rDNA probe FISH revealed numerical and positional variations among specimens from the Keçaba stream compared to specimens of the other populations studied. In contrast to the variable 18S rDNA distribution pattern, highly stable chromosomal positioning of the 5S rDNA sites was observed in the four A. altiparanae populations. Divergence in the distribution pattern of 18S and 5S rDNA sites is also discussed.

  7. Activation of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in HeLa cells after poliovirus infection does not result in increased phosphorylation of eucaryotic initiation factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransone, L J; Dasgupta, A

    1987-01-01

    Protein kinase activity in general is stimulated at least 5- to 10-fold in ribosomal salt wash preparations from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells compared with those from mock-infected cells. The stimulation of kinase activity is manifested by increased phosphorylation of ribosome-associated polypeptides having approximate molecular weights of 135,000, 120,000, 85,000, 68,000, 65,000, 40,000, 28,000, 25,000, and 21,000. The Mr 68,000 phosphoprotein is structurally identical to the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (P1) which phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eucaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2). A similar protein of Mr 68,000 is more phosphorylated in poliovirus-infected cells than in mock-infected cells. Increased phosphorylation of P1 protein in poliovirus-infected cells, however, does not result in an increased phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of endogenous or exogenously added eIF-2, both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that a mechanism must exist in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells which prevents further phosphorylation of eIF-2 by the activated kinase. Images PMID:3033310

  8. Chromosomal mapping of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in eight species of Astyanax (Pisces, Characiformes) with different diploid numbers: syntenic conservation of repetitive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscor, Diovani; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2016-03-01

    The genus Astyanax is widely distributed from the southern United States to northern Patagonia, Argentina. While cytogenetic studies have been performed for this genus, little is known about the histone gene families. The aim of this study was to examine the chromosomal relationships among the different species of Astyanax. The chromosomal locations of the 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes were determined in A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, A. mexicanus (all 2n = 50), A. fasciatus (2n = 46), and A. schubarti (2n = 36). All eight species exhibited H3 histone clusters on two chromosome pairs. In six species (A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, and A. fasciatus), syntenic clusters of H3 histone and 5S rDNA were observed on metacentric (m) or submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. In seven species, clusters of 5S rDNA sequences were located on one or two chromosome pairs. In A. mexicanus, 5S rDNA clusters were located on four chromosome pairs. This study demonstrates that H3 histone clusters are conserved on two chromosome pairs in the genus Astyanax, and specific chromosomal features may contribute to the genomic organization of the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes.

  9. A novel human TPIP splice-variant (TPIP-C2 mRNA, expressed in human and mouse tissues, strongly inhibits cell growth in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmi Rekha Mishra

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of mRNAs is known to involve a major regulation of gene expression at RNA level in mammalian cells. The PTEN (Phosphatase and TENsin homologue deleted from the human chromosome 10, TPTE (Transmembrane Phosphatase with TEnsin homology and TPIP (TPTE and PTEN homologous Inositol lipid Phosphatase belong to a family of dual-specific lipid and protein phosphatases. PTEN is a well characterized tumor suppressor, which plays crucial role in cell survival, cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation as well as adhesion, motility and migration of cells. The C2-domain of PTEN is essential for PTEN-functions. We have isolated a novel 1019 bp human TPIP cDNA (TPIP-C2 from a human testis cDNA library. In silico analysis of the cDNA revealed that it is produced from the TPIP-locus on the human chromosome 13 by alternative RNA-splicing. It has a unique 5'-Alu sequence, a LINE sequence followed by a 582 bp Open Reading Frame (ORF encoding a 193 aa polypeptide with a partial phosphatase domain and a C2-domain. TPIP-C2 mRNA is expressed in human testis and in mouse tissues. Mouse testis and brain showed higher levels of TPIP-C2 mRNA in comparison to the heart, liver and kidney under normal physiological conditions. TPIP-C2 mRNAs from human and mouse testes show extensive sequence identity. Over-expression of TPIP-C2 cDNA in HeLa cells strongly (up to 85% inhibited cell growth/proliferation and caused apoptosis in a caspase 3-dependent manner. These findings suggest for the first time that a TPIP splice-variant mRNA with a partial phosphatase domain and a C2-domain is expressed in cells and tissues of human and murine origins under normal physiological conditions. Inhibition of cell growth/proliferation and induction of apoptosis by overexpression of TPIP-C2 mRNA in HeLa cells suggest that it may be involved in negative regulation of cell growth/proliferation.

  10. Rev1, Rev3, or Rev7 siRNA Abolishes Ultraviolet Light-Induced Translesion Replication in HeLa Cells: A Comprehensive Study Using Alkaline Sucrose Density Gradient Sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Jun; Ishimi, Yukio; Aiba, Naomi; Yamada, Kouichi

    2010-01-01

    When a replicative DNA polymerase stalls upon encountering a lesion on the template strand, it is relieved by other low-processivity polymerase(s), which insert nucleotide(s) opposite the lesion, extend by a few nucleotides, and dissociate from the 3′-OH. The replicative polymerase then resumes DNA synthesis. This process, termed translesion replication (TLS) or replicative bypass, may involve at least five different polymerases in mammals, although the participating polymerases and their roles have not been entirely characterized. Using siRNAs originally designed and an alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation technique, we verified the involvement of several polymerases in ultraviolet (UV) light-induced TLS in HeLa cells. First, siRNAs to Rev3 or Rev7 largely abolished UV-TLS, suggesting that these 2 gene products, which comprise Polζ, play a main role in mutagenic TLS. Second, Rev1-targeted siRNA also abrogated UV-TLS, indicating that Rev1 is also indispensable to mutagenic TLS. Third, Polη-targeted siRNA also prevented TLS to a greater extent than our expectations. Forth, although siRNA to Polι had no detectable effect, that to Polκ delayed UV-TLS. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting apparent evidence for the participation of Polκ in UV-TLS. PMID:21151666

  11. Rev1, Rev3, or Rev7 siRNA Abolishes Ultraviolet Light-Induced Translesion Replication in HeLa Cells: A Comprehensive Study Using Alkaline Sucrose Density Gradient Sedimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takezawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When a replicative DNA polymerase stalls upon encountering a lesion on the template strand, it is relieved by other low-processivity polymerase(s, which insert nucleotide(s opposite the lesion, extend by a few nucleotides, and dissociate from the 3′-OH. The replicative polymerase then resumes DNA synthesis. This process, termed translesion replication (TLS or replicative bypass, may involve at least five different polymerases in mammals, although the participating polymerases and their roles have not been entirely characterized. Using siRNAs originally designed and an alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation technique, we verified the involvement of several polymerases in ultraviolet (UV light-induced TLS in HeLa cells. First, siRNAs to Rev3 or Rev7 largely abolished UV-TLS, suggesting that these 2 gene products, which comprise Polζ, play a main role in mutagenic TLS. Second, Rev1-targeted siRNA also abrogated UV-TLS, indicating that Rev1 is also indispensable to mutagenic TLS. Third, Polη-targeted siRNA also prevented TLS to a greater extent than our expectations. Forth, although siRNA to Polι had no detectable effect, that to Polκ delayed UV-TLS. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting apparent evidence for the participation of Polκ in UV-TLS.

  12. Expression of 5 S rRNA genes linked to 35 S rDNA in plants, their epigenetic modification and regulatory element divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Sònia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, the 5 S rRNA genes usually occur as separate tandems (S-type arrangement or, less commonly, linked to 35 S rDNA units (L-type. The activity of linked genes remains unknown so far. We studied the homogeneity and expression of 5 S genes in several species from family Asteraceae known to contain linked 35 S-5 S units. Additionally, their methylation status was determined using bisulfite sequencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to reveal the sub-nuclear positions of rDNA arrays. Results We found that homogenization of L-type units went to completion in most (4/6 but not all species. Two species contained major L-type and minor S-type units (termed Ls-type. The linked genes dominate 5 S rDNA expression while the separate tandems do not seem to be expressed. Members of tribe Anthemideae evolved functional variants of the polymerase III promoter in which a residing C-box element differs from the canonical angiosperm motif by as much as 30%. On this basis, a more relaxed consensus sequence of a plant C-box: (5’-RGSWTGGGTG-3’ is proposed. The 5 S paralogs display heavy DNA methylation similarly as to their unlinked counterparts. FISH revealed the close association of 35 S-5 S arrays with nucleolar periphery indicating that transcription of 5 S genes may occur in this territory. Conclusions We show that the unusual linked arrangement of 5 S genes, occurring in several plant species, is fully compatible with their expression and functionality. This extraordinary 5 S gene dynamics is manifested at different levels, such as variation in intrachromosomal positions, unit structure, epigenetic modification and considerable divergence of regulatory motifs.

  13. 5SRNAdb: an information resource for 5S ribosomal RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Maciej; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Barciszewski, Jan; Erdmann, Volker A; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2016-01-04

    Ribosomal 5S RNA (5S rRNA) is the ubiquitous RNA component found in the large subunit of ribosomes in all known organisms. Due to its small size, abundance and evolutionary conservation 5S rRNA for many years now is used as a model molecule in studies on RNA structure, RNA-protein interactions and molecular phylogeny. 5SRNAdb (http://combio.pl/5srnadb/) is the first database that provides a high quality reference set of ribosomal 5S RNAs (5S rRNA) across three domains of life. Here, we give an overview of new developments in the database and associated web tools since 2002, including updates to database content, curation processes and user web interfaces. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Karyotype characterization of Crotalaria juncea (L. by chromosome banding and physical mapping of 18S-5.8S-26S and 5S rRNA gene sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Mondin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomes of Crotalaria juncea, a legume of agronomic interest with a 2n = 16 karyotype composed of metacentric chromosomes, were analyzed using several cytogenetic techniques. C-banding revealed heterochromatic regions around the centromeres in all chromosomes and adjacent to the secondary constriction on the chromosome 1 short arm. Fluorescent staining with the GC-specific chromomycin A3 (CMA highlighted these heterochromatic regions and a tiny site on the chromosome 1 long arm while the AT-specific stain 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI induced a reversed pattern. Staining with CMA combined with AT-specific distamycin A (DA counterstaining quenched the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes, but enhanced fluorescence was observed at the heterochromatic regions around the secondary constriction and on the long arms of chromosomes 1 and 4. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH revealed 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene sites (45S rDNA on chromosomes 1 and 4, and one 5S rDNA locus on chromosome 1. All the rDNA sites were co-located with the positive-CMA/DA bands, suggesting they were very rich in GC. Silver staining revealed signals at the main 45S rDNA locus on chromosome 1 and, in some cells, chromosome 4 was labeled. Two small nucleoli were detected in a few interphase cells, suggesting that the minor site on chromosome 4 could be active at some stages of the cell cycle.

  15. 5S IN QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCA GRATIELA DANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental principles of organization are customer satisfaction, eliminating waste, achieving a continuous flow in production and continuous improvement. The 5S method is a structured program for implementation the standardization and organization, simplifies the environment of the workplace (Gemba, reduce losses and unnecessary activities, and improve quality efficiency and safety. Keeping the workplace clean, providing a good working environment and promote productivity, reducing costs, ensure security and removes all types of losses. The case study present the 5S method as a tool which can be used efficiently to keep those things necessary for the proper conduct of the organization and the elimination of unless things.

  16. FOREWORD: HELAS II International Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizon, Laurent; Roth, Markus

    2008-07-01

    Volume 118 (2008) of Journal of Physics: Conference Series provides a written record of the talks and posters presented at the HELAS II International Conference `Helioseismology, Asteroseismology and MHD Connections'. The conference was held during the week 20-24 August 2007 in Göttingen, Germany, jointly hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Göttingen. A total of 140 scientists from all over the world attended. The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of Conny Aerts, Annie Baglin, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, Thierry Corbard, Jadwiga Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, Stefan Dreizler, Yvonne Elsworth, Laurent Gizon (Chairman), Wolfgang Glatzel, Frank Hill, Donald Kurtz, Oskar von der Lühe, Maria Pia Di Mauro, Mário Monteiro, Pere Pallé, Markus Roth, Philip Scherrer, Manfred Schüssler, and Michael Thompson. HELAS stands for the European Helio- and Asteroseismology Network, a Coordination Action supported by the sixth Framework Programme of the European Union. It aims to bring together researchers in the fields of solar and stellar oscillations. This volume consists of 91 articles organized into sections that reflect the scientific programme of the conference: 012001-07 Wave diagnostics in physics, geophysics and astrophysics 012008-09 Perspectives on helio- and asteroseismology 012010-17 Asteroseismology: Observations 012018-25 Asteroseismology: Theory 012026-32 Global helioseismology and solar models 012033-38 Local helioseismology and magnetic activity 012039-44 Future observational projects in helio- and asteroseismology 012045-91 Poster papers. The overwhelming majority of papers discuss the seismology of the Sun and stars. Papers in the first section provide a broader perspective on wave phenomena and techniques for probing other physical systems, from living beings to the universe as a whole. We were extremely fortunate to have particularly distinguished experts to cover these topics

  17. Evaluation of Borrelia real time PCR DNA targeting OspA, FlaB and 5S-23S IGS and Borrelia 16S rRNA RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Bertie H C G M; Maraha, Boulos; Hollemans, Leonie; Sprong, Hein; Brandenburg, Afke H; Westenend, Pieter J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi non-sensu lato (s.l.) strains occurred in the Netherlands. A multiplex OspA, FlaB, IGS real time PCR was compared to 16S rRNA/rDNA RT-qPCR with lower average Cycle threshold (Ct) and LOD on strain dilutions. Multiplexing increased sensitivity on CSF samples (n=74), distinguishing B. burgdorferi s.l. from non-s.l. strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The 5S ribosomal RNAs of Paracoccus denitrificans and Prochloron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. M.; Salgado, D.; Bonen, L.; Doolittle, W. F.; Stackebrandt, E.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNAs of Paracoccus denitrificans and Prochloron sp. are presented, along with the demonstrated phylogenetic relationships of P. denitrificans with purple nonsulfur bacteria, and of Prochloron with cyanobacteria. Structural findings include the following: (1) helix II in both models is much shorter than in other eubacteria, (2) a base-pair has been deleted from helix IV of P. denitrificans 5S, and (3) Prochloron 5S has the potential to form four base-pairs between residues. Also covered are the differences between pairs of sequences in P. denitrificans, Prochloron, wheat mitochondion, spinach chloroplast, and nine diverse eubacteria. Findings include the observation that Prochloron 5S rRNA is much more similar to the 5S of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans (25 percent difference) than either are to any of the other nine eubacterial 5S rRNAs.

  19. [Structural organization of 5S ribosomal DNA of Rosa rugosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkevych, Iu O; Volkov, R A

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify molecular organization of the genomic region encoding 5S rRNA in diploid species Rosa rugosa several 5S rDNA repeated units were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed that only one length variant of 5S rDNA repeated units, which contains intact promoter elements in the intergenic spacer region (IGS) and appears to be transcriptionally active is present in the genome. Additionally, a limited number of 5S rDNA pseudogenes lacking a portion of coding sequence and the complete IGS was detected. A high level of sequence similarity (from 93.7 to 97.5%) between the IGS of major 5S rDNA variants of East Asian R. rugosa and North American R. nitida was found indicating comparatively recent divergence of these species.

  20. Molecular cloning and in vitro transcription of rat 4.5S RNAH genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, F; Takeuchi, Y.; Kato, N

    1986-01-01

    4.5S RNAH (4.5S RNA associated with poly A containing RNA) has extensive homology to major interspersed repeat B1 in rodent genomes. We developed a new cloning technique for screening genomic library that eliminates the signal produced by repeated sequences or pseudogenes and applied it to cloning of 4.5S RNAH genes. Six phage clones (2, 3, 6, 9, 10 and 15) which hybridize with 4.5S RNAH were isolated from a rat gene library by this method. The restriction fragments containing the 4.5S RNAH l...

  1. Binding site of ribosomal proteins on prokaryotic 5S ribonucleic acids: a study with ribonucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A

    1982-01-01

    The binding sites of ribosomal proteins L18 and L25 on 5S RNA from Escherichia coli were probed with ribonucleases A, T1, and T2 and a double helix specific cobra venom endonuclease. The results for the protein-RNA complexes, which were compared with those for the free RNA [Douthwaite, S., & Garr......The binding sites of ribosomal proteins L18 and L25 on 5S RNA from Escherichia coli were probed with ribonucleases A, T1, and T2 and a double helix specific cobra venom endonuclease. The results for the protein-RNA complexes, which were compared with those for the free RNA [Douthwaite, S...

  2. 5S-menetelmän implementointi

    OpenAIRE

    Kaikula, Kari-Marko

    2017-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tavoiteltiin siisteyden ja järjestyksen tuomista 5S-menetelmän avulla Helen Oy:n kunnossapidon varaosavarastoon Salmisaaren voimalaitoksella. Helen Oy on Helsingin kaupungin omistama energia-alan yritys. Kehittämistehtävänä työssä oli 5S-menetelmän implementointi. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli tutkia niitä seikkoja, jotka vaikuttavat 5S-menetelmän käyttöönottoon. 5S on menetelmä, jolla tuodaan siisteyttä ja järjestystä työympäristöön. Tutkimusmenetelmänä oli toiminta...

  3. Subnanomolar antisense activity of phosphonate-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates delivered by cationic lipids to HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Hamzavi, Ramin; Nielsen, Peter E

    2008-01-01

    oligomer. This modification of the PNA does not interfere with the nucleic acid target binding affinity based on thermal stability of the PNA/RNA duplexes. When delivered to cultured HeLa pLuc705 cells by Lipofectamine, the PNAs showed dose-dependent nuclear antisense activity in the nanomolar range...

  4. Systematic analysis and evolution of 5S ribosomal DNA in metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierna, J; Wehner, S; Höner zu Siederdissen, C; Martínez-Lage, A; Marz, M

    2013-11-01

    Several studies on 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) have been focused on a subset of the following features in mostly one organism: number of copies, pseudogenes, secondary structure, promoter and terminator characteristics, genomic arrangements, types of non-transcribed spacers and evolution. In this work, we systematically analyzed 5S rDNA sequence diversity in available metazoan genomes, and showed organism-specific and evolutionary-conserved features. Putatively functional sequences (12,766) from 97 organisms allowed us to identify general features of this multigene family in animals. Interestingly, we show that each mammal species has a highly conserved (housekeeping) 5S rRNA type and many variable ones. The genomic organization of 5S rDNA is still under debate. Here, we report the occurrence of several paralog 5S rRNA sequences in 58 of the examined species, and a flexible genome organization of 5S rDNA in animals. We found heterogeneous 5S rDNA clusters in several species, supporting the hypothesis of an exchange of 5S rDNA from one locus to another. A rather high degree of variation of upstream, internal and downstream putative regulatory regions appears to characterize metazoan 5S rDNA. We systematically studied the internal promoters and described three different types of termination signals, as well as variable distances between the coding region and the typical termination signal. Finally, we present a statistical method for detection of linkage among noncoding RNA (ncRNA) gene families. This method showed no evolutionary-conserved linkage among 5S rDNAs and any other ncRNA genes within Metazoa, even though we found 5S rDNA to be linked to various ncRNAs in several clades.

  5. 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequences in Bacteroides and Fusobacterium: evolutionary relationships within these genera and among eubacteria in general

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Eynde, H.; De Baere, R.; Shah, H. N.; Gharbia, S. E.; Fox, G. E.; Michalik, J.; Van de Peer, Y.; De Wachter, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 5S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequences were determined for Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides capillosus, Bacteroides veroralis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Anaerorhabdus furcosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Fusobacterium mortiferum, and Fusobacterium varium. A dendrogram constructed by a clustering algorithm from these sequences, which were aligned with all other hitherto known eubacterial 5S rRNA sequences, showed differences as well as similarities with respect to results derived from 16S rRNA analyses. In the 5S rRNA dendrogram, Bacteroides clustered together with Cytophaga and Fusobacterium, as in 16S rRNA analyses. Intraphylum relationships deduced from 5S rRNAs suggested that Bacteroides is specifically related to Cytophaga rather than to Fusobacterium, as was suggested by 16S rRNA analyses. Previous taxonomic considerations concerning the genus Bacteroides, based on biochemical and physiological data, were confirmed by the 5S rRNA sequence analysis.

  6. 5S-menetelmän pilotointi

    OpenAIRE

    Lampela, Saara

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli siisteys- ja järjestystason parantaminen 5S-menetelmän avulla UPM Kaukaan paperitehtaalla. 5S on tuottavuuden parantamiseen keskittyvä lean-työkalu, jonka päätehtäväksi paperitehtaalla määritettiin erityisesti seisokkitilanteissa työvälineiden ja tavaroiden etsimiseen käytetyn ajan vähentäminen sekä työn yleinen jouhevoituminen. 5S-menetelmän nimi tulee japanin kielen sanoista Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu ja Shitsuke. Suomeksi vaiheet ovat lajittelu, järj...

  7. Presence of autoantibodies against HeLa small nuclear ribonucleoproteins in chagasic and non-chagasic cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Bosetto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We detected anti-human small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP autoantibodies in chagasic patients by different immunological methods using HeLa snRNPs. ELISA with Trypanosoma cruzi total lysate antigen or HeLa human U small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (UsnRNPs followed by incubation with sera from chronic chagasic and non-chagasic cardiac patients was used to screen and compare serum reactivity. Western blot analysis using a T. cruzi total cell extract was also performed in order to select some sera for Western blot and immunoprecipitation assays with HeLa nuclear extract. ELISA showed that 73 and 95% of chronic chagasic sera reacted with HeLa UsnRNPs and T. cruzi antigens, respectively. The Western blot assay demonstrated that non-chagasic cardiac sera reacted with high molecular weight proteins present in T. cruzi total extract, probably explaining the 31% reactivity found by ELISA. However, these sera reacted weakly with HeLa UsnRNPs, in contrast to the chagasic sera, which showed autoantibodies with human Sm (from Stefanie Smith, the first patient in whom this activity was identified proteins (B/B', D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G UsnRNP. Immunoprecipitation reactions using HeLa nuclear extracts confirmed the reactivity of chagasic sera and human UsnRNA/RNPs, while the other sera reacted weakly only with U1snRNP. These findings agree with previously reported data, thus supporting the idea of the presence of autoimmune antibodies in chagasic patients. Interestingly, non-chagasic cardiac sera also showed reactivity with T. cruzi antigen and HeLa UsnRNPs, which suggests that individuals with heart disease of unknown etiology may develop autoimmune antibodies at any time. The detection of UsnRNP autoantibodies in chagasic patients might contribute to our understanding of how they develop upon initial T. cruzi infection.

  8. Implementacija metode 5S v proces proizvodnje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Gorše

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Research Question (RQ: The following research tries to show how the introduction of 5S methodology of work affects the production process itself, where the greatest changes are shown and how they are reflected in performance indicators. Purpose: The purpose of this project is to examine the existing methods and their application in practice as well as show the logic of actions we introduce in a particular process by using the 5S method. We will try to compare all the information using a practical example of company X. The results obtained are the basis for further improvements in an analyzed company. Method: We expect positive results in terms of certain improvements in the working environment within the company, as well as the opportunity for improvement in terms of increased efficiency and, consequently, more profit. Results: The results can represent the basis for achieving eve n better work in other processes in the studied company. It is very important to identify all the key activities that are important in generating profits while all the rest are eliminated from the process. Organization: The 5S model is applicable to all levels of the organization so it can be experienced by the highest levels of management in running a business. Society: The impact of the model will surely be seen by employees as they are offered a model after which they will work well, quickly, safely and without loss of time, which in today's world means competitive advantage. Originality: The research work represents an important contribution to the implementation of the 5S model in the company and to the positive things it brings. Limitations/Future Research: The survey as a case study was done in only one organization, in which they were implemented all phases of the method. In the direction of further research it is reasonable to make a quantitative analysis of the increase in profit, increase employee satisfaction analysis, to determine the reduction

  9. Preliminary Observations Pertaining to Polyadenylation of Rhinovirus RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, C. N.; Owens, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Human rhinovirus type 14 contained polyadenylated RNA. Virus growth in HeLa cells was inhibited by cordycepin or polyuridilic acid and stimulated by polyadenylic acid. Polyadenylic acid also reversed cordycepin inhibition of virus-induced cytopathology of infected HeLa cells. PMID:4359303

  10. Investigation of role of aspartame on apoptosis process in HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuraman Pandurangan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. The study reports that consumption of aspartame containing product could lead to cancer. However, the effect of aspartame on apoptosis process in cancer is not yet understood clearly. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations (0.01–0.05 mg/ml of aspartame for 48 h. Cytotoxicity of aspartame on cancer cells was determined by SRB assay. The result indicates no significant changes on cell viability. Aspartame suppresses apoptosis process in cancer cells by down-regulation of mRNA expression of tumor suppressor gene p53, and pro-apoptotic gene bax. It up-regulates anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 mRNA expression. In addition, Ki 67 and PCNA mRNA, and protein expressions were determined. Taking all these together, we conclude that aspartame may be a potent substance to slow-down the apoptosis process in HeLa cells. Further works are ongoing to understand the biochemical and molecular mechanism of aspartame in cancer cells.

  11. Origins of the plant chloroplasts and mitochondria based on comparisons of 5S ribosomal RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delihas, N.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, we provide macromolecular comparisons utilizing the 5S ribosomal RNA structure to suggest extant bacteria that are the likely descendants of chloroplast and mitochondria endosymbionts. The genetic stability and near universality of the 5S ribosomal gene allows for a useful means to study ancient evolutionary changes by macromolecular comparisons. The value in current and future ribosomal RNA comparisons is in fine tuning the assignment of ancestors to the organelles and in establishing extant species likely to be descendants of bacteria involved in presumed multiple endosymbiotic events.

  12. Usefulness of HeLa cells to evaluate inverse agonistic activity of antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shohei; Hattori, Masashi; Sasaki, Yohei; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    Antihistamines are thought to antagonize histamine and prevent it from binding to the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). However, recent studies indicate that antihistamines are classified into two groups, i.e., inverse agonists and neutral antagonists on the basis of their ability to down-regulate the constitutive activity of H1R. As H1R is an allergy-sensitive gene whose expression influences the severity of allergic symptoms, inverse agonists should more potently alleviate allergic symptoms than neutral antagonists by inhibiting H1R constitutive activity. Therefore, it is important to assess inverse agonistic activity of antihistamines. Here we report a novel assay method using HeLa cells expressing H1R endogenously for evaluation of inverse agonistic activity of antihistamines. Pretreatment with inverse agonists down-regulated H1R gene expression below to its basal level. On the other hand, basal H1R mRNA expression was unchanged by neutral antagonist pretreatment. Both inverse agonists and neutral antagonists suppressed histamine-induced H1R mRNA elevation. Classification of antihistamines on the basis of their suppressive activity of basal H1R gene expression was consistent with that of inositol phosphate accumulation in H1R-overexpressed cells. Our data suggest that the assay method using HeLa cells is more convenient and useful than the existing methods and may contribute to develop new antihistamines with inverse agonistic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Widespread occurrence of organelle genome-encoded 5S rRNAs including permuted molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, Matus; Burger, Gertraud; Gray, Michael W; Lang, B Franz

    2014-12-16

    5S Ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) is a universal component of ribosomes, and the corresponding gene is easily identified in archaeal, bacterial and nuclear genome sequences. However, organelle gene homologs (rrn5) appear to be absent from most mitochondrial and several chloroplast genomes. Here, we re-examine the distribution of organelle rrn5 by building mitochondrion- and plastid-specific covariance models (CMs) with which we screened organelle genome sequences. We not only recover all organelle rrn5 genes annotated in GenBank records, but also identify more than 50 previously unrecognized homologs in mitochondrial genomes of various stramenopiles, red algae, cryptomonads, malawimonads and apusozoans, and surprisingly, in the apicoplast (highly derived plastid) genomes of the coccidian pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria tenella. Comparative modeling of RNA secondary structure reveals that mitochondrial 5S rRNAs from brown algae adopt a permuted triskelion shape that has not been seen elsewhere. Expression of the newly predicted rrn5 genes is confirmed experimentally in 10 instances, based on our own and published RNA-Seq data. This study establishes that particularly mitochondrial 5S rRNA has a much broader taxonomic distribution and a much larger structural variability than previously thought. The newly developed CMs will be made available via the Rfam database and the MFannot organelle genome annotator. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Human Papillomavirus E6 Knockdown Restores Adenovirus Mediated-estrogen Response Element Linked p53 Gene Transfer in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, Koji; Honda, Ken-Ichi; Terada, Hiroyuki; Yasui, Tomoyo; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Masayasu; Ishiko, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    The p53 gene is inactivated by the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 protein in the majority of cervical cancers. Treatment of HeLa S3 cells with siRNA for HPV E6 permitted adenovirus-mediated transduction of a p53 gene linked to an upstream estrogen response element (ERE). Our previous study in non-siRNA treated HHUA cells, which are derived from an endometrial cancer and express estrogen receptor β, showed enhancing effects of an upstream ERE on adenovirus-mediated p53 gene transduction. In HeLa S3 cells treated with siRNA for HPV E6, adenovirus-mediated transduction was enhanced by an upstream ERE linked to a p53 gene carrying a proline variant at codon 72, but not for a p53 gene with arginine variant at codon 72. Expression levels of p53 mRNA and Coxsackie/adenovirus receptor (CAR) mRNA after adenovirus-mediated transfer of an ERE-linked p53 gene (proline variant at codon 72) were higher compared with those after non-ERE-linked p53 gene transfer in siRNA-treated HeLa S3 cells. Western blot analysis showed lower β-tubulin levels and comparatively higher p53/β-tubulin or CAR /β-tubulin ratios in siRNA-treated HeLa S3 cells after adenovirus-mediated ERE-linked p53 gene (proline variant at codon 72) transfer compared with those in non-siRNA-treated cells. Apoptosis, as measured by annexin V binding, was higher after adenovirus-mediated ERE-linked p53 gene (proline variant at codon 72) transfer compared with that after non-ERE-linked p53 gene transfer in siRNA-treated cells.

  15. Fragile sites, dysfunctional telomere and chromosome fusions: What is 5S rDNA role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alain Victor; Wolski, Michele Andressa Vier; Nogaroto, Viviane; Almeida, Mara Cristina; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

    2017-04-15

    Repetitive DNA regions are known as fragile chromosomal sites which present a high flexibility and low stability. Our focus was characterize fragile sites in 5S rDNA regions. The Ancistrus sp. species shows a diploid number of 50 and an indicative Robertsonian fusion at chromosomal pair 1. Two sequences of 5S rDNA were identified: 5S.1 rDNA and 5S.2 rDNA. The first sequence gathers the necessary structures to gene expression and shows a functional secondary structure prediction. Otherwise, the 5S.2 rDNA sequence does not contain the upstream sequences that are required to expression, furthermore its structure prediction reveals a nonfunctional ribosomal RNA. The chromosomal mapping revealed several 5S.1 and 5S.2 rDNA clusters. In addition, the 5S.2 rDNA clusters were found in acrocentric and metacentric chromosomes proximal regions. The pair 1 5S.2 rDNA cluster is co-located with interstitial telomeric sites (ITS). Our results indicate that its clusters are hotspots to chromosomal breaks. During the meiotic prophase bouquet arrangement, double strand breaks (DSBs) at proximal 5S.2 rDNA of acrocentric chromosomes could lead to homologous and non-homologous repair mechanisms as Robertsonian fusions. Still, ITS sites provides chromosomal instability, resulting in telomeric recombination via TRF2 shelterin protein and a series of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Our proposal is that 5S rDNA derived sequences, act as chromosomal fragile sites in association with some chromosomal rearrangements of Loricariidae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Autophagy Facilitates Salmonella Replication in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong B.; Croxen, Matthew A.; Marchiando, Amanda M.; Ferreira, Rosana B. R.; Cadwell, Ken; Foster, Leonard J.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a process whereby a double-membrane structure (autophagosome) engulfs unnecessary cytosolic proteins, organelles, and invading pathogens and delivers them to the lysosome for degradation. We examined the fate of cytosolic Salmonella targeted by autophagy and found that autophagy-targeted Salmonella present in the cytosol of HeLa cells correlates with intracellular bacterial replication. Real-time analyses revealed that a subset of cytosolic Salmonella extensively associates with autophagy components p62 and/or LC3 and replicates quickly, whereas intravacuolar Salmonella shows no or very limited association with p62 or LC3 and replicates much more slowly. Replication of cytosolic Salmonella in HeLa cells is significantly decreased when autophagy components are depleted. Eventually, hyperreplication of cytosolic Salmonella potentiates cell detachment, facilitating the dissemination of Salmonella to neighboring cells. We propose that Salmonella benefits from autophagy for its cytosolic replication in HeLa cells. PMID:24618251

  17. Binding site of ribosomal proteins on prokaryotic 5S ribonucleic acids: a study with ribonucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A

    1982-01-01

    The binding sites of ribosomal proteins L18 and L25 on 5S RNA from Escherichia coli were probed with ribonucleases A, T1, and T2 and a double helix specific cobra venom endonuclease. The results for the protein-RNA complexes, which were compared with those for the free RNA [Douthwaite, S......., & Garrett, R. A. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 7301--7307], reveal an extensive interaction site for protein L18 and a more localized one for L25. Generally comparable results, with a few important differences, were obtained in a study of the binding sites of the two E. coli proteins on Bacillus...

  18. Molecular changes to HeLa cells on continuous exposure to SN-38, an active metabolite of irinotecan hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kohji; Kitada, Noriaki; Yoshikawa, Eri; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Horibe, Sayo; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Nishiguchi, Kohshi; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi

    2009-06-08

    It is important to clarify the molecular characteristics of tumor cells showing multidrug resistance (MDR) and to identify the novel targets or biomarkers for chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to establish resistant HeLa sublines through exposure to SN-38, an active metabolite of irinotecan hydrochloride, and to investigate their molecular changes. HeLa cells were exposed to SN-38 at 1, 10, or 100 nM, and resistant clones were isolated and named HeLa/SN1, HeLa/SN10, and HeLa/SN100, respectively. Their cellular changes were examined based on growth inhibition assays, the function of ABCG2/BCRP, and a RT-PCR analysis of MDR-related protein. The sublines showed a decrease in sensitivity to not only SN-38 but also other chemotherapeutic agents as compared with HeLa cells. mRNA and protein levels of ABCG2/BCRP were increased, and the transport activity of ABCG2/BCRP was enhanced, in the resistant cells. In addition, the expression levels of ABCC1/MRP1, ABCC3/MRP3, and ABCC5/MRP5 were higher than in HeLa cells. The mRNA levels of GGT1 encoding a gamma-glutamyl transferase, but not GCS encoding a gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, were also higher. Other factors examined, i.e., topoisomerase, SLCO1B1, and apoptosis-regulating factors, were comparable among the cells. The overexpression of ABCG2/BCRP was involved in the mechanism of resistance in SN-38-tolerant cells, and ABCC1/MRP1, ABCC3/MRP3, ABCC5/MRP5, and GGT1 may also have participated.

  19. Essential Assembly Factor Rpf2 Forms Novel Interactions within the 5S RNP in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamina, Anyango D; Jaremko, Daniel; Christen, Linda; Williams, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a highly complex and conserved cellular process that is responsible for making ribosomes. During this process, there are several assembly steps that function as regulators to ensure proper ribosome formation. One of these steps is the assembly of the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (5S RNP) in the central protuberance of the 60S ribosomal subunit. In eukaryotes, the 5S RNP is composed of 5S rRNA, ribosomal proteins L5 and L11, and assembly factors Rpf2 and Rrs1. Our laboratory previously showed that in Trypanosoma brucei, the 5S RNP is composed of 5S rRNA, L5, and trypanosome-specific RNA binding proteins P34 and P37. In this study, we characterize an additional component of the 5S RNP, the T. brucei homolog of Rpf2. This is the first study to functionally characterize interactions mediated by Rpf2 in an organism other than fungi. T. brucei Rpf2 (TbRpf2) was identified from tandem affinity purification using extracts prepared from protein A-tobacco etch virus (TEV)-protein C (PTP)-tagged L5, P34, and P37 cell lines, followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We characterized the binding interactions between TbRpf2 and the previously characterized members of the T. brucei 5S RNP. Our studies show that TbRpf2 mediates conserved binding interactions with 5S rRNA and L5 and that TbRpf2 also interacts with trypanosome-specific proteins P34 and P37. We performed RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of TbRpf2 and showed that this protein is essential for the survival of the parasites and is critical for proper ribosome formation. These studies provide new insights into a critical checkpoint in the ribosome biogenesis pathway in T. brucei. IMPORTANCETrypanosoma brucei is the parasitic protozoan that causes African sleeping sickness. Ribosome assembly is essential for the survival of this parasite through the different host environments it encounters during its life cycle. The assembly of the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (5S RNP) functions as one of the

  20. Photodynamic Effects of Pterin on HeLa Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denofrio, M. Paula; Lorente, Carolina; Breitenbach, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    cells (HeLa) and that these cells die upon UV-A irradiation of Ptr. Cell death was assessed using two tests: (1) the Rhodamine 123 fluorescence assay for mitochondrial viability and (2) the Trypan Blue assay for membrane integrity. The data suggest that, for Ptr-dependent photoinitiated cell death...

  1. Making safety an integral part of 5S in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuma, Laura H; Nahmens, Isabelina

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare faces major challenges with provider safety and rising costs, and many organizations are using Lean to instigate change. One Lean tool, 5S, is becoming popular for improving efficiency of physical work environments, and it can also improve safety. This paper demonstrates that safety is an integral part of 5S by examining five specific 5S events in acute care facilities. We provide two arguments for how safety is linked to 5S:1. Safety is affected by 5S events, regardless of whether safety is a specific goal and 2. Safety can and should permeate all five S's as part of a comprehensive plan for system improvement. Reports of 5S events from five departments in one health system were used to evaluate how changes made at each step of the 5S impacted safety. Safety was affected positively in each step of the 5S through initial safety goals and side effects of other changes. The case studies show that 5S can be a mechanism for improving safety. Practitioners may reap additional safety benefits by incorporating safety into 5S events through a safety analysis before the 5S, safety goals and considerations during the 5S, and follow-up safety analysis.

  2. Nuclear proteome analysis of cisplatin-treated HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Wei [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Institute of Hygiene, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310013 (China); Yan Chunlan; Gan Tieer; Chen Zhanghui [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Lu Xianghong [Department of Pharmacy, Lishui People' s Hospital, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000 (China); Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J. [Department of Basic Sciences, Division of Biochemistry, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Zhu Xinqiang, E-mail: zhuxq@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Yang Jun, E-mail: gastate@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2010-09-10

    Cisplatin has been widely accepted as one of the most efficient anticancer drugs for decades. However, the mechanisms for the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin are still not fully understood. Cisplatin primarily targets DNA, resulting in the formation of DNA double strand breaks and eventually causing cell death. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS/MS to analyze the nuclear proteome of HeLa cells treated with cisplatin, in an effort to uncover new mechanistic clues regarding the cellular response to cisplatin. A total of 19 proteins were successfully identified, and these proteins are involved in a variety of basal metabolic and biological processes in cells, including biosynthesis, cell cycle, glycolysis and apoptosis. Six were related to the regulation of mRNA splicing, and we therefore asked whether the Fas gene might undergo alternative splicing following cisplatin treatment. This proved to be the case, as the splicing forms of Fas were modified in cisplatin-treated HeLa cells. This work provides novel information, from the perspective of the nuclear response, for understanding the cytotoxicity caused by cisplatin-induced DNA damage.

  3. A systems biology analysis of the changes in gene expression via silencing of HPV-18 E1 expression in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Andres; Wang, Lu; Koriyama, Chihaya; Eizuru, Yoshito; Jordan, King; Akiba, Suminori

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have reported the detection of a truncated E1 mRNA generated from HPV-18 in HeLa cells. Although it is unclear whether a truncated E1 protein could function as a replicative helicase for viral replication, it would still retain binding sites for potential interactions with different host cell proteins. Furthermore, in this study, we found evidence in support of expression of full-length HPV-18 E1 mRNA in HeLa cells. To determine whether interactions between E1 and cellular proteins play an important role in cellular processes other than viral replication, genome-wide expression profiles of HPV-18 positive HeLa cells were compared before and after the siRNA knockdown of E1 expression. Differential expression and gene set enrichment analysis uncovered four functionally related sets of genes implicated in host defence mechanisms against viral infection. These included the toll-like receptor, interferon and apoptosis pathways, along with the antiviral interferon-stimulated gene set. In addition, we found that the transcriptional coactivator E1A-binding protein p300 (EP300) was downregulated, which is interesting given that EP300 is thought to be required for the transcription of HPV-18 genes in HeLa cells. The observed changes in gene expression produced via the silencing of HPV-18 E1 expression in HeLa cells indicate that in addition to its well-known role in viral replication, the E1 protein may also play an important role in mitigating the host's ability to defend against viral infection.

  4. Reovirus type 3 synthesizes proteins in interferon-treated HeLa cells without reversing the antiviral state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Esteban, M; Carrasco, L

    1988-06-01

    Treatment of HeLa cells with human lymphoblastoid interferon (IFN-alpha) does not inhibit reovirus type 3 protein synthesis during virus infection. In contrast, reovirus translation is blocked by treatment of L cells with mouse IFN-alpha. The (2'-5')A synthetase activity is induced in HeLa cells by IFN-alpha treatment and is activated after reovirus infection, since cell lysates from these cells synthesize in vitro (2'-5')A oligonucleotides. The IFN-induced protein kinase activity is also triggered in those lysates upon dsRNA addition. Thus, contrary to DNA-containing viruses, such as vaccinia virus or adenovirus, reovirus infection does not destroy or reverse the IFN-induced antiviral state. In support of this conclusion, superinfection with poliovirus or vesicular stomatitis virus of reovirus-infected HeLa cells treated with IFN leads only to a blockade of translation of the former viruses. These results provide a remarkable example where in the same cells doubly infected with two different viruses, the antiviral state induced by IFN-alpha is manifested by selectively inhibiting translation of one kind of virus (poliovirus or vesicular stomatitis virus) without affecting the translation of reovirus type 3. In addition, these results indicate that the resistance of reovirus translation to inhibition by IFN is different from the mechanism of resistance induced by DNA-containing viruses.

  5. The 5S RNP couples p53 homeostasis to ribosome biogenesis and nucleolar stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Katherine E; Bohnsack, Markus T; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2013-10-17

    Several proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the production of ribosomes. Ribosome biogenesis is a major consumer of cellular energy, and defects result in p53 activation via repression of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) homolog by the ribosomal proteins RPL5 and RPL11. Here, we report that RPL5 and RPL11 regulate p53 from the context of a ribosomal subcomplex, the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). We provide evidence that the third component of this complex, the 5S rRNA, is critical for p53 regulation. In addition, we show that the 5S RNP is essential for the activation of p53 by p14(ARF), a protein that is activated by oncogene overexpression. Our data show that the abundance of the 5S RNP, and therefore p53 levels, is determined by factors regulating 5S complex formation and ribosome integration, including the tumor suppressor PICT1. The 5S RNP therefore emerges as the critical coordinator of signaling pathways that couple cell proliferation with ribosome production. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular organization of the 5S rDNA gene type II in elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sergio I; Hleap, Jose S; Cárdenas, Heiber; Blouin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 5S rDNA gene is a non-coding RNA that can be found in 2 copies (type I and type II) in bony and cartilaginous fish. Previous studies have pointed out that type II gene is a paralog derived from type I. We analyzed the molecular organization of 5S rDNA type II in elasmobranchs. Although the structure of the 5S rDNA is supposed to be highly conserved, our results show that the secondary structure in this group possesses some variability and is different than the consensus secondary structure. One of these differences in Selachii is an internal loop at nucleotides 7 and 112. These mutations observed in the transcribed region suggest an independent origin of the gene among Batoids and Selachii. All promoters were highly conserved with the exception of BoxA, possibly due to its affinity to polymerase III. This latter enzyme recognizes a dT4 sequence as stop signal, however in Rajiformes this signal was doubled in length to dT8. This could be an adaptation toward a higher efficiency in the termination process. Our results suggest that there is no TATA box in elasmobranchs in the NTS region. We also provide some evidence suggesting that the complexity of the microsatellites present in the NTS region play an important role in the 5S rRNA gene since it is significantly correlated with the length of the NTS.

  7. Perturbation of ribosome biogenesis drives cells into senescence through 5S RNP-mediated p53 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kazuho; Kumazawa, Takuya; Kuroda, Takao; Katagiri, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Mai; Goto, Natsuka; Furumai, Ryohei; Murayama, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Junn; Kimura, Keiji

    2015-03-03

    The 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) complex, consisting of RPL11, RPL5, and 5S rRNA, is implicated in p53 regulation under ribotoxic stress. Here, we show that the 5S RNP contributes to p53 activation and promotes cellular senescence in response to oncogenic or replicative stress. Oncogenic stress accelerates rRNA transcription and replicative stress delays rRNA processing, resulting in RPL11 and RPL5 accumulation in the ribosome-free fraction, where they bind MDM2. Experimental upregulation of rRNA transcription or downregulation of rRNA processing, mimicking the nucleolus under oncogenic or replicative stress, respectively, also induces RPL11-mediated p53 activation and cellular senescence. We demonstrate that exogenous expression of certain rRNA-processing factors rescues the processing defect, attenuates p53 accumulation, and increases replicative lifespan. To summarize, the nucleolar-5S RNP-p53 pathway functions as a senescence inducer in response to oncogenic and replicative stresses. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Perturbation of Ribosome Biogenesis Drives Cells into Senescence through 5S RNP-Mediated p53 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Nishimura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP complex, consisting of RPL11, RPL5, and 5S rRNA, is implicated in p53 regulation under ribotoxic stress. Here, we show that the 5S RNP contributes to p53 activation and promotes cellular senescence in response to oncogenic or replicative stress. Oncogenic stress accelerates rRNA transcription and replicative stress delays rRNA processing, resulting in RPL11 and RPL5 accumulation in the ribosome-free fraction, where they bind MDM2. Experimental upregulation of rRNA transcription or downregulation of rRNA processing, mimicking the nucleolus under oncogenic or replicative stress, respectively, also induces RPL11-mediated p53 activation and cellular senescence. We demonstrate that exogenous expression of certain rRNA-processing factors rescues the processing defect, attenuates p53 accumulation, and increases replicative lifespan. To summarize, the nucleolar-5S RNP-p53 pathway functions as a senescence inducer in response to oncogenic and replicative stresses.

  9. Secondary structure and domain architecture of the 23S and 5S rRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Anton S.; Bernier, Chad R.; Hershkovits, Eli; Xue, Yuzhen; Waterbury, Chris C.; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Stepanov, Victor G.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Grover, Martha A.; Harvey, Stephen C.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Wartell, Roger M.; Fox, George E.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2013-01-01

    We present a de novo re-determination of the secondary (2°) structure and domain architecture of the 23S and 5S rRNAs, using 3D structures, determined by X-ray diffraction, as input. In the traditional 2° structure, the center of the 23S rRNA is an extended single strand, which in 3D is seen to be compact and double helical. Accurately assigning nucleotides to helices compels a revision of the 23S rRNA 2° structure. Unlike the traditional 2° structure, the revised 2° structure of the 23S rRNA shows architectural similarity with the 16S rRNA. The revised 2° structure also reveals a clear relationship with the 3D structure and is generalizable to rRNAs of other species from all three domains of life. The 2° structure revision required us to reconsider the domain architecture. We partitioned the 23S rRNA into domains through analysis of molecular interactions, calculations of 2D folding propensities and compactness. The best domain model for the 23S rRNA contains seven domains, not six as previously ascribed. Domain 0 forms the core of the 23S rRNA, to which the other six domains are rooted. Editable 2° structures mapped with various data are provided (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RibosomeGallery). PMID:23771137

  10. Secondary structure and domain architecture of the 23S and 5S rRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Anton S; Bernier, Chad R; Hershkovits, Eli; Xue, Yuzhen; Waterbury, Chris C; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Stepanov, Victor G; Gaucher, Eric A; Grover, Martha A; Harvey, Stephen C; Hud, Nicholas V; Wartell, Roger M; Fox, George E; Williams, Loren Dean

    2013-08-01

    We present a de novo re-determination of the secondary (2°) structure and domain architecture of the 23S and 5S rRNAs, using 3D structures, determined by X-ray diffraction, as input. In the traditional 2° structure, the center of the 23S rRNA is an extended single strand, which in 3D is seen to be compact and double helical. Accurately assigning nucleotides to helices compels a revision of the 23S rRNA 2° structure. Unlike the traditional 2° structure, the revised 2° structure of the 23S rRNA shows architectural similarity with the 16S rRNA. The revised 2° structure also reveals a clear relationship with the 3D structure and is generalizable to rRNAs of other species from all three domains of life. The 2° structure revision required us to reconsider the domain architecture. We partitioned the 23S rRNA into domains through analysis of molecular interactions, calculations of 2D folding propensities and compactness. The best domain model for the 23S rRNA contains seven domains, not six as previously ascribed. Domain 0 forms the core of the 23S rRNA, to which the other six domains are rooted. Editable 2° structures mapped with various data are provided (http://apollo.chemistry.gatech.edu/RibosomeGallery).

