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Sample records for heinrich hertz submillimeter

  1. Sub-millimeter science with the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Michael

    The Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope on Mt. Graham, Arizona, is a state-of-the-art single-dish radio telescope for observations in the sub-millimeter wavelength range. It is operated by the Sub-Millimeter Telescope Observatory (SMTO), which is a collaboration between the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn. In this talk I give an overview over the telescope and its instrumentation, and show some examples of forefront research performed by astronomers from both the U.S. and Europe using this instrument. The telescope is located on Mt. Graham, Arizona, at an altitude of 3178 m, which ensures sub-mm weather conditions during a significant amount of available observing time. It has a primary reflector of 10 m diameter, mounted on a carbon fiber backup structure, and is equipped with a corotating enclosure. The surface accuracy of the primary reflector is 12 microns rms, what makes the HHT the most accurate radio telescope ever built. For spectral line observations, SIS receivers covering the frequency range from 200 to 500 GHz are available. Furthermore, a Hot-Electron-Bolometer, developed at the CfA, can be used for spectral line observations above 800 GHz. The continuum receivers are a 4-color bolometer, observing at 1300, 870, 450, and 350 microns, and a 19-channel bolometer array, developed at the MPIfR, which is sensitive around 850 microns. In the last few years, the HHT has been used by several groups to perform astronomical research. The most notable result was the measurement of the CO(9--8) line in Orion at 1.037 THz with the Hot-Electron Bolometer -- the first radioastronomical observation above 1 THz from a ground-based telescope. Several galactic molecular line sources have been mapped in the CO(7--6) line at 806 GHz, and in two fine-structure lines of atomic carbon. A continuum map of the galactic center at 850 microns could be produced using the new 19-channel bolometer array. Even external galaxies, where

  2. Geometrizing configurations. Heinrich Hertz and his mathematical precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    A comparison between the methods used by Heinrich hertz and his mathematician precursors such as Liouville, Lipschitz and Darboux in order to apply differential geometry in mechanics......A comparison between the methods used by Heinrich hertz and his mathematician precursors such as Liouville, Lipschitz and Darboux in order to apply differential geometry in mechanics...

  3. The Creation of Scientific Effects Heinrich Hertz and Electric Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Buchwald, Jed Z

    1994-01-01

    This book is an attempt to reconstitute the tacit knowledge—the shared, unwritten assumptions, values, and understandings—that shapes the work of science. Jed Z. Buchwald uses as his focus the social and intellectual world of nineteenth-century German physics. Drawing on the lab notes, published papers, and unpublished manuscripts of Heinrich Hertz, Buchwald recreates Hertz's 1887 invention of a device that produced electromagnetic waves in wires. The invention itself was serendipitous and the device was quickly transformed, but Hertz's early experiments led to major innovations in electrodyna

  4. SUBMILLIMETER LIGHTCURVES OF ASTEROIDS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Submillimeter lightcurves of large asteroids Ceres, Davida, Io, Juno, Pallas, Vesta, and Victoria, observed at the Heinrich-Hertz Submillimeter Telescope from...

  5. [A historic case of Wegener's granulomatosis: the physicist who discovered the electromagnetic waves: Heinrich Hertz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    2005-06-01

    A diary and an extensive correspondence of Heinrich Hertz and his family provide a meticulous documentation of his life, made available by Albrecht Folsing in 1997 through a carefully investigated biography, which permit the conclusion that H. Hertz died of Wegener's granulomatosis, 45 years before this disease had been explored. WEGENER'S GRANULOMATOSIS: The symptoms of the granulomatosis, that was first described by Friedrich Wegener in 1936 and 1939 are presented in short with literal quotations of the author: It begins with a refractory cold that will last until the end, then follow involvement of the paranasal sinuses, ears, mucous lining of mouth and pharynx, slight fever, weakness, in the final phase dissemination with nephritis, septic fever, arthritis, myalgia, paralyses leading to total immobility, exitus. The etiology is not fully understood but probably based on immunoreaction. H. HERTZ: CURRICULUM VITAE: Born in Hamburg, Germany, in 1857: after secondary school academic training in physics at Dresden, Munic and Berlin. 1885 professor of physics in Karlsruhe, then starting in 1889 at Bonn. 1887/88 exploration of the electromagnetic waves, now the basis for all radio communication, and exploration of the photoelectric effect, the basis of solar techniques. Numerous highranking distinctions. H. HERTZ: The case history is presented in detail based on numerous literal quotations from personal letters and the diary. After a few banal affections involving the teeth and toes the systemic disease became manifest in summer 1892 with a refractory cold which remained the focus of treatment until death. Granulation tissue in the nose that was excised several times: no tuberculosis, no carcinoma. Otitis with purulent mastoiditis, in October 1892 mastoidectomy, persistent purulence. Early in 1893 diagnosis of nephritis. Extraction of a superior tooth, punturing of the maxillary sinus, then twice radical opening of the maxillary sinus. Painful ankylosis and paralyses

  6. A Matter of Matter or a Matter of Space? Heinrich Hertz's Image of Mass in his Prinzipien der Mechanik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    It is argued that Hertz introduced Massenteilchen in his Principles of Mechanics because they allowed him to deduce the line element of his differential geometric formalism......It is argued that Hertz introduced Massenteilchen in his Principles of Mechanics because they allowed him to deduce the line element of his differential geometric formalism...

  7. Reading Hertz's own dipole theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aničin, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the discoverer of radio waves, Heinrich Hertz, was the first man to apply Maxwell's electrodynamic theory to a problem in radio wave propagation. In this paper, we scrutinize his near-field lines of force using computers and his theory. In one of his four figures, a feature was found which was not to be obtained by computation. This feature, a self-intersecting line of force, more or less a figure of eight, appears strange to the eye. The clarity of the original work by H Hertz on electromagnetic waves should be of great value in both physics and engineering courses. This holds in particular for his Q function, almost completely forgotten today.

  8. Reading Hertz's own dipole theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicin, B A

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the discoverer of radio waves, Heinrich Hertz, was the first man to apply Maxwell's electrodynamic theory to a problem in radio wave propagation. In this paper, we scrutinize his near-field lines of force using computers and his theory. In one of his four figures, a feature was found which was not to be obtained by computation. This feature, a self-intersecting line of force, more or less a figure of eight, appears strange to the eye. The clarity of the original work by H Hertz on electromagnetic waves should be of great value in both physics and engineering courses. This holds in particular for his Q function, almost completely forgotten today

  9. Gustav Hertz in Berlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompe, R.

    1987-01-01

    A brief account of the life and work of the physicist Gustav Hertz (1887-1975) is given with regard to the Franck-Hertz experiment, work on isotope separation by diffusion, and activities as chairman of the council for the peaceful uses of atomic energy

  10. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Introduktion til juristen og homopioneren Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1824-1882) og hans fortælling "Manor" (1885)......Introduktion til juristen og homopioneren Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1824-1882) og hans fortælling "Manor" (1885)...

  11. Remembering Gustav Hertz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompe, R.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific achievements of Gustav Hertz are appreciated on the basis of personal memories. Emphasis is laid on the work of this strong personality with regard to industry- and technology-oriented research and as chairman of the 'Council for peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the GDR'. (author)

  12. Images and Conventions: Kantianism, empiricism, and conventionalism in Hertz's and Poincaré's philosophies of space and mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer kantianske, empiricistiske og konventionalistiske tendenser i Heinrich Hertz's Prinzipien der Mechanik (1894) og sammenligner dem med tilsvarende tendenser i Henri Poincaré's La science et l'hypothèse (1902). Derved belyses Poincaré's reaktion på kantianismen...

  13. 350 μm POLARIMETRY FROM THE CALTECH SUBMILLIMETER OBSERVATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Kirby, Larry; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Dowell, C. Darren; Davidson, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a summary of data obtained with the 350 μm polarimeter, Hertz, at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We give tabulated results and maps showing polarization vectors and intensity contours. The summary includes over 4300 individual measurements in 56 Galactic sources and two galaxies. Of these measurements, 2153 have P ≥ 3σ p statistical significance. The median polarization of the entire data set is 1.46%.

  14. Gustav-Hertz-Prize for CERN Physicist

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Klaus Blaum, of GSI Darmstadt and project leader of the ISOLTRAP experiment at CERN, will receive the 2004 Gustav-Hertz-Prize for his outstanding work on the mass determination of unstable atomic nuclei. Blaum extended the measuring capability of the ISOLTRAP experiment at the ISOLDE facility, which studies short-lived isotopes, by installing a source of carbon clusters. Using these carbon clusters as mass reference allows researchers to obtain higher-precision and absolute atomic mass measurements which are important to understand the weak interaction and the synthesis of chemical elements. The Gustav-Hertz-Prize is awarded to outstanding young physicists and is endowed with 7500 euro. It will be awarded at the Spring Conference of the German Physical Society in Munich on 24 March.

  15. Planetary submillimeter spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The aim is to develop a comprehensive observational and analytical program to study solar system physics and meterology by measuring molecular lines in the millimeter and submillimeter spectra of planets and comets. A primary objective is to conduct observations with new JPL and Caltech submillimeter receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A secondary objective is to continue to monitor the time variable planetary phenomena (e.g., Jupiter and Uranus) at centimeter wavelength using the NASA antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  16. Franck--Hertz experiment with higher excitation level measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of the higher levels of 6 3 P 2 and 6 1 P 1 of the mercury atom in the Franck--Hertz experiment has been introduced into the junior and senior laboratory course by using a homemade tetrode Franck--Hertz tube. The main structure of the tube is described. The optimum operating conditions are in the temperature range between 130 and 150 0 C and the collector currents are of the order of 10 -9 A. The additional observations of the famous Franck--Hertz experiment in the laboratory course will give the students more familiarity with the quantum behavior of atoms

  17. 3D anatomy of Heinrich Layer 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, D.; Zaazi, N.; Fagel, N.; Boone, M.; Cnudde, V.; Dewanckele, J.; Pirlet, H.; Rohl, U.; Blamart, D.; Henriet, J.-P.; Jacobs, P.; Houbrechts, H.; Duyck, P.; Swennen, R.

    2009-04-01

    Heinrich Layers are found in the North Atlantic Ocean as well-constrained markers of catastrophic iceberg surges from the Pan-Atlantic ice sheets during the last glacial cycle. Their physical and geochemical characteristics allow for relatively fast diagnostics using the state-of-the-art core scanners such as a Multi-Sensor Core Logger and an XRF core scanner. The nature of these characteristics are predominantly due to the source sediments of the ice-rafted debris (IRD) on the one hand (magnetic susceptibility, color, carbonate content) and the response of the palaeo-environment on the other hand (carbonate content, foraminiferal assemblage). However, changes in (gamma) bulk density of the sediment within a Heinrich Layer cannot solely be explained due to the higher content of IRD. Sediment cores in the Porcupine Seabight (West off Ireland) have shown the presence of Heinrich Events without the diagnostic changes in magnetic susceptibility (MS), suggesting a more drastic change in oceanography which could cause widespread diagenesis on the seabed during Heinrich Events. In order to better understand the physical behavior of a Heinrich Layer, 2 cores were studied taken from the northern Porcupine Seabight by R/V Marion Dufresne campaign MD123 in September 2001. More specifically HL2 was studied since it carries the most typical HL signature. The main anatomical information, with a resolution of 0.5 mm, was obtained by means of medical computed tomography of half-core sections of 50 cm length from the Ghent University Hospital. This information was used for detailed sampling for mineralogy, grainsize measurements and palaeoenvironmental analyses. On one core section, XRF core scanning was performed at a 0.5 cm interval. Higher-resolution information was obtained from five 8 cc subsamples which underwent µCT scanning and cold-cathode luminescence microscopy. The results of this unique approach show a rather surprising 3D view of a Heinrich Layer. As expected, the

  18. Infrared catastrophe averted by Hertz potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwanziger, D.

    1979-01-01

    A computational scheme for quantum electrodynamics is developed from first principles in which infrared divergences are not encountered. The gist of the method is that the photon propagator is properly -ig/sub munu/(k 2 + iepsilon) -1 (1/2k/sup sigma/partial/partialk/sup sigma/)/sub w/ln(-lambda -2 k 2 - iepsilon). Here lambda is a parameter which plays the role of the photon mass, but which cancels out of cross sections for any finite value (lambda → 0 is never taken). The subscript w means weak derivative, so a partial integration on k, with neglect of boundary terms, is always understood in Feynman integrals. This makes integrals converge which otherwise would be logarithmically divergent. For sufficiently convergent integrals the partial integration may be undone and the conventional value results because (1/2k/sup sigma/partial/partialk/sup sigma/)ln(-lambda -2 k 2 - iepsilon) = 1. It is shown that the above propagator is not merely an artificial device, but results if the vector potential A/sup μ/ is derived from a Hertz potential π/sup lambdamu/ = -π/sup mulambda/, A/sup μ/ = partial/sub μ/π/sup lambdamu/, which is a local field. The real-photon infrared divergences do not occur when the integral over real photons is obtained from the discontinuity in the k 0 plane of the above propagator. A contribution to the real-photon integral at strictly zero frequency, resembling a third polarization state of the photon, is isolated and evaluated explicitly. The S matrix and physical subspaces are defined

  19. Topography's crucial role in Heinrich Events

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, William H. G.; Valdes, Paul J.; Payne, Antony J.

    2014-01-01

    Heinrich Events are frequently promoted as examples of an abruptly forced climate change. Although the evidence for changes in the ice sheets, which cause these events, is clear, the pathway by which these changes can affect the climate is not. The most common explanation is that the melting icebergs released by the ice sheet cause a change in the ocean’s circulation. Here we propose that the change in the height of the ice sheet, which changes the atmospheric circulation, is just as importan...

  20. Demonstration of Submillimeter Astrophysics Technology at Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detector technology developments will determine the science product of future astrophysics missions and projects, and this is especially true at submillimeter...

  1. Johannes Heinrich Schultz and National Socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Jürgen; Schrempf, Matthias; Steger, Florian

    2008-01-01

    Johannes Heinrich Schultz (1884-1970) established the set of techniques known as "autogenic training." From 1936 until 1945 he worked as assistant director of the Göring Institute. His role during National Socialism has been underestimated in our opinion. We considered Schultz's academic publications and his "autobiography" from 1964. Schultz publicly advocated compulsory sterilization as well as the "annihilation of life unworthy of life" and developed a diagnostic scheme which distinguished between the neurotic/curable and the hereditary/ incurable. In fact, this classification was then employed to decide between life and death. In order to justify the "New German Psychotherapy" alongside eugenic psychiatry, Schultz carried out degrading and inhuman "treatments" of homosexual prisoners of concentration camps who were in mortal danger. This study was based on written documents. We were not able to interview contemporary witnesses. By advocating compulsory sterilization and the "annihilation of life unworthy of life" and by the abuse of homosexuals as research objects Schultz violated fundamental ethical principles of psychiatry.

  2. Heinrich Dieter Holland (1927-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turekian, Karl K.

    2012-08-01

    Heinrich Dieter "Dick" Holland, who died on 21 May 2012, was responsible for major advances across several fields of geochemistry. He was born on 27 May 1927 and died just short of his 85th birthday. How Dick became a geochemist is an interesting story in itself. I first met Dick when we shared an office as graduate students at Columbia University in New York. He had attended Princeton University in New Jersey and graduated in 1946 with a chemistry major. He had arrived in the United States with his family from Germany in 1940. The family was of Jewish origin, and although Dick and his relatives were not strict practitioners, their fate in Hitler's Germany, dictated by the family's ancestry, would have been undesirable. Dick and his brother first went to England in 1939 to escape the future horrors that were sure to await them if they had remained in Germany. After their parents escaped to the Dominican Republic, Dick and his brother joined them there. With the help of friends, the family came to the United States from the Dominican Republic in 1940 (it was not unusual for immigrants to first come to a landing spot in the western hemisphere prior to admission to the United States).

  3. LDR: A submillimeter great observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert

    1990-12-01

    The Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), a high Earth orbit free flying 10 to 20 m diameter deployable telescope, is described. The LDR is intended for use throughout the submillimeter band, using imaging receivers with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution. Its mission is to produce pictures of line emission regions in the solar neighborhood, in nearby galaxies and in objects at the edge of the known galaxy distribution. It is predicted to be an ideal instrument for exploring the first galaxies and protogalaxies as the submillimeter cooling lines should light up as soon as metals form.

  4. The Floral Symbol in the Poetry of Heinrich Heine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chepelyk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted the plant symbolics which became the inalienable constituent of the original creation of Heinrich Heine. The distinctive traits of the artist’s lyric poetry are floral images, which are able to reflect the psychology of the human soul in the correlation with the spiritual substance – the divine nature. The immersion of Heinrich Heine in the world of the plants was conducived to the activation of the special emotional and psychological loading with the purpose of the comprehension of the internal experience of the lyric subject, represented in the sensory perceptible figurative, sound and visual landscapes.

  5. Submillimeter Array (SMA) Newsletter August 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Blundell, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Submillimeter Array (SMA) Newsletter August 2011 Blundell, Raymond Submillimeter Array Newsletter | Number 12 | August 2011 CONTENTS 1 From the Director SCIENCE HIGHLIGHTS: 2 Faint Submillimeter Sources behind Massive Lensing Clusters 5 Millimeter Imaging of the β Pictoris Debris Disk: Evidence for a Planetesimal Belt 7 Physical Properties of the Circumnuclear Starburst Ring in the Barred Galaxy NGC1097 TECHNICAL HIGHLIGHTS: 9 ...

  6. Avati mälestuskivi Heinrich Marga sünnikohas / Peep Pillak ; Peeter Margna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    1. oktoobril 2008 avati mälestuskivi Heinrich Margale (1. oktoober 1911 - 2. august 2004) Põlvamaal Kõlleste vallas Ihamaru külas Otsa talus. Heinrich Mark õppis Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonnas aastatel 1933-1938. Lisatud Peeter Margna sõnavõtt Heinrich Marga mälestuskivi avamisel

  7. Vabariigi president ja vabariigi valitsus eksiilis 1988-1992 / Heinrich Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Heinrich, 1911-2004

    1997-01-01

    Lisad: Eesti eksiilvalitsuse deklaratsioon Eesti Vabariigi riikliku iseseisvuse taastamise puhul ; Heinrich Marki kiri Endel Lippmaale 31. märtsist 1992 põhiseaduse küsimuses ; Eesti Vabariigi Valitsuse eksiilis deklaratsioon tegevuse lõpetamise kohta ; Heinrich Marki ametist loobumise käskkiri ning Lennart Meri auaadress Heinrich Markile

  8. Submillimeter heterodyne arrays for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güsten, R.; Baryshev, A.; Bell, A.; Belloche, A.; Graf, U.; Hafok, H.; Heyminck, S.; Hochgürtel, S.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Kasemann, C.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Korn, A.; Krämer, I.; Leinz, C.; Lundgren, A.; Menten, K. M.; Meyer, K.; Muders, D.; Pacek, F.; Rabanus, D.; Schäfer, F.; Schilke, P.; Schneider, G.; Stutzki, J.; Wieching, G.; Wunsch, A.; Wyrowski, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on developments of submillimeter heterodyne arrays for high resolution spectroscopy with APEX. Shortly, we will operate state-of-the-art instruments in all major atmospheric windows accessible from Llano de Chajnantor. CHAMP+, a dual-color 2×7 element heterodyne array for operation in the

  9. Heinrich Schenker, Walter Dahms, and the Music of the South

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koslovsky, John

    2017-01-01

    In recent years scholars have made great strides in contextualizing the theories of Heinrich Schenker (18681935) within the politics and culture of the interwar period. Many of Schenker’s closest pupils and disciples have now also come under investigation. Few present as bewildering a story as

  10. Nobel prize-winner Heinrich Rohrer visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The Nobel prize-winner Heinrich Rohrer met young scientists on a recent visit to the Laboratory. From left to right: Xavier Gréhant (CERN Openlab), Ewa Stanecka (ATLAS), Magda Kowalska (ISOLDE), Heinrich Rohrer, Stéphanie Beauceron (CMS) and Ana Gago Da Silva (UNOSAT).Heinrich Rohrer, who shared the 1986 Nobel prize for physics with Gerd Binnig for the design of the scanning tunnelling microscope, visited CERN on 25 June. Welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, he visited the ATLAS cavern and control room, the Computer Centre, the Unosat project, the Antimatter Decelerator and ISOLDE. At the end of his visit, he voiced his admiration for CERN and its personnel. As a renowned Nobel prize-winner Heinrich Rohrer has the opportunity to pass on his experience and enthusiasm to young scientists. During the evening meal, at which he met five young physicists and computer scientists, who were delighted with the chance to talk to him, he stressed the importance for re...

  11. Gallasovský hofmistr Johann Heinrich Dienebier (1677 - 1748)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krummholz, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 9 (2011), s. 375-395 ISSN 1802-2502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Johann Heinrich Dienebier * 18th century * Johann Wenzel Gallas * baroque architecture * Prague Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture , Cultural Heritage

  12. Planar Submillimeter-Wave Mixer Technology with Integrated Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John J.; Lee, Choonsup; lombart, Muria L.; Thomas, Betrand

    2010-01-01

    High-performance mixers at terahertz frequencies require good matching between the coupling circuits such as antennas and local oscillators and the diode embedding impedance. With the availability of amplifiers at submillimeter wavelengths and the need to have multi-pixel imagers and cameras, planar mixer architecture is required to have an integrated system. An integrated mixer with planar antenna provides a compact and optimized design at terahertz frequencies. Moreover, it leads to a planar architecture that enables efficient interconnect with submillimeter-wave amplifiers. In this architecture, a planar slot antenna is designed on a thin gallium arsenide (GaAs) membrane in such a way that the beam on either side of the membrane is symmetric and has good beam profile with high coupling efficiency. A coplanar waveguide (CPW) coupled Schottky diode mixer is designed and integrated with the antenna. In this architecture, the local oscillator (LO) is coupled through one side of the antenna and the RF from the other side, without requiring any beam sp litters or diplexers. The intermediate frequency (IF) comes out on a 50-ohm CPW line at the edge of the mixer chip, which can be wire-bonded to external circuits. This unique terahertz mixer has an integrated single planar antenna for coupling both the radio frequency (RF) input and LO injection without any diplexer or beamsplitters. The design utilizes novel planar slot antenna architecture on a 3- mthick GaAs membrane. This work is required to enable future multi-pixel terahertz receivers for astrophysics missions, and lightweight and compact receivers for planetary missions to the outer planets in our solar system. Also, this technology can be used in tera hertz radar imaging applications as well as for testing of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs).

  13. The Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.N.; Baars, J.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    To exploit the potential of submillimeter astronomy, the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) will be located at an altitude of 3178 meters on Emerald Peak 75 miles northeast of Tucson in Southern Arizona. The instrument is an altazimuth mounted f/13.8 Cassegrain homology telescope with two Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. It will have diffraction limited performance at a wavelength of 300 microns and an operating overall figure accuracy of 15 microns rms. An important feature of the SMT is the construction of the primary and secondary reflectors out of aluminum-core CFRP face sheet sandwich panels, and the reflector backup structure and secondary support out of CFRP structural elements. This modern technology provides both a means for reaching the required precision of the SMT for both night and day operation (basically because of the low coefficient of thermal expansion and high strength-to-weight ratio of CFRP) and a potential route for the realization of lightweight telescopes of even greater accuracy in the future. The SMT will be the highest accuracy radio telescope ever built (at least a factor of 2 more accurate than existing telescopes). In addition, the SMT will be the first 10 m-class submillimeter telescope with a surface designed for efficient measurements at the important 350 microns wavelength atmospheric window. 9 refs

  14. Heinrich Heine e Castro Alves: diversidade na convergência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloá Heise

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Heinrich Heine und Castro Alves haben Gedichte unter dem gleichen Titel geschrieben: Das Sklavenschiff und O Navio Negreiro. Das bedeutet aber nicht, daß Castro Alves ein Plagiat des Gedichts Heines, des Verfassers der ersten Quelle, begangen hat. Trotz der gleichen Thematik in beiden Fällen kann man durch die Analyse der beiden Gedichte die deutliche Divergenz in der Konvergenz belegen.

  15. Dynamic vegetation modeling of tropical biomes during Heinrich events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handiani, Dian Noor; Paul, André; Dupont, Lydie M.

    2010-05-01

    Heinrich events are thought to be associated with a slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), which in turn would lead to a cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean and a warming of the South Atlantic Ocean (the "bipolar seesaw" hypothesis). The accompanying abrupt climate changes occurred not only in the ocean but also on the continents. Changes were strongest in the Northern Hemisphere but were registered in the tropics as well. Pollen data from Angola and Brazil showed that climate changes during Heinrich events affected vegetation patterns very differently in eastern South America and western Africa. To understand the differential response in the terrestrial tropics, we studied the vegetation changes during Heinrich events by using a dynamic global vegetation model (TRIFFID) as part of the University of Victoria (UVic) Earth System-Climate Model (ESCM). The model results show a bipolar seesaw pattern in temperature and precipitation during a near-collapse of the AMOC. The succession in plant-functional types (PFTs) showed changes from forest to shrubs to desert, including spreading desert in northwest Africa, retreating broadleaf trees in West Africa and northern South America, but advancing broadleaf trees in Brazil. The pattern is explained by a southward shift of the tropical rainbelt resulting in a strong decrease in precipitation over northwest and West Africa as well as in northern South America, but an increase in precipitation in eastern Brazil. To facilitate the comparison between modeled vegetation results with pollen data, we diagnosed the distribution of biomes from the PFT coverage and the simulated model climate. The biome distribution was computed for Heinrich event 1 and the Last Glacial Maximum as well as for pre-industrial conditions. We used a classification of biomes in terms of "mega-biomes", which were defined following a scheme originally proposed by BIOME 6000 (v 4.2). The biome distribution of the Sahel region

  16. Solar Observations at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, P.

    We review earlier to recent observational evidences and theoretical motivations leading to a renewed interest to observe flares in the submillimeter (submm) - infrared (IR) range of wavelengths. We describe the new solar dedicated submillimeter wave telescope which began operations at El Leoncito in the Argentina Andes: the SST project. It consists of focal plane arrays of two 405 GHz and four 212 GHz radiometers placed in a 1.5-m radome-enclosed Cassegrain antenna, operating simultaneously with one millisecond time resolution. The first solar events analyzed exhibited the onset of rapid submm-wave spikes (100-300 ms), well associated to other flare manifestations, especially at X-rays. The spikes positions were found scattered over the flaring source by tens of arcseconds. For one event an excellent association was found between the gamma-ray emission time profile and the rate of occurrence of submm-wave rapid spikes. The preliminary results favour the idea that bulk burst emissions are a response to numerous fast energetic injections, discrete in time, produced at different spatial positions over the flaring region. Coronal mass ejections were associated to the events studied. Their trajectories extrapolated to the solar surface appear to correspond to the onset time of the submm-wave spikes, which might represent an early signature of the CME's initial acceleration process.

  17. Heinrich von Wlislocki in the memories of his contemporaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Procop

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents Heinrich von Wlislocki – a folklorist, literary historian, linguist and educator, wide ly known in the scientific circles of Europe of the late XIX century, as one of the first XIX century European researcher of the gypsies – in the memories of his contemporaries. He was a Doctor of Philosophy, one of those whom his colleagues called a “friend of the Gypsies”, he went to wander with the camp of Transylvanian gypsies to collect field material directly in their midst. As a result, about 80 papers were published in selected publications, as well as in well-known scientific journals in Europe. Most often, his publications could be seen in the Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, of which he was a member. Being a contemporary of George Henry Borrow (1803–1881, Alexander Gheorghe Paspati (1814–1891, Charles Godfrey Leland (1824–1903, Francis Hindes Grum (1851–1902, Anton Herrmann (1851–1926, Hans Ferdinand Helmolt (1865–1929, Heinrich von Wlislocki (1856–1907 was one of the few folklorists and connoisseurs of Gypsy life and culture of the XIX century. The latter completely immersed themselves in the life of the Gypsy, mastering for the first time the ethnographic method of included observation. It was a heroic period of studying folklore in Europe, when dedicated scientists created a folkloric field of research from the scratch. 110 years passed since the death of Heinrich von Wlislocki but this did not erase his name from the historical memory, folklorist researchers still refer to his works, including them in scientific circulation.

  18. TeraHertz Time Domain Spectroscopy of Astrophysical Analog Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Geoffrey

    The section of the electromagnetic spectrum extending roughly from wavelengths of 3 millimeters to 30 microns is commonly known as the far-infrared or TeraHertz (THz) region. It contains the great majority of the photons emitted by the universe, and THz observations of molecules and dust are able penetrate deeply into molecular clouds, thus revealing the full history of star and planet formation. Accordingly, the successful deployments of the Herschel and SOFIA observatories, and the emerging capabilities of ALMA, are both revolutionizing our understanding of THz astrophysics and placing stringent demands on the generation of accurate laboratory data on the relevant gas phase and solid state materials detected. With APRA support, we have constructed a combined high bandwidth and high spectral resolution femtosecond THz Time Domain Spectroscopy (THz TDS) system and an FT-IR spectrometer, and coupled these instruments to a high vacuum chamber and cryostat and to gas phase cells including a molecular beam system. We have investigated solid materials from room temperature to 10 K, and can examine both refractory matter such as silicates and molecular ices. For the latter, we have demonstrated that the THz bands observed are uniquely sensitive to both the molecular structure of the ice and its thermal history, and thus that THz observations can provide novel insight into the dominant condensable materials in dense, cold regions. In the gas phase we can record doppler-limited data over at least a decade in bandwidth. While quite capable, the high vacuum cryostat can only study thick samples, especially ices, due to the fairly rapid adsorption of gases onto surfaces at low temperature under such conditions. It is therefore not possible to examine highly layered/structured samples or reactive species. We therefore propose here to upgrade the chamber/cryostat to ultrahigh vacuum, and implement additional sample preparation and characterization tools. With such modifications

  19. A Sub-Hertz, Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerardo, G.; Farr, William H.; Sannibale, Virginio

    2011-01-01

    One of the major technical problems deep-space optical communication (DSOC) systems need to solve is the isolation of the optical terminal from vibrations produced by the spacecraft navigational control system and by the moving parts of onboard instruments. Even under these vibration perturbations, the DSOC transceivers (telescopes) need to be pointed l000 fs of times more accurately than an RF communication system (parabolic antennas). Mechanical resonators have been extensively used to provide vibration isolation for groundbased, airborne, and spaceborne payloads. The effectiveness of these isolation systems is determined mainly by the ability of designing a mechanical oscillator with the lowest possible resonant frequency. The Low-Frequency Vibration Isolation Platform (LFVIP), developed during this effort, aims to reduce the resonant frequency of the mechanical oscillators into the sub-Hertz region in order to maximize the passive isolation afforded by the 40 dB/decade roll-off response of the resonator. The LFVIP also provides tip/tilt functionality for acquisition and tracking of a beacon signal. An active control system is used for platform positioning and for dampening of the mechanical oscillator. The basic idea in the design of the isolation platform is to use a passive isolation strut with an approximately equal to 100-mHz resonance frequency. This will extend the isolation range to lower frequencies. The harmonic oscillator is a second-order lowpass filter for mechanical disturbances. The resonance quality depends on the dissipation mechanisms, which are mainly hysteretic because of the low resonant frequency and the absence of any viscous medium. The LFVIP system is configured using the well-established Stewart Platform, which consists of a top platform connected to a base with six extensible struts (see figure). The struts are attached to the base and to the platform via universal joints, which permit the extension and contraction of the struts. The

  20. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Sukanya; Magnelli, Benjamin; Lutz, Dieter; Berta, Stefano; Popesso, Paola; McKee, Christopher F.; Pozzi, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    We use the photometric redshift method of Chakrabarti and McKee to infer photometric redshifts of submillimeter galaxies with far-IR (FIR) Herschel data obtained as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe program. For the sample with spectroscopic redshifts, we demonstrate the validity of this method over a large range of redshifts (4 ∼> z ∼> 0.3) and luminosities, finding an average accuracy in (1 + z phot )/(1 + z spec ) of 10%. Thus, this method is more accurate than other FIR photometric redshift methods. This method is different from typical FIR photometric methods in deriving redshifts from the light-to-gas mass (L/M) ratio of infrared-bright galaxies inferred from the FIR spectral energy distribution, rather than dust temperatures. To assess the dependence of our photometric redshift method on the data in this sample, we contrast the average accuracy of our method when we use PACS data, versus SPIRE data, versus both PACS and SPIRE data. We also discuss potential selection effects that may affect the Herschel sample. Once the redshift is derived, we can determine physical properties of infrared-bright galaxies, including the temperature variation within the dust envelope, luminosity, mass, and surface density. We use data from the GOODS-S field to calculate the star formation rate density (SFRD) of submillimeter bright sources detected by AzTEC and PACS. The AzTEC-PACS sources, which have a threshold 850 μm flux ∼> 5 mJy, contribute 15% of the SFRD from all ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L IR ∼> 10 12 L ☉ ), and 3% of the total SFRD at z ∼ 2

  1. Heinrich event 4 characterized by terrestrial proxies in southwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. López-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heinrich event 4 (H4 is well documented in the North Atlantic Ocean as a cooling event that occurred between 39 and 40 Ka. Deep-sea cores around the Iberian Peninsula coastline have been analysed to characterize the H4 event, but there are no data on the terrestrial response to this event. Here we present for the first time an analysis of terrestrial proxies for characterizing the H4 event, using the small-vertebrate assemblage (comprising small mammals, squamates and amphibians from Terrassa Riera dels Canyars, an archaeo-palaeontological deposit located on the seaboard of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. This assemblage shows that the H4 event is characterized in northeastern Iberia by harsher and drier terrestrial conditions than today. Our results were compared with other proxies such as pollen, charcoal, phytolith, avifauna and large-mammal data available for this site, as well as with the general H4 event fluctuations and with other sites where H4 and the previous and subsequent Heinrich events (H5 and H3 have been detected in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of the Iberian Peninsula. We conclude that the terrestrial proxies follow the same patterns as the climatic and environmental conditions detected by the deep-sea cores at the Iberian margins.

  2. Report of the submillimeter splinter group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A. I.; Lequeux, J.

    1992-12-01

    The aim of the submillimeter splinter group of the LIST (Lunar Interferometry Study Team) was to examine the scientific and technical aspects of a submillimeter interferometer with an emphasis on heterodyne detection. The main elements of the scientific logic that lead to the conclusions that a heterodyne submillimeter array should have a collecting area of at order 1000 sq m are summarized. This conclusion is based on sensitivity constraints and the following points: anything that can be done from the ground, will be; an instrument as complex and expensive as a large submillimeter interferometer must be capable of significant extragalactic observations; and no matter what the future scientific trends are, looking at the main coolants will always be important. It is clear that an instrument of this size is several steps past the next generation of spaceborne observatories.

  3. "Heinrich events" (& sediments): A history of terminology and recommendations for future usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John T.; Voelker, Antje H. L.

    2018-05-01

    We document the history of terms used to describe Heinrich (H-) layers and events and which mark major glaciological iceberg discharge events in the North Atlantic. We argue that the usage "Heinrich layer," "Heinrich zone", or "Heinrich event" should be restricted to only those sediments that can be ascribed to an origin from the Hudson Strait Ice Stream and the Laurentide Ice Sheet. We also argue that the commonplace understanding of these events--as dominated by massive iceberg discharges --fails to include the earlier well-documented evidence that these events were also massive meltwater events linked to deposition along the North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC) in the Labrador Sea. We make five recommendations for future usage of "Heinrich events," which include: restricting the usage to those events that can be mineralogically/geochemically linked to Hudson Strait; abandoning the term "Heinrich stadial"; and promote local terminology for "ice rafted events" that may be correlated, or not, with Hudson Strait Heinrich events based on calibrated radiocarbon dates or other appropriate chronological markers.

  4. Does the Hertz solution estimate pressures correctly in diamond indentor experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, M. S.; Dunn, K. J.

    1986-05-01

    The Hertz solution has been widely used to estimate pressures in a spherical indentor against flat matrix type high pressure experiments. It is usually assumed that the pressure generated when compressing a sample between the indentor and substrate is the same as that generated when compressing an indentor against a flat surface with no sample present. A non-linear finite element analysis of this problem has shown that the situation is far more complex. The actual peak pressure in the sample is highly dependent on plastic deformation and the change in material properties due to hydrostatic pressure. An analysis with two material models is presented and compared with the Hertz solution.

  5. Karl Heinrich Ulrichs: First Theorist of Erotic Age Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Diederik F

    2017-01-01

    The nomination of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895) as the first theorist of homosexuality may be placed in the oblique light of his eligibility for the nomination as the first theorist of erotic age orientation. In Ulrichs's pamphlets, "man-manly" homosexuality emerged as a particular age orientation, with a subsequent typological breakdown that, importantly, blended gender orientation and age orientation. Into the early 20th century, erotic age orientation remained bound up with the classification and emancipation of what here was demarcated as Urningsliebe. Ulrichs's pioneering and shifting comments on age eventually fed into his legal model of consenting adults in private. They also provide a starting point for the historical understanding of the trope of "grooming pedophile" as it, arguably, crossfaded with that of the "seducing homosexual" after the latter's depsychiatricization across the Western world.

  6. Discovery of uranium by Martin Heinrich Klaproth 200 years ago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettmann, W

    1989-10-01

    200 years ago - on September 24, 1789 - the pharmacist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) stated his discovery of uranium in the hearing of the Royal Prussian Academy of sciences in Berlin. This jubilee gave occasion to appreciate that discovery. The first part of the paper gives a brief bibliography of the researcher. His course of life from a pharmaceutical apprentice to the leading analytical chemist of his epoch is outlined; his performance and discoveries, in particular in the field of mineral chemistry, are appreciated. The second part deals with the discovery of uranium and his lifelong pursuit of the new metal in more detail. After briefly appreciating Klaproth's personality as a researcher, finally the importance is indicated that uranium meanwhile has gained as a source of nuclear power for the human race. (author).

  7. New submillimeter detectors and antenna arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, H.R.; Reible, S.A.; Sollner, G.; Parker, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary investigation has been made into the use of SIS (superconductor--insulator--superconductor) diodes for possible roles in sub-millimeter imaging systems. That is, extremely low noise, millimeter wave detectors and mixers have recently been reported which depend on single-particle tunnelling between two superconducting films separated by a thin oxide layer. The combination of excellent low-frequency sensitivity and well-developed fabrication technology make the SIS mixers particularly attractive for the systems using antenna structures and arrays in millimeter and submillimeter regions. The SIS diodes of Nb-Nb 2 O 5 -Pb showed a strong video response to the radiation which could be differentiated from the regular Josephson effect since it was not affected by a magnetic field. In exploring the three-terminal devices for possible detector and source applications in submillimeter region, the authors first determined that millimeter and submillimeter radiation could be effectively coupled to and detected in high-frequency FETs. Video response was readily obtained at 800 GHz, and carcinotron radiation at 350 GHz was mixed with the 5th harmonic of a 70 GHz klystron, producing over 45 db signal-to-noise ratio in the intermediate frequency. Since FET can function as a three-terminal oscillator simultaneously detecting submillimeter radiation or optical beats, it has interesting possibility, such as self-oscillating mixers or subharmonic local oscillators. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Relation Between Hertz Stress-Life Exponent, Ball-Race Conformity, and Ball Bearing Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.; Root, Lawrence E.

    2008-01-01

    ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards based on Lundberg-Palmgren bearing life theory are normalized for ball bearings having inner- and outerrace conformities of 52 percent (0.52) and made from pre-1940 bearing steel. The Lundberg-Palmgren theory incorporates an inverse 9th power relation between Hertz stress and fatigue life for ball bearings. The effect of race conformity on ball set life independent of race life is not incorporated into the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. In addition, post-1960 vacuum-processed bearing steel exhibits a 12th power relation between Hertz stress and life. The work reported extends the previous work of Zaretsky, Poplawski, and Root to calculate changes in bearing life--that includes the life of the ball set--caused by race conformity, Hertz stress-life exponent, ball bearing type and bearing series. The bearing fatigue life in actual application will usually be equal to or greater than that calculated using the ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards that incorporate the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. The relative fatigue life of an individual race is more sensitive to changes in race conformity for Hertz stress-life exponent n of 12 than where n = 9. However, when the effects are combined to predict actual bearing life for a specified set of conditions and bearing geometry, the predicted life of the bearing will be greater for a value of n = 12 than n = 9.

  9. Deficit or creativity: Cesare Lombroso, Robert Hertz, and the meanings of left-handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Howard I

    2013-01-01

    In the first decade of the twentieth century two influential researchers attempted to explain the origin and impact of left-handedness in human history. The first, the Turin physician Cesare Lombroso, often referred to as the father of modern criminology, was nearing the end of his long distinguished career. Lombroso tied left-handedness to criminality, insanity, and feeble mindedness. According to Lombroso, these groups shared biological regressions to primitive mentalities that could not be reversed by education or training. The second, French sociologist Robert Hertz, was at the beginning of a career cut short by his death in combat during the First World War. Hertz challenged Lombroso's claims, insisting that the predominance of right-handedness, whatever its biological substrate, was ultimately a cultural artefact driven by a primitive human urge to make sense of the world by dividing it into binary oppositions in which the right was viewed as sacred and the left as profane. Ending discrimination against left-handedness would, according to Hertz, unleash access to both hands and thus both hemispheres. The results, he insisted, would allow repressed talents and creativity to flourish. The conflicting views of Lombroso and Hertz have informed investigations of the causes and consequences of left-handedness until today. While the language of the debate has been reframed in current scientific discourses, left-handedness continues to be portrayed in the contradictory ways first elaborated by Lombroso and Hertz more than a century ago as either the cause of a variety of learning disabilities or as the key that can unlock creativity and talent. The debate also exposed the extent to which other cultural concerns, particularly anti-Semitism, informed theories of handedness.

  10. Submillimeter Confocal Imaging Active Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, John; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cwik, Thomas; Rowell, Mark; Hacker, John

    2009-01-01

    The term submillimeter confocal imaging active module (SCIAM) denotes a proposed airborne coherent imaging radar system that would be suitable for use in reconnaissance, surveillance, and navigation. The development of the SCIAM would include utilization and extension of recent achievements in monolithic microwave integrated circuits capable of operating at frequencies up to and beyond a nominal radio frequency of 340 GHz. Because the SCIAM would be primarily down-looking (in contradistinction to primarily side-looking), it could be useful for imaging shorter objects located between taller ones (for example, objects on streets between buildings). The SCIAM would utilize a confocal geometry to obtain high cross-track resolution, and would be amenable to synthetic-aperture processing of its output to obtain high along-track resolution. The SCIAM (see figure) would include multiple (two in the initial version) antenna apertures, separated from each other by a cross-track baseline of suitable length (e.g., 1.6 m). These apertures would both transmit the illuminating radar pulses and receive the returns. A common reference oscillator would generate a signal at a controllable frequency of (340 GHz + (Delta)f)/N, where (Delta)f is an instantaneous swept frequency difference and N is an integer. The output of this oscillator would be fed to a frequency- multiplier-and-power-amplifier module to obtain a signal, at 340 GHz + (Delta)f, that would serve as both the carrier signal for generating the transmitted pulses and a local-oscillator (LO) signal for a receiver associated with each antenna aperture. Because duplexers in the form of circulators or transmit/receive (T/R) switches would be lossy and extremely difficult to implement, the antenna apertures would be designed according to a spatial-diplexing scheme, in which signals would be coupled in and out via separate, adjacent transmitting and receiving feed horns. This scheme would cause the transmitted and received beams

  11. Insener Heinrich Laul ja Eesti XX sajandi ehituskultuur / Maris Suits, Carl-Dag Lige

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suits, Maris

    2010-01-01

    Näitus "Heinrich Laul 100" Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis 10. sept.-4. okt. 2010. Näituse koostajad: Maris Suits (Eesti Kunstiakadeemia), Carl-Dag Lige (Helsingi Ülikool), Milvi Vahtra (TTÜ), näituse korraldajad: Signe Jantson ja Karl Õiger (TTÜ). Ehitusinsenerist ja -teadlasest Heinrich Laulust, tema tegevusest, seostest August Komendandiga. Koorikute koolkonnast ja teaduspõhisest ehituspraktikast. Tallinna laululavast. Seminarist ja H. Laulu artiklikogumikust

  12. Submillimeter wave ESR of copper-oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hitoshi; Motokawa, Mitsuhiro

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of high T c superconductors the magnetism of various copper-oxides has attracted much interest. Especially the magnetism of strong spin correlation systems in various CuO 4 networks is of great interest because it is well known that the superconductivity is occurring in the CuO 2 plane of the high T c superconductors. Here the authors will show some of their work done on copper-oxides by submillimeter wave ESR. The submillimeter wave ESR can provide the frequency region of 90 ∼ 3,100 GHz and the pulse magnetic field up to 30T

  13. Dr. Otto Heinrich Warburg—Survivor of Ethical Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Weisz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883–1970; not to be confused with the Zionist of the same name was a member of an illustrious Jewish family, known for some five centuries. From humble beginnings, the family became prominent in the world for their contributions to all aspects of society. The son of a German mother and a Jewish (converted father, Otto H. Warburg became a major contributor to medical science in the field of cancer research. Considered for Nobel Prize more than once, he finally received it in 1931 for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the cellular respiratory enzyme. Warburg’s personality was controversial: he was intolerant of opposing scientific views yet tolerant toward Nazi abuses. Accused of collaboration under the Nazi regime, Otto H. Warburg was nevertheless readmitted to the global scientific community after World War II. His contribution to cancer research remains influential to this day and has been superseded by discoveries that have built upon his work.

  14. Development and Expansion of the Langer Heinrich Operation in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, D., E-mail: dave.marsh@paladinenergy.com.au [Paladin Energy Ltd, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    The Langer Heinrich Uranium Mine (LHU) is located in the west of central Namibia, Southern Africa. It lies 80 km east of the major deepwater port at Walvis Bay and the coastal town of Swakopmund. Designed to produce 2.6Mlb/a U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, LHU was the first conventional mining and processing operation to be brought into production in over a decade. The construction and staged commissioning of the project was successfully achieved on 28 December 2006 and the mine was officially opened by the President of Namibia on the 14{sup th} March 2007. The ramp up to nameplate production was hampered early on by some mechanical and process issues all of which required technical solutions to be developed. With these in place, production now exceeds nameplate and lessons learnt have been incorporated into an expansion to 3.7 Mlb/a currently nearing completion. Further expansion options are also being evaluated and a number of innovative flowsheet developments are under consideration, driven by a recent, large increase in the proven reserves. This paper tracks the development of the LHU operation focusing largely on the metallurgical processes employed, some lessons learnt and some considerations for the future. (author)

  15. Increased Amazon freshwater discharge during late Heinrich Stadial 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellari, Stefano; Chiessi, Cristiano Mazur; Kuhnert, Henning; Häggi, Christoph; da Costa Portilho-Ramos, Rodrigo; Zeng, Jing-Ying; Zhang, Yancheng; Schefuß, Enno; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Hefter, Jens; Alexandre, Felipe; Sampaio, Gilvan; Mulitza, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    The temporal succession of changes in Amazonian hydroclimate during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) (ca. 18-14.7 cal ka BP) is currently poorly resolved. Here we present HS1 records based on isotope, inorganic and organic geochemistry from a marine sediment core influenced by the Amazon River discharge. Our records offer a detailed reconstruction of the changes in Amazonian hydroclimate during HS1, integrated over the basin. We reconstructed surface water hydrography using stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O) and Mg/Ca-derived paleotemperatures from the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber, as well as salinity changes based on stable hydrogen isotope (δD) of palmitic acid. We also analyzed branched and isoprenoid tetraether concentrations, and compared them to existing bulk sediment ln(Fe/Ca) data and vegetation reconstruction based on stable carbon isotopes from n-alkanes, in order to understand the relationship between continental precipitation, vegetation and sediment production. Our results indicate a two-phased HS1 (HS1a and HS1b). During HS1a (18-16.9 cal ka BP), a first sudden increase of sea surface temperatures (SST) in the western equatorial Atlantic correlated with the slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and the associated southern hemisphere warming phase of the bipolar seesaw. This phase was also characterized by an increased delivery of terrestrial material. During HS1b (16.9-14.8 cal ka BP), a decrease in terrestrial input was, however, associated with a marked decline of seawater δ18O and palmitic acid δD. Both isotopic proxies independently indicate a drop in sea surface salinity (SSS). A number of records under the influence of the North Brazil Current, in contrast, indicate increases in SST and SSS resulting from a weakened AMOC during HS1. Our records thus suggest that the expected increase in SSS due to the AMOC slowdown was overridden by a two-phased positive precipitation anomaly in Amazonian hydroclimate.

  16. The harmonic oscillator in the forceless mechanics of Hertz and in the Riemannian space-time geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, L.

    1987-10-01

    The forceless mechanics of Hertz is a reformulation of the classical mechanics in a curved configuration space. The relationship between the forceless mechanics and the general relativity theory which uses curved Riemann spaces as well is investigated on the simple example of the harmonic oscillator. The mathematical similarities and differences and the different interpretations of similar formulas are discussed. Some formal constants of the Hertz mechanics have got concrete physical meanings in the general relativity. (D.Gy.)

  17. Enhanced Saharan dust input to the Levant during Heinrich stadials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfstein, Adi; Goldstein, Steven L.; Stein, Mordechai

    2018-04-01

    The history of dust transport to the Levant during the last glacial period is reconstructed using the isotope ratios of Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf in sediments of Lake Lisan, the last glacial Dead Sea. Exposed marginal sections of the Lisan Formation were sampled near Masada, the Perazim Valley and from a core drilled at the deep floor of the modern lake. Bulk samples and size fractions display unique isotopic fingerprints: the finest detritus fraction (<5 μm) displays higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower εNd values (0.710-0.713 and -7.0 to -9.8, respectively) relative to the coarser fractions (5-20 μm and <20 μm; 0.708-0.710 and -3.4 to -8.3) and the bulk detritus samples (0.709-0.711 and -6 to -7.5). Similarly, the 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios (18.26-19.02, 15.634-15.68, and 38.25-38.82, respectively) are systematically higher in the finest detritus fraction relative to corresponding coarser fractions and bulk samples. The 87Sr/86Sr and εNd values of the finest fraction correspond with those of atmospheric dust originating from the Sahara Desert, while those of the coarse fractions are similar to loess deposits exposed in the Sinai and Negev Deserts. Pronounced excursions in the Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios toward more Sahara-like values coincide with the Heinrich (H) stadials 6, 5 and 1, reflecting significant increases in Saharan dust fluxes during regionally arid intervals, reflected by sharp lake level drops. Moreover, during H6 the dust came from different Saharan sources than during H1 and H5. While the relatively wet glacial climate in the Levant suppressed the transport of dust to the lake watershed, short-term hyper-arid spells during H-stadial intervals were accompanied by enhanced supply of fine Sahara dust to this region.

  18. The Adoption of American Educational Theory in West Germany after 1945--Heinrich Roth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dietrich

    1997-01-01

    Presents a biographical profile of Heinrich Roth, a psychologist and educator who had served in the Wehrmacht's political warfare division. Roth later experienced a spiritual and professional rebirth becoming completely immersed in U.S. educational theory. He devoted the rest of his life to developing a democratically-oriented theory of learning…

  19. The white matter of the human cerebrum: part I The occipital lobe by Heinrich Sachs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Stephanie J; Mahmood, Sajedha; Vergani, Francesco; Catani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This is the first complete translation of Heinrich Sachs' outstanding white matter atlas dedicated to the occipital lobe. This work is accompanied by a prologue by Prof Carl Wernicke who for many years was Sachs' mentor in Breslau and enthusiastically supported his work. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Weakening and strengthening of the Indian monsoon during Heinrich events and Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deplazes, G.; Lückge, A.; Stuut, J.-B.; Pätzold, J.; Kuhlmann, H.; Husson, D.; Fant, M.; Haug, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    The Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations and Heinrich events described in North Atlantic sediments and Greenland ice are expressed in the climate of the tropics, for example, as documented in Arabian Sea sediments. Given the strength of this teleconnection, we seek to reconstruct its range of

  1. Is the principle of a stable heinrich ratio a myth? - A multimethod analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallivan, Steve; Taxis, Katja; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Barber, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Background: Safety improvements are sometimes based on the premise that introducing measures to combat minor or no-harm incidents proportionately reduces the incidence of major incidents involving harm. This is in line with the principle of the Heinrich ratio, which asserts that there is a

  2. Heinrich Wahl, a central figure in direct CP violation research at CERN, retires

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    All the necessary ingredients were there - laughs, scientific debate and a pinch of emotion - to make the «Festkolloquium», held in honour of Heinrich Wahl, an unqualified success. One by one, his colleagues, friends and former students took their turn on the rostrum in CERN's main auditorium to reminisce over the career, scientific contributions and leadership of this highly-respected physicist. For, believe it or not, after 34 years at the forefront of the Laboratory's charge-parity violation experiments, Heinrich Wahl, is finally retiring from CERN. Heinrich Wahl during the Colloquium for his retirement.Heinrich Wahl came to CERN from his native Germany as a Fellow in 1969 and rapidly made a name for himself in the first CP violation experiments on neutral kaons, a field that would subsequently become his main area of interest. He then became involved in the CDHS (CERN Dortmund Heidelberg Saclay) experiment to study high-energy neutrino interactions, which began in 1976 under the leadership of Jack Stein...

  3. Heinrich Gösekeni sõnaraamatu seni märkamata eeskuju / Kai Tafenau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tafenau, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Antakse ülevaade Heinrich Gösekeni enda ütlustest oma grammatika eesmärgi, sihtrühmade ja sõnastiku koostamise kohta ning otsitakse kokkupuutepunkte 1631. aastal ilmunud Jan Amos Komenský ladina keele õpikuga "Janua linguarum reserata"

  4. Leide Heinrich Gösekeni sõnavaramust / Valve-Liivi Kingisepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kingisepp, Valve-Liivi, 1935-

    2009-01-01

    Analüüsitakse Heinrich Gösekeni käsiraamatu "Manuductio ad Linguam Oesthonicam, Anführung zur Öhstnischen Sprache" (1660) saksa-eesti sõnastikku, võrreldes sealseid leide teiste eesti varasemate ja hilisemate sõnastikega

  5. The white matter of the human cerebrum: Part I The occipital lobe by Heinrich Sachs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Stephanie J.; Mahmood, Sajedha; Vergani, Francesco; Catani, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This is the first complete translation of Heinrich Sachs' outstanding white matter atlas dedicated to the occipital lobe. This work is accompanied by a prologue by Prof Carl Wernicke who for many years was Sachs' mentor in Breslau and enthusiastically supported his work. PMID:25527430

  6. Heinrich event 1: an example of dynamical ice-sheet reaction to oceanic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Álvarez-Solas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heinrich events, identified as enhanced ice-rafted detritus (IRD in North Atlantic deep sea sediments (Heinrich, 1988; Hemming, 2004 have classically been attributed to Laurentide ice-sheet (LIS instabilities (MacAyeal, 1993; Calov et al., 2002; Hulbe et al., 2004 and assumed to lead to important disruptions of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC and North Atlantic deep water (NADW formation. However, recent paleoclimate data have revealed that most of these events probably occurred after the AMOC had already slowed down or/and NADW largely collapsed, within about a thousand years (Hall et al., 2006; Hemming, 2004; Jonkers et al., 2010; Roche et al., 2004, implying that the initial AMOC reduction could not have been caused by the Heinrich events themselves.

    Here we propose an alternative driving mechanism, specifically for Heinrich event 1 (H1; 18 to 15 ka BP, by which North Atlantic ocean circulation changes are found to have strong impacts on LIS dynamics. By combining simulations with a coupled climate model and a three-dimensional ice sheet model, our study illustrates how reduced NADW and AMOC weakening lead to a subsurface warming in the Nordic and Labrador Seas resulting in rapid melting of the Hudson Strait and Labrador ice shelves. Lack of buttressing by the ice shelves implies a substantial ice-stream acceleration, enhanced ice-discharge and sea level rise, with peak values 500–1500 yr after the initial AMOC reduction. Our scenario modifies the previous paradigm of H1 by solving the paradox of its occurrence during a cold surface period, and highlights the importance of taking into account the effects of oceanic circulation on ice-sheets dynamics in order to elucidate the triggering mechanism of Heinrich events.

  7. Das Dritte Reich. Die diskursive Sakralisierung in der NS-Propagandadichtung von Heinrich Anacker[The Third Reich. Discursive Sacralization in the NS Propaganda Poetry of Heinrich Anacker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneleen Van Hertbruggen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this essay is the discursive analysis of “Reich” as an article of faith in the poetry volume Die Fanfare. Gedichte der deutschen Erhebung by Heinrich Anacker (1901-1971. Looking back to the original theological foundation of the concept “Third Reich” in connection with the debate about whether National Socialism could be consid­ered as a political religion, “Reich” is described as a possible article of faith of the Nazi creed. In Anacker’s National Socialist biased propaganda poetry, “Reich” appears, in fact, as a sacred and even as a quasi-religious entity.

  8. An inquiry-based approach to the Franck-Hertz experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    The practice of scientists and engineers is today exerted within interdisciplinary contexts, placed at the intersections of different research fields, including nanoscale science. The development of the required competences is based on an effective science and engineering instruction, which should be able to drive the students towards a deeper understanding of quantum mechanics fundamental concepts and, at the same time, strengthen their reasoning skills and transversal abilities. In this study we report the results of an inquiry-driven learning path experienced by a sample of 12 electronic engineering undergraduates engaged to perform the Franck-Hertz experiment. Before being involved in this experimental activity, the students received a traditional lecture-based instruction on the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics, but their answers to an open-ended questionnaire, administered at the beginning of the inquiry activity, demonstrated that the acquired knowledge was characterized by a strictly theoretical vision of quantum science, basically in terms of an artificial mathematical framework having very poor connections with the real world. The Franck Hertz experiment was introduced to the students by starting from the problem of finding an experimental confirmation of the Bohr's postulates asserting that atoms can absorb energy only in quantum portions. The whole activity has been videotaped and this allowed us to deeply analyse the student perception's change about the main concepts of quantum mechanics. We have found that the active participation to this learning experience favored the building of cognitive links among student theoretical perceptions of quantum mechanics and their vision of quantum phenomena, within an everyday context of knowledge. Furthermore, our findings confirm the benefits of integrating traditional lecture-based instruction on quantum mechanics with learning experiences driven by inquiry-based teaching strategies.

  9. An inquiry-based approach to the Franck-Hertz experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The practice of scientists and engineers is today exerted within interdisciplinary contexts, placed at the intersections of different research fields, including nanoscale science. The development of the required competencies is based on an effective science and engineering instruction, which should be able to drive the students towards a deeper understanding of quantum mechanics fundamental concepts and, at the same time, strengthen their reasoning skills and transversal abilities. In this study we report the results of an inquiry-driven learning path experienced by a sample of 12 electronic engineering undergraduates engaged to perform the Franck-Hertz experiment. Before being involved in this experimental activity, the students received a traditional lecture-based instruction on the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics, but their answers to an open-ended questionnaire, administered at the beginning of the inquiry activity, demonstrated that the acquired knowledge was characterized by a strictly theoretical vision of quantum science, basically in terms of an artificial mathematical framework having very poor connections with the real world. The Franck Hertz experiment was introduced to the students by starting from the problem of finding an experimental confirmation of the Bohr’s postulates asserting that atoms can absorb energy only in quantum portions. The whole activity has been videotaped and this allowed us to deeply analyse the student perception’s change about the main concepts of quantum mechanics. We have found that the active participation to this learning experience favored the building of cognitive links among student theoretical perceptions of quantum mechanics and their vision of quantum phenomena, within an everyday context of knowledge. Furthermore, our findings confirm the benefits of integrating traditional lecture-based instruction on quantum mechanics with learning experiences driven by inquiry-based teaching strategies.

  10. On Schrödinger's equation, Hertz's mechanics and Van Vleck's determinant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, R Lopes; Stachel, John

    2013-01-01

    There has been much research on Schrödinger's route to what we now call Schrödinger's equation. Various authors disagree as to the exact nature of the influence of each of the physicists he cites—and of some that he does not. This paper, intended for graduate students of and researchers in quantum theory, clarifies Schrödinger's original aims in formulating a wave equation for matter, discusses how far he fulfilled his original aspirations and in what respects he fell short of his goal. An analysis of Schrödinger's foundational paper enables us to distinguish between a formal and an epistemological part, and consider the input of the physicists cited on the basis of the part in which each reference occurs. It turns out, for instance, that Hamilton's optical-mechanical analogy belongs entirely to the epistemological part. Indeed, no element of this analogy plays any role in the formal part of Schrödinger's argument. Instead of basing his theory on this analogy, as is often done nowadays in the physics literature and even in the history of science, we maintain that the aim of Schrödinger's project was to represent wave phenomena by a ‘wave’ in configuration- or q-space, paralleling Hertz's treatment in his Mechanics (1894). The influence of this book on Schrödinger's foundational paper is demonstrated by an analysis of his unpublished paper: Hertz's Mechanics and Einstein's Theory of Gravitation. This approach enables us to dispense with the optical-mechanical analogy in tracing the route to Schrödinger's equation. We also discuss the curious role of the Van Vleck determinant as the ‘missing link’ in taking the classical limit of Schrödinger's wavefunction. A concluding section discusses the relation of some of Schrödinger's earlier and later work to the development of quantum field theory. (paper)

  11. Submillimeter wave propagation in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Johnson, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    The propagation of submillimeter-waves (smm) in tokamak plasmas has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally to ensure successful measurements of electron density and plasma current distributions in tokamak devices. Theoretical analyses have been carried out to study the polarization of the smm waves in TFTR and ISX-B tokamaks. A multichord smm wave interferometer/polarimeter system has been employed to simultaneously measure the line electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The experimental study on TFTR is under way. Computer codes have been developed and have been used to study the wave propagation and to reconstruct the distributions of plasma current and density from the measured data. The results are compared with other measurements

  12. Submillimeter wave propagation in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.H.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Johnson, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Propagation of submillimeter waves (smm) in tokamak plasma was investigated both theoretically and experimentally to ensure successful measurements of electron density and plasma current distributions in tokamak devices. Theoretical analyses were carried out to study the polarization of the smm waves in TFTR and ISX-B tokamaks. A multichord smm wave interferometer/polarimeter system was employed to simultaneously measure the line electron density and poloidal field-induced Faraday rotation in the ISX-B tokamak. The experimental study on TFTR is under way. Computer codes were developed and have been used to study the wave propagation and to reconstruct the distributions of plasma current and density from the measured data. The results are compared with other measurements. 5 references, 2 figures

  13. Photon caliper to achieve submillimeter positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kyle J.; Wong, Jennifer; Zhang, Junan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a commercial two-dimensional (2D) detector array with an inherent detector spacing of 5 mm to achieve submillimeter accuracy in localizing the radiation isocenter. This was accomplished by delivering the Vernier ‘dose’ caliper to a 2D detector array where the nominal scale was the 2D detector array and the non-nominal Vernier scale was the radiation dose strips produced by the high-definition (HD) multileaf collimators (MLCs) of the linear accelerator. Because the HD MLC sequence was similar to the picket fence test, we called this procedure the Vernier picket fence (VPF) test. We confirmed the accuracy of the VPF test by offsetting the HD MLC bank by known increments and comparing the known offset with the VPF test result. The VPF test was able to determine the known offset within 0.02 mm. We also cross-validated the accuracy of the VPF test in an evaluation of couch hysteresis. This was done by using both the VPF test and the ExacTrac optical tracking system to evaluate the couch position. We showed that the VPF test was in agreement with the ExacTrac optical tracking system within a root-mean-square value of 0.07 mm for both the lateral and longitudinal directions. In conclusion, we demonstrated the VPF test can determine the offset between a 2D detector array and the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Until now, no method to locate the radiation isocenter using a 2D detector array has been able to achieve such accuracy.

  14. The Submillimeter Polarization of Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Daniel P [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Moran, James M [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rao, Ramprasad [Inst. of Ast. and Astrophys., Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2006-12-15

    We report on the submillimeter properties of Sgr A* derived from observations with the Submillimeter Array and its polarimeter. We ftid that the spectrum of Sgr A* between 230 and 690 GHz is slightly decreasing when measured simultaneously, indicating a transition to optically thin emission around 300-400 GHz. We also present very sensitive and well calibrated measurements of the polarization of Sgr A* at 230 and 345 GHz. With these data we are able to show for the frst time that the polarization of Sgr A* varies on hour timescales, as has been observed for the total intensity. On one night we fhd variability that may arise from a polarized 'blob' orbiting the black hole. Finally, we use the ensemble of observations to determine the rotation measure. This represents the frst statistically significant rotation measure determination and the only one made without resorting to comparing position angles measured at separate epochs. We frid a rotation measure of (-5.6 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup 5} rad m{sup 2}, with no evidence for variability on inter-day timescales at the level of the measurement error. The stability constrains interday flictuations in the accretion rate to 8%. The mean intrinsic polarization position angle is 167{sup 0}{+-}7{sup 0} and we detect variations of 31{sup +18}{sub -9} degrees. This separation of intrinsic polarization changes and possible rotation measure flictuations is now possible because of the frequency coverage and sensitivity of our data. The observable rotation measure restricts the accretion rate to the range 2 x 10{sup -7} M o-dot yr{sup -1} to 2 x 10{sup -9} M o-dot yr{sup -1}, if the magnetic field is near equipartition and ordered.

  15. The Submillimeter Polarization of Sgr A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrone, Daniel P; Moran, James M; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Rao, Ramprasad

    2006-01-01

    We report on the submillimeter properties of Sgr A* derived from observations with the Submillimeter Array and its polarimeter. We ftid that the spectrum of Sgr A* between 230 and 690 GHz is slightly decreasing when measured simultaneously, indicating a transition to optically thin emission around 300-400 GHz. We also present very sensitive and well calibrated measurements of the polarization of Sgr A* at 230 and 345 GHz. With these data we are able to show for the frst time that the polarization of Sgr A* varies on hour timescales, as has been observed for the total intensity. On one night we fhd variability that may arise from a polarized 'blob' orbiting the black hole. Finally, we use the ensemble of observations to determine the rotation measure. This represents the frst statistically significant rotation measure determination and the only one made without resorting to comparing position angles measured at separate epochs. We frid a rotation measure of (-5.6 ± 0.7) x 10 5 rad m 2 , with no evidence for variability on inter-day timescales at the level of the measurement error. The stability constrains interday flictuations in the accretion rate to 8%. The mean intrinsic polarization position angle is 167 0 ±7 0 and we detect variations of 31 +18 -9 degrees. This separation of intrinsic polarization changes and possible rotation measure flictuations is now possible because of the frequency coverage and sensitivity of our data. The observable rotation measure restricts the accretion rate to the range 2 x 10 -7 M o-dot yr -1 to 2 x 10 -9 M o-dot yr -1 , if the magnetic field is near equipartition and ordered

  16. The Submillimeter Polarization of Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Daniel P.; Moran, James M.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Rao, Ramprasad

    2006-12-01

    We report on the submillimeter properties of Sgr A* derived from observations with the Submillimeter Array and its polarimeter. We ftid that the spectrum of Sgr A* between 230 and 690 GHz is slightly decreasing when measured simultaneously, indicating a transition to optically thin emission around 300 400 GHz. We also present very sensitive and well calibrated measurements of the polarization of Sgr A* at 230 and 345 GHz. With these data we are able to show for the frst time that the polarization of Sgr A* varies on hour timescales, as has been observed for the total intensity. On one night we fhd variability that may arise from a polarized "blob" orbiting the black hole. Finally, we use the ensemble of observations to determine the rotation measure. This represents the frst statistically significant rotation measure determination and the only one made without resorting to comparing position angles measured at separate epochs. We frid a rotation measure of (-5.6 ± 0.7) × 105 rad m2, with no evidence for variability on inter-day timescales at the level of the measurement error. The stability constrains interday flictuations in the accretion rate to 8%. The mean intrinsic polarization position angle is 167°±7° and we detect variations of 31+18-9 degrees. This separation of intrinsic polarization changes and possible rotation measure flictuations is now possible because of the frequency coverage and sensitivity of our data. The observable rotation measure restricts the accretion rate to the range 2 × 10-7 Mdot o yr-1 to 2 × 10-9 Mdot o yr-1, if the magnetic ffeld is near equipartition and ordered.

  17. Tropical climate and vegetation cover during Heinrich event 1: Simulations with coupled climate vegetation models

    OpenAIRE

    Handiani, Dian Noor

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the climate and vegetation responses to abrupt climate change in the Northern Hemisphere during the last glacial period. Two abrupt climate events are explored: the abrupt cooling of the Heinrich event 1 (HE1), followed by the abrupt warming of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial (BA). These two events are simulated by perturbing the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean, with the intention of altering the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and also of in...

  18. Anatomy of Heinrich Layer 1 and its role in the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodell, David A.; Nicholl, Joseph A.; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Danino, Steffan; Dorador, Javier; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Einsle, Joshua; Kuhlmann, Holger; Martrat, Belen; Mleneck-Vautravers, Maryline J.; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco Javier; Röhl, Ursula

    2017-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning and X-ray computed tomography data were measured every 1 mm to study the structure of Heinrich Event 1 during the last deglaciation at International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1308. Heinrich Layer 1 comprises two distinct layers of ice-rafted detritus (IRD), which are rich in detrital carbonate (DC) and poor in foraminifera. Each DC layer consists of poorly sorted, coarse-grained clasts of IRD embedded in a dense, fine-grained matrix of glacial rock flour that is partially cemented. The radiocarbon ages of foraminifera at the base of the two layers indicate a difference of 1400 14C years, suggesting that they are two distinct events, but the calendar ages depend upon assumptions made for surface reservoir ages. The double peak indicates at least two distinct stages of discharge of the ice streams that drained the Laurentide Ice Sheet through Hudson Strait during HE1 or, alternatively, the discharge of two independent ice streams containing detrital carbonate. Heinrich Event 1.1 was the larger of the two events and began at 16.2 ka (15.5-17.1 ka) when the polar North Atlantic was already cold and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) weakened. The younger peak (H1.2) at 15.1 ka (14.3 to 15.9 ka) was a weaker event than H1.1 that was accompanied by minor cooling. Our results support a complex history for Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) with reduction in AMOC during the early part ( 20-16.2 ka) possibly driven by melting of European ice sheets, whereas the Laurentide Ice Sheet assumed a greater role during the latter half ( 16.2-14.7 ka).

  19. Black Holes and Sub-millimeter Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, Philip C; March-Russell, John David; Argyres, Philip C.; Dimopoulos, Savas; March-Russell, John

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a new framework for solving the hierarchy problem was proposed which does not rely on low energy supersymmetry or technicolor. The fundamental Planck mass is at a TeV and the observed weakness of gravity at long distances is due the existence of new sub-millimeter spatial dimensions. In this letter, we study how the properties of black holes are altered in these theories. Small black holes---with Schwarzschild radii smaller than the size of the new spatial dimensions---are quite different. They are bigger, colder, and longer-lived than a usual $(3+1)$-dimensional black hole of the same mass. Furthermore, they primarily decay into harmless bulk graviton modes rather than standard-model degrees of freedom. We discuss the interplay of our scenario with the holographic principle. Our results also have implications for the bounds on the spectrum of primordial black holes (PBHs) derived from the photo-dissociation of primordial nucleosynthesis products, distortion of the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum, overcl...

  20. Submillimeter heterodyne receiver for the CSO telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1988-01-01

    This task is to build a cryogenically cooled 620 to 700 GHz astronomical receiver that will be used as a facility instrument at the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The receiver will have applications as a very high resolution spectrometer to investigate spectral lines in planetary and satellite atmospheres, and comets. The receiver will also be used to make continuum measurements of planets, satellites, and asteroids. During FY88, a scale model (200 GHz) SIS mixer radiometer was built and intrgrated into a cryostat designed for use on the CSO telescope. This system will serve as a model to guide the work on the higher frequency mixer. A solid state local oscillator source that covers two bands in the 600 to 700 GHz has been developed under contract JPL and will be delivered before the end of the year. Work has continued on the SIS materials needed for the 620 to 700 GHz mixer. Test hardware has been developed which allow the 1 to 5 curves for SIS material to be easily measured

  1. The doping concentration and physical properties measurement of silicon water using tera hertz wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hyeon; Oh, Gyung Hwan; Kim, Hak Sung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a tera hertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used to measure doping concentration and physical properties (such as refractive index and permittivity) of the doped silicon (Si) wafers. The transmission and reflection modes with an incidence angle of 30° were employed to determine the physical properties of the doped Si wafers. The doping concentrations of the prepared Si wafers were varied from 10"1"4 to 10"1"8 in both N-type and P-type cases. Finally, the correlation between the doping concentration and the power of the THz wave was determined by measuring the powers of the transmitted and reflected THz waves of the doped Si wafers. Additionally, the doped thickness, the refractive index, and permittivity of each doped Si wafer were calculated using the THz time domain waveform. The results indicate that the THz-TDS imaging technique is potentially a promising technique to measure the doping concentration as well as other optical properties (such as the refractive index and permittivity) of the doped Si wafer

  2. Predicting guar seed splitting by compression between two plates using Hertz theory of contact stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, R K; Shivhare, U S; Nanda, S K

    2012-09-01

    Hertz's theory of contact stresses was applied to predict the splitting of guar seeds during uni-axial compressive loading between 2 rigid parallel plates. The apparent modulus of elasticity of guar seeds varied between 296.18 and 116.19 MPa when force was applied normal to hilum joint (horizontal position), whereas it varied between 171.86 and 54.18 MPa when force was applied in the direction of hilum joint (vertical position) with in moisture content range of 5.16% to 15.28% (d.b.). At higher moisture contents, the seeds yielded after considerable deformation, thus showing ductile nature. Distribution of stresses below the point of contact were plotted to predict the location of critical point, which was found at 0.44 to 0.64 mm and 0.37 to 0.53 mm below the contact point in vertical and horizontal loading, respectively, depending upon moisture content. The separation of cotyledons from each other initiated before yielding of cotyledons and thus splitting of seed took place. The relationships between apparent modulus of elasticity, principal stresses with moisture content were described using second-order polynomial equations and validated experimentally. Manufacture of guar gum powder requires dehulling and splitting of guar seeds. This article describes splitting behavior of guar seeds under compressive loading. Results of this study may be used for design of dehulling and splitting systems of guar seeds. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. The doping concentration and physical properties measurement of silicon water using tera hertz wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Hyeon; Oh, Gyung Hwan; Kim, Hak Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, a tera hertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) imaging technique was used to measure doping concentration and physical properties (such as refractive index and permittivity) of the doped silicon (Si) wafers. The transmission and reflection modes with an incidence angle of 30° were employed to determine the physical properties of the doped Si wafers. The doping concentrations of the prepared Si wafers were varied from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 18} in both N-type and P-type cases. Finally, the correlation between the doping concentration and the power of the THz wave was determined by measuring the powers of the transmitted and reflected THz waves of the doped Si wafers. Additionally, the doped thickness, the refractive index, and permittivity of each doped Si wafer were calculated using the THz time domain waveform. The results indicate that the THz-TDS imaging technique is potentially a promising technique to measure the doping concentration as well as other optical properties (such as the refractive index and permittivity) of the doped Si wafer.

  4. Tropical climate and vegetation changes during Heinrich Event 1: a model-data comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abrupt climate changes from 18 to 15 thousand years before present (kyr BP associated with Heinrich Event 1 (HE1 had a strong impact on vegetation patterns not only at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, but also in the tropical regions around the Atlantic Ocean. To gain a better understanding of the linkage between high and low latitudes, we used the University of Victoria (UVic Earth System-Climate Model (ESCM with dynamical vegetation and land surface components to simulate four scenarios of climate-vegetation interaction: the pre-industrial era, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, and a Heinrich-like event with two different climate backgrounds (interglacial and glacial. We calculated mega-biomes from the plant-functional types (PFTs generated by the model to allow for a direct comparison between model results and palynological vegetation reconstructions.

    Our calculated mega-biomes for the pre-industrial period and the LGM corresponded well with biome reconstructions of the modern and LGM time slices, respectively, except that our pre-industrial simulation predicted the dominance of grassland in southern Europe and our LGM simulation resulted in more forest cover in tropical and sub-tropical South America.

    The HE1-like simulation with a glacial climate background produced sea-surface temperature patterns and enhanced inter-hemispheric thermal gradients in accordance with the "bipolar seesaw" hypothesis. We found that the cooling of the Northern Hemisphere caused a southward shift of those PFTs that are indicative of an increased desertification and a retreat of broadleaf forests in West Africa and northern South America. The mega-biomes from our HE1 simulation agreed well with paleovegetation data from tropical Africa and northern South America. Thus, according to our model-data comparison, the reconstructed vegetation changes for the tropical regions around the Atlantic Ocean were physically consistent with the remote

  5. Heinrich Events: An Unintentional Discovery And Possible Consequences For The Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, H.

    2017-12-01

    Heinrich Events: An Unintentional Discovery And Its Possible Consequences For The FutureIn the mid 80ties an environmental impact assessment in relation to deep-sea dumping of medium-to-high level radioactive waste was carried out in the eastern margins of the Mid Atlantic Ridge next to the Bay of Biscaye. In one of the box corers recovered for radionuclide analysis a volcanic rock was found that triggered interest because of an unexpected geochemical feature on its surface. Subsequent investigations on the bordering sediment layer revealed hints on a massive ice rafting event possibly released from rapidly collapsing circum-Atlantic ice shields. The search for more of these events in numerous sediment cores exhibited a total of 11 layers since the end of the Saalian/Illinoian glaciation (OIS 6/5 to 2/1). The six events identified in the period OIS 4 to 2 indicated oceanographic conditions in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean that were different to those that prevailed during most time of this glacial period. Later, several authors proposed mechanisms that could have triggered the collapses, e.g. the Binge-Purge model (MacAyeal, 1993) or, access of relatively warm water to the grounding lines in conjunction with isostatic movements (Bassis, 2017). One of the consequences of rapid ice shield collapses is sea level rise. Paleo data report rates of up to several meters per century over a period of several centuries. The process described by Bassis et al. resembles to what nowadays can be observed along the ice margins of Greenland and the Antarctic where (man-made) warmed ocean water attacks the grounding lines. If this initiates something similar to a Heinrich event this is of widespread consequence for coasts, from displacement of populations to marine pollution. Thus, research on past Heinrich Events is important for understanding the future developments of the existing ice shields and climate change.

  6. Submillimeter Spectroscopic Study of Semiconductor Processing Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Yaser H.

    Plasmas used for manufacturing processes of semiconductor devices are complex and challenging to characterize. The development and improvement of plasma processes and models rely on feedback from experimental measurements. Current diagnostic methods are not capable of measuring absolute densities of plasma species with high resolution without altering the plasma, or without input from other measurements. At pressures below 100 mTorr, spectroscopic measurements of rotational transitions in the submillimeter/terahertz (SMM) spectral region are narrow enough in relation to the sparsity of spectral lines that absolute specificity of measurement is possible. The frequency resolution of SMM sources is such that spectral absorption features can be fully resolved. Processing plasmas are a similar pressure and temperature to the environment used to study astrophysical species in the SMM spectral region. Many of the molecular neutrals, radicals, and ions present in processing plasmas have been studied in the laboratory and their absorption spectra have been cataloged or are in the literature for the purpose of astrophysical study. Recent developments in SMM devices have made its technology commercially available for applications outside of specialized laboratories. The methods developed over several decades in the SMM spectral region for these laboratory studies are directly applicable for diagnostic measurements in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In this work, a continuous wave, intensity calibrated SMM absorption spectrometer was developed as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. A major advantage of intensity calibrated rotational absorption spectroscopy is its ability to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species from first principles without altering the plasma environment. An important part of this work was the design of the optical components which couple 500 - 750 GHz radiation through a commercial inductively coupled plasma

  7. Submillimeter medical imaging in emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, C.; Thirolf, P.G. [LMU, Muenchen (Germany); Habs, D. [LMU, Muenchen (Germany); MPQ, Garching (Germany); Zoglauer, A. [SSL, Berkeley (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present a nuclear medical imaging technique, capable to reach submillimeter spatial resolution in 3 dimensions with a short exposure time and a low radioactive dose compared to conventional PET. This '{gamma}-PET' technique takes advantage of specific e{sup +} sources which simultaneously with the {beta}{sup +} decay emit an additional photon. Exploiting the triple coincidence between the positron annihilation and the additional emitted {gamma}, it is possible to separate the reconstructed 'true' events from background. Thus the spatial uncertainty introduced by the motion of the e{sup +} or by Compton scattering within the patient can be strongly reduced in the direction normal to the annihilation. MC-simulations and image reconstruction studies have been performed using the library MEGAlib, which we modified to realize an event reconstruction using the {beta}{sup +}{gamma} coincidences. The simulated geometry consists of 4 LaBr{sub 3} scintillator crystals (5 x 5 x 3 cm{sup 3}) read out by a 2D-segmented photomultiplier (64 pixels, each 6 x 6 mm{sup 2}) and 4 double-sided silicon strip detectors (each with 2 x 128 strips, active area of 5 x 5 cm{sup 2}, thickness 0.5 mm), positioned around an H{sub 2}O sphere of 6 cm diameter. Inside are two {sup 22}Na point-like test sources, placed at a distance of 0.4 mm. The resolution results in 0.2 mm (FWHM) in each direction, surpassing the performance of conventional PET by about an order of magnitude.

  8. Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ran

    A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property of such instruments and is the subject of the current study. Future telescopes will require as many as hundreds of thousands of detectors to meet the necessary requirements in terms of the field of view, scan speed, and resolution. A large pixel count is one benefit of the development of multiplexable detectors that use kinetic inductance detector (KID) technology. This dissertation presents the development of a KID-based instrument including a portion of the millimeter-wave bandpass filters and all aspects of the readout electronics, which together enabled one of the largest detector counts achieved to date in submillimeter-/millimeter-wavelength imaging arrays: a total of 2304 detectors. The work presented in this dissertation has been implemented in the MUltiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  9. Studies on omnidirectional enhancement of giga-hertz radiation by sub-wavelength plasma modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanrong, KONG; Qiuyue, NIE; Shu, LIN; Zhibin, WANG; Bowen, LI; Shulei, ZHENG; Binhao, JIANG

    2018-01-01

    The technology of radio frequency (RF) radiation intensification for radio compact antennas based on modulation and enhancement effects of sub-wavelength plasma structures represents an innovative developing strategy. It exhibits important scientific significance and promising potential of broad applications in various areas of national strategic demands, such as electrical information network and microwave communication, detection and control technology. In this paper, laboratory experiments and corresponding analyses have been carried out to investigate the modulation and enhancement technology of sub-wavelength plasma structure on the RF electromagnetic radiation. An application focused sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification up to ∼7 dB higher than the free-space radiation is observed experimentally in giga-hertz (GHz) RF band. The effective radiation enhancement bandwidth covers from 0.85 to 1.17 GHz, while the enhanced electromagnetic signals transmitted by sub-wavelength plasma structures maintain good communication quality. Particularly, differing from the traditional RF electromagnetic radiation enhancement method characterized by focusing the radiation field of antenna in a specific direction, the sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification of the antenna radiation presents an omnidirectional enhancement, which is reported experimentally for the first time. Corresponding performance characteristics and enhancement mechanism analyses are also conducted in this paper. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and promising potential of sub-wavelength plasma modulation in application focused RF communication, and provided the scientific basis for further research and development of sub-wavelength plasma enhanced compact antennas with wide-range requests and good quality for communication.

  10. Tracing Magnetic Fields With The Polarization Of Submillimeter Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic fields play important roles in many astrophysical processes. However, there is no universal diagnostic for the magnetic fields in the interstellar medium (ISM) and each magnetic tracer has its limitation. Any new detection method is thus valuable. Theoretical studies have shown that submillimeter fine-structure lines are polarized due to atomic alignment by Ultraviolet (UV) photon-excitation, which opens up a new avenue to probe interstellar magnetic fields. The method is applicable to all radiative-excitation dominant region, e.g., H II Regions, PDRs. The polarization of the submillimeter fine-structure lines induced by atomic alignment could be substantial and the applicability of using the spectro-polarimetry of atomic lines to trace magnetic fields has been supported by synthetic observations of simulated ISM in our recent paper. Our results demonstrate that the polarization of submillimeter atomic lines is a powerful magnetic tracer and add great value to the observational studies of the submilimeter astronomy.

  11. Wave inhibition by sea ice enables trans-Atlantic ice rafting of debris during Heinrich Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T. J. W.; Dell, R.; Eisenman, I.; Keeling, R. F.; Padman, L.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    The thickness of the ice-rafted debris (IRD) layers that signal Heinrich Events declines far more gradually with distance from the iceberg sources than would be expected based on present-day iceberg trajectories. Here we model icebergs as passive Lagrangian tracers driven by ocean currents, winds, and sea surface temperatures. The icebergs are released in a comprehensive climate model simulation of the last glacial maximum (LGM), as well as a simulation of the modern climate. The two simulated climates result in qualitatively similar distributions of iceberg meltwater and hence debris, with the colder temperatures of the LGM having only a relatively small effect on meltwater spread. In both scenarios, meltwater flux falls off rapidly with zonal distance from the source, in contrast with the more uniform spread of IRD in sediment cores. In order to address this discrepancy, we propose a physical mechanism that could have prolonged the lifetime of icebergs during Heinrich events. The mechanism involves a surface layer of cold and fresh meltwater formed from, and retained around, densely packed armadas of icebergs. This leads to wintertime sea ice formation even in relatively low latitudes. The sea ice in turn shields the icebergs from wave erosion, which is the main source of iceberg ablation. We find that allowing sea ice to form around all icebergs during four months each winter causes the model to approximately agree with the distribution of IRD in sediment cores.

  12. Adenocarcinoma arising in a heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egashira Yutaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Heterotopic pancreatic cancer in the duodenum is a very rare disease. Only twelve cases have been reported worldwide to date. We report a rare case of malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum with long-term survival of the patient, and review the 12 cases in the literature. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital complaining of nausea and vomiting. Endoscopy and upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed marked duodenal stenosis. A pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the surgically resected specimen showed malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 30. He is well and shows no signs of recurrence at the time of writing, six years after the surgery. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma arising within the heterotopic pancreas appears to be rare. It is difficult to obtain a correct diagnosis preoperatively. The management of heterotopic pancreas depends on the presence or absence of symptoms. If the patient is asymptomatic or benign, conservative treatment with regular follow-up is recommended. When the patient is symptomatic or there is a suspicion of malignancy, surgical management with intra-operative frozen section diagnosis is indicated.

  13. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)

  14. Submillimeter (Lambda < 1 mm) Continuum Imaging at CSO: A Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, C. Darren

    2009-01-01

    This contribution is submitted on behalf of all students, postdocs, and staff inspired and supported by Tom Phillips to build an instrument and then wait for low precipitable water vapor. Over the 20 plus years of its existence, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) has seen a succession of ever more powerful detectors to measure continuum emission in the shortest submillimeter bands available from Mauna Kea. These instruments have been trained on the nearest solar systems, the most distant galaxies, and objects in between. I show several images collected over the 5 plus year history of the SHARC II camera and anecdotal comparison with past work.

  15. Tunable submillimeter sources applied to the excited state rotational spectroscopy and kinetics of CH3F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, W.A.M.; Fetterman, H.R.; Peck, D.D.; Goldsmith, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Tunable submillimeter radiation, generated and detected using optically pumped lasers and Schottky diode mixers, has been used in an infrared-submillimeter double resonance investigation of CH 3 F. This technique permits the direct observation of the molecular rotational spectra and kinetics of excited vibrational states and is particularly important for those molecules which are candidates for optically pumped submillimeter lasers

  16. Submillimeter Wave Antenna With Slow Wave Feed Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Kotiranta, Mikko

    2009-01-01

    Submillimeter wave radiation, which is also referred to as terahertz radiation, has not been extensively explored until recently due to a lack of reliable components and devices in this frequency range. Current advances in technology have made it possible to explore this portion of the electromag...

  17. The discovery of uranium by Martin Heinrich Klaproth 200 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    200 years ago - on September 24, 1789 - the pharmacist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) stated his discovery of uranium in the hearing of the Royal Prussian Academy of sciences in Berlin. This jubilee gave occasion to appreciate that discovery. The first part of the paper gives a brief bibliography of the researcher. His course of life from a pharmaceutical apprentice to the leading analytical chemist of his epoch is outlined; his performance and discoveries, in particular in the field of mineral chemistry, are appreciated. The second part deals with the discovery of uranium and his lifelong pursuit of the new metal in more detail. After briefly appreciating Klaproth's personality as a researcher, finally the importance is indicated that uranium meanwhile has gained as a source of nuclear power for the human race. (author)

  18. Swelling of polymer networks with topological constraints: Application of the Helmis-Heinrich-Straube model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Basterra-Beroiz

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available For the first time since its formulation in 1986, the theoretical approach proposed by Helmis, Heinrich and Straube (HHS model, which considers the contribution of topological restrictions from entanglements to the swelling of polymer networks, is applied to experimental data. The main aspects and key equations are reviewed and their application is illustrated for unfilled rubber compounds. The HHS model is based on real networks and gives new perspectives to the interpretation of experimental swelling data for which the entanglement contributions are usually neglected by considering phantom network models. This investigation applies a reliable constrained-chain approach through a deformation-dependent tube model for defining the elastic contribution of swollen networks, which is one of the main limitations on the applicability of classical (affine Flory-Rehner and (non-affine phantom models. This short communication intends to provide a baseline for the application and validation of this modern approach for a broader class of rubber materials.

  19. Fotografia na Serra dos Tapes: a trajetória profissional e pessoal de Heinrich Feddern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Gehrke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Localizada na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, a Serra dos Tapes é uma região na qual se instalaram, durante o século XIX e XX grupos de imigrantes, majoritariamente de origem germânica. Dentre estes, se destacou a figura de Heinrich Feddern, profissional ligado à produção de fotografias, que foi perseguido e preso acusado de colaboração com o regime nazista durante o Estado Novo. Desta forma, o presente ensaio tem como objetivo tratar da trajetória pessoal e profissional deste fotógrafo e as implicações de sua prisão sobre a produção de registros fotográficos, bem como a importância deste profissional no cenário fotográfico local. 

  20. Heinrich Schütz as European cultural agent at the Danish courts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Bjarke

    2011-01-01

    that Schütz in his Danish engagement was far more than an esteemed composer. As cultural agent with contacts throughout Europe he played an important role in providing the Danish courts with desirable musicians and music. While staying in the Danish capital he extended his European network in a way so that he......Based on recent studies of sources linked to the musical milieus at the Danish courts, this article argues that Heinrich Schütz acted as European cultural agent in musical affairs while staying in Copenhagen. As Kapelmester at the Danish Court (1633-35 and 1642-44) he built up the chapel...... by engaging musicians from his own circles, e.g. members of the Saxon Hofkapelle as well as members of his own family. Both Danish Courts, the King's and the Prince-elect's, enjoyed his contacts with several European musical centres, from where he among other things purchased new music. The paper shows...

  1. Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Water isotope records such as speleothems provide extensive evidence of past tropical hydrological changes. During Heinrich events, isotopic changes in monsoon regions have been interpreted as implying a widespread drying through the Northern Hemisphere tropics and an anti-phased precipitation response in the south. Here, we examine the sources of this variability using a water isotope-enabled general circulation model, Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We incorporate a new suite of vapour source distribution tracers to help constrain the impact of precipitation source region changes on the isotopic composition of precipitation and to identify nonlocal amount effects. We simulate a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a large freshwater input to the region as an idealised analogue to iceberg discharge during Heinrich events. An increase in monsoon intensity, defined by vertical wind shear, is modelled over the South American domain, with small decreases simulated over Asia. Simulated isotopic anomalies agree well with proxy climate records, with lighter isotopic values simulated over South America and enriched values across East Asia. For this particular abrupt climate event, we identify which climatic change is most likely linked to water isotope change – changes in local precipitation amount, monsoon intensity, water vapour source distributions or precipitation seasonality. We categorise individual sites according to the climate variability that water isotope changes are most closely associated with, and find that the dominant isotopic controls are not consistent across the tropics – simple local explanations, in particular, fall short of explaining water isotope variability at all sites. Instead, the best interpretations appear to be site specific and often regional in scale.

  2. Optics for MUSIC: a new (sub)millimeter camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jack; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matt I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    We will present the design and implementation, along with calculations and some measurements of the performance, of the room-temperature and cryogenic optics for MUSIC, a new (sub)millimeter camera we are developing for the Caltech Submm Observatory (CSO). The design consists of two focusing elements in addition to the CSO primary and secondary mirrors: a warm off-axis elliptical mirror and a cryogenic (4K) lens. These optics will provide a 14 arcmin field of view that is diffraction limited in all four of the MUSIC observing bands (2.00, 1.33, 1.02, and 0.86 mm). A cold (4K) Lyot stop will be used to define the primary mirror illumination, which will be maximized while keeping spillover at the sub 1% level. The MUSIC focal plane will be populated with broadband phased antenna arrays that efficiently couple to factor of (see manuscript) 3 in bandwidth,1, 2 and each pixel on the focal plane will be read out via a set of four lumped element filters that define the MUSIC observing bands (i.e., each pixel on the focal plane simultaneously observes in all four bands). Finally, a series of dielectric and metal-mesh low pass filters have been implemented to reduce the optical power load on the MUSIC cryogenic stages to a quasi-negligible level while maintaining good transmission in-band.

  3. Development of a high hertz-stress contact for conventional batch production using a unique scribing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, M M I; Alamgir, T; Bhuiyan, M; Kajihara, M

    2013-01-01

    Gradually the electronic devices are getting more compact dimension with respect to the width and thickness. As a result, the contacts are becoming thinner and which leads the contact to be loose and unstable contact. In comercial stamping methode, connector tip diameter should be more than 300μm due to its size limitation. Consequently, the connector contact resistance is becoming higher due to weak contact force. To overcome this problem there were few more basic research using MEMS and Electro Fine Forming (EFF) technology to make high Hertz-Stress Contact (5μm) due to the limitation in the commercial stamping process and the result was in satisfactory level. However, since the MEMS and EFF fabrication is costly therefore, a new method is introduced in this paper using the commercial Phosphor Bronze stamping method to reduce the production cost. Moreover, scribing method is used to make tip on the contact. Accordingly, more compact fine pitch contact is successfully fabricated and tested with 5μm High Hertz Stress without using the MEMS and EFF technology. Hence the manufactured contact resistance becomes less than 20mΩ ±5mΩ

  4. Ühest aia- ja pargikunstialasest raamatust Tallinna kaupmehe Martin Heinrich Gebaueri raamatukogus 18. sajandi II poolel ja sellega seonduvast / Risto Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Tõenäoliselt oli varaloendis nimetatud teos Christian Cay Lorenz Hirschfeldi "Theorie der Gartenkunst". Tegemist oli oma ajastu moodsa teosega. Loodust ja aiandust käsitlevaid raamatuid oli Tallinna kaupmeeste ja literaatide biblioteekides teisigi. Martin Heinrich Gebaueri varaloendist

  5. Hans-Heinrich Nolte (Hg.), Klaas Bähre (Red.), Innere Peripherien in Ost und West / [rezensiert von] Helmut Klüter

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Rezensiertes Werk: Innere Peripherien in Ost und West / Hrsg.: Hans-Heinrich Nolte. Red.: Klaas Bähre. - Stuttgart : Steiner, 2001. - 187 S. : Kt. - (Historische Mitteilungen : Beiheft ; 42) ISBN 3-515-07972-6

  6. Avati mälestuskivi Heinrich Marga sünnikohas / Peep Pillak ; fotod: Peep Pillak ja Valitsuse Kommunikatsioonibüroo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep

    2008-01-01

    1. oktoobril avati mälestuskivi Eesti Vabariigi valitsuse eksiilis peaministri presidendi ülesannetes Heinrich Marga sünnikohas Põlvamaal Kõlleste (Krootuse) vallas Ihamaru külas Otsa talu juures

  7. A SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM SURVEY OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Chul [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Seong [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gwang-Ho, E-mail: jclee@kasi.re.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We conduct a 350 μ m dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05–0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S{sub 350μm} = 114–650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57–122 K and 22–35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3–34 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and 0.03%–2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  8. The DC-8 Submillimeter-Wave Cloud Ice Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.; Batelaan, Paul; Siegel, Peter; Evans, K. Franklin; Evans, Aaron; Balachandra, Balu; Gannon, Jade; Guldalian, John; Raz, Guy; Shea, James

    2000-01-01

    An airborne radiometer is being developed to demonstrate the capability of radiometry at submillimeter-wavelengths to characterize cirrus clouds. At these wavelengths, cirrus clouds scatter upwelling radiation from water vapor in the lower troposphere. Radiometric measurements made at multiple widely spaced frequencies permit flux variations caused by changes in scattering due to crystal size to be distinguished from changes in cloud ice content. Measurements at dual polarizations can also be used to constrain the mean crystal shape. An airborne radiometer measuring the upwelling submillimeter-wave flux should then able to retrieve both bulk and microphysical cloud properties. The radiometer is being designed to make measurements at four frequencies (183 GHz, 325 GHz, 448 GHz, and 643 GHz) with dual-polarization capability at 643 GHz. The instrument is being developed for flight on NASA's DC-8 and will scan cross-track through an aircraft window. Measurements with this radiometer in combination with independent ground-based and airborne measurements will validate the submillimeter-wave radiometer retrieval techniques. The goal of this effort is to develop a technique to enable spaceborne characterization of cirrus, which will meet a key climate measurement need. The development of an airborne radiometer to validate cirrus retrieval techniques is a critical step toward development of spaced-based radiometers to investigate and monitor cirrus on a global scale. The radiometer development is a cooperative effort of the University of Colorado, Colorado State University, Swales Aerospace, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is funded by the NASA Instrument Incubator Program.

  9. A SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM SURVEY OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a 350 μ m dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05–0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S 350μm = 114–650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57–122 K and 22–35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3–34 × 10 7 M ⊙ and 0.03%–2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  10. New development of solid state sub-millimeter sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Jun-ichi

    1982-01-01

    The TUNNETT (tunnel injection transit time negative resistance) diode was proposed by the author in the analysis of avalanching negative resistance diodes and seemed to be the most promising semiconductor source in the frequency range from 100 to 1000 GHz. The first TUNNETT oscillation was realized experimentally in 1968 from a GaAs p + n diode. Recently, several types of GaAs TUNNETT diodes have been fabricated by the use of the author's new liquid phase epitaxial method, which is named the temperature difference method under controlled vapour pressure. The oscillation characteristics of p + - n - n + diodes are shown. On the other hand, the static induction transistor (SIT) shows the excellent performance for high power use in microwave region. The static induced tunnel transit time transistor (SIT 4 ) is a kind of SIT in which the injection source region is replaced by the tunnel injection for use in submillimeter region. In SIT 4 , the gate voltage controls the field of the tunnelling region, and the tunnelling electrons transit to the drain without reaching the gate. The SIT's using tunnelling and ideal (ballistic) SIT are promising devices in submillimeter region. The author suggested the generation of electromagnetic waves by using phonons in semiconductors from submillimeter to infared. Above 1000 GHz up to 100 THz of the field of conventional semiconductors, semiconductor Raman and Brillouin lasers are expected to be the most useful devices in the future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Heinrich Stahlist värske pilguga / Piret Lotman, Kristiina Ross, Aivar Põldvee, Annika Viht ; intervjueerinud Külli Habicht, Külli Prillop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Heinrich Stahli keelelise ja kultuurilise panuse ning tema rolli väärtustamise teemadel vahetasid mõtteid Eesti Rahvusraamatukogu vanemteadur, teose "Heinrich Stahli elu ja looming" autor Piret Lotman, EKI vanemteadur Kristiina Ross, EKI ja TLÜ ajaloo instituudi vanemteadur Aivar Põldvee, TLÜ lektor Annika Viht ning Stahli teoste "Hand- und Hauszbuch" ja "Leyen-Spiegel" sõnastiku koostajad Külli Prillop ja Külli Habicht

  12. Tropical vegetation evidence for rapid sea level changes associated with Heinrich Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Catalina; Dupont, Lydie M, E-mail: catalina@uni-bremen.d, E-mail: dupont@uni-bremen.d [MARUM - Centre for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, D-28359 Germany (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    A Cariaco Basin pollen record shows the development of tropical salt marshes during marine isotope stage 3. Rapid and abrupt expansions of salt marsh vegetation in tropical South America are associated with north Atlantic Heinrich Events stadials (HE-stadials). Intervals of salt marsh expansion have an internal structure, which consists of a recurrent alternation of species that starts with pollen increments of Chenopodiaceae, that are followed by increments of grasses, and subsequently by increments of Cyperaceae. This pattern suggests a successional process that is determined by the close relationship between sea-level and plant community dynamics. The salt tolerant Chenopodiaceae, indicate hypersaline intertidal environments, which were most likely promoted by extremely dry atmospheric conditions. Rapid sea-level rise characterizes the onset of HE-stadials, causing the continued recruitment of pioneer species, which are the only ones tolerating rapid rates of disturbance. Once sea-level rise decelerates, marsh plants are able to trap and stabilize sediments, favouring the establishment of more competitive species. These results add to the scarce knowledge on the dynamics of tropical salt marsh ecosystems, and provide independent paleoclimatic evidence on sea-level changes following Antarctic climate variability.

  13. Heinrich ZANGGER (1874-1957. El hombre que salvó la vida de Albert Einstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Montes-Santiago

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El profesor de la Universidad de Zurich, Heinrich Zangger (1874-1957, es recordado principalmente por haber sido compañero y amigo de Albert Einstein. La abundante correspondencia entre ambos revela esclarecedores aspectos del pensamiento científico de Einstein. Sin embargo, es menos conocido que en varias ocasiones salvó la vida del físico (rescatándole de una intoxicación por monóxido de carbono o suministrándole alimentos durante las penurias de la I Guerra Mundial y veló por las necesidades económicas y de salud del resto de la familia de Einstein: su primera mujer Mileva y sus hijos Hans Albert y Eduard. Pero además Zangger fue un hombre extraordinario que merece ser recordado también por sus aportaciones pioneras en el campo de las enfermedades profesionales como la silicosis o la intoxicación por plomo, sobre la Medicina de catástrofes, por sus estudios forenses y de Derecho sanitario, así como por su labor humanitaria con la Cruz Roja.

  14. A new Sigelgaita Heinrich (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae feeding on cacti in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo F. Monteiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Description and biological aspects of a new species of Sigelgaita Heinrich, 1939, the first known to occur east of the Andes, S. cerei Becker, are presented. S. cerei larvae were collected on "restinga" ecosystems feeding on Pilosocereus arrabidae (Lem. Byles & Rowl. (Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba-Macaé and Área de Proteção Ambiental de Barra de Marica, Rio de Janeiro and rarely on Cereus obtusus Haw. (PNRJ. Life cycle and behavior of larvae are presented. Larvae are found singly on flower buds, on fruit or more frequently on stem of the plants. They build chambers in the cladodium where they complete their larval development, then droping to the ground in order to pupate. Trichogramma sp. was parasitizing 72% of eggs and a species of braconid was parasitizing half out of ten larvae collected from fruits of Cereus obtusus. S. cerei larvae develop a special role in the colonization and establishment of a diverse fauna associates with the hosts such as insects, spiders and yeasts. Ants, such as Camponotus crassus Mayr, 1862 and C. cingulatus Mayr, 1862 are among the insects which most frequently nest in the chambers abandoned by the larvae of this moth species.

  15. Celebrando São Besso ou o que Robert Hertz e a Escola Francesa de Sociologia têm a nos dizer sobre festas, rituais e simbolismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Castro Menezes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre as possibilidades e as dificuldades do estudo de festas religiosas através da interpretação de um texto de Robert Hertz (um dos pesquisadores da Escola Francesa de Sociologia, originalmente publicado em 1913, que versa sobre a festa de São Besso, um evento religioso que ocorre nos alpes italianos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é destacar as pistas que Hertz deixou abertas em seu estudo e sugerir maneiras de nos apropriarmos de seus insights em nossas análises atuais.This article presents some reflections about the possibilities and difficulties in the study of religious festivals. It does so by reinterpreting a text written by Robert Hertz, one of the researches of the French School of Sociology. It is a text about Saint Besso’s festival, originally published in 1913. The aim of the article is to stress some of the clues that Hertz opened with his work and to suggest how his insights can be useful for our own analyses about festivals.

  16. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future astrophysics missions will require lightweight, thermally stable, submillimeter reflectors in sizes of 4m and greater. To date, graphite fiber reinforced...

  17. Investigation of imaging properties for submillimeter rectangular pinholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Dan, E-mail: dxia@uchicago.edu [The Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Moore, Stephen C., E-mail: scmoore@bwh.harvard.edu, E-mail: miaepark@bwh.harvard.edu, E-mail: mcervo@bwh.harvard.edu; Park, Mi-Ae, E-mail: scmoore@bwh.harvard.edu, E-mail: miaepark@bwh.harvard.edu, E-mail: mcervo@bwh.harvard.edu; Cervo, Morgan, E-mail: scmoore@bwh.harvard.edu, E-mail: miaepark@bwh.harvard.edu, E-mail: mcervo@bwh.harvard.edu [Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Metzler, Scott D., E-mail: metzler@upenn.edu [The Department of Radiology, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Recently, a multipinhole collimator with inserts that have both rectangular apertures and rectangular fields of view (FOVs) has been proposed for SPECT imaging since it can tile the projection onto the detector efficiently and the FOVs in transverse and axial directions become separable. The purpose of this study is to investigate the image properties of rectangular-aperture pinholes with submillimeter apertures sizes. Methods: In this work, the authors have conducted sensitivity and FOV experiments for 18 replicates of a prototype insert fabricated in platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir) alloy with submillimeter square-apertures. A sin{sup q}θ fit to the experimental sensitivity has been performed for these inserts. For the FOV measurement, the authors have proposed a new formula to calculate the projection intensity of a flood image on the detector, taking into account the penumbra effect. By fitting this formula to the measured projection data, the authors obtained the acceptance angles. Results: The mean (standard deviation) of fitted sensitivity exponents q and effective edge lengths w{sub e} were, respectively, 10.8 (1.8) and 0.38 mm (0.02 mm), which were close to the values, 7.84 and 0.396 mm, obtained from Monte Carlo calculations using the parameters of the designed inserts. For the FOV measurement, the mean (standard deviation) of the transverse and axial acceptances were 35.0° (1.2°) and 30.5° (1.6°), which are in good agreement with the designed values (34.3° and 29.9°). Conclusions: These results showed that the physical properties of the fabricated inserts with submillimeter aperture size matched our design well.

  18. CLUMPY AND EXTENDED STARBURSTS IN THE BRIGHTEST UNLENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iono, Daisuke; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kawabe, Ryohei; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Ikarashi, Soh [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700AV Groningen (Netherlands); Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Lee, Minju; Saito, Toshiki [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Ueda, Junko [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Michiyama, Tomonari; Ando, Misaki, E-mail: d.iono@nao.ac.jp [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-09-20

    The central structure in three of the brightest unlensed z = 3–4 submillimeter galaxies is investigated through 0.″015–0.″05 (120–360 pc) 860 μ m continuum images obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The distribution in the central kiloparsec in AzTEC1 and AzTEC8 is extremely complex, and they are composed of multiple ∼200 pc clumps. AzTEC4 consists of two sources that are separated by ∼1.5 kpc, indicating a mid-stage merger. The peak star formation rate densities in the central clumps are ∼300–3000 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}, suggesting regions with extreme star formation near the Eddington limit. By comparing the flux obtained by ALMA and Submillimeter Array, we find that 68%–90% of the emission is extended (≳1 kpc) in AzTEC4 and 8. For AzTEC1, we identify at least 11 additional compact (∼200 pc) clumps in the extended 3–4 kpc region. Overall, the data presented here suggest that the luminosity surface densities observed at ≲150 pc scales are roughly similar to that observed in local ULIRGs, as in the eastern nucleus of Arp 220. Between 10% and 30% of the 860 μ m continuum is concentrated in clumpy structures in the central kiloparsec, while the remaining flux is distributed over ≳1 kpc regions, some of which could also be clumpy. These sources can be explained by a rapid inflow of gas such as a merger of gas-rich galaxies, surrounded by extended and clumpy starbursts. However, the cold mode accretion model is not ruled out.

  19. Surveying Low-Mass Star Formation with the Submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Large astronomical surveys yield important statistical information that can’t be derived from single-object and small-number surveys. In this talk I will review two recent surveys in low-mass star formation undertaken by the Submillimeter Array (SMA): a millimeter continuum survey of disks surrounding variably accreting young stars, and a complete continuum and molecular line survey of all protostars in the nearby Perseus Molecular Cloud. I will highlight several new insights into the processes by which low-mass stars gain their mass that have resulted from the statistical power of these surveys.

  20. A Glacial Perspective on the Impact of Heinrich Stadials on North Atlantic Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, G. R.; Putnam, A. E.; Rademaker, K. M.; Balter, A.; Hall, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    The British Isles contain a rich geologic record of Late Pleistocene ice sheet behaviour in the NE North Atlantic basin. We are using cosmogenic 10Be surface-exposure dating, in conjunction with detailed glacial-geomorphic mapping, to reconstruct the timing and nature of cryospheric change - and thus climate variability - in northern Scotland since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our specific focus is Heinrich Stadial 1 (18,300-14,700 years ago), arguably the most significant abrupt climate event of the last glacial cycle and a major feature in global palaeoclimate records. Such constraint is needed because of currently conflicting models of how these events impact terrestrial environments and a recent hypothesis attributing this disparity to enhanced seasonality in the North Atlantic basin. To date, we have measured 10Be in > 30 samples from glacial erratics located on moraines deposited by the British Ice Sheet as it retreated from the continental shelf to its highland source regions. Our preliminary results indicate that the stadial was characterised by widespread deglaciation driven by atmospheric warming, a pattern that is suggestive of pronounced seasonality. Additionally, we report new exposure ages from moraines deposited during a subsequent phase of alpine glaciation (known locally as the Loch Lomond Readvance) that has long been attributed to the Younger Dryas stadial. With the growing focus on the full expression of stadials, and the inherent vulnerability of Europe to shifts in North Atlantic climate, developing the extant record of terrestrial glaciation and comparing these data to marine records is a critical step towards understanding the drivers of abrupt climate change.

  1. InP HEMT Integrated Circuits for Submillimeter Wave Radiometers in Earth Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, William R.; Chattopadhyay, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    The operating frequency of InP integrated circuits has pushed well into the Submillimeter Wave frequency band, with amplification reported as high as 670 GHz. This paper provides an overview of current performance and potential application of InP HEMT to Submillimeter Wave radiometers for earth remote sensing.

  2. Josephson frequency meter for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anischenko, S.E.; Larkin, S.Y.; Chaikovsky, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Frequency measurements of electromagnetic oscillations of millimeter and submillimeter wavebands with frequency growth due to a number of reasons become more and more difficult. First, these frequencies are considered to be cutoff for semiconductor converting devices and one has to use optical measurement methods instead of traditional ones with frequency transfer. Second, resonance measurement methods are characterized by using relatively narrow bands and optical ones are limited in frequency and time resolution due to the limited range and velocity of movement of their mechanical elements as well as the efficiency of these optical techniques decreases with the increase of wavelength due to diffraction losses. That requires the apriori information on the radiation frequency band of the source involved. Method of measuring frequency of harmonic microwave signals in millimeter and submillimeter wavebands based on the ac Josephson effect in superconducting contacts is devoid of all the above drawbacks. This approach offers a number of major advantages over the more traditional measurement methods, that is the one based on frequency conversion, resonance and interferrometric techniques. It can be characterized by high potential accuracy, wide range of frequencies measured, prompt measurement and the opportunity to obtain panoramic display of the results as well as full automation of the measuring process

  3. Josephson frequency meter for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anischenko, S.E.; Larkin, S.Y.; Chaikovsky, V.I. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Frequency measurements of electromagnetic oscillations of millimeter and submillimeter wavebands with frequency growth due to a number of reasons become more and more difficult. First, these frequencies are considered to be cutoff for semiconductor converting devices and one has to use optical measurement methods instead of traditional ones with frequency transfer. Second, resonance measurement methods are characterized by using relatively narrow bands and optical ones are limited in frequency and time resolution due to the limited range and velocity of movement of their mechanical elements as well as the efficiency of these optical techniques decreases with the increase of wavelength due to diffraction losses. That requires the apriori information on the radiation frequency band of the source involved. Method of measuring frequency of harmonic microwave signals in millimeter and submillimeter wavebands based on the ac Josephson effect in superconducting contacts is devoid of all the above drawbacks. This approach offers a number of major advantages over the more traditional measurement methods, that is the one based on frequency conversion, resonance and interferrometric techniques. It can be characterized by high potential accuracy, wide range of frequencies measured, prompt measurement and the opportunity to obtain panoramic display of the results as well as full automation of the measuring process.

  4. Development of a Submillimeter-Wavelength Immersion Grating Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T. G.

    2001-01-01

    The broad goal of this project was to develop a broadband, moderate-resolution spectrometer for submillimeter wavelengths. Our original approach was to build an immersion grating spectrometer, and as such, the first step was to identify the best material (lowest loss, highest index) for the grating medium, and to characterize its properties at the foreseen optical-bench operating temperature of 1.5 K. To this end, we put our initial efforts into upgrading an existing laboratory submillimeter Fourier transform spectrometer, which allowed us to carry out the requisite materials measurements. The associated cryogenic detector dewar was also redesigned and rebuilt to carry out this work. This dewar houses the 1.5 K detector and the filter wheel used in the materials characterization. Our goal was to have the beam propagate through the samples as uniformly as possible, so the optics were redesigned to allow for the samples to be traversed by a well-defined collimated beam. The optics redesign also placed the samples at an image of the aperture stop located within the FTS. After the rebuild, we moved into the testing phase.

  5. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  6. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1986-02-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  7. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Terahertz Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Skalare, Anders; Lee, Choonsup; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Most optical systems require antennas with directive patterns. This means that the physical area of the antenna will be large in terms of the wavelength. When non-cooled systems are used, the losses of microstrip or coplanar waveguide lines impede the use of standard patch or slot antennas for a large number of elements in a phased array format. Traditionally, this problem has been solved by using silicon lenses. However, if an array of such highly directive antennas is to be used for imaging applications, the fabrication of many closely spaced lenses becomes a problem. Moreover, planar antennas are usually fed by microstrip or coplanar waveguides while the mixer or the detector elements (usually Schottky diodes) are coupled in a waveguide environment. The coupling between the antenna and the detector/ mixer can be a fabrication challenge in an imaging array at submillimeter wavelengths. Antennas excited by a waveguide (TE10) mode makes use of dielectric superlayers to increase the directivity. These antennas create a kind of Fabry- Perot cavity between the ground plane and the first layer of dielectric. In reality, the antenna operates as a leaky wave mode where a leaky wave pole propagates along the cavity while it radiates. Thanks to this pole, the directivity of a small antenna is considerably enhanced. The antenna consists of a waveguide feed, which can be coupled to a mixer or detector such as a Schottky diode via a standard probe design. The waveguide is loaded with a double-slot iris to perform an impedance match and to suppress undesired modes that can propagate on the cavity. On top of the slot there is an air cavity and on top, a small portion of a hemispherical lens. The fractional bandwidth of such antennas is around 10 percent, which is good enough for heterodyne imaging applications.The new geometry makes use of a silicon lens instead of dielectric quarter wavelength substrates. This design presents several advantages when used in the submillimeter

  8. Isotopic composition of ice core air reveals abrupt Antarctic warming during and after Heinrich Event 1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. D.; Bereiter, B.; Baggenstos, D.; Kawamura, K.; Shackleton, S. A.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic temperature variations during Heinrich events, as recorded by δ18O­ice­, generally show more gradual changes than the abrupt warmings seen in Greenland ice. However, quantitative temperature interpretation of the water isotope temperature proxy is difficult as the relationship between δ18Oice and temperature is not constant through time. Fortunately, ice cores offer a second temperature proxy based on trapped gases. During times of surface warming, thermal fractionation of gases in the column of unconsolidated snow (firn) on top of the ice sheet results in isotopically heavier nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) being trapped in the ice core bubbles. During times of surface cooling, isotopically lighter gases are trapped. Measurements of δ15N and δ40Ar can therefore be used, in combination with a model for the height of the column of firn, to quantitatively reconstruct surface temperatures. In the WAIS Divide Ice Core, the two temperature proxies show a brief disagreement during Heinrich Stadial 1. Despite δ18Oice recording relatively constant temperature, the nitrogen and argon isotopes imply an abrupt warming between 16 and 15.8 kyr BP, manifest as an abrupt 1.25oC increase in the firn temperature gradient. To our knowledge, this would be the first evidence that such abrupt climate change has been recorded in an Antarctic climate proxy. If confirmed by more detailed studies, this event may represent warming due to an extreme southward shift of the Earth's thermal equator (and the southern hemisphere westerly wind belt), caused by the 16.1 ka Heinrich Event.

  9. Revealing the Formation of Stellar-mass Black Hole Binaries: The Need for Deci-Hertz Gravitational-wave Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xian [Astronomy Department, School of Physics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Amaro-Seoane, Pau, E-mail: xian.chen@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: pau@ice.cat [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) at Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-06-10

    The formation of compact stellar-mass binaries is a difficult, but interesting problem in astrophysics. There are two main formation channels: in the field via binary star evolution, or in dense stellar systems via dynamical interactions. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected black hole binaries (BHBs) via their gravitational radiation. These detections provide us with information about the physical parameters of the system. It has been claimed that when the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is operating, the joint observation of these binaries with LIGO will allow us to derive the channels that lead to their formation. However, we show that for BHBs in dense stellar systems dynamical interactions could lead to high eccentricities such that a fraction of the relativistic mergers are not audible to LISA. A non-detection by LISA puts a lower limit of about 0.005 on the eccentricity of a BHB entering the LIGO band. On the other hand, a deci-Hertz observatory, like DECIGO or Tian Qin, would significantly enhance the chances of a joint detection and shed light on the formation channels of these binaries.

  10. Compact Receiver Front Ends for Submillimeter-Wave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lin, Robert H.; Sin, Seth; Peralta, Alejandro; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Gulkis, Samuel; Thomas, Bertrand C.

    2012-01-01

    The current generation of submillimeter-wave instruments is relatively mass and power-hungry. The receiver front ends (RFEs) of a submillimeter instrument form the heart of the instrument, and any mass reduction achieved in this subsystem is propagated through the instrument. In the current implementation, the RFE consists of different blocks for the mixer and LO circuits. The motivation for this work is to reduce the mass of the RFE by integrating the mixer and LO circuits in one waveguide block. The mixer and its associated LO chips will all be packaged in a single waveguide package. This will reduce the mass of the RFE and also provide a number of other advantages. By bringing the mixer and LO circuits close together, losses in the waveguide will be reduced. Moreover, the compact nature of the block will allow for better thermal control of the block, which is important in order to reduce gain fluctuations. A single waveguide block with a 600- GHz RFE functionality (based on a subharmonically pumped Schottky diode pair) has been demonstrated. The block is about 3x3x3 cubic centimeters. The block combines the mixer and multiplier chip in a single package. 3D electromagnetic simulations were carried out to design the waveguide circuit around the mixer and multiplier chip. The circuit is optimized to provide maximum output power and maximum bandwidth. An integrated submillimeter front end featuring a 520-600-GHz sub-harmonic mixer and a 260-300-GHz frequency tripler in a single cavity was tested. Both devices used GaAs MMIC membrane planar Schottky diode technology. The sub-harmonic mixer/tripler circuit has been tested using conventional metal-machined blocks. Measurement results on the metal block give best DSB (double sideband) mixer noise temperature of 2,360 K and conversion losses of 7.7 dB at 520 GHz. The LO input power required to pump the integrated tripler/sub-harmonic mixer is between 30 and 50 mW.

  11. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; Wee, R. ter; Venema, H. W.

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose a model-based method that strongly reduces PSF-induced bias by incorporating the PSF into the thickness estimation method. We estimated the bias in thickness measurements in simulated thin sheet images as obtained from second derivative zero crossings. To gain insight into the range of sheet thickness where our method is expected to yield improved results, sheet thickness was varied between 0.15 and 1.2 mm with an assumed PSF as present in the high-resolution modes of current computed tomography (CT) scanners [full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.5-0.8 mm]. Our model-based method was evaluated in practice by measuring layer thickness from CT images of a phantom mimicking two parallel cartilage layers in an arthrography procedure. CT arthrography images of cadaver wrists were also evaluated, and thickness estimates were compared to those obtained from high-resolution anatomical sections that served as a reference. The thickness estimates from the simulated images reveal that the method based on second derivative zero crossings shows considerable bias for layers in the submillimeter range. This bias is negligible for sheet thickness larger than 1 mm, where the size of the sheet is more than twice the FWHM of the PSF but can be as large as 0.2 mm for a 0.5 mm sheet. The results of the phantom experiments show that the bias is effectively reduced by our method. The deviations from the true thickness, due to random fluctuations induced by quantum noise in the CT images, are of the order of 3% for a standard wrist imaging protocol. In the wrist the submillimeter thickness estimates from the CT arthrography images correspond within 10% to those estimated from the anatomical

  12. Tropical Hydroclimate Change during Heinrich Stadial 1: An Integrative Proxy-Model Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, A. E.; Sun, T.; Shanahan, T. M.; Di Nezio, P. N.; Gomez, K.; Piatrunia, N.; Sun, C.; Wu, X.; Kageyama, M.; Merkel, U.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Lohmann, G.; Singarayer, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    We explore the response of tropical climate to abrupt cooling of the North Atlantic (NA) during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) combining paleoclimate proxies with model simulations. A total of 146 published paleoclimate records from tropical locations are used to categorize whether HS1 was wetter, drier, or unchanged relative to a deglacial baseline state. Only records with sufficient resolution to resolve HS1 and sufficient length to characterize the deglacial trend are considered. This synthesis reveals large-scale patterns of hydroclimate change relative to glacial conditions, confirming previously reported weaker Indian summer monsoon, a wetter southern Africa, and drying over the Caribbean. Our synthesis also reveals large-scale drying over the Maritime continent as well as wetter conditions in northern Australia and southern tropical South America. Our reinterpretation of the available proxy data reveals far more complexity and uncertainties for equatorial East Africa, a region that appears to straddle a pattern of dryer conditions to the north and wetter conditions to the south. Overall, these patterns of hydroclimate change depart from a southward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), particularly outside the tropical Atlantic. We explore mechanisms driving these changes using a multi-model ensemble of "hosing" simulations performed relative to glacial conditions. The models show robust weakening of the Afro-Asian Monsoon, which we attribute to ventilation of colder mid-latitude air. Not all models simulate the remaining patterns inferred from the proxy data. The best-agreeing models indicate that cooling over the tropical NA and the Caribbean may be essential to communicate the response to the global tropics. This response can induce warming over the tropical South Atlantic via the wind-evaporation-SST feedback, driving wetter conditions in South Africa and tropical South America. Cooling over the Caribbean is communicated to the Pacific over the

  13. High-Sensitivity AGN Polarimetry at Sub-Millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martí-Vidal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost regions of radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN jets are heavily affected by synchrotron self-absorption, due to the strong magnetic fields and high particle densities in these extreme zones. The only way to overcome this absorption is to observe at sub-millimeter wavelengths, although polarimetric observations at such frequencies have so far been limited by sensitivity and calibration accuracy. However, new generation instruments such as the Atacama Large mm/sub-mm Array (ALMA overcome these limitations and are starting to deliver revolutionary results in the observational studies of AGN polarimetry. Here we present an overview of our state-of-the-art interferometric mm/sub-mm polarization observations of AGN jets with ALMA (in particular, the gravitationally-lensed sources PKS 1830−211 and B0218+359, which allow us to probe the magneto-ionic conditions at the regions closest to the central black holes.