  11. Length and sequence heterogeneity in 5S rDNA of Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Madan S; Rajagopal, Jyothi; Chauhan, Neeti; Cronn, Richard; Lakshmikumaran, Malathi

    2002-12-01

    The 5S rRNA genes and their associated non-transcribed spacer (NTS) regions are present as repeat units arranged in tandem arrays in plant genomes. Length heterogeneity in 5S rDNA repeats was previously identified in Populus deltoides and was also observed in the present study. Primers were designed to amplify the 5S rDNA NTS variants from the P. deltoides genome. The PCR-amplified products from the two accessions of P. deltoides (G3 and G48) suggested the presence of length heterogeneity of 5S rDNA units within and among accessions, and the size of the spacers ranged from 385 to 434 bp. Sequence analysis of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) revealed two distinct classes of 5S rDNA within both accessions: class 1, which contained GAA trinucleotide microsatellite repeats, and class 2, which lacked the repeats. The class 1 spacer shows length variation owing to the microsatellite, with two clones exhibiting 10 GAA repeat units and one clone exhibiting 16 such repeat units. However, distance analysis shows that class 1 spacer sequences are highly similar inter se, yielding nucleotide diversity (pi) estimates that are less than 0.15% of those obtained for class 2 spacers (pi = 0.0183 vs. 0.1433, respectively). The presence of microsatellite in the NTS region leading to variation in spacer length is reported and discussed for the first time in P. deltoides.

  12. Avaliacao do Programa 5 "s" em uma instituicao de ensino

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torquato, Sebastiao, Jr; Duarte de Araujo, Maria Arlete

    2008-01-01

    O artigo objetiva avaliar as contribuicoes do Programa 5 "s" (cinco sensos) para o desenvolvimento de habitos e atitudes adequados pelos alunos do ensino medio do Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio Grande do Norte (CEFET-RN...

  13. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  14. Quantitative Proteomic and Interaction Network Analysis of Cisplatin Resistance in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Juan D.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Weisbrod, Chad R.; Takara, Kohji; Bruce, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Cisplatin along with other platinum based drugs are some of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents. However drug resistance is a major problem for the successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Current evidence suggests that drug resistance is a multifactorial problem due to changes in the expression levels and activity of a wide number of proteins. A majority of the studies to date have quantified mRNA levels between drug resistant and drug sensitive cell lines. Unfortunately mRNA levels do not always correlate with protein expression levels due to post-transcriptional changes in protein abundance. Therefore global quantitative proteomics screens are needed to identify the protein targets that are differentially expressed in drug resistant cell lines. Here we employ a quantitative proteomics technique using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify changes in protein levels between cisplatin resistant (HeLa/CDDP) and sensitive HeLa cells in an unbiased fashion. A total of 856 proteins were identified and quantified, with 374 displaying significantly altered expression levels between the cell lines. Expression level data was then integrated with a network of protein-protein interactions, and biological pathways to obtain a systems level view of proteome changes which occur with cisplatin resistance. Several of these proteins have been previously implicated in resistance towards platinum-based and other drugs, while many represent new potential markers or therapeutic targets. PMID:21637840

  15. Quantitative proteomic and interaction network analysis of cisplatin resistance in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Chavez

    Full Text Available Cisplatin along with other platinum based drugs are some of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents. However drug resistance is a major problem for the successful chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. Current evidence suggests that drug resistance is a multifactorial problem due to changes in the expression levels and activity of a wide number of proteins. A majority of the studies to date have quantified mRNA levels between drug resistant and drug sensitive cell lines. Unfortunately mRNA levels do not always correlate with protein expression levels due to post-transcriptional changes in protein abundance. Therefore global quantitative proteomics screens are needed to identify the protein targets that are differentially expressed in drug resistant cell lines. Here we employ a quantitative proteomics technique using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify changes in protein levels between cisplatin resistant (HeLa/CDDP and sensitive HeLa cells in an unbiased fashion. A total of 856 proteins were identified and quantified, with 374 displaying significantly altered expression levels between the cell lines. Expression level data was then integrated with a network of protein-protein interactions, and biological pathways to obtain a systems level view of proteome changes which occur with cisplatin resistance. Several of these proteins have been previously implicated in resistance towards platinum-based and other drugs, while many represent new potential markers or therapeutic targets.

  16. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon-Sulfur Chains: II. C_5S and SC_5S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwirth, Sven; Salomon, Thomas; Dudek, John B.

    2016-06-01

    Unbiased high-resolution infrared survey scans of the ablation products from carbon-sulfur targets in the 2100 to 2150 cm-1 regime reveal two bands previously not observed in the gas phase. On the basis of comparison against laboratory matrix-isolation work and new high-level quantum-chemical calculations these bands are attributed to the linear C_5S and SC_5S clusters. While polar C_5S was studied earlier using Fourier-transform microwave techniques, the present work marks the first gas-phase spectroscopic detection of SC_5S. H. Wang, J. Szczepanski, P. Brucat, and M. Vala 2005, Int. J. Quant. Chem. 102, 795 Y. Kasai, K. Obi, Y. Ohshima, Y. Hirahara, Y. Endo, K. Kawaguchi, and A. Murakami 1993, ApJ 410, L45 V. D. Gordon, M. C. McCarthy, A. J. Apponi, and P. Thaddeus 2001, ApJS 134, 311

  17. Human cytosolic thymidine kinase: purification and physical characterization of the enzyme from HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherley, J.L.; Kelly, T.J.

    1988-01-05

    The mammalian cytosolic thymidine kinase is one of a number of enzymes involved in DNA replication whose activities increase dramatically during S phase of the cell cycle. As a first step in defining the mechanisms that control the S phase induction of thymidine kinase activity, the authors have purified the human enzyme from HeLa cells and raised a specific immune serum against the purified protein. The enzyme was isolated from cells arrested in S phase by treatment with methotrexate and purified to near homogeneity by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. Stabilization of the purified enzyme was achieved by the addition of digitonin. An electrophoretic R/sub m/ of 0.2 in nondenaturing gels characterizes the purified enzyme activity as cytosolic thymidine kinase. The enzyme has a Stoke's radius of 40 A determined by gel filtration and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.5 S determined by glycerol gradient sedimentation. Based on these hydrodynamic values, a native molecular weight of 96,000 was calculated for the purified enzyme. When electrophoresed in denaturing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels under reducing conditions, the most purified enzyme fraction was found to contain one predominant polypeptide of M/sub r/ = 24,000. Several lines of evidence indicate that this polypeptide is responsible for thymidine kinase enzymatic activity.

  18. Large Scale Construction Project Innovative Management Through 5-S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Hj. Abdul Ghani Mohd.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been well-recognised that Japanese construction firms are good in safety, hygiene, quality, productivity and image. Over the last century, the Japanese have formalised the technique and name it as '5S' Practice. Through his research in Japan in 1988, the author has re-define the name as '5-S' and developed the world's first 5-S Audit Checklist. Since 1993, he used an innovative 5-S Checklist developed at SIRIM for training and consultancy in no less than 20 countries with over 100,000 persons from around 8,000 organisations world-wide. The objective of this paper is to explain the intricacy of the 5-S so that it can be understood easily and adopted readily by those who may find the tool useful. Some experience will also be shared in this article. It is hoped that this article can arouse the interest of the construction industry in Malaysia to take up this important and effective tool for quality improvement.

  19. Implementation of 5S Method for Ergonomic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dila Sari, Amarria; Ilma Rahmillah, Fety; Prabowo Aji, Bagus

    2017-06-01

    This article discusses 5S implementation in Work System Design and Ergonomic Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia. There are some problems related to equipment settings for activity involving students such as files which is accumulated over the previous year practicum, as well as the movement of waste in the form of time due to the placement of goods that do not fit. Therefore, this study aims to apply the 5S method in DSK & E laboratory to facilitate the work processes and reduce waste. The project is performed by laboratory management using 5S methods in response to continuous improvement (Kaizen). Moreover, some strategy and suggestions are promoted to impose 5S system within the laboratory. As a result, the tidiness and cleanliness can be achieved that lead to the great performance of laboratory users. Score assessment before implementing 5S DSKE laboratory is at 64 (2.56) while the score after implementation is 32 (1.28) and shows an improvement of 50%. This has implications for better use in the laboratory area, save time when looking for tools and materials due to its location and good visual control, as well as improving the culture and spirit of ‘5S’ on staff regarding better working environment

  20. Evolution in the block: common elements of 5S rDNA organization and evolutionary patterns in distant fish genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniel; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The 5S rDNA is organized in the genome as tandemly repeated copies of a structural unit composed of a coding sequence plus a nontranscribed spacer (NTS). The coding region is highly conserved in the evolution, whereas the NTS vary in both length and sequence. It has been proposed that 5S rRNA genes are members of a gene family that have arisen through concerted evolution. In this study, we describe the molecular organization and evolution of the 5S rDNA in the genera Lepidorhombus and Scophthalmus (Scophthalmidae) and compared it with already known 5S rDNA of the very different genera Merluccius (Merluccidae) and Salmo (Salmoninae), to identify common structural elements or patterns for understanding 5S rDNA evolution in fish. High intra- and interspecific diversity within the 5S rDNA family in all the genera can be explained by a combination of duplications, deletions, and transposition events. Sequence blocks with high similarity in all the 5S rDNA members across species were identified for the four studied genera, with evidences of intense gene conversion within noncoding regions. We propose a model to explain the evolution of the 5S rDNA, in which the evolutionary units are blocks of nucleotides rather than the entire sequences or single nucleotides. This model implies a "two-speed" evolution: slow within blocks (homogenized by recombination) and fast within the gene family (diversified by duplications and deletions).

  1. 5S-toimintamallin kehittäminen nostintuotannossa

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Atte

    2017-01-01

    TIIVISTELMÄ Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli kehittää 5S-toimintamallia Konecranes Finland Oy:n nostintuotannossa Hämeenlinnan nostintehtaalla. Konecranesilla käytetään Lean Six Sigma -menetelmiä prosessien ja liiketoiminnan kehittämiseen ja 5S-toimintamalli on yksi näistä Lean Six Sigmaan kuuluvista menetelmistä. Se on jo osittain käytössä Hämeenlinnan nostintehtaalla ja nyt tehtaan nostinkokoonpanoon oli saatava sama toimintamalli kuin muillakin tehtaan osastoilla. Opinnäytetyössä perehdyttiin...

  2. Isolation and characterization of 5S rDNA sequences in catfishes genome (Heptapteridae and Pseudopimelodidae): perspectives for rDNA studies in fish by C0t method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gouveia, Juceli Gonzalez; Wolf, Ivan Rodrigo; de Moraes-Manécolo, Vivian Patrícia Oliveira; Bardella, Vanessa Belline; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; da Rosa, Renata; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Sequences of 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are extensively used in fish cytogenomic studies, once they have a flexible organization at the chromosomal level, showing inter- and intra-specific variation in number and position in karyotypes...

  3. Off-target responses in the HeLa proteome subsequent to transient plasmid-mediated transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Lars; Sharma, Animesh; Aas, Per Arne; Slupphaug, Geir

    2015-01-01

    Transient transfection of mammalian cells with plasmid expression vectors and chemical transfection reagents is widely used to study protein transport and dynamics as well as phenotypic alterations mediated by the overexpressed protein. Despite the undisputed impact of this technique, surprisingly little is known about the cellular effects mediated by the transfection process per se. Conceivably, off-target effects could have implications upon proteins or processes being studied and understanding the molecular pathways affected would add value to the interpretation of experimental observations subsequent to cell transfection. Here we have used a SILAC-based proteomic approach to study differentially expressed proteins after transfection of HeLa cells with ECFP vector using a commonly employed non-liposome based transfection reagent, Fugene®HD. Whereas the transfection reagent itself mediated minimal effects upon protein expression, 11 proteins were found to be significantly upregulated after transfection, all of which were associated with an interferon type I/II response. The upregulated proteins might potentially inflict major cellular processes such as RNA splicing, chromatin remodeling, post-translational protein modification and cell cycle control. The results were validated by western analysis as well as quantitative RT-PCR and this demonstrated that an essentially identical response was induced in HeLa by transfection using an empty pUC18 vector, which does not contain a mammalian virus promoter, as well as a liposome-based transfection reagent, Lipofectamine(TM)2000. Notably, no induction of the interferon response was observed in HEK293 cells, suggesting that these cells might be preferable to HeLa to avoid undesired off-target effects in transfection studies encompassing interferon-signaling and antiviral responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bid and calpains cooperate to trigger oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguissola, Sergio; Köhler, Barbara; O'Byrne, Robert; Düssmann, Heiko; Cannon, Mary D; Murray, Frank E; Concannon, Caoimhin G; Rehm, Markus; Kögel, Donat; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2009-11-01

    The Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein Bid is an important mediator of death receptor-induced apoptosis. Recent reports and this study suggest that Bid may also mediate genotoxic drug-induced apoptosis of various human cancer cells. Here, we characterized the role of Bid and the mechanism of Bid activation during oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa cervical cancer cells. Small hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of Bid protected HeLa cells against both death receptor- and oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis. Expression of a Bid mutant in which caspase-8 cleavage site was mutated (D59A) reactivated oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in Bid-deficient cells but failed to reactivate death receptor-induced apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-8-mediated Bid cleavage did not contribute to oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of bcl-2 or treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-dl-Asp-fluoromethylketone abolished caspase-2, -8, -9, and -3 activation as well as Bid cleavage in response to oxaliplatin, suggesting that Bid cleavage occurred downstream of mitochondrial permeabilization and was predominantly mediated by caspases. We also detected an early activation of calpains in response to oxaliplatin. Calpain inhibition reduced Bid cleavage, mitochondrial depolarization, and activation of caspase-9, -3, -2, and -8 in response to oxaliplatin. Further experiments, however, suggested that Bid cleavage by calpains was not a prerequisite for oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis: single-cell imaging experiments using a yellow fluorescent protein-Bid-cyan fluorescent protein probe demonstrated translocation of full-length Bid to mitochondria that was insensitive to calpain or caspase inhibition. Moreover, calpain inhibition showed a potent protective effect in Bid-silenced cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that calpains and Bid act in a cooperative, but mutually independent, manner to mediate oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells.

  5. Fluid shear stress induction of the transcriptional activator c-fos in human and bovine endothelial cells, HeLa, and Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, V; Waterbury, R; Xiao, Z; Diamond, S L

    1996-02-20

    The c-fos protein belongs to a family of transcriptional cofactors that can complex with proteins of the Jun family and activate mRNA transcription from gene promoters containing an activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding element. The shear stress inducibility of the c-fos protein was studied in human and animal cell lines of vastly different origins. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC, passage 2-14), HeLa cells, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were subjected to steady laminar shear stress using a parallel plate flow apparatus. After 1 h of flow exposure at 25 dyn/cm(2), the c-fos levels in nuclei of shear stress HUVEC, BAEC, HeLa, and CHO were 5.4 +/- 2.0 (n = 3), 2.25 +/- 1.38 (n = 6), 2.14 +/- 0.07 (n = 8), 1.92 +/- 0.58 (n = 2) times higher, respectively, than in matched stationary controls. Flow exposure at 4 dyn/cm(2) caused no enhancement of c-fos levels in any of the cell lines tested, but caused significant reduction in c-fos expression in the HeLa cells. The c-fos induction by shear stress could be blocked by pharmacological agents. For example, the flow induction of the c-fos protein levels was blocked by 50% with the preincubation of HUVEC with a protein kinase C inhibitor, H7 (10 muM) and blocked completely in HeLa cells preincubated with the phospholipase C inhibitor, neomycin (5 mM). The minimum time of shear stress exposure required to induce the c-fos protein expression in HeLa cells was found to be as low as 1 min. By Northern analysis, the c-fos mRNA levels were found to be elevated in BAEC, CHO, and HeLa cells exposed to 25 dyn/cm(2) for 30 min. These studies indicate that c-fos induction is a consistent genetic response in a variety of mammalian cells that may alter cellular phenotype in mechanical environments. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. iPHONE 5s: TOMORROW'S TECHNOLOGY TODAY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jason Snell

    2013-01-01

    ...) might start to feel a bit pokier. Meanwhile, the camera in the iPhone 5s is physically better, but Apple has added all sorts of clever software with the goal of making it easy and fun to take really great pictures.

  7. Analyzing Digital Library Initiatives: 5S Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Abdulmumin; Mutshewa, Athulang; Serema, Batlang; Kenosi, Lekoko

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of Digital Libraries (DLs), examines some DL initiatives in developed and developing countries and uses 5S Theory as a lens for analyzing the focused DLs. The analysis shows that present-day systems, in both developed and developing nations, are essentially content and user centric, with low level…

  8. TEXTILE INDUSTRY APPLICATION OF THE 5S METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca BRAD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the 5S method, developed to ensure ergonomics in the workplace, productivity growth, reducing defects and increasing cleaning. 5S is a fundamental tool to promote continuous improvement process in organizations and represents a transformation in 5 steps of a job, which is characterized by maximum efficiency at the micro level and minimum loss. The tools which can be used for implementing could be the Kaizen circles for training, analysis and implementation, as well as visual elements, posters or graphics. The 5 phases are Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitsuke, which can be translate as Sort, Set in order, Scrub, Standardize, and Sustain, focusing on orderliness and being applied especially in Japanese factories. The stages includes inputs objectives related to the efficiency and effectiveness of the process, but also subjective, which refers to moral values, education, training, culture. For each S stage, the most important elements which are underlying the implementation and maintain the compliance are described. Any company that applied the 5S program will have quick and visible results, reducing different types of waste. The final section presents a case study and some rules in order to sustain the designed standards and implement a continuous quality improvement. The concluding remarks could be considered as work instructions in order to implement the 5S rules.

  9. Repensando o método 5S para arquivos Rethink the 5S method for archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminthas Loureiro Junior

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de estar fundamentado em hábitos de uma cultura radicalmente diferente da brasileira, o Método 5S se tornou muito popular a partir dos anos 90 em nosso país. Muitas foram as organizações que o adotaram como estratégia de aumentar a eficiência. Entretanto, o 5S, quando aplicado a arquivos deve ser entendido de forma mais ampla, reformulado. Este artigo aponta alguns dos pontos no quais o Método 5S é omisso para organizações, ou repartições, com responsabilidades de arquivo. Apresentamos também um relato de um caso vivenciado por um dos autores onde a observância na extensão do método não foi levado em conta e sua infeliz consequências.Despite to be based on a radically different culture habits of the Brazilian, the 5S Method became very popular from the 90’s in our country. Many had been the organizations that had adopted it as a strategy to increase their efficiency. However, the 5S Method, when applied to the archive institutions it must be understood of broadly way, in other words it must be reformulated. This article points out some of the issues in which the 5S Method is defective for this type of organizations, or departments which has any archive’s responsibilities. We present also a story of a case experienced by one of the authors where the observance in the extension of the method was not taken in account e its unfortunate consequences.

  10. RNA polymerase III promoter elements enhance transcription of RNA polymerase II genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliviero, S.; Monaci, P.

    1988-02-25

    Using transient expression assays in cultured human cells the authors have observed that RNA Polymerase III promoter sequences exert a positive cis-acting enhancer effect on RNA Polymerase II transcription. A DNA segment containing a copy of the Alu repeated element enhances transcription of the liver specific Haptoglobin related (Hpr) promoter in Hepatoma cell lines but not in HeLa cells. A tRNA/sup pro/ gene acts as enhancer of the SV40 promoter both in Hepatoma and in HeLa cell lines. Transcription from the SV40 promoter is also enhanced by DNA segments containing only the box A or the box B of the tRNA/sup pro/ promoter.

  11. [Prolonged luminescence of HeLa cells in deep hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V G; Osin, N S

    1983-03-01

    The technique of registering the afterglow of cells is described. Data are presented on spectral-luminescent characteristics of HeLa cells at room temperature under conditions of deep hypoxia, the residual pressure of oxygen in the medium being under 1 mmHg. The afterglow in the visible part of spectrum is shown to be due to protein tryptophanils with phosphorescence peaks at 415, 445, and 470 nm; metalloporphyrins with delayed fluorescence peaks at 595 and 640 nm, as well as by other cellular components with peaks at about 500 and 540 nm. The latter components are supposed to be NAD, NADH and flavins. The passage of air through the suspension of cells eliminating hypoxia results in practically a complete extinction of the afterglow of cells.

  12. One-pot Synthesis of Functional Poly(amino ester sulfide)s and Utility in Delivering pDNA and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunfeng; Xue, Lian; Miller, Jason B; Zhou, Kejin; Kos, Petra; Elkassih, Sussana; Liu, Li; Nagai, Atsushi; Xiong, Hu; Siegwart, Daniel J

    2015-08-18

    The development of efficacious carriers is an important long-standing challenge in gene therapy. In the past few decades, tremendous progress has been made toward non-viral vectors for gene delivery including cationic lipids and polymers. However, there continues to be a need for clinically translatable polymer-based delivery carriers because they offer tunable degradation profiles and functional groups, diverse structures/morphologies, and scalability in preparation. Herein, we developed a library of 144 degradable polymers with varying amine and hydrophobic content via a facile method that involves thiobutyrolactone aminolysis and consequent thiol-(meth)acrylate or acrylamide addition in one-pot. The polymer platform was evaluated for pDNA and siRNA delivery to HeLa cells in vitro. Hydrophobically modified 5S, 2E1, 6CY1, 5CY2, and 2M1 grafted HEMATL polymers are capable of delivering pDNA depending on the chemical composition and the size of the polyplexes. Hydrophobically modified 5S and 2B grafted HEMATL and 5S grafted ATL polymers exhibit capability for siRNA delivery that approaches the efficacy of commercially available transfection reagents. Due to tunable functionality and scalable preparation, this synthetic approach may have broad applicability in the design of delivery materials for gene therapy.

  13. Study of Paclitaxel-Treated HeLa Cells by Differential Electrical Impedance Flow Cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Julie; Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Rodriguez-Trujíllo, Romén

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the electrical investigation of paclitaxel-treated HeLa cells using a custom-made microfluidic biosensor for whole cell analysis in continuous flow. We apply the method of differential electrical impedance spectroscopy to treated HeLa cells in order to elucidate the changes...

  14. Effects of Circular DNA Length on Transfection Efficiency by Electroporation into HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Benjamin D; Roman, Dany; Arévalo-Soliz, Lirio M; Engevik, Melinda A; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The ability to produce extremely small and circular supercoiled vectors has opened new territory for improving non-viral gene therapy vectors. In this work, we compared transfection of supercoiled DNA vectors ranging from 383 to 4,548 bp, each encoding shRNA against GFP under control of the H1 promoter. We assessed knockdown of GFP by electroporation into HeLa cells. All of our vectors entered cells in comparable numbers when electroporated with equal moles of DNA. Despite similar cell entry, we found length-dependent differences in how efficiently the vectors knocked down GFP. As vector length increased up to 1,869 bp, GFP knockdown efficiency per mole of transfected DNA increased. From 1,869 to 4,257 bp, GFP knockdown efficiency per mole was steady, then decreased with increasing vector length. In comparing GFP knockdown with equal masses of vectors, we found that the shorter vectors transfect more efficiently per nanogram of DNA transfected. Our results rule out cell entry and DNA mass as determining factors for gene knockdown efficiency via electroporation. The length-dependent effects we have uncovered are likely explained by differences in nuclear translocation or transcription. These data add an important step towards clinical applications of non-viral vector delivery.

  15. Restless 5S: the re-arrangement(s) and evolution of the nuclear ribosomal DNA in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Susann; Costa, Andrea; Muñoz, Jesùs; Quandt, Dietmar

    2011-11-01

    Among eukaryotes two types of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) organization have been observed. Either all components, i.e. the small ribosomal subunit, 5.8S, large ribosomal subunit, and 5S occur tandemly arranged or the 5S rDNA forms a separate cluster of its own. Generalizations based on data derived from just a few model organisms have led to a superimposition of structural and evolutionary traits to the entire plant kingdom asserting that plants generally possess separate arrays. This study reveals that plant nrDNA organization into separate arrays is not a distinctive feature, but rather assignable almost solely to seed plants. We show that early diverging land plants and presumably streptophyte algae share a co-localization of all rRNA genes within one repeat unit. This raises the possibility that the state of rDNA gene co-localization had occurred in their common ancestor. Separate rDNA arrays were identified for all basal seed plants and water ferns, implying at least two independent 5S rDNA transposition events during land plant evolution. Screening for 5S derived Cassandra transposable elements which might have played a role during the transposition events, indicated that this retrotransposon is absent in early diverging vascular plants including early fern lineages. Thus, Cassandra can be rejected as a primary mechanism for 5S rDNA transposition in water ferns. However, the evolution of Cassandra and other eukaryotic 5S derived elements might have been a side effect of the 5S rDNA cluster formation. Structural analysis of the intergenic spacers of the ribosomal clusters revealed that transposition events partially affect spacer regions and suggests a slightly different transcription regulation of 5S rDNA in early land plants. 5S rDNA upstream regulatory elements are highly divergent or absent from the LSU-5S spacers of most early divergent land plant lineages. Several putative scenarios and mechanisms involved in the concerted relocation of hundreds of 5S

  16. The 5S rDNA family evolves through concerted and birth-and-death evolution in fish genomes: an example from freshwater stingrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, Danillo; Yoshimura, Tatiana S; Araki, Carlos S; Martins, Cesar

    2011-05-31

    Ribosomal 5S genes are well known for the critical role they play in ribosome folding and functionality. These genes are thought to evolve in a concerted fashion, with high rates of homogenization of gene copies. However, the majority of previous analyses regarding the evolutionary process of rDNA repeats were conducted in invertebrates and plants. Studies have also been conducted on vertebrates, but these analyses were usually restricted to the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA genes. The recent identification of divergent 5S rRNA gene paralogs in the genomes of elasmobranches and teleost fishes indicate that the eukaryotic 5S rRNA gene family has a more complex genomic organization than previously thought. The availability of new sequence data from lower vertebrates such as teleosts and elasmobranches enables an enhanced evolutionary characterization of 5S rDNA among vertebrates. We identified two variant classes of 5S rDNA sequences in the genomes of Potamotrygonidae stingrays, similar to the genomes of other vertebrates. One class of 5S rRNA genes was shared only by elasmobranches. A broad comparative survey among 100 vertebrate species suggests that the 5S rRNA gene variants in fishes originated from rounds of genome duplication. These variants were then maintained or eliminated by birth-and-death mechanisms, under intense purifying selection. Clustered multiple copies of 5S rDNA variants could have arisen due to unequal crossing over mechanisms. Simultaneously, the distinct genome clusters were independently homogenized, resulting in the maintenance of clusters of highly similar repeats through concerted evolution. We believe that 5S rDNA molecular evolution in fish genomes is driven by a mixed mechanism that integrates birth-and-death and concerted evolution.

  17. Sublocalization of seven human simple sequence repeat polymorphic markers: D5S349, D5S351, and D5S355 to 5q11. 2-q13. 1, D5S350 to 5p13. 1-p14, D5S35s to 5q31. 2-q33. 1, D5S353 to 5q33. 2-qter, and D5S354 to 5q13. 2-q15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrington, J.A.; Wasmuth, J.J. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Seven highly informative human simple sequence repeat polymorphisms that map to human chromosome 5 have been sublocalized using a panel of somatic cell hybrids that retain naturally occurring deletions (4, 7). Simple sequence repeats are useful in the construction of high-resolution maps of the human genome because they are highly polymorphic and easily typed by the polymerase chain reaction (2, 9, 10, 11). The presence or absence of each of the seven simple sequence repeats, D5S349, D5S350, D5S351, D5S352, D5S353, D5S354, and D5S355, in a panel of somatic cell hybrids was determined using the polymerase chain reaction. The sequence of the PCR primer sets was previously reported by Hudson et al. Each PCR was carried out in a total volume of 25 PI using 0.2 pg DNA in 67 mM Tris-HCI (pH 8.3),6.7 mM MgCl[sub 2], 16.6 mM ammonium sulfate, 10 mM [beta]-mercaptoethanol, 1.25 mM each dNTP, 25 pmol each primer, and I unit of Thermos aquaticus DNA polymerase. The initial denaturation was at 94[degrees]R C for 1.5 min and the annealing temperatures ranged from 57 to 67[degrees]R C. Figure 1 depicts the chromosome 5 natural deletion mapping panel and the location of the markers. D5S350 was present in all hybrid cell lines except HHW1124 and HHW764 (SRO p13.1-p14). D5S349, D5S351, and D5S355 were absent in HHW1064 and HHW1124 and present in all other cell lines (SROq11.2-q13.1).D5S354 was absent in HHW1124 and present in all other cell lines (SRO q13.2-q15). D5S352 was present in all cell lines (SRO q31.2-q33.1), and D5S353 was present in all cell lines except HHW1138 (SRO q33.2-qter). 11 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Silencing cytokeratin 18 gene inhibits intracellular replication of Trypanosoma cruzi in HeLa cells but not binding and invasion of trypanosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mello Samanta M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an obligatory intracellular parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, must invade and multiply within mammalian cells. Cytokeratin 18 (CK18 is among the host molecules that have been suggested as a mediator of important events during T. cruzi-host cell interaction. Based on that possibility, we addressed whether RNA interference (RNAi-mediated down regulation of the CK18 gene could interfere with the parasite life cycle in vitro. HeLa cells transiently transfected with CK18-RNAi had negligible levels of CK18 transcripts, and significantly reduced levels of CK18 protein expression as determined by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence. Results CK18 negative or positive HeLa cells were invaded equally as well by trypomastigotes of different T. cruzi strains. Also, in CK18 negative or positive cells, parasites recruited host cells lysosomes and escaped from the parasitophorous vacuole equally as well. After that, the growth of amastigotes of the Y or CL-Brener strains, was drastically arrested in CK18 RNAi-treated cells. After 48 hours, the number of amastigotes was several times lower in CK18 RNAi-treated cells when compared to control cells. Simultaneous staining of parasites and CK18 showed that in HeLa cells infected with the Y strain both co-localize. Although the amastigote surface protein-2 contains the domain VTVXNVFLYNR previously described to bind to CK18, in several attempts, we failed to detect binding of a recombinant protein to CK-18. Conclusion The study demonstrates that silencing CK18 by transient RNAi, inhibits intracellular multiplication of the Y and CL strain of T. cruzi in HeLa cells, but not trypanosome binding and invasion.

  19. Standardization in patient safety: the WHO High 5s project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotsakos, Agnès; Zheng, Hao; Croteau, Rick; Loeb, Jerod M; Sherman, Heather; Hoffman, Carolyn; Morganstein, Louise; O'Leary, Dennis; Bruneau, Charles; Lee, Peter; Duguid, Margaret; Thomeczek, Christian; van der Schrieck-De Loos, Erica; Munier, Bill

    2014-04-01

    Despite its success in other industries, process standardization in health care has been slow to gain traction or to demonstrate a positive impact on the safety of care. The High 5s project is a global patient safety initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) to facilitate the development, implementation and evaluation of Standard Operating Protocols (SOPs) within a global learning community to achieve measurable, significant and sustainable reductions in challenging patient safety problems. The project seeks to answer two questions: (i) Is it feasible to implement standardized health care processes in individual hospitals, among multiple hospitals within individual countries and across country boundaries? (ii) If so, what is the impact of standardization on the safety problems that the project is targeting? The two key areas in which the High 5s project is innovative are its use of process standardization both in hospitals within a country and in multiple participating countries, and its carefully designed multi-pronged approach to evaluation. Three SOPs-correct surgery, medication reconciliation, concentrated injectable medicines-have been developed and are being implemented and evaluated in multiple hospitals in seven participating countries. Nearly 5 years into the implementation, it is clear that this is just the beginning of what can be seen as an exercise in behavior management, asking whether health care workers can adapt their behaviors and environments to standardize care processes in widely varying hospital settings.

  20. Paradoxical motion in L5-S1 adult spondylolytic spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jacob Yoong-Leong; Liang, Shen; Louange, Danny; Rahmat, Razmi; Hee, Hwan-Tak; Kumar, V P

    2012-02-01

    In patients with spondylolisthesis, it is assumed that flexion accentuates anterior displacement, whereas extension causes some reduction. Paradoxical movement-where flexion causes reduction of spondylolisthesis and extension increases the anterior translation, is rarely described. In this study, we investigate the prevalence of paradoxical motion in patients with L5-S1 spondylolytic spondylolisthesis and why this abnormal motion occurs. Flexion and extension radiographs of 41 patients with grade I and II spondylolytic spondylolisthesis of the L5-S1 segment were analysed. Patients who had previous lumbar spine surgery, recent lumbar spine trauma, those more than 50 years of age and those with poor quality radiographs were excluded. There were 24 male and 17 female patients. The average age was 32.7 years. Of the 41 patients, 29 (70.7%) showed no significant instability. Six (15%) patients showed anterolisthesis, where flexion accentuated the forward displacement, while further six (15%) patients showed paradoxical motion. Statistical analyses found that patients with paradoxical motion had a significantly higher slip angle. In this study, we have demonstrated that: (1) paradoxical motion in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis is more common than previously thought. (2) Patients without anterolisthesis during flexion in dynamic radiographs may still have (paradoxical) instability. (3) Paradoxical motion may be more common in patients with a low sacral slope and increased lumbosacral lordosis.

  1. 17 CFR 259.5s - Form U5S, for annual reports filed under section 5(c) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form U5S, for annual reports filed under section 5(c) of the Act. 259.5s Section 259.5s Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... 1935 Forms for Registration and Annual Supplements § 259.5s Form U5S, for annual reports filed under...

  2. Mapping and identification of interferon gamma-regulated HeLa cell proteins separated by immobilized pH gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, AC; Rossel Larsen, M; Roepstorff, P

    1999-01-01

    . A semiconfluent layer of HeLa cells was grown on tissue culture plates, and changes in protein expression due to 100 U/mL IFN-gamma were investigated at different periods after treatment, using pulse labeling with [35S]methionine/cysteine in combination with 2-D PAGE (IPG). The identity of eight protein spots...... was elucidated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), and several variants of the IFN-gamma-inducible tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (hWRS) were detected by immunoblotting....

  3. Poetry, science and hope in the Prose des cellules HeLa (prose for the HeLa cells) in Marcel Thiry’s poetic work

    OpenAIRE

    Halen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; If the process of natural sciences, so-called “exact sciences”, can be enlightened by theology and philosophy, it can also be seen by a literary gaze, and in this case by a poetic approach. A work published in 1969 by the Belgian poet Marcel Thiry, entitled Prose des cellules HeLa (prose for the HeLa cells), shows the possibility for knowledges to hold a dialogue which brings out their complementary nature. Using resources of various worldviews (myths from Greek Antiqu...

  4. Methanolic extract of Pterocarpus santalinus induces apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H J; Hong, Y K; Kim, K H; Han, C H; Cho, S H; Choi, J S; Kim, Byung-Woo

    2006-04-21

    Ptercarpus santalinus (Fabaceae) has been used as a folk remedy in Korea, and it has been shown to exhibit antiinflammations, antiulcers and anticancer effects. In this study, therefore, we report the cytotoxic activity and the mechanism of cell death exhibited by the methanol extract of Ptercarpus santalinus (MEPS) against human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line, HeLa. Treatment of HeLa cells with various concentrations of MEPS resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as determined by cell viability, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and sub-G1 phase accumulation. In Western blot analysis, apoptosis in the HeLa cells was associated with the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol, activation of caspases-3, -8, -9 and proteolytic cleavage of PARP. These results suggest that MEPS exhibits antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells via apoptosis, and it may be a potential candidate in field of anticancer drug discovery.

  5. Comprehensive and definitive molecular cytogenetic characterization of HeLa cells by spectral karyotyping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macville, M; Schröck, E; Padilla-Nash, H; Keck, C; Ghadimi, B M; Zimonjic, D; Popescu, N; Ried, T

    1999-01-01

    .... Twenty clonally abnormal chromosomes were found. Comparison with previously reported HeLa G-banding karyotypes revealed a remarkably stable cytogenetic constitution because 18 of 20 markers that were found were present before...

  6. Mechanisms of hela cell apoptosis induced by abnormal Savda Munziq total phenolics combined with chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Xia; Abliz, Guzalnur; Ye, Wei-Jun; Mutalipu, Zuohelaguli; Li, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Hai-Qin; Buranjiang, Gulimire; Upur, Halmurat

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq) total phenolics combined with cisplatin and docetaxel on the Hela cell growth. In vivo cultured Hela cells were treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, total phenolics, cisplatin+total phenolics or docetaxel+total phenolics. MTT was performed to assess inhibition of cell proliferation, flow cytometry to detect apoptosis, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR to test for survivin and Bcl-2 expression. The total phenolics, cisplatin and docetaxel had significant inhibitory and apoptosis-promoting effects on Hela cells (Pphenolics, cisplatin and docetaxel significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and survivin (all Pphenolics, combined with cisplatin and docetaxel, could promote the apoptosis of Hela cells possibly through reducing the expression of Bcl-2 and survivin.

  7. Study of Paclitaxel-Treated HeLa Cells by Differential Electrical Impedance Flow Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkegaard, Julie; Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Rodriguez-Trujillo, Romen; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the electrical investigation of paclitaxel-treated HeLa cells using a custom-made microfluidic biosensor for whole cell analysis in continuous flow. We apply the method of differential electrical impedance spectroscopy to treated HeLa cells in order to elucidate the changes in electrical properties compared with non-treated cells. We found that our microfluidic system was able to distinguish between treated and non-treated cells. Furthermore, we utilize a model for electr...

  8. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  9. Identification of a novel human tRNA(Ser(CGA)) functional in murine leukemia virus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik; Schmitz, A; Pedersen, F S

    2000-01-01

    We have identified a human tRNA(Ser) isoacceptor matching the UCG codon. The tRNA was discovered via its ability to act in reverse transcription of a murine leukemia virus vector containing a complementary tRNA primer binding site (Lund et al., Nucleic Acids Res., 28 (2000) 791-799). The t....... The integrity and functionality of the cloned tRNA(Ser(CGA)) gene was verified by in vitro transcription analysis in HeLa nuclear extracts....

  10. Identification of miRNA targets with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Jeppe; Hedegaard, Mads Marquardt; Gardner, Paul Phillip

    2006-01-01

    miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We have used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to investigate the effect of miRNA-1 on the HeLa cell proteome. Expression of 12 out of 504 investigated proteins was repressed by miRNA-1 transfection...

  11. Amygdalin induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ma, Jinshu; Wang, Fang; Hu, Jie; Cui, Ai; Wei, Chengguo; Yang, Qing; Li, Fan

    2013-02-01

    Amygdalin, a naturally occurring substance, has been suggested to be efficacious as an anticancer substance. The effect of amygdalin on cervical cancer cells has never been studied. In this study, we found that the viability of human cervical cancer HeLa cell line was significantly inhibited by amygdalin. 4,6-Diamino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) staining showed that amygdalin-treated HeLa cells developed typical apoptotic changes. The development of apoptosis in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells were confirmed by double staining of amygdalin-treated HeLa cells with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) along with increase in caspase-3 activity in these cells. Further studies indicated that antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was downregulated whereas proapoptotic Bax protein was upregulated in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells implying involvement of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In vivo, amygdalin administration inhibited the growth of HeLa cell xenografts through a mechanism of apoptosis. The results in the present study suggest that amygdalin may offer a new therapeutic option for patients with cervical cancer.

  12. Mycoplasma fermentans binds to and invades HeLa cells: involvement of plasminogen and urokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavlovich, Amichai; Katzenell, Avigail; Tarshis, Mark; Higazi, Abd A-R; Rottem, Shlomo

    2004-09-01

    Adherence of Mycoplasma fermentans to HeLa cells followed saturation kinetics, required a divalent cation, and was enhanced by preincubation of the organism at 37 degrees C for 1 h in a low-osmolarity solution. Proteolytic digestion, choline phosphate, or anti-choline phosphate antibodies partially inhibited the adherence, supporting the notion that M. fermentans utilizes at least two surface components for adhesion, a protease-sensitive surface protein and a phosphocholine-containing glycolipid. Plasminogen binding to M. fermentans greatly increased the maximal adherence of the organism to HeLa cells. Anti-plasminogen antibodies and free plasminogen inhibited this increase. These observations suggest that in the presence of plasminogen the organism adheres to novel sites on the HeLa cell surface, which are apparently plasminogen receptors. Plasminogen-bound M. fermentans was detected exclusively on the cell surface of the infected HeLa cells. Nevertheless, plasminogen binding in the presence of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) promoted the invasion of HeLa cells by M. fermentans. The latter finding indicates that the invasiveness of M. fermentans does not result from binding plasminogen but from activation of the bound plasminogen to plasmin. Cholesterol depletion and sequestration with beta-cyclodextrin and filipin, respectively, did not affect the capacity of M. fermentans to adhere, but invasion of HeLa cells by uPA-activated plasminogen-bound M. fermentans was impaired, suggesting that lipid rafts are implicated in M. fermentans entry.

  13. Targeted CRISPR disruption reveals a role for RNase MRP RNA in human preribosomal RNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Katherine C; Cech, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    MRP RNA is an abundant, essential noncoding RNA whose functions have been proposed in yeast but are incompletely understood in humans. Mutations in the genomic locus for MRP RNA cause pleiotropic human diseases, including cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH). Here we applied CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to disrupt the endogenous human MRP RNA locus, thereby attaining what has eluded RNAi and RNase H experiments: elimination of MRP RNA in the majority of cells. The resulting accumulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursor-analyzed by RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), Northern blots, and RNA sequencing-implicates MRP RNA in pre-rRNA processing. Amelioration of pre-rRNA imbalance is achieved through rescue of MRP RNA levels by ectopic expression. Furthermore, affinity-purified MRP ribonucleoprotein (RNP) from HeLa cells cleaves the human pre-rRNA in vitro at at least one site used in cells, while RNP isolated from cells with CRISPR-edited MRP loci loses this activity, and ectopic MRP RNA expression restores cleavage activity. Thus, a role for RNase MRP in human pre-rRNA processing is established. As demonstrated here, targeted CRISPR disruption is a valuable tool for functional studies of essential noncoding RNAs that are resistant to RNAi and RNase H-based degradation. © 2017 Goldfarb and Cech; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. Doxorubicin-induced cell death requires cathepsin B in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, S; Rimmbach, C; Neumann, H; Niessen, J; Reimer, E; Ritter, C A; Rosskopf, D; Cinatl, J; Michaelis, M; Schroeder, H W S; Kroemer, H K

    2010-11-15

    The cysteine protease cathepsin B acts as a key player in apoptosis. Cathepsin B-mediated cell death is induced by various stimuli such as ischemia, bile acids or TNFα. Whether cathepsin B can be influenced by anticancer drugs, however, has not been studied in detail. Here, we describe the modulation of doxorubicin-induced cell death by silencing of cathepsin B expression. Previously, it was shown that doxorubicin, in contrast to other drugs, selectively regulates expression and activity of cathepsin B. Selective silencing of cathepsin B by siRNA or the cathepsin B specific inhibitor CA074Me modified doxorubicin-mediated cell death in Hela tumor cells. Both Caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage were significantly reduced in cells lacking cathepsin B. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization as well as the release of cytochrome C and AIF from mitochondria into cytosol induced by doxorubicin were significantly diminished in cathepsin B suppressed cells. In addition, doxorubicin associated down-regulation of XIAP was not observed in cathepsin B silenced cells. Lack of cathepsin B significantly modified cell cycle regulatory proteins such as cdk1, Wee1 and p21 without significant changes in G(1), S or G(2)M cell cycle phases maybe indicating further cell cycle independent actions of these proteins. Consequently, cell viability following doxorubicin was significantly elevated in cells with cathepsin B silencing. In summary, our data strongly suggest a role of cathepsin B in doxorubicin-induced cell death. Therefore, increased expression of cathepsin B in various types of cancer can modify susceptibility towards doxorubicin. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DEPLOYMENT OF 5S SYSTEM IN ARCHIVES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cavaglieri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient document management brings various benefits, not only for professionals of the area but, mainly, for business managers who can use this information in their decisionmaking to enjoy competitive advantages on competitors. Having in mind that effectiveness is a constant pursuit for any company in order to achieve their strategic goals and improve the techniques which enable more productivity using fewer financial resources. In this sense, it was sought to apply the 5S philosophy in the document file management of Santa Fé Company, once it is necessary to improve the current processes with less waste and more efficiency, with a view to the need to suit the client more efficiently before their information necessities. Regarding to the method used, it is characterized as a researchaction in a quali-quantitative approach, classified as exploratory and descriptive. Among the obtained research results, it stands out in a quantitative way the reduction of waste, with significant gains of Lead Time, diminishing the time to process the activities. Financial gains were also obtained with a better use of resources and a redesigning of the way to keeping the documents. In a qualitative way, a better working environment is highlighted and increase of the service efficiency in bringing more customer satisfaction.

  16. Proteomic, cellular, and network analyses reveal new DUSP3 interactions with nucleolar proteins in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Karine; Forti, Fabio Luis

    2013-12-06

    DUSP3 (or Vaccinia virus phosphatase VH1-related; VHR) is a small dual-specificity phosphatase known to dephosphorylate c-Jun N-terminal kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. In human cervical cancer cells, DUSP3 is overexpressed, localizes preferentially to the nucleus, and plays a key role in cellular proliferation and senescence triggering. Other DUSP3 functions are still unknown, as illustrated by recent and unpublished results from our group showing that this enzyme mediates DNA damage response or repair processes. In this study, we sought to identify new interactions between DUSP3 and proteins directly or indirectly involved in or correlated with its biological roles in HeLa cells exposed to gamma or UV radiation. By using GST-DUSP as bait, we pulled down interacting proteins and identified them by LC-MS/MS. Of the 46 proteins obtained, six hits were extensively validated by immune techniques; the proteins Nucleophosmin, HnRNP C1/C2, and Nucleolin were the most promising targets found to directly interact with DUSP3. We then analyzed the DUSP3 interactomes using physical protein-protein interaction networks using our hits as the seed list. The validated hits as well as unvalidated hits fluctuated on the DUSP3 interactomes of HeLa cells, independent of the time post radiation, which confirmed our proteomic and experimental data and clearly showed the proximity of DUSP3 to proteins involved in processes intimately related to DNA repair and senescence, such as Ku70 and Tert, via interactions with nucleolar proteins, which were identified in this study, that regulate DNA/RNA structure and functions.

  17. Functional analysis of a recombinant PIII-SVMP, GST-acocostatin; an apoptotic inducer of HUVEC and HeLa, but not SK-Mel-28 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Takele; Seoane, Agustin I.; Ramos, Carla J.; Sanchez, Elda E.; Lucena, Sara E.; Perez, John C.; Mandal, Stephanie A.; Soto, Julio G.