  14. SUBMILLIMETER POLARIZATION SPECTRUM IN THE VELA C MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandilo, Natalie N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R.; Pascale, Enzo [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Galitzki, Nicholas; Klein, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Ashton, Peter; Fissel, Laura M.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Benton, Steven J. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Korotkov, Andrei L. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI, 02912 (United States); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Martin, Peter G. [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Moncelsi, Lorenzo [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Netterfield, Calvin B., E-mail: ngandil1@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2016-06-20

    Polarization maps of the Vela C molecular cloud were obtained at 250, 350, and 500 μ m during the 2012 flight of the balloon-borne telescope BLASTPol. These measurements are used in conjunction with 850 μ m data from Planck to study the submillimeter spectrum of the polarization fraction for this cloud. The spectrum is relatively flat and does not exhibit a pronounced minimum at λ ∼ 350 μ m as suggested by previous measurements of other molecular clouds. The shape of the spectrum does not depend strongly on the radiative environment of the dust, as quantified by the column density or the dust temperature obtained from Herschel data. The polarization ratios observed in Vela C are consistent with a model of a porous clumpy molecular cloud being uniformly heated by the interstellar radiation field.

  15. SUBMILLIMETER-WAVE ROTATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY OF H2F+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, R.; Kawaguchi, K.; Amano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Five pure rotational transitions of H 2 F + generated by a discharge in an HF/H 2 /Ar mixture were observed in the range 473-774 GHz with a backward-wave oscillator based submillimeter-wave spectrometer. A simultaneous analysis of the rotational lines with 120 combination differences for the ground state derived from the infrared spectra was carried out to determine the precise molecular constants for the ground state. The rotational transition frequencies that lie below 2 THz were calculated, together with their estimated uncertainties, to facilitate future astronomical identifications. The chemistry for H 2 F + formation in interstellar space is discussed in comparison with a case for recently detected H 2 Cl + .

  16. Cryogenic readout integrated circuits for submillimeter-wave camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Kobayashi, J.; Matsuo, H.; Akiba, M.; Fujiwara, M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of cryogenic readout circuits for Superconducting Tunneling Junction (Sj) direct detectors for submillimeter wave is presented. A SONY n-channel depletion-mode GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) is a candidate for circuit elements of the preamplifier. We measured electrical characteristics of the GaAs JFETs in the temperature range between 0.3 and 4.2K, and found that the GaAs JFETs work with low power consumption of a few microwatts, and show good current-voltage characteristics without cryogenic anomalies such as kink phenomena or hysteresis behaviors. Furthermore, measurements at 0.3K show that the input referred noise is as low as 0.6μV/Hz at 1Hz. Based on these results and noise calculations, we estimate that a Capacitive Transimpedance Amplifier with the GaAs JFETs will have low noise and STJ detectors will operate below background noise limit

  17. Cryogenic readout integrated circuits for submillimeter-wave camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan) and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)]. E-mail: hirohisa.nagata@nao.ac.jp; Kobayashi, J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Matsuo, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Akiba, M. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Fujiwara, M. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    The development of cryogenic readout circuits for Superconducting Tunneling Junction (Sj) direct detectors for submillimeter wave is presented. A SONY n-channel depletion-mode GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) is a candidate for circuit elements of the preamplifier. We measured electrical characteristics of the GaAs JFETs in the temperature range between 0.3 and 4.2K, and found that the GaAs JFETs work with low power consumption of a few microwatts, and show good current-voltage characteristics without cryogenic anomalies such as kink phenomena or hysteresis behaviors. Furthermore, measurements at 0.3K show that the input referred noise is as low as 0.6{mu}V/Hz at 1Hz. Based on these results and noise calculations, we estimate that a Capacitive Transimpedance Amplifier with the GaAs JFETs will have low noise and STJ detectors will operate below background noise limit.

  18. Integrated flux-flow oscillators for submillimeter wave receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shchukin, A.V.; Shitov, S.V.; Filippenko, L.V.; Fischer, G.M.; Mygind, J.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) integrated on the same chip with a small Josephson junction detector has been experimentally investigated in the frequency range 100 - 450 GHz. Both the emitted power and the frequency of the FFO can be varied by adjusting the dc bias current and/or the applied dc magnetic field. Microwave powers as high as 0.3 μW have been measured at 375 GHz. The spectral width of the FFO is about 1 MHz as estimated from harmonic mixing experiments. Also a fully integrated superconducting submillimeter wave receiver using the FFO as local oscillator has been successfully tested. The circuit included coupling transformers, a superconducting variable attenuator and a detector junction with tuned-out capacitance. (orig.)

  19. Submillimeter and millimeter observations of solar system objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhleman, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    Planetary atmospheres and satellite surfaces are observed with the three element array at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Caltech's submillimeter telescope on Mauna Kea and at the 12-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. Researchers are primarily interested in spectroscopy of the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan and the continuum structure of Saturn Rings, Galilean satellites, Neptune and Uranus. During the last year researchers completed a supersynthesis of the Saturn system at 2.8 mm with spatial resolution of 3 arc sec. They just completed a 4-confuguration synthesis of Venus in the CO absorption line. They hope to recover the wind patterns in the altitude range from 60 to 100 km where winds have never been measured. Two important questions are being investigated: (1) how high in the Venus atmosphere do 4-day winds extend, and (2) can we produce experiment proof (or disproof) of the subsolar-to-anti-solar flow (Dickenson winds) predicted by general circulation models

  20. Stimulated Raman scattering of sub-millimeter waves in bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Tripathi, V. K.

    2007-12-01

    A high-power sub-millimeter wave propagating through bismuth, a semimetal with non-spherical energy surfaces, parametrically excites a space-charge mode and a back-scattered electromagnetic wave. The free carrier density perturbation associated with the space-charge wave couples with the oscillatory velocity due to the pump to derive the scattered wave. The scattered and pump waves exert a pondermotive force on electrons and holes, driving the space-charge wave. The collisional damping of the decay waves determines the threshold for the parametric instability. The threshold intensity for 20 μm wavelength pump turns out to be ˜2×1012 W/cm2. Above the threshold, the growth rate scales increase with ωo, attain a maximum around ωo=6.5ωp, and, after this, falls off.

  1. Microwave, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far Infrared Spectral Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. C.; Pickett, H. M.; Drouin, B. J.; Chen, P.; Cohen, E. A.

    2002-01-01

    The spectrum of most known astrophysical molecules is derived from transitions between a few hundred to a few hundred thousand energy levels populated at room temperature. In the microwave and millimeter wave regions. spectroscopy is almost always performed with traditional microwave techniques. In the submillimeter and far infrared microwave technique becomes progressively more technologically challenging and infrared techniques become more widely employed as the wavelength gets shorter. Infrared techniques are typically one to two orders of magnitude less precise but they do generate all the strong features in the spectrum. With microwave technique, it is generally impossible and rarely necessary to measure every single transition of a molecular species, so careful fitting of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians to the transitions measured are required to produce the complete spectral picture of the molecule required by astronomers. The fitting process produces the most precise data possible and is required in the interpret heterodyne observations. The drawback of traditional microwave technique is that precise knowledge of the band origins of low lying excited states is rarely gained. The fitting of data interpolates well for the range of quantum numbers where there is laboratory data, but extrapolation is almost never precise. The majority of high resolution spectroscopic data is millimeter or longer in wavelength and a very limited number of molecules have ever been studied with microwave techniques at wavelengths shorter than 0.3 millimeters. The situation with infrared technique is similarly dire in the submillimeter and far infrared because the black body sources used are competing with a very significant thermal background making the signal to noise poor. Regardless of the technique used the data must be archived in a way useful for the interpretation of observations.

  2. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas; Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean; Bussmann, Shane; Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Lonsdale, Carol; Rho, Jeonghee; Stanford, S. Adam

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (∼1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 μm, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 μm. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 μm, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10 13 L ☉ . These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  3. Submillimeter Follow-up of Wise-Selected Hyperluminous Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Petty, Sara; Assef, Roberto; hide

    2013-01-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare (approximately 1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at zeta = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 micrometers. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (zeta greater than 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 micrometers, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature.We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10(exp 13) solar luminosity. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe.We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  4. SUBMILLIMETER FOLLOW-UP OF WISE-SELECTED HYPERLUMINOUS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwen; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger; Jarrett, Thomas [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sayers, Jack; Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH Leicester (United Kingdom); Petty, Sara; Lake, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bussmann, Shane [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Comerford, Julia M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78731 (United States); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Rho, Jeonghee [SETI Institute, 189 BERNARDO Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: jingwen.wu@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2012-09-01

    We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) to follow-up a sample of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selected, hyperluminous galaxies, the so-called W1W2-dropout galaxies. This is a rare ({approx}1000 all-sky) population of galaxies at high redshift (peaks at z = 2-3), which are faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, yet are clearly detected at 12 and 22 {mu}m. The optical spectra of most of these galaxies show significant active galactic nucleus activity. We observed 14 high-redshift (z > 1.7) W1W2-dropout galaxies with SHARC-II at 350-850 {mu}m, with nine detections, and observed 18 with Bolocam at 1.1 mm, with five detections. Warm Spitzer follow-up of 25 targets at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, as well as optical spectra of 12 targets, are also presented in the paper. Combining WISE data with observations from warm Spitzer and CSO, we constructed their mid-IR to millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs). These SEDs have a consistent shape, showing significantly higher mid-IR to submillimeter ratios than other galaxy templates, suggesting a hotter dust temperature. We estimate their dust temperatures to be 60-120 K using a single-temperature model. Their infrared luminosities are well over 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. These SEDs are not well fitted with existing galaxy templates, suggesting they are a new population with very high luminosity and hot dust. They are likely among the most luminous galaxies in the universe. We argue that they are extreme cases of luminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), possibly representing a short evolutionary phase during galaxy merging and evolution. A better understanding of their long-wavelength properties needs ALMA as well as Herschel data.

  5. Status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golwala, Sunil R.; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Hollister, Matthew I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth; Vayonakis, Anastasios K.; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    We present the status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera, a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. MUSIC is designed to have a 14', diffraction-limited field-of-view instrumented with 2304 detectors in 576 spatial pixels and four spectral bands at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. MUSIC will be used to study dusty star-forming galaxies, galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and star formation in our own and nearby galaxies. MUSIC uses broadband superconducting phased-array slot-dipole antennas to form beams, lumpedelement on-chip bandpass filters to define spectral bands, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors to sense incoming light. The focal plane is fabricated in 8 tiles consisting of 72 spatial pixels each. It is coupled to the telescope via an ambient-temperature ellipsoidal mirror and a cold reimaging lens. A cold Lyot stop sits at the image of the primary mirror formed by the ellipsoidal mirror. Dielectric and metal-mesh filters are used to block thermal infrared and out-ofband radiation. The instrument uses a pulse tube cooler and 3He/ 3He/4He closed-cycle cooler to cool the focal plane to below 250 mK. A multilayer shield attenuates Earth's magnetic field. Each focal plane tile is read out by a single pair of coaxes and a HEMT amplifier. The readout system consists of 16 copies of custom-designed ADC/DAC and IF boards coupled to the CASPER ROACH platform. We focus on recent updates on the instrument design and results from the commissioning of the full camera in 2012.

  6. Far-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy of photodissociation regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaiyum, A.

    1993-12-01

    The physical properties of the galactic and extragalactic photodissociation regions, warm gas components molecular clouds are, generally, derived through the far-infrared (FIR) fine structure and submillimeter line emissions arising out of these regions. In the theoretical studies of these lines the model of Tielens and Hollenbach (herein after referred as TH) are usually employed in which all the opacity is assumed local in escape probability formalism and inward directed photons do not escape. These assumptions are contrary to the observational facts, where most of the lines are found optically thin except OI (63 μm) and low rotational transitions of CO and some other molecules. The optically thin medium will allow the radiation to escape through any face of the region. These observational evidences let us to assume finite parallel plane slab, instead of semi-infinite parallel slab, in which the photons are allowed to escape from both surfaces (back and front). In the present study an attempt has been made to incorporate the two sided escape of photons from the PDRs and to study its effect on the FIR and submillimeter line emission from the PDRs/molecular clouds. Further the present formalism is also employed to study the clumpy PDRs/molecular clouds. The preliminary results show that now serious consequences are found on the thermal and chemical structure of the regions but individual line emissions are modified by differing factors. Particularly at low density and low kinetic temperature the change is substantial but at density greater than the critical density of the line and temperature close to the excitation temperature its effect is almost negligible. An attempt has also been made to study the physical conditions of the M17 region employing the present formalism. (author). 49 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  7. Punctuated Sediment Input into Small Subpolar Ocean Basins During Heinrich Events and Preservation in the Stratigraphic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, R.

    2006-12-01

    Small subpolar ocean basins such as the Labrador Sea received a major portion (25%) of their sediment fill during the Pleistocene glaciations (less than 5% of the basin's lifetime), but the timing of sediment supply to the basin remained essentially unknown until recently. Discovery of the hitherto little known depositional facies of fine-grained lofted sediment suggests that the main sediment input into the basin was not coupled to major glacial cycles and associated sea-level changes but was related to Heinrich events. Heinrich events are known as Late Pleistocene ice-rafting episodes of unparalleled intensity in the North Atlantic that were associated with major melt-water discharge pulses and, as it appears now, also were the times of the main sediment delivery to the basin. The facies of lofted sediment consists of stacked layers of graded muds that contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) which impart a bimodal grain-size distribution to the graded muds. The texturally incompatible grain populations of the muds (median size between 4 and 8 micrometers) and the coarse silt and sand-sized IRD require the combination of two transport processes that delivered the populations independently and allowed mixing at the depositional site: (i) sediment rafting by icebergs and (ii) the rise of turbid freshwater plumes out of fresh-water generated turbidity currents. Fresh-water generated turbidity currents have built a huge sand and gravel abyssal plain in the Labrador Sea (700 by 120 km underlain by 150 m of coarse-grained sediment on average) which is one of the largest sand accumulations (104 km3) on Earth. The hyperpycnal portion of individual discharge events that generated these currents would have had an estimated volume on the order of 103 km3 (1012 m3) which would have flowed for 10-15 days or less, assuming estimated discharge ranges for subglacial outburst floods of up to 106 m3/s. Sediment lofting from turbidity currents is a process that occurs in density currents

  8. The '0.4 eV' shape resonance of electron scattering from mercury in a Franck-Hertz tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletopoulos, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The alternative version of the Franck-Hertz experiment with mercury, in which a two-grid tube is used as a combination of electron gun, equipotential collision space and detection cell, was analysed recently in considerable detail. In particular, it was inferred that, at optimal pressure, the formation of peaks in the anode current at inelastic thresholds is mediated inside the detection cell by the large variation, a maximum at 0.4 eV, in the cross section for elastic scattering. This variation is due to a shape resonance in the electron-mercury system and is observable persuasively at the onset of anode current as a sharp peak followed by a clear minimum. In this paper, the passage of electrons through the second grid to the anode region is analysed in terms of kinetic theory. The discussion is based on a simplified expression for the electron current derivable from an approximate form of the Boltzmann transport equation that maintains the spatial density gradient but omits elastic energy losses. The estimated range of pressure underlying this kind of idealization is in good agreement with experiment. An explicit solution is obtained by constructing an analytic expression for the momentum transfer cross section of mercury using a recent theory of generalized Fano profiles for overlapping resonances. This solution is used in order to model successfully the formation of peaks at the threshold of anode current and at excitation potentials, and to explain the dependence of the observed profiles on the pressure and on the sign and magnitude of the potential across the detection cell

  9. Multi-imaging adaptive concept for IR and submillimeter space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Victor P.

    1995-06-01

    Nontraditional IR and submillimeter spaceborne telescope concept basing on blind-type parabolic multi-ring mirror is proposed and discussed. Preliminary results for optimization of mirror parameters by means of computer simulation are presented.

  10. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  11. Status of the USA program on the development of submillimeter lasers to measure ion temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Vander Sluis, K.; Staats, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of ion laser scattering is outlined briefly and the parameters of the required submillimeter laser system are described. The current state of the development of lasers, laser and viewing dumps, and detectors is reviewed

  12. Superconducting Microwave Resonator Arrays for Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid

    Superconducting microwave resonators have the potential to revolutionize submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy, and with it our understanding of the universe. The field of low-temperature detector technology has reached a point where extremely sensitive devices like transition-edge sensors are now capable of detecting radiation limited by the background noise of the universe. However, the size of these detector arrays are limited to only a few thousand pixels. This is because of the cost and complexity of fabricating large-scale arrays of these detectors that can reach up to 10 lithographic levels on chip, and the complicated SQUID-based multiplexing circuitry and wiring for readout of each detector. In order to make substantial progress, next-generation ground-based telescopes such as CCAT or future space telescopes require focal planes with large-scale detector arrays of 104--10 6 pixels. Arrays using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) are a potential solution. These arrays can be easily made with a single layer of superconducting metal film deposited on a silicon substrate and pattered using conventional optical lithography. Furthermore, MKIDs are inherently multiplexable in the frequency domain, allowing ˜ 10 3 detectors to be read out using a single coaxial transmission line and cryogenic amplifier, drastically reducing cost and complexity. An MKID uses the change in the microwave surface impedance of a superconducting thin-film microresonator to detect photons. Absorption of photons in the superconductor breaks Cooper pairs into quasiparticles, changing the complex surface impedance, which results in a perturbation of resonator frequency and quality factor. For excitation and readout, the resonator is weakly coupled to a transmission line. The complex amplitude of a microwave probe signal tuned on-resonance and transmitted on the feedline past the resonator is perturbed as photons are absorbed in the superconductor. The perturbation can be

  13. Superconducting Hot-Electron Submillimeter-Wave Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris; McGrath, William; Leduc, Henry

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting hot-electron bolometer has been built and tested as a prototype of high-sensitivity, rapid-response detectors of submillimeter-wavelength radiation. There are diverse potential applications for such detectors, a few examples being submillimeter spectroscopy for scientific research; detection of leaking gases; detection of explosive, chemical, and biological weapons; and medical imaging. This detector is a superconducting-transition- edge device. Like other such devices, it includes a superconducting bridge that has a low heat capacity and is maintained at a critical temperature (T(sub c)) at the lower end of its superconducting-transition temperature range. Incident photons cause transient increases in electron temperature through the superconducting-transition range, thereby yielding measurable increases in electrical resistance. In this case, T(sub c) = 6 K, which is approximately the upper limit of the operating-temperature range of silicon-based bolometers heretofore used routinely in many laboratories. However, whereas the response speed of a typical silicon- based laboratory bolometer is characterized by a frequency of the order of a kilohertz, the response speed of the present device is much higher characterized by a frequency of the order of 100 MHz. For this or any bolometer, a useful figure of merit that one seeks to minimize is (NEP)(tau exp 1/2), where NEP denotes the noise-equivalent power (NEP) and the response time. This figure of merit depends primarily on the heat capacity and, for a given heat capacity, is approximately invariant. As a consequence of this approximate invariance, in designing a device having a given heat capacity to be more sensitive (to have lower NEP), one must accept longer response time (slower response) or, conversely, in designing it to respond faster, one must accept lower sensitivity. Hence, further, in order to increase both the speed of response and the sensitivity, one must make the device very small in

  14. A review of Heinrich Obersteiner's 1888 textbook on the central nervous system by the neurologist Sigmund Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigiannakoglou, Paul D; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2011-06-01

    In 1888, the Austrian neuroanatomist Heinrich Obersteiner, founder of Vienna's Neurological Institute, published his "Introduction to the Study of the Structure of the Central Nervous Organs in Health and Disease", a fundamental textbook in which he summarised the state-of-the-art knowledge available then on the normal and pathological anatomy of the human nervous system, incorporating many of his original research findings. The book became "the Bible for generations of budding neurologists" worldwide and was crucial for the eventual development of neurology as an independent medical discipline. In his early career as a neuroanatomist, Sigmund Freud wrote a review of Obersteiner's book for the Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift. That review was not included in the "Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works". The present article provides an English translation of Freud's review and further discusses its historical context, especially regarding the influence of Theodor Meynert on his two illustrious students, Freud and Obersteiner.

  15. Spectrum and isotropy of the submillimeter background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlner, D.

    1977-01-01

    Two great astronomical discoveries have most shaped our present concept of the Big Bang universe. Like the Hubble recession of the galaxies, the discovery of the 3 0 K background radiation by Penzias and Wilson in 1965 has given rise to a line of research which is still very active today. Penzias and Wilson's universal microwave background at 7 cm was immediately interpreted by R.H. Dicke's group at Princeton as coming from the primordial fireball of incandescent plasma which filled the universe for the million years or so after its explosive birth. This interpretation gives rise to two crucial predictions as to the nature of the background radiation. Its spectrum should be thermal even after having been red shifted by a factor of approximately 1000 by the expansion of the universe, and the radiation should be isotropic - assuming that the universe itself is isotropic. If the background radiation is indeed from the primordial fireball it affords us the only direct view at the very young universe. This paper deals with the spectrum and then the isotropy of the background radiation, with emphasis on high frequency or submillimeter measurements. Prospects for the future are discussed briefly. (Auth.)

  16. Millimeter and submillimeter wave spectroscopy: molecules of astrophysical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Species of three general types of molecular ions were studied by means of millimeter-submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) wave spectroscopy. Because of their highly reactive nature, it has been possible to study ionic species in the microwave region for only the past ten is presented here. A new method is presented here for production of such molecular ions in concentrations greater by one to two orders of magnitude than possible with previous techniques, and the subsequent first mm/sub/mm/ detections of two isotopic forms of HCO + , three isotopic forms of ArD + , and the molecular ion H 3 O + . Simple neutral species, which are generally less reactive than ions, are also present in relatively large concentrations in the interstellar medium and in the atmospheres of cool stars themselves. Presented here is the first laboratory microwave detection of two isotopic species of LiH 2 , a solid at normal temperatures and pressures. In addition, a combined analysis of these data, additional data collected on the related species LiD, and existing data on LiD is presented. Finally, a large fraction of the mm/sub/mm/ emissions observed toward the interstellar medium were shown to belong to a small number of relatively heavy, stable, but spectroscopically complicated molecules, many of them internal rotors

  17. Submillimeter Spectroscopy of the R Coronae Australis Molecular Cloud Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marina Madeline; Walker, Christopher K.; Pat, Terrance; Sirsi, Siddhartha; Swift, Brandon J.; Peters, William L.

    2018-01-01

    The Interstellar Medium is comprised of large amounts of gas and dust which coalesce to form stars. Observing in the Terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, approximately 0.3 -300 microns, allows astronomers to study the ISM in unprecedented detail. Using the high spectral resolution imaging system of the SuperCam receiver, a 64-pixel array previously installed on the Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham, AZ, we have begun a 500 square degree survey of the galactic plane. This instrument was designed to do a complete survey of the Milky Way from the ground, with the main focus being to observe two specific transitions of the carbon monoxide molecule, 12CO(3-2) and 13CO(3-2), at 345 GHz. In this work, we present results from these observations for the R Coronae Australis (R Cr A) complex, a region in the southern hemisphere of the sky, using spectroscopic data from a portion of the survey to gain better insight into the life cycle of the ISM. The majority of stars being formed here are similar to the stellar class of the Sun, making it an excellent area of observing interest. Using these results, we attempt to better ascertain the large-scale structure and kinematics inside of the molecular cloud.

  18. Progress in passive submillimeter-wave video imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Erik; May, Torsten; Born, Detlef; Zieger, Gabriel; Peiselt, Katja; Zakosarenko, Vyacheslav; Krause, Torsten; Krüger, André; Schulz, Marco; Bauer, Frank; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2014-06-01

    Since 2007 we are developing passive submillimeter-wave video cameras for personal security screening. In contradiction to established portal-based millimeter-wave scanning techniques, these are suitable for stand-off or stealth operation. The cameras operate in the 350GHz band and use arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES), reflector optics, and opto-mechanical scanners. Whereas the basic principle of these devices remains unchanged, there has been a continuous development of the technical details, as the detector array, the scanning scheme, and the readout, as well as system integration and performance. The latest prototype of this camera development features a linear array of 128 detectors and a linear scanner capable of 25Hz frame rate. Using different types of reflector optics, a field of view of 1×2m2 and a spatial resolution of 1-2 cm is provided at object distances of about 5-25m. We present the concept of this camera and give details on system design and performance. Demonstration videos show its capability for hidden threat detection and illustrate possible application scenarios.

  19. AzTEC on ASTE Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, K.; Tamura, Y.; Hatsukade, B.; Nakanishi, K.; Iono, D.; Takata, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.; Perera, T.; Austermann, J. E.; Scott, K. S.; Hughes, H.; Aretxaga, I.; Tanaka, K.; Oshima, T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Matsuo, H.; Ezawa, H.; Kawabe, R.

    2008-10-01

    We have conducted an unprecedented survey of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) using the 144 pixel bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on the ASTE 10-m dish in Chile. We have already obtained many (>20) wide (typically 12' × 12' or wider) and deep (1 σ sensitivity of 0.5-1.0 mJy) 1.1 mm continuum images of known blank fields and over-density regions/protoclusters across a wide range of redshifts with a spatial resolution of ˜ 30''. It has resulted in the numerous (˜ a few 100, almost equivalent to the total number of the previously known SMGs) new and secure detections of SMGs. In this paper, we present initial results of two selected fields, SSA 22 and AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S). A significnat clustering of bright SMGs toward the density peak of LAEs is found in SSA 22. We derived the differential and cumulative number counts from the detected sources in ADF-S, which probe the faintest flux densities (down to ˜1 mJy) among 1-mm blank field surveys to date.

  20. SUBMILLIMETER POLARIZATION OBSERVATION OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HD 142527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Pohl, Adriana [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Nagai, Hiroshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Fukagawa, Misato [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Shibai, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hanawa, Tomoyuki [Center for Frontier Science, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Murakawa, Koji, E-mail: kataoka@uni-heidelberg.de [College of General Education, Osaka Sangyo University, 3-1-1, Nakagaito, Daito, Osaka 574-8530 (Japan)

    2016-11-10

    We present the polarization observations toward the circumstellar disk around HD 142527 by using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at the frequency of 343 GHz. The beam size is 0.″51 × 0.″44, which corresponds to the spatial resolution of ∼71 × 62 au. The polarized intensity displays a ring-like structure with a peak located on the east side with a polarization fraction of P = 3.26 ± 0.02%, which is different from the peak of the continuum emission from the northeast region. The polarized intensity is significantly weaker at the peak of the continuum where P = 0.220 ± 0.010%. The polarization vectors are in the radial direction in the main ring of the polarized intensity, while there are two regions outside at the northwest and northeast areas where the vectors are in the azimuthal direction. If the polarization vectors represent the magnetic field morphology, the polarization vectors indicate the toroidal magnetic field configuration on the main ring and the poloidal fields outside. On the other hand, the flip of the polarization vectors is predicted by the self-scattering of thermal dust emission due to the change of the direction of thermal radiation flux. Therefore, we conclude that self-scattering of thermal dust emission plays a major role in producing polarization at millimeter wavelengths in this protoplanetary disk. Also, this puts a constraint on the maximum grain size to be approximately 150 μ m if we assume compact spherical dust grains.

  1. HERSCHEL/SPIRE SUBMILLIMETER SPECTRA OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Wilson, Christine D.; Schirm, Maximilien R. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Isaak, Kate G. [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Barlow, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cooray, Asantha [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Cormier, Diane, E-mail: miguel.pereira@ifsi-roma.inaf.it [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-05-01

    We present the submillimeter spectra from 450 to 1550 GHz of 11 nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) on board Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J{sub up} = 4 to 12, as well as the two [C I] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [N II]1461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions. The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n{sub H{sub 2}}{approx} 10{sup 3.2}-10{sup 3.9} cm{sup -3} and T{sub kin} {approx} 300-800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H{sub 2} emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however, it is possibly related to the star formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [C I] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T{sub kin} < 30 K) and dense (n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}) molecular gas. Transitions of other molecules are often detected in our SPIRE/FTS spectra. The HF J = 1-0 transition at 1232 GHz is detected in absorption in UGC 05101 and in emission in NGC 7130. In the latter, near-infrared pumping, chemical pumping, or collisional excitation with electrons are plausible excitation mechanisms likely related to the active galactic nucleus of this galaxy. In some galaxies, few H{sub 2}O emission lines are present. Additionally, three OH{sup +} lines at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz are identified in NGC 7130.

  2. EVIDENCE FOR DUST CLEARING THROUGH RESOLVED SUBMILLIMETER IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J. M.; Blake, G. A.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. J.; Dullemond, C. P.; Williams, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectrophotometric observations have revealed a small subclass of circumstellar disks with spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of large inner gaps with low dust content. However, such data provide only an indirect and model-dependent method of finding central holes. Imaging of protoplanetry disks provides an independent check of SED modeling. We present here the direct characterization of three 33-47 AU radii inner gaps, in the disks around LkHα 330, SR 21N, and HD 135344B, via 340 GHz (880 μm) dust continuum aperture synthesis observations obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The large gaps are fully resolved at ∼0.''3 by the SMA data and mostly empty of dust, with less than (1-7.5) x 10 -6 M sun of fine grained solids inside the holes. Gas (as traced by atomic accretion markers and CO 4.7 μm rovibrational emission) is still present in the inner regions of all three disks. For each, the inner hole exhibits a relatively steep rise in dust emission to the outer disk, a feature more likely to originate from the gravitational influence of a companion body than from a process expected to show a more shallow gradient like grain growth. Importantly, the good agreement between the spatially resolved data and spectrophotometry-based models lends confidence to current interpretations of SEDs, wherein the significant dust emission deficits arise from disks with inner gaps or holes. Further SED-based searches can therefore be expected to yield numerous additional candidates that can be examined at high spatial resolution.

  3. The Digital Motion Control System for the Submillimeter Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. R.; Wilson, R. W.; Kimberk, R.; Leiker, P. S.; Patel, N. A.; Blundell, R.; Christensen, R. D.; Diven, A. R.; Maute, J.; Plante, R. J.; Riddle, P.; Young, K. H.

    2013-09-01

    We describe the design and performance of the digital servo and motion control system for the 6-meter parabolic antennas of the Submillimeter Array (SMA) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The system is divided into three nested layers operating at a different, appropriate bandwidth. (1) A rack-mounted, real-time Unix system runs the position loop which reads the high resolution azimuth and elevation encoders and sends velocity and acceleration commands at 100 Hz to a custom-designed servo control board (SCB). (2) The microcontroller-based SCB reads the motor axis tachometers and implements the velocity loop by sending torque commands to the motor amplifiers at 558 Hz. (3) The motor amplifiers implement the torque loop by monitoring and sending current to the three-phase brushless drive motors at 20 kHz. The velocity loop uses a traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm, while the position loop uses only a proportional term and implements a command shaper based on the Gauss error function. Calibration factors and software filters are applied to the tachometer feedback prior to the application of the servo gains in the torque computations. All of these parameters are remotely adjustable in the software. The three layers of the control system monitor each other and are capable of shutting down the system safely if a failure or anomaly occurs. The Unix system continuously relays the antenna status to the central observatory computer via reflective memory. In each antenna, a Palm Vx hand controller displays the complete system status and allows full local control of the drives in an intuitive touchscreen user interface. The hand controller can also be connected outside the cabin, a major convenience during the frequent reconfigurations of the interferometer. Excellent tracking performance ( 0.3‧‧ rms) is achieved with this system. It has been in reliable operation on 8 antennas for over 10 years and has required minimal maintenance.

  4. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES AT z ≃ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, V.; Treister, E.; Privon, G. C.; Nagar, N. [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alaghband-Zadeh, S.; Chapman, S. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK (United Kingdom); Casey, Caitlin M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Schawinski, K. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Kurczynski, P.; Gawiser, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We present near-infrared integral-field spectroscopic observations targeting H α in eight submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z = 1.3–2.5 using the Very Large Telescope/Spectrograph for Integral Field Observations in the Near Infrared, obtaining significant detections for six of them. The star formation rates derived from the H α emission are ∼100 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which account for only ∼20%–30% of the infrared-derived values, thus suggesting that these systems are very dusty. Two of these systems present [N ii]/H α ratios indicative of the presence of an active galactic nucleus. We mapped the spatial distribution and kinematics of the star-forming regions in these galaxies on kiloparsec scales. In general, the H α morphologies tend to be highly irregular and/or clumpy, showing spatial extents of ∼3–11 kpc. We find evidence for significant spatial offsets, of ∼0.″1–0.″4 or 1.2–3.4 kpc, between the H α and the continuum emission in three of the sources. Performing a kinemetry analysis, we conclude that the majority of the sample is not consistent with disk-like rotation-dominated kinematics. Instead, they tend to show irregular and/or clumpy and turbulent velocity and velocity dispersion fields. This can be interpreted as evidence for a scenario in which these extreme star formation episodes are triggered by galaxy–galaxy interactions and major mergers. In contrast to recent results for SMGs, these sources appear to follow the same relations between gas and star-forming rate densities as less luminous and/or normal star-forming galaxies.

  5. Optimization of a coherent synchrotron radiation source in the Tera-hertz range for high-resolution spectroscopy of molecules of astrophysical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, J.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier Transform spectroscopy is the most used multiplex tool for high-resolution measurements in the infrared range. Its extension to the Tera-hertz domain is of great interest for spectroscopic studies of interstellar molecules. This application is however hampered by the lack of dedicated, broadband sources with a sufficient intensity and stability. In this work, Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) was used as a source for molecular spectroscopy at high resolution on the AILES infrared and Tera-hertz beamline of SOLEIL synchrotron. The beamline being optimized for far-infrared, we could characterize the properties of CSR and compare them to the incoherent synchrotron radiation. A double detection system allowed to correct the effect of the source-related instabilities, hence to significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Pure rotational spectra were measured using these developments. The case of the propynal molecule, for which a refined set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants was calculated, proves the complementarity between CSR and the classical microwave or infrared sources. (author)

  6. Widespread Lake Highstands in the Southernmost Andean Altiplano during Heinrich Event 1: Implications for the South American Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; McGee, D.; Quade, J.

    2014-12-01

    Speleothem-based oxygen isotope records provide strong evidence of anti-phased behavior of the northern and southern hemisphere summer monsoons during Heinrich events, but we lack rigorous constraints on the amount of wetting or drying occurring in monsoon regions. Studies centered on shoreline deposits of closed-basin lakes are well suited for establishing such quantitative controls on water balance changes by providing unequivocal evidence of lake volume variations. Here we present new dating constraints on the highstands of several high-altitude (3800-4350 m) paleolakes in the southern Andean Altiplano, an outlying arid region of the Atacama Desert stretching across the Chilean-Bolivian-Argentinian border east of the Andes (20-25°S). These lakes once occupied the closed basins where only phreatic playas, dry salars, and shallow ponds exist today. Initial U-Th dating of massive shoreline tufas reveals that these deposits are dateable to within ±150 to 300 yrs due to high U concentrations and low initial Th content (as indicated by high 230Th/232Th). Our U-Th and 14C dates show that lake highstands predominantly occur between 18.5 and 14.5 kyrs BP, coinciding with Heinrich Event 1 (HE1) and the expansion of other nearby lakes, such as Lake Titicaca. Because of their (1) location at the modern-day southwestern edge of the summer monsoon, (2) intact shoreline preservation, and (3) precise age control, these lakes may uniquely enable us to reconstruct the evolution of water balance (P-E) changes associated with HE1. Hydrologic modeling constrained by temperature estimates provided by local glacial records is used to provide bounds for past precipitation changes. We also examine North Atlantic cooling as the mechanism for these changes by comparing a compilation of S. American lake level records with various hosing experiments and transient climate simulations at HE1. Our results lend us confidence in expanding our U-Th work to other shoreline tufas in the

  7. Micro-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Caltado, Giuseppe; Wollock, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We describe the micro-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the micro strip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  8. Mu-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Ed

    2012-01-01

    We describe the Mu-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  9. Ionoacoustic characterization of the proton Bragg peak with submillimeter accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W., E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Reinhardt, S.; Lehrack, S.; Edlich, A.; Thirolf, P. G.; Parodi, K. [Department for Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, Garching 85748 (Germany); Kellnberger, S.; Omar, M.; Ntziachristos, V. [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Technische Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Moser, M.; Dollinger, G. [Institute for Applied Physics and Measurement Technology, Universität der Bundeswehr, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, Neubiberg 85577 (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Range verification in ion beam therapy relies to date on nuclear imaging techniques which require complex and costly detector systems. A different approach is the detection of thermoacoustic signals that are generated due to localized energy loss of ion beams in tissue (ionoacoustics). Aim of this work was to study experimentally the achievable position resolution of ionoacoustics under idealized conditions using high frequency ultrasonic transducers and a specifically selected probing beam. Methods: A water phantom was irradiated by a pulsed 20 MeV proton beam with varying pulse intensity and length. The acoustic signal of single proton pulses was measured by different PZT-based ultrasound detectors (3.5 and 10 MHz central frequencies). The proton dose distribution in water was calculated by Geant4 and used as input for simulation of the generated acoustic wave by the matlab toolbox k-WAVE. Results: In measurements from this study, a clear signal of the Bragg peak was observed for an energy deposition as low as 10{sup 12} eV. The signal amplitude showed a linear increase with particle number per pulse and thus, dose. Bragg peak position measurements were reproducible within ±30 μm and agreed with Geant4 simulations to better than 100 μm. The ionoacoustic signal pattern allowed for a detailed analysis of the Bragg peak and could be well reproduced by k-WAVE simulations. Conclusions: The authors have studied the ionoacoustic signal of the Bragg peak in experiments using a 20 MeV proton beam with its correspondingly localized energy deposition, demonstrating submillimeter position resolution and providing a deep insight in the correlation between the acoustic signal and Bragg peak shape. These results, together with earlier experiments and new simulations (including the results in this study) at higher energies, suggest ionoacoustics as a technique for range verification in particle therapy at locations, where the tumor can be localized by ultrasound

  10. Millimeter and submillimeter observations from the Atacama plateau and high altitude balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Mark

    2002-05-01

    A new generation of ground-based and sub-orbital platforms will be operational in the next few years. These telescopes will operate from high sites in Chile and Antarctica, and airborne platforms where the atmosphere is transparent enough to allow sensitive measurements in the millimeter and submillimeter bands. The telescopes will employ state-of-the-art instrumentation including large format bolometer arrays and spectrometers. I will discuss the results of our observations in the Atacama region of Chile (MAT/TOCO), our future observations on the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) now under construction, and our proposed Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). .

  11. Thin-film VO2 submillimeter-wave modulators and polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.C.C.; Fetterman, H.R.; Bachner, F.J.; Zavracky, P.M.; Parker, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave modulators and switchable polarizers have been fabricated from VO 2 thin films deposited on sapphire substrates. By passing electric current pulses through elements made from these films, the films can be thermally cycled through the insulator-to-metal transition that occurs in VO 2 at about 65 degreeC. In the insulating state, the films are found to have negligible effect on the transmission at submillimeter wavelengths, while above the phase transition the transmission is strongly reduced by the free-electron effects characteristic of a metal. Other possible applications of such switchable VO 2 elements include variable bandpass filters and diffraction grating beam-steering devices

  12. “Nothingness or a God”: Nihilism, Enlightenment, and “Natural Reason” in Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi’s Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFAN-SEBASTIAN MAFTEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes one of the most important philosophical problems of the philosophies of the Enlightenment: the problem of the emergence and the justification of the autonomy of reason. Our study will reflect on the critique of the autonomous reason, a critique brought by the Enlightenment thinkers themselves. Kant is one example of criticizing, and moreover securing the status of reason in the Enlightenment. Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, however, was not only an adversary of transcendental philosophy, but also a radical critic of the concept of ‘reason.’ In Jacobi’s works, reason faced a powerful critique of its own mechanisms of justification. Jacobi’s main thesis is that reason is threatened by the prospect of nihilism lurking from inside its main body of axioms. His critique against nihilism from the point of view of a believer is nothing new to the history of ideas, but here the direction of the critique changes against the vein of the Modern Age’s mainstream views with respect to the relation between reason and faith: reason’s own standards of truth are deemed as incapable of securing a safe place for reason against the prospect of an overwhelming nihilism. Thus, Jacobi emphasizes again and again that reason or cognition must find its standard of truth outside itself, or else it must face the scene of nothingness.

  13. COMPACT STARBURSTS IN z similar to 3-6 SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES REVEALED BY ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z(phot) similar to 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are L-IR similar to, 2-6 x 10(12) L-circle dot and similar

  14. QUANTUM ELECTRONIC DEVICES: Superconducting Nb3Sn point contact in the submillimeter range of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenov, É. M.; Danileĭko, M. V.; Derkach, V. E.; Romanenko, V. I.; Uskov, A. V.

    1988-05-01

    An investigation was made of the influence of submillimeter radiation emitted by an HCN laser operating at a frequency νl = 891 GHz on a superconducting point contact made of Nb3Sn. Three steps of the electric current were recorded. The experimental results indicated that such a contact could be used for frequency multiplication up to 3 THz.

  15. ON THE EFFECT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND IN HIGH-REDSHIFT (SUB-)MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Cunha, Elisabete; Groves, Brent; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Weiss, Axel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bertoldi, Frank [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Carilli, Chris [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Elbaz, David; Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Maiolino, Roberto [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Riechers, Dominik [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Smail, Ian, E-mail: cunha@mpia.de [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-20

    Modern (sub-)millimeter interferometers enable the measurement of the cool gas and dust emission of high-redshift galaxies (z > 5). However, at these redshifts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature is higher, approaching, and even exceeding, the temperature of cold dust and molecular gas observed in the local universe. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the warmer CMB on (sub-)millimeter observations of high-redshift galaxies. The CMB affects the observed (sub-)millimeter dust continuum and the line emission (e.g., carbon monoxide, CO) in two ways: (1) it provides an additional source of (both dust and gas) heating and (2) it is a non-negligible background against which the line and continuum emission are measured. We show that these two competing processes affect the way we interpret the dust and gas properties of high-redshift galaxies using spectral energy distribution models. We quantify these effects and provide correction factors to compute what fraction of the intrinsic dust (and line) emission can be detected against the CMB as a function of frequency, redshift, and temperature. We discuss implications on the derived properties of high-redshift galaxies from (sub-)millimeter data. Specifically, the inferred dust and molecular gas masses can be severely underestimated for cold systems if the impact of the CMB is not properly taken into account.

  16. Small Explorer project: Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS). Mission operations and data analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The Mission Operations and Data Analysis Plan is presented for the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Project. It defines organizational responsibilities, discusses target selection and navigation, specifies instrument command and data requirements, defines data reduction and analysis hardware and software requirements, and discusses mission operations center staffing requirements.

  17. 3C 220.3: A Radio Galaxy Lensing a Submillimeter Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Barthel, Peter; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Vegetti, Simona; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Westhues, Christian; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Chini, Rolf; Clements, David L.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Horesh, Assaf; Klaas, Ulrich; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Lagattuta, David J.; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into

  18. Submillimeter Diameter Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Vascular Graft Patency in Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutiongco, Marie F. A.; Kukumberg, Marek; Peneyra, Jonnathan L.; Yeo, Matthew S.; Yao, Jia Y.; Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Le Visage, Catherine; Ho, Jackie Pei; Yim, Evelyn K. F.

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular surgery is becoming a prevalent surgical practice. Replantation, hand reconstruction, orthopedic, and free tissue transfer procedures all rely on microvascular surgery for the repair of venous and arterial defects at the millimeter and submillimeter levels. Often, a vascular graft is required for the procedure as a means to bridge the gap between native arteries. While autologous vessels are desired for their bioactivity and non-thrombogenicity, the tedious harvest process, lack of availability, and caliber or mechanical mismatch contribute to graft failure. Thus, there is a need for an off-the-shelf artificial vascular graft that has low thrombogenic properties and mechanical properties matching those of submillimeter vessels. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA) has excellent prospects as a vascular graft due to its bioinertness, low thrombogenicity, high water content, and tunable mechanical properties. Here, we fabricated PVA grafts with submillimeter diameter and mechanical properties that closely approximated those of the rabbit femoral artery. In vitro platelet adhesion and microparticle release assay verified the low thrombogenicity of PVA. A stringent proof-of-concept in vivo test was performed by implanting PVA grafts in rabbit femoral artery with multilevel arterial occlusion. Laser Doppler measurements indicated the improved perfusion of the distal limb after implantation with PVA grafts. Moreover, ultrasound Doppler and angiography verified that the submillimeter diameter PVA vascular grafts remained patent for 2 weeks without the aid of anticoagulant or antithrombotics. Endothelial cells were observed in the luminal surface of one patent PVA graft. The advantageous non-thrombogenic and tunable mechanical properties of PVA that are retained even in the submillimeter diameter dimensions support the application of this biomaterial for vascular replacement in microvascular surgery. PMID:27376059

  19. Demonstration of a Submillimeter-Wave HEMT Oscillator Module at 330 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Vesna; Deal, W. R.; Mei, X. B.; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, P. H.; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; hide

    2010-01-01

    In this work, radial transitions have been successfully mated with a HEMT-based MMIC (high-electron-mobility-transistor-based monolithic microwave integrated circuit) oscillator circuit. The chip has been assembled into a WR2.2 waveguide module for the basic implementation with radial E-plane probe transitions to convert the waveguide mode to the MMIC coplanar waveguide mode. The E-plane transitions have been directly integrated onto the InP substrate to couple the submillimeter-wave energy directly to the waveguides, thus avoiding wire-bonds in the RF path. The oscillator demonstrates a measured 1.7 percent DC-RF efficiency at the module level. The oscillator chip uses 35-nm-gate-length HEMT devices, which enable the high frequency of oscillation, creating the first demonstration of a packaged waveguide oscillator that operates over 300 GHz and is based on InP HEMT technology. The oscillator chip is extremely compact, with dimensions of only 1.085 x 320 sq mm for a total die size of 0.35 sq mm. This fully integrated, waveguide oscillator module, with an output power of 0.27 mW at 330 GHz, can provide low-mass, low DC-power-consumption alternatives to existing local oscillator schemes, which require high DC power consumption and large mass. This oscillator module can be easily integrated with mixers, multipliers, and amplifiers for building high-frequency transmit and receive systems at submillimeter wave frequencies. Because it requires only a DC bias to enable submillimeter wave output power, it is a simple and reliable technique for generating power at these frequencies. Future work will be directed to further improving the applicability of HEMT transistors to submillimeter wave and terahertz applications. Commercial applications include submillimeter-wave imaging systems for hidden weapons detection, airport security, homeland security, and portable low-mass, low-power imaging systems

  20. Indian monsoon variations during three contrasting climatic periods: the Holocene, Heinrich Stadial 2 and the last interglacial-glacial transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Coralie; Fernanda Sanchez Goñi, Maria; Anupama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Srinivasan; Hanquiez, Vincent; Johnson, Joel; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to the East Asian and African monsoons the Indian monsoon is still poorly documented throughout the last climatic cycle (last 135,000 years). Pollen analysis from two marine sediment cores (NGHP-01-16A and NGHP-01-19B) collected from the offshore Godavari and Mahanadi basins, both located in the Core Monsoon Zone (CMZ) reveals changes in Indian summer monsoon variability and intensity during three contrasting climatic periods: the Holocene, the Heinrich Stadial (HS) 2 and the Marine Isotopic Stage (MIS) 5/4 during the ice sheet growth transition. During the first part of the Holocene between 11,300 and 4,200 cal years BP, characterized by high insolation (minimum precession, maximum obliquity), the maximum extension of the coastal forest and mangrove reflects high monsoon rainfall. This climatic regime contrasts with that of the second phase of the Holocene, from 4,200 cal years BP to the present, marked by the development of drier vegetation in a context of low insolation (maximum precession, minimum obliquity). The historical period in India is characterized by an alternation of strong and weak monsoon centennial phases that may reflect the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, respectively. During the HS 2, a period of low insolation and extensive iceberg discharge in the North Atlantic Ocean, vegetation was dominated by grassland and dry flora indicating pronounced aridity as the result of a weak Indian summer monsoon. The MIS 5/4 glaciation, also associated with low insolation but moderate freshwater fluxes, was characterized by a weaker reduction of the Indian summer monsoon and a decrease of seasonal contrast as recorded by the expansion of dry vegetation and the development of Artemisia, respectively. Our results support model predictions suggesting that insolation changes control the long term trend of the Indian monsoon precipitation, but its millennial scale variability and intensity are instead modulated by atmospheric

  1. Similar mid-depth Atlantic water mass provenance during the Last Glacial Maximum and Heinrich Stadial 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Jacob N. W.; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Oppo, Delia W.; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Mulitza, Stefan; Blusztajn, Jurek; Piotrowski, Alexander M.

    2018-05-01

    The delivery of freshwater to the North Atlantic during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) is thought to have fundamentally altered the operation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Although benthic foraminiferal carbon isotope records from the mid-depth Atlantic show a pronounced excursion to lower values during HS1, whether these shifts correspond to changes in water mass proportions, advection, or shifts in the carbon cycle remains unclear. Here we present new deglacial records of authigenic neodymium isotopes - a water mass tracer that is independent of the carbon cycle - from two cores in the mid-depth South Atlantic. We find no change in neodymium isotopic composition, and thus water mass proportions, between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and HS1, despite large decreases in carbon isotope values at the onset of HS1 in the same cores. We suggest that the excursions of carbon isotopes to lower values were likely caused by the accumulation of respired organic matter due to slow overturning circulation, rather than to increased southern-sourced water, as typically assumed. The finding that there was little change in water mass provenance in the mid-depth South Atlantic between the LGM and HS1, despite decreased overturning, suggests that the rate of production of mid-depth southern-sourced water mass decreased in concert with decreased production of northern-sourced intermediate water at the onset of HS1. Consequently, we propose that even drastic changes in the strength of AMOC need not cause a significant change in South Atlantic mid-depth water mass proportions.

  2. The Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption, Heinrich Event 4, and palaeolithic change in Europe: A high-resolution investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Francesco G.; Giaccio, Biagio; Isaia, Roberto; Orsi, Giovanni

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption from the Phlegraean Fields Caldera, southern Italy, represents one of the largest late Quaternary volcanic event. Its recent dating at 39,280±110 yr BP draws attention to the occurrence of this volcanic catastrophe during a time interval characterized by biocultural modifications in western Eurasia. These included the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition and the supposed change from Neandertal to "modern" Homo sapiens anatomy, a subject of continuing investigation and controversy. The paper aims to clarify the position and relevance of the CI event in this context. At several archaeological sites of southeastern Europe, the CI ash separates the cultural layers containing Middle Palaeolithic and/or "Earliest Upper Palaeolithic" assemblages from the layers in which Upper Palaeolithic industries occur. At the same sites the CI tephra coincides with a long interruption of occupation. The palaeclimatic records containing the CI products show that the eruption occurred just at the beginning of Heinrich Event 4 (HE4), which was characterized by extreme climatic conditions, compared to the other HEs. From the observation of this concurrence of factors, we advance the hypothesis of a positive climate-volcanism feedback triggered by the co-occurrence of the CI eruption and HE4 onset. Both the environmental and cultural data available for a c.5000-year interval on either side of the event, suggest that a reappraisal of the identity and destiny of the archaeological industries representing the so-called Middle to Upper Palaeolithictransition is in order. This might force a reassessment of the Upper Palaeolithic notion as traditionally employed.

  3. Hans Rose, Commentary to Heinrich Wölfflin, Renaissance and Baroque, fourth edition, Munich: Bruckmann, 1926, 181-328, translation by Arnold Witte and Andrew Hopkins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Witte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Commentary by Hans Rose was published as an appendix to the fourth edition of Heinrich Wölfflin’s Renaissance und Barock - eine Untersuchung über Wesen und Entstehung des Barockstils in Italien, published in 1926. It was almost as long as the original text by Wölfflin and intended to discuss the new approaches on the Italian Baroque developed in German academia in the 1920s. It was divided up into four sections of unequal length, which discuss Subjectivism, Material and Colour, Urban Planning, and St Peter’s respectively.

  4. Heinrich Stahli ja Johannes Gutslaffi Uue Testamendi tõlke kõrvutus / An Attempt at the Comparison of the Translations of the New Testament by Heinrich Stahl und Johannes Gutslaff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Ross

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to compare two 17th century translations of the New Testament: the translation by Heinrich Stahl (1638 and the translation by Johannes Gutslaff (1641–1656. Relying on the model of description presented by Torop (1989 and Torop and Osimo (2010, the translations are described by three aspects (1 linguistic, (2 functional, (3 that of the translator`s position within three different time perspectives: achronic, synchronic and diachronic. Within the achronic perspective, the two translations seem to be quite different in all three aspects. In the case of Stahl´s translation, the original text was Luther´s German translation and the target language was the North-Estonian vernacular. Different parts of the Bible had probably been translated by different persons and Stahl collected them, publishing them in a volume of his church manual. Gutslaff, on the other hand, translated the text himself using the original Greek version. His target language was the South-Estonian vernacular but his work was never published. Within the diachronic perspective, the differences disappear and the two translations seem to be quite similar. From today`s point of view both tr anslations are linguistically archaic and have no functional value except as object s of scientific research. Synchronic description is the most complicated one. The article tries to put to the test the possibilities of describing old translations from the point of view of their translation method. Very few examples of the Estonian language of the 17th century have been preserved, most are translations from German written down by German pastors. In addition to that, researchers know almost nothing about the Estonian language spoken by native speaker s of the time. As a re sult of this, it is hard to evaluate the linguistic status of many constructions and idioms used by the translators. This in turn makes it difficult to evaluate the stylistic intentions of the translator

  5. Determination of radial peculiar velocities of galaxy clusters by means of the submillimeter spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholomitskij, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility is considered to obtain from the extraatmospheric submillimeter spectrophotometry of galaxy clusters the ratios vsub(r)/Tsub(e) for clusters intergalactic gas that permits, together with the X-ray measurements of electronic temperature Tsub(e) in the case of hot scattering gas to determine absolute radial peculiar velocities vsub(r) of galaxy clusters relative to the relic radiation. By simulating such peculiar velocities as an example for the system of bandpass filters in the wavelength range 300 μm - 2 mm the accuracy of vsub(r) estimates is proved to be about 300 km/s (not taking into account the errors in Tsub(e)) the sensitivity of deeply cooled submillimeter bolometers being 1x10 -15 W/Hzsup(1/2)

  6. The Status of MUSIC: A Multicolor Sub/millimeter MKID Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaerth, J. A.; Czakon, N. G.; Day, P. K.; Downes, T. P.; Duan, R.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Hollister, M. I.; LeDuc, H. G.; Maloney, P. R.; Mazin, B. A.; Nguyen, H. T.; Noroozian, O.; Sayers, J.; Siegel, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the recent progress of the Multicolor Submillimeter (kinetic) Inductance Camera, or MUSIC. MUSIC will use antenna-coupled Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors to observe in four colors (150 GHz, 230 GHz, 290 GHz and 350 GHz) with 2304 detectors, 576 per band, at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. It will deploy in 2012. Here we provide an overview of the instrument, focusing on the array design. We have also used a pathfinder demonstration instrument, DemoCam, to identify problems in advance of the deployment of MUSIC. In particular, we identified two major limiters of our sensitivity: out-of-band light directly coupling to the detectors (i.e. not through the antenna), effectively an excess load, and a large 1/f contribution from our amplifiers and electronics. We discuss the steps taken to mitigate these effects to reach background-limited performance (BLIP) in observation.

  7. Mu-Spec - A High Performance Ultra-Compact Photon Counting spectrometer for Space Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Brown, A.; Benford, D.; Sadleir; U-Yen, I.; Ehsan, N.; Zmuidzinas, J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and are testing elements of a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology. The instrument can offer resolving power R approximately 1500, and its high frequency cutoff is set by the gap of available high performance superconductors. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using planar filter, and detected using photon counting MKID detector. This spectrometer promises to revolutionize submillimeter spectroscopy from space. It replaces instruments with the scale of 1m with a spectrometer on a 10 cm Si wafer. The reduction in mass and volume promises a much higher performance system within available resource in a space mission. We will describe the system and the performance of the components that have been fabricated and tested.

  8. Pressure broadening measurement of submillimeter-wave lines of O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.M.; Amano, T.

    2005-01-01

    The pressure broadening coefficients and their temperature dependences for two submillimeter-wave transitions of ozone, one being monitored with Odin and the other to be monitored with JEM/SMILES and EOS-MLS, have been determined by using a BWO based submillimeter-wave spectrometer. The measurements have also been extended to one of the symmetric isotopic species, 16 O 18 O 16 O. The isotopic species is observed in natural abundance and as a consequence the temperature dependence is not determined due to weak signal intensity. The pressure broadening parameters are determined with better than 1% accuracy, while the temperature dependence exponents are obtained within 1.5-3% accuracy for the normal species transitions

  9. Submillimeter molecular spectroscopy with the Texas millimeter wave observatory radio telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loren, R.B.; Wootten, A.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1986-01-01

    A large number of previously unreported molecular transitions have been detected in the submillimeter wavelength band toward OMC-1 and M17 SW using the Texas 4.9 m radio antenna. The emission components in OMC-1 that come from the unresolved plateau and hot core regions are stronger in these higher energy transitions than in the lower-energy, lower-frequency lines. Intense, probably thermalized high J SiO lines require a very hot core if they arise in a region the same size as that mapped in J = 2-1 SiO by interferometer measurements. Despite the high energy levels of the submillimeter lines of CN and CCH, there is no broad emission component evident, consistent with their greatly reduced abundance due to removal by chemical reactions. 33 references

  10. Interferometric investigation methods of plasma spatial characteristics on stellarators and tokamaks in submillimeter region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhnyj, V.L.; Kononenko, V.I.; Epishin, V.A.; Topkov, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    The review of interferometric methods of plasma investigation in the wave submillimeter range is given. The diagnostic schemes in stellarators and tokamaks designed for experienced thermonuclear reactors and also the perspective ones, which are still out of practice, are shown. The methods of these diagnostics, their physical principles, the main possibilities and restrictions at changes of electron density, magnetic fields (currents) and their spatial distributions are described. 105 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tables. (author)

  11. Three-Stage InP Submillimeter-Wave MMIC Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Man, King; Gaier, Todd; Deal, William; Lai, Richard; Mei, Gerry; Makishi, Stella

    2008-01-01

    A submillimeter-wave monolithic integrated- circuit (S-MMIC) amplifier has been designed and fabricated using an indium phosphide (InP) 35-nm gate-length high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device, developed at Northrop Grumman Corporation. The HEMT device employs two fingers each 15 micrometers wide. The HEMT wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and make use of a pseudomorphic In0.75Ga0.25As channel, a silicon delta-doping layer as the electron supply, an In0.52Al0.48As buffer layer, and an InP substrate. The three-stage design uses coplanar waveguide topology with a very narrow ground-to-ground spacing of 14 micrometers. Quarter-wave matching transmission lines, on-chip metal-insulator-metal shunt capacitors, series thin-film resistors, and matching stubs were used in the design. Series resistors in the shunt branch arm provide the basic circuit stabilization. The S-MMIC amplifier was measured for S-parameters and found to be centered at 320 GHz with 13-15-dB gain from 300-345 GHz. This chip was developed as part of the DARPA Submillimeter Wave Imaging Focal Plane Technology (SWIFT) program (see figure). Submillimeter-wave amplifiers could enable more sensitive receivers for earth science, planetary remote sensing, and astrophysics telescopes, particularly in radio astronomy, both from the ground and in space. A small atmospheric window at 340 GHz exists and could enable ground-based observations. However, the submillimeter-wave regime (above 300 GHz) is best used for space telescopes as Earth s atmosphere attenuates most of the signal through water and oxygen absorption. Future radio telescopes could make use of S-MMIC amplifiers for wideband, low noise, instantaneous frequency coverage, particularly in the case of heterodyne array receivers.