    2011-01-01

    Disintegrins and disintegrin-like peptides interact with integrins and interfere with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. A disintegrin-like snake venom gene, Acocostatin was cloned from the venom gland mRNA of Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix. Acocostatin belongs to the PIII-SVMP subfamily of disintegrin-like peptides. The recombinant acocostatin peptide was produced and purified as GST-fusion. The GST-acocostatin peptide, at 44 μg/mL, inhibited platelet aggregation by 30% in PRP and 18% in whole blood. In addition GST-acocostatin, at 220μg/mL, inhibited SK-Mel-28 cell migration by 48%, but did not inhibit T24 cell migration. The GST-acocostatin peptide ability to induce apoptosis on HUVEC, HeLa, and SK-Mel-28 cells was determined using Annexin-V-FITC and chromatin fragmentation assays after 24 h of treatment. At 5 μM GST-acocostatin peptide, 19.68% +/− 3.09 of treated HUVEC, and 35.86% +/− 2.05 of treated HeLa cells were in early apoptosis. The GST-acocostatin peptide also caused chromatin fragmentation of HUVEC and HeLa cells as determined by fluorescent microscopy and Hoechst staining. The GST-acocostatin peptide failed to induce apoptosis of SK-Mel-28 cells. We characterized the HUVEC, HeLa, and T24 integrin expression by flow cytometry, as the first step in determining GST-acocostatin binding specificity. Our results indicate that HUVEC express αv, αvβ3, αvβ5, α6, β1, and β3 integrin receptors. HeLa cells express α1, α2, α6, αv, αvβ5, and β1 integrin receptors. T24 cells express α1, α3, α6, αv, αvβ3, αvβ5, β1, β3, and β6 integrin receptors. PMID:21255601

  18. [Essential oil from Artemisia lavandulaefolia induces apoptosis and necrosis of HeLa cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-min; Lv, Xue-wei; Shao, Lin-xiang; Ma, Yan-fang; Cheng, Wen-zhao; Gao, Hai-tao

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Artemisia lavandulaefolia essential oil on apoptosis and necrosis of HeLa cells. Cell viability was assayed using MTT method. The morphological and structure alterations in HeLa cells were observed by microscopy. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was measured by DNA Ladder and flow cytometry. DNA damage was measured by comet assay, and the protein expression was examined by Western blot analysis. MTT assay displayed essential oil from Artemisia lavandulaefolia could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. After treated with essential oil of Artemisia lavadulaefolia for 24 h, HeLa cells in 100 and 200 microg/mL experiment groups exhibited the typical morphology changes of undergoing apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage and nucleus chromatin condensed. However, the cells in the 400 microg/mL group showed the necrotic morphology changes including cytomembrane rupture and cytoplasm spillover. In addition, DNA Ladder could be demonstrated by DNA electrophoresis in each experiment group. Apoptosis peak was also evident in flow cytometry in each experiment group. After treating the HeLa cells with essential oil of Artemisia lavadulaefolia for 6 h, comet tail was detected by comet assay. Moreover, western blotting analysis showed that caspase-3 was activated and the cleavage of PARP was inactivated. Essential oil from Artemisia lavadulaefolia can inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cells in vitro. Low concentration of essential oil from Artemisia lavadulaefolia can induce apoptosis, whereas high concentration of the compounds result in necrosis of HeLa cells. And,the mechanism may be related to the caspase-3-mediated-PARP apoptotic signal pathway.

  19. Apoptosis and necrosis in vaccinia virus-infected HeLa G and BSC-40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskova, Jana; Knitlova, Jarmila; Honner, Richard; Melkova, Zora

    2011-09-01

    In most cells, vaccinia virus (VACV) infection is considered to cause a lytic cell death, an equivalent of necrosis. However, upon infection of the epithelial cell lines HeLa G and BSC-40 with VACV strain Western Reserve (WR), we have previously observed an increased activation of and activity attributable to caspases, a typical sign of apoptosis. In this paper, we have further analyzed the type of cell death in VACV-infected cells HeLa G and BSC-40. In a cell-based flow cytometric assay, we showed a specific activation of caspase-2 and 4 in HeLa G and BSC-40 cells infected with VACV, strain WR, while we did not find any effects of inhibitors of calpain and cathepsin D and E. The actual activity of the two caspases, but also of caspase-3, was then confirmed in lysates of infected HeLa G, but not in BSC-40 cells. Accordingly, poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage was found increased only in infected HeLa G cells. Consequently, we have determined morphological features of apoptosis and/or activity of the executioner caspase-3 in infected HeLa G cells in situ, while only a background apoptosis was observed in infected BSC-40 cells. Finally, vaccination strains Dryvax and Praha were found to induce apoptosis in both HeLa G and BSC-40 cells, as characterized morphologically and by PARP cleavage. These findings may be important for understanding the differences in VACV-host interactions and post-vaccination complications in different individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Drosha regulates gene expression independently of RNA cleavage function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromak, Natalia; Dienstbier, Martin; Macias, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription......-dependent manner. This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. Drosha knockdown in HeLa cells downregulated nascent gene transcription, resulting in a reduction of polyadenylated mRNA produced from these gene regions. Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N......-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression....

  1. Drosha Regulates Gene Expression Independently of RNA Cleavage Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gromak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription-dependent manner. This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. Drosha knockdown in HeLa cells downregulated nascent gene transcription, resulting in a reduction of polyadenylated mRNA produced from these gene regions. Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression.

  2. Primary microRNA processing is functionally coupled to RNAP II transcription in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Shanye; Yu, Yong; Reed, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in vivo reported that processing of primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) is coupled to transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and can occur co-transcriptionally. Here we have established a robust in vivo system in which pri-miRNA is transcribed by RNAP II and processed to pre-miRNA in HeLa cell nuclear extracts. We show that both the kinetics and efficiency of pri-miRNA processing are dramatically enhanced in this system compared to that of the corresponding naked pri-miRNA. Mo...

  3. DNA-methylation dependent regulation of embryo-specific 5S ribosomal DNA cluster transcription in adult tissues of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Daniele; Dimarco, Eufrosina; Naselli, Flores; Caradonna, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    We have previously reported a molecular and cytogenetic characterization of three different 5S rDNA clusters in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and recently, demonstrated the presence of high heterogeneity in functional 5S rRNA. In this paper, we show some important distinctive data on 5S rRNA transcription for this organism. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, we demonstrate the existence of two classes of 5S rRNA, one which is embryo-specific and encoded by the smallest (700 bp) cluster and the other which is expressed at every stage and encoded by longer clusters (900 and 950 bp). We also demonstrate that the embryo-specific class of 5S rRNA is expressed in oocytes and embryonic stages and is silenced in adult tissue and that this phenomenon appears to be due exclusively to DNA methylation, as indicated by sensitivity to 5-azacytidine, unlike Xenopus where this mechanism is necessary but not sufficient to maintain the silenced status. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from two Annelida species, Perinereis brevicirris and Sabellastarte japonica, and an Echiura species, Urechis unicinctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazaki, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from two Annelida species, Perinereis brevicirris and Sabellastarte japonica, and an Echiura species, Urechis unicinctus have been determined. Their sequences are all 120 nucleotides long. The sequence similarity percents are 88% (Perinereis/Sabellastarte), 90% (Sabellastarte/Urechis) and 92% (Perinereis/Urechis), indicating that the Echiura is indistinguishable from the Annelida by their 5S rRNAs. The 5S rRNA sequences from the Annelida/Echiura are most related to those from the Nemertinea (87%), the Mollusca (87%) and the Rotifera (88%). PMID:6856459

  5. Expression and crystallization of several forms of the Propionibacterium shermanii transcarboxylase 5S subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pamela R; Zheng, Run; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; van den Akker, Focco; Carey, Paul R; Yee, Vivien C

    2004-03-01

    The dimeric outer 5S subunit of transcarboxylase has been expressed in three different forms and crystallized: native 5S, 5S-His(6) and selenomethione-5S-His(6). All the crystals have an orthorhombic space group, but while native 5S forms primitive orthorhombic crystals, 5S-His(6) crystals are either C-centered or primitive and SeMet-5S-His(6) crystals are C-centered. Crystallization of native 5S requires the addition of lithium sulfate, whereas this salt prevented crystallization of 5S-His(6). All 5S crystals diffract to approximately 2.0 A resolution with synchrotron radiation. Efforts are under way to solve the structure of SeMet-5S-His(6) using MAD.

  6. Effects of Tatariside G Isolated from Fagopyrum tataricum Roots on Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common female carcinoma. Current therapies are often unsatisfactory, especially for advanced stage patients. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of tatariside G (TG on apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and the possible mechanism of action involved. An MTT assay was employed to evaluate cell viability. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry (FCM assays were used to detect cell apoptosis. The protein expression of phosphorylated JNK, P38, ERK and Akt and cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 was evaluated by western blot analysis. Additionally, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was measured by fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (FQ-RT-PCR. TG notably inhibited cell viability, enhanced the percentage of apoptotic cells, facilitated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK proteins and caspase-3 and caspase-9 cracking, downregulated the phosphorylation level of Akt, and increased the loss of MMP and the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9. TG-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of the mitochondrial death pathway. TG may be an effective candidate for chemotherapy against cervical cancer.

  7. Profiling of 2'-O-Me in human rRNA reveals a subset of fractionally modified positions and provides evidence for ribosome heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Nicolai; Jansson, Martin D; Häfner, Sophia J

    2016-01-01

    Ribose methylation is one of the two most abundant modifications in human ribosomal RNA and is believed to be important for ribosome biogenesis, mRNA selectivity and translational fidelity. We have applied RiboMeth-seq to rRNA from HeLa cells for ribosome-wide, quantitative mapping of 2'-O-Me sit...

  8. Inhibition of cervical cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo with lentiviral-vector delivered short hairpin RNA targeting human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, W; Putral, L; Hengst, K; Minto, K; Saunders, N A; Leggatt, G; McMillan, N A J

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the suppressive effect of a short hairpin RNA delivered by a lentiviral vector (LV-shRNA) against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 E6 on the expression of the oncogenes E6 and E7 in cervical cancer HeLa cells both in vitro and in vivo. The LV-shRNA effectively delivered the shRNA to HeLa cells and lead to a dose-dependent reduction of E7 protein and the stabilization of E6 target proteins, p53 and p21. Low-dose infection of HeLa cells with LV-shRNA caused reduced cell growth and the induction of senescence, whereas a high-dose infection resulted in specific cell death via apoptosis. Transplant of HeLa cells infected with a low dose of LV-shRNA into Rag-/- mice significantly reduced the tumor weight, whereas transplant of cells infected with a high dose resulted in a complete loss of tumor growth. Systemic delivery of LV-shRNA into mice with established HeLa cell lung metastases led to a significant reduction in the number of tumor nodules. Our data collectively suggest that lentiviral delivery is an effective way to achieve stable suppression of E6/E7 oncogene expression and induce inhibition of tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. These results encourage further investigation of this form of RNA interference as a promising treatment for cervical cancer.

  9. In Vitro Ultramorphological Assessment of Apoptosis Induced by Zerumbone on (HeLa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddig Ibrahim Abdel Wahab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone (ZER, a potential anticancer compound, isolated from the fresh rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet. In this investigation, the cytotoxic properties of ZER were evaluated, on cancer cells of human cervix (HeLa, breast and ovary, and normal cells of Chinese Hamster ovary, using MTT assay. Apoptogenic effects of ZER on HeLa were studied using fluorescence microscopy (AO/PI double staining, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, and colorimetric assay of the apoptosis promoter enzyme, caspase-3. The results of MTT assay showed that ZER has less effect on normal cells compared to cancer cells. The lowest IC50 of ZER was observed on HeLa cells. Cytological observations showed nuclear and chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, multinucleation, abnormalities of mitochondrial cristae, membrane blebbing, holes, cytoplasmic extrusions and formation of apoptotic bodies as confirmed collectively by double staining of AO/PI, SEM and TEM. Statistical analysis (two-tailed t-test of differential counting of 200 cells under fluorescence microscope revealed significant difference in apoptotic cells populations between treated and untreated HeLa cells. In addition, ZER has increased the cellular level of caspase-3 on the treated HeLa cells. It could be concluded that ZER was able to produce distinctive morphological features of cell death that corresponds to apoptosis.

  10. The importance of ribosome production, and the 5S RNP-MDM2 pathway, in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelava, Andria; Schneider, Claudia; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2016-08-15

    Ribosomes are abundant, large RNA-protein complexes that are the source of all protein synthesis in the cell. The production of ribosomes is an extremely energetically expensive cellular process that has long been linked to human health and disease. More recently, it has been shown that ribosome biogenesis is intimately linked to multiple cellular signalling pathways and that defects in ribosome production can lead to a wide variety of human diseases. Furthermore, changes in ribosome production in response to nutrient levels in the diet lead to metabolic re-programming of the liver. Reduced or abnormal ribosome production in response to cellular stress or mutations in genes encoding factors critical for ribosome biogenesis causes the activation of the tumour suppressor p53, which leads to re-programming of cellular transcription. The ribosomal assembly intermediate 5S RNP (ribonucleoprotein particle), containing RPL5, RPL11 and the 5S rRNA, accumulates when ribosome biogenesis is blocked. The excess 5S RNP binds to murine double minute 2 (MDM2), the main p53-suppressor in the cell, inhibiting its function and leading to p53 activation. Here, we discuss the involvement of ribosome biogenesis in the homoeostasis of p53 in the cell and in human health and disease. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Adjuvant antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of aloin in irradiated HeLaS3 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nićiforović, A.; Adžić, M.; Zarić, B.; Radojčić, M. B.

    2007-09-01

    Naturally occurring phytoanthracycline, aloin, was used to radiosensitize HeLaS3 human cervix carcinoma cells. The results indicated that the cytotoxic adjuvant effect of aloin was synergistic with gammaionizing radiation at all drug concentrations and comparable to the cytotoxicity of 5-10 Gy ionizing radiation alone. Radiosensitization of HeLaS3 cells was achieved by 60 μM aloin, which reduced the IC50 dose of ionizing radiation from 3.4 to 2 Gy. Ionizing radiation and aloin alone or in combination are shown to cause perturbation of the HeLaS3 cell-cycle and increase the percentage of cells in the DNA synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle. While either of the agents applied alone causes programmed cell death by apoptosis, the simultaneous cell damage by both agents through the altered redox balance compromised cell capacity to conduct this program and led to synergic cytotoxic cell death by necrosis.

  12. Selective killing effect of oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole on A549 or Hela cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guihua

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the selective killing effect of oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole on A549 or Hela cells. Methods Proliferation assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, apoptosis detecting, flow cytometry and western blot were performed. Results It was found that treatment with propafenone at the concentration of 0.014 g/L or higher for 48 h could induce apoptosis in Hela cells greatly, while it was not observed in oxytetracycline and metamizole at the concentration of 0.20 g/L for 48 h. Oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole all displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of A549 cells. The results of LDH assay demonstrated that the drugs at the test range of concentration did not cause necrosis in the cells. Propafenone could elevate the protein level of P53 effectively (Pmetamizol (dipyrone) all displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of A549 cells. Propafenone also displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of Hela cells. PMID:24385693

  13. Antiproliferative effects of some medicinal plants on HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenić-Milošević Desanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants maintain the health and vitality of individuals, and also have potential curative effect on various diseases, including cancer. In this study were investigated the antiproliferative effects of water extracts of previously obtained ethanolic dry extracts of three different medicinal plants (Echinacea angustifolia, Salvia officinalis and Melissa officinalis on cell lines derived from human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells. The best cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 43.52 μg/ml on HeLa cell lines was exhibited by Echinacea angustifolia. The extract of Salvia officinalis also showed a good cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines; the IC50 value was 70.41 μg/ml. Melissa officinalis manifested a slightly weaker cytotoxic activity and an IC50 value of 122.22 μg/ml. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34021 i br. 175011

  14. RNA topology

    OpenAIRE

    Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D.

    2013-01-01

    A new variety on non-coding RNA has been discovered by several groups: circular RNA (circRNA). This discovery raises intriguing questions about the possibility of the existence of knotted RNA molecules and the existence of a new class of enzymes changing RNA topology, RNA topoisomerases.

  15. Involvement of S6K1 in mitochondria function and structure in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisoo; Tran, Quangdon; Mun, Kisun; Masuda, Kouhei; Kwon, So Hee; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Thomas, George; Park, Jongsun

    2016-12-01

    The major biological function of mitochondria is to generate cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation. Apart from cellular respiration, mitochondria also play a key role in signaling processes, including aging and cancer metabolism. It has been shown that S6K1-knockout mice are resistant to obesity due to enhanced beta-oxidation, with an increased number of large mitochondria. Therefore, in this report, the possible involvement of S6K1 in regulating mitochondria dynamics and function has been investigated in stable lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells. Interestingly, S6K1-stably depleted HeLa cells showed phenotypical changes in mitochondria morphology. This observation was further confirmed by detailed image analysis of mitochondria shape. Corresponding molecular changes were also observed in these cells, such as the induction of mitochondrial fission proteins (Drp1 and Fis1). Oxygen consumption is elevated in S6K1-depeleted HeLa cells and FL5.12 cells. In addition, S6K1 depletion leads to enhancement of ATP production in cytoplasm and mitochondria. However, the relative ratio of mitochondrial ATP to cytoplasmic ATP is actually decreased in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells compared to control cells. Lastly, induction of mitophagy was found in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells with corresponding changes of mitochondria shape on electron microscope analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that S6K1 is involved in the regulation of mitochondria morphology and function in HeLa cells. This study will provide novel insights into S6K1 function in mitochondria-mediated cellular signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni cell lysates differently target mitochondria and lysosomes on HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonico, B; Campana, R; Luchetti, F; Arcangeletti, M; Betti, M; Cesarini, E; Ciacci, C; Vittoria, E; Galli, L; Papa, S; Baffone, W

    2014-08-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. The synthesis of cytolethal distending toxin appears essential in the infection process. In this work we evaluated the sequence of lethal events in HeLa cells exposed to cell lysates of two distinct strains, C. jejuni ATCC 33291 and C. jejuni ISS3. C. jejuni cell lysates (CCLys) were added to HeLa cell monolayers which were analysed to detect DNA content, death features, bcl-2 and p53 status, mitochondria/lysosomes network and finally, CD54 and CD59 alterations, compared to cell lysates of C. jejuni 11168H cdtA mutant. We found mitochondria and lysosomes differently targeted by these bacterial lysates. Death, consistent with apoptosis for C. jejuni ATCC 33291 lysate, occurred in a slow way (>48 h); concomitantly HeLa cells increase their endolysosomal compartment, as a consequence of toxin internalization besides a simultaneous and partial lysosomal destabilization. C. jejuni CCLys induces death in HeLa cells mainly via a caspase-dependent mechanism although a p53 lysosomal pathway (also caspase-independent) seems to appear in addition. In C. jejuni ISS3-treated cells, the p53-mediated oxidative degradation of mitochondrial components seems to be lost, inducing the deepest lysosomal alterations. Furthermore, CD59 considerably decreases, suggesting both a degradation or internalisation pathway. CCLys-treated HeLa cells increase CD54 expression on their surface, because of the action of lysate as its double feature of toxin and bacterial peptide. In conclusion, we revealed that C. jejuni CCLys-treated HeLa cells displayed different features, depending on the particular strain.

  17. Evaluation of Antiproliferative Potential of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on HeLa Human Cervical Tumor Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 nanoparticles as nanomaterials have promising biomedical applications. In this paper, the cytotoxicity induced by CONPs human cervical tumor cells was investigated. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using the precipitation method. The nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferation of HeLa human cervical tumor cells in a dose dependent manner but did not showed to be cytotoxic as analyzed by MTT assay. The administrated treatment decreased the HeLa cell viability cells from 100% to 65% at the dose of 100 μg/mL.

  18. 1-(2-Hydroxy-5-methylphenyl-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione Induces G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Autophagy in HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Heng Tsai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural agent, 1-(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione (HMDB, has been reported to have growth inhibitory effects on several human cancer cells. However, the role of HMDB in cervical cancer remains unclear. Herein, we found that HMDB dose- and time-dependently inhibited growth of HeLa cervical cancer cells, accompanied with G1 cell cycle arrest. HMDB decreased protein expression of cyclins D1/D3/E and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs 2/4/6 and reciprocally increased mRNA and protein levels of CDK inhibitors (p15, p16, p21, and p27, thereby leading to the accumulation of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma (Rb protein. HMDB also triggered the accumulation of acidic vesicles and formation of microtubule-associated protein-light chain 3 (LC3, followed by increased expression of LC3 and Beclin-1 and decreased expression of p62, suggesting that HMDB triggered autophagy in HeLa cells. Meanwhile, suppression of the expression of survivin and Bcl-2 implied that HMDB-induced autophagy is tightly linked to apoptosis. Exploring the action mechanism, HMDB induced autophagy via the modulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and mTOR signaling pathway rather than the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. These results suggest that HMDB inhibits HeLa cell growth by eliciting a G1 arrest through modulation of G1 cell cycle regulators and by concomitantly inducing autophagy through the mediation of AMPK-mTOR and Akt-mTOR pathways, and may be a promising antitumor agent against cervical cancer.

  19. A Stable HeLa Cell Line That Inducibly Expresses Poliovirus 2Apro: Effects on Cellular and Viral Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Angel; Feduchi, Elena; Carrasco, Luis

    2000-01-01

    A HeLa cell clone (2A7d) that inducibly expresses the gene for poliovirus protease 2A (2Apro) under the control of tetracycline has been obtained. Synthesis of 2Apro induces severe morphological changes in 2A7d cells. One day after tetracycline removal, cells round up and a few hours later die. Poliovirus 2Apro cleaves both forms of initiation factor eIF4G, causing extensive inhibition of capped-mRNA translation a few hours after protease induction. Methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethylketone, a selective inhibitor of 2Apro, prevents both eIF4G cleavage and inhibition of translation but not cellular death. Expression of 2Apro still allows both the replication of poliovirus and the translation of mRNAs containing a picornavirus leader sequence, while vaccinia virus replication is drastically inhibited. Translation of transfected capped mRNA is blocked in 2A7d-On cells, while luciferase synthesis from a mRNA bearing a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence is enhanced by the presence of 2Apro. Moreover, synthesis of 2Apro in 2A7d cells complements the translational defect of a poliovirus 2Apro-defective variant. These results show that poliovirus 2Apro expression mimics some phenotypical characteristics of poliovirus-infected cells, such as cell rounding, inhibition of protein synthesis and enhancement of IRES-driven translation. This cell line constitutes a useful tool to further analyze 2Apro functions, to complement poliovirus 2Apro mutants, and to test antiviral compounds. PMID:10666269

  20. O-5S quantitative real-time PCR: a new diagnostic tool for laboratory confirmation of human onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Solomon A; Beissner, Marcus; Saar, Malkin; Ali, Solomon; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Adbaru, Mulatu G; Battke, Florian; Poppert, Sven; Hoelscher, Michael; Löscher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-02

    Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. In endemic areas, the diagnosis is commonly confirmed by microscopic examination of skin snip samples, though this technique is considered to have low sensitivity. The available melting-curve based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using degenerated primers targeting the O-150 repeat of O. volvulus was considered insufficient for confirming the individual diagnosis, especially in elimination studies. This study aimed to improve detection of O. volvulus DNA in clinical samples through the development of a highly sensitive qPCR assay. A novel hydrolysis probe based qPCR assay was designed targeting the specific sequence of the O. volvulus O-5S rRNA gene. A total of 200 clinically suspected onchocerciasis cases were included from Goma district in South-west Ethiopia, from October 2012 through May 2013. Skin snip samples were collected and subjected to microscopy, O-150 qPCR, and the novel O-5S qPCR. Among the 200 individuals, 133 patients tested positive (positivity rate of 66.5%) and 67 negative by O-5S qPCR, 74 tested positive by microscopy (37.0%) and 78 tested positive by O-150 qPCR (39.0%). Among the 133 O-5S qPCR positive individuals, microscopy and O-150 qPCR detected 55.6 and 59.4% patients, respectively, implying a higher sensitivity of O-5S qPCR than microscopy and O-150 qPCR. None of the 67 individuals who tested negative by O-5S qPCR tested positive by microscopy or O-150 qPCR, implying 100% specificity of the newly designed O-5S qPCR assay. The novel O-5S qPCR assay is more sensitive than both microscopic examination and the existing O-150 qPCR for the detection of O. volvulus from skin snip samples. The newly designed assay is an important step towards appropriate individual diagnosis and control of onchocerciasis.

  1. Fine organization of genomic regions tagged to the 5S rDNA locus of the bread wheat 5B chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Ekaterina M; Shcherban, Andrey B; Adonina, Irina G; Nesterov, Michail A; Beletsky, Alexey V; Rakitin, Andrey L; Mardanov, Andrey V; Ravin, Nikolai V; Salina, Elena A

    2017-11-14

    The multigene family encoding the 5S rRNA, one of the most important structurally-functional part of the large ribosomal subunit, is an obligate component of all eukaryotic genomes. 5S rDNA has long been a favored target for cytological and phylogenetic studies due to the inherent peculiarities of its structural organization, such as the tandem arrays of repetitive units and their high interspecific divergence. The complex polyploid nature of the genome of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, and the technically difficult task of sequencing clusters of tandem repeats mean that the detailed organization of extended genomic regions containing 5S rRNA genes remains unclear. This is despite the recent progress made in wheat genomic sequencing. Using pyrosequencing of BAC clones, in this work we studied the organization of two distinct 5S rDNA-tagged regions of the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat. Three BAC-clones containing 5S rDNA were identified in the 5BS chromosome-specific BAC-library of Triticum aestivum. Using the results of pyrosequencing and assembling, we obtained six 5S rDNA- containing contigs with a total length of 140,417 bp, and two sets (pools) of individual 5S rDNA sequences belonging to separate, but closely located genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome. Both regions are characterized by the presence of approximately 70-80 copies of 5S rDNA, however, they are completely different in their structural organization. The first region contained highly diverged short-type 5S rDNA units that were disrupted by multiple insertions of transposable elements. The second region contained the more conserved long-type 5S rDNA, organized as a single tandem array. FISH using probes specific to both 5S rDNA unit types showed differences in the distribution and intensity of signals on the chromosomes of polyploid wheat species and their diploid progenitors. A detailed structural organization of two closely located 5S rDNA-tagged genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome of bread

  2. Procyanidins from Pinus koraiensis bark inhibits HeLa cell growth by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of procyanidins from P. koraiensis bark on inhibiting Hela cells growth has been investigated by many approaches which are MTT method, agarose gel electrophoresis and Western blot method in vitro. The results showed that Marron powder were extracted from P. koraiensis bark with the extract ...

  3. Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (Sanyeqing) root tuber extracts induces apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Wu, Xuewen; Rao, Liqun

    2015-05-13

    Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (Sanyeqing) is traditionally used as a folk medicine for the treatment of cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms by which petroleum ether fraction (PEF) of Sanyeqing has anti-tumor activity on HeLa cells. The chemical components of PEF were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity of PEF on HeLa cells was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by phosphatidylserine translocation, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) changes and the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. The levels in T-SOD, CAT, GSH-PX and MDA were measured. PEF of Sanyeqing inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of HeLa cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. PEF triggered intrinsic apoptotic pathway indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. In addition, PEF activated extrinsic apoptotic pathway indicated by the activation of caspase-8. Furthermore, PEF decreased T-SOD, CAT, GSH-PX activities and increased MDA level. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids and phytosterol in PEF. PEF of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et. Gilg (Sanyeqing) exhibits cytotoxic effects, triggers both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways, and augments oxidative stress in cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Sanyeqing has strong potential to be developed as an agent for the treatment of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholesterol esters are detected by Raman microspectroscopy in HeLa cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, H.J.; Otto, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    The detection of trans-unsaturated lipids in single HeLa cells by Raman microspectroscopy was recently reported in this journal by Onogi et al. Based on our previously published Raman microspectroscopy data of individual macrophage foam cells, a detailed comparison between our spectra and spectrum

  5. Visualizing the molecular sociology at the HeLa cell nuclear periphery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahamid, Julia; Pfeffer, Stefan; Schaffer, Miroslava; Villa, Elizabeth; Danev, Radostin; Cuellar, Luis Kuhn; Förster, Friedrich|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516438; Hyman, Anthony A; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The molecular organization of eukaryotic nuclear volumes remains largely unexplored. Here we combined recent developments in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to produce three-dimensional snapshots of the HeLa cell nuclear periphery. Subtomogram averaging and classification of ribosomes revealed

  6. PHA-induced cytotoxicity of human lymphocytes against adherent hela-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huges-Law, G.; de Gast, G. C.; The, T. Hauw

    The conditions for a phytohaemagglutinin(PHA)-induced cytotoxicity test of human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. [3H]thymidine prelabelled HeLa cells were used as target cells. Stimulation with 10 μl PHA/ml during 24 h gave the best measure of lymphocyte cytotoxic capacity.

  7. Effect of Electrode Shape on Impedance of Single HeLa Cell: A COMSOL Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Haw; Chang, Wen-Hao

    2015-01-01

    In disease prophylaxis, single cell inspection provides more detailed data compared to conventional examinations. At the individual cell level, the electrical properties of the cell are helpful for understanding the effects of cellular behavior. The electric field distribution affects the results of single cell impedance measurements whereas the electrode geometry affects the electric field distributions. Therefore, this study obtained numerical solutions by using the COMSOL multiphysics package to perform FEM simulations of the effects of electrode geometry on microfluidic devices. An equivalent circuit model incorporating the PBS solution, a pair of electrodes, and a cell is used to obtain the impedance of a single HeLa cell. Simulations indicated that the circle and parallel electrodes provide higher electric field strength compared to cross and standard electrodes at the same operating voltage. Additionally, increasing the operating voltage reduces the impedance magnitude of a single HeLa cell in all electrode shapes. Decreasing impedance magnitude of the single HeLa cell increases measurement sensitivity, but higher operational voltage will damage single HeLa cell.

  8. Single-walled carbon nanotube interactions with HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musselman Inga H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work concerns exposing cultured human epithelial-like HeLa cells to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs dispersed in cell culture media supplemented with serum. First, the as-received CoMoCAT SWNT-containing powder was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analyses. Characterizations of the purified dispersions, termed DM-SWNTs, involved atomic force microscopy, inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry, and absorption and Raman spectroscopies. Confocal microRaman spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that DM-SWNTs were taken up by HeLa cells in a time- and temperature-dependent fashion. Transmission electron microscopy revealed SWNT-like material in intracellular vacuoles. The morphologies and growth rates of HeLa cells exposed to DM-SWNTs were statistically similar to control cells over the course of 4 d. Finally, flow cytometry was used to show that the fluorescence from MitoSOX™ Red, a selective indicator of superoxide in mitochondria, was statistically similar in both control cells and cells incubated in DM-SWNTs. The combined results indicate that under our sample preparation protocols and assay conditions, CoMoCAT DM-SWNT dispersions are not inherently cytotoxic to HeLa cells. We conclude with recommendations for improving the accuracy and comparability of carbon nanotube (CNT cytotoxicity reports.

  9. Induced senescence in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells containing elevated telomerase activity and extended telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, E C; DiMaio, D

    2001-11-01

    Proliferation of normal somatic human cells in culture is limited by replicative senescence, a growth-arrested state that appears to be triggered by the erosion of telomeres. Tumor cells such as HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, which contain short telomeres, can be induced to undergo senescence by various manipulations including oncogene withdrawal. Repression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 E6/E7 genes in HeLa cells by the bovine papillomavirus E2 transcriptional regulatory protein results in reactivation of the dormant p53 and p105(Rb) tumor suppressor pathways in these cells, repression of telomerase, and profound growth arrest. Strikingly, the growth-arrested cells rapidly and synchronously acquired numerous characteristics of primary cells undergoing replicative senescence. To explore the role of telomerase and telomere length in induced senescence, we expressed an exogenous hTERT gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase, to generate stable HeLa cell clones with elevated telomerase activity and extended telomeres. Expression of the E2 protein in these cells repressed HPV E6/E7 expression, activated tumor suppressor pathways, and induced senescence as assessed by growth arrest, morphological changes, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase expression, and increased autofluorescence. Cells carrying the hTERT gene and control cells displayed identical responses to E2 expression. Therefore, HeLa cell senescence induced by HPV repression is not triggered by short telomeres or low levels of telomerase activity.

  10. A class of DNA-binding peptides from wheat bud causes growth inhibition, G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgjo Kjell

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deproteinized DNA from eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells still contains a low-molecular weight peptidic fraction which can be dissociated by alkalinization of the medium. This fraction inhibits RNA transcription and tumor cell growth. Removal from DNA of normal cells causes amplification of DNA template activity. This effect is lower or absent in several cancer cell lines. Likewise, the amount of active peptides in cancer cell DNA extracts is lower than in DNA preparation of the corresponding normal cells. Such evidence, and their ubiquitous presence, suggests that they are a regulatory, conserved factor involved in the control of normal cell growth and gene expression. Results We report that peptides extracted from wheat bud chromatin induce growth inhibition, G2 arrest and caspase-dependent apoptosis in HeLa cells. The growth rate is decreased in cells treated during the S phase only and it is accompanied by DNA damage and DNA synthesis inhibition. In G2 cells, this treatment induces inactivation of the CDK1-cyclin B1 complex and an increase of active chk1 kinase expression. Conclusion The data indicate that the chromatin peptidic pool inhibits HeLa cell growth by causing defective DNA replication which, in turn, arrests cell cycle progression to mitosis via G2 checkpoint pathway activation.

  11. Ultrastructural localization of 5-methylcytosine on DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Irene; Biggiogera, Marco

    2017-08-01

    DNA methylation is the major epigenetic modification and it is involved in the negative regulation of gene expression. Its alteration can lead to neoplastic transformation. Several biomolecular approaches are nowadays used to study this modification on DNA, but also on RNA molecules, which are known to play a role in different biological processes. RNA methylation is one of the most common RNA modifications and 5-methylcytosine presence has recently been suggested in mRNA. However, an analysis of nucleic acid methylation at electron microscope is still lacking. Therefore, we visualized DNA methylation status and RNA methylation sites in the interphase nucleus of HeLa cells and rat hepatocytes by ultrastructural immunocytochemistry and cytochemical staining. This approach represents an efficient alternative to study nucleic acid methylation. In particular, this ultrastructural method makes the visualization of this epigenetic modification on a single RNA molecule possible, thus overcoming the technical limitations for a (pre-)mRNA methylation analysis.

  12. Mycoepoxydiene suppresses HeLa cell growth by inhibiting glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kehua; Li, Li; Sun, Xihuan; Xu, Qingyan; Song, Siyang; Shen, Yuemao; Deng, Xianming

    2017-05-01

    Upregulation of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is a major characteristic of the metabolic reprogramming of cancer and provides cancer cells with energy and vital metabolites to support their rapid proliferation. Targeting glycolysis and the PPP has emerged as a promising antitumor therapeutic strategy. Marine natural products are attractive sources for anticancer therapeutics, as evidenced by the antitumor drug Yondelis. Mycoepoxydiene (MED) is a natural product isolated from a marine fungus that has shown promising inhibitory efficacy against HeLa cells in vitro. We used a proteomic approach with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry to explore the cellular targets of MED and to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of MED in HeLa cells. Our proteomic data showed that triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and 6-phosphogluconolactonase (PGLS), which participate in glycolysis and the PPP, respectively, were significantly downregulated by MED treatment. Functional studies revealed that the expression levels of several other enzymes involved in glycolysis and the PPP, including hexokinase 2 (HK2), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKM), aldolase A (ALDOA), enolase 1 (ENO1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), were also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the LDHA and G6PD enzymatic activities in HeLa cells were inhibited by MED, and overexpression of these downregulated enzymes rescued HeLa cells from the growth inhibition induced by MED. Our data suggest that MED suppresses HeLa cell growth by inhibiting glycolysis and the PPP, which provides a mechanistic basis for the development of new therapeutics against cervical cancer.

  13. [miR-143 inhibits cell proliferation through targeted regulating the expression of K-ras gene in HeLa cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H X; Cui, H K; Pan, Y; Hu, R L; Zhu, L H; Wang, S J

    2016-12-23

    Objective: To explore the effect of microRNA miR-143 on the proliferation of cervical cancer HeLa cells through targeted regulating the expression of K-ras gene. Methods: The luciferase report carrier containing wild type 3'-UTR of K-ras gene (K-ras-wt) or mutated 3'-UTR of the K-ras (K-ras-mut) were co-transfected with iR-143 mimic into the HeLa cells respectively, and the targeting effect of miR-143 in the transfectants was verified by the dual luciferase report system. HeLa cells were also transfected with miR-143 mimic (miR-143 mimic group), mimic control (negative control group), and miR-143 mimic plus K-ras gene (miR-143 mimic+ K-ras group), respectively. The expression of miR-143 in the transfected HeLa cells was detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression of K-ras protein was detected by Western blot. The cell proliferation activity of each group was examined by MTT assay. In addition, human cervical cancer tissue samples (n=5) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue samples (n=5) were also examined for the expression of miR-143 and K-ras protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: The luciferase report assay showed that co-transfection with miR-143 mimic decreased the luciferase activity of the K-ras-wt significantly, but did not inhibit the luciferase activity of the K-ras-mut. The expression of miR-143 in the HeLa cells transfected with miR-143 mimic was significantly higher than that in the HeLa cells transfected with the mimic control (3.31±0.45 vs 0.97±0.22, Pras group was also significantly lower than the control group (Pras protein in the miR-143 mimic group, the negative control group and the miR-143 mimic+ K-ras group were lowest, moderate, and highest, respectively (115.27±34.08, 521.36±41.89, and 706.52±89.44, all Pras protein expression in the cervical cancer group was significantly higher than that in the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia group (584.39±72.34 vs. 114.23±25.82, Pras gene. In human cervical

  14. Population distribution of 45S and 5S rDNA in golden mahseer, Tor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    But FISH data showed significant difference between the populations, four of the five populations showed six 18S (three pairs) and two 5S (one pair) signals with positional polymorphism, while one population showed eight 18S and four 5S signals, respectively. Southern blot data confirms that 5S rDNA clusters present on ...

  15. pre-mRNA processing includes N6 methylation of adenosine residues that are retained in mRNA exons and the fallacy of "RNA epigenetics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Robert B; Ke, Shengdong; Darnell, James E

    2017-12-08

    By using a cell fraction technique that separates chromatin associated nascent RNA, newly completed nucleoplasmic mRNA and cytoplasmic mRNA, we have shown that residues in exons are methylated (m6A) in nascent pre-mRNA and remain methylated in the same exonic residues in nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic mRNA. Thus, there is no evidence of a substantial degree of demethylation in mRNA exons that would correspond to so-called "epigenetic" demethylation. The turnover rate of mRNA molecules is faster depending on m6A content in HeLa cell mRNA suggesting specification of mRNA stability may be the major role of m6A exon modification. In mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lacking Mettl3, the major mRNA methylase, the cells continue to grow, making the same mRNAs with unchanged splicing profiles in the absence (>90%) of m6A in mRNA suggesting no common obligatory role of m6A in splicing. All these data argue strongly against a commonly used "reversible dynamic methylation/demethylation" of mRNA, calling into question the concept of "RNA epigenetics" that parallels the well-established role of dynamic DNA epigenetics. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  16. Individual expression features of GPX2, NQO1 and SQSTM1 transcript variants induced by hydrogen peroxide treatment in HeLa cells

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    Anna A. Belanova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathway activity assessment-based approaches are becoming highly influential in various fields of biology and medicine. However, these approaches mostly rely on analysis of mRNA expression, and total mRNA from a given locus is measured in the majority of cases. Notably, a significant portion of protein-coding genes produces more than one transcript. This biological fact is responsible for significant noise when changes in total mRNA transcription of a single gene are analyzed. The NFE2L2/AP-1 pathway is an attractive target for biomedical applications. To date, there is a lack of data regarding the agreement in expression of even classical target genes of this pathway. In the present paper we analyzed whether transcript variants of GPX2, NQO1 and SQSTM1 were characterized by individual features of expression when HeLa cells were exposed to pro-oxidative stimulation with hydrogen peroxide. We found that all the transcripts (10 in total appeared to be significantly individually regulated under the conditions tested. We conclude that individual transcripts, rather than total mRNA, are best markers of pathway activation. We also discuss here some biological roles of individual transcript regulation.

  17. Growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field

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    Yuan-yuan HUA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field(PEF in vitro.Methods HeLa cells cultured in vitro were divided into experimental group and control group(with or without intense picosecond PEF.With constant pulse width,frequency and voltage,the cells in experimental group were divided into 6 sub-groups according to the number of pulse(100,200,500,1000,1500,2000,the growth inhibition of HeLa cells by PEF and the dose-effect relationship were analyzed by MTT.Caspase 3 protein activity was detected in the cells in 500,1000 and 2000 sub-groups.Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was detected by rhodamine 123 staining with the cells in 2000 sub-groups.Results MTT assay demonstrated that intense picosecond PEF significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in dose-dependent manner.The survival rates of cells declined along with the increase in pulse number,and were 96.23%±0.76%,94.11%±2.42%,90.31%±1.77%,64.59%±1.59%,32.95%±0.73%,23.85%±2.38% and 100%,respectively,in 100,200,500,1000,1500,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.01.The Caspase 3 protein activity was significantly enhanced by intense picosecond PEF,and the absorbancy indexes(A were 0.174±0.012,0.232±0.017,0.365±0.016 and 0.122±0.011,respectively,in 500,1000,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.05.The mitochondrial transmembrane potential of HeLa cells was significantly inhibited by intense picosecond PEF,and the fluorescence intensity in 2000 sub-group(76.66±13.38 was much lower than that in control group(155.81±2.33,P < 0.05.Conclusion Intense picosecond PEF may significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa cells,and induce cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

  18. Curcumin targeting the thioredoxin system elevates oxidative stress in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Wenqing; Zhang, Baoxin; Duan, Dongzhu [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Wu, Jincai [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Fang, Jianguo, E-mail: fangjg@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2012-08-01

    The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), thioredoxin (Trx), and NADPH, is ubiquitous in all cells and involved in many redox-dependent signaling pathways. Curcumin, a naturally occurring pigment that gives a specific yellow color in curry food, is consumed in normal diet up to 100 mg per day. This molecule has also been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Curcumin has numerous biological functions, and many of these functions are related to induction of oxidative stress. However, how curcumin elicits oxidative stress in cells is unclear. Our previous work has demonstrated the way by which curcumin interacts with recombinant TrxR1 and alters the antioxidant enzyme into a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator in vitro. Herein we reported that curcumin can target the cytosolic/nuclear thioredoxin system to eventually elevate oxidative stress in HeLa cells. Curcumin-modified TrxR1 dose-dependently and quantitatively transfers electrons from NADPH to oxygen with the production of ROS. Also, curcumin can drastically down-regulate Trx1 protein level as well as its enzyme activity in HeLa cells, which in turn remarkably decreases intracellular free thiols, shifting the intracellular redox balance to a more oxidative state, and subsequently induces DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, curcumin-pretreated HeLa cells are more sensitive to oxidative stress. Knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes HeLa cells to curcumin cytotoxicity, highlighting the physiological significance of targeting TrxR1 by curcumin. Taken together, our data disclose a previously unrecognized prooxidant mechanism of curcumin in cells, and provide a deep insight in understanding how curcumin works in vivo. -- Highlights: ► Curcumin induces oxidative stress by targeting the thioredoxin system. ► Curcumin-modified TrxR quantitatively oxidizes NADPH to generate ROS. ► Knockdown of TrxR1 augments curcumin's cytotoxicity in HeLa cells.

  19. Efflux Transport Characterization of Resveratrol Glucuronides in UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 Transfected HeLa Cells: Application of a Cellular Pharmacokinetic Model to Decipher the Contribution of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Feng; Quan, Enxi; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2016-04-01

    Resveratrol undergoes extensive metabolism to form biologically active glucuronides in humans. However, the transport mechanisms for resveratrol glucuronides are not fully established. Here, we aimed to characterize the efflux transport of resveratrol glucuronides using UGT1A1-overexpressing HeLa cells (HeLa1A1 cells), and to determine the contribution of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 4 to cellular excretion of the glucuronides. Two glucuronide isomers [i.e., resveratrol 3-O-glucuronide (R3G) and resveratrol 4'-O-glucuronide (R4'G)] were excreted into the extracellular compartment after incubation of resveratrol (1-100 μM) with HeLa1A1 cells. The excretion rate was linearly related to the level of intracellular glucuronide, indicating that glucuronide efflux was a nonsaturable process. MK-571 (a dual inhibitor of UGT1A1 and MRPs) significantly decreased the excretion rates of R3G and R4'G while increasing their intracellular levels. Likewise, short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of MRP4 caused a significant reduction in glucuronide excretion but an elevation in glucuronide accumulation. Furthermore, β-glucuronidase expressed in the cells catalyzed the hydrolysis of the glucuronides back to the parent compound. A cellular pharmacokinetic model integrating resveratrol transport/metabolism with glucuronide hydrolysis/excretion was well fitted to the experimental data, allowing derivation of the efflux rate constant values in the absence or presence of shRNA targeting MRP4. It was found that a large percentage of glucuronide excretion (43%-46%) was attributed to MRP4. In conclusion, MRP4 participated in cellular excretion of R3G and R4'G. Integration of mechanistic pharmacokinetic modeling with transporter knockdown was a useful method to derive the contribution percentage of an exporter to overall glucuronide excretion. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Higher-order organisation of extremely amplified, potentially functional and massively methylated 5S rDNA in European pikes (Esox sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonová, Radka; Ocalewicz, Konrad; Kirtiklis, Lech; Delmastro, Giovanni Battista; Pelikánová, Šárka; Garcia, Sonia; Kovařík, Aleš

    2017-05-18

    Pikes represent an important genus (Esox) harbouring a pre-duplication karyotype (2n = 2x = 50) of economically important salmonid pseudopolyploids. Here, we have characterized the 5S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in Esox lucius and its closely related E. cisalpinus using cytogenetic, molecular and genomic approaches. Intragenomic homogeneity and copy number estimation was carried out using Illumina reads. The higher-order structure of rDNA arrays was investigated by the analysis of long PacBio reads. Position of loci on chromosomes was determined by FISH. DNA methylation was analysed by methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes. The 5S rDNA loci occupy exclusively (peri)centromeric regions on 30-38 acrocentric chromosomes in both E. lucius and E. cisalpinus. The large number of loci is accompanied by extreme amplification of genes (>20,000 copies), which is to the best of our knowledge one of the highest copy number of rRNA genes in animals ever reported. Conserved secondary structures of predicted 5S rRNAs indicate that most of the amplified genes are potentially functional. Only few SNPs were found in genic regions indicating their high homogeneity while intergenic spacers were more heterogeneous and several families were identified. Analysis of 10-30 kb-long molecules sequenced by the PacBio technology (containing about 40% of total 5S rDNA) revealed that the vast majority (96%) of genes are organised in large several kilobase-long blocks. Dispersed genes or short tandems were less common (4%). The adjacent 5S blocks were directly linked, separated by intervening DNA and even inverted. The 5S units differing in the intergenic spacers formed both homogeneous and heterogeneous (mixed) blocks indicating variable degree of homogenisation between the loci. Both E. lucius and E. cisalpinus 5S rDNA was heavily methylated at CG dinucleotides. Extreme amplification of 5S rRNA genes in the Esox genome occurred in the absence of significant pseudogenisation

  1. Phospholipase C-β1 and β4 Contribute to Non-Genetic Cell-to-Cell Variability in Histamine-Induced Calcium Signals in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Sachiko; Matsu-ura, Toru; Fukami, Kiyoko; Michikawa, Takayuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    A uniform extracellular stimulus triggers cell-specific patterns of Ca2+ signals, even in genetically identical cell populations. However, the underlying mechanism that generates the cell-to-cell variability remains unknown. We monitored cytosolic inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) concentration changes using a fluorescent IP3 sensor in single HeLa cells showing different patterns of histamine-induced Ca2+ oscillations in terms of the time constant of Ca2+ spike amplitude decay and the Ca2+ oscillation frequency. HeLa cells stimulated with histamine exhibited a considerable variation in the temporal pattern of Ca2+ signals and we found that there were cell-specific IP3 dynamics depending on the patterns of Ca2+ signals. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that phospholipase C (PLC)-β1, -β3, -β4, -γ1, -δ3 and -ε were expressed at relatively high levels in HeLa cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of PLC isozymes revealed that PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 were specifically involved in the histamine-induced IP3 increases in HeLa cells. Modulation of IP3 dynamics by knockdown or overexpression of the isozymes PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 resulted in specific changes in the characteristics of Ca2+ oscillations, such as the time constant of the temporal changes in the Ca2+ spike amplitude and the Ca2+ oscillation frequency, within the range of the cell-to-cell variability found in wild-type cell populations. These findings indicate that the heterogeneity in the process of IP3 production, rather than IP3-induced Ca2+ release, can cause cell-to-cell variability in the patterns of Ca2+ signals and that PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 contribute to generate cell-specific Ca2+ signals evoked by G protein-coupled receptor stimulation. PMID:24475116

  2. Phospholipase C-β1 and β4 contribute to non-genetic cell-to-cell variability in histamine-induced calcium signals in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Ishida

    Full Text Available A uniform extracellular stimulus triggers cell-specific patterns of Ca(2+ signals, even in genetically identical cell populations. However, the underlying mechanism that generates the cell-to-cell variability remains unknown. We monitored cytosolic inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 concentration changes using a fluorescent IP3 sensor in single HeLa cells showing different patterns of histamine-induced Ca(2+ oscillations in terms of the time constant of Ca(2+ spike amplitude decay and the Ca(2+ oscillation frequency. HeLa cells stimulated with histamine exhibited a considerable variation in the temporal pattern of Ca(2+ signals and we found that there were cell-specific IP3 dynamics depending on the patterns of Ca(2+ signals. RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed that phospholipase C (PLC-β1, -β3, -β4, -γ1, -δ3 and -ε were expressed at relatively high levels in HeLa cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of PLC isozymes revealed that PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 were specifically involved in the histamine-induced IP3 increases in HeLa cells. Modulation of IP3 dynamics by knockdown or overexpression of the isozymes PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 resulted in specific changes in the characteristics of Ca(2+ oscillations, such as the time constant of the temporal changes in the Ca(2+ spike amplitude and the Ca(2+ oscillation frequency, within the range of the cell-to-cell variability found in wild-type cell populations. These findings indicate that the heterogeneity in the process of IP3 production, rather than IP3-induced Ca(2+ release, can cause cell-to-cell variability in the patterns of Ca(2+ signals and that PLC-β1 and PLC-β4 contribute to generate cell-specific Ca(2+ signals evoked by G protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  3. Coxsackievirus B5 induced apoptosis of HeLa cells: effects on p53 and SUMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Rogério; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Arruda, Eurico

    2010-01-20

    Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), a human enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, is a frequent cause of acute and chronic human diseases. The pathogenesis of enteroviral infections is not completely understood, and the fate of the CVB5-infected cell has a pivotal role in this process. We have investigated the CVB5-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and found that it happens by the intrinsic pathway by a mechanism dependent on the ubiquitin-proteasome system, associated with nuclear aggregation of p53. Striking redistribution of both SUMO and UBC9 was noted at 4 h post-infection, simultaneously with a reduction in the levels of the ubiquitin-ligase HDM2. Taken together, these results suggest that CVB5 infection of HeLa cells elicit the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by MDM2 degradation and p53 activation, destabilizing protein sumoylation, by a mechanism that is dependent on a functional ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  4. Study of Paclitaxel-Treated HeLa Cells by Differential Electrical Impedance Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Julie; Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Rodriguez-Trujillo, Romen; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2014-09-01

    This work describes the electrical investigation of paclitaxel-treated HeLa cells using a custom-made microfluidic biosensor for whole cell analysis in continuous flow. We apply the method of differential electrical impedance spectroscopy to treated HeLa cells in order to elucidate the changes in electrical properties compared with non-treated cells. We found that our microfluidic system was able to distinguish between treated and non-treated cells. Furthermore, we utilize a model for electrical impedance spectroscopy in order to perform a theoretical study to clarify our results. This study focuses on investigating the changes in the electrical properties of the cell membrane caused by the effect of paclitaxel. We observe good agreement between the model and the obtained results. This establishes the proof-of-concept for the application in cell drug therapy.

  5. Study of Paclitaxel-Treated HeLa Cells by Differential Electrical Impedance Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kirkegaard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the electrical investigation of paclitaxel-treated HeLa cells using a custom-made microfluidic biosensor for whole cell analysis in continuous flow. We apply the method of differential electrical impedance spectroscopy to treated HeLa cells in order to elucidate the changes in electrical properties compared with non-treated cells. We found that our microfluidic system was able to distinguish between treated and non-treated cells. Furthermore, we utilize a model for electrical impedance spectroscopy in order to perform a theoretical study to clarify our results. This study focuses on investigating the changes in the electrical properties of the cell membrane caused by the effect of paclitaxel. We observe good agreement between the model and the obtained results. This establishes the proof-of-concept for the application in cell drug therapy.

  6. Aktivitas Antitumor (Hela dan T47d dan Antioksidan Ekstrak Makroalga Hijau Ulva fasciata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endar Marraskuranto

    2008-12-01

    metode BSLT, uji sitotoksisitas terhadap sel tumor HeLa dan T47D dilakukan dengan metode uji MTT, sedangkan uji antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode DPPH (2,2-diphenyl pikryl hidrazil. Hasil uji toksisitas menunjukkan bahwa fraksi heksan U. fasciata memiliki toksisitas tertinggi dengan LC50 sebesar 19,12 ppm sehingga tergolong sangat toksik. Sementara itu, fraksi heksan makroalga U. fasciata menunjukkan aktivitas sitotoksik yang baik terhadap sel tumor HeLa (IC50 = 25,6 ppm dan terhadap sel tumor T47D (IC50 = 28,7 ppm. Akan tetapi, ekstrak kasar, fraksi metanol dan fraksi heksan makroalga U. fasciata tidak menunjukkan aktivitas antioksidan dengan nilai IC50 yang masih jauh di atas standar vitamin C.

  7. Biocompatibility of various ferrite nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Asahi; Hirukawa, Atsuo; Yamada, Tsutomu; Morishita, Shin; Takemura, Yasushi

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles for thermotherapy must be biocompatible and possess high thermal efficiency as heating elements. The biocompatibility of Fe 3O 4 (20-30 nm), ZnFe 2O 4 (15-30 nm) and NiFe 2O 4 (20-30 nm) nanoparticles was studied using a cytotoxicity colony formation assay and a cell viability assay. The Fe 3O 4 sample was found to be biocompatible on HeLa cells. While ZnFe 2O 4 and NiFe 2O 4 were non-toxic at low concentrations, HeLa cells exhibited cytotoxic effects when exposed to concentrations of 100 μg/ml nanoparticles.

  8. Biocompatibility of various ferrite nanoparticles evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assays using HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomitaka, Asahi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: d07gd158@ynu.ac.jp; Hirukawa, Atsuo; Yamada, Tsutomu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Morishita, Shin [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Takemura, Yasushi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-5, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles for thermotherapy must be biocompatible and possess high thermal efficiency as heating elements. The biocompatibility of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (20-30 nm), ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (15-30 nm) and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (20-30 nm) nanoparticles was studied using a cytotoxicity colony formation assay and a cell viability assay. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} sample was found to be biocompatible on HeLa cells. While ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were non-toxic at low concentrations, HeLa cells exhibited cytotoxic effects when exposed to concentrations of 100 {mu}g/ml nanoparticles.

  9. IR-induced autophagy plays a role in survival of HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Ryu, Tae Ho; Chung, Dong Min; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Cells respond to stress with repair, or are diverted into irreversible cell cycle exit (senescence) or are eliminated through programmed cell death. There are two major morphologically distinctive forms of programmed cell death, apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Apoptosis contribute to cell death, whereas autophagy can play a dual role in mediating either cell survival or death in response to various stress stimuli. Here we analysed cellular responses induced by IR. The understanding of an appropriate cellular stress response is of crucial importance in foreseeing the cell fate. Apoptotic feagures were not detected in HeLa under our experimental irradiation condition. Autophagic cell death in HeLa may play an important role in cell protection and can result in cell survival.

  10. The comparison of radiation responses in MCF-7 and HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Ryu, Tae Ho; Chung, Dong-Min; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Activation of this pathway temporarily arrests cells at the G1 or G2 checkpoints of cell cycle, or terminates DNA replication and cell division. The present study was carried out to identify the fate of cells to cope with DNA damage stress. Cellular responses following IR treatment were different depending on the characteristics (origin, organism and genes expressed etc.) of cell line used and extent of genomic injury. p53 expression level was increased in a dose-dependent manner in both cells. IR induced a drastic increase in expression of p21 in MCF-7 compared to that in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed a significant accumulation in G2/M phase after treatment of MCF-7 with IR. This study identified that IR-induced cell fates were determined through p53-dependent activation of p21, which resulted in senescence of MCF-7 cells and autophagy of HeLa cells.

  11. Bamboo charcoal inhibits growth of HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Fumio; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Takahashi, Junzo

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the far infrared spectral characteristics of bamboo charcoal powder and its effect on cancer cells for use in the dental field. To analyze the effects of the powder, HeLa and WI-38 cells were used and then assessed by cell adhesion assay and WST-1 assay. The powder emitted far infrared rays at wavelengths between 4 to 16 microm. The multiplication rate of WI-38 cells showed no significant differences between the conventional culture (control group) and culture on the powder (FIR group). However, at six days after incubation, HeLa cells of FIR group had a significantly lower multiplication rate compared with the control group. Based on the far infrared rays emitted in this study, bamboo charcoal powder proved to be a promising dental filler material for cancer prevention.

  12. Hemocyanin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Has Antiproliferative Effect against HeLa Cell In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Zheng

    Full Text Available Hemocyanin (HMC has been shown to participate in multiple roles of immune defence. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effect and underpinning mechanism of HMC from Litopenaeus vannamei in vitro. Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay indicated that HMC could dramatically inhibit the growth of HeLa cells, but not 293T cells under the same conditions. Moreover, typical morphological features of apoptosis in HeLa cells including the formation of apoptotic body-like vesicles, chromatin condensation and margination were observed by using 4, 6-diamidino-2- phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI staining and fluorescence analysis. An apoptotic DNA ladder from 180 to 300 bp was also detected. Furthermore, 10 variation proteins associated with apoptosis pathway, viz. G3PDH isoforms 1/2 (G3PDH1/2, aldosereductase, ectodemal dysplasia receptor associated death receptor domain isoform CRA_a (EDARADD, heat shock 60kD protein 1 variant 1 (HSP60, heat shock 70kDa protein 5 precursor (HSP70, heat shock protein 90kDa beta member 1 precursor (HSP90, 14-3-3 protein ζ/δ, Ran and ubiquitin activating enzyme E1(UBE1, were identified from HMC-treated HeLa cells by the proteomic and quantitative real-time RT-PCR strategies. Importantly, the reactive oxygen species (ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm and caspase-9/3 activities were changed significantly in HMC-treated HeLa cells. Together, the data suggests that L. vannamei HMC mediates antiproliferative properties through the apoptosis mechanism involving the mitochondria triggered pathway.

  13. Analysis of lysosomal membrane proteins exposed to melanin in HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Seung Hyuck; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There have been developed to use targeting ability for antimicrobial, anticancerous, gene therapy and cosmetics through analysis of various membrane proteins isolated from cell organelles. Methods It was examined about the lysosomal membrane protein extracted from lysosome isolated from HeLa cell treated by 100 ppm melanin for 24 hours in order to find associated with targeting ability to melanin using by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Results The result showed 14 up-regulated (1.5...

  14. Influence of valine deprivation and its reversal on fatty acid metabolism in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, J R; Campbell, I M; Vaughan, M H

    1976-05-27

    The effects that amino acid starvation and re-supplementation have on fatty acid metabolism in HeLa cells have been studied using radio gas chromatographic techniques. Deprivation of valine for 13.5 h caused fatty acid de novo biosynthesis, elongation and desaturation to cease. This effect was reversed within 5 h by adding valine back to the culture. During deprivation accumulation of triacylglycerol occurred. The return of valine to the culture caused compositional changes in the triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines.

  15. Achieve Sustainable Hospital Excellence Through 5-S in an Emergency Department in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsoi Vincent F. K.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 5-S is the first step towards TQM. Over the last century, the Japanese have formalised the technique and named it as 5-S Practice. Since 1993, Sam Ho has improved and defined its terms in English/Chinese and developed the world's first 5-S Audit Checklist. In the article, an emergency department of a Hong Kong hospital was examined against 5-S 50-point Checklist for the improvement of their quality assurance systems towards its accreditation process with Australian standards. The findings evidently reveal that the impact of 5-S on hospital quality assurance in the unit are positive. Riding on the above scenario, the research aim is to identify whether the 5-S practice is a suitable and effective tool for healthcare quality assurance in an emergency setting which is led towards its accreditation process set by other mechanisms.

  16. Systematic Analysis of Small RNAs Associated with Human Mitochondria by Deep Sequencing: Detailed Analysis of Mitochondrial Associated miRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Lakshmi; Tomar, Dhanendra; Prajapati, Paresh; Singh, Rochika; Singh, Arun Kumar; Singh, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are one of the central regulators of many cellular processes beyond its well established role in energy metabolism. The inter-organellar crosstalk is critical for the optimal function of mitochondria. Many nuclear encoded proteins and RNA are imported to mitochondria. The translocation of small RNA (sRNA) including miRNA to mitochondria and other sub-cellular organelle is still not clear. We characterized here sRNA including miRNA associated with human mitochondria by cellular fractionation and deep sequencing approach. Mitochondria were purified from HEK293 and HeLa cells for RNA isolation. The sRNA library was generated and sequenced using Illumina system. The analysis showed the presence of unique population of sRNA associated with mitochondria including miRNA. Putative novel miRNAs were characterized from unannotated sRNA sequences. The study showed the association of 428 known, 196 putative novel miRNAs to mitochondria of HEK293 and 327 known, 13 putative novel miRNAs to mitochondria of HeLa cells. The alignment of sRNA to mitochondrial genome was also studied. The targets were analyzed using DAVID to classify them in unique networks using GO and KEGG tools. Analysis of identified targets showed that miRNA associated with mitochondria regulates critical cellular processes like RNA turnover, apoptosis, cell cycle and nucleotide metabolism. The six miRNAs (counts >1000) associated with mitochondria of both HEK293 and HeLa were validated by RT-qPCR. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study demonstrating the associations of sRNA including miRNA with mitochondria that may regulate site-specific turnover of target mRNA important for mitochondrial related functions. PMID:22984580

  17. Taraxerol Induces Cell Apoptosis through A Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Xiangyang; Lu, Binyu; Lü, Chaotian; Bai, Qin; Yan, Dazhong; Xu, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Taraxerol acetate has potent anti-cancer effects via the induction of apoptosis, autophagy, cell cycle arrest, and inhibition of cell migration. However, whether taraxerol induced apoptosis and its underlying mechanisms of action is not clear. In the present study, we assess the effects of taraxerol on the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and determine the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and activation of caspases. In this experimental study, we mainly investigated the effect of taraxerol on HeLa cells. We tested cell viability by the MTT assay and morphologic changes, analyzed apoptosis by DAPI staining and flow cytometry. We also determined reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) using a Microplate Reader. In addition, the apoptotic proteins were tested by Western blot. Taraxerol enhanced ROS levels and attenuated the MMP (Δψm) in HeLa cells. Taraxerol induced apoptosis mainly via the mitochondrial pathway including the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and activation of caspases 9 and 3, and anti-poly (ADPribose) polymerase (PARP). Taraxerol could induce the down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax. It suppressed the PI3K/ Akt signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that taraxerol induced cell apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway in HeLa cells. Thus, taraxerol might be a potential anticervical cancer candidate.

  18. Kelussia odoratissima potentiates cytotoxic effects of radiation in HeLa cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Hosseini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of Kelussia odoratissima (K. odoratissima extract associated with radiotherapy in cervical cancer cells (HeLa cell line.Materials and Methods: Different concentration of the extract (25-500µg/ml was tested in HeLa cell lines. Cell cytotoxicity of the extract and the effects of the extract on radiation (2Gy/min-induced damages were assessed by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed using flow cytometric analysis.Result: K. odoratissima decreased cell viability in HeLa cell line in a concentration and time-dependent manner. When compared to the control,K. odoratissima induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating that apoptotic cell death is involved in K. odoratissima-induced toxicity. It was also shown that K. odoratissima sensitizes cells to radiation-induced toxicity.Conclusion: Our result showed the extract increased the radiation effect. This observation may be related to the presence of active compounds such as phthalides and ferulic acid.

  19. A key inactivation factor of HeLa cell viability by a plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Mayo [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Johkura, Kohei, E-mail: sato@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Embryology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-09-21

    Recently, a plasma flow has been applied to medical treatment using effects of various kinds of stimuli such as chemical species, charged particles, heat, light, shock wave and electric fields. Among them, the chemical species are known to cause an inactivation of cell viability. However, the mechanisms and key factors of this event are not yet clear. In this study, we focused on the effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in plasma-treated culture medium because it is generated in the culture medium and it is also chemically stable compared with free radicals generated by the plasma flow. To elucidate the significance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, we assessed the differences in the effects of plasma-treated medium and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium against inactivation of HeLa cell viability. These two media showed comparable effects on HeLa cells in terms of the survival ratios, morphological features of damage processes, permeations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into the cells, response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition by catalase and comprehensive gene expression. The results supported that among chemical species generated in a plasma-treated culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the main factors responsible for inactivation of HeLa cell viability. (fast track communication)

  20. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles in cultured HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban Ada

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles on humancervix epithelioid carcinoma cell line (HeLa. Nickel oxide precursors were synthesized by an nickel sulphate-excess ureareaction in boiling aqueous solution. The synthesized NiO nanoparticles (<200 nm were investigated by X-ray diffractionanalysis and transmission electron microscopy techniques. For cytotoxicity experiments, HeLa cells were incubated in50-500 μg/mL NiO for 2, 6, 12 and 16 hours. The viable cells were counted with a haemacytometer using light microscopy.The cytotoxicity was observed low in 50-200 μg/mL concentration for 16 h, but high in 400-500 μg/mL concentration for2-6 h. HeLa cells' cytoplasm membrane was lysed and detached from the well surface in 400 μg/mL concentration NiOnanoparticles. Double staining and M30 immunostaining were performed to quantify the number of apoptotic cells in cultureon the basis of apoptotic cell nuclei scores. The apoptotic effect was observed 20% for 16 h incubation.

  1. Systematic analysis and evolution of 5S ribosomal DNA in metazoans

    OpenAIRE

    Vierna, J; S. Wehner; Höner zu Siederdissen, C.; Martínez-Lage, A; Marz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies on 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) have been focused on a subset of the following features in mostly one organism: number of copies, pseudogenes, secondary structure, promoter and terminator characteristics, genomic arrangements, types of non-transcribed spacers and evolution. In this work, we systematically analyzed 5S rDNA sequence diversity in available metazoan genomes, and showed organism-specific and evolutionary-conserved features. Putatively functional sequences (12 766) fr...

  2. Topoisomerase I and II Inhibitors Control Caspase-2 Pre-Messenger RNA Splicing in Human Cells11This work was supported by the INSERM, the Conseil Régional de Bourgogne, the Ligue Nationale Française Contre le Cancer (E. Solary and C. Bailly). S. Solier was financed by the University Hôpital du Bocage (Dijon). E. Logette was recipient of a fellowship from the French Ministry of Education and Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stéphanie Solier; Amélie Lansiaux; Emmanuelle Logette; Jane Wu; Johann Soret; Jamal Tazi; Christian Bailly; Lydie Desoche; Eric Solary; Laurent Corcos

    2004-01-01

    .... In this study, we analyzed the effects of several representative molecules of various classes of cytotoxic agents on caspase-2 pre-mRNA splicing in both U937 leukemic cells and in HeLa cervix carcinoma cells...

  3. Early evolutionary colocalization of the nuclear ribosomal 5S and 45S gene families in seed plants: evidence from the living fossil gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galián, J A; Rosato, M; Rosselló, J A

    2012-06-01

    In seed plants, the colocalization of the 5S loci within the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the nuclear 45S tandem units is restricted to the phylogenetically derived Asteraceae family. However, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) colocalization of both multigene families has also been observed in other unrelated seed plant lineages. Previous work has identified colocalization of 45S and 5S loci in Ginkgo biloba using FISH, but these observations have not been confirmed recently by sequencing a 1.8 kb IGS. In this work, we report the presence of the 45S-5S linkage in G. biloba, suggesting that in seed plants the molecular events leading to the restructuring of the ribosomal loci are much older than estimated previously. We obtained a 6.0 kb IGS fragment showing structural features of functional sequences, and a single copy of the 5S gene was inserted in the same direction of transcription as the ribosomal RNA genes. We also obtained a 1.8 kb IGS that was a truncate variant of the 6.0 kb IGS lacking the 5S gene. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that the 1.8 kb variants are pseudogenes that are present exclusively on the satellite chromosomes bearing the 45S-5S genes. The presence of ribosomal IGS pseudogenes best reconciles contradictory results concerning the presence or absence of the 45S-5S linkage in Ginkgo. Our finding that both ribosomal gene families have been unified to a single 45S-5S unit in Ginkgo indicates that an accurate reassessment of the organization of rDNA genes in basal seed plants is necessary.

  4. RNase non-sensitive and endocytosis independent siRNA delivery system: delivery of siRNA into tumor cells and high efficiency induction of apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinglu; Wang, Guobao; Liu, Ru; Wang, Yaling; Wang, Yongkui; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Gao, Xueyun

    2013-07-01

    To date, RNase degradation and endosome/lysosome trapping are still serious problems for siRNA-based molecular therapy, although different kinds of delivery formulations have been tried. In this report, a cell penetrating peptide (CPP, including a positively charged segment, a linear segment, and a hydrophobic segment) and a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are applied together by a simple method to act as a siRNA delivery system. The siRNAs first form a complex with the positively charged segment of CPP via electrostatic forces, and the siRNA-CPP further coats the surface of the SWCNT via hydrophobic interactions. This siRNA delivery system is non-sensitive to RNase and can avoid endosome/lysosome trapping in vitro. When this siRNA delivery system is studied in Hela cells, siRNA uptake was observed in 98% Hela cells, and over 70% mRNA of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is knocked down, triggering cell apoptosis on a significant scale. Our siRNA delivery system is easy to handle and benign to cultured cells, providing a very efficient approach for the delivery of siRNA into the cell cytosol and cleaving the target mRNA therein.

  5. ALG-2 knockdown in HeLa cells results in G2/M cell cycle phase accumulation and cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høj, Berit Rahbek; la Cour, Peter Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens

    2009-01-01

    downregulation induces accumulation of HeLa cells in the G2/M cell cycle phase and increases the amount of early apoptotic and dead cells. Caspase inhibition by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk attenuated the increase in the amount of dead cells following ALG-2 downregulation. Thus, our results indicate...... that ALG-2 has an anti-apoptotic function in HeLa cells by facilitating the passage through checkpoints in the G2/M cell cycle phase....

  6. 5S activities and its application at a sample company | Korkut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    great losses decreasing the efficiency of the equipment. 5S, which is the pre-step of TPM, is a systematic approach providing the contribution of all personnel in the cleaning regime of the company. The clean and steady environment targeted by 5S has positive impacts on the work safety, quality, efficiency and morale.

  7. 5S activities and its application at a sample company | Korkut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clean and steady environment targeted by 5S has positive impacts on the work safety, quality, efficiency and morale. In this study, 5S system, used for ensuring order and discipline in the companies and ensuring the supervision of both simple and even the smallest details, has been reviewed in full details and they ...

  8. RNA genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, E. (Instituto de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, Madrid (ES)); Holland, J.J. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Biology); Ahlquist, P. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on RNA gentics: Variability of RNA genomes, Volume III. Topics covered include: High error rate, population equilibrium, and evolution of RNA replication systems; Influenza viruses; High rate of nutation and evolution; and Sequence space and quasi species distribution.

  9. Microscopy-based Assays for High-throughput Screening of Host Factors Involved in Brucella Infection of Hela Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Alain; Low, Shyan H; Emmenlauer, Mario; Conde-Alvarez, Raquel; Salcedo, Suzana P; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Dehio, Christoph

    2016-08-05

    Brucella species are facultative intracellular pathogens that infect animals as their natural hosts. Transmission to humans is most commonly caused by direct contact with infected animals or by ingestion of contaminated food and can lead to severe chronic infections. Brucella can invade professional and non-professional phagocytic cells and replicates within endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived vacuoles. The host factors required for Brucella entry into host cells, avoidance of lysosomal degradation, and replication in the ER-like compartment remain largely unknown. Here we describe two assays to identify host factors involved in Brucella entry and replication in HeLa cells. The protocols describe the use of RNA interference, while alternative screening methods could be applied. The assays are based on the detection of fluorescently labeled bacteria in fluorescently labeled host cells using automated wide-field microscopy. The fluorescent images are analyzed using a standardized image analysis pipeline in CellProfiler which allows single cell-based infection scoring. In the endpoint assay, intracellular replication is measured two days after infection. This allows bacteria to traffic to their replicative niche where proliferation is initiated around 12 hr after bacterial entry. Brucella which have successfully established an intracellular niche will thus have strongly proliferated inside host cells. Since intracellular bacteria will greatly outnumber individual extracellular or intracellular non-replicative bacteria, a strain constitutively expressing GFP can be used. The strong GFP signal is then used to identify infected cells. In contrast, for the entry assay it is essential to differentiate between intracellular and extracellular bacteria. Here, a strain encoding for a tetracycline-inducible GFP is used. Induction of GFP with simultaneous inactivation of extracellular bacteria by gentamicin enables the differentiation between intracellular and extracellular

  10. The 5S lean method as a tool of industrial management performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, F. C.; Marascu-Klein, V.

    2015-11-01

    Implementing the 5S (seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu, and shitsuke) method is carried out through a significant study whose purpose to analyse and deployment the management performance in order to emphasize the problems and working mistakes, reducing waste (stationary and waiting times), flow transparency, storage areas by properly marking and labelling, establishing standards work (everyone knows exactly where are the necessary things), safety and ergonomic working places (the health of all employees). The study describes the impact of the 5S lean method implemented to storing, cleaning, developing and sustaining a production working place from an industrial company. In order to check and sustain the 5S process, it is needed to use an internal audit, called “5S audit”. Implementing the 5S methodology requires organization and safety of the working process, properly marking and labelling of the working place, and audits to establish the work in progress and to maintain the improved activities.

  11. Sniffing for gene-silencing efficiency of siRNAs in HeLa cells in comparison with that in HEK293T cells: correlation between knockdown efficiency and sustainability of sirnas revealed by FRET-based probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seonmi; Kim, Yea Seul; Kim, Jisu; Kwon, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Dong-Eun; Hah, Sang Soo

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of the intracellular fate of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) following their delivery into cells is of great importance to elucidate their dynamics in cytoplasm. Here we describe the use of an advanced fluorescence-based method to probe the dissociation and/or degradation of double-labeled siRNAs in HeLa cells in comparison with that in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells. This work was performed with three siRNAs labeled with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) dyes, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of the dissociation and degradation state of siRNAs in cultured cells. Our FRET analysis not only shows the asymmetric degradation as well as the time-dependent dissociation of each siRNA strand during the measured time period, underlining the high intrinsic nuclease resistance of duplex siRNAs, but also reveals the longer sustainability of siRNAs in HeLa cells compared with that in HEK293T cells, explaining the gene silencing in HeLa cells is more efficient than that in HEK293T cells. In addition, our single-molecule FRET assays demonstrate the potential of the delineated fluorescence-based technique for future research on biological behavior of siRNAs even at the single-molecule level. The fluorescence-based method is a straightforward technique to gain direct information on siRNA integrity inside living cells, which can provide a detection tool for dynamics of biological molecules.

  12. Nuclear retention of 18S ribosoma RNA by human myeloma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bynum, J.W. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale); Volkin, E.

    1979-01-01

    Normal quiescent lymphocytes regulate their ribosome content by selectively degrading newly synthesized 18S ribosomal RNA. Unlike actively dividing HeLa cells, lymphocytes retain 18S ribosomal RNA in the nucleus after synthesis instead of immediately transporting it to the cytoplasm. Subcellular fractionation of the highly differentiated human neoplastic lymphocyte RPMI-8226 reveals that this cell line also retains 18S ribosomal RNA in the nucleus, a trait not displayed by the less differentiated human lymphoblastoid cell line RPMI-4265. These observations suggest that neoplastic cells can be phenotypically characterized by their ribosomal RNA processing patterns.

  13. Association of cap-binding protein with eucaryotic initiation factor 3 in initiation factor preparations from uninfected and poliovirus-infected HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J; Etchison, D; Hershey, J W; Ehrenfeld, E

    1982-04-01

    Extracts from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells are unable to translate vesicular stomatitis virus or cellular mRNAs in vitro, probably reflecting the poliovirus-induced inhibition of host cell protein synthesis which occurs in vivo. Crude initiation factors from uninfected HeLa cells are able to restore translation of vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA in infected cell lysates. This restoring activity separates into the 0 to 40% ammonium sulfate fractional precipitate of ribosomal salt wash. Restoring activity is completely lacking in the analogous fractions prepared from poliovirus-infected cells. The 0 to 40% ammonium sulfate precipitates from both uninfected and infected cells contain eucaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF-3), eIf-4B, and the cap-binding protein (CBP), which is detected by means of a cross-linking assay, as well as other proteins. The association of eIF-3 and cap binding protein was examined. The 0 to 40% ammonium sulfate precipitate of ribosomal salt wash from uninfected and infected cells was sedimented in sucrose gradients. Each fraction was examined for the presence of eIF-3 antigens by an antibody blot technique and for the presence of the CBP by cross-linking to cap-labeled mRNAs. From uninfected cells, a major proportion of the CBP cosedimented with eIF-3; however, none of the CBP from infected cells sedimented with eIF-3. The results suggest that the association of the CBP with eIF-3 into a functional complex may have been disrupted during the course of poliovirus infection.

  14. Analysis and prediction of pathways in HeLa cells by integrating biological levels of organization with systems-biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higareda-Almaraz, Juan Carlos; Valtierra-Gutiérrez, Ilse A; Hernandez-Ortiz, Magdalena; Contreras, Sandra; Hernandez, Erika; Encarnación-Guevara, Sergio; Encarnacion, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    It has recently begun to be considered that cancer is a systemic disease and that it must be studied at every level of complexity using many of the currently available approaches, including high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics. To achieve such understanding in cervical cancer, we collected information on gene, protein and phosphoprotein expression of the HeLa cell line and performed a comprehensive analysis of the different signaling pathways, transcription networks and metabolic events in which they participate. A total expression analysis by RNA-Seq of the HeLa cell line showed that 19,974 genes were transcribed. Of these, 3,360 were over-expressed, and 2,129 under-expressed when compared to the NHEK cell line. A protein-protein interaction network was derived from the over-expressed genes and used to identify central elements and, together with the analysis of over-represented transcription factor motifs, to predict active signaling and regulatory pathways. This was further validated by Metal-Oxide Affinity Chromatography (MOAC) and Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS) assays which retrieved phosphorylated proteins. The 14-3-3 family members emerge as important regulators in carcinogenesis and as possible clinical targets. We observed that the different over- and under-regulated pathways in cervical cancer could be interrelated through elements that participate in crosstalks, therefore belong to what we term "meta-pathways". Additionally, we highlighted the relations of each one of the differentially represented pathways to one or more of the ten hallmarks of cancer. These features could be maintained in many other types of cancer, regardless of mutations or genomic rearrangements, and favor their robustness, adaptations and the evasion of tissue control. Probably, this could explain why cancer cells are not eliminated by selective pressure and why therapy trials directed against molecular targets are not as effective as expected.

  15. The potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium clavatum (5C and 15C) has anti-cancer effect on hela cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadder, Asmita; Das, Sreemanti; Das, Jayeeta; Paul, Avijit; Boujedaini, Naoual; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2013-08-01

    Cancer is a disease that needs a multi-faceted approach from different systems of medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether homeopathically-potentized ultra-high dilutions of Lycopodium Clavatum (LC-5C and LC-15C, respectively) have any anti-cancer effects on HeLa cells. Cells were exposed to either LC-5C (diluted below Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-10)) or LC-15C (diluted beyond Avogadro's limit, i.e., 10(-30)) (drug-treated) or to 30% succussed ethanol ("vehicle" of the drug). The drug-induced modulation in the percent cell viability, the onset of apoptosis, and changes in the expressions of Bax, Bcl2, caspase 3, and Apaf proteins in inter-nucleosomal DNA, in mitochondrial membrane potentials and in the release of cytochrome-c were analyzed by utilizing different experimental protocols. Results revealed that administration of LC-5C and LC-15C had little or no cytotoxic effect in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but caused considerable cell death through apoptosis in cancer (HeLa) cells, which was evident from the induction of DNA fragmentation, the increases in the expressions of protein and mRNA of caspase 3 and Bax, and the decreases in the expressions of Bcl2 and Apaf and in the release of cytochrome-c. Thus, the highly-diluted, dynamized homeopathic remedies LC-5C and LC-15C demonstrated their capabilities to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, signifying their possible use as supportive medicines in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Measurement of B[Y(5S)->Bs(*) anti-Bs(*)] Using phi Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, G S; Adams, G S; Alexander, J P; Anderson, M; Aquines, O; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Athar, S B; Berkelman, K; Besson, D; Blusk, S; Bonvicini, G; Briere, R A; Brock, I; Butt, J; Cassel, D G; Cawlfield, C; Chen, J; Cinabro, D; Coan, T E; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S E; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Dobbs, S; Duboscq, J E; Dubrovin, M; Dytman, S A; Ecklund, K M; Edwards, K W; Ehrlich, R; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Ferguson, T; Fields, L; Gao, K Y; Gao, Y S; Gibbons, L; Gong, D T; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; He, Q; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hietala, J; Huang, G S; Insler, J; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Klein, T; Kreinick, D L; Kubota, Y; Kuznetsov, V E; Lang, B W; Li, J; Li, Z; Lincoln, A; Liu, F; Love, W; Lowrey, N; López, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mehrabyan, S S; Menaa, N; Metreveli, Z V; Miller, D H; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Méndez, H; Naik, P; Napolitano, J; Nisar, S; Onyisi, P U E; Park, C S; Patel, R; Patterson, J R; Pavlunin, V; Pedlar, T K; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Poling, R; Potlia, V; Ramírez, J; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Riley, D; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Sanghi, B; Savinov, V; Schwarthoff, H; Scott, A W; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Seth, K K; Severini, H; Shepherd, M R; Shi, X; Shipsey, I P J; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A; Stone, S; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Tatishvili, G T; Thorndike, E H; Tomaradze, A G; Vogel, H; Wang, J C; Watkins, M E; Weinberger, M; White, E J; Wilksen, T; Wiss, J; Xin, B; Yang, F; Yelton, J; Zhang, K; Zweber, P; al., et

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the Bs decay fraction of the Y(5S) resonance, fs, is important for Bs meson studies at the Y(5S) energy. Using a data sample collected by the CLEO III detector at CESR consisting of 0.423/fb on the Y(5S) resonance, 6.34/fb on the Y(4S) and 2.32/fb in the continuum below the Y(4S), we measure B(Y(5S) -> phi X)=(13.8 +/- 0.7 {+2.3}{-1.5})% and B(Y(4S) -> phi X) = (7.1 +/- 0.1 +/-0.6)%; the ratio of the two rates is (1.9 +/- 0.1 {+0.3}{-0.2}). This is the first measurement of the phi meson yield from the Y(5S). Using these rates, and a model dependent estimate of B(Bs -> phi X), we determine fs = (24.6 +/- 2.9 {+11.0}{-5.3})%. We also update our previous independent measurement of fs made using the inclusive Ds yields to now be (16.8 +/- 2.6 {+6.7}{-3.4)%, due to a better estimate of the number of hadronic events. We also report the total Y(5S) hadronic cross section above continuum to be sigma(e^+e^- -> Y(5S))=(0.301 +/- 0.002 +/- 0.039) nb. This allows us to extract the fraction of B mesons as (58...

  17. Measurement of B9Upsilon(5S) to Bs(*) Bs(*)bar Using phi Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, G; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Butt, J; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Redjimi, R; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, K; Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Briere, R A; Brock, I; Chen, J; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Potlia, V; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Cawlfield, C; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Kim, D; Lowrey, N; Naik, P; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Gong, D T; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Smith, A; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Severini, H; Dytman, S A; Love, W; Savinov, V; Aquines, O; Li, Z; López, A; Mehrabyan, S S; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; al, et

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the Bs decay fraction of the Y(5S) resonance, fs, is important for Bs meson studies at the Y(5S) energy. Using data collected by the CLEO III detector at CESR consisting of 0.423 1/fb on the Y(5S) resonance, 6.34 1/fb on the Y(4S) and 2.32 1/fb in the continuum below the Y(4S), we measure B(Y(5S)-> phi X)=(13.2+/- 0.7 ^{+2.2}_{-1.4})% and B(Y (4S)-> phi X)=(7.1 +/- 0.1 +/- 0.6)%, the ratio of the two rates is (1.9 +/- 0.1 ^{+0.3}_{-0.2}). This is the first measurement of the phi meson yield from the Y(5S). Using these rates, and a model dependent estimate of B(Bs -> phi X), we measure fs=(27.3 +/- 3.2 ^{+14.6}_{-~6.1})%. We update our previous, independent measurement of this branching fraction using the inclusive Ds yields to be (21.8 +/- 3.4 ^{+8.5}_{-4.2})%, due to changes in the $D_s^+ -> phi \\pi^+$ branching fraction and a better estimate of the number of hadronic events. We also report the total Y(5S) hadronic cross section above continuum to be sigma(e^+e^- -> Y(5S))=(0.301 +/- 0.002 +/- 0...

  18. Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy for L5-S1 Disc Herniation: Consideration of the Relation between the Iliac Crest and L5-S1 Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung Chul; Park, Choon-Keun

    2016-02-01

    Percutaneous transforaminal techniques for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation have markedly evolved. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) for L5-S1 disc herniation is regarded as challenging due to the unique anatomy of the iliac crest, large facet joint, and inclinatory disc space. Among these, the iliac crest is considered a major obstacle. There are no studies regarding the height of the iliac crest and their appropriate procedures in PELD. This study discusses PELD for L5-S1 disc herniation and the appropriate approach according to the height of iliac crest. Retrospective evaluation. 100 consecutive patients underwent PELD via the transforaminal route for L5-S1 disc herniation by a single surgeon. The study was divided into 2 groups: the foraminoplasty group requiring foraminal widening to access the herniated disc and the non-foraminoplasty group treated by conventional posterolateral access. Radiological parameters such as iliac height, the relative position of the iliac crest to the landmarks of the L5-S1 level, iliosacral angle and foraminal height, and disc location were considered. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, 0 - 10) for back and leg pain, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, 0 - 100%), and the modified MacNab criteria. The overall VAS scores for back and leg pain decreased from 6.0 to 2.3 and from 7.5 to 1.7. The mean ODI (%) improved from 54.0 to 11.6. Using modified MacNab criteria, a good outcome was 92%. Foraminoplasty was required in 19 patients. Iliac crest height was significantly higher in the foraminoplasty group than the non-foraminoplasty group (37.7 mm vs 30.1 mm, P disc height between the 2 groups. In addition, there were no differences in clinical outcome between the 2 groups. This study is a retrospective analysis and simplifies the complexity of the L5-S1 level and iliac bone using two-dimensional radiography. In high iliac crest cases where the iliac crest is above the mid L5 pedicle

  19. A systematic investigation into the electrical properties of single HeLa cells via impedance measurements and COMSOL simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Haw; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2009-05-15

    The electrical properties of single cells provide fundamental insights into their pathological condition and are therefore of immense interest to medical practitioners. Accordingly, this study captures single HeLa cells using a microfluidic device and then measures their impedance properties using a commercial impedance spectroscopy system. The experimental system is modeled by an equivalent electrical circuit and COMSOL simulations are then performed to establish the conductivity, permittivity and impedance of single HeLa cells under various operational frequencies and voltages. At an operational voltage of 0.2 V, the maximum deviation between the experimental and simulation results for the magnitude and phase of the HeLa cell impedance is found to be 9.5% and 4.2%, respectively. In general, both sets of results show that the conductivity and permittivity of single HeLa cells increase with an increasing operational voltage. Moreover, an increasing frequency is found to increase the conductivity of HeLa cells at all values of the operational voltage, but to reduce the permittivity for operational voltages in the range 0.6-1.0 V. Based upon the simulation and experimental results, empirical equations are constructed to predict the conductivity and permittivity of single HeLa cells under specified values of the operational voltage and frequency, respectively. The maximum discrepancy between the predicted results and the simulation results for the permittivity and conductivity of the HeLa cells at an operational voltage of 0.2 V is found to be just 0.5% and 4.5%, respectively.

  20. Photodynamic Effect of Ni Nanotubes on an HeLa Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hammad Aziz

    Full Text Available Nickel nanomaterials are promising in the biomedical field, especially in cancer diagnostics and targeted therapy, due to their distinctive chemical and physical properties. In this experiment, the toxicity of nickel nanotubes (Ni NTs were tested in an in vitro cervical cancer model (HeLa cell line to optimize the parameters of photodynamic therapy (PDT for their greatest effectiveness. Ni NTs were synthesized by electrodeposition. Morphological analysis and magnetic behavior were examined using a Scanning electron microscope (SEM, an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM analysis. Phototoxic and cytotoxic effects of nanomaterials were studied using the Ni NTs alone as well as in conjugation with aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA; this was performed both in the dark and under laser exposure. Toxic effects on the HeLa cell model were evaluated by a neutral red assay (NRA and by detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Furthermore, 10-200 nM of Ni NTs was prepared in solution form and applied to HeLa cells in 96-well plates. Maximum toxicity of Ni NTs complexed with 5-ALA was observed at 100 J/cm2 and 200 nM. Up to 65-68% loss in cell viability was observed. Statistical analysis was performed on the experimental results to confirm the worth and clarity of results, with p-values = 0.003 and 0.000, respectively. Current results pave the way for a more rational strategy to overcome the problem of drug bioavailability in nanoparticulate targeted cancer therapy, which plays a dynamic role in clinical practice.

  1. 5S-menetelmän käyttöönottosuunnitelma

    OpenAIRE

    Väyrynen, Panu

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli suunnitella Junttan Oy:n toimintamalliin soveltuvat työkalut 5S:n käyttöönottamiseksi paalutuskoneiden kokoonpanotehtaassa. 5S on yksi Leanin tuotantofilosofian toteuttamiseen käytettävistä menetelmistä, jolla työpaikasta saadaan viiden toimenpiteen avulla tuottavampi, laadukkaampi, turvallisempi ja viihtyisämpi. 5S tulee japaninkielen sanoista seiri (erot-tele), seiton (yksinkertaista), seiso (puhdista), seiketsu (systematisoi) ja shitsuke (standardoi). Työn t...

  2. Coxsackievirus B5 induced apoptosis of HeLa cells: effects on p53 and SUMO.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,Rogério; Guerra-Sá, Renata; ARRUDA, Eurico

    2010-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), a human enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, is a frequent cause of acute and chronic human diseases. The pathogenesis of enteroviral infections is not completely understood, and the fate of the CVB5-infected cell has a pivotal role in this process. We have investigated the CVB5-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells and found that it happens by the intrinsic pathway by a mechanism dependent on the ubiquitin–proteasome system, associated with nuclear aggregation of ...

  3. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles in living Hela cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Xian; Wu, Jiazhen; Shan, Yuping

    2012-01-01

    the internalization mechanism of small-size AuNPs by living Hela cells. Herein, we found that the caveolae-mediated endocytosis was the dominant pathway for the intracellular delivery of small-size AuNPs. The intracellular delivery was suppressed when we depleted the cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (M beta CD......Efficient intracellular delivery of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and unraveling the mechanism underlying the intracellular delivery are essential for advancing the applications of AuNPs toward in vivo imaging and therapeutic interventions. We employed fluorescence microscopy to investigate...

  4. The chemosensitizing effect of aqueous extract of sweet fennel on cisplatin treated HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, W S; Sait, K H; Anfinan, N M; Sait, H

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is an important chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in treatment of several malignancies, but its side effects on normal tissues and organs limit its use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of sweet fennel alone and in combination with cisplatin on human cervical cancer adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) searching for an effective, inexpensive therapy with minimal side effects. HeLa cell line was used to study the cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of the aqueous extract of sweet fennel alone and in combination with 50 μg/ml cisplatin. Quantitative measure of drug interaction was quantified by the combination index. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to analyze the sweet fennel decoction. MTT assay was used to examine cell viability percentage. Electron microscopy was applied to study the ultrastructure of the cells. The phenyl propanoids (23%) and phenols (12%) constituted the highest percentage of the aqueous extract. Increasing the concentration of sweet fennel from 50 μg/ml to 80 μg/ml, decreased the percentage of the cell viability of HeLa cells from 86.74% to 78.28%, respectively. Further decrease to 11.31% was demonstrated when 50 μg/ml of fennel was combined with 50 μg/ml cisplatin (additive effect). In addition to the signs of apoptosis observed in HeLa cells at 50 μg/ml of fennel, disruption of both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes and presence of autophagolysosomes were noticed at a dose of 80 μg/ml. Combination of 50 μg/ml of cisplatin with 60, 70, and 80 μg/ml of sweet fennel revealed no significant difference in comparison to cisplatin alone. The combination with 50 μg/ml of sweet fennel revealed marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm, fragmentation of the nucleus, and complete disruption of nuclear membrane. CONCLUSIOn: Combination of cisplatin and the 50 μg/ml of the fennel could enhance cervical cancer

  5. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of HeLa cells using a multilayer substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Hernández, I. A.; Pichardo-Molina, J. L.; Lopez-Luke, T.; Ornelas-Soto, N.

    2017-08-01

    Single cell analysis can provide important information regarding cell composition, and can be used for biomedical applications. In this work, a SERS active substrate formed by 3 layers of gold nanospheres and a final layer of gold nanocubes was used for the label-free SERS analysis of HeLa cells. Nanocubes were selected due to the high electromagnetic enhancement expected in nanoparticles with sharp corners. Significant improvement in the reproducibility and quality of SERS spectra was found when compared to the spectra obtained using a nanosphere-only substrate and normal Raman spectroscopy.

  6. Isolation and characterization of 5S rDNA sequences in catfishes genome (Heptapteridae and Pseudopimelodidae): perspectives for rDNA studies in fish by C0t method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Juceli Gonzalez; Wolf, Ivan Rodrigo; de Moraes-Manécolo, Vivian Patrícia Oliveira; Bardella, Vanessa Belline; Ferracin, Lara Munique; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia; da Rosa, Renata; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2016-12-01

    Sequences of 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are extensively used in fish cytogenomic studies, once they have a flexible organization at the chromosomal level, showing inter- and intra-specific variation in number and position in karyotypes. Sequences from the genome of Imparfinis schubarti (Heptapteridae) were isolated, aiming to understand the organization of 5S rDNA families in the fish genome. The isolation of 5S rDNA from the genome of I. schubarti was carried out by reassociation kinetics (C0t) and PCR amplification. The obtained sequences were cloned for the construction of a micro-library. The obtained clones were sequenced and hybridized in I. schubarti and Microglanis cottoides (Pseudopimelodidae) for chromosome mapping. An analysis of the sequence alignments with other fish groups was accomplished. Both methods were effective when using 5S rDNA for hybridization in I. schubarti genome. However, the C0t method enabled the use of a complete 5S rRNA gene, which was also successful in the hybridization of M. cottoides. Nevertheless, this gene was obtained only partially by PCR. The hybridization results and sequence analyses showed that intact 5S regions are more appropriate for the probe operation, due to conserved structure and motifs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the organization of multigene families in catfish's genomes.

  7. The mRNA decay factor tristetraprolin (TTP) induces senescence in human papillomavirus-transformed cervical cancer cells by targeting E6-AP ubiquitin ligase

    OpenAIRE

    Sanduja, Sandhya; Kaza, Vimala; Dixon, Dan A.

    2009-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) regulates expression of many cancer-associated and proinflammatory factors through binding AU-rich elements (ARE) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) and facilitating rapid mRNA decay. Here we report on the ability of TTP to act in an anti-proliferative capacity in HPV18-positive HeLa cells by inducing senescence. HeLa cells maintain a dormant p53 pathway and elevated telomerase activity resulting from HPV-mediated transformation, whereas TTP ex...