  12. Generation of a strong core-centering force in a submillimeter compound droplet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Feng, I.; Elleman, D.D.; Wang, T.G.; Young, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    By amplitude-modulating the driving voltage of an acoustic levitating apparatus, a strong core-centering force can be generated in a submillimeter compound droplet system suspended by the radiation pressure in a gaseous medium. Depending on the acoustic characteristics of the droplet system, it has been found that the technique can be utilized advantageously in the multiple-layer coating of an inertial-confinement-fusion pellet

  13. Development of a submillimeter free electron laser using a compact electro-static accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Y.; Shu, S.H.; Tanabe, T.; Li, D.J.; Toyoda, K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental facilities for the studies on submillimeter wavelength free electron laser (FEL) are now under construction in our group. In this paper the possibilities for the two kinds of operation modes, which are expected to be obtained, such as the self mode-locked operations in a small net-gain region and the evolution of CW radiation in a large net-gain region, are analized. (author)

  14. DUST PROPERTIES OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Andrews, Sean M.; Geller, Margaret J., E-mail: hhwang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report Submillimeter Array observations of the 880 μm dust continuum emission for four dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the local universe. Two DOGs are clearly detected with S{sub ν}(880 μm) =10-13 mJy and S/N > 5, but the other two are not detected with 3σ upper limits of S{sub ν}(880 μm) =5-9 mJy. Including an additional two local DOGs with submillimeter data from the literature, we determine the dust masses and temperatures for six local DOGs. The infrared luminosities and dust masses for these DOGs are in the ranges of 1.2-4.9 × 10{sup 11}(L{sub ☉}) and 4-14 × 10{sup 7}(M{sub ☉}), respectively. The dust temperatures derived from a two-component modified blackbody function are 23-26 K and 60-124 K for the cold and warm dust components, respectively. Comparison of local DOGs with other infrared luminous galaxies with submillimeter detections shows that the dust temperatures and masses do not differ significantly among these objects. Thus, as argued previously, local DOGs are not a distinctive population among dusty galaxies, but simply represent the high-end tail of the dust obscuration distribution.

  15. Pre-HEAT: submillimeter site testing and astronomical spectra from Dome A, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesa, C. A.; Walker, C. K.; Schein, M.; Golish, D.; Tothill, N.; Siegel, P.; Weinreb, S.; Jones, G.; Bardin, J.; Jacobs, K.; Martin, C. L.; Storey, J.; Ashley, M.; Lawrence, J.; Luong-Van, D.; Everett, J.; Wang, L.; Feng, L.; Zhu, Z.; Yan, J.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.-G.; Cui, X.; Yuan, X.; Hu, J.; Xu, Z.; Jiang, Z.; Yang, H.; Li, Y.; Sun, B.; Qin, W.; Shang, Z.

    2008-07-01

    Pre-HEAT is a 20 cm aperture submillimeter-wave telescope with a 660 GHz (450 micron) Schottky diode heterodyne receiver and digital FFT spectrometer for the Plateau Observatory (PLATO) developed by the University of New South Wales. In January 2008 it was deployed to Dome A, the summit of the Antarctic plateau, as part of a scientific traverse led by the Polar Research Institute of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dome A may be one of the best sites in the world for ground based Terahertz astronomy, based on the exceptionally cold, dry and stable conditions which prevail there. Pre-HEAT is measuring the 450 micron sky opacity at Dome A and mapping the Galactic Plane in the 13CO J=6-5 line, constituting the first submillimeter measurements from Dome A. It is field-testing many of the key technologies for its namesake -- a successor mission called HEAT: the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz telescope. Exciting prospects for submillimeter astronomy from Dome A and the status of Pre-HEAT will be presented.

  16. DUST PROPERTIES OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Andrews, Sean M.; Geller, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    We report Submillimeter Array observations of the 880 μm dust continuum emission for four dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the local universe. Two DOGs are clearly detected with S ν (880 μm) =10-13 mJy and S/N > 5, but the other two are not detected with 3σ upper limits of S ν (880 μm) =5-9 mJy. Including an additional two local DOGs with submillimeter data from the literature, we determine the dust masses and temperatures for six local DOGs. The infrared luminosities and dust masses for these DOGs are in the ranges of 1.2-4.9 × 10 11 (L ☉ ) and 4-14 × 10 7 (M ☉ ), respectively. The dust temperatures derived from a two-component modified blackbody function are 23-26 K and 60-124 K for the cold and warm dust components, respectively. Comparison of local DOGs with other infrared luminous galaxies with submillimeter detections shows that the dust temperatures and masses do not differ significantly among these objects. Thus, as argued previously, local DOGs are not a distinctive population among dusty galaxies, but simply represent the high-end tail of the dust obscuration distribution

  17. Investigations in the field electron emission at the Siemens research laboratory directed by Gustav Hertz between 1935 and 1945 and their significance for the present-day surface physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefer, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The author, who was a co-worker of Gustav Hertz, describes briefly the early history of field emission research and the fundamental results, i.e. the invention of the field electron microscope by E. W. Mueller and the first confirmation of the quantum mechanical Fowler-Nordheim theory by R. A. Haefer, and points out their significance for present-day surface physics and technology. (author)

  18. Science with the wideband Submillimeter Array: A Strategy for the Decade 2017-2027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, D.; Keto, E.; Bower, G.; Ching, T. C.; Gurwell, M.; Hirano, N.; Keating, G.; Lai, S. P.; Patel, N.; Petitpas, G.; Qi, C.; Sridharan, T. K.; Urata, Y.; Young, K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, J.-H.

    2017-01-01

    The Submillimeter Array (SMA) comprises eight movable 6-meter diameter antennas sited on Maunakea, Hawaii, designed for high spatial and spectral resolution observations at submillimeter wavelengths. Pioneering observations with the SMA have provided new insights into a wide variety of astrophysical phenomena, including the formation and evolution of galaxies, stars and planets, and the nature of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. Following careful deliberation, the SMA project is embarking on an ambitious, staged, strategic upgrade that will increase its instantaneous bandwidth and dramatically improve its observational sensitivity and speed. The unique capabilities of this ultra-wideband SMA - the "wSMA" promise to spark a new era of forefront discoveries. In brief, the wSMA upgrade will provide a core receiver set providing dual-polarization observing bands covering the 345 GHz and 230 GHz atmospheric windows, each with 32 GHz of spectral coverage. Together with upgrades of the signal transport system and digital correlator, this brings a factor of 16 increase in instantaneous bandwidth from the original SMA capability. For continuum observations, speed increases linearly with bandwidth to a given level of sensitivity, enabling more observations to the same depth in the same amount of time. Or, for a given amount of time, the sensitivity increases as the square root of bandwidth, enabling deeper observations. For line observations, spectral coverage increases linearly with bandwidth, enabling observations of many lines simultaneously, all at high spectral resolution. In effect, every wSMA observation of an astronomical source is an imaging spectral line survey, and an enormous amount of information can be extracted from such data in conjunction with physical, chemical and dynamical models. This whitepaper elaborates on illustrative examples in key scientific areas, including the evolutionary state of protostellar sources, the chemistry

  19. Sediment Lofting From Melt-Water Generated Turbidity Currents During Heinrich Events as a Tool to Assess Main Sediment Delivery Phases to Small Subpolar Ocean Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, R.

    2009-05-01

    Small subpolar ocean basins such as the Labrador Sea received a major portion (25%) of their sediment fill during the Pleistocene glaciations (less than 5% of the basin's lifetime), but the detailed timing of sediment supply to the basin remained essentially unknown until recently. The main sediment input into the basin was probably not coupled to major glacial cycles and associated sea-level changes but was related to Heinrich events. Discovery of the depositional facies of fine-grained lofted sediment provides a tool which suggests that the parent-currents from which lofting took place may have been sandy-gravelly turbidity currents that built a huge braided abyssal plain in the Labrador Sea (700 by 120 km underlain by 150 m on average of coarse- grained sediment) which is one of the largest sand accumulations (104 km3) on Earth. The facies of lofted sediment consists of stacked layers of graded muds that contain ice-rafted debris (IRD) which impart a bimodal grain-size distribution to the graded muds. The texturally incompatible grain populations of the muds (median size between 4 and 8 micrometers) and the randomly distributed coarse silt and sand-sized IRD require the combination of two transport processes that delivered the populations independently and allowed mixing at the depositional site: (i) sediment rafting by icebergs (dropstones) and (ii) the rise of turbid freshwater plumes out of fresh-water generated turbidity currents. Sediment lofting from turbidity currents is a process that occurs in density currents generated from sediment-laden fresh-water discharges into the sea that can produce reversed buoyancy, as is well known from experiments. When the flows have traveled long enough, their tops will have lost enough sediment by settling so that they become hypopycnal (their density decreasing below that of the ambient seawater) causing the current tops to lift up. The turbid fresh-water clouds buoyantly rise out of the turbidity current to a level of

  20. EXCITATION CONDITIONS IN THE MULTI-COMPONENT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY SMM J00266+1708

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, Chelsea E.; Baker, Andrew J.; Harris, Andrew I.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Lutz, Dieter; Longmore, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    We present multiline CO observations of the complex submillimeter galaxy SMM J00266+1708. Using the Zpectrometer on the Green Bank Telescope, we provide the first precise spectroscopic measurement of its redshift (z = 2.742). Based on followup CO(1-0), CO(3-2), and CO(5-4) mapping, SMM J00266+1708 appears to have two distinct components separated by ∼500 km s –1 that are nearly coincident along our line of sight. The two components show hints of different kinematics, with the blueshifted component dispersion-dominated and the redshifted component showing a clear velocity gradient. CO line ratios differ slightly between the two components, indicating that the physical conditions in their molecular gas may not be alike. We tentatively infer that SMM J00266+1708 is an ongoing merger with a mass ratio of (7.8 ± 4.0)/sin 2 (i), with its overall size and surface brightness closely resembling that of other merging systems. We perform large velocity gradient modeling of the CO emission from both components and find that each component's properties are consistent with a single phase of molecular gas (i.e., a single temperatures and density); additional multi-phase modeling of the redshifted component, although motivated by a CO(1-0) size larger than the CO(3-2) size, is inconclusive. SMM J00266+1708 provides evidence of early stage mergers within the submillimeter galaxy population. Continuum observations of J00266 at the ∼1'' resolution of our observations could not have distinguished between the two components due to their separation (0.''73 ± 0.''06), illustrating that the additional velocity information provided by spectral line studies is important for addressing the prevalence of unresolved galaxy pairs in low-resolution submillimeter surveys

  1. SUBMILLIMETER H{sub 2}O MEGAMASERS IN NGC 4945 AND THE CIRCINUS GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesce, D. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Braatz, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V., E-mail: dpesce@virginia.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We present 321 GHz observations of five active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from ALMA Cycle 0 archival data: NGC 5793, NGC 1068, NGC 1386, NGC 4945, and the Circinus galaxy. Submillimeter maser emission is detected for the first time toward NGC 4945, and we present a new analysis of the submillimeter maser system in Circinus. None of the other three galaxies show maser emission, although we have detected and imaged the continuum from every galaxy. Both NGC 4945 and Circinus are known to host strong (≳10 Jy) 22 GHz megamaser emission, and VLBI observations have shown that the masers reside in the innermost ∼1 pc of the galaxies. The peak flux densities of the 321 GHz masers in both systems are substantially weaker (by a factor of ∼100) than what is observed at 22 GHz, although the corresponding isotropic luminosities are more closely matched (within a factor of ∼10) between the two transitions. We compare the submillimeter spectra presented here to the known 22 GHz spectra in both galaxies, and we argue that while both transitions originate from the gaseous environment near the AGNs, not all sites are in common. In Circinus, the spectral structure of the 321 GHz masers indicates that they may trace the accretion disk at radii interior to the 22 GHz masers. The continuum emission in NGC 4945 and NGC 5793 shows a spatial distribution indicative of an origin in the galactic disks (likely thermal dust emission), while for the other three galaxies the emission is centrally concentrated and likely originates from the nucleus.

  2. SUBMILLIMETER-HCN DIAGRAM FOR ENERGY DIAGNOSTICS IN THE CENTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aalto, Susanne [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, SE-439 94 Onsala (Sweden); Espada, Daniel; Martín, Sergio; Nakanishi, Kouichiro [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova, 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Fathi, Kambiz [Stockholm Observatory, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Harada, Nanase; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Matsushita, Satoki [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hatsukade, Bunyo; Imanishi, Masatoshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Krips, Melanie [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 St. Martin d’Hères (France); Meier, David S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Soccoro, NM 87801 (United States); Nakai, Naomasa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Ten-nodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Schinnerer, Eva [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Sheth, Kartik [NASA, 300 E Street SW, Washington, DC 20546 (United States); Terashima, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Turner, Jean L., E-mail: takumaizumi@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Compiling data from literature and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array archive, we show enhanced HCN(4–3)/HCO{sup +}(4–3) and/or HCN(4–3)/CS(7–6) integrated intensity ratios in circumnuclear molecular gas around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) compared to those in starburst (SB) galaxies (submillimeter HCN enhancement). The number of sample galaxies is significantly increased from our previous work. We expect that this feature could potentially be an extinction-free energy diagnostic tool of nuclear regions of galaxies. Non-LTE radiative transfer modelings of the above molecular emission lines involving both collisional and radiative excitation, as well as a photon trapping effect, were conducted to investigate the cause of the high line ratios in AGNs. As a result, we found that enhanced abundance ratios of HCN to HCO{sup +} and HCN to CS in AGNs as compared to SB galaxies by a factor of a few to even ≳10 are a plausible explanation for the submillimeter HCN enhancement. However, a counterargument of a systematically higher gas density in AGNs than in SB galaxies can also be a plausible scenario. Although we cannot fully distinguish these two scenarios at this moment owing to an insufficient amount of multi-transition, multi-species data, the former scenario is indicative of abnormal chemical composition in AGNs. Regarding the actual mechanism to realize the composition, we suggest that it is difficult with conventional gas-phase X-ray-dominated region ionization models to reproduce the observed high line ratios. We might have to take into account other mechanisms such as neutral–neutral reactions that are efficiently activated in high-temperature environments and/or mechanically heated regions to further understand the high line ratios in AGNs.

  3. EXCITATION CONDITIONS IN THE MULTI-COMPONENT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY SMM J00266+1708

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Chelsea E.; Baker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Harris, Andrew I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tacconi, Linda J.; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Longmore, Steven N. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Warf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-10

    We present multiline CO observations of the complex submillimeter galaxy SMM J00266+1708. Using the Zpectrometer on the Green Bank Telescope, we provide the first precise spectroscopic measurement of its redshift (z = 2.742). Based on followup CO(1-0), CO(3-2), and CO(5-4) mapping, SMM J00266+1708 appears to have two distinct components separated by ∼500 km s{sup –1} that are nearly coincident along our line of sight. The two components show hints of different kinematics, with the blueshifted component dispersion-dominated and the redshifted component showing a clear velocity gradient. CO line ratios differ slightly between the two components, indicating that the physical conditions in their molecular gas may not be alike. We tentatively infer that SMM J00266+1708 is an ongoing merger with a mass ratio of (7.8 ± 4.0)/sin {sup 2}(i), with its overall size and surface brightness closely resembling that of other merging systems. We perform large velocity gradient modeling of the CO emission from both components and find that each component's properties are consistent with a single phase of molecular gas (i.e., a single temperatures and density); additional multi-phase modeling of the redshifted component, although motivated by a CO(1-0) size larger than the CO(3-2) size, is inconclusive. SMM J00266+1708 provides evidence of early stage mergers within the submillimeter galaxy population. Continuum observations of J00266 at the ∼1'' resolution of our observations could not have distinguished between the two components due to their separation (0.''73 ± 0.''06), illustrating that the additional velocity information provided by spectral line studies is important for addressing the prevalence of unresolved galaxy pairs in low-resolution submillimeter surveys.

  4. Status of a Novel 4-Band Submm/mm Camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid; Day, P.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S.; Kumar, S.; LeDuc, H. G.; Mazin, B.; Nguyen, H. T.; Schlaerth, J.; Vaillancourt, J. E.; Vayonakis, A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2007-12-01

    Submillimeter observations are important to the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Determination of the spectral energy distribution in the millimeter and submillimeter regimes allows important and powerful diagnostics. To this end, we are undertaking the construction of a 4-band (750, 850, 1100, 1300 microns) 8-arcminute field of view camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The focal plane will make use of three novel technologies: photolithographic phased array antennae, on-chip band-pass filters, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID). The phased array antenna design obviates beam-defining feed horns. On-chip band-pass filters eliminate band-defining metal-mesh filters. Together, the antennae and filters enable each spatial pixel to observe in all four bands simultaneously. MKIDs are highly multiplexable background-limited photon detectors. Readout of the MKID array will be done with software-defined radio (See poster by Max-Moerbeck et al.). This camera will provide an order-of-magnitude larger mapping speed than existing instruments and will be comparable to SCUBA 2 in terms of the detection rate for dusty sources, but complementary to SCUBA 2 in terms of wavelength coverage. We present results from an engineering run with a demonstration array, the baseline design for the science array, and the status of instrument design, construction, and testing. We anticipate the camera will be available at the CSO in 2010. This work has been supported by NASA ROSES APRA grants NNG06GG16G and NNG06GC71G, the NASA JPL Research and Technology Development Program, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  5. Measurement Results of the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 230 GHz and 460 GHz Balanced Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. W.; Monje, R. R.; Force, B. L.; Rice, F.; Miller, D.; Phillips, T. G.

    2010-03-01

    The Caltech Submillimeter observatory (CSO) is located on top of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4.2km. The existing suite of heterodyne receivers covering the submillimeter band is rapidly aging, and in need of replacement. To this extend we have developed a family of balanced receivers covering the astrophysical important 180-720 GHz atmospheric windows. For the CSO, wide IF bandwidth receivers are implemented in a balanced receiver configuration with dual frequency observation capability. This arrangement was opted to be an optimal compromise between scientific merit and finite funding. In principle, the balanced receiver configuration has the advantage that common mode amplitude noise in the LO system is canceled, while at the same time utilizing all available LO power. Both of these features facilitate the use of commercially available synthesized LO system. In combination with a 4 GHz IF bandwidth, the described receiver layout allows for rapid high resolution spectral line surveys. Dual frequency observation is another important mode of operation offered by the new facility instrumentation. Two band observations are accomplished by separating the H and V polarizations of the incoming signal and routing them via folded optics to the appropriate polarization sensitive balanced mixer. Scientifically this observation mode facilitates pointing for the higher receiver band under mediocre weather conditions and a doubling of scientific throughput (2 x 4 GHz) under good weather conditions. Not only do these changes greatly enhance the spectroscopic capabilities of the CSO, they also enable the observatory to be integrated into the Harvard-Smithsonian Submillimeter Array (eSMA) as an additional baseline. The upgrade of the 345 GHz/650 GHz dual band balanced receivers is not far behind. All the needed hardware has been procured, and commissioning is expected the summer of 2010. The SIS junctions are capable of a 2-12 GHz bandwidth.

  6. Examining Factors that Influence the Existence of Heinrich's Safety Triangle Using Site-Specific H&S Data from More than 25,000 Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorio, Patrick L; Moore, Susan M

    2018-04-01

    In the 1930s, Heinrich established one of the most prominent and enduring accident prevention theories when he concluded that high severity occupational safety and health (OSH) incidents are preceded by numerous lower severity incidents and near misses. Seventy-five years of theory expansion/interpretation includes two fundamental tenets: (1) the ratio of lower to higher severity incidents exists in the form of a "safety-triangle" and (2) similar causes underlie both high and low severity events. Although used extensively to inform public policy and establishment-level health and safety priorities, recent research challenges the validity of the two tenets. This study explored the validity of the first tenet, the existence of the safety triangle. The advantage of the current study is the use of a detailed, establishment-specific data set that evaluated over 25,000 establishments over a 13-year time period, allowing three specific questions to be explored: (1) Are an increased number of lower severity incidents at an establishment significantly associated with the probability of a fatal event over time? (2) At the establishment level, do the effects of OSH incidents on the probability of a fatality over time decrease as the degree of severity decreases-thereby taking the form of a triangle? and (3) Do distinct methods for delineating incidents by severity affect the existence of the safety triangle form? The answer to all three questions was yes with the triangle form being dependent upon how severity was delineated. The implications of these findings in regard to Heinrich's theory and OSH policy and management are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Compact Submillimeter-Wave Receivers Made with Semiconductor Nano-Fabrication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C.; Thomas, B.; Lee, C.; Peralta, A.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Gill, J.; Cooper, K.; Mehdi, I.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced semiconductor nanofabrication techniques are utilized to design, fabricate and demonstrate a super-compact, low-mass (<10 grams) submillimeter-wave heterodyne front-end. RF elements such as waveguides and channels are fabricated in a silicon wafer substrate using deep-reactive ion etching (DRIE). Etched patterns with sidewalls angles controlled with 1 deg precision are reported, while maintaining a surface roughness of better than 20 nm rms for the etched structures. This approach is being developed to build compact 2-D imaging arrays in the THz frequency range.

  8. Solar Flash Sub-Millimeter Wave Range Spectrum Part Radiation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Shustikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, solar flares are under observation on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU. This telescope operates in a little-studied range of the spectrum, at wavelengths of 3.2 and 2.2 mm (93 and 140 GHz, thereby providing unique information about parameters of the chromosphere plasma and zone of the temperature minimum. Observations on various instruments provided relatively small amount of data on the radio emission flare at frequencies close to 93 GHz, and at frequency of 140 GHz such observations were not carried out. For these reasons, data collected from the RT-7.5 radio telescope are of high value (Shustikov et al., 2012.This work describes modeling and gives interpretation of the reason for raising flux density spectrum of sub-millimeter radio frequency emission using as an example the GOES flare of class M 5.3 occurred on 04.07.2012 in the active region 11515. This flare was observed on the RT-7.5 radio telescope of BMSTU and was described by Shustikov et al. (2012 and by Smirnova et al. (2013, where it has been suggested that the reason for raising radio frequency emission is a bremsstrahlung of the thermal electrons in the hot plasma of the solar chromosphere. Rough estimates of the plasma temperature at the flare source were obtained.This paper proposes model calculations of the flux density spectrum of the sub-millimeter radio emission based on the gyrosynchrotron Fleischman-Kuznetsov code (Fleishman & Kuznetsov, 2010. Section 1 briefly describes observational data, tools and processing methods used in the work. Section 2 shows results of modeling the flare radio emission. Section 3 discusses results and conclusions.Numerical modeling the sub-millimeter part of the spectrum of the radio flux density for the GOES flare of class M5.3 has been carried out. This flare occurred in the active region 11515 on 04.07.2012. Modeling was based on the observations on the BMSTU’s RT-7.5 radio telescope.The paper draws conclusion based on the

  9. EMPIRICAL PREDICTIONS FOR (SUB-)MILLIMETER LINE AND CONTINUUM DEEP FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Cunha, Elisabete; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bertoldi, Frank [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Carilli, Chris [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Pete V. Domenici Array Science Center, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Sargent, Mark [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Maiolino, Roberto [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Riechers, Dominik [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Weiss, Axel, E-mail: cunha@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Modern (sub-)millimeter/radio interferometers such as ALMA, JVLA, and the PdBI successor NOEMA will enable us to measure the dust and molecular gas emission from galaxies that have luminosities lower than the Milky Way, out to high redshifts and with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. This will provide new constraints on the star formation properties and gas reservoir in galaxies throughout cosmic times through dedicated deep field campaigns targeting the CO/[C II] lines and dust continuum emission in the (sub-)millimeter regime. In this paper, we present empirical predictions for such line and continuum deep fields. We base these predictions on the deepest available optical/near-infrared Advanced Camera for Surveys and NICMOS data on the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (over an area of about 12 arcmin{sup 2}). Using a physically motivated spectral energy distribution model, we fit the observed optical/near-infrared emission of 13,099 galaxies with redshifts up to z = 5, and obtain median-likelihood estimates of their stellar mass, star formation rate, dust attenuation, and dust luminosity. We combine the attenuated stellar spectra with a library of infrared emission models spanning a wide range of dust temperatures to derive statistical constraints on the dust emission in the infrared and (sub-)millimeter which are consistent with the observed optical/near-infrared emission in terms of energy balance. This allows us to estimate, for each galaxy, the (sub-)millimeter continuum flux densities in several ALMA, PdBI/NOEMA, and JVLA bands. As a consistency check, we verify that the 850 {mu}m number counts and extragalactic background light derived using our predictions are consistent with previous observations. Using empirical relations between the observed CO/[C II] line luminosities and the infrared luminosity of star-forming galaxies, we infer the luminosity of the CO(1-0) and [C II] lines from the estimated infrared luminosity of each galaxy in our sample

  10. Stratospheric isotopic water profiles from a single submillimeter limb scan by TELIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Lange

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Around 490 GHz relatively strong HDO and H218O emission lines can be found in the submillimeter thermal-emission spectrum of the Earth's atmosphere, along with lines of the principal isotopologue of water vapour. These can be used for remote sensing of the rare/principal isotope ratio in the stratosphere. A sensitivity study has been performed for retrieval simulations of water isotopologues from balloon-borne measurements by the limb sounder TELIS (TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder. The study demonstrates the capability of TELIS to determine, from a single limb scan, the profiles for H218O and HDO between 20 km and 37 km with a retrieval error of ≈3 and a spatial resolution of 1.5 km, as determined by the width of the averaging kernel. In addition HDO can be retrieved in the range of 10–20 km, albeit with a strongly deteriorated retrieval error. Expected uncertainties in instrumental parameters have only limited impact on the retrieval results.

  11. Micro combustion in sub-millimeter channels for novel modular thermophotovoltaic power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J F; Tang, A K; Duan, L; Li, X C; Yang, W M; Chou, S K; Xue, H

    2010-01-01

    The performance of micro combustion-driven power systems is strongly influenced by the combustor structure. A novel modular thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generator is presented, which is based on the sub-millimeter parallel plate combustor. It has the potential to achieve a high power density because of the high radiation energy per unit volume due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the micro-combustor. The work experimentally investigated the ignition limitation for two micro-combustors. It also studied the effects of three major parameters on a sub-millimeter combustor, namely hydrogen to oxygen mixing ratio, hydrogen volumetric flow rate and nozzle geometry. The results show that the combustion efficiency decreases with the increase of the hydrogen flow rate, which is caused by reduced residence time. The average wall temperature with the rectangular nozzle is 25 K higher than that with the circle nozzle. The output electrical power and power density of the modular TPV power generator are projected to be 0.175 W and 0.0722 W cm −3 respectively. We experimentally achieve 0.166 W of electrical power, which is in good agreement with the model prediction

  12. Centralized operations and maintenance planning at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Guniat, Serge; Hernandez, Octavio; Gairing, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA consists of 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. Since the inauguration of the observatory back in March 2013 there has been a continuous effort to establish solid operations processes for effective and efficient management of technical and administrative tasks on site. Here a key aspect had been the centralized maintenance and operations planning: input is collected from science stakeholders, the computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) and from the technical teams spread around the world, then this information is analyzed and consolidated based on the established maintenance strategy, the observatory long-term plan and the short-term priorities definitions. This paper presents the high-level process that has been developed for the planning and scheduling of planned- and unplanned maintenance tasks, and for site operations like the telescope array reconfiguration campaigns. We focus on the centralized planning approach by presenting its genesis, its current implementation for the observatory operations including related planning products, and we explore the necessary next steps in order to fully achieve a comprehensive centralized planning approach for ALMA in steady-state operations.

  13. Development Of A Multicolor Sub/millimeter Camera Using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaerth, James A.; Czakon, N. G.; Day, P. K.; Downes, T. P.; Duan, R.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Hollister, M. I.; LeDuc, H. G.; Maloney, P. R.; Mazin, B. A.; Noroozian, O.; Sayers, J.; Siegel, S.; Vayonakis, A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting resonators useful for detecting light from the millimeter-wave to the X-ray. These detectors are easily multiplexed, as the resonances can be tuned to slightly different frequencies, allowing hundreds of detectors to be read out simultaneously using a single feedline. The Multicolor Submillimeter Inductance Camera, MUSIC, will use 2304 antenna-coupled MKIDs in multicolor operation, with bands centered at wavelengths of 0.85, 1.1, 1.3 and 2.0 mm, beginning in 2011. Here we present the results of our demonstration instrument, DemoCam, containing a single 3-color array with 72 detectors and optics similar to MUSIC. We present sensitivities achieved at the telescope, and compare to those expected based upon laboratory tests. We explore the factors that limit the sensitivity, in particular electronics noise, antenna efficiency, and excess loading. We discuss mitigation of these factors, and how we plan to improve sensitivity to the level of background-limited performance for the scientific operation of MUSIC. Finally, we note the expected mapping speed and contributions of MUSIC to astrophysics, and in particular to the study of submillimeter galaxies. This research has been funded by grants from the National Science Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program.

  14. The excess flux in the cosmic submillimeter background radiation and the primordial deuterium abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Guessoum, N.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) show an enhanced flux in the submillimeter regime, compared to the spectrum of a 2.7 K blackbody. Thermal Comptonization of the relic radiation by a hot nonrelativistic plasma has long been known to produce distortions in the CBR spectrum, similar to what has now been observed. Heating of the primeval plasma to temperatures T ∼ 10 6 - 10 8 K could result from the injection of subcosmic ray protons at epoch z ∼ 10--100. The intensity of the subcosmic ray flux that provide conditions needed to explain the submillimeter excess by thermal Comptonization also leads to the production of cosmologically significant amounts of deuterium in collisions between subcosmic ray protons and primordial protons and α-particles. However, the amount of lithium produced through α-α reactions is in conflict with the observed Li abundance. If lithium is depleted, for example, by processing through Population II stars, arguments for the baryon content of the universe based on primordial deuterium and He abundances are weakened. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. The status of MUSIC: the multiwavelength sub-millimeter inductance camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Jack; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matthew I.; Lam, Albert; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David A.; Mroczkowski, Anthony K.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien Trong; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth R.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2014-08-01

    The Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) is a four-band photometric imaging camera operating from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). MUSIC is designed to utilize 2304 microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs), with 576 MKIDs for each observing band centered on 150, 230, 290, and 350 GHz. MUSIC's field of view (FOV) is 14' square, and the point-spread functions (PSFs) in the four observing bands have 45'', 31'', 25'', and 22'' full-widths at half maximum (FWHM). The camera was installed in April 2012 with 25% of its nominal detector count in each band, and has subsequently completed three short sets of engineering observations and one longer duration set of early science observations. Recent results from on-sky characterization of the instrument during these observing runs are presented, including achieved map- based sensitivities from deep integrations, along with results from lab-based measurements made during the same period. In addition, recent upgrades to MUSIC, which are expected to significantly improve the sensitivity of the camera, are described.

  16. A DETAILED GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODEL BASED ON SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A HERSCHEL-ATLAS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4.243 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Smith, D. J. B.; Bonfield, D.; Dunne, L. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dye, S.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Auld, R. [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Fritz, J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A. [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Oesterreich (Austria); De Zotti, G. [Universita di Padova, Dipto di Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, IT 35122, Padova (Italy); Hopwood, R., E-mail: rbussmann@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-10

    We present high-spatial resolution imaging obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 880 {mu}m and the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system at the K{sub S}-band of a gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 4.243 discovered in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The SMA data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''6) resolve the dust emission into multiple lensed images, while the Keck AO K{sub S}-band data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''1) resolve the lens into a pair of galaxies separated by 0.''3. We present an optical spectrum of the foreground lens obtained with the Gemini-South telescope that provides a lens redshift of z{sub lens} = 0.595 {+-} 0.005. We develop and apply a new lens modeling technique in the visibility plane that shows that the SMG is magnified by a factor of {mu} = 4.1 {+-} 0.2 and has an intrinsic infrared (IR) luminosity of L{sub IR} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. We measure a half-light radius of the background source of r{sub s} = 4.4 {+-} 0.5 kpc which implies an IR luminosity surface density of {Sigma}{sub IR} (3.4 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, a value that is typical of z > 2 SMGs but significantly lower than IR luminous galaxies at z {approx} 0. The two lens galaxies are compact (r{sub lens} Almost-Equal-To 0.9 kpc) early-types with Einstein radii of {theta}{sub E1} 0.57 {+-} 0.01 and {theta}{sub E2} = 0.40 {+-} 0.01 that imply masses of M{sub lens1} = (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and M{sub lens2} = (3.7 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The two lensing galaxies are likely about to undergo a dissipationless merger, and the mass and size of the resultant system should be similar to other early-type galaxies at z {approx} 0.6. This work highlights the importance of high spatial resolution imaging in developing models of strongly lensed galaxies

  17. Collective CO2 laser scattering on moving discharge structures in the submillimeter range in a magnetohydrodynamic generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, J.C.M.; Schenkelaars, H.J.W.; vd Mortel, P.J.; Schram, D.C.; Veefkind, A.

    1986-01-01

    Collective scattering of CO/sub 2/ laser light on electrons is used to determine the radial scale length of the discharge structures occurring in a closed cycle magnetohydrodynamic generator. Heterodyne detection of scattered radiation is used to obtain a spatial resolution in the submillimeter

  18. Observing ice clouds in the submillimeter spectral range: the CloudIce mission proposal for ESA's Earth Explorer 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Buehler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive submillimeter-wave sensors are a way to obtain urgently needed global data on ice clouds, particularly on the so far poorly characterized "essential climate variable" ice water path (IWP and on ice particle size. CloudIce was a mission proposal to the European Space Agency ESA in response to the call for Earth Explorer 8 (EE8, which ran in 2009/2010. It proposed a passive submillimeter-wave sensor with channels ranging from 183 GHz to 664 GHz. The article describes the CloudIce mission proposal, with particular emphasis on describing the algorithms for the data-analysis of submillimeter-wave cloud ice data (retrieval algorithms and demonstrating their maturity. It is shown that we have a robust understanding of the radiative properties of cloud ice in the millimeter/submillimeter spectral range, and that we have a proven toolbox of retrieval algorithms to work with these data. Although the mission was not selected for EE8, the concept will be useful as a reference for other future mission proposals.

  19. The JCMT Transient Survey: Detection of Submillimeter Variability in a Class I Protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyunju; Cho, Jungyeon [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-Daero, Giheung-gu Yongin-shi, Gyunggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Mairs, Steve; Johnstone, Doug [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Herczeg, Gregory J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yiheyuan 5, Haidian Qu, 100871 Beijing (China); Kang, Sung-ju; Kang, Miju, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: JCMT Transient Team

    2017-11-01

    During the protostellar phase of stellar evolution, accretion onto the star is expected to be variable, but this suspected variability has been difficult to detect because protostars are deeply embedded. In this paper, we describe a submillimeter luminosity burst of the Class I protostar EC 53 in Serpens Main, the first variable found during our dedicated JCMT/SCUBA-2 monitoring program of eight nearby star-forming regions. EC 53 remained quiescent for the first six months of our survey, from 2016 February to August. The submillimeter emission began to brighten in 2016 September, reached a peak brightness of 1.5 times the faint state, and has been decaying slowly since 2017 February. The change in submillimeter brightness is interpreted as dust heating in the envelope, generated by a luminosity increase of the protostar of a factor of ≥4. The 850 μ m light curve resembles the historical K -band light curve, which varies by a factor of ∼6 with a 543 period and is interpreted as accretion variability excited by interactions between the accretion disk and a close binary system. The predictable detections of accretion variability observed at both near-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths make the system a unique test-bed, enabling us to capture the moment of the accretion burst and to study the consequences of the outburst on the protostellar disk and envelope.

  20. The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) - A Successful Three-Way International Partnership Without a Majority Stakeholder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bout, Paul A.

    2013-04-01

    The Atacama Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is the largest ground-based astronomical facility built to date. It's size and challenging site required an international effort. This talk presents the partnership structure, management challenges, current status, and examples of early scientific successes.

  1. LOOKING INTO THE HEARTS OF BOK GLOBULES: MILLIMETER AND SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM IMAGES OF ISOLATED STAR-FORMING CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launhardt, R.; Henning, Th.; Khanzadyan, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Wolf, S.; Nutter, D.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bourke, T. L.; Zylka, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter continuum emission study of isolated low-mass star-forming cores in 32 Bok globules, with the aim to investigate the process of star formation in these regions. The submillimeter and millimeter dust continuum emission maps together with the spectral energy distributions are used to model and derive the physical properties of the star-forming cores, such as luminosities, sizes, masses, densities, etc. Comparisons with ground-based near-infrared and space-based mid- and far-infrared images from Spitzer are used to reveal the stellar content of the Bok globules, association of embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) with the submillimeter dust cores, and the evolutionary stages of the individual sources. Submillimeter dust continuum emission was detected in 26 out of the 32 globule cores observed. For 18 globules with detected (sub)millimeter cores, we derive evolutionary stages and physical parameters of the embedded sources. We identify nine starless cores, most of which are presumably prestellar, nine Class 0 protostars, and twelve Class I YSOs. Specific source properties like bolometric temperature, core size, and central densities are discussed as a function of evolutionary stage. We find that at least two thirds (16 out of 24) of the star-forming globules studied here show evidence of forming multiple stars on scales between 1000 and 50,000 AU. However, we also find that most of these small prototstar and star groups are comprised of sources with different evolutionary stages, suggesting a picture of slow and sequential star formation in isolated globules.

  2. Application of an ultrasonic focusing radiator for acoustic levitation of submillimeter samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    An acoustic apparatus has been specifically developed to handle samples of submillimeter size in a gaseous medium. This apparatus consists of an acoustic levitation device, deployment devices for small liquid and solid samples, heat sources for sample heat treatment, acoustic alignment devices, a cooling system and data-acquisition instrumentation. The levitation device includes a spherical aluminum dish of 12 in. diameter and 0.6 in. thickness, 130 pieces of PZT transducers attached to the back side of the dish and a spherical concave reflector situated in the vicinity of the center of curvature of the dish. The three lowest operating frequencies for the focusing-radiator levitation device are 75, 105 and 163 kHz, respectively. In comparison with other levitation apparatus, it possesses a large radiation pressure and a high lateral positional stability. This apparatus can be used most advantageously in the study of droplets and spherical shell systems, for instance, for fusion target applications.

  3. A dynamic method for continuously measuring magnetic field profiles in planar micropole undulators with submillimeter gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1989-01-01

    Conventional techniques for measuring magnetic field profiles in ordinary undulators rely predominantly on Hall probes for making point-by-point static measurements. As undulators with submillimeter periods and gaps become available, such techniques will start becoming untenable, due to the relative largeness of conventional Hall probe heads and the rapidly increasing number of periods in devices of fixed length. In this paper a method is presented which can rapidly map out field profiles in undulators with periods and gaps extending down to the 100 μm range and beyond. The method, which samples the magnetic field continuously, has been used successfully in profiling a recently constructed 726 μm period undulator, and seems to offer some potential advantages over conventional Hall probe techniques in measuring large-scale undulator fields as well. (orig.)

  4. A millisecond-risetime sub-millimeter light source for lab and in flight bolometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbon, Ph.; Delbart, A.; Fesquet, M.; Magneville, C.; Mazeau, B.; Pansart, J.-P.; Yvon, D.; Dumoulin, L.; Marnieros, S.; Camus, Ph.; Durand, T.; Hoffmann, Ch.

    2007-06-01

    The Olimpo balloon project will use a 120 bolometer camera to observe the sky at four frequencies (143, 217, 385 and 600 GHz) with a resolution of 3 to 2 arc-minute. This paper presents the sub-millimeter calibration "lamp" developed for ground testing and in-flight secondary calibration of bolometric detectors. By design, main features of the device are reproducibility and stability of light flux and millisecond rise time. The radiative device will be placed inside the bolometer camera and will illuminate the bolometer array through a hole in the last 2 K mirror. Operation, readout, and monitoring of the device is ensured by warm electronics. Light output flux and duration is programmable, triggered and monitored from a simple computer RS232 interface. It was tested to be reliable in ballooning temperature conditions from -80 to 50C. Design and test's results are explained.

  5. Far-infrared and submillimeter brightness temperatures of the giant planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, R.H.; Loewenstein, R.F.; Harper, D.A.; Orton, G.S.; Keene, J.; Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI; California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

    1985-01-01

    The brightness temperatures of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were measured in the 35-1000 micron range with the 3-m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (at wavelengths greater than 350 microns) and with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (at wavelengths less than 350 microns). The data indicate the presence in Jupiter's spectrum of excess radiation (compared to theoretical models) at 300-400 microns. In addition, slightly less flux was observed from Saturn at 200 microns than predicted by atmospheric models, which suggests the possible presence of an unmodeled absorber. The submillimeter fluxes from Uranus and Neptune appear to be most consistent with low mixing ratios (less than 1 percent) of CH 4 in their deep atmospheres. 73 refs

  6. Fabrication and Testing of Carbon Fiber, Graphite-Epoxy Panels for Submillimeter Telescope Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, H.; Helwig, G.; Parks, R. E.; Ulich, B. L.

    1983-12-01

    An experimental carbon-fiber, graphite-epoxy, aluminum Flexcore sandwich panel roughly 1-m square was made by Dornier System, Friedrichshafen, West Germany. The panel was a pre-prototype of the panels to be used in the dish of the 10-m diameter Sub-Millimeter Telescope, a joint project of the Max-Planck-Institute fur Radioastronomie, Bonn, West Germany, and Steward Observatory, the University of Arizona in Tucson. This paper outlines the fabrication process for the panel and indicates the surface accuracy of the panel replication process. To predict the behavior of the panel under various environmental loads, the panel was modeled structurally using anisotropic elements for the core material. Results of this analysis along with experimental verification of these predictions are also given.

  7. In situ production of microporous foams in sub-millimeter cylindrical gold targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yongheng; Luo Xuan; Fang Yu; Ren Hongbo; Yuan Guanghui; Wang Honglian; Zhou Lan; Zhang Lin; Du Kai

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of microcellular foam in sub-millimeter cylindrical gold targets is described. Small, open-ended, gold cylinders of 400 μm diameter, 700 μm length, and 20 μm wall thickness were fabricated by electroplating gold onto a silicon bronze mandrel and leaching the mandrel with concentrated nitric acid. After several rinsing and cleaning steps, the cylinders were filled with a solution containing acrylate monomers. The solution was polymerized in situ with ultraviolet light to produce a gel. Precipitation of these gels in a non-solvent such as methanol and subsequent drying by means of a critical point drying apparatus produced cylinders filled with microporous foams. The foams have densities of 50 mg · cm -3 and cell sizes on more than 1 μm. They fill the cylinders completely without shrinkage during the drying process, and need no subsequent machining. (authors)

  8. Submillimeter vibrationally excited water emission from the peculiar red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, K. M.; Philipp, S. D.; Güsten, R.; Alcolea, J.; Polehampton, E. T.; Brünken, S.

    2006-08-01

    Context: .Vibrationally excited emission from the SiO and H2O molecules probes the innermost circumstellar envelopes of oxygen-rich red giant and supergiant stars. VY CMa is the most prolific known emission source in these molecules. Aims: .Observations were made to search for rotational lines in the lowest vibrationally excited state of H2O. Methods: .The APEX telescope was used for observations of H2O lines at frequencies around 300 GHz. Results: .Two vibrationally excited H2O lines were detected, a third one could not be found. In one of the lines we find evidence for weak maser action, similar to known (sub)millimeter ν2 = 1 lines. We find that the other line's intensity is consistent with thermal excitation by the circumstellar infrared radiation field. Several SiO lines were detected together with the H2O lines.

  9. Logarithmic unification from symmetries enhanced in the sub-millimeter infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Dimopoulos, Savas; March-Russell, John

    1999-01-01

    In theories with TeV string scale and sub-millimeter extra dimensions the attractive picture of logarithmic gauge coupling unification at 10 16 GeV is seemingly destroyed. In this paper we argue to the contrary that logarithmic unification can occur in such theories. The rationale for unification is no longer that a gauge symmetry is restored at short distances, but rather that a geometric symmetry is restored at large distances in the bulk away from our 3-brane. The apparent ''running'' of the gauge couplings to energies far above the string scale actually arises from the logarithmic variation of classical fields in (sets of) two large transverse dimensions. We present a number of N = 2 and N = 1 supersymmetric D-brane constructions illustrating this picture for unification

  10. Submillimeter laboratory identification of CH{sup +} and CH{sub 2}D{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, T. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-01-22

    Laboratory identification of two basic and important interstellar molecular ions is presented. The J = 1 - 0 rotational transition of {sup 12}CH{sup +} together with those of {sup 13}CH{sup +} and {sup 12}CD{sup +} was observed in the laboratory. The newly obtained frequencies were found to be different from those reported previously. Various experimental evidences firmly support the new measurements. In addition, the Zeeman effect and the spin-rotation hyperfine interaction enforce the laboratory identification with no ambiguity. Rotational lines of CH{sub 2}D{sup +} were observed in the submillimeter-wave region. This laboratory observation is consistent with a recent tentative identification of CH{sub 2}D{sup +} toward Ori IRc2.

  11. Infrared and submillimeter space missions in the coming decade programmes, programmatics, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvage, Marc; Gallais, Pascal; Vigroux, Laurent

    1996-01-01

    A revolution similar to that brought by CCDs to visible astronomy is still ahead in IR and submillimeter astronomy. There is certainly no wavelength range which has, over the past several years, seen such impressive advances in technology: large-scale detector arrays, new designs for cooling in space, lightweight mirror technologies. Scientific cases for observing the cold universe are outstanding. Observations in the FIR/Submm range will provide answers to such fundamental questions as: What is the spectrum of the primordial fluctuations? How do primeval galaxies look? What are the first stages of star formation? Most of the international space missions that have been triggered by these questions are presented in detail here. Technological issues raised by these missions are reviewed, as are the most recent achievements in cooling and detector technologies.

  12. Discovery of a Lensed Ultrabright Submillimeter Galaxy at z = 2.0439

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, A.; Iglesias-Groth, S.; Rebolo, R.; Dannerbauer, H.

    2017-07-01

    We report an ultrabright lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.0439, WISE J132934.18+224327.3, identified as a result of a full-sky cross-correlation of the AllWISE and Planck compact source catalogs aimed to search for bright analogs of the SMG SMM J2135, the Cosmic Eyelash. Inspection of archival SCUBA-2 observations of the candidates revealed a source with fluxes ({S}850μ {{m}}=130 mJy) consistent with the Planck measurements. The centroid of the SCUBA-2 source coincides within 1 arcsec with the position of the AllWISE mid-IR source, and, remarkably, with an arc-shaped lensed galaxy in HST images at visible wavelengths. Low-resolution rest-frame UV-optical spectroscopy of this lensed galaxy obtained with 10.4 m GTC reveals the typical absorption lines of a starburst galaxy. Gemini-N near-IR spectroscopy provided a clear detection of {{{H}}}α emission. The lensed source appears to be gravitationally magnified by a massive foreground galaxy cluster lens at z = 0.44 modeling with Lenstool indicates a lensing amplification factor of 11 ± 2. We determine an intrinsic rest-frame 8-1000 μm luminosity, {L}{IR}, of (1.3+/- 0.1)× {10}13 {L}⊙ , and a likely star formation rate (SFR) of ˜ 500{--}2000 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The SED shows a remarkable similarity with the Cosmic Eyelash from optical-mid/IR to submillimeter/radio, albeit at higher fluxes.

  13. Imaging the environment of a z = 6.3 submillimeter galaxy with SCUBA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, E. I.; Holland, W. S. [United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J. [European Space Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Geach, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Gibb, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Riechers, D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [Astronomy and Instrumentation Group, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Bintley, D. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North Ahoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bock, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Chapin, E. L. [XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Apartado 79, E-28691 Villaneueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Coburg Road, Halifax B3H 1A6 (Canada); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D., E-mail: rob.ivison@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); and others

    2014-09-20

    We describe a search for submillimeter emission in the vicinity of one of the most distant, luminous galaxies known, HerMES FLS3, at z = 6.34, exploiting it as a signpost to a potentially biased region of the early universe, as might be expected in hierarchical structure formation models. Imaging to the confusion limit with the innovative, wide-field submillimeter bolometer camera, SCUBA-2, we are sensitive to colder and/or less luminous galaxies in the surroundings of HFLS3. We use the Millennium Simulation to illustrate that HFLS3 may be expected to have companions if it is as massive as claimed, but find no significant evidence from the surface density of SCUBA-2 galaxies in its vicinity, or their colors, that HFLS3 marks an overdensity of dusty, star-forming galaxies. We cannot rule out the presence of dusty neighbors with confidence, but deeper 450 μm imaging has the potential to more tightly constrain the redshifts of nearby galaxies, at least one of which likely lies at z ≳ 5. If associations with HFLS3 can be ruled out, this could be taken as evidence that HFLS3 is less biased than a simple extrapolation of the Millennium Simulation may imply. This could suggest either that it represents a rare short-lived, but highly luminous, phase in the evolution of an otherwise typical galaxy, or that this system has suffered amplification due to a foreground gravitational lens and so is not as intrinsically luminous as claimed.

  14. Diffusion in and around alginate and chitosan films with embedded sub-millimeter voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Subhajit; Bal, Dharmendra Kumar; Ganguly, Somenath, E-mail: snganguly@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogel scaffolds from biopolymers have potential use in the controlled release of drugs, and as 3-D structure for the formation of tissue matrix. This article describes the solute release behavior of alginate and chitosan films with embedded voids of sub-millimeter dimensions. Nitrogen gas was bubbled in a fluidic arrangement to generate bubbles, prior to the crosslinking. The crosslinked gel was dried in a vacuum oven, and subsequently, soaked in Vitamin B-12 solution. The dimensions of the voids immediately after the cross-linking of gel, and also after complete drying were obtained using a digital microscope and scanning electron microscope respectively. The porosity of the gel was measured gravimetrically. The release of Vitamin B-12 in PBS buffer on a shaker was studied. The release experiments were repeated at an elevated temperature of 37 °C in the presence of lysozyme. The diffusion coefficient within the gel layer and the mass transfer coefficient at the interface with the bulk-liquid were estimated using a mathematical model. For comparison, the experiment was repeated with a film that does not have any embedded void. The enhancement in diffusion coefficient due to the presence of voids is discussed in this article. - Highlights: • Formation of sub-millimeter voids in biopolymer films using fluidic arrangement • The retention of self-assembled bubbles in films after crosslinking, and drying • The enhancement observed in release of model drug with introduction of voids • The diffusion coefficients in and around biopolymer films from model regression • Use of classical model in explaining release profiles from dual porosity media.

  15. Advantages of cortical surface reconstruction using submillimeter 7 T MEMPRAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Fischl, Bruce; Reuter, Martin; Renvall, Ville; Polimeni, Jonathan R

    2018-01-15

    Recent advances in MR technology have enabled increased spatial resolution for routine functional and anatomical imaging, which has created demand for software tools that are able to process these data. The availability of high-resolution data also raises the question of whether higher resolution leads to substantial gains in accuracy of quantitative morphometric neuroimaging procedures, in particular the cortical surface reconstruction and cortical thickness estimation. In this study we adapted the FreeSurfer cortical surface reconstruction pipeline to process structural data at native submillimeter resolution. We then quantified the differences in surface placement between meshes generated from (0.75 mm) 3 isotropic resolution data acquired in 39 volunteers and the same data downsampled to the conventional 1 mm 3 voxel size. We find that when processed at native resolution, cortex is estimated to be thinner in most areas, but thicker around the Cingulate and the Calcarine sulci as well as in the posterior bank of the Central sulcus. Thickness differences are driven by two kinds of effects. First, the gray-white surface is found closer to the white matter, especially in cortical areas with high myelin content, and thus low contrast, such as the Calcarine and the Central sulci, causing local increases in thickness estimates. Second, the gray-CSF surface is placed more interiorly, especially in the deep sulci, contributing to local decreases in thickness estimates. We suggest that both effects are due to reduced partial volume effects at higher spatial resolution. Submillimeter voxel sizes can therefore provide improved accuracy for measuring cortical thickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. THE HAWAII SCUBA-2 LENSING CLUSTER SURVEY: NUMBER COUNTS AND SUBMILLIMETER FLUX RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chen, Chian-Chou [Center for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Wang, Wei-Hao [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-20

    We present deep number counts at 450 and 850 μ m using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We combine data for six lensing cluster fields and three blank fields to measure the counts over a wide flux range at each wavelength. Thanks to the lensing magnification, our measurements extend to fluxes fainter than 1 mJy and 0.2 mJy at 450 μ m and 850 μ m, respectively. Our combined data highly constrain the faint end of the number counts. Integrating our counts shows that the majority of the extragalactic background light (EBL) at each wavelength is contributed by faint sources with L {sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L {sub ⊙}, corresponding to luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) or normal galaxies. By comparing our result with the 500 μ m stacking of K -selected sources from the literature, we conclude that the K -selected LIRGs and normal galaxies still cannot fully account for the EBL that originates from sources with L {sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L {sub ⊙}. This suggests that many faint submillimeter galaxies may not be included in the UV star formation history. We also explore the submillimeter flux ratio between the two bands for our 450 μ m and 850 μ m selected sources. At 850 μ m, we find a clear relation between the flux ratio and the observed flux. This relation can be explained by a redshift evolution, where galaxies at higher redshifts have higher luminosities and star formation rates. In contrast, at 450 μ m, we do not see a clear relation between the flux ratio and the observed flux.

  17. The CCAT-prime Extreme Field-of-View Submillimeter Telescope on Cerro Chajnantor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Brian; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Fich, Michel; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Herter, Terry L.; Murray, Norman W.; Niemack, Michael D.; Riechers, Dominik; Schilke, Peter; Stacey, Gordon J.; Stutzki, Juergen; CCAT-prime Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    CCAT-prime is a six meter aperture off-axis submillimeter telescope that we plan to build at 5600m elevation on Cerro Chajnantor in Chile. The CCAT-prime optics are based on a cross-Dragone design with high throughput and a wide field-of-view optimized to increase the mapping speed of next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. These characteristics make CCAT-prime an excellent platform for a wide range of next generation millimeter and submillimeter science goals, and a potential platform for CMB stage-IV measurements. Here we present the telescope design for CCAT-prime and review the science goals.Taking advantage of the high elevation site, the first generation instrument for CCAT-prime will measure seven different frequency bands from 350um to 3mm. These seven bands will enable precise measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects (SZE) by separating contributions from CMB, thermal SZE, kinetic SZE, bright submm galaxies, and radio sources with a goal of extracting the peculiar velocities from a large number of galaxy clusters. Additional science priorities for CCAT-prime include: Galactic Ecology studies of the dynamic intersteller medium by mapping the fine structure lines [CI], [CII] and [NII] as well as high-excitation CO lines at the shortest wavelength bands; high redshift intensity mapping of [CII] emission from star-forming galaxies that likely dominates cosmic reionization at z~5-9 to probe the Epoch of Reionization; and next generation CMB polarization measurements to constrain inflation and cosmological models. The CCAT-prime facility will further our understanding of astrophysical processes from moments after the Big Bang to the present-day evolution of the Milky Way.

  18. Sub-millimeter scale magnetostratigraphy and environmental magnetism of ferromanganese crusts using a scanning SQUID microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, H.; Noguchi, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Usui, A.; Ito, T.; Kawai, J.; Takahashi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Ferromanganese crusts are chemical sedimentary rock composed mainly of iron-manganese oxide. Because the ferromanganese crusts grow very slowly on the sea floor at rates of 3-10 mm/Ma, long-term deep-sea environmental changes can be reconstructed from the ferromanganese crusts. Thus, it is important to provide reliable age model for the crusts. For the past decades 10Be/9Be dating method has been used extensively to give age models for crusts younger than 15 Ma. Alternatively, sub-millimeter scale magnetostratigraphic study on a ferromanganese crust sample using a scanning SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) microscope (Kawai et al., 2016; Oda et al., 2016) has been applied successfully (e.g. Oda et al., 2011; Noguchi et al. 2017). Also, environmental magnetic mapping was successful for the ferromanganese crust from the Takuyo Daigo Seamount (Noguchi et al., 2017). The ferromanganese crust used in this study was sampled from the Hanzawa Seamount, Ryukyu trench and the Shotoku Seamount. The vertical component of the magnetic field above thin section samples of the ferromanganese crust was measured using the scanning SQUID microscope on 100 μm grids. Magnetic mapping of the Hanzawa Seamount shows sub-millimeter scale magnetic stripes parallel to lamina. By correlating the boundaries of magnetic stripes with known geomagnetic reversals, we estimated that average growth rate of the Hanzawa Seamount is 2.67 +/- 0.04 mm/Ma , which is consistent with that deduced from the 10Be/9Be dating method (2.56 +/- 0.04 mm/Ma). The crust sample from the Shotoku Seamount used by Oda et al. (2011) shows prominent periodical lamination. Further details are going to be discussed together with the environmental magnetic mapping.

  19. CORRELATIONS IN THE (SUB)MILLIMETER BACKGROUND FROM ACT Multiplication-Sign BLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Viero, Marco P.; Bock, James J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Addison, Graeme [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Aguirre, Paula [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew [Laboratoire APC, Universite Paris Diderot, 75205 Paris (France); Hilton, Matt [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); and others

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 {mu}m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg{sup 2} in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25{sigma} significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4{sigma}, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

  20. Imaging the environment of a z = 6.3 submillimeter galaxy with SCUBA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, E. I.; Holland, W. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian; Geach, J. E.; Gibb, A. G.; Riechers, D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bintley, D.; Bock, J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Cooray, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Farrah, D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a search for submillimeter emission in the vicinity of one of the most distant, luminous galaxies known, HerMES FLS3, at z = 6.34, exploiting it as a signpost to a potentially biased region of the early universe, as might be expected in hierarchical structure formation models. Imaging to the confusion limit with the innovative, wide-field submillimeter bolometer camera, SCUBA-2, we are sensitive to colder and/or less luminous galaxies in the surroundings of HFLS3. We use the Millennium Simulation to illustrate that HFLS3 may be expected to have companions if it is as massive as claimed, but find no significant evidence from the surface density of SCUBA-2 galaxies in its vicinity, or their colors, that HFLS3 marks an overdensity of dusty, star-forming galaxies. We cannot rule out the presence of dusty neighbors with confidence, but deeper 450 μm imaging has the potential to more tightly constrain the redshifts of nearby galaxies, at least one of which likely lies at z ≳ 5. If associations with HFLS3 can be ruled out, this could be taken as evidence that HFLS3 is less biased than a simple extrapolation of the Millennium Simulation may imply. This could suggest either that it represents a rare short-lived, but highly luminous, phase in the evolution of an otherwise typical galaxy, or that this system has suffered amplification due to a foreground gravitational lens and so is not as intrinsically luminous as claimed.

  1. Design considerations for large detector arrays on submillimeter-wave telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Antony A.

    2000-07-01

    The emerging technology of large (approximately 10,000 pixel) submillimeter-wave bolometer arrays presents a novel optical design problem -- how can such arrays be fed by diffraction- limited telescope optics where the primary mirror is less than 100,000 wavelengths in diameter? Standard Cassegrain designs for radiotelescope optics exhibit focal surface curvature so large that detectors cannot be placed more than 25 beam diameters from the central ray. The problem is worse for Ritchey-Chretien designs, because these minimize coma while increasing field curvature. Classical aberrations, including coma, are usually dominated by diffraction in submillimeter- wave single dish telescopes. The telescope designer must consider (1) diffraction, (2) aberration, (3) curvature of field, (4) cross-polarization, (5) internal reflections, (6) the effect of blockages, (7) means of beam chopping on- and off-source, (8) gravitational and thermal deformations of the primary mirror, (9) the physical mounting of large detector packages, and (10) the effect of gravity and (11) vibration on those detectors. Simultaneous optimization of these considerations in the case of large detector arrays leads to telescopes that differ considerably from standard radiotelescope designs. Offset optics provide flexibility for mounting detectors, while eliminating blockage and internal reflections. Aberrations and cross-polarization can be the same as on-axis designs having the same diameter and focal length. Trade-offs include the complication of primary mirror homology and an increase in overall cost. A dramatic increase in usable field of view can be achieved using shaped optics. Solutions having one to six mirrors will be discussed, including possible six-mirror design for the proposed South Pole 10 m telescope.

  2. HerMES: Spectral energy distributions of submillimeter galaxies at z > 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Clements, D. L.; Dai, Y.; Fazio, G. G.; Bock, J. J.; Burgarella, D.; Chapman, S.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Glenn, J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A. J.; Wang, L.; Page, M.; Symeonidis, M.; Riechers, D.; Roseboom, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the infrared properties for a sample of seven spectroscopically confirmed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z > 4.0. By combining ground-based near-infrared, Spitzer IRAC and MIPS, Herschel SPIRE, and ground-based submillimeter/millimeter photometry, we construct their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and a composite model to fit the SEDs. The model includes a stellar emission component at λ rest < 3.5 μm, a hot dust component peaking at λ rest ∼ 5 μm, and cold dust component which becomes significant for λ rest > 50 μm. Six objects in the sample are detected at 250 and 350 μm. The dust temperatures for the sources in this sample are in the range of 40-80 K, and their L FIR ∼ 10 13 L ☉ qualifies them as hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. The mean FIR-radio index for this sample is around (q) = 2.2 indicating no radio excess in their radio emission. Most sources in the sample have 24 μm detections corresponding to a rest-frame 4.5 μm luminosity of Log 10 (L 4.5 /L ☉ ) = 11 ∼ 11.5. Their L 4.5 /L FIR ratios are very similar to those of starburst-dominated SMGs at z ∼ 2. The L CO – L FIR relation for this sample is consistent with that determined for local ULIRGs and SMGs at z ∼ 2. We conclude that SMGs at z > 4 are hotter and more luminous in the FIR but otherwise very similar to those at z ∼ 2. None of these sources show any sign of the strong QSO phase being triggered.

  3. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A.; De Breuck, C.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Knudsen, K. K.; Poggianti, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z phot = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z phot = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M * = (8 ± 1) × 10 10 M ☉ , although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M H distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  4. An ALMA survey of submillimeter galaxies in the extended Chandra deep field south: The redshift distribution and evolution of submillimeter galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J. M.; Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Thomson, A. P. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bertoldi, F.; Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Breuck, C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Straße, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Da Cunha, E.; Hodge, J. A.; Schinnerer, E. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dannerbauer, H. [Universität Wien, Institut für Astrophysik, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Knudsen, K. K. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Poggianti, B. M., E-mail: j.m.simpson@dur.ac.uk [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-06-20

    We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z {sub phot} = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ∼ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z {sub phot} = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M {sub *} = (8 ± 1) × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ∼100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ∼ 0 would have a space density and M{sub H} distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.

  5. From cyclic ice streaming to Heinrich-like events: the grow-and-surge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Feldmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available >Here we report on a cyclic, physical ice-discharge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, simulating the flow of a three-dimensional, inherently buttressed ice-sheet-shelf system which periodically surges on a millennial timescale. The thermomechanically coupled model on 1 km horizontal resolution includes an enthalpy-based formulation of the thermodynamics, a nonlinear stress-balance-based sliding law and a very simple subglacial hydrology. The simulated unforced surging is characterized by rapid ice streaming through a bed trough, resulting in abrupt discharge of ice across the grounding line which is eventually calved into the ocean. We visualize the central feedbacks that dominate the subsequent phases of ice buildup, surge and stabilization which emerge from the interaction between ice dynamics, thermodynamics and the subglacial till layer. Results from the variation of surface mass balance and basal roughness suggest that ice sheets of medium thickness may be more susceptible to surging than relatively thin or thick ones for which the surge feedback loop is damped. We also investigate the influence of different basal sliding laws (ranging from purely plastic to nonlinear to linear on possible surging. The presented mechanisms underlying our simulations of self-maintained, periodic ice growth and destabilization may play a role in large-scale ice-sheet surging, such as the surging of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which is associated with Heinrich events, and ice-stream shutdown and reactivation, such as observed in the Siple Coast region of West Antarctica.

  6. Wolfgang Bargmann (1906-1978) and Heinrich von Hayek (1900-1969): careers in anatomy continuing through German National Socialism to postwar leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    None of the existing studies on the history of anatomy in National Socialism (NS) has yet explored the careers of those younger anatomists, whose professional development continued through NS times and who attained prominence in postwar German and Austrian anatomy. As they became modern anatomists' teachers and role models, the revelation that men like Wolfgang Bargmann and Heinrich von Hayek had used bodies of the executed for research in their early careers has recently led to some consternation. This study contributes to the analysis of the moral challenges inherent to a science that relies on work with "material" from human bodies and its interaction with its political environment. The results reveal that Bargmann and Hayek behaved like most other anatomists at the time, in that they used bodies of the executed for research and in that they joined the NS party or other NS political groups. As ambitious and successful young anatomists they may have felt that an early joining of NS affiliations was inevitable for the advancement of their careers. They and most of their colleagues became in some measure complicit with the NS regime. The complicated biographical realities of such luminous postwar figures as Bargmann and Hayek should lead modern anatomists to the questioning of their own ethical and political decisions in politically less demanding times. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The next generation balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope (BLAST-TNG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dober, Bradley Jerald

    Large areas of astrophysics, such as precision cosmology, have benefited greatly from large maps and datasets, yielded by telescopes of ever-increasing number and ability. However, due to the unique challenges posed by submillimeter polarimetry, the study of molecular cloud dynamics and star formation remain stunted. Previously, polarimetry data was limited to a few vectors on only the brightest areas of molecular clouds. This made drawing statistically-driven conclusions a daunting task. However, the successful flight of the Balloon-born Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) generated maps with thousands of independent polarization measurements of molecular clouds, and ushered in a new era of empirical modeling of molecular cloud dynamics. Now that the potential benefits from large-scale maps of magnetic fields in molecular clouds had been identified, a successor that would truly unlock the secrets must be born. The Next Generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST-TNG), the successor to BLASTPol, has the ability to make larger and more detailed maps of magnetic fields in molecular clouds. It will push the field of star formation into a statistics-driven, empirical realm. With these large, detailed datasets, astronomers will be able to find new relationships between the dust dynamics and the magnetic fields. The field will surge to a new level of understanding. One of the key enabling technologies of BLAST-TNG is its three arrays of polarization-sensitive Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting RLC circuits with a resonant frequency that shifts proportionally to the amount of incident radiation. The key feature of MKIDs is that thousands of detectors, each with their own unique resonant frequency, can be coupled to the same readout line. This technology will be able to drive the production of large-scale monolithic arrays, containing tens or hundreds of thousands of detectors

  8. The Overdense Environments of WISE-Selected, Ultra-Luminous, High-Redshift AGN in the Submillimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Suzy F., E-mail: suzy.jones@chalmers.se [Department of Space, Earth, and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, Onsala (Sweden)

    2017-11-21

    The environments around WISE-selected hot dust obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) and WISE/radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at average redshifts of z = 2.7 and z = 1.7, respectively, were found to have overdensities of companion Submillimeter-selected sources. The overdensities were of ~2–3 and ~5–6, respectively, compared with blank field submm surveys. The space densities in both samples were found to be overdense compared to normal star-forming galaxies and Submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). All of the companion sources have consistent mid-IR colors and mid-IR to submm ratios to SMGs. Monte Carlo simulations show no angular correlation, which could indicate protoclusters on scales larger than the SCUBA-2 1.5 arcmin scale maps. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be good indicators of overdense areas of active galaxies at high redshift.

  9. Transition-Edge Hot-Electron Microbolometers for Millimeter and Submillimeter Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Stevenson, Thomas; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Barrentine, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The millimeter and the submillimeter wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum hold a wealth of information about the evolution of the universe. In particular, cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and its polarization carry the oldest information in the universe, and provide the best test of the inflationary paradigm available to astronomy today. Detecting gravity waves through their imprint on the CMB polarization would have extraordinary repercussions for cosmology and physics. A transition-edge hot-electron micro - bolometer (THM) consists of a superconducting bilayer transition-edge sensor (TES) with a thin-film absorber. Unlike traditional monolithic bolometers that make use of micromachined structures, the THM em ploys the decoupling between electrons and phonons at millikelvin temperatures to provide thermal isolation. The devices are fabricated photolithographically and are easily integrated with antennas via microstrip transmission lines, and with SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) readouts. The small volume of the absorber and TES produces a short thermal time constant that facilitates rapid sky scanning. The THM consists of a thin-film metal absorber overlapping a superconducting TES. The absorber forms the termination of a superconducting microstripline that carries RF power from an antenna. The purpose of forming a separate absorber and TES is to allow flexibility in the optimization of the two components. In particular, the absorbing film's impedance can be chosen to match the antenna, while the TES impedance can be chosen to match to the readout SQUID amplifier. This scheme combines the advantages of the TES with the advantages of planar millimeter-wave transmission line circuits. Antenna-coupling to the detectors via planar transmission lines allows the detector dimensions to be much smaller than a wavelength, so the technique can be extended across the entire microwave, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelength ranges. The

  10. Submillimeter residual losses in high-Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Bolometry was used obtain accurate submillimeter residual loss data for epitaxial films of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO), Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10, Tl2CaBa2Cu2O8 (TCBCO), and Ba0.6K0.4BiO3 (BKBO). We were able to fit the absorptivity measured for Nb films to an Eliashberg strong coupling calculation; excellent agreement resulted between parameters from best fits and measured Residual Resistivity Ratio. Microwave surface resistance measurements made on the same YBCO and TCBCO films are in excellent agreement with submillimeter measurements. Absorptivities for all YBCO films studied are qualitatively similar, increasing smoothly with frequency, with no gap-like features below the well known absorption edge at 450 cm-1. Losses in YBCO films were fit to a weakly coupled grain model for the a-b plane conductivity. Strong phonon structure was observed in TCBCO films between 60 and 700 cm-1 (2 THz and 23 THz); these losses could not be fitted to the simple weakly coupled grain model, in contrast to the case for other high-Tc superconductors where phonon structure observed in ceramics are is absent in epitaxial oriented films and crystals because of electronic screening due to high conductivity of a-b planes. Absorptivity data for the BKBO films all show a strong absorption onset near the BCS tunneling gap of 3.5 kBTc. Comparison with strong coupling Eliashberg predictions and of a Kramers-Kronig analysis indicate that the absorption onset is consistent with a superconducting energy gap. Effects of magnetic field on residual losses in YBCO films show a resonant absorption feature in vicinity of predicted

  11. Icecube: Spaceflight Validation of an 874-GHz Submillimeter Wave Radiometer for Ice Cloud Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Esper, J.; Ehsan, N.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Racette, P.

    2014-12-01

    Ice clouds play a key role in the Earth's radiation budget, mostly through their strong regulation of infrared radiation exchange. Submillimeter wave remote sensing offers a unique capability to improve cloud ice measurements from space. At 874 GHz cloud scattering produces a larger brightness temperature depression from cirrus than lower frequencies, which can be used to retrieve vertically-integrated cloud ice water path (IWP) and ice particle size. The objective of the IceCube project is to retire risks of 874-GHz receiver technology by raising its TRL from 5 to 7. The project will demonstrate, on a 3-U CubeSat in a low Earth orbit (LEO) environment, the 874-GHz receiver system with noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of ~0.2 K for 1-second integration and calibration error of 2.0 K or less as measured from deep-space observations. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is partnering with Virginia Diodes, Inc (VDI) to qualify commercially available 874-GHz receiver technology for spaceflight, and demonstrate the radiometer performance. The instrument (submm-wave cloud radiometer, or SCR), along with the CubeSat system developed and integrated by GSFC, will be ready for launch in two years. The instrument subsystem includes a reflector antenna, sub-millimeter wave mixer, frequency multipliers and stable local oscillator, an intermediate frequency (IF) circuit with noise injection, and data-power boards. The mixer and frequency multipliers are procured from VDI with GSFC insight into fabrication and testing processes to ensure scalability to spaceflight beyond TRL 7. The remaining components are a combination of GSFC-designed and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) at TRLs of 5 or higher. The spacecraft system is specified by GSFC and comprises COTS components including three-axis stabilizer and sun sensor, GPS receiver, deployable solar arrays, UHF radio, and 2 GB of on-board storage. The spacecraft and instrument are integrated and flight qualified

  12. A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF A STRONGLY LENSED PLANCK-ASSOCIATED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Jullo, E. [Observatoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-Provence, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bussmann, R. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Perez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Djorgovski, S. G.; Scoville, N.; Yan, L.; Riechers, D. A.; Bradford, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Auld, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1160 Wien (Austria); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G., E-mail: haif@uci.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2012-07-10

    We present high-resolution maps of stars, dust, and molecular gas in a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 3.259. HATLAS J114637.9-001132 is selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) as a strong lens candidate mainly based on its unusually high 500 {mu}m flux density ({approx}300 mJy). It is the only high-redshift Planck detection in the 130 deg{sup 2} H-ATLAS Phase-I area. Keck Adaptive Optics images reveal a quadruply imaged galaxy in the K band while the Submillimeter Array and the Jansky Very Large Array show doubly imaged 880 {mu}m and CO(1{yields}0) sources, indicating differentiated distributions of the various components in the galaxy. In the source plane, the stars reside in three major kpc-scale clumps extended over {approx}1.6 kpc, the dust in a compact ({approx}1 kpc) region {approx}3 kpc north of the stars, and the cold molecular gas in an extended ({approx}7 kpc) disk {approx}5 kpc northeast of the stars. The emissions from the stars, dust, and gas are magnified by {approx}17, {approx}8, and {approx}7 times, respectively, by four lensing galaxies at z {approx} 1. Intrinsically, the lensed galaxy is a warm (T{sub dust} {approx} 40-65 K), hyper-luminous (L{sub IR} {approx} 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }; star formation rate (SFR) {approx}2000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), gas-rich (M{sub gas}/M{sub baryon} {approx} 70%), young (M{sub stellar}/SFR {approx} 20 Myr), and short-lived (M{sub gas}/SFR {approx} 40 Myr) starburst. With physical properties similar to unlensed z > 2 SMGs, HATLAS J114637.9-001132 offers a detailed view of a typical SMG through a powerful cosmic microscope.

  13. Retrieval of an ice water path over the ocean from ISMAR and MARSS millimeter and submillimeter brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brath, Manfred; Fox, Stuart; Eriksson, Patrick; Chawn Harlow, R.; Burgdorf, Martin; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2018-02-01

    A neural-network-based retrieval method to determine the snow ice water path (SIWP), liquid water path (LWP), and integrated water vapor (IWV) from millimeter and submillimeter brightness temperatures, measured by using airborne radiometers (ISMAR and MARSS), is presented. The neural networks were trained by using atmospheric profiles from the ICON numerical weather prediction (NWP) model and by radiative transfer simulations using the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS). The basic performance of the retrieval method was analyzed in terms of offset (bias) and the median fractional error (MFE), and the benefit of using submillimeter channels was studied in comparison to pure microwave retrievals. The retrieval is offset-free for SIWP > 0.01 kg m-2, LWP > 0.1 kg m-2, and IWV > 3 kg m-2. The MFE of SIWP decreases from 100 % at SIWP = 0.01 kg m-2 to 20 % at SIWP = 1 kg m-2 and the MFE of LWP from 100 % at LWP = 0.05 kg m-2 to 30 % at LWP = 1 kg m-2. The MFE of IWV for IWV > 3 kg m-2 is 5 to 8 %. The SIWP retrieval strongly benefits from submillimeter channels, which reduce the MFE by a factor of 2, compared to pure microwave retrievals. The IWV and the LWP retrievals also benefit from submillimeter channels, albeit to a lesser degree. The retrieval was applied to ISMAR and MARSS brightness temperatures from FAAM flight B897 on 18 March 2015 of a precipitating frontal system west of the coast of Iceland. Considering the given uncertainties, the retrieval is in reasonable agreement with the SIWP, LWP, and IWV values simulated by the ICON NWP model for that flight. A comparison of the retrieved IWV with IWV from 12 dropsonde measurements shows an offset of 0.5 kg m-2 and an RMS difference of 0.8 kg m-2, showing that the retrieval of IWV is highly effective even under cloudy conditions.

  14. Les rites de la mort à Bornéo : séparation ou renaissance ? Actualité de Robert Hertz Death Rites in Borneo: Separation or Rebirth? Robert Hertz’ Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Couderc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La publication récente par le Borneo Research Council d’un ouvrage collectif sur la mort fournit l’occasion de réévaluer l’apport de Robert Hertz à la compréhension des rites funéraires à Bornéo. Si la traduction en anglais, dans les années 1960, de l’essai de Hertz sur la représentation collective de la mort avait consacré, grâce notamment aux travaux de Peter Metcalf sur les Berawan, la puissance du modèle analytique hertzien, ce nouvel ouvrage semble signaler que le moment de la célébration finale est venu, où les héritiers se libèrent de l’emprise spirituelle du défunt. Tout en conservant une grande part de sa valeur comme théorie du deuil, le paradigme transitionnel ou « réactif » de Hertz révèle ses limites, mises ici en lumière par des données ethnographiques encore peu connues ou inédites, qui démontrent, par exemple, l’existence d’une circulation des composantes de la personne par delà l’opposition entre la vie et la mort, ou encore l’influence directe des secondes funérailles sur la renaissance des défunts. Cet article aborde le dépassement du modèle hertzien en retournant à la lettre de l’essai, dont il met en relief l’intelligence ethnographique et la finesse théorique.The recent publication by the Borneo Research Council of a collection of essays on death provides an opportunity to reassess the heritage of Robert Hertz, whose theory of the double obsequies relies heavily on the ethnography of the Ngaju and other Borneo peoples. The translation of Hertz’s essay on the collective representation of death in the 1960s, prompting in particular Peter Metcalf’s work on the Berawan, has consecrated the explanatory power of Hertz’s model. With this new book, however, time seems to have come for the final celebration that marks the heirs’ liberation from the deceased’s spiritual influence. While still largely valid as a general theory of mourning, Hertz’s paradigm of

  15. Plasma scattering measurement using a submillimeter wave gyrotron as a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, I.; Idehara, T.; Itakura, Y.; Myodo, M.; Hori, T.; Hatae, T.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma scattering measurement is an effective technique to observe low frequency density fluctuations excited in plasma. The spatial and wave number resolutions and the S/N ratio of measurement depend on the wavelength range, the size and the intensity of a probe beam. A well-collimated, submillimeter wave beam is suitable for improving the spatial and wave number resolutions. Application of high frequency gyrotron is effective in improving the S/N ratio of the measurement because of its capacity to deliver high power. Unlike the molecular vapor lasers, the gyrotrons generate diverging beam of radiation with TE mn mode structure. It is therefore necessary to convert the output radiation into a Gaussian beam. A quasi-optical antenna is a suitable element for the conversion system under consideration since it is applicable to several TE 0n and TE 1n modes. In order to apply the gyrotron to plasma scattering measurement, we have stabilized the output (P = 110 W, f = 354 GHz) of gyrotron up to the level (ΔP/P < 1 %, Δf< 10 kHz). The gyrotron output can be stabilized by decreasing the fluctuation of the cathode potential. (authors)

  16. Collisional charging of individual submillimeter particles: Using ultrasonic levitation to initiate and track charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; James, Nicole M.; Waitukaitis, Scott R.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2018-03-01

    Electrostatic charging of insulating fine particles can be responsible for numerous phenomena ranging from lightning in volcanic plumes to dust explosions. However, even basic aspects of how fine particles become charged are still unclear. Studying particle charging is challenging because it usually involves the complexities associated with many-particle collisions. To address these issues, we introduce a method based on acoustic levitation, which makes it possible to initiate sequences of repeated collisions of a single submillimeter particle with a flat plate, and to precisely measure the particle charge in situ after each collision. We show that collisional charge transfer between insulators is dependent on the hydrophobicity of the contacting surfaces. We use glass, which we modify by attaching nonpolar molecules to the particle, the plate, or both. We find that hydrophilic surfaces develop significant positive charges after contacting hydrophobic surfaces. Moreover, we demonstrate that charging between a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic surface is suppressed in an acidic environment and enhanced in a basic one. Application of an electric field during each collision is found to modify the charge transfer, again depending on surface hydrophobicity. We discuss these results within the context of contact charging due to ion transfer, and we show that they lend strong support to O H- ions as the charge carriers.

  17. Submillimeter Array {sup 12}CO (2-1) Imaging of the NGC 6946 Giant Molecular Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ya-Lin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Sakamoto, Kazushi; Pan, Hsi-An, E-mail: yalinwu@email.arizona.edu [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan (China)

    2017-04-10

    We present a {sup 12}CO (2–1) mosaic map of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by combining data from the Submillimeter Array and the IRAM 30 m telescope. We identify 390 giant molecular clouds (GMCs) from the nucleus to 4.5 kpc in the disk. GMCs in the inner 1 kpc are generally more luminous and turbulent, some of which have luminosities >10{sup 6} K km s{sup −1} pc{sup 2} and velocity dispersions >10 km s{sup −1}. Large-scale bar-driven dynamics likely regulate GMC properties in the nuclear region. Similar to the Milky Way and other disk galaxies, GMC mass function of NGC 6946 has a shallower slope (index > −2) in the inner region, and a steeper slope (index < −2) in the outer region. This difference in mass spectra may be indicative of different cloud formation pathways: gravitational instabilities might play a major role in the nuclear region, while cloud coalescence might be dominant in the outer disk. Finally, the NGC 6946 clouds are similar to those in M33 in terms of statistical properties, but they are generally less luminous and turbulent than the M51 clouds.

  18. Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Higher Energy Conformers of 1,2-PROPANEDIOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenko, Olena; Bossa, Jean-Baptiste; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Müller, Holger S. P.

    2017-06-01

    We have performed a study of the millimeter/submillimeter wave spectrum of four higher energy conformers of 1,2-propanediol (continuation of the previous study on the three lowest energy conformers. The present analysis of rotational transitions carried out in the frequency range 38 - 400 GHz represents a significant extension of previous microwave work. The new data were combined with previously-measured microwave transitions and fitted using a Watson's S-reduced Hamiltonian. The final fits were within experimental accuracy, and included spectroscopic parameters up to sixth order of angular momentum, for the ground states of the four higher energy conformers following previously studied ones: g'Ga, gG'g', aGg' and g'Gg. The present analysis provides reliable frequency predictions for astrophysical detection of 1,2-propanediol by radio telescope arrays at millimeter wavelengths. J.-B. Bossa, M.H. Ordu, H.S.P. Müller, F. Lewen, S. Schlemmer, A&A 570 (2014) A12)

  19. A New Era of Submillimeter GRB Afterglow Follow-Ups with the Greenland Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Urata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Planned rapid submillimeter (submm gamma-ray-bursts (GRBs follow-up observations conducted using the Greenland Telescope (GLT are presented. The GLT is a 12-m submm telescope to be located at the top of the Greenland ice sheet, where the high altitude and dry weather porvide excellent conditions for observations at submm wavelengths. With its combination of wavelength window and rapid responding system, the GLT will explore new insights on GRBs. Summarizing the current achievements of submm GRB follow-ups, we identify the following three scientific goals regarding GRBs: (1 systematic detection of bright submm emissions originating from reverse shock (RS in the early afterglow phase, (2 characterization of forward shock and RS emissions by capturing their peak flux and frequencies and performing continuous monitoring, and (3 detections of GRBs at a high redshift as a result of the explosion of first generation stars through systematic rapid follow-ups. The light curves and spectra calculated by available theoretical models clearly show that the GLT could play a crucial role in these studies.

  20. A New Era of Submillimeter GRB Afterglow Follow-Ups with the Greenland Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kuiyun; Asada, Keiichi; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Ho, Paul T. P.

    A planned rapid submillimeter (submm) Gamma Ray Burst (GRBs) follow-up observations conducted using the Greenland Telescope (GLT) is presented. The GLT is a 12-m submm telescope to be located at the top of the Greenland ice sheet, where the high-altitude and dry weather porvides excellent conditions for observations at submm wavelengths. With its combination of wavelength window and rapid responding system, the GLT will explore new insights on GRBs. Summarizing the current achievements of submm GRB follow-ups, we identify the following three scientific goals regarding GRBs: (1) systematic detection of bright submm emissions originating from reverse shock (RS) in the early afterglow phase, (2) characterization of forward shock and RS emissions by capturing their peak flux and frequencies and performing continuous monitoring, and (3) detections of GRBs as a result of the explosion of first-generation stars result of GRBs at a high redshift through systematic rapid follow ups. The light curves and spectra calculated by available theoretical models clearly show that the GLT could play a crucial role in these studies.

  1. Noise performance of the multiwavelength sub/millimeter inductance camera (MUSIC) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    MUSIC is a multi-band imaging camera that employs 2304 Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) in 576 spatial pixels to cover a 14 arc-minute field of view, with each pixel simultaneously sensitive to 4 bands centered at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. In April 2012 the MUSIC instrument was commissioned at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with a subset of the full focal plane. We examine the noise present in the detector timestreams during observations taken in the first year of operation. We find that fluctuations in atmospheric emission dominate at long timescales (< 0.5 Hz), and fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of the probe signal due to readout electronics contribute significant 1/f-type noise at shorter timescales. We describe a method to remove the amplitude, phase, and atmospheric noise using the fact that they are correlated among carrier tones. After removal, the complex signal is decomposed, or projected, into dissipation and frequency components. White noise from the cryogenic HEMT amplifier dominates in the dissipation component. An excess noise is observed in the frequency component that is likely due to fluctuations in two-level system (TLS) defects in the device substrate. We compare the amplitude of the TLS noise with previous measurements

  2. Bolometric kinetic inductance detector technology for sub-millimeter radiometric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Juha; Timofeev, Andrey V.; Vesterinen, Visa; Sipola, Hannu; Helistö, Panu; Aikio, Mika; Mäyrä, Aki; Grönberg, Leif; Luukanen, Arttu

    2015-10-01

    Radiometric sub-millimeter imaging is a candidate technology especially in security screening applications utilizing the property of radiation in the band of 0.2 - 1.0 THz to penetrate through dielectric substances such as clothing. The challenge of the passive technology is the fact that the irradiance corresponding to the blackbody radiation is very weak in this spectral band: about two orders of magnitude below that of the infrared band. Therefore the role of the detector technology is of ultimate importance to achieve sufficient sensitivity. In this paper we present results related to our technology relying on superconducting kinetic inductance detectors operating in a thermal (bolometric) mode. The detector technology is motivated by the fact that it is naturally suitable for scalable multiplexed readout systems, and operates with relatively simple cryogenics. We will review the basic concepts of the detectors, and provide experimental figures of merit. Furthermore, we will discuss the issues related to the scale-up of our detector technology into large 2D focal plane arrays.

  3. Data Release of UV to Submillimeter Broadband Fluxes for Simulated Galaxies from the EAGLE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Peter; Trčka, Ana; Trayford, James; Baes, Maarten; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop

    2018-02-01

    We present dust-attenuated and dust emission fluxes for sufficiently resolved galaxies in the EAGLE suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, calculated with the SKIRT radiative transfer code. The post-processing procedure includes specific components for star formation regions, stellar sources, and diffuse dust and takes into account stochastic heating of dust grains to obtain realistic broadband fluxes in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to submillimeter. The mock survey includes nearly half a million simulated galaxies with stellar masses above {10}8.5 {M}ȯ across six EAGLE models. About two-thirds of these galaxies, residing in 23 redshift bins up to z = 6, have a sufficiently resolved metallic gas distribution to derive meaningful dust attenuation and emission, with the important caveat that the same dust properties were used at all redshifts. These newly released data complement the already publicly available information about the EAGLE galaxies, which includes intrinsic properties derived by aggregating the properties of the smoothed particles representing matter in the simulation. We further provide an open-source framework of Python procedures for post-processing simulated galaxies with the radiative transfer code SKIRT. The framework allows any third party to calculate synthetic images, spectral energy distributions, and broadband fluxes for EAGLE galaxies, taking into account the effects of dust attenuation and emission.

  4. The Submillimeter Spectrum of MnH and MnD (X7Σ+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    The submillimeter-wave spectrum of the MnH and MnD radicals in their 7Σ+ ground states has been measured in the laboratory using direct absorption techniques. These species were created in the gas phase by the reaction of manganese vapor, produced in a Broida-type oven, with either H2 or D2 gas in the presence of a DC discharge. The N = 0 → 1 transition of MnH near 339 GHz was recorded, which consisted of multiple hyperfine components arising from both the manganese and hydrogen nuclear spins. The N = 2 → 3 transition of MnD near 517 GHz was measured as well, but in this case only the manganese hyperfine interactions were resolved. Both data sets were analyzed with a Hund's case b Hamiltonian, and rotational, fine structure, magnetic hyperfine, and electric quadrupole constants have been determined for the two manganese species. An examination of the magnetic hyperfine constants shows that MnH is primarily an ionic species, but has more covalent character than MnF. MnH is a good candidate species for astronomical searches with Herschel, particularly toward material associated with luminous blue variable stars.

  5. Noise performance of the multiwavelength sub/millimeter inductance camera (MUSIC) detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, S. R.

    2015-07-01

    MUSIC is a multi-band imaging camera that employs 2304 Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) in 576 spatial pixels to cover a 14 arc-minute field of view, with each pixel simultaneously sensitive to 4 bands centered at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. In April 2012 the MUSIC instrument was commissioned at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with a subset of the full focal plane. We examine the noise present in the detector timestreams during observations taken in the first year of operation. We find that fluctuations in atmospheric emission dominate at long timescales (electronics contribute significant 1/f-type noise at shorter timescales. We describe a method to remove the amplitude, phase, and atmospheric noise using the fact that they are correlated among carrier tones. After removal, the complex signal is decomposed, or projected, into dissipation and frequency components. White noise from the cryogenic HEMT amplifier dominates in the dissipation component. An excess noise is observed in the frequency component that is likely due to fluctuations in two-level system (TLS) defects in the device substrate. We compare the amplitude of the TLS noise with previous measurements.

  6. First Observation of the Submillimeter Polarization Spectrum in a Translucent Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Peter C.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Martin, Peter G.; Matthews, Tristan G.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan D.; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2018-04-01

    Polarized emission from aligned dust is a crucial tool for studies of magnetism in the ISM, but a troublesome contaminant for studies of cosmic microwave background polarization. In each case, an understanding of the significance of the polarization signal requires well-calibrated physical models of dust grains. Despite decades of progress in theory and observation, polarized dust models remain largely underconstrained. During its 2012 flight, the balloon-borne telescope BLASTPol obtained simultaneous broadband polarimetric maps of a translucent molecular cloud at 250, 350, and 500 μm. Combining these data with polarimetry from the Planck 850 μm band, we have produced a submillimeter polarization spectrum, the first for a cloud of this type. We find the polarization degree to be largely constant across the four bands. This result introduces a new observable with the potential to place strong empirical constraints on ISM dust polarization models in a previously inaccessible density regime. Compared to models by Draine & Fraisse, our result disfavors two of their models for which all polarization arises due only to aligned silicate grains. By creating simple models for polarized emission in a translucent cloud, we verify that extinction within the cloud should have only a small effect on the polarization spectrum shape, compared to the diffuse ISM. Thus, we expect the measured polarization spectrum to be a valid check on diffuse ISM dust models. The general flatness of the observed polarization spectrum suggests a challenge to models where temperature and alignment degree are strongly correlated across major dust components.

  7. Control of surface quality of sub-millimeter cylindrical gold targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunwang; Du Kai; Wan Xiaobo; Xiao Jiang; Zheng Wei; Zhang Lin; Sun Jingyuan; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    The morphology, composition and causes of defects are analyzed to reduce defects on the gold layer prepared by electrochemical deposition from sulfite solution, and to improve the surface quality of sub-millimeter cylindrical gold targets, by means of SEM and EDS. The effects of current density, metallic impurity, organic pollution, pre-deposition parameters and mandrel quality on the quality of the gold plating are discussed, along with their mechanisms. The result indicates that the current density must be controlled strictly. The optimal current density ranges from 2.4 to 3.2 mA/cm 2 when the concentration of gold ranges from 13 to 22 g/L, and from 2.0 to 2.6 mA/ cm 2 when the concentration of gold ranges from 5 to 13 g/L. The parameters of predeposition must be optimized and the predeposition time should be no longer than 1 minute to improve the surface quality. In addition, organic pollution should be removed from the bath, and the mandrels should be of good quality without oxide on their surfaces. (authors)

  8. Micro-Spec: An Ultracompact, High-sensitivity Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and submillimeter ranges promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (micron-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of (is) approximately 90% has been developed for initial demonstration and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

  9. DETECTION OF AN ULTRA-BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY BEHIND THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekoshi, Tatsuya; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Sorai, Kazuo; Habe, Asao [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Oogi, Taira [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ezawa, Hajime; Komugi, Shinya; Mizuno, Norikazu; Muller, Erik; Kawamura, Akiko [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Oshima, Tai [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Scott, Kimberly S. [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Austermann, Jason E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, 599-8531 Osaka (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuo, Hiroshi [Advanced Technology Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), 72000 Puebla (Mexico); and others

    2013-09-10

    We report the discovery of a new ultra-bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG) behind the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). This SMG is detected as a 43.3 {+-} 8.4 mJy point source (MM J01071-7302, hereafter MMJ0107) in the 1.1 mm continuum survey of the SMC by AzTEC on the ASTE telescope. MMJ0107 is also detected in the radio (843 MHz), Herschel/SPIRE, Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m, all IRAC bands, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and near-infrared (J, H, K{sub S} ). We find an optical (U, B, V) source, which might be the lensing object, at a distance of 1.''4 from near-infrared and IRAC sources. Photometric redshift estimates for the SMG using representative spectral energy distribution templates show the redshifts of 1.4-3.9. We estimate total far-infrared luminosity of (0.3-2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} {mu}{sup -1} L{sub Sun} and a star formation rate of 5600-39, 000 {mu}{sup -1} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, where {mu} is the gravitational magnification factor. This apparent extreme star formation activity is likely explained by a highly magnified gravitational lens system.

  10. High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Kawabata, N.; Ikeda, H.; Kamada, K.

    2013-05-01

    We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5 × 105 at + 20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ± 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22Na point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

  11. An adjustable RF tuning element for microwave, millimeter wave, and submillimeter wave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Mcgrath, William R.; Rutledge, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Planar RF circuits are used in a wide range of applications from 1 GHz to 300 GHz, including radar, communications, commercial RF test instruments, and remote sensing radiometers. These circuits, however, provide only fixed tuning elements. This lack of adjustability puts severe demands on circuit design procedures and materials parameters. We have developed a novel tuning element which can be incorporated into the design of a planar circuit in order to allow active, post-fabrication tuning by varying the electrical length of a coplanar strip transmission line. It consists of a series of thin plates which can slide in unison along the transmission line, and the size and spacing of the plates are designed to provide a large reflection of RF power over a useful frequency bandwidth. Tests of this structure at 1 GHz to 3 Ghz showed that it produced a reflection coefficient greater than 0.90 over a 20 percent bandwidth. A 2 GHz circuit incorporating this tuning element was also tested to demonstrate practical tuning ranges. This structure can be fabricated for frequencies as high as 1000 GHz using existing micromachining techniques. Many commercial applications can benefit from this micromechanical RF tuning element, as it will aid in extending microwave integrated circuit technology into the high millimeter wave and submillimeter wave bands by easing constraints on circuit technology.

  12. Optical fiber sensors-based temperature distribution measurement in ex vivo radiofrequency ablation with submillimeter resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Edoardo Gino; Tosi, Daniele; Braschi, Giovanni; Gallati, Mario; Cigada, Alfredo; Busca, Giorgio; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-01-01

    Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA) induces a high-temperature field in a biological tissue having steep spatial (up to 6°C∕mm) and temporal (up to 1°C∕s) gradients. Applied in cancer care, RFTA produces a localized heating, cytotoxic for tumor cells, and is able to treat tumors with sizes up to 3 to 5 cm in diameter. The online measurement of temperature distribution at the RFTA point of care has been previously carried out with miniature thermocouples and optical fiber sensors, which exhibit problems of size, alteration of RFTA pattern, hysteresis, and sensor density worse than 1 sensor∕cm. In this work, we apply a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) with a submillimeter spatial resolution for the monitoring of RFTA in porcine liver tissue. The DTS demodulates the chaotic Rayleigh backscattering pattern with an interferometric setup to obtain the real-time temperature distribution. A measurement chamber has been set up with the fiber crossing the tissue along different diameters. Several experiments have been carried out measuring the space-time evolution of temperature during RFTA. The present work showcases the temperature monitoring in RFTA with an unprecedented spatial resolution and is exportable to in vivo measurement; the acquired data can be particularly useful for the validation of RFTA computational models.

  13. Progress on Background-Limited Membrane-Isolated TES Bolometers for Far-IR/Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M.; Day, P. K.; Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Leduc, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the lowest attainable phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) for membrane-isolation bolometers, we fabricated and measured the thermal conductance of suspended Si3N4 beams with different geometries via a noise thermometry technique. We measured beam cross-sectional areas ranging from 0.35 x 0.5 (micro)m(sup 2) to 135 x 1.0 (micro)m(sup 2) and beam lengths ranging from (micro)m to 8300 (micro)m. The measurements directly imply that membrane-isolation bolometers are capable of reaching a phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) of 4 x 10(sup -20)W/Hz(sup 1)/O . This NEP adequate for the Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectrograph (BLISS) proposed for the Japanese SPICA observatory, and adequate for NASA's SAFIR observatory, a 10-meter, 4 K telescope to be deployed at L2. Further, we measured the heat capacity of a suspended Si3N4 membrane and show how this result implies that one can make membrane-isolation bolometers with a response time which is fast enough for BLISS.

  14. The SOFIA/SAFIRE Far-Infrared Spectrometer: Highlighting Submillimeter Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    The Submillimeter and Far-InfraRed Experiment (SAFIRE) on the SOFIA airborne observatory is an imaging spectrometer for wavelengths between 28 microns and 440 microns. Our design is a dual-band long-slit grating spectrometer, which provides broadband (approx. 4000 km/s) observations in two lines simultaneously over a field of view roughly 10" wide by 320" long. The low backgrounds in spectroscopy require very sensitive detectors with noise equivalent powers of order 10(exp -18) W/square root of Hz. We are developing a kilopixel, filled detector array for SAFIRE in a 32 x 40 format. The detector consists of a transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer array, a per-pixel broadband absorbing backshort array, and a NIST SQUID multiplexer readout array. This general type of array has been used successfully in the GISMO instrument, so we extrapolate to the sensitivity needed for airborne spectroscopy. Much of the cryogenic, electronics, and software infrastructure for SAFIRE have been developed. I provide here an overview of the progress on SAFIRE.

  15. Development of a Submillimeter Multipass Spectrometer for the Study of Molecular Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A.; Rocher, B.; Laas, J. C.; Deprince, B. A.; Hays, B.; Weaver, S. L. Widicus; Lang, S.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a multipass spectrometer for the submillimeter spectral region that is being used to study molecular ions through gas phase spectroscopy. The optical configuration is based on the design of Perry and coworkers that was implemented in the optical regime. To our knowledge, this is the first implementation of this optical configuration at long wavelengths. The setup involves two nearly concentric spherical mirrors that focus the multiple beam passes into a small area, or ``waist'', in the middle of the sample chamber. A supersonic molecular beam is coupled to the setup so that the molecular beam crosses the optical path at the waist. Initial studies have focused on neutral test molecules to probe the physical properties of the molecular beam under various arrangements of the molecular source relative to the optical path. Current studies focus on coupling a plasma discharge source to the setup to enable the study of molecular ions. Here we present the design of this instrument, compare the spectrometer capabilities to a traditional single pass spectrometer, and discuss the results of initial spectroscopic studies.

  16. High-resolution submillimeter and near-infrared studies of the transition disk around Sz 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Hashimoto, Jun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki; Saito, Masao; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Akiyama, Eiji [National Astronomical Observatory Japan (NAOJ), Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kitamura, Yoshimi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Abe, Lyu [Lboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, 28 avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandt, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Carson, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street M5S 3H4, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Egner, Sebastian E.; Guyon, Olivier [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Goto, Miwa [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Grady, Carol, E-mail: ttsuka@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2014-03-10

    To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91 , we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3-2) observations with the Submillimeter Array (∼1''-3'' resolution) and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the K{sub s} -band using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope (0.''25 resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H{sub 2} mass of 2.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} in the cold (T < 30 K) outer part at 65 AU 3 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉}) of hot (T ∼ 180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(3-2) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.

  17. THE CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES. I. FIRST RESULTS FROM A RADIO-IDENTIFIED SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Hai; Mutel, R.; Isbell, J.; Lang, C.; McGinnis, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hennawi, J. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Casey, C. [Department of Astronomy, the University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway Blvd, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Kereš, D. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Zhang, Z.-Y.; Michałowski, M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Clements, D. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Mooley, K. [Oxford Centre For Astrophysical Surveys, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United States); Perley, D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); Stockton, A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, D. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We present the first results from an ongoing survey to characterize the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of massive high-redshift galaxies detected as submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). We constructed a parent sample of 163 SMG–QSO pairs with separations less than ∼36″ by cross-matching far-infrared-selected galaxies from Herschel with spectroscopically confirmed QSOs. The Herschel sources were selected to match the properties of the SMGs. We determined the sub-arcsecond positions of six Herschel sources with the Very Large Array and obtained secure redshift identification for three of those with near-infrared spectroscopy. The QSO sightlines probe transverse proper distances of 112, 157, and 198 kpc at foreground redshifts of 2.043, 2.515, and 2.184, respectively, which are comparable to the virial radius of the ∼10{sup 13} M {sub ⊙} halos expected to host SMGs. High-quality absorption-line spectroscopy of the QSOs reveals systematically strong H i Ly α absorption around all three SMGs, with rest-frame equivalent widths of ∼2–3 Å. However, none of the three absorbers exhibit compelling evidence for optically thick H i gas or metal absorption, in contrast to the dominance of strong neutral absorbers in the CGM of luminous z ∼ 2 QSOs. The low covering factor of optically thick H i gas around SMGs tentatively indicates that SMGs may not have as prominent cool gas reservoirs in their halos as the coeval QSOs and that they may inhabit less massive halos than previously thought.

  18. Polarization difference due to nonrandomly oriented ice particles at millimeter/submillimeter waveband

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xinxin; Miao Jungang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents polarized signature due to oriented circular columnar and planar ice crystals at millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) waveband. DDSCAT 6.1 and RT4 code package are employed for scattering properties and radiative transfer simulations, respectively, at the three estimated window frequencies (150, 220 and 340 GHz) of FengYun-4 (FY-4). We use empirical formulas to describe realistic sizes of planar and columnar particles and assume that ice particles are in Gamma-size distribution in this study. A 'resonance' feature of polarized signals as a function of median mass diameter is notably found for horizontally oriented columns and blunt plates at the frequency of 340 GHz; however, there is no promising resonance characteristic for horizontally aligned plates with empirical sizes at the three window channels of FY-4. The position of the resonance peak is related to particle aspect ratio, frequency and ice water path (IWP), and it moves to a shorter median mass diameter when the particle aspect ratio decreases or IWP in clouds increases. Considering that particle canting angle distribution (Gaussian distribution in this study), polarization difference, as well as the brightness temperature difference between clear and cloudy sky, decreases rapidly when particles gradually change from horizontally oriented to randomly oriented. The upwelling brightness temperature is insensitive to particle size and shape but sensitive to particle orientation, the difference of brightness temperature between horizontal and random orientation up to 6 K, whereas polarized signature is quite sensitive to particle microphysics as well as orientation; polarized measurements thereby could benefit retrieval of cloud microphysical parameters.

  19. THE CHROMOSPHERIC SOLAR LIMB BRIGHTENING AT RADIO, MILLIMETER, SUB-MILLIMETER, AND INFRARED WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Luz, V. [Conacyt—SCiESMEX, Instituto de Geofísica, Unidad Michoacán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia, Michoacán, 58190, México (Mexico)

    2016-07-10

    Observations of the emission at radio, millimeter, sub-millimeter, and infrared wavelengths in the center of the solar disk validate the autoconsistence of semi-empirical models of the chromosphere. Theoretically, these models must reproduce the emission at the solar limb. In this work, we tested both the VALC and C7 semi-empirical models by computing their emission spectrum in the frequency range from 2 GHz to 10 THz at solar limb altitudes. We calculate the Sun's theoretical radii as well as their limb brightening. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium was computed for hydrogen, electron density, and H{sup −}. In order to solve the radiative transfer equation, a three-dimensional (3D) geometry was employed to determine the ray paths, and Bremsstrahlung, H{sup −}, and inverse Bremsstrahlung opacity sources were integrated in the optical depth. We compared the computed solar radii with high-resolution observations at the limb obtained by Clark. We found that there are differences between the observed and computed solar radii of 12,000 km at 20 GHz, 5000 km at 100 GHz, and 1000 km at 3 THz for both semi-empirical models. A difference of 8000 km in the solar radii was found when comparing our results against the heights obtained from H α observations of spicules-off at the solar limb. We conclude that the solar radii cannot be reproduced by VALC and C7 semi-empirical models at radio—infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the structures in the high chromosphere provide a better measurement of the solar radii and their limb brightening as shown in previous investigations.

  20. Micro-Spec: an Integrated, Direct-Detection Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide a unique view of the astrophysical processes present in the early universe. Our ability to fully explore this rich spectral region has been limited, however, by the size and cost of the cryogenic spectrometers required to carry out such measurements. Micro-Spec (u-Spec) is a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer concept working in the 450-1000 micromillimeter wavelength range which will enable a wide range of flight missions that would otherwise be challenging due to the large size of current instruments with the required spectral resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer design utilizes two internal antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay, and an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) to achieve these goals. The instrument will be integrated on a approximately 10 square cm silicon chip and can therefore become an important capability under the low background conditions accessible via space and high-altitude borne platforms. In this paper, an optical design methodology for Micro-Spec is presented, with particular attention given to its twodimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the maximization of the instrument resolving power and minimization of the RMS phase error on the instrument focal plane. This two-step optimization can generate geometrical configurations given specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range and performance. A point design with resolving power of 257, an RMS phase error less than 0.1 radians and four stigmatic points was developed for initial demonstration and will be the basis of future instruments with resolving power up to about 1200.

  1. THE CHROMOSPHERIC SOLAR LIMB BRIGHTENING AT RADIO, MILLIMETER, SUB-MILLIMETER, AND INFRARED WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Luz, V.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the emission at radio, millimeter, sub-millimeter, and infrared wavelengths in the center of the solar disk validate the autoconsistence of semi-empirical models of the chromosphere. Theoretically, these models must reproduce the emission at the solar limb. In this work, we tested both the VALC and C7 semi-empirical models by computing their emission spectrum in the frequency range from 2 GHz to 10 THz at solar limb altitudes. We calculate the Sun's theoretical radii as well as their limb brightening. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium was computed for hydrogen, electron density, and H − . In order to solve the radiative transfer equation, a three-dimensional (3D) geometry was employed to determine the ray paths, and Bremsstrahlung, H − , and inverse Bremsstrahlung opacity sources were integrated in the optical depth. We compared the computed solar radii with high-resolution observations at the limb obtained by Clark. We found that there are differences between the observed and computed solar radii of 12,000 km at 20 GHz, 5000 km at 100 GHz, and 1000 km at 3 THz for both semi-empirical models. A difference of 8000 km in the solar radii was found when comparing our results against the heights obtained from H α observations of spicules-off at the solar limb. We conclude that the solar radii cannot be reproduced by VALC and C7 semi-empirical models at radio—infrared wavelengths. Therefore, the structures in the high chromosphere provide a better measurement of the solar radii and their limb brightening as shown in previous investigations.

  2. A retrieval algorithm of hydrometer profile for submillimeter-wave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuli; Buehler, Stefan; Liu, Heguang

    2017-04-01

    Vertical profiles of particle microphysics perform vital functions for the estimation of climatic feedback. This paper proposes a new algorithm to retrieve the profile of the parameters of the hydrometeor(i.e., ice, snow, rain, liquid cloud, graupel) based on passive submillimeter-wave measurements. These parameters include water content and particle size. The first part of the algorithm builds the database and retrieves the integrated quantities. Database is built up by Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator(ARTS), which uses atmosphere data to simulate the corresponding brightness temperature. Neural network, trained by the precalculated database, is developed to retrieve the water path for each type of particles. The second part of the algorithm analyses the statistical relationship between water path and vertical parameters profiles. Based on the strong dependence existing between vertical layers in the profiles, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) technique is applied. The third part of the algorithm uses the forward model explicitly to retrieve the hydrometeor profiles. Cost function is calculated in each iteration, and Differential Evolution(DE) algorithm is used to adjust the parameter values during the evolutionary process. The performance of this algorithm is planning to be verified for both simulation database and measurement data, by retrieving profiles in comparison with the initial one. Results show that this algorithm has the ability to retrieve the hydrometeor profiles efficiently. The combination of ARTS and optimization algorithm can get much better results than the commonly used database approach. Meanwhile, the concept that ARTS can be used explicitly in the retrieval process shows great potential in providing solution to other retrieval problems.

  3. A submillimeter galaxy illuminating its circumgalactic medium: Lyα scattering in a cold, clumpy outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geach, J. E.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Smith, D. J. B. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Bower, R. G.; Alexander, D. M.; Swinbank, A. M. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bremer, M. N. [School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Chapin, E. L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunlop, J. S.; Koprowski, M. P.; Michałowski, M. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Department of Physics, MC 0435, 910 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Robson, E. I. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Van der Werf, P., E-mail: j.geach@herts.ac.uk [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-09-20

    We report the detection at 850 μm of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal 'Lyman-α Blob' (LAB), a 100 kpc scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z = 3.1. The flux density of the source, S {sub 850} = 4.6 ± 1.1 mJy, implies the presence of a galaxy or group of galaxies with a total luminosity of L {sub IR} ≈ 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}. The position of an active source at the center of a ∼50 kpc radius ring of linearly polarized Lyα emission detected by Hayes et al. suggests that the central source is leaking Lyα photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in H I clouds at a large galactocentric radius. The Lyα morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of a biconical outflow, and the average Lyα line profiles of the two 'lobes' are dominated by a red peak, which is expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Lyα emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Lyα: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?.

  4. NO CLEAR SUBMILLIMETER SIGNATURE OF SUPPRESSED STAR FORMATION AMONG X-RAY LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Mullaney, J. R.; Del Moro, A.; Rovilos, E. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Altieri, B.; Coia, D. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computation Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, E.; Le Floc' h, E.; Leiton, R. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dannerbauer, H. [Insitut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Dasyra, K. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS:UMR8112), 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Dickinson, M.; Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); and others

    2012-11-20

    Many theoretical models require powerful active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to suppress star formation in distant galaxies and reproduce the observed properties of today's massive galaxies. A recent study based on Herschel-SPIRE submillimeter observations claimed to provide direct support for this picture, reporting a significant decrease in the mean star formation rates (SFRs) of the most luminous AGNs (L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) at z Almost-Equal-To 1-3 in the Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N). In this Letter, we extend these results using Herschel-SPIRE 250 {mu}m data in the COSMOS and Chandra Deep Field-South fields to achieve an order-of-magnitude improvement in the number of sources at L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. On the basis of our analysis, we find no strong evidence for suppressed star formation in L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} AGNs at z Almost-Equal-To 1-3. The mean SFRs of the AGNs are constant over the broad X-ray luminosity range of L{sub X} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 43}-10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} (with mean SFRs consistent with typical star-forming galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 2; (SFRs) Almost-Equal-To 100-200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). We suggest that the previous CDF-N results were likely due to low number statistics. We discuss our results in the context of current theoretical models.

  5. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING CORE MM1 OF W75N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Su, Y.-N.; Liu, S.-Y.; Yan, C.-H.; Chen, H.-R.; Kim, S.-J.

    2010-01-01

    The massive star-forming core MM1 of W75N was observed using the Submillimeter Array with ∼1'' and 2'' spatial resolutions at 217 and 347 GHz, respectively. From the 217 GHz continuum we found that the MM1 core consists of two sources, separated by about 1'': MM1a (∼0.6 M sun ) and MM1b (∼1.4 M sun ), located near the radio continuum sources VLA 2/VLA 3 and VLA 1, respectively. Within MM1b, two gas clumps were found to be expanding away from VLA 1 at about ±3 km s -1 , as a result of the most recent star formation activity in the region. Observed molecular lines show emission peaks at two positions, MM1a and MM1b: sulfur-bearing species have emission peaks toward MM1a, but methanol and saturated species at MM1b. We identified high-temperature (∼200 K) gas toward MM1a and the hot core in MM1b. This segregation may result from the evolution of the massive star-forming core. In the very early phase of star formation, the hot core is seen through the evaporation of dust ice-mantle species. As the mantle species are consumed via evaporation the high-temperature gas species (such as the sulfur-bearing molecules) become bright. The SiO molecule is unique in having an emission peak exactly at the VLA 2 position, probably tracing a shock powered by VLA 2. The observed sulfur-bearing species show similar abundances both in MM1a and MM1b, whereas the methanol and saturated species show significant abundance enhancement toward MM1b, by about an order of magnitude, compared to MM1a.

  6. A MID-INFRARED IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES WITH THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainline, Laura J.; Blain, A. W.; Smail, Ian; Frayer, D. T.; Chapman, S. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Alexander, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present Spitzer-IRAC and MIPS mid-IR observations of a sample of 73 radio-detected submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) with spectroscopic redshifts, the largest such sample published to date. From our data, we find that IRAC colors of SMGs are much more uniform as compared with rest-frame UV and optical colors, and z>1.5 SMGs tend to be redder in their mid-IR colors than both field galaxies and lower-z SMGs. However, the IRAC colors of the SMGs overlap those of field galaxies sufficiently that color-magnitude and color-color selection criteria suggested in the literature to identify SMG counterparts produce ambiguous counterparts within an 8'' radius in 20%-35% of cases. We use a rest-frame J-H versus H-K color-color diagram and a S 24 /S 8.0 versus S 8.0 /S 4.5 color-color diagram to determine that 13%-19% of our sample are likely to contain active galactic nuclei which dominate their mid-IR emission. We observe in the rest-frame JHK colors of our sample that the rest-frame near-IR emission of SMGs does not resemble that of the compact nuclear starburst observed in local ultraluminous IR galaxies and is consistent with more widely distributed star formation. We take advantage of the fact that many high-z galaxy populations selected at different wavelengths are detected by Spitzer to carry out a brief comparison of mid-IR properties of SMGs to UV-selected high-z galaxies, 24 μm-selected galaxies, and high-z radio galaxies, and find that SMGs have mid-IR fluxes and colors which are consistent with being more massive and more reddened than UV-selected galaxies, while the IRAC colors of SMGs are most similar to powerful high-z radio galaxies.

  7. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOK GLOBULE CB 17: A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Schmalzl, Markus; Henning, Thomas, E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Spitzer observations toward the Bok globule CB 17. SMA 1.3 mm dust continuum images reveal within CB 17 two sources with an angular separation of {approx}21'' ({approx}5250 AU at a distance of {approx}250 pc). The northwestern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 IRS, dominates the infrared emission in the Spitzer images, drives a bipolar outflow extending in the northwest-southeast direction, and is classified as a low-luminosity Class 0/I transition object (L{sub bol} {approx} 0.5 L{sub Sun }). The southeastern continuum source, referred to as CB 17 MMS, has faint dust continuum emission in the SMA 1.3 mm observations ({approx}6{sigma} detection; {approx}3.8 mJy), but is not detected in the deep Spitzer infrared images at wavelengths from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m. Its bolometric luminosity and temperature, estimated from its spectral energy distribution, are {<=}0.04 L{sub Sun} and {<=}16 K, respectively. The SMA CO (2-1) observations suggest that CB 17 MMS may drive a low-velocity molecular outflow ({approx}2.5 km s{sup -1}), extending in the east-west direction. Comparisons with prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars suggest that CB 17 MMS is more evolved than prestellar cores but less evolved than Class 0 protostars. The observed characteristics of CB 17 MMS are consistent with the theoretical predictions from radiative/magnetohydrodynamical simulations of a first hydrostatic core, but there is also the possibility that CB 17 MMS is an extremely low luminosity protostar deeply embedded in an edge-on circumstellar disk. Further observations are needed to study the properties of CB 17 MMS and to address more precisely its evolutionary stage.

  8. Submillimeter-wave measurements of the pressure broadening of BrO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.M.; Kobayashi, M.; Habara, H.; Amano, T.; Drouin, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    The N 2 and O 2 pressure broadening coefficients of the J=23.5 ↔ 22.5 and J=25.5 ↔ 24.5 rotational transitions in the ground vibronic state X 2 Π 3/2 of 81 BrO at 624.768 and 650.178 GHz have been independently measured at Ibaraki University and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These lines are expected to be monitored by the superconducting submillimeter-wave limb emission sounder in the Japanese Experiment Module on the International Space Station (JEM/SMILES) as well as the earth observing system microwave limb sounder (EOS-MLS). This work provides temperature-dependent pressure broadening parameters of BrO needed by the space station and satellite based observations. The BrO pressure broadening coefficients and their 1σ uncertainties are: γ 0 (N 2 )=3.24±0.05 MHz/Torr and γ 0 (O 2 )=2.33±0.06 MHz/Torr for the 624.768 GHz transition at room temperature (296 K). For the 650.178 GHz line, the results are: γ 0 (N 2 )=3.20±0.07 MHz/Torr and γ 0 (O 2 )=2.41±0.06 MHz/Torr. The temperature dependence exponents and their 1σ error are determined to be: n(N 2 )=-0.76±0.05 and n(O 2 )=-0.93±0.07 for the 624.768 GHz transition, and n(N 2 )=-0.84±0.07 and n(O 2 )=-0.70±0.07 for the 650.178 GHz transition

  9. High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T; Kataoka, J; Nakamori, T; Kishimoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Sato, K; Ishikawa, Y; Yamamura, K; Kawabata, N; Ikeda, H; Kamada, K

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5 × 10 5 at + 20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ± 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to ≤ 400 kcps per channel. We selected Ce-doped (Lu,Y) 2 (SiO 4 )O (Ce:LYSO) and a brand-new scintillator, Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) due to their high light yield and density. To improve the spatial resolution, these scintillators were fabricated into 15 × 15 matrices of 0.5 × 0.5 mm 2 pixels. The Ce:LYSO and Ce:GAGG scintillator matrices were assembled into phosphor sandwich (phoswich) detectors, and then coupled to the MPPC array along with an acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22 Na point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

  10. Functional Connectivity of Resting Hemodynamic Signals in Submillimeter Orientation Columns of the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasireddi, Anil K; Vazquez, Alberto L; Whitney, David E; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2016-09-07

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly used for examining connectivity across brain regions. The spatial scale by which hemodynamic imaging can resolve functional connections at rest remains unknown. To examine this issue, deoxyhemoglobin-weighted intrinsic optical imaging data were acquired from the visual cortex of lightly anesthetized ferrets. The neural activity of orientation domains, which span a distance of 0.7-0.8 mm, has been shown to be correlated during evoked activity and at rest. We performed separate analyses to assess the degree to which the spatial and temporal characteristics of spontaneous hemodynamic signals depend on the known functional organization of orientation columns. As a control, artificial orientation column maps were generated. Spatially, resting hemodynamic patterns showed a higher spatial resemblance to iso-orientation maps than artificially generated maps. Temporally, a correlation analysis was used to establish whether iso-orientation domains are more correlated than orthogonal orientation domains. After accounting for a significant decrease in correlation as a function of distance, a small but significant temporal correlation between iso-orientation domains was found, which decreased with increasing difference in orientation preference. This dependence was abolished when using artificially synthetized orientation maps. Finally, the temporal correlation coefficient as a function of orientation difference at rest showed a correspondence with that calculated during visual stimulation suggesting that the strength of resting connectivity is related to the strength of the visual stimulation response. Our results suggest that temporal coherence of hemodynamic signals measured by optical imaging of intrinsic signals exists at a submillimeter columnar scale in resting state.

  11. The rest-frame submillimeter spectrum of high-redshift, dusty, star-forming galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aravena, M. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Béthermin, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Holzapfel, W. L., E-mail: jspilker@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-04-20

    We present the average rest-frame spectrum of high-redshift dusty, star-forming galaxies from 250 to 770 GHz. This spectrum was constructed by stacking Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 3 mm spectra of 22 such sources discovered by the South Pole Telescope and spanning z = 2.0-5.7. In addition to multiple bright spectral features of {sup 12}CO, [C I], and H{sub 2}O, we also detect several faint transitions of {sup 13}CO, HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN, and use the observed line strengths to characterize the typical properties of the interstellar medium of these high-redshift starburst galaxies. We find that the {sup 13}CO brightness in these objects is comparable to that of the only other z > 2 star-forming galaxy in which {sup 13}CO has been observed. We show that the emission from the high-critical density molecules HCN, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and CN is consistent with a warm, dense medium with T {sub kin} ∼ 55 K and n{sub H{sub 2}}≳10{sup 5.5} cm{sup –3}. High molecular hydrogen densities are required to reproduce the observed line ratios, and we demonstrate that alternatives to purely collisional excitation are unlikely to be significant for the bulk of these systems. We quantify the average emission from several species with no individually detected transitions, and find emission from the hydride CH and the linear molecule CCH for the first time at high redshift, indicating that these molecules may be powerful probes of interstellar chemistry in high-redshift systems. These observations represent the first constraints on many molecular species with rest-frame transitions from 0.4 to 1.2 mm in star-forming systems at high redshift, and will be invaluable in making effective use of ALMA in full science operations.