  8. Thymosin beta4 inhibits ADF/cofilin stimulated F-actin cycling and hela cell migration: reversal by active Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haj, Abdulatif; Mazur, Antonina Joanna; Buchmeier, Sabine; App, Christine; Theiss, Carsten; Silvan, Unai; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann; Jockusch, Brigitte M; Hannappel, Ewald; Weeds, Alan G; Mannherz, Hans Georg

    2014-02-01

    F-actin treadmilling plays a key part in cell locomotion. Because immunofluorescence showed colocalisation of thymosin beta4 (Tβ4) with cofilin-1 and Arp2/3 complex in lamellipodia, we analyzed combinations of these proteins on F-actin-adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-hydrolysis, which provides a measure of actin treadmilling. Actin depolymerising factor (ADF)/cofilin stimulated treadmilling, while Tβ4 decreased treadmilling, presumably by sequestering monomers. Tβ4 added together with ADF/cofilin also inhibited the treadmilling, relative to cofilin alone, but both the rate and extent of depolymerization were markedly enhanced in the presence of both these proteins. Arp2/3 complex reversed the sequestering activity of Tβ4 when equimolar to actin, but not in the additional presence of cofilin-1 or ADF. Transfection experiments to explore the effects of changing the intracellular concentration of Tβ4 in HeLa cells showed that an increase in Tβ4 resulted in reduced actin filaments bundles and narrower lamellipodia, and a conspicuous decrease of cell migration as seen by two different assays. In contrast, cells transfected with a vector leading to Tβ4 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) displayed prominent actin filament networks within the lamellipodia and the leading lamella and enhanced migration. The experiments reported here demonstrate the importance of the interplay of these different classes of actin-binding proteins on cell behaviour. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Demonstration in vitro that eucaryotic initiation factor 3 is active but that a cap-binding protein complex is inactive in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchison, D; Hansen, J; Ehrenfeld, E; Edery, I; Sonenberg, N; Milburn, S; Hershey, J W

    1984-01-01

    Protein synthesis initiation factor preparations from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells have reduced ability to initiate translation on capped mRNA. The defect in initiation factors has been variously attributed to inactivation of eucaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3), eIF4B, or a cap-binding protein (CBP) complex. We have developed a series of in vitro protein synthesis assays to show that eIF3 is active but a CBP complex activity is inactivated after poliovirus infection. eIF3 activity, when determined in the presence of purified CBP complex, is present in sucrose gradients of factors from both infected and uninfected cells. CBP complex activity, determined in the presence of eIF3 from poliovirus-infected cells, is present in uninfected cells only and comigrates on sucrose gradient with an activity which restores the ability of crude initiation factors from infected cells to translate capped globin mRNA. This is the first demonstration by a fractionated translation system that an activity which is attributable to CBP complex is inactivated in poliovirus-infected cells. The results also indicate that eIF3 is undetectable or has greatly reduced activity in the absence of CBP complex. Images PMID:6088805

  10. 5S-järjestelmän käyttöönotto takomolla

    OpenAIRE

    Koski, Joni

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli ottaa käyttöön 5S-menetelmä Memar Oy:n Toijalan takomolla. 5S on työpaikan organisoimiseen ja standardoimiseen kehitetty menetelmä. 5S-menetelmän käyttöönoton taustalla oli tarve kasvattaa tuotannon tehokkuutta takomolla sekä kehittää tuotantoa Lean-filosofian mukaisesti. Tähän tarkoitukseen 5S-menetelmä oli hyvä ensimmäinen askel, jonka avulla takomon toiminta saataisiin päivitettyä nykyaikaisemmaksi. Työtä aloitettaessa tehtaalla vallitsi enimmäkseen...

  11. [Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

    2014-04-01

    Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created a statistically significant effect on

  12. Karyotype of asparagus by physical mapping of 45S and 5S rDNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karyotype of asparagus by physical mapping of 45S and 5S rDNA by FISH. Chuan-Liang Deng Rui-Yun Qin Ning-Na Wang Ying Cao Jun Gao Wu-Jun Gao Long-Dou Lu. Research Note Volume 91 Issue 2 August 2012 ... Keywords. Asparagus; fluorescence in situ hybridization; 45S rDNA; 5S rDNA; Asparagus officinalis L.

  13. Non-thermal plasma induces mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway via ROS generation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yu, K N; Ma, Jie; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Cheng; Zhou, Fangjian; Cai, Zhiming; Han, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. Although increasing evidence suggests that NTP selectively induces apoptosis in some types of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we further investigated possible molecular mechanisms for NTP-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. The results showed that NTP exposure significantly inhibited the growth and viability of HeLa cells. Morphological observation and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that NTP exposure induced HeLa cell apoptosis. NTP exposure also activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently cleaved poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, NTP exposure suppressed Bcl-2 expression, enhanced Bax expression and translocation to mitochondria, activated mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, followed by the release of cytochrome c. Further studies showed that NTP treatment led to ROS generation, whereas blockade of ROS generation by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, ROS scavengers) significantly prevented NTP-induced mitochondrial alteration and subsequent apoptosis of HeLa cells via suppressing Bax translocation, cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Taken together, our results indicated that NTP exposure induced mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis of HeLa cells was activated by ROS generation. These findings provide insights to the therapeutic potential and clinical research of NTP as a novel tool in cervical cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Discovery of HeLa Cell Contamination in HES Cells: Call for Cell Line Authentication in Reproductive Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Douglas A; Summerfield, Taryn L

    2014-08-01

    Continuous cell lines are used frequently in reproductive biology research to study problems in early pregnancy events and parturition. It has been recognized for 50 years that many mammalian cell lines contain inter- or intraspecies contaminations with other cells. However, most investigators do not routinely test their culture systems for cross-contamination. The most frequent contributor to cross-contamination of cell lines is the HeLa cell isolated from an aggressive cervical adenocarcinoma. We report on the discovery of HeLa cell contamination of the human endometrial epithelial cell line HES isolated in our laboratory. Short tandem repeat analysis of 9 unique genetic loci demonstrated molecular identity between HES and HeLa cells. In addition, we verified that WISH cells, isolated originally from human amnion epithelium, were also contaminated with HeLa cells. Inasmuch as our laboratory did not culture HeLa cells at the time of HES cell derivations, the source of contamination was the WISH cell line. These data highlight the need for continued diligence in authenticating cell lines used in reproductive biology research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. One-stage surgery through posterior approach-for L5-S1 spondyloptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Turan Suslu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Grade 5 spondylolisthesis or spondyloptosis is a rare condition. Generally, the surgical management of spondyloptosis includes multi-staged procedures instead of one-staged procedures. One-stage treatment for spondyloptosis is very rare. A 15-year-old girl with L5-S1 spondyloptosis was admitted with severe low back pain. There was no history of trauma. The patient underwent L5 laminectomy, L5-S1 discectomy, resection of sacral dome, reduction, L3-L4-L5-S1 pedicular screw fixation, and interbody-posterolateral fusion through the posterior approach. The reduction was maintained with bilateral L5-S1 discectomy, resection of the sacral dome, and transpedicular instrumentation from L3 to S1. In this particular case, one-staged approach was adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis. One-staged surgery using the posterior approach may be adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis while avoiding the risks inherent in anterior approaches.

  16. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hiraku; Shimada, Tomohiro; Dey, Debashish; Quyyum, M Zuhaib; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Akira; Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Sen, Ranjan; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed

  17. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Takada

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon, within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons

  18. Combinational light emitting diode-high frequency focused ultrasound treatment for HeLa cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Se-Woon; Park, Kitae; Park, Chulwoo; Ryu, Jaemyung; Choi, Hojong

    2017-12-01

    Light sources such as laser and light emitting diode or ultrasound devices have been widely used for cancer therapy and regenerative medicines, since they are more cost-effective and less harmful than radiation therapy, chemotherapy or magnetic treatment. Compared to laser and low intensity ultrasound techniques, light emitting diode and high frequency focused ultrasound shows enhanced therapeutic effects, especially for small tumors. We propose combinational light emitting diode-high frequency focused ultrasound treatment for human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Individual red, green, and blue light emitting diode light only, high frequency focused ultrasound only, or light emitting diode light combined with high frequency focused ultrasound treatments were applied in order to characterize the responses of HeLa cells. Cell density exposed by blue light emitting diode light combined with high frequency focused ultrasound (2.19 ± 0.58%) was much lower than that of cells exposed by red and green light emitting diode lights (81.71 ± 9.92% and 61.81 ± 4.09%), blue light emitting diode light (11.19 ± 2.51%) or high frequency focused ultrasound only (9.72 ± 1.04%). We believe that the proposed combinational blue light emitting diode-high frequency focused ultrasound treatment could have therapeutic benefits to alleviate cancer cell proliferation.

  19. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Jafarain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30 extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. Conclusion: As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera.

  20. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarain, Abbas; Asghari, Gholamreza; Ghassami, Erfaneh

    2014-01-01

    There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Ethanol-water (70-30) extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera.

  1. Photoirradiation study of gold nanospheres and rods in Vero and Hela cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gananathan, Poorani; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Elanchezhiyan, Manickan

    2014-03-01

    Photoirradiation effect of gold nanospheres in conjucation with green light and rods in conjugation with red light corresponds to their absorption wavelength range found to be appreciable. In this present work concentration of nanomaterial and light dose were optimized. Gold nanospheres were synthesized by reduction technique using Sodium Borohydrate as reducing agent and Trisodium Citrate as capping agent. Au nanorods having 680-900nm absorption were synthesized using reduction techniques with CTAB and BDAC polymers. From UV-Vis absorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy the size of nanoparticles were confirmed. 30nm Gold nanospheres and green light source of 530nm wavelength with power 30mW were applied to Vero and Hela cell lines shows higher toxicity for Hela cells. Nanorods were applied and irradiated with 680nm wavelength light source with light intensity 45mW. Post irradiation effect for 24hrs, 48hrs confirms cell proliferation in normal rate in viable cells. The morphological changes in irradiated spot leads to apoptotoic cell death was confirmed with microscopic imaging. The LD50 value was also calculated.

  2. In vitro oxygen availability modulates the effect of artesunate on HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James; Gannon, Sandra; Rawe, Sarah; Murphy, James E J

    2014-12-01

    Hypoxia can affect chemotherapeutic drug efficacy in cancer patients, yet related in vitro assays in oxygen-rich environment remain the norm. Such levels are well beyond normoxic/hypoxic levels typically experienced by normal tissues/tumor masses. The present study evaluated how artesunate anti-tumor efficacy is modulated by oxygen availability in HeLa cells and its implications for future in vitro analyses. Real-time cell analysis was employed to evaluate HeLa cell toxicity to artesunate at 21%, 4% or 1% oxygen. Cell count analysis was performed to validate real-time data. An increase in artesunate efficacy was observed when oxygen concentration was reduced from atmospheric levels down to in vivo-relevant levels. Artesunate is more potent than originally reported using standard oxygen conditions during in vitro studies. The inclusion of this long overlooked variable as standard in future in vitro analysis procedures is warranted. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. PVA engineered microcapsules for targeted delivery of camptothecin to HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbiati, Alice; Rocca, Blasco Morozzo della; Tabolacci, Claudio; Beninati, Simone; Desideri, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Paradossi, Gaio, E-mail: paradossi@stc.uniroma2.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    Capsular microvectors are an important tool in the recent research field of nanomedicine to address a drug cargo for the therapeutic treatment of several pathologies. In this study we describe how the product of the conjugation of the polysaccharide chitosan with folate can be used as a coating of poly (vinyl alcohol), PVA, based microcapsules for an efficient targeting of HeLa cells. The influence of the coating on the bioadhesive properties of the vector and on its cargo capacity was also considered using camptothecin as an anticancer drug model. The coating strategy was finalized to exploit the good chemical versatility of PVA, used to form the shell of the vector. This study is a follow up of an investigation activity aiming to show the potentialities of PVA-shelled microcapsules or microbubbles as injectable microdevices supporting a theranostic approach for different types of tumour. Highlights: {yields}Coating of PVA-shelled microcapsules with chitosan-folate. {yields} Selective bioadhesion of microcapsules to HeLa Cells. {yields} Effective loading and release of camptothecin. {yields} In vitro anti-proliferative action of camptothecin loaded microcapsules.

  4. Effects of propolis extract on sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents in HeLa and resistant sublines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kohji; Fujita, Megumi; Matsubara, Mika; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Kitada, Noriaki; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi

    2007-09-01

    The effects of a propolis extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction on sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents were examined in HeLa cells and resistant sublines thereof. In addition, the actions of propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a constituent of propolis, on the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein/MDR1, were evaluated in paclitaxel-resistant HeLa/TXL cells (MDR1-overexpressing cells). In HeLa cells, the sensitivity to paclitaxel and doxorubicin, substrates of MDR1, was unchanged in the presence of propolis. In HeLa/TXL cells, propolis increased sensitivity to these MDR1 substrates. The accumulation of Rhodamine123, also a substrate for MDR1, by HeLa/TXL cells increased in the presence of 50 microg/mL, but not 10 microg/mL, of the extract. However, the growth inhibition of HeLa/TXL cells by paclitaxel was not changed by CAPE, although the accumulation of Rhodamine123 increased significantly in the presence of 100 microm, but not 1 nM or 1 microm, CAPE. Collectively, the extract was suggested to inhibit the function of MDR1 and to increase the sensitivity to MDR1 substrates in HeLa/TXL cells, effects likely to be caused by constituents other than CAPE.

  5. Electroporation of micro-droplet encapsulated HeLa cells in oil phase

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Kang

    2010-08-27

    Electroporation (EP) is a method widely used to introduce foreign genes, drugs or dyes into cells by permeabilizing the plasma membrane with an external electric field. A variety of microfluidic EP devices have been reported so far. However, further integration of prior and posterior EP processes turns out to be very complicated, mainly due to the difficulty of developing an efficient method for precise manipulation of cells in microfluidics. In this study, by means of a T-junction structure within a delicate microfluidic device, we encapsulated HeLa cells in micro-droplet of poration medium in oil phase before EP, which has two advantages: (i) precise control of cell-encapsulating droplets in oil phase is much easier than the control of cell populations or individuals in aqueous buffers; (ii) this can minimize the electrochemical reactions on the electrodes. Finally, we successfully introduced fluorescent dyes into the micro-droplet encapsulated HeLa cells in oil phase. Our results reflected a novel way to realize the integrated biomicrofluidic system for EP. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Uptake and fate of ouabain bound to HeLa cells. [/sup 3/H tracer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J. S.; Brake, E. T.

    1977-01-01

    The first step in the pharmacologic interaction of a cardiac glycoside with cells is the binding of the drug to its specific surface receptor, an exteriorly oriented site of the Na/sup +/--K/sup +/ ATPase. The purpose of the study outlined was to follow a glycoside from its initial binding to its ultimate release from a sensitive cell, and in parallel studies to observe the recovery of the cells from glycoside intoxication. The glycoside used is /sup 3/H-ouabain, and the cells are from the S3 clone of HeLa. HeLa cells are used principally because of their intrinsic interest as a human cell type. In addition, having been cloned, they can be grown as a homogeneous population, which greatly simplifies the interpretation of the results. Finally, after pulse treatment with the drug, the cells can be returned to a complete medium with adequate supplies of serum, amino acids, vitamins, and energy sources. In this normal environment, not only can the short term physiologic responses be assessed but, with the growth requirements of the cells fulfilled, any recovery processes dependent on macromolecular-synthesis can also be observed.

  7. Overexpression of atypical protein kinase C in HeLa cells facilitates macropinocytosis via Src activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdale, Ellen J; Shisheva, Assia; Artalejo, Cristina R

    2014-06-01

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is the first recognized kinase oncogene. However, the specific contribution of aPKC to cancer progression is unclear. The pseudosubstrate domain of aPKC is different from the other PKC family members, and therefore a synthetic peptide corresponding to the aPKC pseudosubstrate (aPKC-PS) sequence, which specifically blocks aPKC kinase activity, is a valuable tool to assess the role of aPKC in various cellular processes. Here, we learned that HeLa cells incubated with membrane permeable aPKC-PS peptide displayed dilated heterogeneous vesicles labeled with peptide that were subsequently identified as macropinosomes. A quantitative membrane binding assay revealed that aPKC-PS peptide stimulated aPKC recruitment to membranes and activated Src. Similarly, aPKC overexpression in transfected HeLa cells activated Src and induced macropinosome formation. Src-aPKC interaction was essential; substitution of the proline residues in aPKC that associate with the Src-SH3 binding domain rendered the mutant kinase unable to induce macropinocytosis in transfected cells. We propose that aPKC overexpression is a contributing factor to cell transformation by interacting with and consequently promoting Src activation and constitutive macropinocytosis, which increases uptake of extracellular factors, required for altered cell growth and accelerated cell migration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Yersinia enterocolitica-infected HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alugubelly, Navatha; Hercik, Kamil; Kibler, Peter; Nanduri, Bindu; Edelmann, Mariola J

    2016-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a facultative intracellular pathogen and a causative agent of yersiniosis, which can be contracted by ingestion of contaminated food. Yersinia secretes virulence factors to subvert critical pathways in the host cell. In this study we utilized shotgun label-free proteomics to study differential protein expression in epithelial cells infected with Y.enterocolitica. We identified a total of 551 proteins, amongst which 42 were downregulated (including Prostaglandin E Synthase 3, POH-1 and Karyopherin alpha) and 22 were upregulated (including Rab1 and RhoA) in infected cells. We validated some of these results by western blot analysis of proteins extracted from Caco-2 and HeLa cells. The proteomic dataset was used to identify host canonical pathways and molecular functions modulated by this infection in the host cells. This study constitutes a proteome of Yersinia-infected cells and can support new discoveries in the area of host-pathogen interactions. We describe a proteome of Yersinia enterocolitica-infected HeLa cells, including a description of specific proteins differentially expressed upon infection, molecular functions as well as pathways altered during infection. This proteomic study can lead to a better understanding of Y. enterocolitica pathogenesis in human epithelial cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Heterofucan from Sargassum filipendula Induces Apoptosis in HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fucan is a term used to denominate a family of sulfated polysaccharides rich in sulfated L-fucose. Heterofucan SF-1.5v was extracted from the brown seaweed Sargassum filipendula by proteolytic digestion followed by sequential acetone precipitation. This fucan showed antiproliferative activity on Hela cells and induced apoptosis. However, SF-1.5v was not able to activate caspases. Moreover, SF-1.5v induced glycogen synthase kinase (GSK activation, but this protein is not involved in the heterofucan SF-1.5v induced apoptosis mechanism. In addition, ERK, p38, p53, pAKT and NFκB were not affected by the presence of SF-1.5v. We determined that SF-1.5v induces apoptosis in HeLa mainly by mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF into cytosol. In addition, SF-1.5v decreases the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased expression of apoptogenic protein Bax. These results are significant in that they provide a mechanistic framework for further exploring the use of SF-1.5v as a novel chemotherapeutics against human cervical cancer.

  10. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies of HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, F E; Kaplan, N O

    1977-11-01

    A survey of phosphorus compounds present in HeLa cells and their acid extracts has been carried out by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 40 MHz. The proton decoupled (31)P spectrum of the neutralized extract had resolution adequate to enable the identification of the main phosphate compounds. The spectral intensities were converted to concentrations. The lower detection limit with extensive signal averaging was 0.02 mumol for the extract. The composition, listed in order of decreasing concentration, was: inorganic phosphate, ATP, phosphorylcholine, creatine phosphate, UTP, NAD(+), glucose 6-phosphate, beta-D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, alpha-D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, ADP, alpha-glycerophosphorylcholine, and alpha-glycerophosphorylethanolamine. UTP made up (1/5) of the total nucleotide triphosphate content. The composition was compared to the (31)P spectrum of an extract from a human astrocytoma grown in athymic mice. The signal from P-containing macromolecules such as nucleic acids was not detected in the intact HeLa cell spectrum because of broad lines. Effects of the glycolysis inhibitor iodoacetic acid could be clearly shown in spectra of both the intact cell and the extract as buildup of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate at the expense of ATP, UTP, and creatine phosphate.

  11. Exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles increases Staphylococcus aureus infection of HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, H Daniel; Walker, Stephen G; Wang, Hong Zhan; Gordon, Chris R; Guterman, Shoshana; Zawacki, Emma; Applebaum, Eliana; Brink, Peter R; Rafailovich, Miriam; Mironava, Tatsiana

    2016-04-22

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most common nanoparticles found in industry ranging from food additives to energy generation. Approximately four million tons of TiO2 particles are produced worldwide each year with approximately 3000 tons being produced in nanoparticulate form, hence exposure to these particles is almost certain. Even though TiO2 is also used as an anti-bacterial agent in combination with UV, we have found that, in the absence of UV, exposure of HeLa cells to TiO2 nanoparticles significantly increased their risk of bacterial invasion. HeLa cells cultured with 0.1 mg/ml rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles for 24 h prior to exposure to bacteria had 350 and 250 % respectively more bacteria per cell. The increase was attributed to bacterial polysaccharides absorption on TiO2 NPs, increased extracellular LDH, and changes in the mechanical response of the cell membrane. On the other hand, macrophages exposed to TiO2 particles ingested 40 % fewer bacteria, further increasing the risk of infection. In combination, these two factors raise serious concerns regarding the impact of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles on the ability of organisms to resist bacterial infection.

  12. Regulation of Chemokine Production via Oxidative Pathway in HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Kina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is associated with disease progression and, by largely unknown mechanisms, has been said to drive oncogenesis. At inflamed sites, neutrophils deploy a potent antimicrobial arsenal that includes proteinases, antimicrobial peptides, and ROS. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs induce chemokines. In the present study, the concentrations of IL-8 in culture supernatants of HeLa cells treated with ROS were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We used -phenanthroline to deplete Fe2+ in order to investigate the mechanisms through which ROSs induce IL-8 secretion in our system. The iron chelator -phenanthroline effectively inhibited H2O2-induced ERK2 activation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that IL-8 protein secretion was elevated in ROS-treated HeLa cells. When Fe2+ was removed from these cells, IL-8 secretion was inhibited. Collectively, these results indicate that Fe2+-mediated Erk pathway activation is an important signal transduction pathway in ROS-induced IL-8 secretion in epithelial cells.

  13. Metabolism of HeLa cells revealed through autofluorescence lifetime upon infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakina, Tatyana Yu.; Su, Pin-Tzu; Syu, Wan-Jr; Allen Chang, C.; Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a sensitive technique in monitoring functional and conformational states of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD),main compounds participating in oxidative phosphorylation in cells. In this study, we have applied FLIM to characterize the metabolic changes in HeLa cells upon bacterial infection and made comparison with the results from the cells treated with staurosporine (STS), a well-known apoptosis inducer. The evolving of NADH's average autofluorescence lifetime during the 3 h after infection with enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) or STS treatment has been observed. The ratio of the short and the long lifetime components' relative contributions of NADH increases with time, a fact indicating cellular metabolic activity, such as a decrease of oxidative phosphorylation over the course of infection, while opposite dynamics is observed in FAD. Being associated with mitochondria, FAD lifetimes and redox ratio could indicate heterogeneous mitochondrial function, microenvironment with bacterial infection, and further pathway to cell death. The redox ratios for both EHEC-infected and STS-treated HeLa cells have been observed and these observations also indicate possible apoptosis induced by bacterial infection.

  14. Molecular organization and chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA in Amazonian Engystomops (Anura, Leiuperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Débora Silva; Rivera, Miryan; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2012-03-20

    For anurans, knowledge of 5S rDNA is scarce. For Engystomops species, chromosomal homeologies are difficult to recognize due to the high level of inter- and intraspecific cytogenetic variation. In an attempt to better compare the karyotypes of the Amazonian species Engystomops freibergi and Engystomops petersi, and to extend the knowledge of 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amazonian Engystomops species were isolated, characterized, and mapped. Two types of 5S rDNA, which were readily differentiated by their NTS (non-transcribed spacer) sizes and compositions, were isolated from specimens of E. freibergi from Brazil and E. petersi from two Ecuadorian localities (Puyo and Yasuní). In the E. freibergi karyotypes, the entire type I 5S rDNA repeating unit hybridized to the pericentromeric region of 3p, whereas the entire type II 5S rDNA repeating unit mapped to the distal region of 6q, suggesting a differential localization of these sequences. The type I NTS probe clearly detected the 3p pericentromeric region in the karyotypes of E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo and the 5p pericentromeric region in the karyotype of E. petersi from Yasuní, but no distal or interstitial signals were observed. Interestingly, this probe also detected many centromeric regions in the three karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA. The type II NTS probe detected only distal 6q regions in the three karyotypes, corroborating the differential distribution of the two types of 5S rDNA. Because the 5S rDNA types found in Engystomops are related to those of Physalaemus with respect to their nucleotide sequences and chromosomal locations, their origin likely preceded the evolutionary divergence of these genera. In addition, our data indicated homeology between Chromosome 5 in E. petersi from Yasuní and Chromosomes 3 in E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo. In addition, the chromosomal location of the type II 5S r

  15. Growth inhibition of HeLa cell by internalization of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asahina Izumi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravesical BCG immunotherapy is effective for preventing recurrence and progression in none muscle-invasive bladder cancer but the dosing schedule and duration of treatment remain empirical. The mechanisms by which intravesical BCG treatment mediates antitumor activity are currently poorly understood. Results HeLa cell infected with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin(BCG Tokyo which were different multiplicity of infection(MOI. Proliferation of HeLa cell reduced in a dose-dependent manner by live BCG. The cytoplasm of the HeLa cell showed variety lysosomal stages by internalized and interacted BCG. Conclusion Proliferated Live BCG secreted the protein and depressed the growth of tumor. The possibility for clinical introduction of BCG therapy for carcinoma reported with review of literature.

  16. Primordial oscillations in life: Direct observation of glycolytic oscillations in individual HeLa cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Takashi; Shibata, Kenichi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Kiminori; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2017-10-01

    We report the first direct observation of glycolytic oscillations in HeLa cervical cancer cells, which we regard as primordial oscillations preserved in living cells. HeLa cells starved of glucose or both glucose and serum exhibited glycolytic oscillations in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), exhibiting asynchronous intercellular behaviors. Also found were spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous intracellular NADH oscillations in the individual cells. Our results demonstrate that starved HeLa cells may be induced to exhibit glycolytic oscillations by either high-uptake of glucose or the enhancement of a glycolytic pathway (Crabtree effect or the Warburg effect), or both. Their asynchronous collective behaviors in the oscillations were probably due to a weak intercellular coupling. Elucidation of the relationship between the mechanism of glycolytic dynamics in cancer cells and their pathophysiological characteristics remains a challenge in future.

  17. RNA oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L. K.; Cejvanovic, V.; Henriken, T.

    2015-01-01

    RNA modification has attracted increasing interest as it is realized that epitranscriptomics is important in disease development. In type 2 diabetes we have suggested that high urinary excretion of 8-oxo-2'-Guanosine (8oxoGuo), as a measure of global RNA oxidation, is associated with poor survival.......9 significant hazard ratio for death compared with the quartile with the lowest 8oxoGuo excretion when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoker status, s-HbA1c, urine protein excretion and s-cholesterol. We conclude that it is now established that RNA oxidation is an independent risk factor for death in type 2...... diabetes. In agreement with our previous finding, DNA oxidation did not show any prognostic value. RNA oxidation represents oxidative stress intracellularly, presumably predominantly in the cytosol. The mechanism of RNA oxidation is not clear, but hypothesized to result from mitochondrial dysfunction...

  18. 64 original article optimization of rna extraction in mycobacterium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    for lysing cells. Some of the methods do not take into consideration of the short half life of bacterial RNA. For example, the half life of Escherichia coli's mRNA has been ..... and prokaryotic 23S, 16S, and 5S rRNA .... RT-PCR for demonstration of dnaK expression using RNA extracted by the different physical methods of cell.

  19. γ-Tocotrienol Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available γ-Tocotrienol, a kind of isoprenoid phytochemical, has antitumor activity. However, there is limited evidence that it has an effect on cervical cancer. In this study, the capacity to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and the mechanism underlying these effects were examined. The results indicated that a γ-tocotrienol concentration over 30 μM inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 46.90 ± 3.50 μM at 24 h, and significantly down-regulated the expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and Ki-67. DNA flow cytometric analysis indicated that γ-tocotrienol arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced the S phase in HeLa cells. γ-tocotrienol induced apoptosis of HeLa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. γ-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells was accompanied by down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax, release of cytochrome from mitochondria, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and subsequent poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage. These results suggested that γ-tocotrienol could significantly inhibit cell proliferation through G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, and induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Thus, our findings revealed that γ-tocotrienol may be considered as a potential agent for cervical cancer therapy.

  20. Hesperidin inhibits HeLa cell proliferation through apoptosis mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways and cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaoxian; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Jing; Ge, Xin; Lou, Ge

    2015-10-12

    Hesperidin (30, 5, 9-dihydroxy-40-methoxy-7-orutinosyl flavanone) is a flavanone that is found mainly in citrus fruits and has been shown to have some anti-neoplastic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hesperidin on apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and to identify the mechanism involved. Cells were treated with hesperidin (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 μM) for 24, 48, or 72 h and relative cell viability was assessed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hesperidin inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Hesperidin-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells was characterized by increased nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, increased levels of GADD153/CHOP and GRP78 indicated hesperidin-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells involved a caspase-dependent pathway, presumably downstream of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Both of these proteins are hallmarks of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hesperidin also promoted the formation of reactive oxygen species, mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), increased release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria, and promoted capase-3 activation. It also arrested HeLa cells in the G0/G1 phase in the cell cycle by downregulating the expression of cyclinD1, cyclinE1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 at the protein level. The effect of hesperidin was also verified on the human colon cancer cell HT-29 cells. We concluded that hesperidin inhibited HeLa cell proliferation through apoptosis involving endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways and cell cycle arrest.

  1. Nicotinamide induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis through oxidative stress in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wang, Yonghua; Jiang, Chengrui; Fang, Zishui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lin, Xiaoying; Sun, Liwei; Jiang, Weiying

    2017-07-15

    Nicotinamide participates in energy metabolism and influences cellular redox status and modulates multiple pathways related with both cellular survival and death. Recent studies have shown that it induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in many cancer cells. However, little is known about the effects of nicotinamide on human cervical cancer cells. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the indicated concentrations nicotinamide on cell proliferation, apoptosis and redox-related parameters in HeLa cells and investigated the apoptotic mechanism. After the treatment of the indicated concentrations nicotinamide, HeLa cell proliferation was evaluated by the CCK-8 assay and the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) was measured using 2',7'-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate. The apoptotic effect was confirmed by observing the cellular and nuclear morphologies with fluorescence microscope and apoptotic rate of HeLa cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V method. Moreover, we examined the mitochondrial membrane potential by JC-1 method and measured the expression of apoptosis related genes using qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Nicotinamide restrained the HeLa cell proliferation and significantly increased the accumulation of ROS and depletion of GSH at relatively high concentrations. Furthermore, nicotinamide promoted HeLa cell apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Our study revealed that nicotinamide induced the apoptosis through oxidative stress and intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in HeLa cell. The results emerge that nicotinamide may be an inexpensive, safe and promising therapeutic agent or a neoadjuvant chemotherapy for cervical cancer patients, as well useful to find new drugs for cervical cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The 5S rDNA in two Abracris grasshoppers (Ommatolampidinae: Acrididae): molecular and chromosomal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Danilo; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio Manuel; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Mariguela, Tatiane Casagrande; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2016-08-01

    The 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences are subject of dynamic evolution at chromosomal and molecular levels, evolving through concerted and/or birth-and-death fashion. Among grasshoppers, the chromosomal location for this sequence was established for some species, but little molecular information was obtained to infer evolutionary patterns. Here, we integrated data from chromosomal and nucleotide sequence analysis for 5S rDNA in two Abracris species aiming to identify evolutionary dynamics. For both species, two arrays were identified, a larger sequence (named type-I) that consisted of the entire 5S rDNA gene plus NTS (non-transcribed spacer) and a smaller (named type-II) with truncated 5S rDNA gene plus short NTS that was considered a pseudogene. For type-I sequences, the gene corresponding region contained the internal control region and poly-T motif and the NTS presented partial transposable elements. Between the species, nucleotide differences for type-I were noticed, while type-II was identical, suggesting pseudogenization in a common ancestor. At chromosomal point to view, the type-II was placed in one bivalent, while type-I occurred in multiple copies in distinct chromosomes. In Abracris, the evolution of 5S rDNA was apparently influenced by the chromosomal distribution of clusters (single or multiple location), resulting in a mixed mechanism integrating concerted and birth-and-death evolution depending on the unit.

  3. Terminal Duplex Stability and Nucleotide Identity Differentially Control siRNA Loading and Activity in RNA Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Phillip A; Carlson, Rebecca J; Adu-Berchie, Kwasi; Walton, S Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Efficient short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing requires selection of a sequence that is complementary to the intended target and possesses sequence and structural features that encourage favorable functional interactions with the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway proteins. In this study, we investigated how terminal sequence and structural characteristics of siRNAs contribute to siRNA strand loading and silencing activity and how these characteristics ultimately result in a functionally asymmetric duplex in cultured HeLa cells. Our results reiterate that the most important characteristic in determining siRNA activity is the 5' terminal nucleotide identity. Our findings further suggest that siRNA loading is controlled principally by the hybridization stability of the 5' terminus (Nucleotides: 1-2) of each siRNA strand, independent of the opposing terminus. Postloading, RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-specific activity was found to be improved by lower hybridization stability in the 5' terminus (Nucleotides: 3-4) of the loaded siRNA strand and greater hybridization stability toward the 3' terminus (Nucleotides: 17-18). Concomitantly, specific recognition of the 5' terminal nucleotide sequence by human Argonaute 2 (Ago2) improves RISC half-life. These findings indicate that careful selection of siRNA sequences can maximize both the loading and the specific activity of the intended guide strand.

  4. m6A mRNA modifications are deposited in nascent pre-mRNA and are not required for splicing but do specify cytoplasmic turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shengdong; Pandya-Jones, Amy; Saito, Yuhki; Fak, John J; Vågbø, Cathrine Broberg; Geula, Shay; Hanna, Jacob H; Black, Douglas L; Darnell, James E; Darnell, Robert B

    2017-05-15

    Understanding the biologic role of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modifications in mRNA requires an understanding of when and where in the life of a pre-mRNA transcript the modifications are made. We found that HeLa cell chromatin-associated nascent pre-mRNA (CA-RNA) contains many unspliced introns and m6A in exons but very rarely in introns. The m6A methylation is essentially completed upon the release of mRNA into the nucleoplasm. Furthermore, the content and location of each m6A modification in steady-state cytoplasmic mRNA are largely indistinguishable from those in the newly synthesized CA-RNA or nucleoplasmic mRNA. This result suggests that quantitatively little methylation or demethylation occurs in cytoplasmic mRNA. In addition, only ∼10% of m6As in CA-RNA are within 50 nucleotides of 5' or 3' splice sites, and the vast majority of exons harboring m6A in wild-type mouse stem cells is spliced the same in cells lacking the major m6A methyltransferase Mettl3. Both HeLa and mouse embryonic stem cell mRNAs harboring m6As have shorter half-lives, and thousands of these mRNAs have increased half-lives (twofold or more) in Mettl3 knockout cells compared with wild type. In summary, m6A is added to exons before or soon after exon definition in nascent pre-mRNA, and while m6A is not required for most splicing, its addition in the nascent transcript is a determinant of cytoplasmic mRNA stability. © 2017 Ke et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. A stable HeLa cell line that inducibly expresses poliovirus 2A(pro): effects on cellular and viral gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    2000-03-01

    A HeLa cell clone (2A7d) that inducibly expresses the gene for poliovirus protease 2A (2A(pro)) under the control of tetracycline has been obtained. Synthesis of 2A(pro) induces severe morphological changes in 2A7d cells. One day after tetracycline removal, cells round up and a few hours later die. Poliovirus 2A(pro) cleaves both forms of initiation factor eIF4G, causing extensive inhibition of capped-mRNA translation a few hours after protease induction. Methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethylketone, a selective inhibitor of 2A(pro), prevents both eIF4G cleavage and inhibition of translation but not cellular death. Expression of 2A(pro) still allows both the replication of poliovirus and the translation of mRNAs containing a picornavirus leader sequence, while vaccinia virus replication is drastically inhibited. Translation of transfected capped mRNA is blocked in 2A7d-On cells, while luciferase synthesis from a mRNA bearing a picornavirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) sequence is enhanced by the presence of 2A(pro). Moreover, synthesis of 2A(pro) in 2A7d cells complements the translational defect of a poliovirus 2A(pro)-defective variant. These results show that poliovirus 2A(pro) expression mimics some phenotypical characteristics of poliovirus-infected cells, such as cell rounding, inhibition of protein synthesis and enhancement of IRES-driven translation. This cell line constitutes a useful tool to further analyze 2A(pro) functions, to complement poliovirus 2A(pro) mutants, and to test antiviral compounds.

  6. Mechanistic aspects of fluorescent gold nanocluster internalization by live HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linxiao; Shang, Li; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    We have studied cellular uptake of ultrasmall fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) by HeLa cells by confocal fluorescence microscopy in combination with quantitative image analysis. Water solubilized, lipoic acid-protected AuNCs, which had an overall hydrodynamic diameter of 3.3 nm and emitted fluorescence in the near-infrared region at ~700 nm, were observed to accumulate on the cell membrane prior to internalization. The internalization mechanisms were analyzed using inhibitors known to interfere with specific pathways. Cellular uptake of AuNCs is energy-dependent and involves multiple mechanisms: clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis appear to play a significant role, whereas the caveolin-mediated pathway contributes only to a lesser extent. Co-labeling of different cell organelles showed that intracellular trafficking of AuNCs mainly follows through endosomal pathways. The AuNCs were ultimately transferred to lysosomes; they were completely excluded from the nucleus even after 24 h.We have studied cellular uptake of ultrasmall fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) by HeLa cells by confocal fluorescence microscopy in combination with quantitative image analysis. Water solubilized, lipoic acid-protected AuNCs, which had an overall hydrodynamic diameter of 3.3 nm and emitted fluorescence in the near-infrared region at ~700 nm, were observed to accumulate on the cell membrane prior to internalization. The internalization mechanisms were analyzed using inhibitors known to interfere with specific pathways. Cellular uptake of AuNCs is energy-dependent and involves multiple mechanisms: clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis appear to play a significant role, whereas the caveolin-mediated pathway contributes only to a lesser extent. Co-labeling of different cell organelles showed that intracellular trafficking of AuNCs mainly follows through endosomal pathways. The AuNCs were ultimately transferred to lysosomes; they were completely excluded

  7. IMPLEMENTING THE 5S METHOD IN THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF DACIA & RENAULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin CIOBANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the 5S method in addressing the issues of continuous improvement of productivity and quality of work. There are presented the 5 steps, techniques and the adjacent tools. Solutions implemented in the production system Dacia & Renault are indicated. This article provides a practical framework. The 5S method follows the Deming PDCA cycle which constitutes the starting point of the SDCA cycle of continuous improvement of the company's activities in order to obtain excellence. The implementing time of the method depends on the resources and materials allocated. Deployment of 5S is achieved by a scheme of "3+2": the first 3S are tangible and immediate actions, the last 2S appeal to specific management actions. The efficacy of their own workplace in total autonomy creates comfort in the work environment and gives personal benefits to workers.

  8. Implementace metody 5S ve výrobním podniku

    OpenAIRE

    Čechová, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zabývá implementací metody 5S v podniku zaměřeném na výrobu a zpracování skelného vlákna. Teoretická část vysvětluje základní principy filozofie Kaizen. V praktické části je navržena a dále implementována metodika 5S ve společnosti. V závěru práce jsou zhodnoceny přínosy aplikace užité metody. This thesis deals with implementation of 5S methods in company focussed on production and processing of fiberglass. The theoretical part explains the basic principles of the philo...

  9. Global Sustainable Development Through the Integrated Lean Management (Green 5-S Model for TQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Samuel K. M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 'Best Paper-2010' by the TQM Journal, the author has a chance to test out the model in a number of firms in Malaysia through SIRIM. Furthermore, riding on the success, SIRIM has named it as the SIRIM Green 5-S Model. As a result, the aim of this paper is to share the experience of the “SIRIM Green 5-S Model for Sustainable Development”. Since 1993, the author used the proprietary 5-S Checklist for training and consultancy in no less than 10 countries with over 50,000 persons from around 2,000 organisatioins world-wide. On the other hand, HKSAR takes the lead in the global oil energy consumption/GPD. The experience will be shared in this article.

  10. 5S-laatujärjestelmän toteutus omamekaanikko-korjaamossa

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtanen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä suunniteltiin kuvaus 5S-laatujärjestelmän käyttöönoton pohjaksi Käyttöauto Oy Tampereen toimipisteen korjaamolle ja omamekaanikko-toiminnalle. Sen lisäksi yritykselle toteutettiin myös korjaamon erikoistyökalujen järjestäminen ja päivittäminen takuuauditointia varten. Työn tarkoituksena oli havainnollistaa eri osa-alueita ja vaadittavia muutoksia 5S-toimintamallin omaamiseksi yritykselle. Lisäksi tarkoituksena oli selvittää, kuinka korjaamotoiminnasta saadaan tehokka...

  11. A "bulged" double helix in a RNA-protein contact site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peattie, D A; Douthwaite, S; Garrett, R A

    1981-01-01

    the defined central helix [Fox, G. E. & Woese, C. (1975) Nature (London) 256, 505-507] of 5S RNA. Chemical carbethoxylation of the native 5S RNA with diethyl pyrocarbonate shows that a striking feature of this region is an unstacked adenosine residue at position 66. We propose that this residue exists...

  12. Transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2)-induced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression requires sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5 (S1P5) in human mesangial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wünsche, Christin; Koch, Alexander; Goldschmeding, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102376069; Schwalm, Stephanie; Meyer Zu Heringdorf, Dagmar; Huwiler, Andrea; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) is well known to stimulate the expression of pro-fibrotic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in several cell types including human mesangial cells. The present study demonstrates that TGF-β2 enhances sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5 (S1P5) mRNA and

  13. Monitoring the elasticity changes of HeLa cells during mitosis by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ningcheng; Wang, Yuhua; Zeng, Jinshu; Ding, Xuemei; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin

    2016-10-01

    Cell mitosis plays a crucial role in cell life activity, which is one of the important phases in cell division cycle. During the mitosis, the cytoskeleton micro-structure of the cell changed and the biomechanical properties of the cell may vary depending upon different mitosis stages. In this study, the elasticity property of HeLa cells during mitosis was monitored by atomic force microscopy. Also, the actin filaments in different mitosis stages of the cells were observed by confocal imaging. Our results show that the cell in anaphase is stiffer than that in metaphase and telophase. Furthermore, lots of actin filaments gathered in cells' center area in anaphase, which contributes to the rigidity of the cell in this phase. Our findings demonstrate that the nano-biomechanics of living cells could provide a new index for characterizing cell physiological states.

  14. Primary cilia found on HeLa and other cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Tia J; Falk, Matthias M

    2015-11-01

    For many years now, researchers have known of a sensory appendage on the surface of most differentiated cell types called primary cilium. Primary cilia are both chemo- and mechano-sensory in function and have an obvious role in cell cycle control. Because of this, it has been thought that primary cilia are not found on rapidly proliferating cells, for example, cancer cells. Here we report using immunofluorescent staining for the ciliary protein Arl13b that primary cilia are frequently found on HeLa (human epithelial adenocarcinoma) and other cancer cell lines such as MG63 (human osteosarcoma) commonly used for cell culture studies and that the ciliated population is significantly higher (ave. 28.6% and 46.5%, respectively in starved and 15.7-18.6% in un-starved cells) than previously anticipated. Our finding impacts the current perception of primary cilia formed in highly proliferative cells. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of paederus beetle extract and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Samani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cervical cancer is a malignancy that is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. Paederus beetle (Paederus fuscipes extract (PBE, contains bioactive compounds such as pederine which has cytotoxic properties and blocks DNA and protein synthesis at very low concentrations. In this investigation we tried to determine the effects co-treatment with PBE and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: The viability of the cells was measured by two methods: MTT and Colony assay. Results: We found that supplementing gamma irradiation therapy with PBE does not increase cell death and it might even interfere with its cytotoxicty at the concentrations below 0.1 ng/ml and the viability for irradiation vs irradiation + PBE was 37%: 60%.   Conclusion: This finding might be due to radioprotective effects of the very low doses of PBE against gamma radiation.

  16. The pro-survival function of p53 in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Kim, Jin Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The rate of apoptosis and autophagy was variable with different p53 status after IR treatment of cells. The influence of p53 status on cell fate suggests a role of p53 in two fundamentally important cell biological pathways: autophagy and apoptosis. p53 coordinates cell cycle arrest and apoptosis to govern cell fate. This study was done to identify p53-mediated regulation of cell's fate. Autophagy induced by IR may prevent cells from undergoing apoptosis, implying an interlink modulation between autophagy and apoptosis. The rate of apoptosis and autophagy was determined with different p53 status after IR treatment of HeLa cells in this study. Our research on IR-induced cellular responses may provide new information about fate decision between the processes of apoptosis and autophagy.

  17. How valine deprivation and its reversal affect fatty acid metabolism in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, J R; Campbell, I M

    1976-10-21

    A protocol based on radio gas chromatography demonstrates that when HeLa cells are deprived of valine for short periods of time (6-7.5 h), their overall fatty acid biosynthetic activity is depressed after a latency of a few hours. The transfer of newly synthesized fatty acyl units to phospholipids is curtailed much faster than their transfer to triacyglycerols. Despite the cut-back in fatty acid biosynthesis, valine deprivation causes a lipid accumulation in the cells. Valine deprivation appears to affect de novo synthesis of fatty acid units from acetate more rapidly than desaturation and elongation. When valine is returned to the valine-deprived culture, overall fatty acid biosynthesis is resumed well within 2 h. Newly synthesized fatty acyl units are transferred to both the phospholipids and the 1,2-diacylglycerols of the cells but not initially to the triacylglycerols.

  18. Branched dimerization of Tat peptide improves permeability to HeLa and hippocampal neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal, I Abrrey; Liu, Qian; Tyson, Katherine; Bland, Tyler; Dalisay, Doralyn S; Adams, Erin V; Wayman, Gary A; Aguilar, Hector C; Saludes, Jonel P

    2015-03-28

    A dimeric branched peptide TATp-D designed as an analogue of the HIV-Tat protein transduction domain (TATp), a prototypical cell penetrating peptide (CPP), demonstrates significantly enhanced cell uptake at 0.25 to 2.5 μM. Live cell confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that multivalency dramatically improved the permeation potency of TATp-D to HeLa and primary hippocampal neuronal cells. The observed enhanced ability of TATp-D to translocate through the membrane is highlighted by a non-linear dependence on concentration, exhibiting the greatest uptake at sub-micromolar concentrations as compared to TATp. Multimerization via bis-Fmoc Lysine offered a synthetically straightforward method to investigate the effects of multivalent CPPs while offering orthogonal handles for cargo attachment, increasing the utility of CPPs at significantly lower concentrations.

  19. Short-term desensitization of the histamine H1 receptor in human HeLa cells : involvement of protein kinase C dependent and independent pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M J; Bloemers, S M; Leurs, R; Tertoolen, L G; Bast, A; de Laat, S W; Timmerman, H

    1992-01-01

    1. In this study we have investigated the effects of short-term exposure of cells to histamine on the subsequent H1 receptor responsiveness in HeLa cells, using Ca2+ fluorescence microscopy and video digital imaging. 2. In HeLa cells, histamine (100 microM) induces an immediate H1 receptor-mediated

  20. RNA Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparvath, Steffen Lynge

    for biosensorer,  der kan spore enten microRNA’er eller små molekyler, eksemplificeret ved S-adenosylmethionin (SAM). Slutteligt indikerer foreløbige resultater, at apta-FRET SAM sensoren kan udtrykkes i Escherichia coli-celler, hvilket viser, at RNA-origami arkitekturen muliggør cotransskriptionel foldning af...... fra en enkelt RNA-streng, og udfører en lang række komplekse cellulære funktioner. Mange af funktionerne er blevet udnyttet til at skabe funktionelle RNA-baserede nanoapparater, men den nuværende litteratur giver kun få eksempler på cotranskriptionel produktion af RNA-nanostrukturer. I 2014...... introducerede vores gruppe den enkeltstrengede RNA-origami metode, der giver mulighed for cotranscriptional foldning af veldefinerede nanostrukturer, og er en central del af arbejdet præsenteret heri. Denne ph.d.-afhandling udforsker potentielle anvendelser af RNA-origami nanostrukturer, som nanomedicin eller...