  12. Highly Specific and Sensitive Fluorescent Nanoprobes for Image-Guided Resection of Sub-Millimeter Peritoneal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Aaron H; Berry, Samantha M; Moran, Ann M; Pasion, Kristine Amber; Liu, Rong; Colson, Yolonda L; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson; Grinstaff, Mark W; Herrera, Victoria L M

    2017-02-28

    A current challenge in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis is the inability to detect, visualize, and resect small or microscopic tumors of pancreatic, ovarian, or mesothelial origin. In these diseases, the completeness of primary tumor resection is directly correlated with patient survival, and hence, identifying small sub-millimeter tumors (i.e., disseminated disease) is critical. Thus, new imaging techniques and probes are needed to improve cytoreductive surgery and patient outcomes. Highly fluorescent rhodamine-labeled expansile nanoparticles (HFR-eNPs) are described for use as a visual aid during cytoreductive surgery of pancreatic carcinomatosis. The covalent incorporation of rhodamine into ∼30 nm eNPs increases the fluorescent signal compared to free rhodamine, thereby affording a brighter and more effective probe than would be achieved by a single rhodamine molecule. Using the intraperitoneal route of administration, HFR-eNPs localize to regions of large (∼1 cm), sub-centimeter, and sub-millimeter intraperitoneal tumor in three different animal models, including pancreatic, mesothelioma, and ovarian carcinoma. Tumoral localization of the HFR-eNPs depends on both the material property (i.e., eNP polymer) as well as the surface chemistry (anionic surfactant vs PEGylated noncharged surfactant). In a rat model of pancreatic carcinomatosis, HFR-eNP identification of tumor is validated against gold-standard histopathological analysis to reveal that HFR-eNPs possess high specificity (99%) and sensitivity (92%) for tumors, in particular, sub-centimeter and microscopic sub-millimeter tumors, with an overall accuracy of 95%. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, HFR-eNPs are used to guide the resection of pancreatic tumors in a rat model of peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  13. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND MORPHOLOGY OF A NEWLY IDENTIFIED COMPACT z = 4.04 LENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY IN ABELL 2218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Kirsten K.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Petitpas, Glen; Egami, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    We present the identification of a bright submillimeter (submm) source, SMM J163555.5+661300, detected in the lensing cluster Abell 2218, for which we have accurately determined the position using observations from the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The identified optical counterpart has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 4.044 ± 0.001 if we attribute the single emission line detected at λ = 6140 A to Lyα. This redshift identification is in good agreement with the optical/near-infrared photometric redshift as well as the submm flux ratio S 450 /S 850 ∼ 1.6, the radio-submm flux ratio S 1.4 /S 850 24 /S 850 12 L sun , which implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 230 M sun yr -1 . This makes it the lowest-luminosity submillimeter galaxy (SMG) known at z>4 to date. Previous CO(4-3) emission line observations yielded a non-detection, for which we derived an upper limit of the CO line luminosity of L CO ' = 0.3x10 10 K km s -1 pc -2 , which is not inconsistent with the L ' CO -L FIR relation for starburst galaxies. The best-fit model to the optical and near-infrared photometry give a stellar population with an age of 1.4 Gyr and a stellar mass of 1.6 x 10 10 M sun . The optical morphology is compact and in the source plane the galaxy has an extent of ∼6 x 3 kpc with individual star-forming knots of sun yr -1 kpc 2 . The redshift of J163556 extends the redshift distribution of faint, lensed SMGs, and we find no evidence that these have a different redshift distribution than bright SMGs.

  14. Retrieval of an ice water path over the ocean from ISMAR and MARSS millimeter and submillimeter brightness temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brath

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A neural-network-based retrieval method to determine the snow ice water path (SIWP, liquid water path (LWP, and integrated water vapor (IWV from millimeter and submillimeter brightness temperatures, measured by using airborne radiometers (ISMAR and MARSS, is presented. The neural networks were trained by using atmospheric profiles from the ICON numerical weather prediction (NWP model and by radiative transfer simulations using the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS. The basic performance of the retrieval method was analyzed in terms of offset (bias and the median fractional error (MFE, and the benefit of using submillimeter channels was studied in comparison to pure microwave retrievals. The retrieval is offset-free for SIWP  > 0.01 kg m−2, LWP  > 0.1 kg m−2, and IWV  > 3 kg m−2. The MFE of SIWP decreases from 100 % at SIWP  =  0.01 kg m−2 to 20 % at SIWP  =  1 kg m−2 and the MFE of LWP from 100 % at LWP  = 0.05 kg m−2 to 30 % at LWP  =  1 kg m−2. The MFE of IWV for IWV  > 3 kg m−2 is 5 to 8 %. The SIWP retrieval strongly benefits from submillimeter channels, which reduce the MFE by a factor of 2, compared to pure microwave retrievals. The IWV and the LWP retrievals also benefit from submillimeter channels, albeit to a lesser degree. The retrieval was applied to ISMAR and MARSS brightness temperatures from FAAM flight B897 on 18 March 2015 of a precipitating frontal system west of the coast of Iceland. Considering the given uncertainties, the retrieval is in reasonable agreement with the SIWP, LWP, and IWV values simulated by the ICON NWP model for that flight. A comparison of the retrieved IWV with IWV from 12 dropsonde measurements shows an offset of 0.5 kg m−2 and an RMS difference of 0.8 kg m−2, showing that the retrieval of IWV is highly effective even under cloudy conditions.

  15. Heinrich's idea of abstract labour

    OpenAIRE

    Cockshott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews Heinrich’s An Introduction to the Three Volumes of Karl Marx’s\\ud Capital. It questions three main features of Heinrich’s work: its defence of teleology, its\\ud view that no empirical proof is needed of the labour theory of value and its particular\\ud monetary interpretation of the theory of value. This approach, it argues, is anti-scientific.

  16. GISMO, an ELT in space: a giant (30-m) far-infrared and submillimeter space observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawarden, Timothy G.; Johnstone, Callum; Johnstone, Graeme

    2004-07-01

    We describe GISMO, a concept for a 30-m class achromatic diffractive Fesnel space telescope operating in the far-IR and submillimeter from ~20 μm to ~700 μm. The concept is based on the precepts of Hyde (1999). It involves two units, the Lens and Instrument spacecraft, 3 km apart in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point. The primary lens, L1, is a 30.1-m, 32-zone f/100 Fresnel lens, fabricated from ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE). It is 1.0 to 3.4 mm thick (the features are 2.4 mm high for a "design wavelength" of 1.2 mm) and made in 5 strips linked by fabric hinges. It is stowed for launch by folding and rolling. It is deployed warm, unrolled by pneumatic or mechanical means, unfolded by carbon-fiber struts with Shape Memory Alloy hinges and stiffened until cold by a peripheral inflatable ring. Re-oriented edgeways-on to the Sun behind a 5-layer sunshade, L1 will then cool by radiation to space, approaching ~10K after 200 - 300 days. The low equilibrium temperature occurs because the lens is very thin and has a huge view factor to space but a small one to the sunshade. The Instrument spacecraft resembles a smaller, colder (~4K) version of the James Webb Space Telescope and shares features of a concept for the SAFIR mission. A near-field Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a 3-segment off-axis 6m x 3m primary acts as field lens, re-imaging L1 on a 30-cm f/1 Fresnel Corrector lens of equal and opposite dispersion, producing an achromatic beam which is directed to a focal plane equipped with imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The "design wavelength" of the telescope is 1.2 mm and it is employed at its second and higher harmonics. The shortest wavelength, ~20μm, is set by the transmission properties of the lens material (illustrated here) and determines the design tolerances of the optical system. The overall mass is estimated at ~5 tonnes and the stowed length around 14 m. Technical challenges and areas of uncertainty for the design concept

  17. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm 3 achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm 3 voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm 3 to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm 3 has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain

  18. 3C 220.3: A radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Martin; Westhues, Christian; Chini, Rolf [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian; Klaas, Ulrich; Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Barthel, Peter; Koopmans, Léon V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Wilkes, Belinda J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Vegetti, Simona [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Clements, David L. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fassnacht, Christopher D. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Horesh, Assaf [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lagattuta, David J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn (Australia); Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika, E-mail: haas@astro.rub.de [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of ∼1''.8 radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a PRG not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1''.5, provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consistent with the absence of extended bright X-ray emission on our Chandra image. The projected dark matter fractions within the Einstein radii of A (1''.02) and B (0''.61) are about 0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.55 ± 0.3. The mass to i-band light ratios of A and B, M/L{sub i}∼8±4 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1}, appear comparable to those of radio-quiet lensing galaxies at the same redshift in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey, Lenses Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey samples. The lensed SMG is extremely bright with observed f(250 μm) = 440 mJy owing to a magnification factor μ ∼ 10. The SMG spectrum shows luminous, narrow C IV λ1549 Å emission, revealing that the SMG houses a hidden quasar in addition to a violent starburst. Multicolor image reconstruction of the SMG indicates a bipolar morphology of the emitted ultraviolet (UV) light suggestive of cones through which UV light escapes a

  19. A sub-millimeter resolution PET detector module using a multi-pixel photon counter array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Yong; Wu Heyu; Komarov, Sergey; Tai, Yuan-Chuan; Siegel, Stefan B

    2010-01-01

    A PET block detector module using an array of sub-millimeter lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) crystals read out by an array of surface-mount, semiconductor photosensors has been developed. The detector consists of a LSO array, a custom acrylic light guide, a 3 x 3 multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) array (S10362-11-050P, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) and a readout board with a charge division resistor network. The LSO array consists of 100 crystals, each measuring 0.8 x 0.8 x 3 mm 3 and arranged in 0.86 mm pitches. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to aid the design and fabrication of a custom light guide to control distribution of scintillation light over the surface of the MPPC array. The output signals of the nine MPPC are multiplexed by a charge division resistor network to generate four position-encoded analog outputs. Flood image, energy resolution and timing resolution measurements were performed using standard NIM electronics. The linearity of the detector response was investigated using gamma-ray sources of different energies. The 10 x 10 array of 0.8 mm LSO crystals was clearly resolved in the flood image. The average energy resolution and standard deviation were 20.0% full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and ±5.0%, respectively, at 511 keV. The timing resolution of a single MPPC coupled to a LSO crystal was found to be 857 ps FWHM, and the value for the central region of detector module was 1182 ps FWHM when ±10% energy window was applied. The nonlinear response of a single MPPC when used to read out a single LSO was observed among the corner crystals of the proposed detector module. However, the central region of the detector module exhibits significantly less nonlinearity (6.5% for 511 keV). These results demonstrate that (1) a charge-sharing resistor network can effectively multiplex MPPC signals and reduce the number of output signals without significantly degrading the performance of a PET detector and (2) a custom light guide to permit light sharing

  20. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  1. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  2. SOFIA MID-INFRARED IMAGING AND CSO SUBMILLIMETER POLARIMETRY OBSERVATIONS OF G034.43+00.24 MM1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T. J.; Gordon, Michael; Shenoy, Dinesh; Gehrz, R. D.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Krejny, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present 11.1 to 37.1 μ m imaging observations of the very dense molecular cloud core MM1 in G034.43+00.24 using FORCAST on SOFIA and submillimeter (submm) polarimetry using SHARP on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We find that at the spatial resolution of SOFIA, the point-spread function (PSF) of MM1 is consistent with being a single source, as expected based on millimeter (mm) and submm observations. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of MM1 and MM2 have a warm component at the shorter wavelengths not seen in mm and submm SEDs. Examination of H(1.65 μ m) stellar polarimetry from the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey shows that G034 is embedded in an external magnetic field aligned with the Galactic Plane. The SHARP polarimetry at 450 μ m shows a magnetic field geometry in the vicinity of MM1 that does not line up with either the Galactic Plane or the mean field direction inferred from the CARMA interferometric polarization map of the central cloud core, but is perpendicular to the long filament in which G034 is embedded. The CARMA polarimetry does show evidence for grain alignment in the central region of the cloud core, and thus does trace the magnetic field geometry near the embedded Class 0 YSO.

  3. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Chapin, Edward L. [XMM SOC, ESAC, Apartado 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Gundersen, Joshua O. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Drive, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States); Korotkov, Andrei L. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Olmi, Luca [University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus, Physics Department, Box 23343, UPR station, San Juan (Puerto Rico); and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  4. Sub-millimeter nuclear medical imaging with high sensitivity in positron emission tomography using β+γ coincidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C.; Habs, D.; Parodi, K.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a nuclear medical imaging technique, employing triple-γ trajectory intersections from β+-γ coincidences, able to reach sub-millimeter spatial resolution in 3 dimensions with a reduced requirement of reconstructed intersections per voxel compared to a conventional PET reconstruction analysis. This 'γ-PET' technique draws on specific β+-decaying isotopes, simultaneously emitting an additional photon. Exploiting the triple coincidence between the positron annihilation and the third photon, it is possible to separate the reconstructed 'true' events from background. In order to characterize this technique, Monte-Carlo simulations and image reconstructions have been performed. The achievable spatial resolution has been found to reach ca. 0.4 mm (FWHM) in each direction for the visualization of a 22Na point source. Only 40 intersections are sufficient for a reliable sub-millimeter image reconstruction of a point source embedded in a scattering volume of water inside a voxel volume of about 1 mm3 ('high-resolution mode'). Moreover, starting with an injected activity of 400 MBq for 76Br, the same number of only about 40 reconstructed intersections are needed in case of a larger voxel volume of 2 x 2 x 3 mm3 ('high-sensitivity mode'). Requiring such a low number of reconstructed events significantly reduces the required acquisition time for image reconstruction (in the above case to about 140 s) and thus may open up the perspective for a quasi real-time imaging.

  5. Simulation study for the Stratospheric Inferred Wind (SIW) sub-millimeter limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Philippe; Murtagh, Donal; Eriksson, Patrick; Ochiai, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    -and-aac-microtec-to-develop-the-innosat-platform-and-implement-its-first-mission-named-mats.html [2] Wu D., et al.: Mesospheric Doppler wind measurements from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Advanced in Space Research, 42, 1246-1252, 2008 [3] Baron P., et al.: Observation of horizontal winds in the middle-atmosphere between 30S and 55N during the northern winter 2009-2010, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13(13), 6049-6064, 2013, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6049-2013 [4] Baron P., et al.: Definition of an uncooled submillimeter/terahertz limb sounder for measuring middle atmospheric winds, Proceedings of ESA Living Planet Symposium, Edinburgh, UK, 9-13 September 2013, (ESA SP-722, December 2013)

  6. SUB-MILLIMETER TELESCOPE CO (2-1) OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Zhong [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 66, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junzhi [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu, E-mail: xjjiang@nju.edu.cn [The UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We present CO J = 2-1 observations toward 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT). Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies. The scaling relations between molecular gas, atomic gas, and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV – r, and WISE color W3 – W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show the following. (1) In the galaxies with stellar mass M {sub *} ≤10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the H I fraction (f {sub H} {sub I} ≡ M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while the H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}} ≡ M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub *}) remains nearly unchanged. (2) Compared to f{sub H{sub 2}}, f {sub H} {sub I} correlates better with both M {sub *} and NUV – r. (3) A new parameter, WISE color W3 – W2 (12-4.6 μm), is introduced, which is similar to NUV – r in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3 – W2 has a tighter anti-correlation with log f{sub H{sub 2}} than the anti-correlation of (NUV – r)-f {sub H} {sub I}, (NUV – r)-f{sub H{sub 2}}, and (W3 – W2)-f {sub H} {sub I}. This indicates that W3 – W2 can trace the H{sub 2} fraction in galaxies. For the gas ratio M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub H} {sub I} , only in the intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies it appears to depend on M {sub *} and NUV – r. We find a tight correlation between the molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}} and 12 μm (W3) luminosities (L {sub 12} {sub μm}), and the slope is close to unity (1.03 ± 0.06) for the SMT sample. This correlation may reflect that the cold gas and dust are well mixed on a global galactic scale. Using the all-sky 12 μm (W3) data available in WISE, this correlation can be used to estimate CO flux for molecular gas observations and can even predict H{sub 2} mass for star-forming galaxies.

  7. Toward the comprehension of the infrared to submillimeter view of the interstellar medium of nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galametz, Maud

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the interstellar medium (ISM) of nearby galaxies to characterize the physical properties of the gas and dust. We especially focused our study on low-metallicity galaxies of the Local Universe, ideal candidates to study the influence of metal enrichment on the ISM properties of galaxies. Previous studies have shown that the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of low metallicity galaxies differ significantly from those of massive galaxies and that the dust-to-gas mass ratio (D/G) of the galaxy could be dependent of the metallicity. Observations of low-metallicity galaxies also often led to the detection of an excess at submillimeter (sub-mm) wavelengths not always accounted for in usual SED models. Further studies and observations had to be performed to better cover the far-IR to sub-mm range and probe the coldest phase of dust. We adopt a multi-wavelength approach to model and analyse the SEDs of 4 low-metallicity galaxies observed with LABOCA at 870 μm. We estimated the fraction of cool dust to be significant compared to the total dust mass of the galaxies. Some D/Gs are incoherent compared to what is expected from the current chemical evolution model, revealing possible reservoirs of gas not detected by current HI or CO observations. I enlarged the first sample to a wider range of metallicities and showed that sub-mm measurements significantly affect the dust mass estimates of galaxies. For dustier galaxies for which the SED usually peaks at longer wavelengths, sub-mm fluxes are crucial to position the peak and the Rayleigh-Jeans slope of their SED. For low-metallicity galaxies, the sub-mm wavelength domain harbours an excess that may imply a large amount of very cold dust. Our results confirm that low-metallicity galaxies can exhibit a sub-mm excess when observed at longer wavelengths. Obtaining a more precise inventory of the cold dust and resolve the main actors of dust evolution in massive star forming regions and molecular clouds

  8. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUBMILLIMETER DENSE MOLECULAR GAS TRACERS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE-1 ACTIVE NUCLEUS OF NGC 7469

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Ikarashi, Soh; Aalto, Susanne; Doi, Akihiro; Espada, Daniel; Fathi, Kambiz; Harada, Nanase; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Matsushita, Satoki; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hattori, Takashi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iono, Daisuke; Ishizuki, Sumio; Nagai, Hiroshi; Krips, Melanie; Martín, Sergio; Meier, David S.; Nakai, Naomasa

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 1 observations of the central kiloparsec region of the luminous type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 with unprecedented high resolution (0.″5 ×0.″4 = 165 × 132 pc) at submillimeter wavelengths. Utilizing the wide bandwidth of ALMA, we simultaneously obtained HCN(4–3), HCO + (4–3), CS(7–6), and partially CO(3–2) line maps, as well as the 860 μm continuum. The region consists of the central ∼1″ component and the surrounding starburst ring with a radius of ∼1.″5–2.″5. Several structures connect these components. Except for CO(3–2), these dense gas tracers are significantly concentrated toward the central ∼1″, suggesting their suitability to probe the nuclear regions of galaxies. Their spatial distribution resembles well those of centimeter and mid-infrared continuum emissions, but it is anticorrelated with the optical one, indicating the existence of dust-obscured star formation. The integrated intensity ratios of HCN(4–3)/HCO + (4–3) and HCN(4–3)/CS(7–6) are higher at the active galactic nucleus (AGN) position than at the starburst ring, which is consistent with our previous findings (submillimeter-HCN enhancement). However, the HCN(4–3)/HCO + (4–3) ratio at the AGN position of NGC 7469 (1.11 ± 0.06) is almost half of the corresponding value of the low-luminosity type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1097 (2.0 ± 0.2), despite the more than two orders of magnitude higher X-ray luminosity of NGC 7469. But the ratio is comparable to that of the close vicinity of the AGN of NGC 1068 (∼1.5). Based on these results, we speculate that some heating mechanisms other than X-ray (e.g., mechanical heating due to an AGN jet) can contribute significantly for shaping the chemical composition in NGC 1097

  9. THE SCUBA-2 COSMOLOGY LEGACY SURVEY: MULTIWAVELENGTH COUNTERPARTS TO 10{sup 3} SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE UKIDSS-UDS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Simpson, James M.; Swinbank, A. Mark [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Ivison, Rob J.; Arumugam, Vinodiran; Mortlock, Alice; Dunlop, James S.; Michałowski, Michał J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Almaini, Omar; Conselice, Christopher J.; Hartley, Will G. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Geach, James E. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Simpson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Blain, Andrew [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2016-04-01

    We present multiwavelength identifications for the counterparts of 1088 submillimeter sources detected at 850 μm in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey study of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey-Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS) field. By utilizing an Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) pilot study on a subset of our bright SCUBA-2 sample as a training set, along with the deep optical–near-infrared (OIR) data available in this field, we develop a novel technique, Optical–IR Triple Color (OIRTC), using z − K, K − [3.6], [3.6] − [4.5] colors to select the candidate submillimeter galaxy (SMG) counterparts. By combining radio identification and the OIRTC technique, we find counterpart candidates for 80% of the Class = 1 ≥ 4σ SCUBA-2 sample, defined as those that are covered by both radio and OIR imaging and the base sample for our scientific analyses. Based on the ALMA training set, we expect the accuracy of these identifications to be 82% ± 20%, with a completeness of 69% ± 16%, essentially as accurate as the traditional p-value technique but with higher completeness. We find that the fraction of SCUBA-2 sources having candidate counterparts is lower for fainter 850 μm sources, and we argue that for follow-up observations sensitive to SMGs with S{sub 850} ≳ 1 mJy across the whole ALMA beam, the fraction with multiple counterparts is likely to be >40% for SCUBA-2 sources at S{sub 850} ≳ 4 mJy. We find that the photometric redshift distribution for the SMGs is well fit by a lognormal distribution, with a median redshift of z = 2.3 ± 0.1. After accounting for the sources without any radio and/or OIRTC counterpart, we estimate the median redshift to be z = 2.6 ± 0.1 for SMGs with S{sub 850} > 1 mJy. We also use this new large sample to study the clustering of SMGs and the far-infrared properties of the unidentified submillimeter sources by stacking their Herschel SPIRE far-infrared emission.

  10. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUBMILLIMETER DENSE MOLECULAR GAS TRACERS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE-1 ACTIVE NUCLEUS OF NGC 7469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro; Ikarashi, Soh [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aalto, Susanne [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, SE-439 94 Onsala (Sweden); Doi, Akihiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Espada, Daniel [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova, 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile); Fathi, Kambiz [Stockholm Observatory, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Harada, Nanase; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Matsushita, Satoki [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hattori, Takashi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iono, Daisuke; Ishizuki, Sumio; Nagai, Hiroshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Krips, Melanie; Martín, Sergio [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 St. Martin d’Hères (France); Meier, David S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Soccoro, NM 87801 (United States); Nakai, Naomasa, E-mail: takumaizumi@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Ten-nodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); and others

    2015-09-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 1 observations of the central kiloparsec region of the luminous type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 with unprecedented high resolution (0.″5 ×0.″4 = 165 × 132 pc) at submillimeter wavelengths. Utilizing the wide bandwidth of ALMA, we simultaneously obtained HCN(4–3), HCO{sup +}(4–3), CS(7–6), and partially CO(3–2) line maps, as well as the 860 μm continuum. The region consists of the central ∼1″ component and the surrounding starburst ring with a radius of ∼1.″5–2.″5. Several structures connect these components. Except for CO(3–2), these dense gas tracers are significantly concentrated toward the central ∼1″, suggesting their suitability to probe the nuclear regions of galaxies. Their spatial distribution resembles well those of centimeter and mid-infrared continuum emissions, but it is anticorrelated with the optical one, indicating the existence of dust-obscured star formation. The integrated intensity ratios of HCN(4–3)/HCO{sup +}(4–3) and HCN(4–3)/CS(7–6) are higher at the active galactic nucleus (AGN) position than at the starburst ring, which is consistent with our previous findings (submillimeter-HCN enhancement). However, the HCN(4–3)/HCO{sup +}(4–3) ratio at the AGN position of NGC 7469 (1.11 ± 0.06) is almost half of the corresponding value of the low-luminosity type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1097 (2.0 ± 0.2), despite the more than two orders of magnitude higher X-ray luminosity of NGC 7469. But the ratio is comparable to that of the close vicinity of the AGN of NGC 1068 (∼1.5). Based on these results, we speculate that some heating mechanisms other than X-ray (e.g., mechanical heating due to an AGN jet) can contribute significantly for shaping the chemical composition in NGC 1097.

  11. Submillimeter H2O and H2O+emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z 2-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Weiß, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Falstad, N.; Baker, A. J.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dye, S.; Guélin, M.; Ivison, R.; Krips, M.; Lehnert, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Spaans, M.; Valiante, E.

    2016-01-01

    We report rest-frame submillimeter H2O emission line observations of 11 ultra- or hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs or HyLIRGs) at z 2-4 selected among the brightest lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Using the IRAM NOrthern

  12. Deep Submillimeter and Radio Observations in the SSA22 Field. I. Powering Sources and the Lyα Escape Fraction of Lyα Blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Henkel, C.; Iono, D.; Alexander, D. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Geach, J.; Hatsukade, B.; Hayes, M.; Hine, N. K.; Kato, Y.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Kubo, M.; Lehnert, M.; Malkan, M.; Menten, K. M.; Nagao, T.; Norris, R. P.; Ouchi, M.; Saito, T.; Tamura, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Umehata, H.; Weiss, A.

    2017-12-01

    We study the heating mechanisms and Lyα escape fractions of 35 Lyα blobs (LABs) at z ≈ 3.1 in the SSA22 field. Dust continuum sources have been identified in 11 of the 35 LABs, all with star formation rates (SFRs) above 100 M ⊙ yr-1. Likely radio counterparts are detected in 9 out of 29 investigated LABs. The detection of submillimeter dust emission is more linked to the physical size of the Lyα emission than to the Lyα luminosities of the LABs. A radio excess in the submillimeter/radio-detected LABs is common, hinting at the presence of active galactic nuclei. Most radio sources without X-ray counterparts are located at the centers of the LABs. However, all X-ray counterparts avoid the central regions. This may be explained by absorption due to exceptionally large column densities along the line-of-sight or by LAB morphologies, which are highly orientation dependent. The median Lyα escape fraction is about 3% among the submillimeter-detected LABs, which is lower than a lower limit of 11% for the submillimeter-undetected LABs. We suspect that the large difference is due to the high dust attenuation supported by the large SFRs, the dense large-scale environment as well as large uncertainties in the extinction corrections required to apply when interpreting optical data.

  13. DUST AND GAS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS FROM THE HERITAGE HERSCHEL KEY PROJECT. I. DUST PROPERTIES AND INSIGHTS INTO THE ORIGIN OF THE SUBMILLIMETER EXCESS EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Karl D.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter Street, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CESR, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse, Cedex 4 (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Engelbracht, Charles [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-Mnchen (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Hony, Sacha; Lebouteiller, Vianney [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hughes, Annie [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, and National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Israel, Frank P. [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-12-20

    The dust properties in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds (LMC/SMC) are studied using the HERITAGE Herschel Key Project photometric data in five bands from 100 to 500 μm. Three simple models of dust emission were fit to the observations: a single temperature blackbody modified by a power-law emissivity (SMBB), a single temperature blackbody modified by a broken power-law emissivity (BEMBB), and two blackbodies with different temperatures, both modified by the same power-law emissivity (TTMBB). Using these models, we investigate the origin of the submillimeter excess, defined as the submillimeter emission above that expected from SMBB models fit to observations <200 μm. We find that the BEMBB model produces the lowest fit residuals with pixel-averaged 500 μm submillimeter excesses of 27% and 43% for the LMC and SMC, respectively. Adopting gas masses from previous works, the gas-to-dust ratios calculated from our fitting results show that the TTMBB fits require significantly more dust than are available even if all the metals present in the interstellar medium (ISM) were condensed into dust. This indicates that the submillimeter excess is more likely to be due to emissivity variations than a second population of colder dust. We derive integrated dust masses of (7.3 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 5} and (8.3 ± 2.1) × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} for the LMC and SMC, respectively. We find significant correlations between the submillimeter excess and other dust properties; further work is needed to determine the relative contributions of fitting noise and ISM physics to the correlations.

  14. Residual losses in epitaxial thin films of YBa2Cu3O7 from microwave to submillimeter wave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.; Richards, P.L.; Etemad, S.; Inam, A.; Venkatesan, T.; Dutta, B.; Wu, X.D.; Eom, C.B.; Geballe, T.H.; Newman, N.; Cole, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the residual loss in five epitaxial a-b plane films of the high-T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . Microwave measurements near 10 GHz were made by resonance techniques at 4 K. Submillimeter measurements from ∼1.5 to 21 THz were made at 2 K by a direct absorption technique. We use a model of weakly coupled superconducting grains and a homogeneous two-fluid model to fit the data for each film below the well-known absorption edge at 13.5 THz. When the penetration depth determined from muon spin rotation measurements is used to constrain each model, the weakly coupled grain model is able to fit the measured absorptivities for all films, but the two-fluid model is less successful

  15. Hacking for astronomy: can 3D printers and open-hardware enable low-cost sub-/millimeter instrumentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    2014-07-01

    There have been several exciting developments in the technologies commonly used n in the hardware hacking community. Advances in low cost additive-manufacturing processes (i.e. 3D-printers) and the development of openhardware projects, which have produced inexpensive and easily programmable micro-controllers and micro-computers (i.e. Arduino and Raspberry Pi) have opened a new door for individuals seeking to make their own devices. Here we describe the potential for these technologies to reduce costs in construction and development of submillimeter/millimeter astronomical instrumentation. Specifically we have begun a program to measure the optical properties of the custom plastics used in 3D-printers as well as the printer accuracy and resolution to assess the feasibility of directly printing sub- /millimeter transmissive optics. We will also discuss low cost designs for cryogenic temperature measurement and control utilizing Arduino and Raspberry Pi.

  16. Fabrication of an Absorber-Coupled MKID Detector and Readout for Sub-Millimeter and Far-Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari-David; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated absorber-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays for sub-millimeter and farinfrared astronomy. Each detector array is comprised of lambda/2 stepped impedance resonators, a 1.5µm thick silicon membrane, and 380µm thick silicon walls. The resonators consist of parallel plate aluminum transmission lines coupled to low impedance Nb microstrip traces of variable length, which set the resonant frequency of each resonator. This allows for multiplexed microwave readout and, consequently, good spatial discrimination between pixels in the array. The Al transmission lines simultaneously act to absorb optical power and are designed to have a surface impedance and filling fraction so as to match the impedance of free space. Our novel fabrication techniques demonstrate high fabrication yield of MKID arrays on large single crystal membranes and sub-micron front-to-back alignment of the microstrip circuit.

  17. Interferometric Observations of the SiO High J Transition Maser associated with VY Canis Majoris with the Submillimeter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Moran, J. M.; Young, K. H.; Ho, P. T. P.

    2005-12-01

    We imaged the SiO maser emission of J=5-4 in the v=1 state associated with the peculiar red supergiant VY Canis Majoris using the partially completed Submillimeter Array. We identified seven maser components and measured the relative positions at sub-arcsecond scale in the high J transition for the first time. We have also measured the polarization of these maser components. The strongest maser feature has a linear polarization of ˜ 60%, and its direction of polarization is approximately aligned with the bipolar axis. Such a high degree of polarization suggests that radiative pumping is probably responsible for the maser inversion. Five of the other maser features have significant linear polarization.

  18. Reproducible Analysis and Blindness in a Null Test of Newton's Gravitational Inverse Square Law At Sub-millimeter Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Charles; Venkateswara, Krishna; Gundlach, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Proper execution of an experiment is independent of its result. Physicists who test fundamental physical law face the reality that signals for new physics receive more attention and scrutiny than null results. Yet, null results may have greater impact upon the direction of both experiment and theory. Blind experiments and result-blind review are bulwarks against systematic human bias for both experimenters and referees. I'll describe the method that made possible an irreversible public unblinding of our torsion-balance parallel-plate test of gravity at submillimeter scales in 2015. One publicly-available computer procedure generated from blind raw data the analysis, the final result, and the complete documenting thesis. The experiment included an optical ``foil monitor'' to constrain a systematic effect intrinsic to all short-range parallel-plate gravity experiments. I'll describe the experiment, successes, lessons learned, and result. Supported by NSF (PHY-1305726) and DOE support for CENPA.

  19. A high-average power tapered FEL amplifier at submillimeter frequencies using sheet electron beams and short-period wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, S.W.; Radack, D.J.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Booske, J.H.; Carmel, Y.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.; Latham, P.E.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1990-01-01

    A high-average-power FEL amplifier operating at submillimeter frequencies is under development at the University of Maryland. Program goals are to produce a CW, ∼1 MW, FEL amplifier source at frequencies between 280 GHz and 560 GHz. To this end, a high-gain, high-efficiency, tapered FEL amplifier using a sheet electron beam and a short-period (superconducting) wiggler has been chosen. Development of this amplifier is progressing in three stages: (1) beam propagation through a long length (∼1 m) of short period (λ ω = 1 cm) wiggler, (2) demonstration of a proof-of-principle amplifier experiment at 98 GHz, and (3) designs of a superconducting tapered FEL amplifier meeting the ultimate design goal specifications. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Detection of Submillimeter-wave [C i] Emission in Gaseous Debris Disks of 49 Ceti and β Pictoris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Aya E.; Sakai, Nami [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sato, Aki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Iwasaki, Kazunari [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Doshisha University, Tatara Miyakodani 1-3, Kyotanabe City, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Watanabe, Sakae; Kaneda, Hidehiro [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Yamamoto, Satoshi, E-mail: aya.higuchi@riken.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    We have detected [C i] {sup 3} P {sub 1}–{sup 3} P {sub 0} emissions in the gaseous debris disks of 49 Ceti and β Pictoris with the 10 m telescope of the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment, which is the first detection of such emissions. The line profiles of [C i] are found to resemble those of CO( J = 3–2) observed with the same telescope and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. This result suggests that atomic carbon (C) coexists with CO in the debris disks and is likely formed by the photodissociation of CO. Assuming an optically thin [C i] emission with the excitation temperature ranging from 30 to 100 K, the column density of C is evaluated to be (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 17} and (2.5 ± 0.7) × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. The C/CO column density ratio is thus derived to be 54 ± 19 and 69 ± 42 for 49 Ceti and β Pictoris, respectively. These ratios are higher than those of molecular clouds and diffuse clouds by an order of magnitude. The unusually high ratios of C to CO are likely attributed to a lack of H{sub 2} molecules needed to reproduce CO molecules efficiently from C. This result implies a small number of H{sub 2} molecules in the gas disk, i.e., there is an appreciable contribution of secondary gas from dust grains.

  1. Chemistry in the final stages of stellar evolution: Millimeter and submillimeter observations of supergiants and planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica Louise

    High mass loss rates in evolved stars make them the major contributors to recycling processed material back into the interstellar medium. This mass loss creates large circumstellar shells, rich in molecular material. This dissertation presents millimeter and submillimeter studies of the end stages of low mass and high mass stars in order to probe their molecular content in more detail. In low mass stars, the molecular material is carried on into the planetary nebula (PN) stage. Observations of CS, HCO+, and CO in planetary nebulae (PNe) of various post-asymptotic giant branch ages have shown that molecular abundances in these objects do not significantly vary with age, as previously thought. More detailed observations of the slightly oxygen-rich PN NGC 6537 resulted in the detection of CN, HCN, HNC, CCH, CS, SO, H 2CO, HCO+ and N2H+, as well as numerous 13C isotopologues. Observations of the middle-aged PN M2-48 showed the presence of CN, HCN, HNC, CS, SO, SO2, SiO, HCO+, N2H+, and several 13C isotopologues. These observations represent the first detections of CS, SO, SO2, and SiO in any planetary nebula. The implications of these observations are discussed. A 1 mm spectral survey of the supergiant star NML Cygni has been carried out with the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope resulting in the observation of 102 emission features arising from 17 different molecules and 4 unidentified features. The line profiles observed in this circumstellar shell are asymmetric and vary between different molecules, akin to what has been seen in another supergiant, VY Canis Majoris. The non-LTE radiative transfer code ESCAPADE has been used to model molecular abundances in the various asymmetric outflows of VY Canis Majoris, showing just how chemically and kinematically complex these supergiant circumstellar envelopes really are.

  2. Dense, shape-optimized posterior 32-channel coil for submillimeter functional imaging of visual cortex at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farivar, Reza; Grigorov, Filip; van der Kouwe, Andre J; Wald, Lawrence L; Keil, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Functional neuroimaging of small cortical patches such as columns is essential for testing computational models of vision, but imaging from cortical columns at conventional 3T fields is exceedingly difficult. By targeting the visual cortex exclusively, we tested whether combined optimization of shape, coil placement, and electronics would yield the necessary gains in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for submillimeter visual cortex functional MRI (fMRI). We optimized the shape of the housing to a population-averaged atlas. The shape was comfortable without cushions and resulted in the maximally proximal placement of the coil elements. By using small wire loops with the least number of solder joints, we were able to maximize the Q factor of the individual elements. Finally, by planning the placement of the coils using the brain atlas, we were able to target the arrangement of the coil elements to the extent of the visual cortex. The combined optimizations led to as much as two-fold SNR gain compared with a whole-head 32-channel coil. This gain was reflected in temporal SNR as well and enabled fMRI mapping at 0.75 mm resolutions using a conventional GRAPPA-accelerated gradient echo echo planar imaging. Integrated optimization of shape, electronics, and element placement can lead to large gains in SNR and empower submillimeter fMRI at 3T. Magn Reson Med 76:321-328, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. A Deuteration Survey of Starless Clumps in GemOB1 and the First Quadrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrici, Andrew; Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian

    2018-01-01

    One very strong chemical process in star-forming regions is the fractionation of deuterium in molecules, which results in an increase in the deuterium ratio many orders of magnitude over the ISM [D]/[H] ratio and provides a chemical probe of cold, dense regions. Recent maps of dust continuum emission at (sub)millimeter wavelengths have identified tens of thousands of dense clumps of gas and dust. By comparing these regions to infrared and radio surveys, we have identified starless clump candidates which have no evidence for embedded star formation. These objects represent the earliest phase of star formation throughout the Milky Way. One benefit of the Milky Way surveys is that it is also possible to study the chemistry of entire core and clump populations within a single cloud. We used the 10m Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope to survey starless clump candidates in the First Quadrant identified from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey 1.1 mm continuum in the deuterated molecular transitions of DCO+ 3-2 and N2D+ 3-2. We also survey the entire clump population of the Gemini OB1 molecular cloud. In both surveys, we compared detection statistics and compare deuteration fraction to physical properties of the clumps and their evolutionary stage. High resolution ALMA observations of 9 starless clump candidates of the same lines are used to analyze how the cold deuterated gas is spatially distributed in these clumps.

  4. Submillimeter and microwave residual losses in epitaxial films of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.; Richards, P.L.; Eom, C.B.; Geballe, T.H.; Etemad, S.; Inam, A.; Venkatesan, T.; Martens, J.S.; Lee, W.Y.

    1992-12-01

    We have used a novel bolometric technique and a resonant technique to obtain accurate submillimeter and microwave residual loss data for epitaxial thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , Tl 2 Ca 2 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 10 and Tl 2 CaBa 2 Cu 2 O 8 . For all films we obtain good agreement between the submillimeter and microwave data, with the residual losses in both the Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films scaling approximately as frequency squared below ∼ 1 THz. We are able to fit the losses in the Y-Ba-Cu-O films to a two fluid and a weakly coupled grain model for the a-b planeconductivity, in good agreement with results from a Kramers-Kronig analysis of the loss data

  5. AN ALMA SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH: NEAR-INFRARED MORPHOLOGIES AND STELLAR SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Alexander, D. M.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Biggs, A. D.; Ivison, R. J. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Coppin, K. E. K. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Wien, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wardlow, J. L. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); and others

    2015-02-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/H {sub 160}-band observations of a sample of 48 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79% ± 17% of the SMGs in the H {sub 160}-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the nondetections are SMGs with 870 μm fluxes of S {sub 870} < 3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of μ {sub H} ∼ 26 mag arcsec{sup –2}, we find that 82% ± 9% of the H {sub 160}-band-detected SMGs at z = 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a Sérsic fit to the H {sub 160} surface brightness profiles, we derive a median Sérsic index of n = 1.2 ± 0.3 and a median half-light radius of r{sub e} = 4.4{sub −0.5}{sup +1.1} kpc for our SMGs at z = 1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the H {sub 160} component and 870 μm emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty starburst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not colocated. We find significant differences in the sizes and the Sérsic index between our z = 2-3 SMGs and z ∼ 2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting that a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead z ∼ 2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the z = 2-3 SMGs with S {sub 870} ≳ 2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.

  6. [Comparative study of effect of infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter electromagnetic radiation on wing somatic mutations in Drosophila melanogaster induced by gamma-irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I; Pogodin, A S; Dubatolova, T D; Varlamov, A V; Leont'ev, K V; Khamoian, A G

    2001-01-01

    It was shown that the number of spontaneous and gamma-radiation-induced somatic mutations in wing cells of fruit flies (third instar larvae) exposed to laser irradiation of submillimeter range (lambda = 81.5 microns) was significantly lower than in control. Laser irradiation did not affect the number of recombinations. Exposure to laser radiation in the infrared range and electromagnetic waves of the millimeter range (lambda = 3.8 mm) enhanced the effect of gamma-irradiation.

  7. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseadus : kommenteeritud väljaanne / toimetuskolleegium: Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Oliver Kask, Lasse Lehis, Heiki Lindpere, Uno Lõhmus, Ülle Madise, Kalle Merusk, Raul Narits, Vallo Olle, Jüri Põld, Heinrich Schneider

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Kommentaaride autorid ja sisu: Sissejuhatus / Raul Narits, Heinrich Schneider, Lauri Madise. [Preambul] / Heinrich Schneider. I ptk. / Kalle Merusk, Taavi Annus, Madis Ernits, Heiki Lindpere, Lauri Madise. II ptk. / Uno Lõhmus, Taavi Annus, Madis Ernits, Oliver Kask, Eerik Kergandberg, Rait Maruste, Peeter Roosma. III ptk. / Oliver Kask. IV ptk. / Jüri Põld, Lauri Madise, Aaro Mõttus. V ptk. / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Ülle Madise, Jüri Põld, Urmas Reinsalu. VI ptk. / Kalle Merusk, Jüri Põld. VII ptk. / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Jüri Põld. VIII ptk. / Lasse Lehis. IX ptk. / Heiki Lindpere, Kristi Land, Lauri Madise, Heiki Pisuke. X ptk. / Oliver Kask, Enn Markvart, Jüri Põld. XI ptk. / Heinrich Schneider. XII ptk. / Raul Narits, Aare Reenumägi, Peeter Roosma, Enn Markvart. XIII ptk. / Uno Lõhmus, Madis Ernits, Jüri Põld. XIV ptk. / Vallo Olle, Arno Almann, Ülle Madise, Jüri Liventaal. XV ptk. / Eerik-Juhan Truuväli, Aaro Mõttus. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse rakendamise seadus / Raul Narits, Peeter Roosma, Oliver Kask. Märksõnastik / koost. Ülle Madise, Peep Pruks. Kasutatud õigusaktide lühendid / koost. Virgo Saarmets. Eesti Vabariigi põhiseadus 1990-2002 : bibliograafia / koost. Maia Ruttu

  8. Performance of CdZnTe strip detectors as sub-millimeter resolution imaging gamma radiation spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.; Boykin, D.V.; Drake, A.

    1996-01-01

    We report γ-ray detection performance measurements and computer simulations of a sub-millimeter pitch CdZnTe strip detector. The detector is a prototype for γ-ray astronomy measurements in the range of 20-200 keV. The prototype is a 1.5 mm thick, 64 x 64 orthogonal stripe CdZnTe detector of 0.375 mm pitch in both dimensions, with approximately one square inch of sensitive area. Using discrete laboratory electronics to process signals from 8 x 8 stripe region of the prototype we measured good spectroscopic uniformity and sub-pitch (∼ 0.2 mm) spatial resolution in both x and y dimensions. We present below measurements of the spatial uniformity, relative timing and pulse height of the anode and cathode signals, and the photon detection efficiency. We also present a technique for determining the location of the event in the third dimension (depth). We simulated the photon interactions and signal generation in the strip detector and the test electronics and we compare these results with the data. The data indicate that cathode signal - as well as the anode signal - arises more strongly from the conduction electrons rather than the holes

  9. Micro-Spec: An Ultra-Compact, High-Sensitivity Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Sub-Millimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a four-inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (mu-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of approx. 90% has been developed for initial demonstration, and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

  10. Elemental mapping of large samples by external ion beam analysis with sub-millimeter resolution and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. F.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Mangiarotti, A.; Curado, J. F.; Aguirre, F. R.; Aguero, N. F.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Campos, P. H. O. V.; Restrepo, J. M.; Trindade, G. F.; Antonio, M. R.; Assis, R. F.; Leite, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    The elemental mapping of large areas using ion beam techniques is a desired capability for several scientific communities, involved on topics ranging from geoscience to cultural heritage. Usually, the constraints for large-area mapping are not met in setups employing micro- and nano-probes implemented all over the world. A novel setup for mapping large sized samples in an external beam was recently built at the University of São Paulo employing a broad MeV-proton probe with sub-millimeter dimension, coupled to a high-precision large range XYZ robotic stage (60 cm range in all axis and precision of 5 μ m ensured by optical sensors). An important issue on large area mapping is how to deal with the irregularities of the sample's surface, that may introduce artifacts in the images due to the variation of the measuring conditions. In our setup, we implemented an automatic system based on machine vision to correct the position of the sample to compensate for its surface irregularities. As an additional benefit, a 3D digital reconstruction of the scanned surface can also be obtained. Using this new and unique setup, we have produced large-area elemental maps of ceramics, stones, fossils, and other sort of samples.

  11. Second-Generation Design of Micro-Spec: A Medium-Resolution, Submillimeter-Wavelength Spectrometer-on-a-Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, G.; Barrentine, E. M.; Bulcha, B. T.; Ehsan, N.; Hess, L. A.; Noroozian, O.; Stevenson, T. R.; U-Yen, K.; Wollack, E. J.; Moseley, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Micro-Spec (µ-Spec) is a direct-detection spectrometer which integrates all the components of a diffraction-grating spectrometer onto a ˜ 10-cm^2 chip through the use of superconducting microstrip transmission lines on a single-crystal silicon substrate. A second-generation µ-Spec is being designed to operate with a spectral resolution of 512 in the submillimeter (500-1000 µm, 300-600 GHz) wavelength range, a band of interest for several spectroscopic applications in astrophysics. High-altitude balloon missions would provide the first test bed to demonstrate the µ-Spec technology in a space-like environment and would be an economically viable venue for multiple observation campaigns. This work reports on the current status of the instrument design and will provide a brief overview of each instrument subsystem. Particular emphasis will be given to the design of the spectrometer's two-dimensional diffractive region, through which the light of different wavelengths is focused on the detectors along the focal plane. An optimization process is employed to generate geometrical configurations of the diffractive region that satisfy specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range, and performance. An optical design optimized for balloon missions will be presented in terms of geometric layout, spectral purity, and efficiency.

  12. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  13. Submillimeter and far-infrared line observations of M17 SW - A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Stacey, G. J.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1988-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far-IR spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are reported. Strong forbidden C II 158 micron and CO J = 7 - 6 line emission arises in an H II region/molecular cloud interface of several pc thickness. Weaker forbidden C II emission appears to be extended over 15 pc throughout the molecular cloud. CO J = 14 - 13 and forbidden O I 145 micron spectra indicate high temperatures and densities for both molecular and atomic gas in the interface. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. The extended forbidden C II emission throughout the molecular cloud has a level around 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. The high gas temperature of molecular material in the UV-illuminated interface region suggests that CO self-shielding and heating of CO by photoelectrons are important.

  14. Design of a QA method to characterize submillimeter-sized PBS beam properties using a 2D ionization chamber array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuting; Bentefour, Hassan; Flanz, Jacob; Kooy, Hanne; Clasie, Benjamin

    2018-05-01

    Pencil beam scanning (PBS) periodic quality assurance (QA) programs ensure the beam delivered to patients is within technical specifications. Two critical specifications for PBS delivery are the beam width and position. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a 2D ionization chamber array, such as the MatriXX detector (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany), can be used to characterize submillimeter-sized PBS beam properties. The motivation is to use standard equipment, which may have pixel spacing coarser than the pencil beam size, and simplify QA workflow. The MatriXX pixels are cylindrical in shape with 4.5 mm diameter and are spaced 7.62 mm from center to center. Two major effects limit the ability of using the MatriXX to measure the spot position and width accurately. The first effect is that too few pixels sample the Gaussian shaped pencil beam profile and the second effect is volume averaging of the Gaussian profile over the pixel sensitive volumes. We designed a method that overcomes both limitations and hence enables the use of the MatriXX to characterize sub-millimeter-sized PBS beam properties. This method uses a cross-like irradiation pattern that is designed to increase the number of sampling data points and a modified Gaussian fitting technique to correct for volume averaging effects. Detector signals were calculated in this study and random noise and setup errors were added to simulate measured data. With the techniques developed in this work, the MatriXX detector can be used to characterize the position and width of sub-millimeter, σ  =  0.7 mm, sized pencil beams with uncertainty better than 3% relative to σ. With the irradiation only covering 60% of the MatriXX, the position and width of σ  =  0.9 mm sized pencil beams can be determined with uncertainty better than 3% relative to σ. If one were to not use a cross-like irradiation pattern, then the position and width of σ  =  3.6 mm sized pencil beams

  15. Virtual endoscopy of the tracheo-bronchial system: sub-millimeter collimation with the 16-row multidetector scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Fawad; Herzog, Christopher; Maataoui, Adel; Harth, Marc; Abolmaali, Nasreddin D.; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.; Ackermann, Hanns; Wagner, Thomas O.F.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the scope of sub-millimeter collimation reconstruction parameters using 16-row computer tomography and ECG triggering on image quality in virtual bronchoscopy. Thirty-two patients (5 women, 27 men, mean age 66.6±1.4) who had been admitted for coronary artery bypass graft surgery underwent CT examination of the thorax (Sensation 16, Siemens, Inc., Forchheim, Germany). All patients were examined with 16 x 0.75-mm collimation. Image reconstruction was performed for two groups. In group A (n=32), slice thickness of 1.5 mm and an overlap of 0.75 mm were used. In group B (n=32), slice thickness of 0.75 mm and an overlap of 0.4 mm were applied. Retrospective ECG triggering was performed in all patients. The maximum order of recognizable bronchi was determined in each data set. In addition to assessing the maximum order of bronchial bifurcation, bronchial diameter was determined in truly perpendicular sections in each patient. For every segment proximal to a bifurcation, image quality was subjectively graded as poor (grade 1), moderate (grade 2) or good (grade 3). The observers were asked to identify the minimum cardiac movement ECG-triggered image sets assuming that they would be of better quality than the maximum cardiac movement ECG-triggered image sets. The Mann-Whitney U-test and the Fisher's Exact Test were used for statistical evaluation. In group A, a mean of 4.8±0.2 bifurcations was ascertained vs. 6.5±0.3 bifurcations in group B [P<0.0003]. For bronchial diameters in group A, a mean of 7.5±0.4 mm was determined vs. 4.6±0.4 mm in group B [P<0.0001]. In group B, two independent radiologists observed a significant shift to better image quality in all segments evaluated [P<0.006 to P<0.000001]. Motion artifacts were judged as being significantly reduced by minimum cardiac movement ECG-triggering in group B [observer 1: P=0.0007 (20/32); observer 2: P=0.008 (18/32)], but not in group A [observer 1: P=0.286 (13

  16. CO J = 1-0 SPECTROSCOPY OF FOUR SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES WITH THE ZPECTROMETER ON THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A. I.; Zonak, S. G.; Rauch, K.; Baker, A. J.; Sharon, C. E.; Genzel, R.; Watts, G.; Creager, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report detections of three z ∼ 2.5 submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs; SMM J14011+0252, SMM J14009+0252, SMM J04431+0210) in the lowest rotational transition of the carbon monoxide molecule (CO J = 1-0) and one nondetection (SMM J04433+0210). For the three galaxies we detected, we find a line-integrated brightness temperature ratio of the J = 3-2 and 1-0 lines of 0.68 ± 0.08; the 1-0 line is stronger than predicted by the frequent assumption of equal brightnesses in the two lines and by most single-component models. The observed ratio suggests that mass estimates for SMGs based on J = 3-2 observations and J = 1-0 column density or mass conversion factors are low by a factor of 1.5. Comparison of the 1-0 line intensities with intensities of higher-J transitions indicates that single-component models for the interstellar media in SMGs are incomplete. The small dispersion in the ratio, along with published detections of CO lines with J upper >3 in most of the sources, indicates that the emission is from multi-component interstellar media with physical structures common to many classes of galaxies. This result tends to rule out the lowest scaling factors between CO luminosity and molecular gas mass, and further increases molecular mass estimates calibrated against observations of galaxies in the local universe. We also describe and demonstrate a statistically sound method for finding weak lines in broadband spectra that will find application in searches for molecular lines from sources at unknown redshifts.

  17. Performance evaluation of a sub-millimeter spatial resolution PET detector module using a digital silicon photomultiplier coupled LGSO array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, Hyun Tae [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi@sogang.ac.kr [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyu Bom; Lee, Sangwon [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Yeom, Jung-Yeol, E-mail: jungyeol@korea.ac.kr [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-21

    In positron emission tomography (PET) for breast, brain and small animal imaging, the spatial resolution of a PET detector is crucial to obtain high quality PET images. In this study, a PET detector for sub-millimeter spatial resolution imaging purpose was assembled using 4×4 pixels of a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM, DPC-3200-22-44, Philips) coupled with a 15×15 LGSO array with BaSO{sub 4} reflector, and a 1 mm thick acrylic light guide for light distribution between the dSiPM pixels. The active area of each dSiPM pixel was 3.2×3.9 mm{sup 2} and the size of each LGSO scintillator element was 0.7×0.7×6 mm{sup 3}. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated the performance of the PET detector by measuring the energy resolution, 2D flood map, peak to valley (P/V) ratio, and coincidence resolving time (CRT). All measurements were performed at a temperature of 10±1 ℃. The average energy resolution was 15.6% (without correcting for saturation effects) at 511 keV and the best CRT was 242±5 ps. The 2D flood map obtained with an energy window of 400–600 keV demonstrated clear identification of all pixels, and the average P/V ratio of the X- and Y-directions were 7.31 and 7.81, respectively. This study demonstrated that the PET detector could be suitable for application in high resolution PET while achieving good timing resolution.

  18. ALMACAL I: FIRST DUAL-BAND NUMBER COUNTS FROM A DEEP AND WIDE ALMA SUBMILLIMETER SURVEY, FREE FROM COSMIC VARIANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteo, I.; Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ UK (United Kingdom); Zwaan, M. A.; Biggs, A. D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Smail, I., E-mail: ivanoteogomez@gmail.com [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE UK (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    We have exploited ALMA calibration observations to carry out a novel, wide, and deep submillimeter (submm) survey, almacal. These calibration data comprise a large number of observations of calibrator fields in a variety of frequency bands and array configurations. By gathering together data acquired during multiple visits to many ALMA calibrators, it is possible to reach noise levels which allow the detection of faint, dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a significant area. In this paper, we outline our survey strategy and report the first results. We have analyzed data for 69 calibrators, reaching depths of ∼25 μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsec resolution. Adopting a conservative approach based on ≥5 σ detections, we have found 8 and 11 DSFGs in ALMA bands 6 and 7, respectively, with flux densities S {sub 1.2} m {sub m} ≥ 0.2 mJy. The faintest galaxies would have been missed by even the deepest Herschel surveys. Our cumulative number counts have been determined independently at 870 μ m and 1.2 mm from a sparse sampling of the astronomical sky, and are thus relatively free of cosmic variance. The counts are lower than reported previously by a factor of at least 2×. Future analyses will yield large, secure samples of DSFGs with redshifts determined via the detection of submm spectral lines. Uniquely, our strategy then allows for morphological studies of very faint DSFGs—representative of more normal star-forming galaxies than conventional submm galaxies—in fields where self-calibration is feasible, yielding milliarcsecond spatial resolution.

  19. DIRECT DETECTION OF PRECURSORS OF GAS GIANTS FORMED BY GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY WITH THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Lucio [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Peters, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pineda, Jaime E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wadsley James; Rogers, Patrick, E-mail: p.rogers@marianopolis.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Phases of gravitational instability are expected in the early phases of disk evolution, when the disk mass is still a substantial fraction of the mass of the star. Disk fragmentation into sub-stellar objects could occur in the cold exterior part of the disk. Direct detection of massive gaseous clumps on their way to collapse into gas giant planets would offer an unprecedented test of the disk instability model. Here we use state-of-the-art 3D radiation-hydro simulations of disks undergoing fragmentation into massive gas giants, post-processed with RADMC-3D to produce dust continuum emission maps. These are then fed into the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) ALMA simulator. The synthetic maps show that both overdense spiral arms and actual clumps at different stages of collapse can be detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the full configuration at the distance of the Ophiuchus star forming region (125 pc). The detection of clumps is particularly effective at shorter wavelengths (690 GHz) combining two resolutions with multi-scale clean. Furthermore, we show that a flux-based estimate of the mass of a protoplanetary clump can be comparable to a factor of three higher than the gravitationally bound clump mass. The estimated mass depends on the assumed opacity, and on the gas temperature, which should be set using the input of radiation-hydro simulations. We conclude that ALMA has the capability to detect “smoking gun” systems that are a signpost of the disk instability model for gas giant planet formation.

  20. Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): Fast-Scan Single-Dish Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Iwai, K.; Phillips, N. M.; Hills, R. E.; Hirota, A.; Yagoubov, P.; Siringo, G.; Shimojo, M.; Bastian, T. S.; Hales, A. S.; Sawada, T.; Asayama, S.; Sugimoto, M.; Marson, R. G.; Kawasaki, W.; Muller, E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Brajša, R.; Skokić, I.; Bárta, M.; Kim, S.; Remijan, A. J.; de Gregorio, I.; Corder, S. A.; Hudson, H. S.; Loukitcheva, M.; Chen, B.; De Pontieu, B.; Fleishmann, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kobelski, A.; Wedemeyer, S.; Yan, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope has commenced science observations of the Sun starting in late 2016. Since the Sun is much larger than the field of view of individual ALMA dishes, the ALMA interferometer is unable to measure the background level of solar emission when observing the solar disk. The absolute temperature scale is a critical measurement for much of ALMA solar science, including the understanding of energy transfer through the solar atmosphere, the properties of prominences, and the study of shock heating in the chromosphere. In order to provide an absolute temperature scale, ALMA solar observing will take advantage of the remarkable fast-scanning capabilities of the ALMA 12 m dishes to make single-dish maps of the full Sun. This article reports on the results of an extensive commissioning effort to optimize the mapping procedure, and it describes the nature of the resulting data. Amplitude calibration is discussed in detail: a path that uses the two loads in the ALMA calibration system as well as sky measurements is described and applied to commissioning data. Inspection of a large number of single-dish datasets shows significant variation in the resulting temperatures, and based on the temperature distributions, we derive quiet-Sun values at disk center of 7300 K at λ = 3 mm and 5900 K at λ = 1.3 mm. These values have statistical uncertainties of about 100 K, but systematic uncertainties in the temperature scale that may be significantly larger. Example images are presented from two periods with very different levels of solar activity. At a resolution of about 25'', the 1.3 mm wavelength images show temperatures on the disk that vary over about a 2000 K range. Active regions and plages are among the hotter features, while a large sunspot umbra shows up as a depression, and filament channels are relatively cool. Prominences above the solar limb are a common feature of the single-dish images.

  1. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolčić, V.; Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Aravena, M.; Sheth, K.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G.; Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F 1m > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ∼10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (∼2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z ∼> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9 +0.9 –0.5 , and ∼4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of ∼> 1000 M ☉ yr –1 and IR luminosities of ∼10 13 L ☉ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ∼ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  2. The Possible Submillimeter Bump and Accretion-jet in the Central Supermassive Black Hole of NGC 4993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingwen; Feng, Jianchao; Fan, Xuliang

    2018-03-01

    NGC 4993, as a host galaxy of the electromagnetic counterpart of the first gravitational-wave detection of a binary neutron-star merger, was observed by many powerful telescopes from radio to γ-ray wavebands. The weak nuclear activities of NGC 4993 suggest that it is a low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). We build the multiwaveband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of NGC 4993 from the literature. We find that the radio spectrum at ∼100–300 GHz is much steeper than that of the low-frequency waveband (e.g., 6–100 GHz), where this break was also found in the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in our galaxy center (Sgr A*), and in some other nearby AGNs. The radio emission above and below this break may have different physical origins, which provide an opportunity to probe the accretion and jet properties. We model the multiwaveband SEDs of NGC 4993 with an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) jet model. We find that the high-frequency steep radio emission at the millimeter waveband is consistent with the prediction of the ADAF, while the low-frequency flat radio spectrum is better fitted by the jet. Furthermore, the X-ray emission can also be simultaneously explained by the ADAF model. From the model fits, we estimate important parameters of the central engine (e.g., the accretion rate near the horizon of the black hole and the mass-loss rate in the jet) for NGC 4993. This result strengthens the theory that the millimeter, submillimeter, and deep X-ray observations are crucial to understanding the weak or quiescent activities in SMBH systems. Further simultaneous millimeter and X-ray monitoring of this kind of LLAGN will help us to better understand the physical origin of multiwaveband emission.

  3. MEASUREMENTS OF CO REDSHIFTS WITH Z-SPEC FOR LENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES DISCOVERED IN THE H-ATLAS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, R. E.; Scott, K. S.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Dariush, A.; Barton, E.; Cooke, J.; Cooray, A.; Beelen, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Bonfield, D.; Buttiglione, S.; De Zotti, G.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present new observations from Z-Spec, a broadband 185-305 GHz spectrometer, of five submillimeter bright lensed sources selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey science demonstration phase catalog. We construct a redshift-finding algorithm using combinations of the signal to noise of all the lines falling in the Z-Spec bandpass to determine redshifts with high confidence, even in cases where the signal to noise in individual lines is low. We measure the dust continuum in all sources and secure CO redshifts for four out of five (z ∼ 1.5-3). In one source, SDP.17, we tentatively identify two independent redshifts and a water line, confirmed at z = 2.308. Our sources have properties characteristic of dusty starburst galaxies, with magnification-corrected star formation rates of 10 2–3 M ☉ yr –1 . Lower limits for the dust masses (∼ a few 10 8 M ☉ ) and spatial extents (∼1 kpc equivalent radius) are derived from the continuum spectral energy distributions, corresponding to dust temperatures between 54 and 69 K. In the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation, we derive relatively low CO excitation temperatures (∼< 100 K) and optical depths (τ ∼< 1). Performing a non-LTE excitation analysis using RADEX, we find that the CO lines measured by Z-Spec (from J = 4 → 3 to 10 → 9, depending on the galaxy) localize the best solutions to either a high-temperature/low-density region or a low/temperature/high-density region near the LTE solution, with the optical depth varying accordingly. Observations of additional CO lines, CO(1-0) in particular, are needed to constrain the non-LTE models.

  4. A Multiwavelength Study of the Intracluster Medium and the Characterization of the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Seth Robert

    The first part of this thesis combines Bolocam observations of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect at 140 GHz with X-ray observations from Chandra, strong lensing data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and weak lensing data from HST and Subaru to constrain parametric models for the distribution of dark and baryonic matter in a sample of six massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. For five of the six clusters, the full multiwavelength dataset is well described by a relatively simple model that assumes spherical symmetry, hydrostatic equilibrium, and entirely thermal pressure support. The multiwavelength analysis yields considerably better constraints on the total mass and concentration compared to analysis of any one dataset individually. The subsample of five galaxy clusters is used to place an upper limit on the fraction of pressure support in the intracluster medium (ICM) due to nonthermal processes, such as turbulent and bulk flow of the gas. We constrain the nonthermal pressure fraction at r500c to be less than 0.11 at 95% confidence, where r500c refers to radius at which the average enclosed density is 500 times the critical density of the Universe. This is in tension with state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations, which predict a nonthermal pressure fraction of approximately 0.25 at r500c for the clusters in this sample. The second part of this thesis focuses on the characterization of the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a photometric imaging camera that was commissioned at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in 2012. MUSIC is designed to have a 14 arcminute, diffraction-limited field of view populated with 576 spatial pixels that are simultaneously sensitive to four bands at 150, 220, 290, and 350 GHz. It is well-suited for studies of dusty star forming galaxies, galaxy clusters via the SZ Effect, and galactic star formation. MUSIC employs a number of novel detector technologies: broadband phased

  5. [German translation of the syphilis poem by Girolamo Fracastoro by the Essling wound physician Ernst Philipp Heinrich Späth (1809-1856). An unpublished hanwritten document of Dresden historical collection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidel, Caris-Petra

    2004-01-01

    In 1840 the Dresden physician and professor at the Chirurgisch-medicinischen Akademie Johann Ludwig Choulant (1791-1861)--at that time one of the most well-known experts in history of medicine--received a German translation of the Fracastoro syphilis poem. This philological piece goes back to the physician and surgeon Ernst Philipp Heinrich Späth (1809-1856) who had already worked on the poem of Girolamo Fracastoro (1478-1553) and its translation in the 1830s. Späth referred to the 1830 Latin publication of Choulant's syphilis poem--which he later used as the literary basis for his adaptation. Späth had acquired his knowledge of philology at a theology seminar in Urach and during his theology studies inTübingen. However, he quit his theology studies to switch to medicine. In 1832 he took the state examination and received a doctorate of medicine and surgery. In the very same year he established a practice as general practitioner, surgeon and obstetrician in Esslingen to eventually be appointed chief surgeon at the Esslingen hospital. Besides his work as a physician Späth was also a publisher, e.g. he also became the editor of the first local Esslingen newspaper. Späth's translation, apparently finished almost completely already in 1837, was sent to Choulant to ask his opinion in 1840. This version seems to be not only one of the rarest but also earliest German adaptations. Although hardly any other medical poem was so often translated into modern languages as Fracastoro's "Syphilidis sive morbi gallici libri III", there are only three German publications mentioned in a 1935 bibliography with the first complete German translation being published in 1858. Späth's script, however, has never been published and has remained in the handwritten estate of Choulant in Dresden ever since.

  6. The GBT Discovery of a Massive CO(1-0) Filament Associated with the z=2.8 Submillimeter Galaxy SMM J02399-0136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayer, David; Maddalena, Ronald; Vanden Bout, Paul; Watts, Galen

    2018-01-01

    Using the Ka-band receiver on the GBT, we have uncovered a new velocity component in CO(1-0) associated the submillimeter galaxy SMM J02399-0136. Follow-up imaging with ALMA in CO(3-2) shows that this velocity component is associated with a large linear filament covering 8" on the sky (60 kpc). This component comprises 50% or more of the total molecular gas mass in the system, and may repesent tidal debris from a merger event or represents inflowing cold molecular gas that is fueling the ongoing starburst and AGN activity.

  7. Micropole Undulators In Synchrotron Radiation Technology: Design And Construction Of A Submillimeter Period Prototype With A 3 Kilogauss Peak Field At SSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchyn, Roman; Csonka, Paul

    1986-01-01

    The availability of undulators with submillimeter periods will profoundly affect the future development of soft x-ray sources and their attendant instrumentation. Outputs comparable to those of present-day conventional undulators, obtainable with much lower energy storage rings, is only one promising aspect of such devices. This paper critically examines some of the future prospects of such devices and describes the design and practical construction of a 1" long prototype consisting of 35 periods. A proposed experiment to test this device on a linac is described.

  8. Micropole undulators in synchrotron radiation technology: Design and construction of a submillimeter period prototype with a 3 kilogauss peak field at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Csonka, P.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of undulators with submillimeter periods profoundly affects the future development of soft x-ray sources and their attendant instrumentation. Outputs comparable to those of present-day conventional undulators, obtainable with much lower energy storage rings, is only one promising aspect of such devices. This paper critically examines some of the future prospects of such devices and describes the design and practical construction of a 1'' long prototype consisting of 35 periods. A proposed experiment to test this device on a linac is described

  9. SUBMILLIMETER LINE SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 1068 FROM THE HERSCHEL-SPIRE FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Busquet, Gemma; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Wilson, Christine D.; Parkin, Tara J.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R.; Bendo, George J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Page, Mathew J.

    2012-01-01

    The first complete submillimeter spectrum (190-670 μm) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 has been observed with the SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The sequence of CO lines (J up = 4-13), lines from H 2 O, the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen fluoride, two o-H 2 O + lines, and one line each from CH + and OH + have been detected, together with the two [C I] lines and the [N II] 205 μm line. The observations in both single pointing mode with sparse image sampling and in mapping mode with full image sampling allow us to disentangle two molecular emission components, one due to the compact circumnuclear disk (CND) and one from the extended region encompassing the star-forming ring (SF-ring). Radiative transfer models show that the two CO components are characterized by densities of n(H 2 ) = 10 4.5 and 10 2.9 cm –3 and temperatures of T kin = 100 K and 127 K, respectively. A comparison of the CO line intensities with the photodissociation region (PDR) and X-ray-dominated region (XDR) models, together with the other observational constraints, such as the observed CO surface brightness and the radiation field, indicates that the best explanation for the CO excitation of the CND is an XDR with a density of n(H 2 ) ∼ 10 4 cm –3 and an X-ray flux of 9 erg s –1 cm –2 , consistent with illumination by the active galactic nucleus, while the CO lines in the SF-ring are better modeled by a PDR. The detected water transitions, together with those observed with the Herschel PACS spectrometer, can be modeled by a large velocity gradient model with low temperature (T kin ∼ 40 K) and high density (n(H 2 ) in the range 10 6.7 -10 7.9 cm –3 ). The emission of H 2 O + and OH + are in agreement with PDR models with cosmic-ray ionization. The diffuse ionized atomic component observed through the [N II] 205 μm line is consistent with previous photoionization models of the starburst.

  10. SUBMILLIMETER LINE SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 1068 FROM THE HERSCHEL-SPIRE FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Wilson, Christine D.; Parkin, Tara J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Bendo, George J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Madden, Suzanne C. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wolfire, Mark G. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cooray, Asantha [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Page, Mathew J., E-mail: luigi.spinoglio@iaps.inaf.it [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-20

    The first complete submillimeter spectrum (190-670 {mu}m) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 has been observed with the SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The sequence of CO lines (J {sub up} = 4-13), lines from H{sub 2}O, the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen fluoride, two o-H{sub 2}O{sup +} lines, and one line each from CH{sup +} and OH{sup +} have been detected, together with the two [C I] lines and the [N II] 205 {mu}m line. The observations in both single pointing mode with sparse image sampling and in mapping mode with full image sampling allow us to disentangle two molecular emission components, one due to the compact circumnuclear disk (CND) and one from the extended region encompassing the star-forming ring (SF-ring). Radiative transfer models show that the two CO components are characterized by densities of n(H{sub 2}) = 10{sup 4.5} and 10{sup 2.9} cm{sup -3} and temperatures of T {sub kin} = 100 K and 127 K, respectively. A comparison of the CO line intensities with the photodissociation region (PDR) and X-ray-dominated region (XDR) models, together with the other observational constraints, such as the observed CO surface brightness and the radiation field, indicates that the best explanation for the CO excitation of the CND is an XDR with a density of n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3} and an X-ray flux of 9 erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, consistent with illumination by the active galactic nucleus, while the CO lines in the SF-ring are better modeled by a PDR. The detected water transitions, together with those observed with the Herschel PACS spectrometer, can be modeled by a large velocity gradient model with low temperature (T {sub kin} {approx} 40 K) and high density (n(H{sub 2}) in the range 10{sup 6.7}-10{sup 7.9} cm{sup -3}). The emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and OH{sup +} are in agreement with PDR models with cosmic-ray ionization. The diffuse ionized atomic component observed through the [N

  11. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF z ∼ 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES AND SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.; Armus, L.; Desai, V.; Soifer, B. T.; Brown, M. J. I.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Melbourne, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has identified a population of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z ∼ 2 that may play an important role in the evolution of massive galaxies. We measure the stellar masses (M * ) of two populations of Spitzer-selected ULIRGs that have extremely red R – [24] colors (dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) and compare our results with submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs). One set of 39 DOGs has a local maximum in their mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest frame 1.6 μm associated with stellar emission ( b ump DOGs ) , while the other set of 51 DOGs have power-law mid-IR SEDs that are typical of obscured active galactic nuclei ( p ower-law DOGs ) . We measure M * by applying Charlot and Bruzual stellar population synthesis models to broadband photometry in the rest-frame ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared of each of these populations. Assuming a simple stellar population and a Chabrier initial mass function, we find that power-law DOGs and bump DOGs are on average a factor of 2 and 1.5 more massive than SMGs, respectively (median and inter-quartile M * values for SMGs, bump DOGs, and power-law DOGs are log(M * /M ☉ ) = 10.42 +0.42 –0.36 , 10.62 +0.36 –0.32 , and 10.71 +0.40 –0.34 , respectively). More realistic star formation histories drawn from two competing theories for the nature of ULIRGs at z ∼ 2 (major merger versus smooth accretion) can increase these mass estimates by up to 0.5 dex. A comparison of our stellar masses with the instantaneous star formation rate (SFR) in these z ∼ 2 ULIRGs provides a preliminary indication supporting high SFRs for a given M * , a situation that arises more naturally in major mergers than in smooth accretion-powered systems.

  12. Dosimetric characteristics of the Novoste Beta-Cath 90Sr/Y source trains at submillimeter distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Dante E.; Song Haijun; Yue Ning; D'Errico, Francesco; Nath, Ravinder

    2004-01-01

    Measurements were performed on the 30, 40, and 60 mm 90 Sr/Y β-emitter source trains used in the Novoste Beta-Cath system to determine their dosimetric characteristics at submillimeter distances and provide the necessary TG-60 parameters for mapping their dose distributions. These measurements were carried out in a Solid Water TM phantom where MD55-2 Gafchromic TM films were placed in direct contact with a 5 French (F) catheter used for the 30 and 60 mm source trains and a 3.5F catheter used for thinner 30 and 40 mm source trains. A data set consisted of three pieces of Gafchromic film irradiated for periods of 1.5, 5, and 10 minutes, respectively. This 3-film irradiation technique provided reliable dose data at short, intermediate and long distances from a source train. Three data sets per source train were collected in this study. For the 30 mm source train with a 5F catheter, data were collected with the source axis at proximal (0.41 mm) and distal (1.19 mm) positions to the film surface in order to investigate dosimetric effects due to the off centering of the source train lumen within the catheter. Absolute doses were determined by calibrating the Gafchromic film in a high-energy electron beam from a radiotherapy accelerator. The absolute dose rates at a distance of 2 mm along the source trains transverse axis were found to be within 13.7% of the values provided by Novoste. Radial dose functions were within 13% compared to 90 Sr/Y source train data constructed from Soares' 90 Sr/Y single seed data and within 17% and 25% compared to Monte Carlo data by Ye et al., and Wang et al., respectively. Discrepancies of 33% and 19% were observed at short radial distances (≤1 mm) between the Novoste Monte Carlo and the 3.5F and 5F catheter measured data, respectively. The source off centering data showed higher dose contribution from the source train at its distal rather than proximal position. Radial dose function comparisons between the Novoste Monte Carlo and the

  13. Early phases in the stellar and substellar formation and evolution. Infrared and submillimeter data in the Barnard 30 dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado, D.; de Gregorio Monsalvo, I.; Huélamo, N.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Bayo, A.; Palau, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Rivière-Marichalar, P.; Bouy, H.; Morata, Ó.; Stauffer, J. R.; Eiroa, C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2018-04-01

    Aims: The early evolutionary stage of brown dwarfs (BDs) is not very well characterized, especially during the embedded phase. Our goal is to gain insight into the dominant formation mechanism of very low-mass objects and BDs. Methods: We have conducted deep observations at 870 μm obtained with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope in order to identify young submillimeter (submm) sources in the Barnard 30 dark cloud. We have complemented these data with multi-wavelength observations from the optical to the far-IR and compiled complete spectral energy distributions in order to identify the counterparts, characterize the sources and to assess their membership to the association and stellar or substellar status based on the available photometric information. Results: We have identified 34 submm sources and a substantial number of possible and probable Barnard 30 members within each individual APEX/LABOCA beam. They can be classified into three distinct groups. First, 15 of these 34 have a clear optical or IR counterpart to the submm peak and nine of them are potential proto-BD candidates. Moreover, a substantial number of them could be multiple systems. A second group of 13 sources comprises candidate members with significant infrared excesses located away from the central submm emission. All of them include BD candidates, some displaying IR excess, but their association with submm emission is unclear. In addition, we have found six starless cores and, based on the total dust mass estimate, three might be pre-substellar (or pre-BDs) cores. Finally, the complete characterization of our APEX/LABOCA sources, focusing on those detected at 24 and/or 70 μm, indicates that in our sample of 34 submm sources there are, at least: two WTTs, four CTTs, five young stellar objects, eight proto-BD candidates (with another three dubious cases), and one very low luminosity objects. Conclusions: Our findings provide additional evidence concerning the BD formation mechanism

  14. The Suborbital Particle Aggregation and Collision Experiment (SPACE): studying the collision behavior of submillimeter-sized dust aggregates on the suborbital rocket flight REXUS 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, Julie; Heißelmann, Daniel; Kothe, Stefan; Weidling, René; Blum, Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    The Suborbital Particle Aggregation and Collision Experiment (SPACE) is a novel approach to study the collision properties of submillimeter-sized, highly porous dust aggregates. The experiment was designed, built, and carried out to increase our knowledge about the processes dominating the first phase of planet formation. During this phase, the growth of planetary precursors occurs by agglomeration of micrometer-sized dust grains into aggregates of at least millimeters to centimeters in size. However, the formation of larger bodies from the so-formed building blocks is not yet fully understood. Recent numerical models on dust growth lack a particular support by experimental studies in the size range of submillimeters, because these particles are predicted to collide at very gentle relative velocities of below 1 cm/s that can only be achieved in a reduced-gravity environment. The SPACE experiment investigates the collision behavior of an ensemble of silicate-dust aggregates inside several evacuated glass containers which are being agitated by a shaker to induce the desired collisions at chosen velocities. The dust aggregates are being observed by a high-speed camera, allowing for the determination of the collision properties of the protoplanetary dust analog material. The data obtained from the suborbital flight with the REXUS (Rocket Experiments for University Students) 12 rocket will be directly implemented into a state-of-the-art dust growth and collision model.

  15. TWO BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN A z = 4.05 PROTOCLUSTER IN GOODS-NORTH, AND ACCURATE RADIO-INFRARED PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Mancini, C.; Dannerbauer, H.; Stern, D.; Dickinson, M.; Pope, A.; Morrison, G.; Giavalisco, M.; Spinrad, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of molecular gas CO emission lines with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer coincident with two luminous submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N) field. The identification of the millimeter emission lines as CO[4-3] at z = 4.05 is based on the optical and near-IR photometric redshifts, radio-infrared photometric redshifts, and Keck+DEIMOS optical spectroscopy. These two galaxies include the brightest submillimeter source in the field (GN20; S 850μm = 20.3 mJy, z CO = 4.055 ± 0.001) and its companion (GN20.2; S 850μm = 9.9 mJy, z CO = 4.051 ± 0.003). These are among the most distant submillimeter-selected galaxies reliably identified through CO emission and also some of the most luminous known. GN20.2 has a possible additional counterpart and a luminous active galactic nucleus inside its primary counterpart revealed in the radio. Continuum emission of 0.3 mJy at 3.3 mm (0.65 mm in the rest frame) is detected at 5σ for GN20, the first dust continuum detection in an SMG at such long wavelength, unveiling a spectral energy distribution that is similar to local ultra luminous IR galaxies. In terms of CO to bolometric luminosities, stellar mass, and star formation rates (SFRs), these newly discovered z > 4 SMGs are similar to z ∼ 2-3 SMGs studied to date. These z ∼ 4 SMGs have much higher specific star formation rates than those of typical B-band dropout Lyman break galaxies at the same redshift. The stellar mass-SFR correlation for normal galaxies does not seem to evolve much further, between z ∼ 2 and z ∼ 4. A significant z = 4.05 spectroscopic redshift spike is observed in GOODS-N, and a strong spatial overdensity of B-band dropouts and IRAC selected z > 3.5 galaxies appears to be centered on the GN20 and GN20.2 galaxies. This suggests a protocluster structure with total mass ∼10 14 M sun . Using photometry at mid-IR (24 μm), submillimeter (850 μm), and

  16. TIMASSS: the IRAS 16293-2422 millimeter and submillimeter spectral survey. I. Observations, calibration, and analysis of the line kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims: While unbiased surveys at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been performed towards several high mass protostars, very little exists on low mass protostars, which are believed to resemble our own Sun's progenitor. To help fill up this gap in our understanding, we carried out a complete spectral survey of the bands at 3, 2, 1, and 0.9 mm towards the solar type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: The observations covered a range of about 200 GHz and were obtained with the IRAM-30 m and JCMT-15 m telescopes during about 300 h of observations. Particular attention was devoted to the inter-calibration of the acquired spectra with previous observations. All the lines detected with more than 3σ confidence-interval certainty and free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. Results: More than 4000 lines were detected (with σ ≥ 3) and identified, yielding a line density of approximatively 20 lines per GHz, comparable to previous surveys in massive hot cores. The vast majority (about two-thirds) of the lines are weak and produced by complex organic molecules. The analysis of the profiles of more than 1000 lines belonging to 70 species firmly establishes the presence of two distinct velocity components associated with the two objects, A and B, forming the IRAS 16293-2422 binary system. In the source A, the line widths of several species increase with the upper level energy of the transition, a behavior compatible with gas infalling towards a ~1 M⊙ object. The source B, which does not show this effect, might have a much lower central mass of ~0.1 M⊙. The difference in the rest velocities

  17. THE SCUBA-2 COSMOLOGY LEGACY SURVEY: ALMA RESOLVES THE REST-FRAME FAR-INFRARED EMISSION OF SUB-MILLIMETER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J. M.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Danielson, A. L. R.; Edge, A. C.; Ma, C.-J. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Almaini, O.; Conselice, C.; Hartley, W. G.; Lani, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Blain, A. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bremer, M. N.; Coppin, K. E. K. [School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford HIll, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Geach, J. E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Karim, A., E-mail: j.m.simpson@dur.ac.uk [Argelander-Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present high-resolution (0.''3) Atacama Large Millimeter Array 870 μm imaging of 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Ultra Deep Survey field to investigate the size and morphology of the sub-millimeter (sub-mm) emission on 2-10 kpc scales. We derive a median intrinsic angular size of FWHM = 0.''30 ± 0.''04 for the 23 SMGs in the sample detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >10. Using the photometric redshifts of the SMGs we show that this corresponds to a median physical half-light diameter of 2.4 ± 0.2 kpc. A stacking analysis of the SMGs detected at S/N <10 shows they have sizes consistent with the 870 μm bright SMGs in the sample. We compare our results to the sizes of SMGs derived from other multi-wavelength studies, and show that the rest-frame ∼250 μm sizes of SMGs are consistent with studies of resolved {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2 to 7-6) emission lines, but that sizes derived from 1.4 GHz imaging appear to be approximately two times larger on average, which we attribute to cosmic ray diffusion. The rest-frame optical sizes of SMGs are around four times larger than the sub-millimeter sizes, indicating that the star formation in these galaxies is compact relative to the pre-existing stellar distribution. The size of the starburst region in SMGs is consistent with the majority of the star formation occurring in a central region, a few kiloparsecs in extent, with a median star formation rate surface density of 90 ± 30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}, which may suggest that we are witnessing an intense period of bulge growth in these galaxies.

  18. TU-H-CAMPUS-TeP2-03: High Sensitivity and High Resolution Fiber Based Micro-Detector for Sub-Millimeter Preclinical Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaguirre, E; Pokhrel, S; Knewtson, T; Hedrick, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current precision of small animal and cell micro-irradiators has continuously increased during the past years. Currently, preclinical irradiators can deliver sub-millimeter fields with micrometric precision but there are no water equivalent dosimeters to determine small field profiles and dose in the orthovoltage range of energies with micrometric resolution and precision. We have developed a fiber based micro-dosimeter with the resolution and dosimetric accuracy required for radiobiological research. Methods: We constructed two prototypes of micro-dosimeters based on different compositions of fiber scintillators to study the spatial resolution and dosimetric precision of small animal and cell micro-irradiators. The first has green output and the second has blue output. The blue output dosimeter has the highest sensitivity because it matches the spectral sensitivity of silicon photomultipliers. A blue detector with 500um cross section was built and tested respect to a CC01 ion chamber, film, and the 1500um green output detector. Orthovoltage fields from 1×1mm2 to 5×5mm2 were used for detector characteristics comparison. Results: The blue fiber dosimeter shows great agreement with films and matches dose measurements with the gold-standard ion chamber for 5×5mm2 fields. The detector has the appropriate sensitivity to measure fields from 1×1mm2 to larger sizes with a 1% dosimetric accuracy. The spatial resolution is in the sub-millimeter range and the spectral matching with the photomultiplier allows reducing the sensor cross section even further than the presented prototype. These results suggest that scintillating fibers combined with silicon photomultipliers is the appropriate technology to pursue micro-dosimetry for small animals and disperse cell samples. Conclusion: The constructed detectors establish a new landmark for the resolution and sensitivity of fiber based microdetectors. The validation of the detector in our small animal and cell

  19. Starburst to Quiescent from HST/ALMA: Stars and Dust Unveil Minor Mergers in Submillimeter Galaxies at z ∼ 4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guijarro, C.; Toft, S.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Magdis, G. E.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Capak, P. L.; Fraternali, F.; Fujimoto, S.; Riechers, D. A.; Schinnerer, E.; Smolčić, V.; Aravena, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Cortzen, I.; Hasinger, G.; Hu, E. M.; Jones, G. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lee, N.; McCracken, H. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Navarrete, F.; Pović, M.; Puglisi, A.; Romano-Díaz, E.; Sheth, K.; Silverman, J. D.; Staguhn, J.; Steinhardt, C. L.; Stockmann, M.; Tanaka, M.; Valentino, F.; van Kampen, E.; Zirm, A.

    2018-04-01

    Dust-enshrouded, starbursting, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z ≥ 3 have been proposed as progenitors of z ≥ 2 compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs). To test this connection, we present a detailed spatially resolved study of the stars, dust, and stellar mass in a sample of six submillimeter-bright starburst galaxies at z ∼ 4.5. The stellar UV emission probed by HST is extended and irregular and shows evidence of multiple components. Informed by HST, we deblend Spitzer/IRAC data at rest-frame optical, finding that the systems are undergoing minor mergers with a typical stellar mass ratio of 1:6.5. The FIR dust continuum emission traced by ALMA locates the bulk of star formation in extremely compact regions (median r e = 0.70 ± 0.29 kpc), and it is in all cases associated with the most massive component of the mergers (median {log}({M}* /{M}ȯ )=10.49+/- 0.32). We compare spatially resolved UV slope (β) maps with the FIR dust continuum to study the infrared excess (IRX = L IR/L UV)–β relation. The SMGs display systematically higher IRX values than expected from the nominal trend, demonstrating that the FIR and UV emissions are spatially disconnected. Finally, we show that the SMGs fall on the mass–size plane at smaller stellar masses and sizes than the cQGs at z = 2. Taking into account the expected evolution in stellar mass and size between z = 4.5 and z = 2 due to the ongoing starburst and mergers with minor companions, this is in agreement with a direct evolutionary connection between the two populations.

  20. A LABOCA SURVEY OF THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH-SUBMILLIMETER PROPERTIES OF NEAR-INFRARED SELECTED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greve, T. R.; Walter, F.; Bell, E. F.; Dannerbauer, H.; Rix, H.-W.; Schinnerer, E.; Weiss, A.; Kovacs, A.; Smail, I.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Alexander, D.; Zheng, X. Z.; Knudsen, K. K.; Bertoldi, F.; De Breuck, C.; Dickinson, M.; Gawiser, E.; Lutz, D.; Brandt, N.; Chapman, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    Using the 330 hr ESO-MPG 870 μm survey of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) obtained with the Large Apex BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX), we have carried out a stacking analysis at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths of a sample of 8266 near-infra-red (near-IR) selected (K vega ≤ 20) galaxies, including 893 BzK galaxies, 1253 extremely red objects (EROs), and 737 distant red galaxies (DRGs), selected from the Multi-wavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC). We measure average 870 μm fluxes of 0.22 ± 0.01 mJy (22.0σ), 0.48 ± 0.04 mJy (12.0σ), 0.39 ± 0.03 mJy (13.0σ), and 0.43 ± 0.04 mJy (10.8σ) for the K vega ≤ 20, BzK, ERO, and DRG samples, respectively. For the BzK, ERO, and DRG sub-samples, which overlap to some degree and are likely to be at z ≅ 1-2, this implies an average far-IR luminosity of ∼(1-5) x 10 11 L sun and star formation rate (SFR) of ∼20-90 M sun . Splitting the BzK galaxies into star-forming (sBzK) and passive (pBzK) galaxies, the former is significantly detected (0.50 ± 0.04 mJy, 12.5σ) while the latter is only marginally detected (0.34 ± 0.10 mJy, 3.4σ), thus confirming that the sBzK and pBzK criteria to some extent select obscured, star-forming, and truly passive galaxies, respectively. The K vega ≤ 20 galaxies are found to contribute 7.27 ± 0.34 Jy deg -2 (16.5% ± 5.7%) to the 870 μm extragalactic background light (EBL). sBzK and pBzK galaxies contribute 1.49 ± 0.22 Jy deg -2 (3.4% ± 1.3%) and 0.20 ± 0.14 Jy deg -2 (0.5% ± 0.3%) to the EBL. We present the first delineation of the average submm signal from the K vega ≤ 20 selected galaxies and their contribution to the submm EBL as a function of (photometric) redshift, and find a decline in the average submm signal (and therefore IR luminosity and SFR) by a factor ∼2-3 from z ∼ 2 to z ∼ 0. This is in line with a cosmic star formation history in which the star formation activity in galaxies increases

  1. Geochemical and sedimentological properties of Heinrich layers H2 and H1 off the Hudson Strait ice-surging source areas: ice-rafting vs water-laid down depositional mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttin, L.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The ~9 m-long core HU08-029-004PC was raised from the lower Labrador Sea slope (2674 m water-depth), approximately 180 km off Hudson Strait shelf edge. It yielded a high resolution record spanning the last 35 ka. The sequence includes layers with abundant detrital carbonates produced by glacial erosion of Paleozoic rocks and released into the Labrador Sea through ice streaming processes in Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay. These layers are assigned to 'Heinrich events' 3 (at core bottom), 2 and 1. Sedimentological properties and U and Th isotope measurements are used to document depositional mechanisms and durations of these layers. Data suggest: i) intense ice-rafting deposition (IRD) due to iceberg calving at the ice-stream edge, as illustrated by the coarse fraction content of the layers, and ii) sub-glacial meltwater flushing over the Hudson Strait sill, carrying fine silt-size, carbonate-rich glacial flour to the shelf-edge. Such suspended sediment pulses led to the spreading of turbidites mostly into the deep Labrador Sea, through the NAMOC system. Others late-glacial events, such as the ~ 8.2 ka final drainage of Lake Agassiz, are also recorded in the study core, whereas the H0 layer, exclusively observed in the western Labrador Sea is missing. CAT-scan images, mineralogical data, carbonate abundance, %>106 μm fraction (mostly IRD here), U-Th isotope data and 14C ages of planktic foraminifera assemblages (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, l.) are used to further document H2 (760 to 700 cm) and H1 (588 to 488 cm). The H-layers contain up to 60% of fine detrital carbonates (about 2/3 calcite, 1/3 dolomite). Whereas the fine calcitic material points to sediment sources (basal till/water-laid glacial sediments) in the Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, i.e., originating from the glacial erosion of Paleozoic carbonates from the area, the dolomitic component might have several origins (from Proterozoic and Paleozoic limestones in the Hudson Bay and Strait, to northwestern

  2. Mechanics without mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenthal, Joshua

    2018-05-01

    At the time of Heinrich Hertz's premature death in 1894, he was regarded as one of the leading scientists of his generation. However, the posthumous publication of his treatise in the foundations of physics, Principles of Mechanics, presents a curious historical situation. Although Hertz's book was widely praised and admired, it was also met with a general sense of dissatisfaction. Almost all of Hertz's contemporaries criticized Principles for the lack of any plausible way to construct a mechanism from the "hidden masses" that are particularly characteristic of Hertz's framework. This issue seemed especially glaring given the expectation that Hertz's work might lead to a model of the underlying workings of the ether. In this paper I seek an explanation for why Hertz seemed so unperturbed by the difficulties of constructing such a mechanism. In arriving at this explanation, I explore how the development of Hertz's image-theory of representation framed the project of Principles. The image-theory brings with it an austere view of the "essential content" of mechanics, only requiring a kind of structural isomorphism between symbolic representations and target phenomena. I argue that bringing this into view makes clear why Hertz felt no need to work out the kinds of mechanisms that many of his readers looked for. Furthermore, I argue that a crucial role of Hertz's hypothesis of hidden masses has been widely overlooked. Far from acting as a proposal for the underlying structure of the ether, I show that Hertz's hypothesis ruled out knowledge of such underlying structure.

  3. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-02: Vernier Picket Fence Test: A Non-Imaging Method to Localize the Radiation Isocenter with Submillimeter Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J; Gallagher, K [Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Zhang, J [Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose a new non-imaging method to localize the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Methods: The Vernier picket fence (VPF) is a multileaf collimator (MLC) picket fence sequence in which the fence spacing is 1/N smaller than the detector spacing of the QA phantom, where N is the magnification factor, typically set to 10 or 20. Similar to reading a Vernier caliper, the user can easily achieve the resolution of 1/N of the detector spacing by visually inspecting the maximum signal. To achieve higher accuracy, a Gaussian model was used to interpolate the peak position, which can fall between adjacent detectors. In two separate tests, precise MLC offsets and imprecise couch offsets were applied to a 2D detector array (MapCheck, Sun Nuclear Corp., Melbourne, Florida) to introduce setup errors. Two vertical VPF fields were delivered with collimator angles at 0° and 90° to detect the lateral and longitudinal setup errors, respectively. For a rotational QA phantom, an additional lateral VPF field is needed to detect the vertical setup error for three-dimensional capabilities. Results: With N set to 20 and a detector spacing of 5 mm for MapCheck, the resolution of the VPF’s visual analysis is 0.25 mm. With the Gaussian interpretation, the VPF can achieve an accuracy of 0.02 mm, as shown by the MLC offset test. The couch offset test measured the couch hysteresis and demonstrated that the setup error detected by the VPF differed from the ExacTrac™ (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) optical tracking by 0.055 mm in the lateral direction and 0.041 mm in the longitudinal direction on average. The VPF was also shown to be feasible in the vertical direction as well. Conclusion: This study verified the VPF as a non-imaging method to localize the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Funding is in part by the Portland Chapter of the Achievement Rewards for College Scientists. The content is solely the

  4. Modelling the carbon AGB star R Sculptoris. Constraining the dust properties in the detached shell based on far-infrared and sub-millimeter observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, M.; Maercker, M.; Mecina, M.; Khouri, T.; Kerschbaum, F.

    2018-06-01

    Context. On the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), Sun-like stars lose a large portion of their mass in an intensive wind and enrich the surrounding interstellar medium with nuclear processed stellar material in the form of molecular gas and dust. For a number of carbon-rich AGB stars, thin detached shells of gas and dust have been observed. These shells are formed during brief periods of increased mass loss and expansion velocity during a thermal pulse, and open up the possibility to study the mass-loss history of thermally pulsing AGB stars. Aims: We study the properties of dust grains in the detached shell around the carbon AGB star R Scl and aim to quantify the influence of the dust grain properties on the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) and the derived dust shell mass. Methods: We modelled the SED of the circumstellar dust emission and compared the models to observations, including new observations of Herschel/PACS and SPIRE (infrared) and APEX/LABOCA (sub-millimeter). We derived present-day mass-loss rates and detached shell masses for a variation of dust grain properties (opacities, chemical composition, grain size, and grain geometry) to quantify the influence of changing dust properties to the derived shell mass. Results: The best-fitting mass-loss parameters are a present-day dust mass-loss rate of 2 × 10-10 M⊙ yr-1 and a detached shell dust mass of (2.9 ± 0.3) × 10-5 M⊙. Compared to similar studies, the uncertainty on the dust mass is reduced by a factor of 4. We find that the size of the grains dominates the shape of the SED, while the estimated dust shell mass is most strongly affected by the geometry of the dust grains. Additionally, we find a significant sub-millimeter excess that cannot be reproduced by any of the models, but is most likely not of thermal origin. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN G240.31+0.07: AN HOURGLASS IN A MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Liu, Hauyu B.; Tang, Ya-Wen [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P. O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Girart, Josep M., E-mail: kpqiu@nju.edu.cn [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)

    2014-10-10

    We report the first detection of an hourglass magnetic field aligned with a well-defined outflow rotation system in a high-mass, star-forming region. The observations were performed with the Submillimeter Array toward G240.31+0.07, which harbors a massive, flattened, and fragmenting molecular cloud core and a wide-angle bipolar outflow. The polarized dust emission at 0.88 mm reveals a clear hourglass-shaped magnetic field aligned within 20° of the outflow axis. Maps of high-density tracing spectral lines, e.g., H{sup 13}CO{sup +} (4-3), show that the core is rotating about its minor axis, which is also aligned with the magnetic field axis. Therefore, both the magnetic field and kinematic properties observed in this region are surprisingly consistent with the theoretical predictions of the classic paradigm of isolated low-mass star formation. The strength of the magnetic field in the plane of sky is estimated to be ∼1.1 mG, resulting in a mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of 1.4 times the critical value and a turbulent-to-ordered magnetic energy ratio of 0.4. We also find that the specific angular momentum almost linearly decreases from r ∼ 0.6 pc to 0.03 pc scales, which is most likely attributed to magnetic braking.

  6. DISCOVERY OF TIME VARIATION OF THE INTENSITY OF MOLECULAR LINES IN IRC+10216 IN THE SUBMILLIMETER AND FAR-INFRARED DOMAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Velilla-Prieto, L. [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Inés de La Cruz N3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Teyssier, D.; García-Lario, P. [ESA, ESAC, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Daniel, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Decin, L. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Guélin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St-Martin d' Hères (France); Encrenaz, P. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); De Beck, E. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE 439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Barlow, M. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Neufeld, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pearson, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We report on the discovery of strong intensity variations in the high rotational lines of abundant molecular species toward the archetypical circumstellar envelope of IRC+10216. The observations have been carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) instrument on board Herschel and with the IRAM30 m telescope. They cover several observing periods spreading over three years. The line intensity variations for molecules produced in the external layers of the envelope most likely result from time variations in the infrared pumping rates. We analyze the main implications this discovery has on the interpretation of molecular line emission in the envelopes of Mira-type stars. Radiative transfer calculations must take into account both the time variability of infrared pumping and the possible variation of the dust and gas temperatures with stellar phase in order to reproduce the observation of molecular lines at different epochs. The effect of gas temperature variations with stellar phase could be particularly important for lines produced in the innermost regions of the envelope. Each layer of the circumstellar envelope sees the stellar light radiation with a different lag time (phase). Our results show that this effect must be included in the models. The submillimeter and far infrared lines of asymptotic giant branch stars can no longer be considered as safe intensity calibrators.

  7. Scanning SQUID microscopy of a ferromanganese crust from the northwestern Pacific: Submillimeter scale magnetostratigraphy as a new tool for age determination and mapping of environmental magnetic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, A.; Oda, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Usui, A.; Sato, M.; Kawai, J.

    2017-06-01

    Ferromanganese crusts record long-term deep-sea environmental changes. Thus, providing their reliable high-resolution age models is important. We applied a magnetostratigraphic technique to estimate the growth rate of a ferromanganese crust using scanning SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) microscope (SSM). SSM is designed to map the magnetic field across thin sections with submillimeter resolution. The crust sample was taken from the Takuyo-Daigo Seamount, northwestern Pacific, and recorded a limited supply of dust and sediment from continents. After drift correction and removal of spike noises, the magnetic field values were stacked within the areas of high signal-to-noise ratios. By correlating the obtained profiles with a standard geomagnetic polarity timescale, we obtained an average growth rate of 3.37 ± 0.06 mm/Ma, which is consistent with that obtained by 10Be/9Be geochronology (2.93 ± 0.15 mm/Ma). S ratio mapping shows low values after 3 Ma, associated with voids between columnar structures.

  8. SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELDS IN G240.31+0.07: AN HOURGLASS IN A MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Keping; Zhang, Qizhou; Menten, Karl M.; Liu, Hauyu B.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Girart, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of an hourglass magnetic field aligned with a well-defined outflow rotation system in a high-mass, star-forming region. The observations were performed with the Submillimeter Array toward G240.31+0.07, which harbors a massive, flattened, and fragmenting molecular cloud core and a wide-angle bipolar outflow. The polarized dust emission at 0.88 mm reveals a clear hourglass-shaped magnetic field aligned within 20° of the outflow axis. Maps of high-density tracing spectral lines, e.g., H 13 CO + (4-3), show that the core is rotating about its minor axis, which is also aligned with the magnetic field axis. Therefore, both the magnetic field and kinematic properties observed in this region are surprisingly consistent with the theoretical predictions of the classic paradigm of isolated low-mass star formation. The strength of the magnetic field in the plane of sky is estimated to be ∼1.1 mG, resulting in a mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of 1.4 times the critical value and a turbulent-to-ordered magnetic energy ratio of 0.4. We also find that the specific angular momentum almost linearly decreases from r ∼ 0.6 pc to 0.03 pc scales, which is most likely attributed to magnetic braking

  9. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  10. Arnold Sommerfeld

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The German tradition in physics – as in music, philosophy and literature – has been an exceptional one over a very long period of time. Recall the likes of Gustav Kirchhoff, Hermann von Helmholtz, Heinrich Hertz and Wilhelm Röntgen during the 19th century; to be followed by Max Planck, Wilhelm Wien, Albert Einstein, ...

  11. Electromagnetic Waves Broadcast by a VCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use a video cassette recorder (VCR) to demonstrate polarization of radio waves using two dipole antennas and a spark gap transmitter tuned to a frequency of either 60-66 MHz or 66-72 MHz with wavelengths of 5 or 4.3 meters, close to the wavelengths of the original work done by Heinrich Hertz. (JRH)

  12. A novel gamma-ray detector with submillimeter resolutions using a monolithic MPPC array with pixelized Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T., E-mail: katou.frme.8180@asagi.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Miura, T.; Matsuda, H.; Kishimoto, A. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Nakamura, S.; Kawabata, N. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Ikeda, H. [ISAS/JAXA, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Yamamoto, S. [Kobe City College of Technology, 8-3, Gakuenhigashimati, Nishi-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyougo 651-2194 (Japan); Kamada, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Furukawa Co., Ltd., 1-25-13, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856 (Japan)

    2013-01-21

    We have developed a large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) array consisting of 4×4 channels with a three-side buttable package. Each channel has a photosensitive area of 3×3 mm{sup 2} and 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs). For typical operational gain of 7.5×10{sup 5} at +20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ±5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to ≤400kcps per channel. We first fabricated a gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array with one-to-one coupling to a Ce-doped (Lu,Y){sub 2}(SiO{sub 4})O (Ce:LYSO) crystal array (4×4 array of 3×3×10 mm{sup 3} crystals). Energy and time resolutions of 11.5±0.5% (FWHM at 662 keV) and 493±22ps were obtained, respectively. When using the charge division resistor network, which compiles signals into four position-encoded analog outputs, the ultimate positional resolution is estimated as 0.19 mm in both X and Y directions, while energy resolution of 10.2±0.4% (FWHM) was obtained. Finally, we fabricated submillimeter Ce:LYSO and Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12} (Ce:GGAG) scintillator matrices each consisting of 1.0×1.0, 0.7×0.7 and 0.5×0.5 mm{sup 2} pixels, to further improve the spatial resolution. In all types of Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG matrices, each crystal was clearly resolved in the position histograms when irradiated by a {sup 137}Cs source. The energy resolutions for 662 keV gamma-rays for each Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG scintillator matrix were ≤14.3%. These results suggest excellent potential for its use as a high spatial medical imaging device, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET). -- Highlights: ► We developed a newly designed large-area monolithic MPPC array. ► We obtained fine gain uniformity, and good energy and time resolutions when coupled to the LYSO scintillator. ► We fabricated gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array and submillimeter pixelized LYSO and GGAG scintillators. ► In

  13. A VIRTUAL SKY WITH EXTRAGALACTIC H I AND CO LINES FOR THE SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY AND THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obreschkow, D.; Kloeckner, H.-R.; Heywood, I.; Rawlings, S.; Levrier, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a sky simulation of the atomic H I-emission line and the first 10 12 C 16 O rotational emission lines of molecular gas in galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The simulated sky field has a comoving diameter of 500 h -1 Mpc; hence, the actual field of view depends on the (user-defined) maximal redshift z max ; e.g., for z max = 10, the field of view yields ∼4 x 4 deg 2 . For all galaxies, we estimate the line fluxes, line profiles, and angular sizes of the H I and CO-emission lines. The galaxy sample is complete for galaxies with cold hydrogen masses above 10 8 M sun . This sky simulation builds on a semi-analytic model of the cosmic evolution of galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. The evolving CDM distribution was adopted from the Millennium Simulation, an N-body CDM simulation in a cubic box with a side length of 500 h -1 Mpc. This side length limits the coherence scale of our sky simulation: it is long enough to allow the extraction of the baryon acoustic oscillations in the galaxy power spectrum, yet the position and amplitude of the first acoustic peak will be imperfectly defined. This sky simulation is a tangible aid to the design and operation of future telescopes, such as the Square Kilometre Array, Large Millimeter Telescope, and Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. The results presented in this paper have been restricted to a graphical representation of the simulated sky and fundamental dN/dz analyses for peak flux density limited and total flux limited surveys of H I and CO. A key prediction is that H I will be harder to detect at redshifts z ∼> 2 than predicted by a no-evolution model. The future verification or falsification of this prediction will allow us to qualify the semi-analytic models.

  14. The rotational spectrum of CuCCH(X̃  1Σ+): a Fourier transform microwave discharge assisted laser ablation spectroscopy and millimeter/submillimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Halfen, D T; Min, J; Harris, B; Clouthier, D J; Ziurys, L M

    2010-11-07

    The pure rotational spectrum of CuCCH in its ground electronic state (X̃  (1)Σ(+)) has been measured in the frequency range of 7-305 GHz using Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) and direct absorption millimeter/submillimeter methods. This work is the first spectroscopic study of CuCCH, a model system for copper acetylides. The molecule was synthesized using a new technique, discharge assisted laser ablation spectroscopy (DALAS). Four to five rotational transitions were measured for this species in six isotopologues ((63)CuCCH, (65)CuCCH, (63)Cu(13)CCH, (63)CuC(13)CH, (63)Cu(13)C(13)CH, and (63)CuCCD); hyperfine interactions arising from the copper nucleus were resolved, as well as smaller splittings in CuCCD due to deuterium quadrupole coupling. Five rotational transitions were also recorded in the millimeter region for (63)CuCCH and (65)CuCCH, using a Broida oven source. The combined FTMW and millimeter spectra were analyzed with an effective Hamiltonian, and rotational, electric quadrupole (Cu and D) and copper nuclear spin-rotation constants were determined. From the rotational constants, an r(m)(2) structure for CuCCH was established, with r(Cu-C) = 1.8177(6) Å, r(C-C) = 1.2174(6) Å, and r(C-H) = 1.046(2) Å. The geometry suggests that CuCCH is primarily a covalent species with the copper atom singly bonded to the C≡C-H moiety. The copper quadrupole constant indicates that the bonding orbital of this atom may be sp hybridized. The DALAS technique promises to be fruitful in the study of other small, metal-containing molecules of chemical interest.

  15. Sub-Millimeter T2 Weighted fMRI at 7 T: Comparison of 3D-GRASE and 2D SE-EPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin G. Kemper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI allows studying human brain function non-invasively up to the spatial resolution of cortical columns and layers. Most fMRI acquisitions rely on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast employing T2* weighted 2D multi-slice echo-planar imaging (EPI. At ultra-high magnetic field (i.e. 7 T and above, it has been shown experimentally and by simulation, that T2 weighted acquisitions yield a signal that is spatially more specific to the site of neuronal activity at the cost of functional sensitivity. This study compared two T2 weighted imaging sequences, inner-volume 3D Gradient-and-Spin-Echo (3D-GRASE and 2D Spin-Echo EPI (SE-EPI, with evaluation of their imaging point-spread function, functional specificity, and functional sensitivity at sub-millimeter resolution. Simulations and measurements of the imaging point-spread function revealed that the strongest anisotropic blurring in 3D-GRASE (along the second phase-encoding direction was about 60 % higher than the strongest anisotropic blurring in 2D SE-EPI (along the phase-encoding direction In a visual paradigm, the BOLD sensitivity of 3D-GRASE was found to be superior due to its higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio. High resolution cortical depth profiles suggested that the contrast mechanisms are similar between the two sequences, however, 2D SE-EPI had a higher surface bias owing to the higher T2* contribution of the longer in-plane EPI echo-train for full field of view compared to the reduced field of view of zoomed 3D-GRASE.

  16. Generalized method for computation of true thickness and x-ray intensity information in highly blurred sub-millimeter bone features in clinical CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amirreza; Robert, Normand; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Maloul, Asmaa; Whyne, Cari

    2012-12-07

    In clinical computed tomography (CT) images, cortical bone features with sub-millimeter (sub-mm) thickness are substantially blurred, such that their thickness is overestimated and their intensity appears underestimated. Therefore, any inquiry of the geometry or the density of such bones based on these images is severely error prone. We present a model-based method for estimating the true thickness and intensity magnitude of cortical and trabecular bone layers at localized regions of complex shell bones down to 0.25 mm. The method also computes the width of the corresponding point spread function. This approach is applicable on any CT image data, and does not rely on any scanner-specific parameter inputs beyond what is inherently available in the images themselves. The method applied on CT intensity profiles of custom phantoms mimicking shell-bones produced average cortical thickness errors of 0.07 ± 0.04 mm versus an average error of 0.47 ± 0.29 mm in the untreated cases (t(55) = 10.92, p ≪ 0.001)). Similarly, the average error of intensity magnitude estimates of the method were 22 ± 2.2 HU versus an error of 445 ± 137 HU in the untreated cases (t(55) = 26.48, p ≪ 0.001)). The method was also used to correct the CT intensity profiles from a cadaveric specimen of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) in 15 different regions. There was excellent agreement between the corrections and µCT intensity profiles of the same regions used as a 'gold standard' measure. These results set the groundwork towards restoring cortical bone geometry and intensity information in entire image data sets. This information is essential for the generation of finite element models of the CFS that can accurately describe the biomechanical behavior of its complex thin bone structures.

  17. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Planken, P.C.M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface,

  18. Submillimeter-wave and far-infrared spectroscopy of high-J transitions of the ground and ν2 = 1 states of ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shanshan; Pearson, John C; Drouin, Brian J; Sung, Keeyoon; Pirali, Olivier; Vervloet, Michel; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Endres, Christian P; Shiraishi, Tetsuro; Kobayashi, Kaori; Matsushima, Fusakazu

    2010-11-07

    Complete and reliable knowledge of the ammonia spectrum is needed to enable the analysis and interpretation of astrophysical and planetary observations. Ammonia has been observed in the interstellar medium up to J=18 and more highly excited transitions are expected to appear in hot exoplanets and brown dwarfs. As a result, there is considerable interest in observing and assigning the high J (rovibrational) spectrum. In this work, numerous spectroscopic techniques were employed to study its high J transitions in the ground and ν(2)=1 states. Measurements were carried out using a frequency multiplied submillimeter spectrometer at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a tunable far-infrared spectrometer at University of Toyama, and a high-resolution Bruker IFS 125 Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Synchrotron SOLEIL. Highly excited ammonia was created with a radiofrequency discharge and a dc discharge, which allowed assignments of transitions with J up to 35. One hundred and seventy seven ground state and ν(2)=1 inversion transitions were observed with microwave accuracy in the 0.3-4.7 THz region. Of these, 125 were observed for the first time, including 26 ΔK=3 transitions. Over 2000 far-infrared transitions were assigned to the ground state and ν(2)=1 inversion bands as well as the ν(2) fundamental band. Of these, 1912 were assigned using the FTS data for the first time, including 222 ΔK=3 transitions. The accuracy of these measurements has been estimated to be 0.0003-0.0006 cm(-1). A reduced root mean square error of 0.9 was obtained for a global fit of the ground and ν(2)=1 states, which includes the lines assigned in this work and all previously available microwave, terahertz, far-infrared, and mid-infrared data. The new measurements and predictions reported here will support the analyses of astronomical observations by high-resolution spectroscopy telescopes such as Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA. The comprehensive experimental rovibrational energy levels

  19. The ArTéMiS wide-field sub-millimeter camera: preliminary on-sky performance at 350 microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revéret, Vincent; André, Philippe; Le Pennec, Jean; Talvard, Michel; Agnèse, Patrick; Arnaud, Agnès.; Clerc, Laurent; de Breuck, Carlos; Cigna, Jean-Charles; Delisle, Cyrille; Doumayrou, Eric; Duband, Lionel; Dubreuil, Didier; Dumaye, Luc; Ercolani, Eric; Gallais, Pascal; Groult, Elodie; Jourdan, Thierry; Leriche, Bernadette; Maffei, Bruno; Lortholary, Michel; Martignac, Jérôme; Rabaud, Wilfried; Relland, Johan; Rodriguez, Louis; Vandeneynde, Aurélie; Visticot, François

    2014-07-01

    ArTeMiS is a wide-field submillimeter camera operating at three wavelengths simultaneously (200, 350 and 450 μm). A preliminary version of the instrument equipped with the 350 μm focal plane, has been successfully installed and tested on APEX telescope in Chile during the 2013 and 2014 austral winters. This instrument is developed by CEA (Saclay and Grenoble, France), IAS (France) and University of Manchester (UK) in collaboration with ESO. We introduce the mechanical and optical design, as well as the cryogenics and electronics of the ArTéMiS camera. ArTeMiS detectors consist in Si:P:B bolometers arranged in 16×18 sub-arrays operating at 300 mK. These detectors are similar to the ones developed for the Herschel PACS photometer but they are adapted to the high optical load encountered at APEX site. Ultimately, ArTeMiS will contain 4 sub-arrays at 200 μm and 2×8 sub-arrays at 350 and 450 μm. We show preliminary lab measurements like the responsivity of the instrument to hot and cold loads illumination and NEP calculation. Details on the on-sky commissioning runs made in 2013 and 2014 at APEX are shown. We used planets (Mars, Saturn, Uranus) to determine the flat-field and to get the flux calibration. A pointing model was established in the first days of the runs. The average relative pointing accuracy is 3 arcsec. The beam at 350 μm has been estimated to be 8.5 arcsec, which is in good agreement with the beam of the 12 m APEX dish. Several observing modes have been tested, like "On- The-Fly" for beam-maps or large maps, spirals or raster of spirals for compact sources. With this preliminary version of ArTeMiS, we concluded that the mapping speed is already more than 5 times better than the previous 350 μm instrument at APEX. The median NEFD at 350 μm is 600 mJy.s1/2, with best values at 300 mJy.s1/2. The complete instrument with 5760 pixels and optimized settings will be installed during the first half of 2015.

  20. Submillimeter-wave measurements of N2 and O2 pressure broadening for HO2 radical generated by Hg-photosensitized reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, A.; Yagi, T.; Kondo, K.; Sato, T.O.; Kanamori, H.

    2012-01-01

    The N 2 and O 2 pressure broadening coefficients of the pure rotational transitions at 625.66 GHz (N KaKc =10 1-9 -10 0-10 , J=10.5-10.5) and 649.70 GHz (N KaKc =10 2-9 -9 2-8 , J=9.5-8.5) in the vibronic ground state X 2 A′ of the perhydroxyl (HO 2 ) radical have been determined by precise laboratory measurements. For the production of HO 2 , the mercury-photosensitized reaction of the H 2 and O 2 precursors was used to provide an optimum condition for measurement of the pressure broadening coefficient. The Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb Emission Sounder (SMILES) was designed to monitor the volume mixing ratio of trace gases including HO 2 in the Earth's upper atmosphere using these transitions. The precise measurement of pressure broadening coefficient γ in terms of the half width at half maximum is required in order to retrieve the atmospheric volume mixing ratio. In this work, γ coefficients of the 625.66 GHz transition were determined for N 2 and O 2 at room temperature as γ(N 2 )=4.085±0.049 MHz/Torr and γ(O 2 )=2.578±0.047 MHz/Torr with 3σ uncertainty. Similarly, the coefficients of the 649.70 GHz transition were determined as γ(N 2 )=3.489±0.094 MHz/Torr and γ(O 2 )=2.615±0.099 MHz/Torr. The air broadening coefficients for the 625.66 GHz and 649.70 GHz lines were estimated at γ(air)=3.769±0.067 MHz and 3.298±0.099 MHz respectively, where the uncertainty includes possible systematic errors. The newly determined coefficients are compared with previous results and we discuss the advantage of the mercury-photosensitized reaction for HO 2 generation. In comparison with those of other singlet molecules, the pressure broadening coefficients of the HO 2 radical are not much affected by the existence of an unpaired electron.

  1. Molecular Gas in a Submillimeter Galaxy at z = 4.5: Evidence for a Major Merger at 1 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Carilli, C. L.; Capak, P.; Martinez-Sansigre, A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Yun, M. S.; Bertoldi, F.; Le Fevre, O.; de Ravel, L.

    2008-12-01

    We report the detection of CO molecular line emission in the z = 4.5 millimeter-detected galaxy COSMOS J100054+023436 (hereafter J1000+0234) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) and NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA). The 12CO(4-3) line as observed with PdBI has a full line width of ~1000 km s-1, an integrated line flux of 0.66 Jy km s-1, and a CO luminosity of 3.2 × 1010 L⊙. Comparison to the 3.3 σ detection of the CO(2-1) line emission with the VLA suggests that the molecular gas is likely thermalized to the J = 4-3 transition level. The corresponding molecular gas mass is 2.6 × 1010 M⊙ assuming an ULIRG-like conversion factor. From the spatial offset of the red- and blueshifted line peaks and the line width a dynamical mass of 1.1 × 1011 M⊙ is estimated assuming a merging scenario. The molecular gas distribution coincides with the rest-frame optical and radio position of the object while being offset by 0.5'' from the previously detected Lyα emission. J1000+0234 exhibits very typical properties for lower redshift (z ~ 2) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and thus is very likely one of the long sought after high-redshift (z > 4) objects of this population. The large CO(4-3) line width taken together with its highly disturbed rest-frame UV geometry suggest an ongoing major merger about a billion years after the big bang. Given its large star formation rate (SFR) of >1000 M⊙ yr-1 and molecular gas content this object could be the precursor of a "red and dead" elliptical observed at a redshift of z = 2. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  2. Solar flares at submillimeter wavelengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krucker, S.; Gimenez de Castro, C.G.; Hudson, H. S.; Trottet, G.; Bastian, T.S.; Hales, A.S.; Kašparová, Jana; Klein, K. L.; Kretzschmar, M.; Luethi, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Pohjolainen, S.; White, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2013), 58/1-58/45 ISSN 0935-4956 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * flares * radio observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 13.312, year: 2013

  3. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Coutens, A.; Lykke, J. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Calcutt, H.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bourke, T. L.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Favre, C.; Fayolle, E. C.; Garrod, R. T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Persson, M. V.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterized by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provides an unprecedented view of these regions zooming in on solar system scales of nearby protostars and mapping the emission from rare species. Aims: The goal is to introduce a systematic survey, the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), of the chemical complexity of one of the nearby astrochemical templates, the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, using ALMA in order to understand the origin of the complex molecules formed in its vicinity. In addition to presenting the overall survey, the analysis in this paper focuses on new results for the prebiotic molecule glycolaldehyde, its isomers, and rarer isotopologues and other related molecules. Methods: An unbiased spectral survey of IRAS 16293-2422 covering the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) has been obtained with ALMA, in addition to a few targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. The data consist of full maps of the protostellar binary system with an angular resolution of 0.5'' (60 AU diameter), a spectral resolution of 0.2 km s-1, and a sensitivity of 4-5 mJy beam-1 km s-1, which is approximately two orders of magnitude better than any previous studies. Results: More than 10 000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary, corresponding to an average line density of approximately one line per 3 km s-1. Glycolaldehyde; its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid; and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected and their emission well-modeled with an excitation temperature of 300 K. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the interstellar medium (ISM). The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or

  4. Millimeter/submillimeter Spectroscopy of PH2CN ({\\tilde{X}} 1A') and CH3PH2 ({\\tilde{X}} 1A'): Probing the Complexity of Interstellar Phosphorus Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, D. T.; Clouthier, D. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Millimeter/submillimeter spectra of PH2CN ({\\tilde{X}} 1A') and CH3PH2 ({\\tilde{X}} 1A') have been recorded for the first time using direct absorption techniques. This work extends previous measurements of both molecules beyond the 10-50 GHz range. Both species were created in the presence of an AC discharge by the reaction of phosphorus vapor and either cyanogen and hydrogen (PH2CN) or methane (CH3PH2). Twelve rotational transitions of PH2CN were recorded over the region 305-422 GHz for asymmetry components Ka = 0 through 8. For CH3PH2, eight rotational transitions were measured from 210-470 GHz with Ka = 0 through 16; these spectra exhibited greater complexity due to the presence of internal rotation, which splits the Ka = 1, 2, and 3 asymmetry components into A and E states. Combined analyses of the millimeter/submillimeter and previous microwave data were performed for both molecules. For PH2CN, the spectra were fit with a Watson S-reduced asymmetric top Hamiltonian, resulting in more accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. In the case of CH3PH2, an asymmetric top internal-rotation Hamiltonian was employed in the analysis, significantly improving the rotational and torsional parameters over previous microwave estimates. Searches for both molecules were subsequently conducted toward Sgr B2(N), using the 12 m telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Neither species was identified, with abundance upper limits, relative to H2, of f (PH2CN/H2) PH2/H2) 2 and >200, respectively.