  1. Acid stress suggests different determinants for polystyrene and HeLa cell adhesion in Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaji, N; Khouadja, S; Fdhila, K; Krifi, B; Ben Ismail, M; Lagha, R; Bakir, K; Bakhrouf, A

    2015-07-01

    Adhesion has been regarded as one of the basic features of probiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of acid stress on the functional properties, such as hydrophobicity, adhesion to HeLa cells, and composition of membrane fatty acids, of Lactobacillus probiotics strains. Two strains of Lactobacillus casei were used. Adhesion on polystyrene, hydrophobicity, epithelial cells adhesion, and fatty acids analysis were evaluated. Our results showed that the membrane properties such as hydrophobicity and fatty acid composition of stressed strains were significantly changed with different pH values. However, we found that acid stress caused a change in the proportions of unsaturated and saturated fatty acid. The ratio of saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acids observed in acid-stressed Lactobacillus casei cells was significantly higher than the ration in control cells. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in the adhesion ability of these strains to HeLa cells and to a polystyrene surface at low pH. The present finding could first add new insight about the acid stress adaptation and, thus, enable new strategies to be developed aimed at improving the industrial performance of this species under acid stress. Second, no relationship was observed between changes in membrane composition and fluidity induced by acid treatment and adhesion to biotic and abiotic surfaces. In fact, the decrease of cell surface hydrophobicity and the adhesion ability to abiotic surface and the increase of the capacity of adhesion to biotic surface demonstrate that adhesive characteristics will have little relevance in probiotic strain-screening procedures. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Yeast CUP1 protects HeLa cells against copper-induced stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, X.X. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai (China); College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China); Ma, Y.F.; Wang, Q.S.; Chen, Z.L.; Liao, R.R.; Pan, Y.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-12

    As an essential trace element, copper can be toxic in mammalian cells when present in excess. Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich proteins that avidly bind copper and thus play an important role in detoxification. YeastCUP1 is a member of the MT gene family. The aim of this study was to determine whether yeast CUP1 could bind copper effectively and protect cells against copper stress. In this study,CUP1 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and copper content was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Cellular viability was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell cycle distribution of CUP1 was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The data indicated that overexpression of yeast CUP1 in HeLa cells played a protective role against copper-induced stress, leading to increased cellular viability (P<0.05) and decreased ROS production (P<0.05). It was also observed that overexpression of yeast CUP1 reduced the percentage of G1 cells and increased the percentage of S cells, which suggested that it contributed to cell viability. We found that overexpression of yeast CUP1 protected HeLa cells against copper stress. These results offer useful data to elucidate the mechanism of the MT gene on copper metabolism in mammalian cells.

  3. Deformation-based nuclear morphometry: capturing nuclear shape variation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Gustavo K; Ribeiro, Alexandre J S; Dahl, Kris N; Murphy, Robert F

    2008-04-01

    The empirical characterization of nuclear shape distributions is an important unsolved problem with many applications in biology and medicine. Numerous genetic diseases and cancers have alterations in nuclear morphology, and methods for characterization of morphology could aid in both diagnoses and fundamental understanding of these disorders. Automated approaches have been used to measure features related to the size and shape of the cell nucleus, and statistical analysis of these features has often been performed assuming an underlying Euclidean (linear) vector space. We discuss the difficulties associated with the analysis of nuclear shape in light of the fact that shape spaces are nonlinear, and demonstrate methods for characterizing nuclear shapes and shape distributions based on spatial transformations that map one nucleus to another. By combining large deformation metric mapping with multidimensional scaling we offer a flexible approach for elucidating the intrinsic nonlinear degrees of freedom of a distribution of nuclear shapes. More specifically, we demonstrate approaches for nuclear shape interpolation and computation of mean nuclear shape. We also provide a method for estimating the number of free parameters that contribute to shape as well as an approach for visualizing most representative shape variations within a distribution of nuclei. The proposed methodology can be completely automated, is independent of the dimensionality of the images, and can handle complex shapes. Results obtained by analyzing two sets of images of HeLa cells are shown. In addition to identifying the modes of variation in normal HeLa nuclei, the effects of lamin A/C on nuclear morphology are quantitatively described. (c) 2007 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  4. Magnetic capture of polydopamine-encapsulated Hela cells for the analysis of cell surface proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiying; Yan, Guoquan; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2017-10-16

    A novel method to characterize cell surface proteins and complexes has been developed. Polydopamine (PDA)-encapsulated Hela cells were prepared for plasma membrane proteome research. Since the PDA protection, the encapsulated cells could be maintained for more than two weeks. Amino groups functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were also used for cell capture by the reaction with the PDA coatings. Plasma membrane fragments were isolated and enriched with assistance of an external magnetic field after disruption of the coated cells by ultrasonic treatment. Plasma membrane proteins (PMPs) and complexes were well preserved on the fragments and identified by shot-gun proteomic analytical strategy. 385 PMPs and 1411 non-PMPs were identified using the method. 85.2% of these PMPs were lipid-raft associated proteins. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was employed for bio-information extraction from the identified proteins. It was found that 653 non-PMPs had interactions with 140 PMPs. Among them, epidermal growth factor receptor and its complexes, and a series of important pathways including STAT3 pathway were observed. All these results demonstrated that the new approach is of great importance in applying to the research of physiological function and mechanism of the plasma membrane proteins. This work developed a novel strategy for the proteomic analysis of cell surface proteins. According to the results, 73.3% of total identified proteins were lipid-raft associated proteins, which imply that the proposed method is of great potential in the identification of lipid-raft associated proteins. In addition, a series of protein-protein interactions and pathways related to Hela cells were pointed out. All these results demonstrated that our proposed approach is of great importance and could well be applied to the physiological function and mechanism research of plasma membrane proteins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The 5C Concept and 5S Principles in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibi, Toshifumi; Panaccione, Remo; Katafuchi, Miiko; Yokoyama, Kaoru; Watanabe, Kenji; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Travis, Simon; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2017-10-27

    The international Inflammatory Bowel Disease [IBD] Expert Alliance initiative [2012-2015] served as a platform to define and support areas of best practice in IBD management to help improve outcomes for all patients with IBD. During the programme, IBD specialists from around the world established by consensus two best practice charters: the 5S Principles and the 5C Concept. The 5S Principles were conceived to provide health care providers with key guidance for improving clinical practice based on best management approaches. They comprise the following categories: Stage the disease; Stratify patients; Set treatment goals; Select appropriate treatment; and Supervise therapy. Optimised management of patients with IBD based on the 5S Principles can be achieved most effectively within an optimised clinical care environment. Guidance on optimising the clinical care setting in IBD management is provided through the 5C Concept, which encompasses: Comprehensive IBD care; Collaboration; Communication; Clinical nurse specialists; and Care pathways. Together, the 5C Concept and 5S Principles provide structured recommendations on organising the clinical care setting and developing best-practice approaches in IBD management. Consideration and application of these two dimensions could help health care providers optimise their IBD centres and collaborate more effectively with their multidisciplinary team colleagues and patients, to provide improved IBD care in daily clinical practice. Ultimately, this could lead to improved outcomes for patients with IBD.

  6. Physical mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA in Chrysanthemum and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 91; Issue 2. Physical mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA in Chrysanthemum and related genera of the Anthemideae by FISH, and species relationships. Magdy Hussein Abd El-Twab Katsuhiko Kondo. Research Note Volume 91 Issue 2 August 2012 pp 245-249 ...

  7. Physical mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA in Chrysanthemum and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... [Abd El-Twab M. H. and Kondo K. 2012 Physical mapping of 5S and 45S rDNA in Chrysanthemum and related genera of the Anthemideae by FISH, and species relationships. J. Genet. 91, 245–249]. Introduction. The present study has shown that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) physical mapping ...

  8. 5. S Shivaji - Cold loving microbes.htm | sshivaji | 80am talks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Resources; meetings; annmeet; 80am talks; sshivaji; 5. S Shivaji - Cold loving microbes.htm. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Associates – 2017. Posted on 30 ...

  9. [Analysis of 5S rDNA changes in synthetic allopolyploids Triticum x Aegilops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherban', A B; Sergeeva, E M; Badaeva, E D; Salina, E A

    2008-01-01

    By the example of three synthetic allopolyploids: Aegilops sharonensis x Ae. umbellulata (2n =28), Triticum urartu x Ae. tauschii (2n =28), T. dicoccoides x Ae. tauschii (2n =42) the 5S rDNA changes at the early stage of allopolyploidization were investigated. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), the quantitative changes affecting the separate loci of one of the parental genomes were revealed in plants of S3 generation of each hybrid combination. Souther hybridization with genomic DNA of allopolyploid T. urartu x Ae. tauschii (TMU38 x TQ27) revealed lower intensity of the fragments from Ae. tauschii compared with the T. urartu fragments. It may be confirmation of the reduction of signal on 1D chromosome that was revealed in this hybrid using FISH. Both appearance of a new 5S rDNA fragments and full disappearance of fragments from parental species were not showed by Southern hybridization, as well as PCR-analysis of 5-15 plants of S2-S3 generations. The changes were not found under comparison of primary structure of nine 5S rDNA sequences of allopolyploid TMU38 x TQ27 with analogous sequences from parental species genomes. The observable similarity by FISH results of one of the studied synthetic allopolyploids with natural allopolyploid of similar genome composition indicates the early formation of unique for each allopolyploid 5S rDNA organization.

  10. Global determinants of mortality in under 5s: 10 year worldwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Nacher, Mathieu; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Chavance, Michel

    2013-11-08

    To assess at country level the association of mortality in under 5s with a large set of determinants. Longitudinal study. 193 United Nations member countries, 2000-09. Yearly data between 2000 and 2009 based on 12 world development indicators were used in a multivariable general additive mixed model allowing for non-linear relations and lag effects. National rate of deaths in under 5s per 1000 live births The model retained the variables: gross domestic product per capita; percentage of the population having access to improved water sources, having access to improved sanitation facilities, and living in urban areas; adolescent fertility rate; public health expenditure per capita; prevalence of HIV; perceived level of corruption and of violence; and mean number of years in school for women of reproductive age. Most of these variables exhibited non-linear behaviours and lag effects. By providing a unified framework for mortality in under 5s, encompassing both high and low income countries this study showed non-linear behaviours and lag effects of known or suspected determinants of mortality in this age group. Although some of the determinants presented a linear action on log mortality indicating that whatever the context, acting on them would be a pertinent strategy to effectively reduce mortality, others had a threshold based relation potentially mediated by lag effects. These findings could help designing efficient strategies to achieve maximum progress towards millennium development goal 4, which aims to reduce mortality in under 5s by two thirds between 1990 and 2015.

  11. Photodissociation dynamics of superexcited O2: Dissociation channels O(5S) vs. O(3S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiyong; Meng, Qingnan; Mo, Yuxiang

    2014-07-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of O2, O2 + hυ → O(3P) + O(2p3(4S)3s, 3S/5S), has been studied by combining the XUV laser pump / UV laser probe and velocity map imaging methods in the photon energy range 14.64-15.20 eV. The fragment yield spectra of O(3S) and O(5S) and their velocity map images have been recorded using the state-selective (1+1) REMPI method to detect the fragments. The fragment yield spectra show resolved fine structure that arises from the predissociated Rydberg states I, I' and I″ (3ΠΩ = 0,1,2). The branching ratios between the two decay channels have been measured by one-photon ionization of the fragments O(3S) and O(5S) simultaneously. It is surprising to find that the dissociation cross sections for the production of O(5S) are larger than, or comparable to, those of O(3S) for the I and I' states, while the cross sections for the production of O(5S) are smaller than those of O(3S) for the I″ state. All fragments O(5S) arise from perpendicular transitions, which provides direct experimental evidence about the symmetry assignments of the states I, I' and I″ excited in this energy region. Although most of the fragments O(3S) arise from perpendicular transitions, some of them are from parallel transitions. Based on the calculated ab initio potential energy curves, we propose that the neutral dissociation into O(3P) + O(3S) occurs mainly via the interaction of the Rydberg states I, I', and I″ with the vibrational continuum of the diabatic 83Πu state (1π _u^{ - 1} (a^4 {Π}_u {)3}sσ _g ,^3 Π_u), while the neutral dissociation into O(3P) + O(5S) occurs mainly via the interaction of Rydberg states I, I', and I″ with the diabatic 73Πu (1π _g^{ - 1} (X^2 {Π}_g {)3}p{σ }_u ,^3 Π_u).

  12. Polyketide Derivatives from Annona muricata Linn Leaves as Potencial Anticancer Material by Combination Treatment With Doxorubicin on Hela Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, A. N.; Astirin, O. P.; Prayito, A.; Widiyaningsih, R. F.; Prihapsara, F.

    2017-02-01

    One of the compounds found effication as an anticancer agent on cervical cancer is acetogenin, a polyketide compound that is abundant in Annona muricata L. leaves. This study has been done to examine polyketide derivatives was isolated from Annona muricata L. which has potency to induce apoptosis by p53 expression on hela cell line. An approach recently develop to overcome side effect of chemoterapeutic agent is used of combined chemoterapeutic agent, i.e doxorubicin. The determination of cytotoxic combination activity from polyketide derivative and doxorubicin was evaluated using MTT assay to obtain the value of CI (combination index). The expression of p53 profile was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on hela cell line. Data analysis showed that combination of polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. (38,5 µg/ml) and doxorubicin with all of concentration performed synergistic effect on hela cell line with CI value from 0,33 - 0,65. The analysis on immucytochemistry showed that polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. leaves could enhance p53 pathway significantly on hela cell line.

  13. Intense picosecond pulsed electric fields induce apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway in HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUA, YUAN-YUAN; WANG, XIAO-SHU; ZHANG, YU; YAO, CHEN-GUO; ZHANG, XI-MING; XIONG, ZHENG-AI

    2012-01-01

    The application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) is emerging as a new technique for tumor therapy. Picosecond pulsed electric fields (psPEF) can be transferred to target deep tissue non-invasively and precisely, but the research of the biological effects of psPEF on cells is limited. Electric theory predicts that intense psPEF will target mitochondria and lead to changes in transmembrane potential, therefore, it is hypothesized that it can induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. HeLa cells were exposed to psPEF in this study to investigate this hypothesis. MTT assay demonstrated that intense psPEF significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Typical characteristics of apoptosis in HeLa cells were observed, using transmission electron microscopy. Loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was explored using laser scanning confocal microscopy with Rhodamine-123 (Rh123) staining. Furthermore, the mitochondrial apoptotic events were also confirmed by western blot analysis for the release of cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria into the cytosol. In addition, activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, upregulation of Bax, p53 and downregulation of Bcl-2 were observed in HeLa cells also indicating apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that intense psPEF induce cell apoptosis through a mitochondrial-mediated pathway. PMID:22307872

  14. Anticancer Activity of a Hexapeptide from Skate (Raja porosa) Cartilage Protein Hydrolysate in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin; Zhao, Yu-Qin; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Chi, Chang-Feng; Wang, Bin

    2016-08-16

    In this study, the hexapeptide Phe-Ile-Met-Gly-Pro-Tyr (FIMGPY), which has a molecular weight of 726.9 Da, was separated from skate (Raja porosa) cartilage protein hydrolysate using ultrafiltration and chromatographic methods, and its anticancer activity was evaluated in HeLa cells. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that FIMGPY exhibited high, dose-dependent anti-proliferation activities in HeLa cells with an IC50 of 4.81 mg/mL. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence staining and flow cytometry methods confirmed that FIMGPY could inhibit HeLa cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Western blot assay revealed that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and relative intensity of caspase-3 in HeLa cells treated with 7-mg/mL FIMGPY were 2.63 and 1.83, respectively, significantly higher than those of the blank control (p skate cartilage protein hydrolysate may have applications as functional foods and nutraceuticals for the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  15. Anticancer Activity of a Hexapeptide from Skate (Raja porosa Cartilage Protein Hydrolysate in HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hexapeptide Phe-Ile-Met-Gly-Pro-Tyr (FIMGPY, which has a molecular weight of 726.9 Da, was separated from skate (Raja porosa cartilage protein hydrolysate using ultrafiltration and chromatographic methods, and its anticancer activity was evaluated in HeLa cells. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay indicated that FIMGPY exhibited high, dose-dependent anti-proliferation activities in HeLa cells with an IC50 of 4.81 mg/mL. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB fluorescence staining and flow cytometry methods confirmed that FIMGPY could inhibit HeLa cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Western blot assay revealed that the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and relative intensity of caspase-3 in HeLa cells treated with 7-mg/mL FIMGPY were 2.63 and 1.83, respectively, significantly higher than those of the blank control (p < 0.01. Thus, FIMGPY could induce apoptosis by upregulating the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. Using a DNA ladder method further confirmed that the anti-proliferation activity of FIMGPY was attributable to its role in inducing apoptosis. These results suggest that FIMGPY from skate cartilage protein hydrolysate may have applications as functional foods and nutraceuticals for the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  16. Extracellular ATP elevates cytoplasmatic free Ca2+ in HeLa cells by the interaction with a 5'-nucleotide receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Bloemers, S M; Tertoolen, L G; Bast, A; De Laat, S W; Timmerman, H

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we have characterized the effects of ATP and several other nucleotides on the intracellular Ca2+ levels of HeLa cells. Using fura-2 microscopy fluorescence measurements, the ATP-mediated increase in intracellular Ca2+ was shown to consist of a rapid rise which decreased after a

  17. 1.5-NM PROJECTION STRUCTURE OF HELA-CELL PROSOME-MCP (PROTEASOME) PROVIDED BY 2-DIMENSIONAL CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERKINS, GA; BERGSMASCHUTTER, W; KEEGSTRA, W; ARNBERG, AC; COUX, O; SCHERRER, K

    1994-01-01

    We grew two-dimensional crystals of HeLa cell prosomes, also called multicatalytic proteinases (MCP) and proteasomes, for a structure determination by electron microscopy. The molecules were arranged in side views in these crystals. The crystals have p21 plane group symmetry with one particle per

  18. Effects of Agaricus blazei Murill extract on sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents in HeLa cells and its resistant sublines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kohji; Shin, Yasunori; Obata, Yukihisa; Kitada, Noriaki; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM; Japanese name: Kawahiratake or Agarikusutake) extract is a widely used dietary supplement. However, limited information is available on the effects of the extract on the effectiveness of the chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we examined the effects of ABM extract (Kyowa Wellness Co., Ltd.) on sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents, paclitaxel and doxorubicin as MDR1/P-glycoprotein substrates, and cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil as non-substrates, in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, and paclitaxel-resistant and cisplatin-resistant derivatives (HeLa/TXL and HeLa/CDDP, respectively). The extract had no growth inhibitory effects on HeLa and the resistant cells at concentrations ranging from 7.6 × 10(-4) μ g/ml to 8.0 × 10(2)μ g/ml, indicating no remarkable cytotoxic activity in vitro. In the presence of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 μ g/ml of ABM extract, sensitivity to paclitaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil did not change in HeLa, HeLa/TXL and HeLa/CDDP cells. However, the extract reduced sensitivity to doxorubicin in HeLa/TXL and HeLa/CDDP cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the concomitant use of ABM extract minimally affected sensitivity to various chemotherapeutic agents in HeLa cells and resistant sublines in vitro.

  19. The nonstructural protein NP1 of human bocavirus 1 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Hela cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bin; Cai, Yingyue; Li, Yongshu [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Li, Jingjing [College of Life Science, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002, Hubei (China); Liu, Kaiyu [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Li, Yi, E-mail: johnli2668@hotmail.com [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Bioengineering Department, Wuhan Bioengineering Institute, Wuhan 430415, Hubei (China); Yang, Yongbo, E-mail: yongboyang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China)

    2013-05-25

    Human bocavirus type 1 (HBoV1) is a newly identified pathogen associated with human respiratory tract illnesses. Previous studies demonstrated that proteins of HBoV1 failed to cause cell death, which is considered as a possible common feature of bocaviruses. However, our work showed that the NP1 of HBoV1 induced apoptotic cell death in Hela cells in the absence of viral genome replication and expression of other viral proteins. Mitochondria apoptotic pathway was involved in the NP1-induced apoptosis that was confirmed by apoptotic characteristics including morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. We also demonstrated that the cell cycle of NP1-transfected Hela cells was transiently arrested at G2/M phase followed by rapid appearance of apoptosis and that the N terminal domain of NP1 was critical to its nuclear localization and function in apoptosis induction in Hela cells. These findings might provide alternative information for further study of mechanism of HBoV1 pathogenesis. - Highlights: ► NP1 protein of HBoV1 induced apoptosis in Hela cells was first reported. ► NP1 induced-apoptosis followed the cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. ► The NP1 induced-apoptosis was mediated by mitochondrion apoptotic pathway. ► N terminal of NP1 was critical for apoptosis induction and nuclear localization.

  20. HEAT-INDUCED PROTEIN DENATURATION IN THE PARTICULATE FRACTION OF HELA S3 CELLS - EFFECT OF THERMOTOLERANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BURGMAN, PWJJ; KONINGS, AWT

    1992-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of heat on the proteins of the particulate fraction (PF) of HeLa S3 cells using electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermal gel analysis (TGA). ESR detects overall conformational changes in proteins, while TGA detects denaturation (aggregation due to formation

  1. Cytotoxic Effects of Native and Recombinant Frutalin, a Plant Galactose-Binding Lectin, on HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutalin is the α-D-galactose-binding lectin isolated from breadfruit seeds. Frutalin was obtained from two different sources: native frutalin was purified from its natural origin, and recombinant frutalin was produced and purified from Pichia pastoris. This work aimed to study and compare the effect of native and recombinant frutalin on HeLa cervical cancer cells proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the interaction between frutalin and the HeLa cells was investigated by confocal microscopy. Despite having different carbohydrate-binding affinities, native and recombinant frutalin showed an identical magnitude of cytotoxicity on HeLa cells growth (IC50~100 μg/mL and equally induced cell apoptosis. The interaction studies showed that both lectins were rapidly internalised and targeted to HeLa cell's nucleus. Altogether, these results indicate that frutalin action is not dependent on its sugar-binding properties. This study provides important information about the bioactivity of frutalin and contributes to the understanding of the plant lectins cytotoxic activity.

  2. [Extraction and analysis of the essential oil in Pogostemon cablin by enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitory activity against Hela cell proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Qi, Yue; Luo, Gang; Duan, Hong-quan; Zhou, Jing

    2012-05-01

    To optimize the extraction method of essential oil in Pogostemon cablin and analyze its inhibitory activity against Hela cell proliferation. The Pogostemon cablin was treated by hemicellulase before steam distillation. The enzyme dosage, treatment time, treatment temperature, pH were optimized through orthogonal experimental design. The components of essential oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Inhibitory activity of patchouli oil against Hela cell proliferation was determined by MTP method. The optimum extraction process was as follows: pH 4.5, temperature 45 degrees C, the ratio of hemicellulase to Pogostemon cablin was 1% and enzymatic hydrolysis for 1.0 hour. Extraction ratio of the patchouli oil in steam distillation and hemicellulase extraction method was 2.2220 mg/g, 3.1360 mg/g respectively. Patchouli oil could inhibit Hela cell proliferation. IC50 of the patchouli oil in steam distillation and hemicellulase extraction method was 12.2 +/- 0.46 microg/mL and 0.36 +/- 0.03 microg/mL respectively. In comparison with steam distillation method, extraction ratios of essential oil and the inhibitory activity against Hela cell proliferation can be increased by the hemicellulase extraction method.

  3. Ectopic overexpression of LAPTM5 results in lysosomal targeting and induces Mcl-1 down-regulation, Bak activation, and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Youn Jun

    Full Text Available Human lysosomal-associated protein multispanning membrane 5 (LAPTM5 was identified by an ordered differential display-polymerase chain reaction (ODD-PCR as an up-regulated cDNA fragment during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA-induced differentiation of U937 cells into monocytes/macrophages. After TPA-treatment, the levels of LAPTM5 mRNA and protein increased and reached a maximum at 18-36 h. In healthy human tissues, LAPTM5 mRNA was expressed at high levels in hematopoietic cells and tissues, at low levels in the lung and fetal liver, and was not detected in other non-hematopoietic tissues. LAPTM5 mRNA was detected in immature malignant cells of myeloid lineage, such as K562, HL-60, U937, and THP-1 cells, and in unstimulated peripheral T cells, but was absent or barely detectable in lymphoid malignant or non-hematopoietic malignant cells. The LAPTM5 level in HL-60 cells increased more significantly during TPA-induced monocyte/macrophage differentiation than during DMSO-induced granulocyte differentiation. Ectopic expression of GFP-LAPTM5 or LAPTM5 in HeLa cells exhibited the localization of LAPTM5 to the lysosome. In HeLa cells overexpressing LAPTM5, the Mcl-1 and Bid levels declined markedly and apoptosis was induced via Bak activation, Δψm loss, activation of caspase-9, -8 and -3, and PARP degradation without accompanying necrosis. However, these LAPTM5-induced apoptotic events except for the decline of Bid level were completely abrogated by concomitant overexpression of Mcl-1. The pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk could suppress the LAPTM5-induced apoptotic sub-G1 peak by ~40% but failed to block the induced Δψm loss, whereas the broad-range inhibitor of cathepsins (Cathepsin Inhibitor I could suppress the LAPTM5-induced apoptotic sub-G1 peak and Δψm loss, by ~22% and ~23%, respectively, suggesting that the LAPTM5-mediated Δψm loss was exerted at least in part in a cathepsin-dependent manner. Together, these results

  4. The chromosomal constitution of fish hybrid lineage revealed by 5S rDNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Ye, Lihai; Chen, Yiyi; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Yanhong; Tao, Min; Xiao, Yamei; Liu, Shaojun

    2015-12-03

    The establishment of the bisexual fertile fish hybrid lineage including the allodiploid and allotetraploid hybrids, from interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var. 2n = 100, 2n = AA) (♀) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 2n = 100, 2n = BB) (♂), provided a good platform to investigate genetic relationship between the parents and their hybrid progenies. The chromosomal inheritance of diploid and allotetraploid hybrid progenies in successive generations, was studied by applying 5S rDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. Signals of 5S rDNA distinguished the chromosomal constitution of common carp (B-genome) from red crucian carp (A-genome), in which two strong signals were observed on the first submetacentric chromosome, while no major signal was found in common carp. After fish hybridization, one strong signal of 5S rDNA was detected in the same locus on the chromosome of diploid hybrids. As expected, two strong signals were observed in 4nF3 tetraploid hybrids offspring and it is worth mentioning that two strong signals were detected in a separating bivalent of a primary spermatocyte in 4nF3. Furthermore, the mitosis of heterozygous chromosomes was shown normal and stable with blastular tissue histological studies. We revealed that 5S rDNA signal can be applied to discern A-genome from B-genome, and that 5S rDNA bearing chromosomes can be stably passed down in successive generations. Our work provided a significant method in fish breeding and this is important for studies in fish evolutionary biology.

  5. Impact of the Japanese 5S management method on patients’ and caretakers’ satisfaction: a quasi-experimental study in Senegal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanamori, Shogo; Castro, Marcia C; Sow, Seydou; Matsuno, Rui; Cissokho, Alioune; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 5S method is a lean management tool for workplace organization, with 5S being an abbreviation for five Japanese words that translate to English as Sort, Set in Order, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain...

  6. The morphology and clinical significance of the intraforaminal ligaments at the L5-S1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinghao; Zhong, Enyi; Shi, Benchao; Li, Yang; Sun, Chao; Ding, Zihai

    2016-08-01

    The extraforaminal ligaments between the L5 and S1 lumbar spinal nerves and the tissues surrounding the intervertebral foramina have been well studied. However, little research has been undertaken to describe the local anatomy of the intraforaminal portion of the L5-S1 spine and detailed anatomical studies of the intraforaminal ligaments (IFLs) of the L5-S1 have not been performed. The objective of this study was to identify and describe the IFLs in relation to the L5-S1 intervertebral foramen (IVF) and to determine their clinical significance. A dissection-based study of five embalmed and five fresh-frozen human cadavers was carried out. Twenty L5-S1 intervertebral foramina from five embalmed cadavers and five fresh cadavers were studied, and the IFLs were identified. The quantity, morphology, origin, insertion, and spatial orientation of the IFLs in the L5-S1 region were observed. The length, width, diameter, and thickness of the ligaments were measured with a vernier caliper. This study has been supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31271286) without potential conflict of interest-associated biases in the text of the paper. The IFLs could be found from the entrance zone (inside) to the exit zone (outside) of the L5-S1 IVF. These ligaments were found to be of two types: a radiating ligament, which connected the nerve root sleeves that radiated to the transverse processes and wall of the IVF, and a transforaminal ligament, which connected the structures around the IVF. In our study, the radiating ligaments were found more often than the transforaminal ligaments. The results demonstrate that IFLs are common structures in the IVF and that there are two types of IFLs: the transforaminal ligaments and the radiating ligaments. Transforaminal ligaments may be the potential cause of back pain. The radiating ligaments may contribute to dura laceration and epidural hemorrhage during endoscopic spinal adhesiolysis through the

  7. Evolutional dynamics of 45S and 5S ribosomal DNA in ancient allohexaploid Atropa belladonna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Roman A; Panchuk, Irina I; Borisjuk, Nikolai V; Hosiawa-Baranska, Marta; Maluszynska, Jolanta; Hemleben, Vera

    2017-01-23

    Polyploid hybrids represent a rich natural resource to study molecular evolution of plant genes and genomes. Here, we applied a combination of karyological and molecular methods to investigate chromosomal structure, molecular organization and evolution of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in nightshade, Atropa belladonna (fam. Solanaceae), one of the oldest known allohexaploids among flowering plants. Because of their abundance and specific molecular organization (evolutionarily conserved coding regions linked to variable intergenic spacers, IGS), 45S and 5S rDNA are widely used in plant taxonomic and evolutionary studies. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of A. belladonna 45S rDNA repeats revealed a general structure characteristic of other Solanaceae species, and a very high sequence similarity of two length variants, with the only difference in number of short IGS subrepeats. These results combined with the detection of three pairs of 45S rDNA loci on separate chromosomes, presumably inherited from both tetraploid and diploid ancestor species, example intensive sequence homogenization that led to substitution/elimination of rDNA repeats of one parent. Chromosome silver-staining revealed that only four out of six 45S rDNA sites are frequently transcriptionally active, demonstrating nucleolar dominance. For 5S rDNA, three size variants of repeats were detected, with the major class represented by repeats containing all functional IGS elements required for transcription, the intermediate size repeats containing partially deleted IGS sequences, and the short 5S repeats containing severe defects both in the IGS and coding sequences. While shorter variants demonstrate increased rate of based substitution, probably in their transition into pseudogenes, the functional 5S rDNA variants are nearly identical at the sequence level, pointing to their origin from a single parental species. Localization of the 5S rDNA genes on two chromosome pairs further supports uniparental

  8. Characterization of Circulating Transfer RNA-Derived RNA Fragments in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eCasas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to characterize naturally occurring circulating transfer RNA-derived RNA Fragments (tRFs in cattle. Serum from eight clinically normal adult dairy cows was collected, and small non-coding RNAs were extracted immediately after collection and sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Sequences aligned to transfer RNA (tRNA genes or their flanking sequences were characterized. Sequences aligned to the beginning of 5’ end of the mature tRNA were classified as tRF5; those aligned to the 3’ end of mature tRNA were classified as tRF3; and those aligned to the beginning of the 3’ end flanking sequences were classified as tRF1. There were 3,190,962 sequences that mapped to transfer RNA and small non-coding RNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 2,323,520 were identified as tRF5s, 562 were tRF3s, and 81 were tRF1s. There were 866,799 sequences identified as other small non-coding RNAs (MicroRNA, rRNA, snoRNA, etc. and were excluded from the study. The tRF5s ranged from 28 to 40 nucleotides; and 98.7% ranged from 30 to 34 nucleotides in length. The tRFs with the greatest number of sequences were derived from tRNA of histidine, glutamic acid, lysine, glycine, and valine. There was no association between number of codons for each amino acid and number of tRFs in the samples. The reason for tRF5s being the most abundant can only be explained if these sequences are associated with function within the animal.

  9. Miniopen Oblique Lateral L5-S1 Interbody Fusion: A Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijiro Kanno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF, but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications.

  10. Observation of two charged bottomonium-like resonances in Y(5S) decays

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    We report the observation of two narrow structures in the mass spectra of the pi+-Y(nS) (n=1,2,3) and pi+-hb(mP)(m$ (m=1,2) pairs that are produced in association with a single charged pion in Y(5S) decays. The measured masses and widths of the two structures averaged over the five final states are M_1=(10607.2+-2.0) MeV/c2, Gamma_1=(18.4+-2.4) MeV and M_2=(10652.2+-1.5) MeV/c2, Gamma_2=(11.5+-2.2) MeV. The results are obtained with a 121.4 1/fb data sample collected with the Belle detector in the vicinity of the Y(5S) resonance at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider.

  11. Attosecond relative delay among xenon 5p, 5s, and 4d photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond Wigner-Smith (WS) time delays of the photoemissions of Xe valence 5p, 5s, and core 4d electrons are investigated in details using the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA). Electron correlations determine the energy-dependent structures in ionization phases of the dipole channels and in the resulting WS delays at various shape resonances, induced by the collective motion of 4d electrons, and at various Cooper minima. We find that our calculation closely agrees with the streaking measurement for the delay of 4d relative to 5s, and predicts accelerated emission of 5p with respect to 4d as was experimentally observed at similar photon energies for Xe atoms adsorbed on the tungsten surface. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  12. The blue light indicator in rubidium 5S-5P-5D cascade excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Waseem; Ali, Md. Sabir; Chakrabarti, Alok; Ray, Ayan

    2017-07-01

    The cascade system has played an important role in contemporary research areas related to fields like Rydberg excitation, four wave mixing and non-classical light generation, etc. Depending on the specific objective, co or counter propagating pump-probe laser experimental geometry is followed. However, the stepwise excitation of atoms to states higher than the first excited state deals with increasingly much fewer number of atoms even compared to the population at first excited level. Hence, one needs a practical indicator to study the complex photon-atom interaction of the cascade system. Here, we experimentally analyze the case of rubidium 5S → 5P → 5D as a specimen of two-step excitation and highlight the efficacy of monitoring one branch, which emits 420 nm, of associated cascade decay route 5D → 6P → 5S, as an effective monitor of the coherence in the system.

  13. Implementation of 5S tools as a starting point in business process reengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorkapić Miloš 0000-0002-3463-8665

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of elements which represent a starting point in implementation of a business process reengineering. We have used Lean tools through the analysis of 5S model in our research. On the example of finalization of the finished transmitter in IHMT-CMT production, 5S tools were implemented with a focus on Quality elements although the theory shows that BPR and TQM are two opposite activities in an enterprise. We wanted to distinguish the significance of employees’ self-discipline which helps the process of product finalization to develop in time and without waste and losses. In addition, the employees keep their work place clean, tidy and functional.

  14. Validation of a novel Mho microarray for a comprehensive characterisation of the Mycoplasma hominis action in HeLa cell infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Henrich

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is the second smallest facultative pathogen of the human urogenital tract. With less than 600 protein-encoding genes, it represents an ideal model organism for the study of host-pathogen interactions. For a comprehensive characterisation of the M. hominis action in infection a customized Mho microarray, which was based on two genome sequences (PG21 and LBD-4, was designed to analyze the dynamics of the mycoplasma transcriptome during infection and validated for M. hominis strain FBG. RNA preparation was evaluated and adapted to ensure the highest recovery of mycoplasmal mRNAs from in vitro HeLa cell infection assays. Following cRNA hybridization, the read-out strategy of the hybridization results was optimized and confirmed by RT-PCR. A statistically robust infection assay with M. hominis strain FBG enabled the identification of differentially regulated key effector molecules such as critical cytoadhesins (4 h post infection (pI, invasins (48 h pI and proteins associated with establishing chronic infection of the host (336 h pI. Of the 294 differentially regulated genes (>2-fold 128 (43.5% encoded hypothetical proteins, including lipoproteins that seem to play a central role as virulence factors at each stage of infection: P75 as a novel cytoadhesin candidate, which is also differentially upregulated in chronic infection; the MHO_2100 protein, a postulated invasin and the MHO_730-protein, a novel ecto-nuclease and domain of an ABC transporter, the function of which in chronic infection has still to be elucidated. Implementation of the M. hominis microarray strategy led to a comprehensive identification of to date unknown candidates for virulence factors at relevant stages of host cell infection.

  15. Uudised : Eesti muusikalistaarid Euroopas. Tüüri 5.sümfoonia Tallinnas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Koit Toome, Ele Millistver ja Lauri Liiv alustavad 1. detsembril Brnos rahvusvahelises muusikalitrupis "Hairi" proovidega. Esietendus on 26. dets. Iserlohni linnas Saksamaal ning etendusi antakse järgmise aasta 16. aprillini Saksa linnades, Austrias, Šveitsis ja Taanis. Erkki-Sven Tüüri 5. sümfoonia tuleb Eestis esiettekandele 10. dets. Estonia Kontserdisaalis, teose esiettekannet selle aasta veebruaris Stuttgardis dirigeeris Olari Elts

  16. Evidence-based management of otitis media: a 5S model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J D; Yung, M W

    2015-02-01

    The 5S model proposes five hierarchical levels (systems, summaries, synopses, syntheses and studies) of pre-appraised evidence to guide evidence-based practice. This review aimed to identify and summarise pre-appraised evidence at the highest available 5S level for the management of different subsets of otitis media: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma in both adults and children. Data sources were pre-appraised evidence resources. Evidence freely available from sources at the highest available level of the 5S model were summarised for this review. System level evidence exists for acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. Summary level evidence exists for recurrent acute otitis media and medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media. There is an absence of randomised controlled trials to prove the efficacy of surgical management of chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma. Until randomised controlled trial data are generated, consensus publications on the surgical management of chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma should be used to guide best practice.

  17. Why are our children wasting: Determinants of wasting among under 5s in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darteh, Eugene Kofuor Maafo; Acquah, Evelyn; Darteh, Florie

    2017-09-01

    Wasting is one of the indicators of malnutrition known to contribute to the deaths occurring from childhood malnutrition. It is the measure of body mass in relation to body length used to explain recent nutritional status. This paper examines the determinants of wasting among under 5s in Ghana. Data were drawn from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey children's records file to examine the determinants of wasting among children. A total of 2720 children under 5 years with valid anthropometric data were used. Data on wasting were collected by measuring the weight and height of all children under 5 years of age. Bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the determinants of wasting. The bi-variate analysis showed significant differences ( p 5s according to age of the child, region, and wealth status. On the other hand, the multi-variate analysis revealed that the odds of wasting were lower among children aged 24-35 months (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.37; p 5s. Also, efforts should be made by the relevant government agencies and other stakeholders to strengthen the socio-economic status of mothers to enable them to provide adequate nutrition and improve access to health insurance for their children in order to reduce the incidence of wasting among these children.

  18. Factors Contributing To The Sustainability Of 5S Programmes In Government Hospitals In Regional Director Of Health Services Area Kurunegala

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K.W.C.U.K Kendangamuwa; Dr. S Sridharan; Dr. D R K Herath; Dr. R.M.M.K. Ratnayake

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction 5S is the stepping stone for many quality improvement concepts and its roots date back to 16th century. When successfully implemented 5S gives many benefits to the organization as well as its stakeholders. Though 5S itself has a tool to sustain most of the organizations find it difficult to sustain the 5S practice over the time. Therefore the objective of this study was to find out the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in Government Hospitals in RDH...

  19. Condurango (Gonolobus condurango Extract Activates Fas Receptor and Depolarizes Mitochondrial Membrane Potential to Induce ROS-dependent Apoptosis in Cancer Cells in vitro CE-treatment on HeLa: a ROS-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausik Bishayee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Condurango (Gonolobus condurango extract is used by complementary and alternative medicine (CAM practitioners as a traditional medicine, including homeopathy, mainly for the treatment of syphilis. Condurango bark extract is also known to reduce tumor volume, but the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Methods: Using a cervical cancer cell line (HeLa as our model, the molecular events behind condurango extract’s (CE’s anticancer effect were investigated by using flow cytometry, immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Other included cell types were prostate cancer cells (PC3, transformed liver cells (WRL-68, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Results: Condurango extract (CE was found to be cytotoxic against target cells, and this was significantly deactivated in the presence of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS, suggesting that its action could be mediated through ROS generation. CE caused an increase in the HeLa cell population containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA damage at the G zero/Growth 1 (G0/G1 stage. Further, CE increased the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and the fas receptor (FasR levels both at the ribonucleic acid (RNA and the protein levels, indicating that CE might have a cytotoxic mechanism of action. CE also triggered a sharp decrease in the expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB both at the RNA and the protein levels, a possible route to attenuation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, and caused an opening of the mitochondrial membrane’s permeability transition (MPT pores, thus enhancing caspase activities. Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest possible pathways for CE mediated cytotoxicity in model cancer cells.

  20. Evidence for 5S rDNA horizontal transfer in the toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) based on the analysis of three multigene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Manuel A; Cross, Ismael; Palazón, José L; Ubeda-Manzanaro, María; Sarasquete, Carmen; Rebordinos, Laureana

    2012-10-07

    The Batrachoididae family is a group of marine teleosts that includes several species with more complicated physiological characteristics, such as their excretory, reproductive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Previous studies of the 5S rDNA gene family carried out in four species from the Western Atlantic showed two types of this gene in two species but only one in the other two, under processes of concerted evolution and birth-and-death evolution with purifying selection. Here we present results of the 5S rDNA and another two gene families in Halobatrachus didactylus, an Eastern Atlantic species, and draw evolutionary inferences regarding the gene families. In addition we have also mapped the genes on the chromosomes by two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two types of 5S rDNA were observed, named type α and type β. Molecular analysis of the 5S rDNA indicates that H. didactylus does not share the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sequences with four other species of the family; therefore, it must have evolved in isolation. Amplification with the type β specific primers amplified a specific band in 9 specimens of H. didactylus and two of Sparus aurata. Both types showed regulatory regions and a secondary structure which mark them as functional genes. However, the U2 snRNA gene and the ITS-1 sequence showed one electrophoretic band and with one type of sequence. The U2 snRNA sequence was the most variable of the three multigene families studied. Results from two-colour FISH showed no co-localization of the gene coding from three multigene families and provided the first map of the chromosomes of the species. A highly significant finding was observed in the analysis of the 5S rDNA, since two such distant species as H. didactylus and Sparus aurata share a 5S rDNA type. This 5S rDNA type has been detected in other species belonging to the Batrachoidiformes and Perciformes orders, but not in the Pleuronectiformes and Clupeiformes orders. Two

  1. Evidence for 5S rDNA Horizontal Transfer in the toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus (Schneider, 1801) based on the analysis of three multigene families

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Batrachoididae family is a group of marine teleosts that includes several species with more complicated physiological characteristics, such as their excretory, reproductive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Previous studies of the 5S rDNA gene family carried out in four species from the Western Atlantic showed two types of this gene in two species but only one in the other two, under processes of concerted evolution and birth-and-death evolution with purifying selection. Here we present results of the 5S rDNA and another two gene families in Halobatrachus didactylus, an Eastern Atlantic species, and draw evolutionary inferences regarding the gene families. In addition we have also mapped the genes on the chromosomes by two-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Two types of 5S rDNA were observed, named type α and type β. Molecular analysis of the 5S rDNA indicates that H. didactylus does not share the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sequences with four other species of the family; therefore, it must have evolved in isolation. Amplification with the type β specific primers amplified a specific band in 9 specimens of H. didactylus and two of Sparus aurata. Both types showed regulatory regions and a secondary structure which mark them as functional genes. However, the U2 snRNA gene and the ITS-1 sequence showed one electrophoretic band and with one type of sequence. The U2 snRNA sequence was the most variable of the three multigene families studied. Results from two-colour FISH showed no co-localization of the gene coding from three multigene families and provided the first map of the chromosomes of the species. Conclusions A highly significant finding was observed in the analysis of the 5S rDNA, since two such distant species as H. didactylus and Sparus aurata share a 5S rDNA type. This 5S rDNA type has been detected in other species belonging to the Batrachoidiformes and Perciformes orders, but not in the Pleuronectiformes

  2. Effects of natural flavones on membrane properties and citotoxicity of HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Herrerias

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether eupafolin and hispidulin, flavones extracted from Eupatorium littorale Cabrera, Asteraceae, have the ability to change properties of biological membranes and promote cytotoxic effects. Eupafolin (50-200 µM decreased approximately 30% the rate and total amplitude of valinomycin induced swelling and 60-100% the energy-dependent mitochondrial swelling. Moreover, eupafolin (200 µM reduced 35% the mitochondrial permeability transition, and hispidulin did not change this parameter in any of the doses tested. The evaluation of phase transition of DMPC liposomes with the probe DPH demonstrated that hispidulin and eupafolin affect gel and fluid phase. With mitochondrial membrane as model, hispidulin increased the polarization of fluorescence when used DPH-PA probe. Eupafolin and hispidulin (100 µM promoted a reduction of 40% in cellular viability of HeLa cells in 24 h. Our results suggest that eupafolin and hispidulin have cytotoxic effects that can be explained, in part, by alterations promoted on biological membranes properties and mitochondrial bioenergetics.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Lpl Lipoproteins Delay G2/M Phase Transition in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Deplanche, Martine; Nega, Mulugeta; Le Loir, Yves; Peisl, Loulou; Götz, Friedrich; Berkova, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle is an ordered set of events, leading to cell growth and division into two daughter cells. The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of interphase (G1, S, and G2 phases), followed by the mitotic phase and G0 phase. Many bacterial pathogens secrete cyclomodulins that interfere with the host cell cycle. In Staphylococcus aureus four cyclomodulins have been described so far that all represent toxins and are secreted into the culture supernatant. Here we show that the membrane-anchored lipoprotein-like proteins (Lpl), encoded on a genomic island called νSaα, interact with the cell cycle of HeLa cells. By comparing wild type and lpl deletion mutant it turned out that the lpl cluster is causative for the G2/M phase transition delay and also contributes to increased invasion frequency. The lipoprotein Lpl1, a representative of the lpl cluster, also caused G2/M phase transition delay. Interestingly, the lipid modification, which is essential for TLR2 signaling and activation of the immune system, is not necessary for cyclomodulin activity. Unlike the other staphylococcal cyclomodulins Lpl1 shows no cytotoxicity even at high concentrations. As all Lpl proteins are highly conserved there might be a common function that is accentuated by their multiplicity in a tandem gene cluster. The cell surface localized Lpls' suggests a correlation between G2/M phase transition delay and host cell invasion.

  4. Serine integrase chimeras with activity in E. coli and HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso P. Farruggio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, application of serine integrases for genomic engineering has increased in popularity. The factor-independence and unidirectionality of these large serine recombinases makes them well suited for reactions such as site-directed vector integration and cassette exchange in a wide variety of organisms. In order to generate information that might be useful for altering the specificity of serine integrases and to improve their efficiency, we tested a hybridization strategy that has been successful with several small serine recombinases. We created chimeras derived from three characterized members of the serine integrase family, phiC31, phiBT1, and TG1 integrases, by joining their amino- and carboxy-terminal portions. We found that several phiBT1-phiC31 (BC and phiC31-TG1 (CT hybrid integrases are active in E. coli. BC chimeras function on native att-sites and on att-sites that are hybrids between those of the two donor enzymes, while CT chimeras only act on the latter att-sites. A BC hybrid, BC{−1}, was also active in human HeLa cells. Our work is the first to demonstrate chimeric serine integrase activity. This analysis sheds light on integrase structure and function, and establishes a potentially tractable means to probe the specificity of the thousands of putative large serine recombinases that have been revealed by bioinformatics studies.

  5. Calculation of HELAS amplitudes for QCD processes using graphics processing unit (GPU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, K.; Kanzaki, J.; Okamura, N.; Rainwater, D.; Stelzer, T.

    2010-11-01

    We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast calculations of helicity amplitudes of quark and gluon scattering processes in massless QCD. New HEGET ( HELAS Evaluation with GPU Enhanced Technology) codes for gluon self-interactions are introduced, and a C++ program to convert the MadGraph generated FORTRAN codes into HEGET codes in CUDA (a C-platform for general purpose computing on GPU) is created. Because of the proliferation of the number of Feynman diagrams and the number of independent color amplitudes, the maximum number of final state jets we can evaluate on a GPU is limited to 4 for pure gluon processes ( gg→4 g), or 5 for processes with one or more quark lines such as qoverline{q}→ 5g and qq→ qq+3 g. Compared with the usual CPU-based programs, we obtain 60-100 times better performance on the GPU, except for 5-jet production processes and the gg→4 g processes for which the GPU gain over the CPU is about 20.

  6. Cell Cycle Synchronization of HeLa Cells to Assay EGFR Pathway Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Ping; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Progression through the cell cycle causes changes in the cell's signaling pathways that can alter EGFR signal transduction. Here, we describe drug-derived protocols to synchronize HeLa cells in various phases of the cell cycle, including G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and mitosis, specifically in the mitotic stages of prometaphase, metaphase, and anaphase/telophase. The synchronization procedures are designed to allow synchronized cells to be treated for EGF and collected for the purpose of Western blotting for EGFR signal transduction components.S phase synchronization is performed by thymidine block, G2 phase with roscovitine, prometaphase with nocodazole, metaphase with MG132, and anaphase/telophase with blebbistatin. G1 phase synchronization is performed by culturing synchronized mitotic cells obtained by mitotic shake-off. We also provide methods to validate the synchronization methods. For validation by Western blotting, we provide the temporal expression of various cell cycle markers that are used to check the quality of the synchronization. For validation of mitotic synchronization by microscopy, we provide a guide that describes the physical properties of each mitotic stage, using their cellular morphology and DNA appearance. For validation by flow cytometry, we describe the use of imaging flow cytometry to distinguish between the phases of the cell cycle, including between each stage of mitosis.

  7. Characterization of HeLa 5'-nucleotidase: a stable plasma membrane marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, E.T. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN); Will, P.C.; Cook, J.S.

    1977-11-22

    The enzyme 5'-nucleotidase, assayed as 5'-AMPase, has been extensively characterized and established as a stable, quantitative plasma membrane marker in HeLa S3 cells. The 5'-AMPase has a K/sub m/ of 7.0 ..mu..m. There are activity optima at pH7 and 10; the latter is Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent. The membrane preparations have a small amount of acid phosphatase activity that is distinct from 5'-AMPase activity but no alkaline phosphatase. ADP, ATP and ..cap alpha.., ..beta..-methylene adenosine-5'-diphosphate are strongly inhibitory. Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, or Co/sup 2 +/ do not affect the pH 7.0 activity; Mn/sup 2 +/ activates slightly, whereas Zn/sup 2 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/, and Ni/sup 2 +/ are inhibitory. EDTA slowly inactivates, but removal of the EDTA without the addition of divalent cations restores activity. The inactivation is also substantially reversed by Co/sup 2 +/ or Mn/sup 2 +/. ConA strongly inhibits, and ..cap alpha..-methyl-D-mannoside or glucose relieves the inhibition, indicating that the 5'-AMPase is a glycoprotein. Histidine is also inhibitory. Ouabain, phloretin, cytochalasin B, cysteine, phenylalanine, N-ethylmaleimide, and iodoacetic acid are without effect.

  8. Variation of stemline karyotype in a HeLa cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Ghosh, I

    1975-10-27

    100 karyotypes of a HeLa cell line (modal number 69) were studied in details. It was observed that the stemline cells of this "triploid" somatic cell population showed high degree of chromosomal polymorphism. It has been discussed that the stemline cells have number of extra chromosomes (or parts of chromosomes) which are not essential for the genetic integrity of this cell population. A loss of some of these chromosomes (or their parts) does not induce any appreciable change in the genetic make-up of these cells. The broken chromosomes lose their identity and are grouped together with the non-homologues, when the Denver system of classification is followed. However, it has been argued that in absence of any other acceptable system for classification, the Denver system can still be employed for analyzing human chromosomes both at diploid and abnormal heteroploid level. It has been held in contrast to the pseudo-stemline concept that these cells in general, have the essential genes in common and are responsible for the genetic make-up of this cell line and constitute together the stemline of this somatic cell population.

  9. Simultaneous imaging of two initiator caspases during cisplatin-induced HeLa apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jun; Wang, Liang; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-02-01

    Caspase-2 is an initiating caspase required for stress-induced apoptosis in various human cancer cells. Activation of caspase-9, a key event in stress-mediated apoptosis, also has been shown to be an initiator caspase. However, the timing or activation sequence of these initiator caspases, which trigger apoptotic pathway, is unclear. Here we report caspase-2 and caspase-9 dynamics during cisplatin-induced HeLa apoptosis using Double Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) technique. Two FRET probes were constructed that each encoded a CRS (caspase-2 or caspase-9 recognition Site) fused with a cyan/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP) and a red fluorescent protein (DsRed) (CFP/YFP-CRS-DsRed). By using two probes, CFP-C2-DsRed and YFP-C9-DsRed, we carried out simultaneous double-FRET analysis and revealed that activation of caspase-2 had the same time course with caspase-9. These data suggest parallel activation of initiator caspase-2 and caspase-9 in cisplatin-induced cell death.

  10. Targeting Thioredoxin Reductase by Parthenolide Contributes to Inducing Apoptosis of HeLa Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dongzhu; Zhang, Junmin; Yao, Juan; Liu, Yaping; Fang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Parthenolide (PTL), a major active sesquiterpene lactone from the herbal plant Tanacetum parthenium, has been applied in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Although PTL demonstrates potent anticancer efficacy in numerous types of malignant cells, the cellular targets of PTL have not been well defined. We reported here that PTL interacts with both cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) and mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR2), two ubiquitous selenocysteine-containing antioxidant enzymes, to elicit reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells. PTL selectively targets the selenocysteine residue in TrxR1 to inhibit the enzyme function, and further shifts the enzyme to an NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide anions, leading to reactive oxygen species accumulation and oxidized thioredoxin. Under the conditions of inhibition of TrxRs in cells, PTL does not cause significant alteration of cellular thiol homeostasis, supporting selective target of TrxRs by PTL. Importantly, overexpression of functional TrxR1 or Trx1 confers protection, whereas knockdown of the enzymes sensitizes cells to PTL treatment. Targeting TrxRs by PTL thus discloses an unprecedented mechanism underlying the biological activity of PTL, and provides deep insights to understand the action of PTL in treatment of cancer. PMID:27002142

  11. Repumping and spectroscopy of laser-cooled Sr atoms using the (5s5p){sup 3}P{sub 2}-(5s4d){sup 3}D{sub 2} transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickelson, P G; De Escobar, Y N Martinez; Anzel, P; DeSalvo, B J; Nagel, S B; Traverso, A J; Yan, M; Killian, T C, E-mail: killian@rice.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)

    2009-12-14

    We describe repumping and spectroscopy of laser-cooled strontium (Sr) atoms using the (5s5p){sup 3}P{sub 2}-(5s4d){sup 3}D{sub 2} transition. Atom number in a magneto-optical trap is enhanced by driving this transition because Sr atoms that have decayed into the (5s5p){sup 3}P{sub 2} dark state are repumped back into the (5s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0} ground state. Spectroscopy of {sup 84}Sr, {sup 86}Sr, {sup 87}Sr and {sup 88}Sr improves the value of the (5s5p){sup 3}P{sub 2}-(5s4d){sup 3}D{sub 2} transition frequency and determines the isotope shifts for the transition accurately enough to guide laser-cooling experiments with less abundant isotopes.

  12. A novel composite hydrogel initiated by Spinacia oleracea L. extract on Hela cells for localized photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Le; Li, Yanjie; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Buchang; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the poly (ethylene glycol) double acrylates (PEGDA) was first initiated by Spinacia oleracea L. extract (SOLE) to in situ form a polymer hydrogel shell on Hela cells with near infra-red irradiation. The SOLE was also a natural photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of tumor. The use of SOLE is simple, eco-friendly, low cost, and convenient. More importantly, the PEGDA/SOLE composite hydrogel shell on Hela cells not merely prevents SOLE from diffusing to normal tissue for reducing the side effects, but also keeps high SOLE concentration on tumor cell for improving the antitumor effect. Such a hydrogel system has good biocompatibility and exhibits high therapeutic efficacy. This study extended the application of the SOLE/PEGDA gel in photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the HeLa DNA-synthesis inhibition test and the Ames test for screening of mutagenic carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, R.B.; Howard, R.

    1978-01-01

    The action of most mutagens is mediated by damage to DNA, which causes at least a temporary inhibition of DNA syntesis in mammalian cells. Assays for mammalian DNA-synthesis inhibition, both in vivo (mouse testes) and in vitro (HeLa cells), have been proposed as possible screening tests for mutagenic carcinogens. The mouse system has recently been chekced with 100 chemicals; of 88 known carcinogens and/or mutagens in this group, 76 were positive. The most generally used non-animal screening procedure is the Ames test, which uses auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium to measure mutagenesis. In this communication we summarize our results with 19 chemicals tested in HeLa cells and show that they correlate very well with the results obtained in the Ames test. Most of these chemicals act by alkylation, but an intercalator (adriamycin) is included among them as well as aflatoxin B/sub 1/, whose action is not established.

  14. Opposed to the being of Henrietta: bioslavery, pop culture and the third life of HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marlon Rachquel

    2017-03-01

    Operating at the intersection of thanatopolitics and African-American cultural studies, this essay argues that the commercial sale of HeLa-themed art and other bioproducts perpetuates the bioslavery of HeLa cells, a circumstance created by legal and medical discourses tracing back to US racial slavery. Racial slavery normalised economic, social and legal inequities that the nation continues to struggle with and, the article posits, laid foundation for the dynamics that currently exist between Henrietta Lacks' genealogical family, the HeLa cell line, and the medical-pharmaceutical establishment. The author turns to fashion ethics discourse and trademark law as potential sites for reparations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Quantitative and real-time effects of carbon quantum dots on single living HeLa cell membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiqian; Liu, Juan; Liu, Ruihua; Li, Hao; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Li, Kunyang; Liu, Jian; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui

    2014-05-21

    The interaction between carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and a single living cell was explored in real time. Here, we provide the quantitative data on the permeability of the HeLa cell membrane in the presence of CQDs with different surface functional groups (CQDs terminated with -OH/-COOH (CQD-OH), -PEG (CQD-PEG), and -NH2 (CQD-NH2)). Although these CQDs have very low toxicity towards HeLa cells, they still increase the cell membrane permeability by 8%, 13%, and 19% for CQD-PEG, CQD-OH, and CQD-NH2, respectively, and this kind of permeability was irreversible. These observations are valuable for promoting the bio-applications of carbon nanostructures in living systems.

  16. Digital Libraries: Analysis of Delos Reference Model and 5S Theory

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    Isah, Abdulmumin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of digital libraries (DL in the twenty-first century has revolutionized the way information is generated and disseminated. This has led to various practical and research models of DLs. This paper discusses the concept and development of digital libraries, and examines various components and characteristics of DLs. It further identifies various models and theories of digital libraries with a special focus on the DELOS Reference Model and 5S Theory. The relationship between the two focused frameworks is analyzed for better understanding of their application in the DL universe.

  17. Comparison Analysis Of Consumer Perception Between I-phone 5s And Samsung Galaxy S5

    OpenAIRE

    Akim, Lirvi Livana Wenas; Tielung, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The Development of business today has brought the business itself into a very tight competition to gain the attention of customers. Samsung and Apple are two companies that have very attractive products when compared with other brands in the industry. The purpose of this study is to compare the quality, value and company Reputation between i-Phone 5S and Samsung Galaxy S5 to know the difference of Consumer Perception of each product. This research is a comparison type. This research is a quan...

  18. The Tetrahedral Zamolodchikov Algebra and the {AdS_5× S^5} S-matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Tsuboi, Zengo

    2017-08-01

    The S-matrix of the {AdS_5× S^5} string theory is a tensor product of two centrally extended su{(2|2)\\ltimes R^2 S-matrices, each of which is related to the R-matrix of the Hubbard model. The R-matrix of the Hubbard model was first found by Shastry, who ingeniously exploited the fact that, for zero coupling, the Hubbard model can be decomposed into two XX models. In this article, we review and clarify this construction from the AdS/CFT perspective and investigate the implications this has for the {AdS_5× S^5} S-matrix.

  19. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Berrington; Namrita Lall

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum M...

  20. Curcumin causes DNA damage and affects associated protein expression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hung-Sheng; Chang, Chuan-Hsun; Chou, Yu-Ru; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Au, Man-Kuan; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chu, Yung-Lin; Chou, Hsiao-Min; Chou, Hsiu-Chen; Shih, Yung-Luen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-10-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and it is a prominent cause of cancer mortality. Curcumin is one of the major compounds from Turmeric and has been shown to induce cytotoxic cell death in human cervical cancer cells. However, there is no study to show curcumin induced DNA damage action via the effect on the DNA damage and repair protein in cervical cancer cells in detail. In this study, we investigated whether or not curcumin induced cell death via DNA damage, chromatin condensation in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by using comet assay and DAPI staining, respectively, we found that curcumin induced cell death through the induction of DNA damage, and chromatin condensation. Western blotting and confocal laser microscopy examination were used to examine the effects of curcumin on protein expression associated with DNA damage, repair and translocation of proteins. We found that curcumin at 13 µM increased the protein levels associated with DNA damage and repair, such as O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, early-onset breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1, p-p53 and p-H2A.XSer140 in HeLa cells. Results from confocal laser systems microscopy indicated that curcumin increased the translocation of p-p53 and p-H2A.XSer140 from cytosol to nuclei in HeLa cells. In conclusion, curcumin induced cell death in HeLa cells via induction of DNA damage, and chromatin condensation in vitro.

  1. Introduction of disease-related mitochondrial DNA deletions into HeLa cells lacking mitochondrial DNA results in mitochondrial dysfunction.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, J; Ohta, S.; Kikuchi, A; Takemitsu, M; Goto, Y.; Nonaka, I

    1991-01-01

    Mutant mitochondrial DNA with large-scale deletions (delta-mtDNA) has been frequently observed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a subgroup of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. To exclude involvement of the nuclear genome in expression of the mitochondrial dysfunction characteristic of CPEO, we introduced the mtDNA of a CPEO patient into clonal mtDNA-less HeLa cells and isolated cybrid clones. Quantitation of delta-mtDNA in the cybrids revealed that de...

  2. The Cytotoxicity of Dextran-coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Hela and MCF-7 Cancerous Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rezaei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles have attracted attention in various diagnosis and treatment fields. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of various concentrations and incubation times of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs on HeLa and MCF-7 cancerous cell lines. Methods: This in-vitro study was conducted at Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran in 2016. The dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs uptake and cytotoxicity at different concentrations (10, 40 and 80 µg/ml and different incubation times (6, 12 and 24 h were assessed on HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines. The viability of the cells was measured by MTT assay. Results: DIONPs entered into the HeLa and MCF-7 cells. After 6, 12 and 24 h incubation times and in all concentrations, the viability of HeLa cells was more than 94%. For MCF-7 cell line, increasing incubation time from 6 to 24 h at a concentration of 10 μg/ml decreased the cells viability from 98% to 95%. When the cells were exposed to concentrations of 40 and 80 μg/ml of the nanoparticles, significant reductions in the cells viability was observed from 98% to 91.6% and from 95% to 88%, respectively. Conclusion: DIONPs cytotoxicity increased by increasing the incubation time from 6 to 24 h and also increased with increasing the nanoparticles concentration from 0 to 80 μg/ml. In general, DIONPs did not cause considerable toxicity in both cell lines especially at lower concentrations. Therefore, these nanoparticles are good candidates for use in biomedical and cancer research studies.

  3. Effects of serum amyloid A protein on lymphocytes, HeLa, and MRC5 cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristeris, P; Gaspar, A; Gros, P; Laurent, P; Bernon, H; Bienvenu, J

    1989-07-01

    A major human acute phase protein, the serum amyloid A protein, has been tested in vitro for its effect on lymphocyte proliferation, the formation of E-stable rosettes, as well as the growth of HeLa and MRC5 cell cultures. Serum amyloid A protein has been found to be markedly inhibitory at 30, 100, 200, and 300 micrograms/mL, and is a very potent inhibitor of in vitro biological functions.

  4. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pepino (Solanum muricatum Leaf Extract and Their Cytotoxicity on HeLa Cells

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    Mónica Gorbe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within nanotechnology, gold and silver nanostructures have unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties [1,2], which make them suitable for a number of applications. Moreover, biosynthetic methods are considered to be a safer alternative to conventional physicochemical procedures for both the environmental and biomedical applications, due to their eco-friendly nature and the avoidance of toxic chemicals in the synthesis. For this reason, employing bio routes in the synthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles (FAgNP have gained importance recently in this field. In the present study, we report the rapid synthesis of FAgNP through the extract of pepino (Solanum muricatum leaves and employing microwave oven irradiation. The core-shell globular morphology and characterization of the different shaped and sized FAgNP, with a core of 20–50 nm of diameter is established using the UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-vis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Zeta potential and dynamic light scanning (DLS studies. Moreover, cytotoxic studies employing HeLa (human cervix carcinoma cells were undertaken to understand FAgNP interactions with cells. HeLa cells showed significant dose dependent antiproliferative activity in the presence of FAgNP at relatively low concentrations. The calculated IC50 value was 37.5 µg/mL, similar to others obtained for FAgNPs against HeLa cells.

  5. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

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    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 μg/ml, 2.20 μg/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  6. CRISPR-Cas9 Mediated NOX4 Knockout Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Invasion in HeLa Cells.

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    Naser Jafari

    Full Text Available Increased expression of NOX4 protein is associated with cancer progression and metastasis but the role of NOX4 in cell proliferation and invasion is not fully understood. We generated NOX4 knockout HeLa cell lines using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to explore the cellular functions of NOX4. After transfection of CRISPR-Cas9 construct, we performed T7 endonuclease 1 assays and DNA sequencing to generate and identify insertion and deletion of the NOX4 locus. We confirmed the knockout of NOX4 by Western blotting. NOX4 knockout cell lines showed reduced cell proliferation with an increase of sub-G1 cell population and the decrease of S/G2/M population. Moreover, NOX4 deficiency resulted in a dramatic decrease in invadopodium formation and the invasive activity. In addition, NOX4 deficiency also caused a decrease in focal adhesions and cell migration in HeLa cells. These results suggest that NOX4 is required for both efficient proliferation and invasion of HeLa cells.

  7. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

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    Dayanne Lopes Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.

  8. Stable gene amplification and overexpression of sodium- and potassium-activated ATPase in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, P G; Johnson, M D; Moore, P; Morgan, M; Fineman, R M; Kalka, T; Ash, J F

    1986-01-01

    Cell lines stably resistant to ouabain were isolated from an unstably resistant HeLa line after growth in nonselective medium. Stable resistant lines bound ouabain at levels 10-fold higher than did HeLa cells and at similar levels to those bound by the unstable C+ line previously described (J. F. Ash, R. M. Fineman, T. Kalka, M. Morgan, and B. Wire, J. Cell Biol. 99: 971-983). Expression and synthesis of the Na+, K+ -ATPase alpha chain showed a similar amplification over that for HeLa cells by Western blots and [35S]methionine pulse-labeling. In addition, a glycoprotein labeled with [3H]fucose and comigrating with the Na+, K+ -ATPase beta chain was eight- to ninefold amplified in stably resistant lines. Dot blots with a cDNA clone specific for Na+, K+ -ATPase alpha chain gene sequences confirmed the amplification of this gene. Karyotyping suggested that the amplification is associated with an expanded, abnormal banded region on the long (q) arm of one chromosome 17. Images PMID:3023874

  9. Identification of a cancer stem cell-like side population in the HeLa human cervical carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kefang; Zeng, Jianfang; Luo, Lijing; Yang, Jiaxin; Chen, Jie; Li, Bin; Shen, Keng

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify the stem cell characteristics of side population (SP) cells sorted from the widely-used HeLa human cervical carcinoma cell line. The SP cells were sorted from the HeLa cell line using fluorescence-activating cell sorting (FACS). Stem cell characteristics of the SP cells, including proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation and the ability to form xenografts, were investigated in vitro and in vivo . The SP cells demonstrated strong tumorigenesis following in vivo transplantation into five to six-week-old female Balb/c mice. The SP cells were observed to be more resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with non-side population (NSP) cells. A higher expression of CD133 was observed in the SP cells compared with the NSP cells following FACS. The results demonstrated that the SP cells from the HeLa human cervical carcinoma cell line exhibit stem cell characteristics in vitro and also have a strong ability to form tumors in vivo . The cell surface marker CD133 may serve as a potential molecular marker for the identification of cervical cancer stem cells (CSCs).

  10. Aktivitas Sitotoksik, Induksi Apoptosis dan Ekspresi Gen P53 Fraksi Metanol Spons Petrosia cf nigricans Terhadap Sel Tumor Hela

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    Muhammad Nursid

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Spons merupakan hewan invertebrata laut yang kaya akan kandungan senyawa bioaktif. Senyawa bioaktif dari spons banyak dieksplorasi sebagai bahan obat antitumor. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas sitotoksik, induksi apoptosis dan ekspresi gen p53 fraksi metanol spons Petrosia cf. nigricans terhadap sel tumor HeLa. Uji aktivitas pendahuluan dan sitotoksik masing‑masing dilakukan dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT dan MTT ([3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2yl‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Induksi apoptosis dilakukan dengan metode pengecatan menggunakan akridin oranye dan etidium bromida. Analisis PCR menggunakan primer p53 dilakukan untuk mengetahui ekspresi gen p53. Hasil uji BSLT memperlihatkan bahwa ekstrak kasar P. cf nigricans memiliki aktivitas tahap awal yang sangat baik dengan LC50 = 23,4 µg/mL. Hasil uji MTT menunjukkan bahwa fraksi metanol memiliki aktivitas sitotoksik terhadap sel HeLa dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 11,9 µg/mL. Berdasarkan uji induksi apoptosis metode pengecatan dapat dinyatakan bahwa fraksi metanol mampu menginduksi peristiwa apoptosis pada sel HeLa. Fraksi metanol juga mampu meningkatkan ekspresi gen p53.

  11. Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line

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    Sandra Salazar-Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography (CC, identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions. Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL−1, but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL−1. Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL−1. Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  12. Antioxidant potential of Ulva rigida extracts: protection of HeLa cells against H₂O₂ cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezghani, Sana; Bourguiba, Ines; Hfaiedh, Imen; Amri, Mohamed

    2013-09-01

    The rising demand for natural antioxidants instead of synthetic materials, especially in biomedical applications, has led to increased interest in the search for bioactive compounds with potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we tested the antioxidant effect of both a crude extract and an ethanol precipitate of Ulva rigida in HeLa cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). HeLa cells treated with H₂O₂ (1 mmol l⁻¹ for 3 h) exhibited significant damage to their morphology, a significant decrease in cell survival, and a remarkable leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). However, the co-exposure of cells to H₂O₂ and the crude extract or ethanol precipitate of U. rigida induced fewer morphological cytotoxic effects, a significant increase in cell viability, and a significant decrease in LDH release. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that U. rigida extracts have a strong radicalscavenging activity and contain protein, sugar, and phenolic content. The overall results suggest that U. rigida extracts protect HeLa cells from death induced by oxidative stress, and it is likely that these effects are related to the phenolic, protein, and polysaccharide compounds contained in this alga. Hence, U. rigida can be used to treat diseases ascribed to oxidative disorders.

  13. Spondylolysis and End Plate Arthrosis at L5-S1: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunniff, Peter T; Yoo, Hojun; Yu, Charles; Bajwa, Navkirat S; Toy, Jason O; Ahn, Uri M; Ahn, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of bilateral and unilateral L5 pars defects on the degree of disk degeneration at the L5-S1 level in cadaveric specimens. An observational study was performed of 690 cadaveric specimens selected at random. These specimens represent individuals who died between 1893 and 1938. The study included 558 male and 132 female cadavers. Of the 120 specimens with L5 spondylolysis, 95 cases were bilateral and 25 were unilateral. The remaining 544 specimens were used as the control cohort. Degenerative disk disease was measured by the classification of Eubanks et al. According to this classification, degenerative disk disease was graded from no arthrosis (grade 0) to complete ankylosis (grade IV). Linear regression analysis corrected for age, sex, and race showed that subjects with bilateral spondylolysis at L5 had a statistically significant increase in the amount of disk degeneration (P=.02) compared with those with unilateral lesions. Student's t tests showed significant differences (P<.001 and P=.002, respectively) in the amount of degeneration seen with both bilateral and unilateral spondylolysis above what would be predicted in the normal control population. A positive correlation was found between the number of pars defects at L5 and the degree of disk degeneration at L5-S1. These results support the idea that individuals with spondylolysis at these levels may be at increased risk for development of low back pain and reduced quality of life. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):e59-e64.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Structural Preservation Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Interlaminar Discectomy for L5-S1 Herniated Nucleus Pulposus

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    Jung-Sup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Structures such as ligamentum flavum, annulus, and lamina play an important role in the segmental function. We proposed the surgical technique for achieving the sufficient preservation of segmental structures, in spite of sufficient removal of pathologic disc in the L5-S1 using the ligamentum flavum splitting and sealing technique. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 80 cases that underwent percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for L5-S1 herniated nucleus pulposus, using the ligamentum flavum splitting and sealing technique between January 2011 and June 2013. Outcomes were assessed using VAS (leg, back, MacNab’s criteria, and the immediate postoperative MRI for all patients. Structural preservation was classified as complete, sufficient, and incomplete. Results. The surgical results are as follows: 65 cases were complete, 15 cases were sufficient, and 0 cases were incomplete. The VAS was decreased at the last follow-up (leg: from 7.91±0.73 to 1.15±0.62; back: from 5.15±0.71 to 1.19±0.75. A favorable outcome (excellent or good outcome by MacNab’s criteria was achieved in 77 patients (96.25%. During the follow-up period, 2 cases (2.5% of recurrence have occurred. Conclusion. According to the result, we could obtain the favorable clinical and radiological outcomes while simultaneously removing pathologic discs using the ligamentum flavum splitting and annular fissure sealing technique.

  15. Evolution of Mexican Bursera (Burseraceae) inferred from ITS, ETS, and 5S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Judith X

    2003-02-01

    I reconstructed a phylogeny of 66 species and varieties of Bursera and 9 outgroup species using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), the 5S non-transcribed region (5S-NTS), and the external transcribed region (ETS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. This study extends a previously proposed parsimony-based phylogenetic study that used the ITS sequences of 57 Bursera species and five outgroups. Parsimony and maximum likelihood methods were used to infer the phylogeny in this new study. Analyses of the combined data sets largely confirmed the phylogenetic relationships proposed by the previous molecular study but generated a considerably more robust topology. The new phylogenies corroborate the monophyly of the genus, and its division into the two monophyletic subgenera or sections, Bursera and Bullockia. The current analyses also identify four main groups of species in section Bursera, and two in section Bullockia, confirming some of the previously proposed groups based on fruit, flower, and leaf morphology. One previously problematic species B. sarcopoda, which has sometimes been placed in Commiphora, is shown to belong in Bursera. Another controversial species, Commiphora leptophloeos, which was thought to belong to Bursera, falls within Commiphora.

  16. Anomalous Hall effect and magnetic orderings in nanothick V5S8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jingjing; Yan, Baoming; Ji, Qingqing; Liu, Zhongfan; Li, Mingqiang; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yu, Dapeng; Wu, Xiaosong

    2017-08-01

    The rise of graphene marks the advent of two-dimensional atomic crystals, which have exhibited a cornucopia of intriguing properties, such as the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, valley Hall effect, charge density waves, and superconductivity, to name a few. Yet, magnetism, a property of extreme importance in both science and technology, remains elusive. There is a paramount need for magnetic two-dimensional crystals. With the availability of many magnetic materials consisting of van der Waals coupled two-dimensional layers, it thus boils down to the question of how the magnetic order will evolve with reducing thickness. Here we investigate the effect of thickness on the magnetic ordering in nanothick V5S8 . We uncover an anomalous Hall effect, by which the magnetic ordering in V5S8 down to 3.2 nm is probed. With decreasing thickness, a breakdown of antiferromagnetism is evident, followed by a spin-glass-like state. For thinnest samples, a weak ferromagnetic ordering emerges. The results not only show an interesting effect of reducing thickness on the magnetic ordering in a potential candidate for magnetic two-dimensional crystals, but demonstrate the anomalous Hall effect as a useful characterization tool for magnetic orderings in two-dimensional systems.

  17. Bottomonium physics at Υ(4S, 5S, 6S) energies with the Belle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamponi, Umberto

    2016-08-01

    The description of quarkonia as pure quark anti-quark bound states has been recently challenged by the observation of charged states in both the charmonium and bottomonium region and large violations of the heavy quark spin symmetry in hadronic transitions. All these effects can be ascribable to non-negligible contributions from the light quark degrees of freedom in the description of both charmonia and bottomonia. We will report the most recent experimental measurements performed by the Belle collaboration in the Y(4S), Y(5S) and Y(6S) regions, including the measurement of the ratio σ[e+e- → bb̅]/σ[e+e- → μ+ μ- ], the search for neutral states near the B0B̅0 threshold, the first observation of the transition ϒ(4S) → ηhb (lP) and the study of the η transitions at the ϒ(5S) energy. The contribution to the study of the structure of these states coming from the measurement of hadronic transitions will be discussed.

  18. Intelligent Diagnostic Assistant for Complicated Skin Diseases through C5's Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Arabfard, Masoud; Kermany, Zahra Arab

    2017-09-01

    Intelligent Diagnostic Assistant can be used for complicated diagnosis of skin diseases, which are among the most common causes of disability. The aim of this study was to design and implement a computerized intelligent diagnostic assistant for complicated skin diseases through C5's Algorithm. An applied-developmental study was done in 2015. Knowledge base was developed based on interviews with dermatologists through questionnaires and checklists. Knowledge representation was obtained from the train data in the database using Excel Microsoft Office. Clementine Software and C5's Algorithms were applied to draw the decision tree. Analysis of test accuracy was performed based on rules extracted using inference chains. The rules extracted from the decision tree were entered into the CLIPS programming environment and the intelligent diagnostic assistant was designed then. The rules were defined using forward chaining inference technique and were entered into Clips programming environment as RULE. The accuracy and error rates obtained in the training phase from the decision tree were 99.56% and 0.44%, respectively. The accuracy of the decision tree was 98% and the error was 2% in the test phase. Intelligent diagnostic assistant can be used as a reliable system with high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and agreement.

  19. Cytotoxic activity of proteins isolated from extracts of Corydalis cava tubers in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells

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    Balcerkiewicz Stanislaw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corydalis cava Schweigg. & Koerte, the plant of numerous pharmacological activities, together with the studied earlier by our group Chelidonium majus L. (Greater Celandine, belong to the family Papaveraceae. The plant grows in Central and South Europe and produces the sizeable subterraneous tubers, empty inside, which are extremely resistant to various pathogen attacks. The Corydalis sp. tubers are a rich source of many biologically active substances, with the extensive use in European and Asian folk medicine. They have analgetic, sedating, narcotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-tumour activities. On the other hand, there is no information about possible biological activities of proteins contained in Corydalis cava tubers. Methods Nucleolytic proteins were isolated from the tubers of C. cava by separation on a heparin column and tested for DNase activity. Protein fractions showing nucleolytic activity were tested for cytotoxic activity in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Cultures of HeLa cells were conducted in the presence of three protein concentrations: 42, 83 and 167 ng/ml during 48 h. Viability of cell cultures was appraised using XTT colorimetric test. Protein fractions were separated and protein bands were excised and sent for identification by mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results The studied protein fractions showed an inhibiting effect on mitochondrial activity of HeLa cells, depending on the administered dose of proteins. The most pronounced effect was obtained with the highest concentration of the protein (167 ng/ml - 43.45 ± 3% mitochondrial activity of HeLa cells were inhibited. Mass spectrometry results for the proteins of applied fractions showed that they contained plant defense- and pathogenesis-related (PR proteins. Conclusions The cytotoxic effect of studied proteins toward HeLa cell line cells has been evident and dependent on increasing dose of the protein. The present study, most

  20. Impact of Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) of Lactobacillus gasseri strains isolated from human vagina on cervical tumor cells (HeLa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Tolga; Aslim, Belma; Karaaslan, Cagtay; Aktas, Busra

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacilli, commonly used as probiotics, have been shown to maintain vaginal health and contribute to host microbiota interaction. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactobacillus have been found to have an important role in probiotic activity; however, there is limited knowledge concerning their impact on cervical cancer and urogenital health. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare EPSs of L. gasseri strains (G10 and H15), isolated from a healthy human vagina, for their capability to inhibit cervical cancer cell (HeLa) growth and modulate immune response. HeLa cells were treated with live culture at ∼108 CFU/ml or increasing concentration of lyophilized EPS (L-EPS) (100, 200, or 400 μg/ml) of L. gasseri strains and their ability to adhere to host cells, inhibit proliferation, and modulate immune response were evaluated. Additionally, monosaccharide composition of the L-EPSs produced by L. gasseri strains was determined by HPLC. The sugar component was the same; however, relative proportions of the individual monosaccharides except mannose were different. Although they both produce similar amount of EPS, the most adhesive strain was G10. Both live and L-EPS of L. gasseri strains were capable of inhibiting the cell proliferation of HeLa cells with the impact of L-EPS being strain specific. L-EPSs of L. gasseri strains induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a strain dependent manner. The ability to induce apoptosis by G10 associated with an upregulation of Bax and Caspase 3. L. gasseri strains showed an anti-inflammatory impact on HeLa cells by decreasing the production of TNF-α and increasing the IL-10 production. In conclusion, diversity in sugar composition of EPS might contribute to adhesion and proliferation properties. Although our results suggest a relationship between the ability of a strain to induce apoptosis and its sugar composition of EPS, further research is required to determine the probiotic mechanisms of action by

  1. Combined antitumor activity of the nitroreductase/CB1954 suicide gene system and γ-rays in HeLa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Geling; Ju, Yuanrong; Yang, Yepeng; Hua, Hu; Chi, Jingyu; Mu, Xiuan

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli nitroreductase (NTR) may convert the prodrug CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide) into a bifunctional alkylating agent, which may lead to DNA crosslinks and the apoptosis of cancer cells. NTR/CB1954 has been demonstrated to be an effective gene therapy in cancer cells. The present study examined whether the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system had cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells and may improve the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells to γ‑rays. It was observed that the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system exerted marked cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. The combined therapeutic effects of NTR/CB1954 and γ‑rays on HeLa cells demonstrated a synergistic effect. CB1954 at concentrations of 12.5 and 25 µmol/l increased the sensitization enhancement ratio of HeLa cells to 1.54 and 1.66, respectively. Therefore, when compared with monotherapy, the combined therapy of NTR/CB1954 and γ‑rays may increase the apoptotic rate and enhance the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. The combined therapy of γ‑ray radiation and the NTR/CB1954 suicide gene system may be a novel and potent therapeutic method for the treatment of cervical carcinoma.

  2. Electric-dipole 5s - 5p Transitions in Promethiumlike Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2008-02-29

    The 5s-5p electric-dipole resonance transitions in highly ionized promethiumlike ions have been studied applying relativistic multi-reference Moeller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory. The transition wavelengths are determined to within 0.2 {angstrom} in the more highly charged ions, where the level degeneracies are small. For somewhat lighter ions a very large reference space was used in order to account for the many degeneracies. In order to calculate transition probabilities and lifetimes, correlation corrections have been added to the transition operator in the next order. The contributions from the higher orders of the theory, that is, frequency-dependent Breit correction, Lamb shift, and mass shifts, have been estimated. The results are used to re-assess spectroscopic data from beam-foil, electron beam ion trap, and tokamak observations.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships among diploid Aegilops species inferred from 5S rDNA units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B R; Edwards, T; Johnson, D A

    2009-10-01

    Relationships among the currently recognized 11 diploid species within the genus Aegilops have been investigated. Sequence similarity analysis, based upon 363 sequenced 5S rDNA clones from 44 accessions plus 15 sequences retrieved from GenBank, depicted two unit classes labeled the long AE1 and short AE1. Several different analytical methods were applied to infer relationships within haplomes, between haplomes and among the species, including maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of consensus sequences, "total evidence" phylogeny analysis and "matrix representation with parsimony" analysis. None were able to depict suites of markers or unit classes that could discern among the seven haplomes as is observed among established haplomes in other genera within the tribe Triticeae; however, most species could be separated when displayed on gene trees. These results suggest that the haplomes currently recognized are so refined that they may be relegated as sub-haplomes or haplome variants. Amblyopyrum shares the same 5S rDNA unit classes with the diploid Aegilops species suggesting that it belongs within the latter. Comparisons of the Aegilops sequences with those of Triticum showed that the long AE1 unit class of Ae. tauschii shared the clade with the equivalent long D1 unit class, i.e., the putative D haplome donor, but the short AE1 unit class did not. The long AE1 unit class but not the short, of Ae. speltoides and Ae. searsii both share the clade with the previously identified long {S1 and long G1 unit classes meaning that both Aegilops species can be equally considered putative B haplome donors to tetraploid Triticum species. The semiconserved nature of the nontranscribed spacer in Aegilops and in Triticeae in general is discussed in view that it may have originated by processes of incomplete gene conversion or biased gene conversion or birth-and-death evolution.

  4. The function of lexical motifs in the organization of the Actinomycetes 5S rRNAs A função dos motivos léxicos na organização do 5S rRNAs de Actinomicetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Rodrigues-Subacius

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work shows results obtained by employing the linguistic method to identify biologically meaningful sites in Actinomycetes 5S rRNAs. The approach adopted identifies triplet-words, along the base sequence of 5S rRNA, located mainly at the alpha and beta domains of the 5S secondary structure. There are triplet-words representing universal protein binding sites that include important prokaryote signatures, and sites strategically located in critical regions related to the formation of the 5S ribonucleoproteins (RNP complex. In those sites, where the GC pressure promoted substitutions, the analysis demonstrates that alterations did not affect their biological significance. Sites formed by GGY (or more rarely GGR, continued to play an important role as ribosomal proteins rpL18 and rpL5 protein receptors. The data suggest that instead of increasing the molecular variability, expected for the diversity in species and habitats occupied for the group, GC pressure functioned as a reducer mechanism for the inter-specific diversity.Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados obtidos empleando o método linguístico para identificar sítios no 5S rRNAs de actinomicetes com significado biológico. A abordagem identificou palavras-tripletes, junto com a sequência de bases do 5S rRNAs, localizados principalmente nos domínios alfa e beta da estrutura secundária. Entre eles, existem palavras-tripletes que representam sítios de ligação de proteínas universais, que incluem importantes assinaturas procarióticas, além de sítios estrategicamente colocados em regiões críticas relacionados com a formação do complexo 5S ribonucleoproteína (RNP. Nestes sítios, onde a pressão GC promove substituições, as alterações não afetaram seu significado biológico. Sítios formados por GGY (ou mais raramente GER, jogam um papel importante como receptores de proteínas ribossomicas rpL18 e rpL5. Os dados também sugerem que ao contrário de aumentar a

  5. Variations in 5S rDNAs in diploid and tetraploid offspring of red crucian carp × common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lihai; Zhang, Chun; Tang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yiyi; Liu, Shaojun

    2017-08-08

    The allotetraploid hybrid fish (4nAT) that was created in a previous study through an intergeneric cross between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂) provided an excellent platform to investigate the effect of hybridization and polyploidization on the evolution of 5S rDNA. The 5S rDNAs of paternal common carp were made up of a coding sequence (CDS) and a non-transcribed spacer (NTS) unit, and while the 5S rDNAs of maternal red crucian carp contained a CDS and a NTS unit, they also contained a variable number of interposed regions (IPRs). The CDSs of the 5S rDNAs in both parental fishes were conserved, while their NTS units seemed to have been subjected to rapid evolution. The diploid hybrid 2nF1 inherited all the types of 5S rDNAs in both progenitors and there were no signs of homeologous recombination in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1 by sequencing of PCR products. We obtained two segments of 5S rDNA with a total length of 16,457 bp from allotetraploid offspring 4nAT through bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequencing. Using this sequence together with the 5S rDNA sequences amplified from the genomic DNA of 4nAT, we deduced that the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT might be inherited from the maternal progenitor red crucian carp. Additionally, the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 4nAT contained A-repeats and TA-repeats, which was not the case for the IPRs in the 5S rDNAs of 2nF1. We also detected two signals of a 200-bp fragment of 5S rDNA in the chromosomes of parental progenitors and hybrid progenies by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We deduced that during the evolution of 5S rDNAs in different ploidy hybrid fishes, interlocus gene conversion events and tandem repeat insertion events might occurred in the process of polyploidization. This study provided new insights into the relationship among the evolution of 5S rDNAs, hybridization and polyploidization, which were significant in clarifying the genome evolution of

  6. HTP Nutraceutical Screening for Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Effects of HDACis on Tumor-suppressing miRNAs by Trichostatin A and Grapeseed (Vitis vinifera) in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2017-01-02

    Aggressive tumor malignancies are a consequence of delayed diagnosis, epigenetic/phenotype changes and chemo-radiation resistance. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a major epigenetic regulator of transcriptional repression, which are highly overexpressed in advanced malignancy. While original chemotherapy drugs were modeled after phytochemicals elucidated by botanical screenings, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) such as apicidin, trichostatin A (TSA) and butyrate were discovered as products of fungus and microbes, in particular, gut microbiota. Therefore, a persistent question remains as to the inherent existence of HDACis in raw undigested dietary plant material. In this study, we conduct a high-throughput (HTP) screening of ~1,600 non-fermented commonly used nutraceuticals (spices, herbs, teas, vegetables, fruits, seeds, rinds etc.) at (screening was then conducted, followed by a study comparing biological effects of HDACis in HeLa cells, including analysis of whole-transcriptome non-coding RNAs using Affymetrix miRNA 4.1-panel arrays. The HTP screening results confirmed 44/1600 as potential HDACis to which 31 were further eliminated as false-positives. Methodological challenges/concerns are addressed regarding plant product false-positives that arise from the signal reduction of commercial lysine development reagents. Only 13 HDACis were found having an IC50 under <200 μg/ml: Grapeseed extract (Vitis vinifera), Great burnet root (Sanguisorba Officinalis), Babul (Acacia arabica), Chinese gallnut (Melaphis chinensis), Konaberry extract (Coffea arabica), Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos uva ursi), Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), Sassafras (Sassafras officinale), Turkey rhubarb (Rheum palmatum), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gossypol and gallic acid. Next, we investigate the biological consequence of HDACi panel drugs in HeLa cells, where the data suggest predominant effects are anti-mitotic rather than cytotoxic. Lastly, differential effects of

  7. Proteasome Inhibition Contributed to the Cytotoxicity of Arenobufagin after Its Binding with Na, K-ATPase in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxi Yue

    Full Text Available Although the possibility of developing cardiac steroids/cardiac glycosides as novel cancer therapeutic agents has been recognized, the mechanism of their anticancer activity is still not clear enough. Toad venom extract containing bufadienolides, which belong to cardiac steroids, has actually long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for cancer therapy in China. The cytotoxicity of arenobufagin, a bufadienolide isolated from toad venom, on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells was checked. And, the protein expression profile of control HeLa cells and HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin for 48 h was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis, respectively. Differently expressed proteins in HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin were identified and the pathways related to these proteins were mapped from KEGG database. Computational molecular docking was performed to verify the binding of arenobufagin and Na, K-ATPase. The effects of arenobufagin on Na, K-ATPase activity and proteasome activity of HeLa cells were checked. The protein-protein interaction network between Na, K-ATPase and proteasome was constructed and the expression of possible intermediate proteins ataxin-1 and translationally-controlled tumor protein in HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin was then checked. Arenobufagin induced apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. The cytotoxic effect of arenobufagin was associated with 25 differently expressed proteins including proteasome-related proteins, calcium ion binding-related proteins, oxidative stress-related proteins, metabolism-related enzymes and others. The results of computational molecular docking revealed that arenobufagin was bound in the cavity formed by the transmembrane alpha subunits of Na, K-ATPase, which blocked the pathway of extracellular Na+/K+ cation exchange and inhibited the function of ion exchange. Arenobufagin inhibited the activity of Na, K-ATPase and proteasome, decreased the

  8. Rad51 siRNA delivered by HVJ envelope vector enhances the anti-cancer effect of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Makoto; Yamamoto, Seiji; Nimura, Keisuke; Hiraoka, Kazuya; Tamai, Katsuto; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2005-08-01

    Every cancer therapy appears to be transiently effective for cancer regression, but cancers gradually transform to be resistant to the therapy. Cancers also develop machineries to resist chemotherapy. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been evaluated as an attractive and effective tool for suppressing a target protein by specifically digesting its mRNA. Suppression of the machineries using siRNA may enhance the sensitivity to chemotherapy in cancers when combined with an effective delivery system. To enhance the anti-cancer effect of chemotherapy, we transferred siRNA against Rad51 into various human cancer cells using the HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan, Sendai virus) envelope vector in the presence or absence of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP, cisplatin). The inhibition of cell growth was assessed by a modified MTT assay, counting cell number, or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis after Annexin V labeling. The synthetic Rad51 siRNA was also introduced into subcutaneous tumor masses of HeLa cells in SCID mice with or without intraperitoneal injection of CDDP, and tumor growth was monitored. When synthetic Rad51 siRNA was delivered into HeLa cells using the HVJ envelope vector, no Rad51 transcripts were detected on day 2, and Rad51 protein completely disappeared for 4 days after siRNA transfer. When HeLa cells were incubated with 0.02 microg/ml CDDP for 3 h after siRNA transfer, the number of colonies decreased to approximately 10% of that with scrambled siRNA. The sensitivity to CDDP was enhanced in various human cancer cells, but not in normal human fibroblasts. When Rad51 siRNA was delivered into tumors using the HVJ envelope vector, the Rad51 transcript level was reduced to approximately 25%. Rad51 siRNA combined with CDDP significantly inhibited tumor growth when compared to siRNA or CDDP alone. Rad51 siRNA could enhance the sensitivity to CDDP in cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that the combination of

  9. RAID: a comprehensive resource for human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wu, Deng; Chen, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinxurong; Fan, Dandan; Dong, Tingting; Liu, Mingyue; Tan, Puwen; Xu, Jintian; Yi, Ying; Wang, Yuting; Zou, Hua; Hu, Yongfei; Fan, Kaili; Kang, Juanjuan; Huang, Yan; Miao, Zhengqiang; Bi, Miaoman; Jin, Nana; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianzhen; Wang, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Transcriptomic analyses have revealed an unexpected complexity in the eukaryote transcriptome, which includes not only protein-coding transcripts but also an expanding catalog of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Diverse coding and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) perform functions through interaction with each other in various cellular processes. In this project, we have developed RAID (http://www.rna-society.org/raid), an RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction database. RAID intends to provide the scientific community with all-in-one resources for efficient browsing and extraction of the RNA-associated interactions in human. This version of RAID contains more than 6100 RNA-associated interactions obtained by manually reviewing more than 2100 published papers, including 4493 RNA-RNA interactions and 1619 RNA-protein interactions. Each entry contains detailed information on an RNA-associated interaction, including RAID ID, RNA/protein symbol, RNA/protein categories, validated method, expressing tissue, literature references (Pubmed IDs), and detailed functional description. Users can query, browse, analyze, and manipulate RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction. RAID provides a comprehensive resource of human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction network. Furthermore, this resource will help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular function network. © 2014 Zhang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  10. Triggering of RNA interference with RNA-RNA, RNA-DNA, and DNA-RNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, Kirill A; Viard, Mathias; Kagiampakis, Ioannis; Case, Christopher L; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Hofmann, Jen; Vrzak, Ashlee; Kireeva, Maria; Kasprzak, Wojciech K; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Shapiro, Bruce A

    2015-01-27

    Control over cellular delivery of different functionalities and their synchronized activation is a challenging task. We report several RNA and RNA/DNA-based nanoparticles designed to conditionally activate the RNA interference in various human cells. These nanoparticles allow precise control over their formulation, stability in blood serum, and activation of multiple functionalities. Importantly, interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine activation assays indicate the significantly lower responses for DNA nanoparticles compared to the RNA counterparts, suggesting greater potential of these molecules for therapeutic use.

  11. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Berrington

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary, Lavandula spica L. (Lavender, Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf, Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme, Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender, Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel, and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika. Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 3.48±0.218 μg/mL and 10.84±0.125 μg/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351 g and 1.09 g for McConnell’s Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3′-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 34.46±0.48 μg/mL and 126.3±1.00 μg/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1 μg/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8 μg/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare.

  12. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3.48 ± 0.218 μg/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125 μg/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351 g and 1.09 g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3'-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC(50) of 34.46 ± 0.48 μg/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00 μg/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1 μg/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8 μg/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare.

  13. In vitro anticancer and cytotoxic activities of some plant extracts on HeLa and Vero cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugba Artun, Fulya; Karagoz, Ali; Ozcan, Gul; Melikoglu, Gulay; Anil, Sezin; Kultur, Sukran; Sutlupinar, Nurhayat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of in vitro anticancer and cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of 14 medicinal plants, 8 of which are endemic species in Anatolia, against the human HeLa cervical cancer cell line and to compare to the normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line (Vero) using the MTT colorimetric assay. Values for cytotoxicity measured by MTT assay were expressed as the concentration that causes 50% decrease in cell viability (IC50, μg/mL). The degree of selectivity of the compounds can be expressed by its selectivity index (SI) value. High SI value (>2) of a compound gives the selective toxicity against cancer cells (SI = IC50 normal cell/IC50 cancer cell). Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 293 mg/mL and >1000 mg/mL for Cotinus coggygria Scop., IC50 of 265 μg/mL and >1000 mg/mL for Rosa damascena Miller, IC50 of 2 μg/mL and 454 mg/mL for Colchicum sanguicolle K.M. Perss, IC50 of 427 μg/mL and >1000 μg/mL for Centaurea antiochia Boiss. var. praealta (Boiss & Bal) Wagenitz on the HeLa cells and the Vero cells, respectively. Four plants showed significant SI values which were 227 for Colchicum sanguicolle K.M. Perss (endemic species), >3.8 for Rosa damascena Miller, >3.4 for Cotinus coggygria Scop. and >2.3 for Centaurea antiochia Boiss. var. praealta (Boiss & Bal)Wagenitz (endemic species). According to our study, 4 methanolic extracts of 14 tested plants exhibit greater activity on the HeLa cell line and little activity on the Vero cell line, meaning that these plants can be evaluated for potential promising anticancer activity.

  14. Synergistic combination of fluoro chalcone and doxorubicin on HeLa cervical cancer cells by inducing apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianingrum, Retno; Arty, Indyah Sulistyo; Atun, Sri

    2017-03-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), a primary chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer treatment is known to have various side effect included multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. Combination chemotherapy is one of some approaches to reduce Dox side effect. Chalcones have been reported to reduce the proliferation of many cancer cells. The research were conducted to investigate the cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction of a chalcone derivate which is containing fluoro substituent [1 - (4" - fluorophenyl) -3 - (4' - hydroxy - 3' - methoxyphenyl) - 2 - propene - 1 -on] (FHM) and its combination with Dox on HeLa cells line. The observation of the cytotoxic activity was conducted using MTT [3 - (4, 5 - dimethyl thiazol - 2 - y1) - 2.5 - diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Apoptosis induction was determined by flow cytometric. The changes of cell morphology were observed using phase contrast microscopy. The combination index (CI) was used to determine the effect of the combination. The study showed that FHM inhibited the HeLa cell growth with IC50 of 34 μM, while the IC50 of Dox was 1 μM. The combination had a higher inhibitory effect on cell growth compare to the single treatment of FHM and Dox. All of the combination doses under IC50 of FHM and Dox gave synergistic (CI: - 0.7) up to strong synergistic effect (CI: 0.l - 0.3). The synergistic effects of the combination were due to their ability to induce apoptosis in the HeLa cells. According to the result, FHM was potential to be developed as a co-chemotherapeutic agent with Dox for cervical cancer.

  15. In vitro studies of the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on HeLa and U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba SI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Said I Kaba, Elena M Egorova Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia Abstract: In the last decade, much attention has been paid to studies of the effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs on tumor cells. Apart from elucidation of the mechanism of NPs’ interaction with mammalian cells, these studies are aimed at discovering new effective antitumor drugs. In this work, we report about the toxic effects of Ag NPs observed on two types of tumor cells: HeLa (adhesive cells and U937 (suspension cells. The Ag NPs were obtained by an original method of biochemical synthesis. Particle size was 13.2±4.72 nm, and zeta potential was -61.9±3.2 mV. The toxicity of Ag NPs in the concentration range 0.5–8.0 µg Ag/mL was determined by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and cytofluorometry after 4 and 24 hours' incubation. It was found that Ag NPs had high toxicity toward both cell types. The minimal concentrations where a toxicity effect was registered (toxicity thresholds lied in the range 0.5–2.0 µg Ag/mL. In parallel with the Ag NP solution, cells were incubated with water solutions of the NP stabilizer (aerosol-OT and Ag+ ions (as silver nitrate. It was shown that aerosol-OT had no effect on the viability on HeLa cells, but was moderately toxic toward U937, though less dangerous for these cells than Ag NPs. With Ag+ ions, for HeLa no toxic effect was observed, while for U937 they were as toxic as the Ag NPs. The data obtained indicate that Ag NPs as used in this study may prove to be useful for the creation of medicines for cancer therapy. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, cell viability, apoptosis, tumor cells

  16. Ctotoxic and apoptogenic effects of Perovskia abrotanoides flower extract on MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines

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    Mohamad Ali Geryani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Perovskia abrotanoides Karel, belongs to the family Lamiaceae and grows wild alongside the mountainous roads inarid and cold climate of Northern Iran. The anti-tumor activity of P. abrotanoides root extract has been shown previously. This study was designed to examine in vitro anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of flower extract of P. abrotanoides on MCF-7 and Hela cell lines. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in DMEM medium with 10% fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin and 100 µg/ml streptomycin and incubated with different concentrations of plant extracts. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide (PI staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak. Results: P. abrotanoides extract inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a time and dose-dependent manner and 1000 µg/ml of extract following 48h of incubation was the most cytotoxic dose against Hela cell in comparison with other doses; however, in MCF-7 cells,1000 and 500 µg/ml PA induced toxicity at all time points but with different features.. Analysis of flowcytometry histogram of treated cells compared with control cells indicated that the cytotoxic effect is partly due toapoptosis induction. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extract of P. abrotanoides flowers inhibits the growth of MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines, partly via inducing apoptosis. Their inhibitory effect was increased in a time and dose-dependent manner, especially in MCF7 cells. However, further studies are needed to reveal the mechanisms of P. abrotanoides extract-induced cell death.

  17. Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michinaga; Cyganek, Izabela; Sanghani, Paresh C; Cho, Won Kyoo; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W

    2011-01-01

    Human class I alcohol dehydrogenase 2 isoenzymes (encoded by the ADH1B locus) have large differences in kinetic properties; however, individuals inheriting the alleles for the different isoenzymes exhibit only small differences in alcohol elimination rates. This suggests that other cellular factors must regulate the activity of the isoenzymes. The activity of the isoenzymes expressed from ADH1B*1, ADH1B*2, and ADH1B*3 cDNAs was examined in stably transduced HeLa cell lines, including lines which expressed human low K(m) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). The ability of the cells to metabolize ethanol was compared with that of HeLa cells expressing rat class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) (HeLa-rat ADH cells), rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells, and rat hepatocytes. The isoenzymes had similar protein half-lives in the HeLa cells. Rat hepatocytes, H4IIEC3 cells, and HeLa-rat ADH cells oxidized ethanol much faster than the cells expressing the ADH1B isoenzymes. This was not explained by high cellular NADH levels or endogenous inhibitors; but rather because the activity of the β1 and β2 ADHs was constrained by the accumulation of acetaldehyde, as shown by the increased rate of ethanol oxidation by cell lines expressing β2 ADH plus ALDH2. The activity of the human β2 ADH isoenzyme is sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde, which likely limits its activity in vivo. This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a low steady-state acetaldehyde concentration in hepatocytes during ethanol metabolism. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Development of electrochemical reporter assay using HeLa cells transfected with vector plasmids encoding various responsive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiku, Hitoshi, E-mail: shiku@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604 Aramaki-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takeda, Michiaki; Murata, Tatsuya [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604 Aramaki-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Akiba, Uichi; Hamada, Fumio [Graduate School of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, 1-1 Tegata gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Matsue, Tomokazu, E-mail: matsue@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604 Aramaki-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2009-04-27

    Electrochemical assay using HeLa cell lines transfected with various plasmid vectors encoding SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase) as the reporter has been performed by using SECM (scanning electrochemical microscopy). The plasmid vector contains different responsive elements that include GRE (glucocorticoid response elements), CRE (cAMP responsive elements), or {kappa}B (binding site for NF{kappa}B (nuclear factor kappa B)) upstream of the SEAP sequence. The transfected HeLa cells were patterned on a culture dish in a 4 x 4 array of circles of diameter 300 {mu}m by using the PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) stencil technique. The cellular array was first exposed to 100 ng mL{sup -1} dexamethasone, 10 ng mL{sup -1} forskolin, or 100 ng mL{sup -1} TNF-{alpha} (tumor necrosis factor {alpha}) after which it was further cultured in an RPMI culture medium for 6 h. After incubation, the cellular array was soaked in a measuring solution containing 4.7 mM PAPP (p-aminophenylphosphate) at pH 9.5, following which electrochemical measurements were performed immediately within 40 min. The SECM method allows parallel evaluation of different cell lines transfected with pGRE-SEAP, pCRE-SEAP, and pNF{kappa}B-SEAP patterned on the same solid support for detection of the oxidation current of PAP (p-aminophenol) flux produced from only 300 HeLa cells in each stencil pattern. The results of the SECM method were highly sensitive as compared to those obtained from the conventional CL (chemiluminescence) protocol with at least 5 x 10{sup 4} cells per well.

  19. Caveolin-1 and CDC42 mediated endocytosis of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bohmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is a rapidly growing field in nanotechnology, which has great potential in the development of new therapies for numerous diseases. For example iron oxide nanoparticles are in clinical use already in the thermotherapy of brain cancer. Although it has been shown, that tumor cells take up these particles in vitro, little is known about the internalization routes. Understanding of the underlying uptake mechanisms would be very useful for faster and precise development of nanoparticles for clinical applications. This study aims at the identification of key proteins, which are crucial for the active uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles by HeLa cells (human cervical cancer as a model cell line. Cells were transfected with specific siRNAs against Caveolin-1, Dynamin 2, Flotillin-1, Clathrin, PIP5Kα and CDC42. Knockdown of Caveolin-1 reduces endocytosis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs and silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (SCIONs between 23 and 41%, depending on the surface characteristics of the nanoparticles and the experimental design. Knockdown of CDC42 showed a 46% decrease of the internalization of PEGylated SPIONs within 24 h incubation time. Knockdown of Dynamin 2, Flotillin-1, Clathrin and PIP5Kα caused no or only minor effects. Hence endocytosis in HeLa cells of iron oxide nanoparticles, used in this study, is mainly mediated by Caveolin-1 and CDC42. It is shown here for the first time, which proteins of the endocytotic pathway mediate the endocytosis of silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in HeLa cells in vitro. In future studies more experiments should be carried out with different cell lines and other well-defined nanoparticle species to elucidate possible general principles.

  20. A Tandemly Arranged Pattern of Two 5S rDNA Arrays in Amolops mantzorum (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Song, Menghuan; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to extend the knowledge of the 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amolops mantzorum were isolated, characterized, and mapped by FISH. Two forms of 5S rDNA, type I (209 bp) and type II (about 870 bp), were found in specimens investigated from various populations. Both of them contained a 118-bp coding sequence, readily differentiated by their non-transcribed spacer (NTS) sizes and compositions. Four probes (the 5S rDNA coding sequences, the type I NTS, the type II NTS, and the entire type II 5S rDNA sequences) were respectively labeled with TAMRA or digoxigenin to hybridize with mitotic chromosomes for samples of all localities. It turned out that all probes showed the same signals that appeared in every centromeric region and in the telomeric regions of chromosome 5, without differences within or between populations. Obviously, both type I and type II of the 5S rDNA arrays arranged in tandem, which was contrasting with other frogs or fishes recorded to date. More interestingly, all the probes detected centromeric regions in all karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. 5S rDNA characterization in twelve Sciaenidae fish species (Teleostei, Perciformes: depicting gene diversity and molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A. Alves-Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the genetic data on the Sciaenidae fish family, the present study had the purpose to characterize PCR-generated 5S rDNA repeats of twelve species of this group through PAGE (Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis analysis. The results showed the occurrence of at least two different 5S rDNA size classes in all the species. Moreover, 5S rDNA repeats of one of the studied species - Isopisthus parvipinnis - were cloned and subjected to nucleotide sequencing and Southern blot membrane hybridization analyses, which permitted to confirm the existence of two major 5S rDNA classes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleotide sequences of different 5S rDNA repeats of I. parvipinnis lead to their separation into two major clusters. These results may reflect the high dynamism that rules the evolution rate of 5S rDNA repeats. The obtained data suggest that 5S rDNA can be useful in genetic analyses to identify species-specific markers and determine relationships among species of the Sciaenidae group.

  2. Pravastatin and simvastatin inhibit the adhesion, replication and proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfelice, Raquel Arruda; da Silva, Suelen Santos; Bosqui, Larissa Rodrigues; Miranda-Sapla, Milena Menegazzo; Barbosa, Bellisa Freitas; Silva, Rafaela José; Ferro, Eloísa A Vieira; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Bordignon, Juliano; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander Rogerio; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio; Costa, Idessania Nazareth

    2017-03-01

    The conventional treatment for toxoplasmosis with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine shows toxic effects to the host, and it is therefore necessary to search for new drugs. Some studies suggest the use of statins, which inhibit cholesterol synthesis in humans and also the initial processes of isoprenoid biosynthesis in the parasite. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of the statins pravastatin and simvastatin in HeLa cells infected in vitro with the RH strain of T. gondii. HeLa cells (1×10(5)) were infected with T. gondii tachyzoites (5×10(5)) following two different treatment protocols. In the first protocol, T. gondii tachyzoites were pretreated with pravastatin (50 and 100μg/mL) and simvastatin (1.56 and 3.125μg/mL) for 30min prior to infection. In the second, HeLa cells were first infected (5×10(5)) with tachyzoites and subsequently treated with pravastatin and simvastatin for 24h at the concentrations noted above. Initially, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of drugs by the MTT assay, number of tachyzoites adhered to cells, number of infected cells, and viability of tachyzoites by trypan blue exclusion. The supernatant of the cell cultures was collected post-treatment for determination of the pattern of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines by cytometric bead array. There was no cytotoxicity to HeLa cells with 50 and 100μg/mL pravastatin and 1.56 and 3.125μg/mL simvastatin. There was no change in the viability of tachyzoites that received pretreatment. Regarding the pre- and post-treatment of the cells with pravastatin and simvastatin alone, there was a reduction in adhesion, invasion and proliferation of cells to T. gondii. As for the production of cytokines, we found that IL-6 and IL-17 were significantly reduced in cells infected with T. gondii and treated with pravastatin and simvastatin, when compared to control. Based on these results, we can infer that pravastatin and simvastatin alone possess antiproliferative effects on tachyzoites forms

  3. Sorting and identification of side population cells in the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Lijun; Liu, Ning; Li, Xiaoping; Yu, Weidong; Wei, Lihui

    2014-01-13

    Several reports have revealed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in many types of solid tumors. Some studies have demonstrated that side population (SP) cells isolated from diverse cancer lines harbor cancer stem-like properties, but there are few reports examining the characteristic of SP cells in human cervical cancer. The aim of this study is 1) to find out a feasible way to detect the tumor stem-like cells in cervical cancer, and 2) to analyze the properties of the SP cells being sorted. Isolated SP and non-SP cells from human cervical cancer cell line Hela by Hoechst 33342 dying method and flow cytometry analysis. Observing morphology of SP and non-SP cells. The expression of various biomarkers putatively related to cancer stem cells were investigated by immucytochemistry of SP and non-SP cells. We also analyzed cell cycle and cell apoptosis for sorted cells. The oncogenicity of the SP and non-SP cells were analyzed by tumor formation in nonobesediabeti- c/severe combined immune- deficient (NOD/SCID) mice. The drug-resistant and radiation-resistant index between SP, non-SP and Hela cells was estimated by MTS assay. The fraction of SP cells in Hela was approximately 1.07 ± 0.32%. SP cells were smaller and rounder in shape than non-SP cells, and mostly showed colony-like growth. Immunocytochemistry showed that stem cell makers (Oct3/4, CD133, BCRP) were highly expressed in SP cells. Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells among non-SP cells (17.6 ± 3.7%) was significantly higher compared with that among SP cells (4.4 ± 1.2%). The HE staining of in vivo grown tumors result from SP cells showed more poor differentiation, though no significant differences were shown between SP and non-SP cells in NOD/SCID mice tumorigenicity. Furthermore, SP cells demonstrated a higher degree of drug resistance against trichostatin A (TSA) compared with that of non-SP and Hela cells. SP cells were also found to be more resistant against radiotherapy. SP cells

  4. Cyclic Peptide-Capped Gold Nanoparticles for Enhanced siRNA Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Nasrolahi Shirazi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we have reported the synthesis of a homochiral l-cyclic peptide [WR]5 and its use for delivery of anti-HIV drugs and biomolecules. A physical mixture of HAuCl4 and the peptide generated peptide-capped gold nanoparticles. Here, [WR]5 and [WR]5-AuNPs were tested for their efficiency to deliver a small interfering RNA molecule (siRNA in human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells. Flow cytometry investigation revealed that the intracellular uptake of a fluorescence-labeled non-targeting siRNA (200 nM was enhanced in the presence of [WR]5 and [WR]5-AuNPs by 2- and 3.8-fold when compared with that of siRNA alone after 24 h incubation. Comparative toxicity results showed that [WR]5 and [WR]5-AuNPs were less toxic in cells compared to other available carrier systems, such as Lipofectamine.

  5. Development of sensitive crop-specific polymerase chain reaction assays using 5S DNA: applications in food traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveri, Silvia; Lee, David

    2007-06-13

    The 5S intergenic spacers were amplified using a common pair of primers and sequenced from four species (Brassica napus, Zea mays, Helianthus annuus, and Glycine max). Crop-specific assays were developed from primers designed from the spacers and tested to amplify corresponding DNAs in both conventional end-point and real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). The high copy numbers of the 5S DNA in plants make it possible to detect very small amounts of DNA using this marker. This sensitivity made it possible to compare different DNA extraction methods for highly processed food products using 5S spacers, even allowing dilution of templates to overcome PCR inhibition.

  6. Our views of dynamic N6-methyladenosine RNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Boxuan; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Roundtree, Ian A; He, Chuan

    2017-12-08

    We thank Darnell et al. in their Divergent Views article for noting our contributions to recent progress in the field of RNA modifications. We agree with many of the viewpoints expressed: that a majority of messenger RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation occurs co-transcriptionally, that one of the main functions of m6A methylation on mRNA is to mark sets of transcripts for expedited turnover, and that this methylation may not dramatically affect splicing in HeLa cells. However, although the impact of m6A methylation on splicing appears to be modest in many cell lines, we suggest to be cautious because m6A methylation is enriched in long exons and overrepresented in transcripts with alternative splicing variants. Two recent examples have revealed methylation-dependent changes in splicing: one demonstrated m6A-modulated sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster, and another found enhanced SAM synthetase expression mediated by a specific m6A site installed by METTL16 . The potential effects of RNA methylation on constitutive and alternative splicing in additional physiological contexts need to be further evaluated. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  7. Structural and optical properties of AgIn5S8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Carlos A. Durante; Durán, Larissa T.; Medina, Josefa Estévez; Castro, Jaime A.; León, Máximo; Fermín, Jose R.

    2017-12-01

    Compounds of the chalcogenide family Ag-In-VI (VI = S, Se, Te) are interesting materials due to their stoichiometric stability and potential application in nonlinear optics and solar cells. A polycrystalline ingot of AgIn5S8, an ordered vacancy semiconductor, was prepared by direct fusion of the stoichiometric mixture of the elements in an evacuated quartz ampoule. The presence of a single phase with cubic structure was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction at room temperature. The lattice parameter, a, was calculated, giving 10.821750 Å. Samples in evacuated quartz ampoules were used to perform Differential Thermal Analysis measurements, showing congruent melting at 1110∘C. Transmittance and reflectivity measurements were used to calculate the absorption coefficient α. From the plot of (αhν)2 versus hν, two direct transitions are observed at 1.25 eV and 1.88 eV. While the higher energy direct transition has been observed by other authors, the direct nature of the lower energy transition was confirmed from the fitting of the plot of the reflectivity versus 1/hν between 0.53 eV‑1 (1.89 eV) and 0.55 eV‑1 (1.82 eV), obtaining a value of 1.29 eV. The real refractive index n and the high-frequency dielectric constant 𝜀∞ were also obtained from the fit of the reflectivity, resulting to be 2.68 and 7.2, respectively.

  8. Leanin 5S toimistoympäristössä : Kehittämistyön tulokset

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli raportoida 5S-toimintamallin käyttöönotto Aditro Oy:n Kajaanin toimistolla. Opinnäytetyössä kuvataan 5S-toimintamallin käyttöönoton vaiheet ja niiden vaikutukset toimistoympäristössä. Lisäksi tarkastellaan miten Lean–ajattelulla ja 5S-toimintamallilla voidaan tehostaa toimistoympäristön työprosesseja. Lopuksi arvioidaan 5S-toimintamallista saatuja hyötyjä sekä käyttöönottoon liittyviä ongelmia. Teoreettisena taustana oli Lean-filosofian mukainen kirjal...

  9. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus.

  10. Obtencao de marcadores moleculares 5S rDNA para populaces nativas e introduzidas de Cichla , do Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Oliveira, Viviane Fatima; De Oliveira, Alessandra Valeria; Prioli, Alberto Jose; Alves Pinto Prioli, Sonia Maria

    2008-01-01

    .... O objetivo desse trabalho foi padronizar a metodologia de amplificacao de regioes nao-transcritas da familia multigenica rDNA 5S de Cichla e obter marcadores especificos para as especies parentais...

  11. Factors Contributing To The Sustainability Of 5S Programmes In Government Hospitals In Regional Director Of Health Services Area Kurunegala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K.W.C.U.K Kendangamuwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction 5S is the stepping stone for many quality improvement concepts and its roots date back to 16th century. When successfully implemented 5S gives many benefits to the organization as well as its stakeholders. Though 5S itself has a tool to sustain most of the organizations find it difficult to sustain the 5S practice over the time. Therefore the objective of this study was to find out the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in Government Hospitals in RDHS area Kurunegala. Methodology This study was a descriptive cross sectional study with two components. First component was to identify the 5S sustaining hospitals from not sustaining hospitals by validated evaluation sheet. Second component was to determine the factors contributing to sustainability of 5S programmes in selected study setting. Self-administrated questionnaire was used for this purpose. Total study population was 543 employees of all the categories of hospital staff. Calculated sample size was 422 and 375 were responded to the questionnaire giving response rate of 88.9. Results The study revealed that the implemented 5S programmes were sustaining in eight hospitals out of ten i.e. sustaining rate was 80. When it considered the degree of sustainability 50 of the selected hospitals reported more than 70 sustainability. This was considered as favourable trend in government health sector in healthcare quality point of view. Ten factors were studied as contributing factors for the 5S sustainability. Socio- demographic factors were also considered. Those ten factors were top management commitment leadership of the organization commitment of middle amp frontline managers commitment amp satisfaction of employees training amp changing attitude of employees motivation of employees organizational culture group cohesiveness community participation and customer satisfaction. Study revealed that organizational leadership customer satisfaction community

  12. Extracellular RNA Communication (ExRNA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Until recently, scientists believed RNA worked mostly inside the cell that produced it. Some types of RNA help translate genes into proteins that are necessary for...

  13. Outcome of the L5-S1 segment after posterior instrumented spinal surgery in degenerative lumbar diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jen-Chung; Chen, Wen-Jer; Chen, Lih-Huei; Niu, Chi-Chien

    2009-01-01

    Posterior decompression, instrumentation, and posterolateral fusion are surgical procedures for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases. Solid fusion usually causes adjacent problems. This study investigated the clinical outcome and radiographic fate of the L5-S1 segment in patients who underwent posterior instrumented surgery for degenerative lumbar diseases. From January 1999 to December 2000, 181 patients (average age 59.4 years, range 45-79 years) underwent posterior decompression, posterior instrumentation, and posterolateral fusion for degenerative lumbar diseases (including degenerative spondylolisthesis and degenerative lumbar scoliosis) with spinal stenosis. Modified Brodsky's criteria and the Oswestry disability index were used to evaluate patients before surgery and at the final followup. Degenerative changes in the L5-S1 intervertebral disc were evaluated with the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) grading scale. Adjacent L5-S1 segmental instability was defined as the appearance of retrolisthesis, anterolisthesis, or lateral listhesis in the static or dynamic radiographs at the final follow-up. Only 1 of these 181 patients developed inferior adjacent instability, but there were no symptoms related to this instability. The mean pre-operative L5-S1 disc degenerative score was 1.73 -/+ 0.66 and at the last follow-up, 1.87 -/+ 0.72 (p = 0.006). There was no symptomatic disc degeneration necessitating further L5-S1 fusion during follow-up. One hundred fifty-six patients (86%) exhibited satisfactory results (good or excellent). The mean Oswestry score was 21.8 -/+ 6.0 preoperatively, which improved to 9.6 -/+ 7.4 at the last follow-up (p = 0.001). The L5-S1 disc degenerated more after posterolateral lumbar floating fusion. However, there was no symptomatic inferior adjacent instability or symptomatic L5-S1 disc degeneration requiring further L5-S1 fusion at a mean 5.1 years follow-up.

  14. Interferon-β induced microRNA-129-5p down-regulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression by targeting SP1 in cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Zhang

    Full Text Available Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cancer. Down-regulation of E6 and E7 expression may be responsible for the positive clinical outcomes observed with IFN treatment, but the molecular basis has not been well determined. As miRNAs play an important role in HPV induced cervical carcinogenesis, we hypothesize that IFN-β can regulate the expressions of specific miRNAs in cervical cancer cells, and that these miRNAs can mediate E6 and E7 expression, thus modulate their oncogenic potential. In this study, we found that miR-129-5p to be a candidate IFN-β inducible miRNA. MiR-129-5p levels gradually decrease with the development of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Manipulation of miR-129-5p expression in Hela cells modulates HPV-18 E6 and E7 viral gene expression. Exogenous miR-129-5p inhibits cell proliferation in Hela cells, promotes apoptosis and blocks cell cycle progression in Hela cells. SP1 is a direct target of miR-129-5p in Hela cells. This study is the first report of a cellular miRNA with anti-HPV activity and provides new insights into regulatory mechanisms between the HPV and the IFN system in host cells at the miRNA level.

  15. Transport of NaYF4:Er3+, Yb3+ up-converting nanoparticles into HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Bożena; Fronc, Krzysztof; Kamińska, Izabela; Koper, Kamil; Szewczyk, Sebastian; Paterczyk, Bohdan; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Sobczak, Kamil; Minikayev, Roman; Paszkowicz, Wojciech; Stępień, Piotr; Elbaum, Danek

    2013-06-01

    An effective, simple and practically useful method to incorporate fluorescent nanoparticles inside live biological cells was developed. The internalization time and concentration dependence of a frequently used liposomal transfection factor (Lipofectamine 2000) was studied. A user friendly, one-step technique to obtain water and organic solvent soluble Er3+ and Yb3+ doped NaYF4 nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone was obtained. Structural analysis of the nanoparticles confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of the desired sizes and spectral properties. The internalization of NaYF4 nanoparticles in HeLa cervical cancer cells was determined at different nanoparticle concentrations and for incubation periods from 3 to 24 h. The images revealed a redistribution of nanoparticles inside the cell, which increases with incubation time and concentration levels, and depends on the presence of the transfection factor. The study identifies, for the first time, factors responsible for an effective endocytosis of the up-converting nanoparticles to HeLa cells. Thus, the method could be applied to investigate a wide range of future ‘smart’ theranostic agents. Nanoparticles incorporated into the liposomes appear to be very promising fluorescent probes for imaging real-time cellular dynamics.

  16. Multiple origins of spontaneously arising micronuclei in HeLa cells: Direct evidence from long-term live cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Xiaotang; Zhang Yingyin; Yi Qiyi; Hou Heli; Xu Bo; Chu Liang; Huang Yun; Zhang Wenrui [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Human Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Shi Qinghua [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)], E-mail: qshi@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-11-10

    Although micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxic effects and chromosome instability, the most basic issue regarding their origins has not been completely addressed due to limitations of traditional methods. Recently, long-term live cell imaging was developed to monitor the dynamics of single cell in a real-time and high-throughput manner. In the present study, this state-of-the-art technique was employed to examine spontaneous micronucleus (MN) formation in untreated HeLa cells. We demonstrate that spontaneous MNi are derived from incorrectly aligned chromosomes in metaphase (displaced chromosomes, DCs), lagging chromosomes (LCs) and broken chromosome bridges (CBs) in later mitotic stages, but not nuclear buds in S phase. However, most of bipolar mitoses with DCs (91.29%), LCs (73.11%) and broken CBs (88.93%) did not give rise to MNi. Our data also show directly, for the first time, that MNi could originate spontaneously from (1) MNi already presented in the mother cells; (2) nuclear fragments that appeared during mitosis with CB; and (3) chromosomes being extruded into a minicell which fused with one of the daughter cells later. Quantitatively, most of MNi originated from LCs (63.66%), DCs (10.97%) and broken CBs (9.25%). Taken together, these direct evidences show that there are multiple origins for spontaneously arising MNi in HeLa cells and each mechanism contributes to overall MN formation to different extents.

  17. Caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of citreamicin ε-induced heLa iells Is associated with reactive oxygen species generation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lingli

    2013-07-15

    Citreamicins, members of the polycyclic xanthone family, are promising antitumor agents that are produced by Streptomyces species. Two diastereomers, citreamicin ε A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a marine-derived Streptomyces species. The relative configurations of these two diastereomers were determined using NMR spectroscopy and successful crystallization of citreamicin ε A (1). Both diastereomers showed potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa (cervical cancer) and HepG2 (hepatic carcinoma) cells with IC 50 values ranging from 30 to 100 nM. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay confirmed that citreamicin ε A (1) induced cellular apoptosis, and Western blot analysis showed that apoptosis occurred via activation of caspase-3. The 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay indicated that citreamicin ε substantially increased the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS). To confirm the hypothesis that citreamicin ε induced apoptosis through an increase in the intracellular ROS concentration, the oxidized products, oxicitreamicin ε A (3) and B (4), were obtained from a one-step reaction catalyzed by Ag 2O. These products, with a reduced capacity to increase the intracellular ROS concentration, exhibited a significantly weakened cytotoxicity in both HeLa and HepG2 cells compared with that of citreamicin ε A (1) and B (2). © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. A new paradigm for MAPK: structural interactions of hERK1 with mitochondria in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Galli

    Full Text Available Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 are members of the MAPK family and participate in the transduction of stimuli in cellular responses. Their long-term actions are accomplished by promoting the expression of specific genes whereas faster responses are achieved by direct phosphorylation of downstream effectors located throughout the cell. In this study we determined that hERK1 translocates to the mitochondria of HeLa cells upon a proliferative stimulus. In the mitochondrial environment, hERK1 physically associates with (i at least 5 mitochondrial proteins with functions related to transport (i.e. VDAC1, signalling, and metabolism; (ii histones H2A and H4; and (iii other cytosolic proteins. This work indicates for the first time the presence of diverse ERK-complexes in mitochondria and thus provides a new perspective for assessing the functions of ERK1 in the regulation of cellular signalling and trafficking in HeLa cells.

  19. Cooperative and Stochastic Calcium Releases from Multiple Calcium Puff Sites Generate Calcium Microdomains in Intact HeLa Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideki; Bannai, Hiroko; Inoue, Takafumi; Michikawa, Takayuki; Sano, Masaki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Ca2+ microdomains or locally restricted Ca2+ increases in the cell have recently been reported to regulate many essential physiological events. Ca2+ increases through the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R)/Ca2+ release channels contribute to the formation of a class of such Ca2+ microdomains, which were often observed and referred to as Ca2+ puffs in their isolated states. In this report, we visualized IP3-evoked Ca2+ microdomains in histamine-stimulated intact HeLa cells using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope, and quantitatively characterized the spatial profile by fitting recorded images to a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution. Ca2+ concentration profiles were marginally spatially anisotropic, with the size increasing linearly even after the amplitude began to decline. We found the event centroid drifted with an apparent diffusion coefficient of 4.20 ± 0.50 μm2/s, which is significantly larger than those estimated for IP3Rs. The sites of maximal Ca2+ increase, rather than initiation or termination sites, were detected repeatedly at the same location. These results indicate that Ca2+ microdomains in intact HeLa cell are generated from spatially distributed multiple IP3R clusters or Ca2+ puff sites, rather than a single IP3R cluster reported in cells loaded with Ca2+ buffers. PMID:22637479

  20. EFEK SITOTOKSIK DAN PEMACUAN APOPTOSIS FRAKSI PETROLEUM ETER EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN TAPAK LIMAN (Elephantopus scaber Linn TERHADAP SEL HELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Listyowati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Elephantopus scaber Linn. has been reported to have cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells and the potential to be developed as anticancer agent. This study aims was to determine the cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction effect of petroleum ether fractions of ethanolic extract of (Elephantopus scaber Linn leaves against cervical cancer cells (HeLa. Petroleum ether fraction was obtained by dissolving eyhanolic extract in petroleum ether, and the soluble fraction was as petroleum ether fraction. The method used for cytotoxic activity test was MTT test. The concentration series used were 2000; 1500; 1000; 800; 400; 200; 100; 50; 25; 12.5; 6.25 and 3.125 mg/ml. The IC50 used as cytotoxic parameters. The apoptotic observations was conducted using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The study showed the IC50 of petroleum ether fraction of (Elephantopus scaber Linn ethanolic extract was 185 ug/ml. The study also showed the potency to stimulate apoptosis in HeLa cells.

  1. Blue light induced reactive oxygen species from flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide on lethality of HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Yeh; Chang, Chih-Jui; Chen, Liang-Yü

    2017-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a safe and non-invasive treatment for cancers and microbial infections. Various photosensitizers and light sources have been developed for clinical cancer therapies. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are the cofactor of enzymes and are used as photosensitizers in this study. Targeting hypoxia and light-triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS) are experimental strategies for poisoning tumor cells in vitro. HeLa cells are committed to apoptosis when treated with FMN or FAD and exposed to visible blue light (the maximum emitted wavelength of blue light is 462nm). Under blue light irradiation at 3.744J/cm2 (=0.52mW/cm2 irradiated for 2h), the minimal lethal dose is 3.125μM and the median lethal doses (LD50) for FMN and FAD are 6.5μM and 7.2μM, respectively. Individual exposure to visible blue light irradiation or riboflavin photosensitizers does not produce cytotoxicity and no side effects are observed in this study. The western blotting results also show that an intrinsic apoptosis pathway is activated by the ROS during photolysis of riboflavin analogues. Blue light triggers the cytotoxicity of riboflavins on HeLa cells in vitro. Based on these results, this is a feasible and efficient of PDT with an intrinsic photosensitizer for cancer research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The study of single anticancer peptides interacting with HeLa cell membranes by single molecule force spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yuping; Huang, Jinfeng; Tan, Juanjuan; Gao, Gui; Liu, Shuheng; Wang, Hongda; Chen, Yuxin

    2012-02-01

    To determine the effects of biophysical parameters (e.g. charge, hydrophobicity, helicity) of peptides on the mechanism of anticancer activity, we applied a single molecule technique--force spectroscopy based on atomic force microscope (AFM)--to study the interaction force at the single molecule level. The activity of the peptide and analogs against HeLa cells exhibited a strong correlation with the hydrophobicity of peptides. Our results indicated that the action mode between α-helical peptides and cancer cells was largely hydrophobicity-dependent.To determine the effects of biophysical parameters (e.g. charge, hydrophobicity, helicity) of peptides on the mechanism of anticancer activity, we applied a single molecule technique--force spectroscopy based on atomic force microscope (AFM)--to study the interaction force at the single molecule level. The activity of the peptide and analogs against HeLa cells exhibited a strong correlation with the hydrophobicity of peptides. Our results indicated that the action mode between α-helical peptides and cancer cells was largely hydrophobicity-dependent. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Peptide design, biophysical properties, biological activities and experimental section. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11541g

  3. On-Line Monitoring the Growth of E. coli or HeLa Cells Using an Annular Microelectrode Piezoelectric Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Feifei; Lian, Yan; Han, Junliang

    2016-12-18

    Biological information is obtained from the interaction between the series detection electrode and the organism or the physical field of biological cultures in the non-mass responsive piezoelectric biosensor. Therefore, electric parameter of the electrode will affect the biosensor signal. The electric field distribution of the microelectrode used in this study was simulated using the COMSOL Multiphysics analytical tool. This process showed that the electric field spatial distribution is affected by the width of the electrode finger or the space between the electrodes. In addition, the characteristic response of the piezoelectric sensor constructed serially with an annular microelectrode was tested and applied for the continuous detection of Escherichia coli culture or HeLa cell culture. Results indicated that the piezoelectric biosensor with an annular microelectrode meets the requirements for the real-time detection of E. coli or HeLa cells in culture. Moreover, this kind of piezoelectric biosensor is more sensitive than the sensor with an interdigital microelectrode. Thus, the piezoelectric biosensor acts as an effective analysis tool for acquiring online cell or microbial culture information.

  4. Aerodynamic and engineering design of a 1.5 s high quality microgravity drop tower facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, Valentin; Breuninger, Jakob; Reilly, Matthew; Laufer, René; Dropmann, Michael; Herdrich, Georg; Hyde, Truell; Röser, Hans-Peter; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2016-12-01

    Microgravity experiments are essential for research in space science, biology, fluid mechanics, combustion, and material sciences. One way to conduct microgravity experiments on Earth is by using drop tower facilities. These facilities combine a high quality of microgravity, adequate payload masses and have the advantage of virtually unlimited repeatability under same experimental conditions, at a low cost. In a collaboration between the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) at the University of Stuttgart and Baylor University (BU) in Waco, Texas, a new drop tower is currently under development at the Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research (CASPER). The design parameters of the drop tower ask for at least 1.5 s in free fall duration while providing a quality of at least 10-5 g. Previously, this quality has only been achieved in vacuum drop tower facilities where the capsule experiences virtually zero aerodynamic drag during its free fall. Since this design comes at high costs, a different drop tower design concept, which does not require an evacuated drop shaft, was chosen. It features a dual-capsule system in which the experiment capsule is shielded from aerodynamic forces by surrounding it with a drag shield during the drop. As no other dual-capsule drop tower has been able to achieve a quality as good as or better than 10-5 g previous work optimized the design with an aerodynamic perspective by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to determine the ideal shape and size of the outer capsule and to specify the aerodynamically crucial dimensions for the overall system. Experiments later demonstrated that the required quality of microgravity can be met with the proposed design. The main focus of this paper is the mechanical realization of the capsule as well as the development and layout of the surrounding components, such as the release mechanism, the deceleration device and the drop shaft. Because the drop tower facility is a

  5. Characterisation of ribosomal proteins from HeLa and Krebs II mouse ascites tumor cells by different two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Beier, H

    1978-01-01

    Electrophoresis of ribosomal proteins according to Kaltschmidt and Wittmann, 1970a, b (pH 8.6/pH 4.5 urea system) yielded 29 proteins for the small subunits and 35 and 37 proteins for the large subunits of Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomes, respectively. Analysis of the proteins according...... to a modified technique by Mets and Bogorad (1974) (pH 4.5/pH 8.6 SDS system) revealed 28 and 29 proteins in the small subunits and 37 and 38 proteins in the large subunits of Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomes. The molecular weights of the individual proteins were determined by: 1. "three-dimensional" gel...... using the pH 4.5/pH 8.6 SDS system. The molecular weights Krebs II ascites and HeLa ribosomal proteins are compared with those obtained by other authors for different mammalian species....

  6. Differential effects of calcium antagonists on ABCG2/BCRP-mediated drug resistance and transport in SN-38-resistant HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kohji; Matsubara, Mika; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Takegami, Shigehiko; Takahashi, Minoru; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2012-03-01

    The effects of 9 calcium antagonists on ABCG2/BCRP-mediated resistance and transport were examined in HeLa and SN-38-resistant HeLa (HeLa/SN100) cells, overexpressing ABCG2/BCRP. Sensitivity to mitoxantrone, an ABCG2/BCRP substrate, in HeLa/SN100 cells was significantly reversed by the coexistence of the calcium antagonists, except for diltiazem and verapamil. The accelerated transport activity of Hoechst33342, an ABCG2/BCRP substrate, in HeLa/SN100 cells was significantly decreased by the presence of the calcium antagonists, except for diltiazem, nifedipine or verapamil, returning to the level of HeLa cells. The present study classifies the calcium antagonists into 3 categories: strong (benidipine, felodipine, nicardipine, nisoldipine and nitrendipine), moderate (amlodipine and nifedipine) and weak (diltiazem and verapamil) inhibitors of ABCG2/BCRP.

  7. Primary microRNA processing is functionally coupled to RNAP II transcription in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shanye; Yu, Yong; Reed, Robin

    2015-07-07

    Previous studies in vivo reported that processing of primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) is coupled to transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and can occur co-transcriptionally. Here we have established a robust in vivo system in which pri-miRNA is transcribed by RNAP II and processed to pre-miRNA in HeLa cell nuclear extracts. We show that both the kinetics and efficiency of pri-miRNA processing are dramatically enhanced in this system compared to that of the corresponding naked pri-miRNA. Moreover, this enhancement is general as it occurs with multiple pri-miRNAs. We also show that nascent pri-miRNA is efficiently processed before it is released from the DNA template. Together, our work directly demonstrates that transcription and pri-miRNA processing are functionally coupled and establishes the first in vivo model systems for this functional coupling and for co-transcriptional processing.

  8. Apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by a new targeting photosensitizer-based PDT via a mitochondrial pathway and ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghong; Li, Lei; Li, Pengxi; Li, Yi; Chen, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a viable treatment for many cancers. To decrease the cutaneous photosensitivity induced by PDT, many attempts have been made to search for a targeting photosensitizer; however, few reports describe the molecular mechanism of PDT mediated by this type of targeting photosensitizer. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PDT induced by a new targeting photosensitizer (PS I), reported previously by us, on HeLa cells. Apoptosis is the primary mode of HeLa cell death in our system, and apoptosis occurs in a manner dependent on concentration, irradiation dose, and drug-light intervals. After endocytosis mediated by the folate receptor, PS I was primarily localized to the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of HeLa cells. PS I PDT resulted in rapid increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Ca(2+) concentration, both of which reached a peak nearly simultaneously at 15 minutes, followed by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential at 30 minutes, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression, and upregulation of Bax expression. Meanwhile, activation of caspase-3, -9, and -12, as well as induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), in HeLa cells after PS I PDT was also detected. These results suggest that apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by PS I PDT is not only triggered by ROS but is also regulated by Ca(2+) overload. Mitochondria and the ER serve as the subcellular targets of PS I PDT, the effective activation of which is responsible for PS I PDT-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells.

  9. Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Autocrine Apoptosis Induced by Co-immobilized TNF-α plus IFN-γ Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Yuxiao; Chen, Liyi; Lu, Xinhua; Li, Zhibin; Xue, Yongyong; Guan, Yan-Qing

    2018-02-13

    Based on our earlier work with co-immobilized TNF-α plus IFN-γ induction of HeLa cell death, we used FRET and XRD techniques to examine the differences in the structure of co-immobilized TNF-α plus IFN-γ and free TNF-α plus IFN-γ. The expressions of both TNF-α and IFN-α increased significantly, as determined by gene microarray analysis, however, in the presence of TNF-α plus IFN-α inhibitors, TNF-α and IFN-α did not increase in HeLa cells induced by co-immobilized TNF-γ plus IFN-α. This suggests that the TNF-α and IFN-α are the results of autocrine signaling in HeLa cells, and that cell death is caused by these substances. The mortality was then measured by flow cytometry and the results demonstrate that co-immobilized TNF-α plus IFN-γ induced death is a type of autocrine-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. In addition, we performed Elisa, RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and western blot analyses, as well as a series of analytical tests at the animal level. We demonstrated that at both the cellular and animal levels, HeLa cells induced by co-immobilized IFN-γ plus TNF-α secrete much more IFN-α and TNF-α, than these two cytokines could exert on HeLa cells alone, and that this leads to cancer cell death.

  10. Molecular identification and expression analysis of TLR5M and TLR5S from orange-spotted grouper (Epinepheluscoioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jian-Shan; Li, Yan-Wei; Deng, Yan; Huang, Yan-Qiong; He, Shu-Hua; Dai, Jin; Zhao, Shang-Zhi; Dan, Xue-Ming; Luo, Xiao-Chun

    2017-04-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is an important receptor that interacts with bacterial flagellin and regulates host immune response in mammal. Recent studies demonstrate that piscine contains two types of TLR5, namely membrane form of TLR5 (TLR5M) and soluble form of TLR5 (TLR5S), and both of which perform crucial role in flagellin response. In the present study, a TLR5M and a TLR5S sequence was cloned from orange-spotted grouper (Epinepheluscoioides), and their ORFs are respectively 2466 bp (821 aas) and 1935 bp (644 aas). EcTLR5M has the typical TLR structure of a LRR domain, a transmembrane region and a TIR domain, while EcTLR5S only contains a LRR domain like other species' TLR5S. Both molecules have 23 LRR motifs, a LRR-NT and a LRR-CT in the LRR domain, similar to those of other species. Phylogenetic and sequence alignment indicated that both EcTLR5s respectively displayed closer relationship and higher sequence identity with those in other fish species. In healthy grouper, EcTLR5M was highly expressed in the skin, head kidney and spleen, while EcTLR5S was mainly detected in the liver. Ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans infection could significantly up-regulate the expression level of EcTLR5s in the gill and spleen from day 1 to day 3, and higher expression fold change was observed in the spleen. Taken together, the present studies contributed to understanding the function of piscine TLR5M/S and clarify their possible role in fish immune response against ciliate infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Partial sequence homogenization in the 5S multigene families may generate sequence chimeras and spurious results in phylogenetic reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galián, José A; Rosato, Marcela; Rosselló, Josep A

    2014-03-01

    Multigene families have provided opportunities for evolutionary biologists to assess molecular evolution processes and phylogenetic reconstructions at deep and shallow systematic levels. However, the use of these markers is not free of technical and analytical challenges. Many evolutionary studies that used the nuclear 5S rDNA gene family rarely used contiguous 5S coding sequences due to the routine use of head-to-tail polymerase chain reaction primers that are anchored to the coding region. Moreover, the 5S coding sequences have been concatenated with independent, adjacent gene units in many studies, creating simulated chimeric genes as the raw data for evolutionary analysis. This practice is based on the tacitly assumed, but rarely tested, hypothesis that strict intra-locus concerted evolution processes are operating in 5S rDNA genes, without any empirical evidence as to whether it holds for the recovered data. The potential pitfalls of analysing the patterns of molecular evolution and reconstructing phylogenies based on these chimeric genes have not been assessed to date. Here, we compared the sequence integrity and phylogenetic behavior of entire versus concatenated 5S coding regions from a real data set obtained from closely related plant species (Medicago, Fabaceae). Our results suggest that within arrays sequence homogenization is partially operating in the 5S coding region, which is traditionally assumed to be highly conserved. Consequently, concatenating 5S genes increases haplotype diversity, generating novel chimeric genotypes that most likely do not exist within the genome. In addition, the patterns of gene evolution are distorted, leading to incorrect haplotype relationships in some evolutionary reconstructions.

  12. RNA Sequencing Analysis of Salivary Extracellular RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majem, Blanca; Li, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wong, David T W

    2017-01-01

    Salivary biomarkers for disease detection, diagnostic and prognostic assessments have become increasingly well established in recent years. In this chapter we explain the current leading technology that has been used to characterize salivary non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the extracellular RNA (exRNA) fraction: HiSeq from Illumina® platform for RNA sequencing. Therefore, the chapter is divided into two main sections regarding the type of the library constructed (small and long ncRNA libraries), from saliva collection, RNA extraction and quantification to cDNA library generation and corresponding QCs. Using these invaluable technical tools, one can identify thousands of