  5. Molecular gas in the Herschel-selected strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies at z 2-4 as probed by multi-J CO lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Gavazzi, R.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Ivison, R.; Lehnert, M.; Liu, D.; Oteo, I.; González-Alfonso, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Cox, P.; Krips, M.; Neri, R.; Riechers, D.; Baker, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Cooray, A.; Smail, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present the IRAM-30 m observations of multiple-J CO (Jup mostly from 3 up to 8) and [C I](3P2 → 3P1) ([C I](2-1) hereafter) line emission in a sample of redshift 2-4 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). These SMGs are selected among the brightest-lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Forty-seven CO lines and 7 [C I](2-1) lines have been detected in 15 lensed SMGs. A non-negligible effect of differential lensing is found for the CO emission lines, which could have caused significant underestimations of the linewidths, and hence of the dynamical masses. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs), peaking around Jup 5-7, are found to be similar to those of the local starburst-dominated ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and of the previously studied SMGs. After correcting for lensing amplification, we derived the global properties of the bulk of molecular gas in the SMGs using non-LTE radiative transfer modelling, such as the molecular gas density nH2 102.5-104.1 cm-3 and the kinetic temperature Tk 20-750 K. The gas thermal pressure Pth ranging from 105 K cm-3 to 106 K cm-3 is found to be correlated with star formation efficiency. Further decomposing the CO SLEDs into two excitation components, we find a low-excitation component with nH2 102.8-104.6 cm-3 and Tk 20-30 K, which is less correlated with star formation, and a high-excitation one (nH2 102.7-104.2 cm-3, Tk 60-400 K) which is tightly related to the on-going star-forming activity. Additionally, tight linear correlations between the far-infrared and CO line luminosities have been confirmed for the Jup ≥ 5 CO lines of these SMGs, implying that these CO lines are good tracers of star formation. The [C I](2-1) lines follow the tight linear correlation between the luminosities of the [C I](2-1) and the CO(1-0) line found in local starbursts, indicating that [C I] lines could serve as good total molecular gas mass tracers for high-redshift SMGs as well

  6. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. V. THE SH2-235 CLOUD IN CO J  = 2 − 1, 13CO J  = 2 − 1, AND CO J  = 3 − 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.; Patel, Saahil; Toth, L. Viktor; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Marton, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a program to map the Sh2-235 molecular cloud complex in the CO and 13 CO  J  = 2 − 1 transitions using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The map resolution is 38″ (FWHM), with an rms noise of 0.12 K brightness temperature, for a velocity resolution of 0.34 km s −1 . With the same telescope, we also mapped the CO J  = 3 − 2 line at a frequency of 345 GHz, using a 64 beam focal plane array of heterodyne mixers, achieving a typical rms noise of 0.5 K brightness temperature with a velocity resolution of 0.23 km s −1 . The three spectral line data cubes are available for download. Much of the cloud appears to be slightly sub-thermally excited in the J  = 3 level, except for in the vicinity of the warmest and highest column density areas, which are currently forming stars. Using the CO and 13 CO  J  = 2 − 1 lines, we employ an LTE model to derive the gas column density over the entire mapped region. Examining a 125 pc 2  region centered on the most active star formation in the vicinity of Sh2-235, we find that the young stellar object surface density scales as approximately the 1.6-power of the gas column density. The area distribution function of the gas is a steeply declining exponential function of gas column density. Comparison of the morphology of ionized and molecular gas suggests that the cloud is being substantially disrupted by expansion of the H ii regions, which may be triggering current star formation.

  7. The Arizona Radio Observatory CO Mapping Survey of Galactic Molecular Clouds. V. The Sh2-235 Cloud in CO J=2-1, 13CO J=2-1, and CO J=3-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieging, John H.; Patel, Saahil; Peters, William L.; Toth, L. Viktor; Marton, Gábor; Zahorecz, Sarolta

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of a program to map the Sh2-235 molecular cloud complex in the CO and 13CO J = 2 - 1 transitions using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The map resolution is 38″ (FWHM), with an rms noise of 0.12 K brightness temperature, for a velocity resolution of 0.34 km s-1. With the same telescope, we also mapped the CO J = 3 - 2 line at a frequency of 345 GHz, using a 64 beam focal plane array of heterodyne mixers, achieving a typical rms noise of 0.5 K brightness temperature with a velocity resolution of 0.23 km s-1. The three spectral line data cubes are available for download. Much of the cloud appears to be slightly sub-thermally excited in the J = 3 level, except for in the vicinity of the warmest and highest column density areas, which are currently forming stars. Using the CO and 13CO J = 2 - 1 lines, we employ an LTE model to derive the gas column density over the entire mapped region. Examining a 125 pc2 region centered on the most active star formation in the vicinity of Sh2-235, we find that the young stellar object surface density scales as approximately the 1.6-power of the gas column density. The area distribution function of the gas is a steeply declining exponential function of gas column density. Comparison of the morphology of ionized and molecular gas suggests that the cloud is being substantially disrupted by expansion of the H II regions, which may be triggering current star formation.

  8. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. X. A COMPLETE SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS OBSERVED TOWARD 1.1 mm DUST CONTINUUM SOURCES WITH 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian; Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Ginsburg, Adam; Battersby, Cara; Stringfellow, Guy; Glenn, Jason; Bally, John; Rosolowsky, Erik; Gerner, Thomas; Mairs, Steven; Dunham, Miranda K.

    2013-01-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 mm continuum survey of dense clumps of dust throughout the Galaxy covering 170 deg 2 . We present spectroscopic observations using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope of the dense gas tracers, HCO + and N 2 H + 3-2, for all 6194 sources in the BGPS v1.0.1 catalog between 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°. This is the largest targeted spectroscopic survey of dense molecular gas in the Milky Way to date. We find unique velocities for 3126 (50.5%) of the BGPS v1.0.1 sources observed. Strong N 2 H + 3-2 emission (T mb > 0.5 K) without HCO + 3-2 emission does not occur in this catalog. We characterize the properties of the dense molecular gas emission toward the entire sample. HCO + is very sub-thermally populated and the 3-2 transitions are optically thick toward most BGPS clumps. The median observed line width is 3.3 km s –1 consistent with supersonic turbulence within BGPS clumps. We find strong correlations between dense molecular gas integrated intensities and 1.1 mm peak flux and the gas kinetic temperature derived from previously published NH 3 observations. These intensity correlations are driven by the sensitivity of the 3-2 transitions to excitation conditions rather than by variations in molecular column density or abundance. We identify a subset of 113 sources with stronger N 2 H + than HCO + integrated intensity, but we find no correlations between the N 2 H + /HCO + ratio and 1.1 mm continuum flux density, gas kinetic temperature, or line width. Self-absorbed profiles are rare (1.3%)

  9. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. X. A COMPLETE SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS OBSERVED TOWARD 1.1 mm DUST CONTINUUM SOURCES WITH 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, Yancy L.; Svoboda, Brian [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ellsworth-Bowers, Timothy P.; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Ginsburg, Adam; Battersby, Cara; Stringfellow, Guy; Glenn, Jason; Bally, John [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 4-181 CCIS Edmonton AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Gerner, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA), Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Mairs, Steven [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dunham, Miranda K. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) is a 1.1 mm continuum survey of dense clumps of dust throughout the Galaxy covering 170 deg{sup 2}. We present spectroscopic observations using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope of the dense gas tracers, HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +} 3-2, for all 6194 sources in the BGPS v1.0.1 catalog between 7.°5 ≤ l ≤ 194°. This is the largest targeted spectroscopic survey of dense molecular gas in the Milky Way to date. We find unique velocities for 3126 (50.5%) of the BGPS v1.0.1 sources observed. Strong N{sub 2}H{sup +} 3-2 emission (T {sub mb} > 0.5 K) without HCO{sup +} 3-2 emission does not occur in this catalog. We characterize the properties of the dense molecular gas emission toward the entire sample. HCO{sup +} is very sub-thermally populated and the 3-2 transitions are optically thick toward most BGPS clumps. The median observed line width is 3.3 km s{sup –1} consistent with supersonic turbulence within BGPS clumps. We find strong correlations between dense molecular gas integrated intensities and 1.1 mm peak flux and the gas kinetic temperature derived from previously published NH{sub 3} observations. These intensity correlations are driven by the sensitivity of the 3-2 transitions to excitation conditions rather than by variations in molecular column density or abundance. We identify a subset of 113 sources with stronger N{sub 2}H{sup +} than HCO{sup +} integrated intensity, but we find no correlations between the N{sub 2}H{sup +}/HCO{sup +} ratio and 1.1 mm continuum flux density, gas kinetic temperature, or line width. Self-absorbed profiles are rare (1.3%)

  10. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. V. THE SH2-235 CLOUD IN CO J  = 2 − 1, {sup 13}CO J  = 2 − 1, AND CO J  = 3 − 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Patel, Saahil [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-4105 (United States); Toth, L. Viktor; Zahorecz, Sarolta [Eötvös University, Department of Astronomy, Pázmány Péter sétány 1, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Marton, Gábor [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17 (Hungary)

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of a program to map the Sh2-235 molecular cloud complex in the CO and {sup 13}CO  J  = 2 − 1 transitions using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The map resolution is 38″ (FWHM), with an rms noise of 0.12 K brightness temperature, for a velocity resolution of 0.34 km s{sup −1}. With the same telescope, we also mapped the CO J  = 3 − 2 line at a frequency of 345 GHz, using a 64 beam focal plane array of heterodyne mixers, achieving a typical rms noise of 0.5 K brightness temperature with a velocity resolution of 0.23 km s{sup −1}. The three spectral line data cubes are available for download. Much of the cloud appears to be slightly sub-thermally excited in the J  = 3 level, except for in the vicinity of the warmest and highest column density areas, which are currently forming stars. Using the CO and {sup 13}CO  J  = 2 − 1 lines, we employ an LTE model to derive the gas column density over the entire mapped region. Examining a 125 pc{sup 2} region centered on the most active star formation in the vicinity of Sh2-235, we find that the young stellar object surface density scales as approximately the 1.6-power of the gas column density. The area distribution function of the gas is a steeply declining exponential function of gas column density. Comparison of the morphology of ionized and molecular gas suggests that the cloud is being substantially disrupted by expansion of the H ii regions, which may be triggering current star formation.

  11. Elisabeth Harder-Gersdorff : In memoriam / Otto-Heinrich Elias

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elias, Otto-Heinrich, 1932-

    2007-01-01

    Elisabeth-Harder-Gersdorffi uurimistöö keskmes olid varauusaegse Ida- ja Läne-Euroopa majandus- ja sotsiaalsuhted. Ta on raamatu "Zwischen Rubel und Reichstaler. Soziales Bezugsfeld und geographische Reichweite des Revaler Wechselmarktes 1762-1800" autor

  12. DISCOVERY OF BROAD MOLECULAR LINES AND OF SHOCKED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FROM THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G357.7+0.3: HHSMT, APEX, SPITZER , AND SOFIA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, J. [SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Ave., Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hewitt, J. W. [CRESST/University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bieging, J. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Reach, W. T. [Universities Space Research Association, SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94034 (United States); Andersen, M. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Güsten, R., E-mail: jrho@seti.org, E-mail: john.w.hewitt@unf.edu, E-mail: jbieging@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: wreach@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: manderse@gemini.edu, E-mail: guesten@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    We report a discovery of shocked gas from the supernova remnant (SNR) G357.7+0.3. Our millimeter and submillimeter observations reveal broad molecular lines of CO(2-1), CO(3-2), CO(4-3), {sup 13}CO (2-1), and {sup 13}CO (3-2), HCO{sup +}, and HCN using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, the Arizona 12 m Telescope, APEX, and the MOPRA Telescope. The widths of the broad lines are 15–30 km s{sup −1}, and the detection of such broad lines is unambiguous, dynamic evidence showing that the SNR G357.7+0.3 is interacting with molecular clouds. The broad lines appear in extended regions (>4.′5 × 5′). We also present the detection of shocked H{sub 2} emission in the mid-infrared but lacking ionic lines using Spitzer /IRS observations to map a few-arcminute area. The H{sub 2} excitation diagram shows a best fit with a two-temperature local thermal equilibrium model with the temperatures of ∼200 and 660 K. We observed [C ii] at 158 μ m and high- J CO(11-10) with the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (GREAT) on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. The GREAT spectrum of [C ii], a 3 σ detection, shows a broad line profile with a width of 15.7 km{sup −1} that is similar to those of broad CO molecular lines. The line width of [C ii] implies that ionic lines can come from a low-velocity C-shock. Comparison of H{sub 2} emission with shock models shows that a combination of two C-shock models is favored over a combination of C- and J-shocks or a single shock. We estimate the CO density, column density, and temperature using a RADEX model. The best-fit model with n (H{sub 2}) = 1.7 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, N(CO) = 5.6 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, and T  = 75 K can reproduce the observed millimeter CO brightnesses.

  13. MAPPING THE RELEASE OF VOLATILES IN THE INNER COMAE OF COMETS C/2012 F6 (LEMMON) AND C/2012 S1 (ISON) USING THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Milam, S. N.; Mumma, M. J.; Charnley, S. B.; Paganini, L.; Villanueva, G. [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Remijan, A. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Boissier, J. [IRAM, 300 Rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Crovisier, J. [LEISA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris-Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L. [National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Lis, D. C. [Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75014 Paris (France); Minniti, D. [Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Coulson, I. M., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Results are presented from the first cometary observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), including measurements of the spatially resolved distributions of HCN, HNC, H{sub 2}CO, and dust within the comae of two comets: C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2012 S1 (ISON), observed at heliocentric distances of 1.5 AU and 0.54 AU, respectively. These observations (with angular resolution ≈0.''5), reveal an unprecedented level of detail in the distributions of these fundamental cometary molecules, and demonstrate the power of ALMA for quantitative measurements of the distributions of molecules and dust in the inner comae of typical bright comets. In both comets, HCN is found to originate from (or within a few hundred kilometers of) the nucleus, with a spatial distribution largely consistent with spherically symmetric, uniform outflow. By contrast, the HNC distributions are clumpy and asymmetrical, with peaks at cometocentric radii ∼500-1000 km, consistent with release of HNC in collimated outflow(s). Compared to HCN, the H{sub 2}CO distribution in comet Lemmon is very extended. The interferometric visibility amplitudes are consistent with coma production of H{sub 2}CO and HNC from unidentified precursor material(s) in both comets. Adopting a Haser model, the H{sub 2}CO parent scale length is found to be a few thousand kilometers in Lemmon and only a few hundred kilometers in ISON, consistent with the destruction of the precursor by photolysis or thermal degradation at a rate that scales in proportion to the solar radiation flux.

  14. The Herschel–ATLAS Data Release 2, Paper I. Submillimeter and Far-infrared Images of the South and North Galactic Poles: The Largest Herschel Survey of the Extragalactic Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew W. L.; Ibar, Edo; Maddox, Steve J.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Stephen; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Christina; Bourne, Nathan; Cigan, Phil; Ivison, Rob J.; Gomez, Haley; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Viaene, Sébastien

    2017-12-01

    We present the largest submillimeter images that have been made of the extragalactic sky. The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) is a survey of 660 deg2 with the PACS and SPIRE cameras in five photometric bands: 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm. In this paper we present the images from our two largest fields, which account for ∼75% of the survey. The first field is 180.1 deg2 in size, centered on the north Galactic pole (NGP), and the second is 317.6 deg2 in size, centered on the south Galactic pole. The NGP field serendipitously contains the Coma cluster. Over most (∼80%) of the images, the pixel noise, including both instrumental noise and confusion noise, is approximately 3.6, and 3.5 mJy pix‑1 at 100 and 160 μm, and 11.0, 11.1 and 12.3 mJy beam‑1 at 250, 350 and 500 μm, respectively, but reaches lower values in some parts of the images. If a matched filter is applied to optimize point-source detection, our total 1σ map sensitivity is 5.7, 6.0, and 7.3 mJy at 250, 350, and 500 μm, respectively. We describe the results of an investigation of the noise properties of the images. We make the most precise estimate of confusion in SPIRE maps to date, finding values of 3.12 ± 0.07, 4.13 ± 0.02, and 4.45 ± 0.04 mJy beam‑1 at 250, 350, and 500 μm in our un-convolved maps. For PACS we find an estimate of the confusion noise in our fast-parallel observations of 4.23 and 4.62 mJy beam‑1 at 100 and 160 μm. Finally, we give recipes for using these images to carry out photometry, both for unresolved and extended sources.

  15. Active Millimeter and Submillimeter Sensing Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The utilization of active long wavelength (>10 cm) microwave techniques mostly in radars has been a central aspect of planetary and Earth science instrumentation...

  16. Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

  17. Solid State Power Amplifier for 805 MegaHertz at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.L.; Lyles, J.T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Particle accelerators for protons, electrons, and other ion species often use high-power vacuum tubes for RF amplification, due to the high RF power requirements to accelerate these particles with high beam currents. The final power amplifier stages driving large accelerators are unable to be converted to solid-state devices with the present technology. In some instances, radiation levels preclude the use of transistors near beamlines. Work is being done worldwide to replace the RF power stages under about ten kilowatts CW with transistor amplifiers, due to the lower maintenance costs and obsolescence of power tubes in these ranges. This is especially practical where the stages drive fifty Ohm impedance and are not located in high radiation zones. The authors are doing this at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) proton linear accelerator (linac) in New Mexico. They replaced a physically-large air-cooled UHF power amplifier using a tetrode electron tube with a compact water-cooled unit based on modular amplifier pallets developed at LANSCE. Each module uses eight push-pull bipolar power transistor pairs operated in class AB. Four pallets can easily provide up to 2,800 watts of continuous RF at 805 MHz. A radial splitter and combiner parallels the modules. This amplifier has proven to be completely reliable after over 10,000 hours of operation without failure. A second unit was constructed and installed for redundancy, and the old tetrode system was removed in 1998. The compact packaging for cooling, DC power, impedance matching, RF interconnection, and power combining met the electrical and mechanical requirements. CRT display of individual collector currents and RF levels is made possible with built-in samplers and a VXI data acquisition unit

  18. Design of radio-frequency cavities and Tera-Hertz electron injectors for advanced applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyedfakhari, Seyedmoein

    2016-06-15

    Design of three accelerator components including a buncher cavity for REGAE, a normal conducting cavity for arrival time stabilization at FLASH and ultra-fast guns for the AXSIS project is presented in this thesis. Using RF cavities caused a revolution in accelerators and made it possible to generate high energy particle beams. In advanced accelerators, cavities are not only used to increase the particle energy but they are also widely used to improve the beam quality and additionally for beam diagnostic purposes. In the present dissertation, such applications are discussed. First, design of a buncher cavity which compresses the bunch at the REGAE facility is presented. The design pursues improving the mode separation of the cavity. The simulation result illustrates that the difference between the operating mode and its adjacent mode has been increased from 2 MHz for the existing cavity to 9.5 MHz for the new design. In the second part, a normal conducting cavity is discussed, which will be used to regulate the arrival time ofthe bunches at FLASH and at the European XFEL. The designed cavity is able to correct the arrival time jitter of ± 150 fs in order to provide femtosecond precision synchronization between the electron beam and the external laser pulses. Thermal, wakefield and multipacting simulations have also been performed for the designed cavity in order to evaluate its operation efficiency. In advanced accelerators however RF cavities should be replaced by novel structures to accelerate the particles in shorter distances using higher operating frequency. To this end, ultra-fast guns are designed which will be discussed in the last part of this work. The designed guns accelerate the electrons from their rest mass up to 2 MeV using a single cycle THz signal with a total energy of 2 mJ.

  19. Potassium ion influx measurements on cultured Chinese hamster cells exposed to 60-hertz electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A.P.; Tobey, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Potassium ion influx was measured by monitoring 42 KCl uptake by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grown in suspension culture and exposed in the culture medium to 60-Hz electromagnetic fields up to 2.85 V/m. In the presence of the field CHO cells exhibited two components of uptake, the same as previously observed for those grown under normal conditions; both these components of influx were decreased when compared to sham-exposed cells. Although decreases were consistently observed in exposed cells when plotted as loge of uptake, the differences between the means of the calculated fluxes of exposed and sham-exposed cells were quite small (on the order of 4-7%). When standard deviations were calculated, there was no significant difference between these means; however, when time-paired uptake data were analyzed, the differences were found to be statistically significant. Cells exposed only to the magnetic field exhibited similar small decreases in influx rates when compared to sham-exposed cells, suggesting that the reduction in K+ uptake could be attributed to the magnetic field. Additionally, intracellular K+ levels were measured over a prolonged exposure period (96 h), and no apparent differences in intracellular K+ levels were observed between field-exposed and sham-exposed cultures. These results indicate that high-strength electric fields have a small effect on the rate of transport of potassium ions but no effect on long-term maintenance of intracellular K+

  20. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  1. Design of radio-frequency cavities and Tera-Hertz electron injectors for advanced applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedfakhari, Seyedmoein

    2016-06-01

    Design of three accelerator components including a buncher cavity for REGAE, a normal conducting cavity for arrival time stabilization at FLASH and ultra-fast guns for the AXSIS project is presented in this thesis. Using RF cavities caused a revolution in accelerators and made it possible to generate high energy particle beams. In advanced accelerators, cavities are not only used to increase the particle energy but they are also widely used to improve the beam quality and additionally for beam diagnostic purposes. In the present dissertation, such applications are discussed. First, design of a buncher cavity which compresses the bunch at the REGAE facility is presented. The design pursues improving the mode separation of the cavity. The simulation result illustrates that the difference between the operating mode and its adjacent mode has been increased from 2 MHz for the existing cavity to 9.5 MHz for the new design. In the second part, a normal conducting cavity is discussed, which will be used to regulate the arrival time ofthe bunches at FLASH and at the European XFEL. The designed cavity is able to correct the arrival time jitter of ± 150 fs in order to provide femtosecond precision synchronization between the electron beam and the external laser pulses. Thermal, wakefield and multipacting simulations have also been performed for the designed cavity in order to evaluate its operation efficiency. In advanced accelerators however RF cavities should be replaced by novel structures to accelerate the particles in shorter distances using higher operating frequency. To this end, ultra-fast guns are designed which will be discussed in the last part of this work. The designed guns accelerate the electrons from their rest mass up to 2 MeV using a single cycle THz signal with a total energy of 2 mJ.

  2. GUSTO: Gal/Xgal U/LDB Spectroscopic-Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd Walker, Christopher; Kulesa, Craig; Goldsmith, Paul; Groppi, Christopher; Helmich, Frank; Hollenbach, David; Kawamura, Jonathan; Langer, William; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pineda, Jorge; Stacey, Gordon; Stark, Antony; Tielens, Alexander; Wolfire, Mark; Yorke, Harold; Young, Erick

    2018-01-01

    GUSTO is a recently selected NASA Explorer mission that will map in unprecedented detail the structure, dynamics, energy balance, and evolution of the interstellar medium within the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud. GUSTO is a balloon-borne, 0.85-m on-axis telescope that will observe in three important interstellar lines: [CII], [OI], and [NII] at 158, 63, and 205 microns, respectively. With its 60" angular resolution, high-velocity resolution, and efficient “On-The-Fly” mapping strategy, GUSTO will address key unanswered questions about the stellar life cycle and provide new insights into the birth and evolution of stars and galaxies. From its Ultra-Long-Duration Balloon (ULDB) platform at an altitude of 33 km, GUSTO will survey ~100 deg2 of the Milky Way and 24 deg2 of the LMC at 60" angular resolution using three 8-pixel heterodyne array receivers. The GUSTO receivers provide sub-km/s velocity resolution and bandwidths sufficiently wide to track all clouds orbiting in the Milky Way and LMC. GUSTO will detect and locate in three dimensions every important interstellar cloud (AV > 0.5–1) in the surveyed regions. The baseline mission of 100 days can be completed in one ULDB Antarctic balloon flight, and an extended mission of up to 169 days is possible. GUSTO’s observing campaign comprises three distinct surveys: GPS: A Galactic Plane Survey (42 days); LMCS: An LMC Survey (36 days); TDS: Targeted Deep Surveys of selected regions in the Galaxy and LMC (18 days). In our presentation we will discuss both the science goals of GUSTO and the mission implementation.

  3. Numerical simulation of self-oscillations of human vocal folds with Hertz model of impact forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Jaromír; Šidlof, Petr; Švec, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2005), s. 853-869 ISSN 0889-9746 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2076401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : flow induced vibrations * human voice biomechanics * post-critical behaviour Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.832, year: 2005

  4. Every Newton Hertz: a macro to micro approach to investigating brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Stefan M; Rowson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of concussion in contact sports provides a unique opportunity to collect data to characterize mild traumatic brain injury. This paper outlines a macro to micro approach in which the organ level response of the head is analyzed through head acceleration data from human volunteers and the tissue level response is analyzed through finite element analysis of these data. The helmets of Virginia Tech football players are instrumented with multi-accelerometer measurement devices to record linear and rotational head accelerations for every impact during a game or practice. These impacts are then modeled using the Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) finite element head model. Cumulative strain damage measure was investigated for the impacts resulting in the high linear and rotational accelerations. The effect of head impacts on functional performance in football players is also investigated to identify any cognitive effects from repetitive sub-concussive impacts. A better understanding of the effects of head impacts and the mechanisms of brain injury will likely result in insight to future head injury prevention methods and cellular research on brain injury.

  5. Taasvabanenud Eesti põhiseaduse eellugu / Eesti Akadeemiline Õigusteaduse Selts ; toim. Heinrich Schneider ; toimetuskolleegium: Rait Maruste, Heinrich Schneider, Tõnu Anton, Peeter Järvelaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1997-01-01

    Eelpõhiseaduslike aktide loetelu lk. 299-302 ; Eelpõhiseaduslikud aktid (täistekstid) lk. 45-187 ; I. Gräzini Eesti Demokraatliku Sotsialistliku Vabariigi põhiseaduse töömakett lk. 190-210 ; E. Talviku ja J. Kaljuvee Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse eelnõu lk. 212-225 ; J. Raidla töögrupi Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse eelnõu lk. 226-247 ; A. Lepsi Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse eelnõu lk. 248-264 ; J. Adamsi töögrupi Eesti vabariigi põhiseaduse eelnõu lk. 266-284 ; K. Kulboki Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduse eelnõu lk. 286-297

  6. Millimeter/submillimeter spectroscopy of PH{sub 2}CN ( X-tilde {sup 1}A') and CH{sub 3}PH{sub 2} ( X-tilde {sup 1}A'): probing the complexity of interstellar phosphorus chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Astronomy, Arizona Radio Observatory, and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Clouthier, D. J., E-mail: halfendt@as.arizona.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Millimeter/submillimeter spectra of PH{sub 2}CN ( X-tilde {sup 1}A') and CH{sub 3}PH{sub 2} ( X-tilde {sup 1}A') have been recorded for the first time using direct absorption techniques. This work extends previous measurements of both molecules beyond the 10-50 GHz range. Both species were created in the presence of an AC discharge by the reaction of phosphorus vapor and either cyanogen and hydrogen (PH{sub 2}CN) or methane (CH{sub 3}PH{sub 2}). Twelve rotational transitions of PH{sub 2}CN were recorded over the region 305-422 GHz for asymmetry components K{sub a} = 0 through 8. For CH{sub 3}PH{sub 2}, eight rotational transitions were measured from 210-470 GHz with K{sub a} = 0 through 16; these spectra exhibited greater complexity due to the presence of internal rotation, which splits the K{sub a} = 1, 2, and 3 asymmetry components into A and E states. Combined analyses of the millimeter/submillimeter and previous microwave data were performed for both molecules. For PH{sub 2}CN, the spectra were fit with a Watson S-reduced asymmetric top Hamiltonian, resulting in more accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. In the case of CH{sub 3}PH{sub 2}, an asymmetric top internal-rotation Hamiltonian was employed in the analysis, significantly improving the rotational and torsional parameters over previous microwave estimates. Searches for both molecules were subsequently conducted toward Sgr B2(N), using the 12 m telescope of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Neither species was identified, with abundance upper limits, relative to H{sub 2}, of f (PH{sub 2}CN/H{sub 2}) < 7.0 × 10{sup –12} and f (CH{sub 3}PH{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) < 8.4 × 10{sup –12}. The nitrogen analogs NH{sub 2}CN and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2} are therefore more abundant in Sgr B2(N) by factors of >2 and >200, respectively.

  7. Historical Examples of Misrepresentation, Innovation, and Morality in Physical Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Jed

    2016-03-01

    The pressures of publication, the desire to be first in innovation, and moral convictions have long been at work in the history of science and technology. Historians think and argue best through stories, so I've chosen three examples that exemplify one or more of these aspects. The first involves the discovery of electric waves by Heinrich Hertz in 1888; the second concerns the controlled production of electromagnetic radiation by Marconi and Fleming in the early 1900s; our final case involves a bitter controversy between the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz and the astronomer Friedrich Zöllner in the 1890s.

  8. August von Kotzebue estofiilina / Otto-Heinrich Elias ; saksa keelest tõlkinud Reet Bender

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elias, Otto-Heinrich, 1932-

    2011-01-01

    Tutvustatakse August von Kotzebue kirjanduslikku - ja draamaloomingut, tema rolli seadusreformide mõjutamisel ning eestlastest positiivse kujundi loomisel. Peatutakse ka tema reisil revolutsioonilisel Prantsusmaal

  9. Leben mit Estland : Paul-Gerhard von Hoerschelmann zum 80. Geburtstag / Heinrich Wittram

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wittram, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Olles Põhja-Elbe Jutlustajate Seminari direktor alustas Paul-Gerhard von Hoerschelmann koostööd Eesti Evangeelse Luterliku Kirikuga 1988. aastal. Nõmmel sündinud pastori pojana olid tal selle koostöö arendamiseks igati head eeldused. 1997. aastal sai Paul-Gerhard Hoerschelmannist EELK Usuteaduse Instituudi rektor. Aastatel 1996-1998 teenis ta väikesearvulist saksakeelset kogudust Tallinnas. Aastast 2006 EELK' aupraost

  10. Simulated global-scale response of the climate system to Dansgaard/Oeschger and Heinrich events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussen, M. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P-O Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Physics, Potsdam University, P-O Box 601553, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Ganopolski, A.; Brovkin, V.; Gerstengarbe, F.W.; Werner, P. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, P-O Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    By using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity we have studied the global-scale response of the glacial climate system during marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 to perturbations at high northern latitudes and the tropics. These perturbations include changes in inland-ice volume over North America, in freshwater flux into the northern North Atlantic and in surface temperatures of the tropical Pacific. The global pattern of temperature series resulting from an experiment in which perturbations of inland ice and freshwater budget are imposed at high northern latitudes only, agree with paleoclimatic reconstructions. In particular, a positive correlation of temperature variations near Greenland and variations in all regions of the Northern Hemisphere and some parts of the southern tropics is found. Over the southern oceans a weak negative correlation appears which is strongest at a time lag of approximately 500 years. Further experimentation with prescribed temperature anomalies applied to the tropical Pacific suggests that perturbation of tropical sea-surface temperatures and hence, the tropical water cycle, is unlikely to have triggered Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events. However, together with random freshwater anomalies prescribed at high northern latitudes, tropical perturbations would be able to synchronize the occurrence of D/O events via the mechanism of stochastic resonance. (orig.)

  11. Marine productivity response to Heinrich events: a model-data comparison

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mariotti, V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available – 55.63 −133.51 183 diatoms,silicoflagellates + + + + Barron etal.(2009) M D02-2489 – 54.39 −148.92 3640 C org,opal,chlorins - - - - - - Gebhardtetal.(2008) ODPSite887 – 54.37 −148.45 3647 B a/Al,opal ?+ ?- ?x Galbraith etal.(2007) JPC17 – 53.93 178....70 2209 CaCO3,Ba,opal ?x ?x ?x Brunelle etal.(2010) M D01-2416 – 51.27 167.73 2317 Corg,opal,chlorins x x x Gebhardtetal.(2008) ODPSite882 – 50.35 167.58 3300 Ba/Al,opal ?- - ?x ?- - Galbraith etal.(2007) GGC27 – 49.60 150.18 995 CaCO3,Ba,opal ?x ?x ?x...

  12. Veel kord süsteemkäsitlusest ja iseorganiseerumisest ühiskonnas / Heinrich Schneider

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schneider, Heinrich, 1925-2013

    2000-01-01

    Süsteemsusideede ajaloolisest arengust, Aristotelese, R. Descartes'i ja C. Darwini õpetustest ning füsikokeemilisest koolkonnast. Süsteemkäsitluse rakendumisest õigusteaduses. Sünergeetikast ja I. Prigogine'i osast selle rajamisel

  13. Joachim Heinrich Campe’s Robinson the Younger: Universal Moral Foundations and Intercultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nitschke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In his adaptation of Robinson Crusoe, Campe sets out to examine the legitimacy of his contemporary social reality (in Europe in the broadest sense by tracing its origin back to the most basic roots conceivable. The experimental character of his book is emphasised and—to an extent—explicitly introduced through the frame narrative which constitutes Campe’s most important addition to Defoe’s story: Here the emergence of the rules and routines are extensively mooted by the father (who relates Robinson’s story as a framed narrative and his children who still have to internalise, grasp, and situate the moral rules around them and frequently offer divergent perspectives in the process. The frame narrative connects the moral “ontogeny” of the children to the “phylogenetics” of civilisation and suggests that both can be superimposed on one another. I will work with concepts that focus on the differentiation between “innate” moral characteristics and their social transformation on a cognitive, evolutionary level, from which Campe clearly deviates. However, his short-circuiting of the individual and the phylogeny leads to very similar specifications as laid out by, for instance, Moral Foundations Theory.

  14. Vabariigi President ja Vabariigi Valitsus eksiilis 1988-1992 / Heinrich Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Heinrich, 1911-2004

    2004-01-01

    Ülevaade Vabariigi Presidendi ja Vabariigi Valitsuse tegevusest eksiilis 1988. aastast kuni 1992. a. sügiseni, kui riiklikud organisatsioonid Eestis hakkasid tegutsema rahvahääletusel vastuvõetud uue põhiseaduse alusel

  15. Romanticism and Politics: from Heinrich Heine to Carl Schmitt – and Back Again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pericles S. Vallianos

    2013-12-01

    Romanticism. It then points to the distinguishing features of German Romanticism, namely the enlargement of the doctrine into an integral metaphysics with the concept of the “organic state” at its core (A. Müller. The critique of political Romanticism by two revolutionary democrats (H. Heine and A. Ruge is then presented. The article closes with a critique of C. Schmitt’s interpretation of political Romanticism.

  16. Organisatsiooni ja juhtimise valdkonna paradigma ja selle muutumine sõltuvalt edu-uskumusest / Heinrich Ausmees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ausmees, Heinrich, 1941-

    2004-01-01

    Autori väitel uus edu-uskumus eeldab, et kui me oleme suutelised looma metafoore toimuvatest protsessidest, siis oleme võimelised, või vähemalt oleme loonud eeldused selleks, et valdkonnas tegutseda ja muutusi esile kutsuda

  17. Koostööprotsessi subjektide kirjeldamise võimalusi / Heinrich Ausmees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ausmees, Heinrich, 1941-

    1997-01-01

    Bibliogr. lk. 75. - Kokkuvõte ingl. k. lk. 84. Koostööprotsessi subjektide oleku ja kvaliteedi esitamine kujul, mis haakub inimese emotsionaalse ja visuaalse ettekujutusega asjade olemusest ja võrdlemisest, loob paremad eeldused eduka koostööprotsessi kavandamiseks. Tabelid

  18. Põhiseaduse preambula : tema tähtsus ja õiguslik loomus / Heinrich Schneider

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schneider, Heinrich, 1925-2013

    1996-01-01

    Preambulaga põhiseaduste osa maailma riikide õiguse ajaloolises arengus, preambula sisuelemendid, temas sisalduvad üldregulaatorid, tänapäeva põhiseaduste preambulate karakteristika ning Eesti Vabariigi põhiseaduste preambulate eripära

  19. Analytical model for the TeraHertz current noise in nanometric Schottky-barrier diodes and heterostructure barrier varactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahi, F Z; Helmaoui, A [Physics of Semiconductor Devices Laboratory (LPDS), University of Bechar (Algeria); Varani, L [Institute of Electronics of the South (IES - CNRS UMR 5214), University of Montpellier (France); Shiktorov, P; Starikov, E; Gruzhinskis, V, E-mail: fati_zo_mahi2002@yahoo.f [Semiconductor Physics Institute, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose an analytical model for the calculation of the spectral density of current fluctuations in Heterostructure-barrier varactors . The structures of the calculated spectra are analyzed in terms of physical processes useful to optimize the device parameters for the extraction of the high-order harmonics.

  20. Towards Kilo-Hertz 6-DoF Visual Tracking Using an Egocentric Cluster of Rolling Shutter Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, Akash; Dunn, Enrique; Frahm, Jan-Michael

    2016-11-01

    To maintain a reliable registration of the virtual world with the real world, augmented reality (AR) applications require highly accurate, low-latency tracking of the device. In this paper, we propose a novel method for performing this fast 6-DOF head pose tracking using a cluster of rolling shutter cameras. The key idea is that a rolling shutter camera works by capturing the rows of an image in rapid succession, essentially acting as a high-frequency 1D image sensor. By integrating multiple rolling shutter cameras on the AR device, our tracker is able to perform 6-DOF markerless tracking in a static indoor environment with minimal latency. Compared to state-of-the-art tracking systems, this tracking approach performs at significantly higher frequency, and it works in generalized environments. To demonstrate the feasibility of our system, we present thorough evaluations on synthetically generated data with tracking frequencies reaching 56.7 kHz. We further validate the method's accuracy on real-world images collected from a prototype of our tracking system against ground truth data using standard commodity GoPro cameras capturing at 120 Hz frame rate.

  1. 77 FR 70440 - Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... state identification number or foreign country equivalent, passport number, financial account number, or... information. In addition, do not include any ``[t]rade secret or any commercial or financial information which... convenience, autonomy, or cost efficiency of renting a car, and, as a practical matter, customers are unlikely...

  2. Condition monitoring of rotor blades of modern wind power systems; Ueberwachung mit Hertz. Condition Monitoring von Rotorblaettern moderner Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, Nikolaus

    2010-06-15

    With seven wind turbines, the Austrian wind farm ''Sternwald'' is the biggest wind farm in Upper Austria. It is the only wind farm in a forest, and all turbines are therefore equipped with automatic fire fighting equipment. The mountain range on which the wind farm is located is about 1000 m high, with strong wind and much ice and snow in the winter season. For this reason, the owner decided to instal a condition monitoring system with ice detectors. The piezoelectric sensors are mounted directly on the rotor blades as measurements on the nacelle will always be incorrect. Installation on the rotor blades, on the other hand, makes high demands on the fastenings and sensors as the velocity of the blade tips may be up to 250 km per hour. (orig.)

  3. Response of Global Navigation Satellite System receivers to known shaking between 0.2 and 20 Hertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, John; Evans, John R.; Blume, Fredrick; Johanson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, several technological advances have allowed Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers to have the capability to record displacements at high frequencies, with sampling rates approaching 100 samples per second (sps). In addition, communication and computer hardware and software have allowed various institutions, including the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to retrieve, process, and display position changes recorded by a network of GNSS sites with small, less than 1-s delays between the time that the GNSS receiver records signals from a constellation of satellites and the time that the position is estimated (a method known as “real-time”). These improvements in hardware and software have allowed the USGS to process GNSS (or a subset of the GNSS, the Global Positioning System, GPS) data in real-time at 1 sps with the goal of determining displacements from earthquakes and volcanoes in real-time. However, the current set of GNSS equipment can record at rates of 100 sps, which allows the possibility of using this equipment to record earthquake displacements over the full range of frequencies that typically are recorded by acceleration and velocity transducers. The advantage of using GNSS to record earthquakes is that the displacement, rather than acceleration or velocity, is recorded, and for large earthquakes, the GNSS sensor stays on scale and will not distort the observations due to clipping of the signal at its highest amplitude. The direct observation of displacement is advantageous in estimating the size and spatial extent of the earthquake rupture. Otherwise, when using velocity or acceleration sensors, the displacements are determined by numerical integration of the observations, which can introduce significant uncertainty in the estimated displacements. However, GNSS technology can, at best, resolve displacements of a few millimeters, and for most earthquakes, their displacements are less than 1 mm. Consequently, to be useful, GNSS data are only relevant for the large earthquakes with magnitudes (M) exceeding M5.5 at best.

  4. 2 Gigo.hertz Light Route Ro.die Relo.y Link between Asmo.ro. o.nd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (4) Low Maintenance Requirements. Microwave is better in transmission quality than open-wire or in some .... and circuit parameters have been applied: Frequency: 2 GHz. Transmitter power: 0.5watt = 3.0 dbw .... low noise tunnel diode amplifier in front of the re- ceiver. The equipment is very compact with two transmitters ...

  5. The Submillimeter Array – current status and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Raymond

    2018-01-01

    The current SMA receiver systems were designed in the mid-1990s and have been operating for more than fifteen years. With regular upgrades to receivers, deployment of the SWARM correlator, expansion of the IF signal transport bandwidth via improvements to the analog IF signal processing hardware, and many other enhancements, the SMA currently greatly outperforms its original specifications in terms of sensitivity, instantaneous bandwidth, and availability of observing modes such as full-Stokes polarization and dual frequency operation.We have recently started to implement a three-year instrument upgrade plan, which we are calling the wSMA. The wSMA will offer even wider bandwidth operation than the current SMA and improved sensitivity. The major subsystems that will form the wSMA include significantly improved, dual polarization receiver cartridges housed in a new cryostat; local oscillator units incorporating modern mm-wave technology; an upgraded signal transmission system; and a further expansion of the SWARM correlator. The cryostat will be cooled by a low-maintenance pulse-tube cryocooler. Two dual-polarization receiver cartridges will cover approximately the same sky frequencies as the current receiver sets; the low-band receiver will be fed by an LO unit covering 210-270 GHz, and the high-band receiver will be fed by an LO covering 280-360 GHz. With a receiver IF band of 4-20 GHz, this will enable continuous sky frequency coverage from 190 GHz to 380 GHz.Details of the upgrade plans will be presented together with a discussion of scientific opportunities afforded by this upgrade, which, once implemented, will enable the SMA to continue to produce the highest quality science throughout the next decade.

  6. New technologies for the detection of millimeter and submillimeter waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, P. L.; Clarke, J.; Gildemeister, J. M.; Lanting, T.; Lee, A. T.

    2001-01-01

    Voltage-biased superconducting bolometers have many operational advantages over conventional bolometer technology including sensitivity, linearity, speed, and immunity from environmental disturbance. A review is given of the Berkeley program for developing this new technology. Developments include fully lithographed individual bolometers in the spiderweb configuration, arrays of 1024 close-packed absorber-coupled bolometers, antenna-coupled bolometers, and a frequency-domain SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) readout multiplexer.

  7. Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented

  8. Sub-Millimeter Tests of the Newtonian Inverse Square Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, Eric

    2005-01-01

    It is remarkable that small-scale experiments can address important open issues in fundamental science such as: 'why is gravity so weak compared to the other interactions?' and 'why is the cosmological constant so small compared to the predictions of quantum mechanics?' String theory ideas (new scalar particles and extra dimensions) and other notions hint that Newton's Inverse-Square Law could break down at distances less than 1 mm. I will review some motivations for testing the Inverse-Square Law, and discuss recent mechanical experiments with torsion balances, small-scillators, micro-cantilevers, and ultra-cold neutrons. Our torsion-balance experiments have probed for gravitational-strength interactions with length scales down to 70 micrometers, which is approximately the diameter of a human hair.

  9. Synthesis of sub-millimeter calcite from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimi, M. A.; Morrison, J. M.; Burns, P. C.

    2011-12-01

    A novel aqueous synthesis that leads to the formation of calcite (CaCO3) crystals, up to 500μm in diameter, will be used to facilitate the study of contaminant transport in aqueous environmental systems. Existing processes tend to be complicated and often yield nanometer-sized or amorphous CaCO3. The synthesis method presented here, which involves slow mixing of concentrated solutions of CaCl2 ¬and (NH4)2CO3, produces single crystals of rhombohedral calcite in 2 to 4 days. Variations on the experimental method, including changes in pH and solution concentration, were explored to optimize the synthesis. Scanning Electron Microscope images show the differences in size and purity observed when the crystals are grown at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. The crystals grown from solutions of pH 2 were large (up to 500 micrometers in diameter) with minimal polycrystalline calcium carbonate, while crystals grown from solutions with pH values beyond 4 were smaller (up to 100 micrometers in diameter) with significant polycrystalline calcium carbonate. The synthesis method, materials characterization, and use in future actinide contaminant studies will be discussed.

  10. Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented.

  11. Evaluation of a high power submillimeter pulsed laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Sluis, K.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Staats, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the selection, development, and testing of the system components and presents the power and frequency profiles achieved in tests made on the assembled system. These results, and knowledge gained through design and development work, have suggested improvements in design characteristics to be applied to future research on this diagnostic method

  12. Infrared, Submillimeter, and RadioAstronomy Program Astophysics Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    The object of my research for the NASA grant NAGW-4769 was to observe infrared spectra of molecular ions with special astrophysical interest in plasmas both in the laboratory and in space. Progress made during the period from September 1995 to September 1996 is summarized in the following: 1. Detection of Interstellar H3(+) The discovery of interstellar H3(+) through its mid-infrared absorption spectrum was by far the most inspiring development during this fiscal year. H3(+), the simplest stable polyatomic system, has been postulated to play the central role in the ion-neutral reaction scheme of interstellar chemistry, but its presence had not been directly observed in spite of intensive searches by several groups. 2. Observation of High Revibrational States of H3(+). The initial discovery of H3(+) in the Jovian aurora region was made through the identification of the 2(nu)(sub 2)(sup 2) approaches O overtone band indicating the population of H3(+) in high revibration state. 3. Observation of Ortho-Para H3(+) selection rules in plasma chemistry. Celection rules that relate quantum states before and ufter various processes are fascinating subject based on the symmetry argument. 4. Spectroscopy of other ions. Spectroscopy of carbocations ch3(+), CH2(+), C2H3(+) and C2H2(+) has been continued.

  13. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (alma): Early Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Alwyn

    2012-06-01

    New radioastronomical instruments, such as ALMA or the Jansky VLA, have increased spectral throughput by orders of magnitude over previously available capabilities. ALMA brings orders of magnitude increases in spectral sensitivity and spatial resolution over what has previously been available. These increased capabilities open new possibilities for studies of complex molecules in the interstellar medium. Complex interstellar molecules may form on the surfaces of interstellar grains, after which they may be liberated into the gas phase by shocks, radiation, or other external influences. Emission from complex molecules may be diluted owing to the large number of transitions large molecules may undergo, particularly in warm regions of interstellar clouds. High sensitivity and spatial resolution are necessary to explore the distributions and relationships of these molecules. Of particular interest are the distributions of large organic molecules. Observations which establish the relationships between various large molecules are now emerging from these new instruments and will be discussed.

  14. Analytical Chemical Sensing in the Submillimeter/terahertz Spectral Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Benjamin L.; Fosnight, Alyssa M.; Medvedev, Ivan R.; Neese, Christopher F.

    2012-06-01

    Highly sensitive and selective Terahertz sensor utilized to quantitatively analyze a complex mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds is reported. To best demonstrate analytical capabilities of THz chemical sensors we chose to perform analytical quantitative analysis of a certified gas mixture using a novel prototype chemical sensor that couples a commercial preconcentration system (Entech 7100A) to a high resolution THz spectrometer. We selected Method TO-14A certified mixture of 39 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) diluted to 1 part per million (ppm) in nitrogen. 26 of the 39 chemicals were identified by us as suitable for THz spectroscopic detection. Entech 7100A system is designed and marketed as an inlet system for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) instruments with a specific focus on TO-14 and TO-15 EPA sampling methods. Its preconcentration efficiency is high for the 39 chemicals in the mixture used for this study and our preliminary results confirm this. Here we present the results of this study which serves as basis for our ongoing research in environmental sensing and analysis of exhaled human breath.

  15. Gas breakdown at cyclotron resonance with a submillimeter laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.P.; Temkin, R.J.; Lax, B.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed 496-μm CH 3 F laser is used to produce gas breakdown in He at pressures between 1 and 300 Torr in an intense longitudinal magnetic field. Breakdown is detected by the observation of visible light when the electron cyclotron frequency (eB/m) equals the laser frequency, which occurs at B=216 kG for lambda=496 μm. At the lowest helium pressures and near cyclotron resonance, the focused laser intensity of 40 kW/cm 2 gives rise to very large electron heating rates, well beyond the limit of validity of conventional equilibrium breakdown theory. The observed result is an intensity-dependent resonant linewidth, much larger than predicted by equilibrium theories

  16. Inductive voltage adder (IVA) for submillimeter radius electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have already demonstrated the utility of inductive voltage adder accelerators for production of small-size electron beams. In this approach, the inductive voltage adder drives a magnetically immersed foilless diode to produce high-energy (10--20 MeV), high-brightness pencil electron beams. This concept was first demonstrated with the successful experiments which converted the linear induction accelerator RADLAC II into an IVA fitted with a small 1-cm radius cathode magnetically immersed foilless diode (RADLAC II/SMILE). They present here first validations of extending this idea to mm-scale electron beams using the SABRE and HERMES-III inductive voltage adders as test beds. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 9-MeV electron beams with envelope diameter of 1.5-mm FWHM. The HERMES-III experiments are currently underway

  17. Measurement of plasma conductivity using faraday rotation of submillimeter waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Self, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the application of Faraday rotation to the measurement of electron combustion MHD plasmas. Details on the design of a working system are given, including the selection of operating wavelength. A theoretical comparison between the Faraday rotation technique and two-path interferometry shows Faraday rotation in its simplest form to be somewhat less sensitive to changes in electron concentration. This deficit can be balanced against greater immunity to vibration and thermal drift. Improved techniques of measuring the rotation angle promise greater sensitivity. A preliminary experiment has verified the technique

  18. A submillimeter heterodyne receiver and its application in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, A.H.F. van.

    1981-01-01

    A submm heterodyne receiver for astronomical observations has been developed which operates in the frequency range between 460 and 500 GHz. An InSb hot electron bolometer is used as the mixing element. The local oscillator power is obtained by doubling the frequency of a backward wave oscillator (B.W.O.). The sideband noise of the B.W.O. has appeared to be sufficiently weak to allow its use in combination with an InSb mixer. A method of measuring the matching of the mixer to the waveguide is described and some results of measurements of B.W.O. noise are given. A general description is presented of Gaussian beam theory and this is applied to the design of the receiver optics. Particular attention is given to the coupling between the receiver and the telescope. To prevent the usually troublesome effects of standing waves between the receiver and the telescope a circular polarizer can be applied. A review is given of different types of such polarizers as presently used in the optical and microwave regimes, with a view to their application in the submm range. Two types of circular polarizers were constructed and results of measurements on these are given. The final chapter describes the observation of the rotational CO J = 4→3 transition at 461 GHz in the Kleinman Low nebula. From a combination of this measurement with others, lower bounds for the gas kinetic temperature and column density of the shocked gas in this region are derived. (Auth.)

  19. Extended Submillimeter Emission of the Galactic Center and Near-infrared/submillimeter Variability of Its Supermassive Black Hole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    García-Marín, M.; Eckart, A.; Weiss, A.; Witzel, G.; Bremer, M.; Zamaninasab, M.; Morris, M.; Schoedel, R.; Kunneriath, Devaky; Nishiyama, S.; Baganoff, F. K.; Dovčiak, Michal; Sabha, N.; Duschl, W.J.; Moultaka, J.; Karas, Vladimír; Najarro, F.; Muzic, K.; Straubmeier, C.; Vogel, S. N.; Krips, M.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 738, č. 2 (2011), 158/1-158/19 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galactic centre Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  20. [The function of analogies in natural sciences, also in contrast to metaphors and models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    This introduction surveys the various functions of analogies in science, medicine and technology. The focus is on their heuristic importance. The productiveness of analogies is linked to the systematic depth and breadth of the established connections. Various examples are presented from different periods in the history of science, most notably Galileo; such late-Victorian Maxwellians as George Francis FitzGerald and Oliver Lodge; and Heinrich HERTZ and Niels BOHR. These examples are examined in terms of the specific differing temporal ranges of their claimed validities. They serve as evidence or counterevidence for various systematic analyses of analogies as put forward by various philosophers of science, most notably Francis Bacon, John Stuart Mill, Ernst Mach, Harald Høffding, Ernest Nagel, Mary Hesse and Peter Achinstein. The analytic framework for analogies supported here is what the cognitive scientist Dedre Gentner has termed structure-mapping.

  1. The use of history of science in physics teaching: an application for electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrea Perea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present is a revision of different proposals that utilize History of Science in teaching. They have been grouped according to the purpose they pursue: to evoke discoveries, to highlight the human aspect of Science through the contributions of renamed scientists, to teach the processes of scientific construction, to detect students' preconceptions and teach concepts, and to highlight the socio-cultural basis of scientific ideas and research. We discuss why we consider that this last aspect includes the other ones, and elaborate general guidelines for the use of HC in a particular case dealing with electromagnetic field. Our proposal is focused on the controversy between "action-at-a-distance" and "field", and is elaborated on the basis of key experiments carried out by Heinrich Hertz.

  2. The Art of History and Eighteenth-Century Information Management: Christian Gottlieb Jocher and Johann Heinrich Zedler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Richard Glenn

    2013-01-01

    In the eighteenth century there were enough printed sources and archival materials to challenge or even overwhelm historians of that day. Two productive editors of lexicons and information management were Christian Gottlieb Jocher, who taught history at the University of Leipzig and became the chief librarian at his university, and Johann Heinrich…

  3. Organisatsiooni rolli mõõtmine kui vahend organisatsiooni potentsiaali määramiseks / Heinrich Ausmees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ausmees, Heinrich, 1941-

    2002-01-01

    Kasut. kirj. lk. 102. - Kokkuvõte ingl. k. lk. 103. Organisatsiooni kui vahendi kvaliteedi määramise probleemiks on see, mida, kuidas ja kes mõõdab organisatsiooni kui vahendi sobilikkust kasumi saamisele kaasaaitamises

  4. La place du roman Der Untertan au sein de l'œuvre d'Heinrich Mann

    OpenAIRE

    Teinturier , Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Der Untertan is one of the central works in H. Mann's production : this novel is an achievement and reveals the author's esthetical and political evolution. Furthermore, this novel shows an original conception of literature, because the words of the characters are completed and qualified by the ones the novelist expresses in his essays. Besides, Der Untertan can be regarded as the counterpart of Die kleine Stadt: only the confrontation of both novels makes it possible to understand the author...

  5. «Maria Antoniette» di Heinrich Heine: una «Historie» dalla «Matrazengruft»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminio Morenghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This thematic and stylistic analysis of the poem Marie Antoinette by Heine, one of the His­torien taken from the famous Romanzero (1851, seeks to highlight the eeriness of the ancien régime personified by the ghosts of the queen and her ladies in the Tuileries palace after the revolutions of 1830 and 1848. The politically disappointed poet blames the aristocracy for being still bound to the Etiquette and for preventing the necessary social reforms proposed by the prince. For Heine, the light of reason should exorcise the wandering ghosts of a disturbing past.

  6. Victor Heinrich Riecke a Brno jako osvícenské srdce moravského protestantismu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolom-Kotari, Sixtus

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, [1] (2015), s. 195-225 ISSN 0524-689X Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Protestantism * late Enlightenment * philanthropy * secret societies * Czech-German relations Subject RIV: AB - History

  7. Large space antenna concepts for ESGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Allan W.

    1989-01-01

    It is appropriate to note that 1988 marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of the reflector antenna. It was in 1888 that Heinrich Hertz constructed the first one, a parabolic cylinder made of sheet zinc bent to shape and supported by a wooden frame. Hertz demonstrated the existence of the electromagnetic waves that had been predicted theoretically by James Clerk Maxwell some 22 years earlier. In the 100 years since Hertz's pioneering work the field of electromagnetics has grown explosively: one of the technologies is that of remote sensing of planet Earth by means of electromagnetic waves, using both passive and active sensors located on an Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESEP). For these purposes some exquisitely sensitive instruments were developed, capable of reaching to the fringes of the known universe, and relying on large reflector antennas to collect the minute signals and direct them to appropriate receiving devices. These antennas are electrically large, with diameters of 3000 to 10,000 wavelengths and with gains approaching 80 to 90 dB. Some of the reflector antennas proposed for ESGP are also electrically large. For example, at 220 GHz a 4-meter reflector is nearly 3000 wavelengths in diameter, and is electrically quite comparable with a number of the millimeter wave radiotelescopes that are being built around the world. Its surface must meet stringent requirements on rms smoothness, and ability to resist deformation. Here, however, the environmental forces at work are different. There are no varying forces due to wind and gravity, but inertial forces due to mechanical scanning must be reckoned with. With this form of beam scanning, minimizing momentum transfer to the space platform is a problem that demands an answer. Finally, reflector surface distortion due to thermal gradients caused by the solar flux probably represents the most challenging problem to be solved if these Large Space Antennas are to achieve the gain and resolution required of

  8. THz calorimetry : An absolute power meter for TeraHertz radiation and the absorptivity of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope mirror coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, T.O.; Hovenier, J.N.; Fischer, J.; Jakob, G.; Poglitsch, A.; Sternberg, O.

    2004-01-01

    A new calorimetric absolute power meter has been developed for THz radiation. This broad band THz power meter measures average power at ambient temperature and pressure, does not use a window, and is insensitive to polarization and time structure of THz radiation. The operation of the power meter is

  9. InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode microwires of submillimeter length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, W. V., E-mail: lundin.vpegroup@mail.ioffe.ru; Rodin, S. N.; Sakharov, A. V.; Lundina, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Usov, S. O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Research and Engineering Center of Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics (Russian Federation); Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Troshkov, S. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Tsatsulnikov, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Research and Engineering Center of Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Microcrystalline wire-like InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes designed as core–shell structures 400–600 μm in length are grown by metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy on sapphire and silicon substrates. The technology of the titanium-nanolayer-induced ultrafast growth of nanowire and microwire crystals is used. As a current is passed through the microcrystals, an electroluminescence signal is observed in the blue–green spectral region.

  10. Submillimeter wave spectroscopy of ethyl isocyanide and its searches in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Tercero, B.; Guillemin, J. C.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Cernicharo, J.

    2018-02-01

    Context. About 40 cyanide compounds have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only 3 examples of organic isocyanide compounds were observed in this medium. Ethyl isocyanide is one of the best candidates for possible detection. Aim. To date, measurements of rotational spectra are limited to 40 GHz. The extrapolation of the prediction in the millimeter wave domain is inaccurate and does not permit an unambiguous detection. Methods: The rotational spectra were reinvestigated from 0.15 to 1 THz. Using the new prediction, we searched for the compound ethyl isocyanide in Orion KL and Sgr B2. Results: We newly assigned 2906 transitions and fitted these new data with those from previous studies, reaching quantum numbers up to J = 103 and Ka = 30. The asymmetric top Hamiltonian proposed by Watson in the Ir representation was used for the analysis, and both reductions A and S were tested. The search for CH3CH2NC in Sgr B2 (IRAM 30m) and Orion KL (IRAM 30m, ALMA Science Verification) result in a non-detection; upper limits to the column density were derived. Tables S1-S4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A44

  11. Design and analysis of optically pumped submillimeter waveguide maser amplifiers and oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantowicz, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    The design and experimental measurements are described of an optically pumped far-infrared (FIR) waveguide maser; preliminary measurements on a FIR waveguide amplifier are presented. The FIR maser was found to operate satisfactorily in a chopped CW mode using either methanol (CH3OH) or acetonitrile (CH3CN) as the active molecule. Two other gases, difluoroethane and difluoroethylene, produced an unstable output with high threshold and low output power when operated in the chopped CW mode. Experimental measurements include FIR output versus cavity length, output beam pattern, output power versus pressure, and input power. The FIR output was the input to an amplifier which was constructed similar to the oscillator. An increase of 10% in output power was noted on the 118.8 microns line of methanol.

  12. and its Isotopic mm/Submillimeter Lines from Dark Cloud Lynds 183 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-02-19

    . 75014 Paris, France. ∗ ... The model results accord with the observed data and shows a temperature difference of ∼7K ... and in general a single Gaussian fit, gave good fits for almost all the observations. The various offset ...

  13. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  14. A Literature Review of Millimeter and Submillimeter Radiation Absorption and Scattering in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS OF METHODS OF PREPARING POLYCRYSTALLINE CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR MICROWAVE FREQUENCY USE IS REPORTED. METHODS OF INVESTIGAT NG THE...THE I REFLECTED BY \\ I2J.(?^P^ INDEX rKUKtKlltb i U Hf CONTENT. TEXTURE , AND COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL SAMPLES HAS BEEN EXAMINED IN DETAIL IN THE...GIVEN. IN D THAT WERE USED To PHASE LOCK THE 2-C02 LASERS TOGETHF.- WITH PZT PIEZOELECTRIC DEVICES IN A FABRY PEROT-LASPR CAVITY,«» C361B1B

  15. Sub-millimeter arbitrary arrangements of monolithically micro-scale electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszczyk, Karolina U; Kazufumi, Kobashi; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We report the investigation on the reproducibility of micro-scale electric double layer capacitors (micro-EDLCs). The micro-EDLC components were fabricated parallel using photolithography, wet and dry processing. Electrodes of the micro-EDLCs are highly dense packed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) that form a mesh structure. The micro- EDLCs are connected 1-10 in series and in parallel being unified electrical circuits to tune the capacitance and the operational voltage. To confirm the reproducibility of the cells as well as the yield we performed electrochemical measurements in order to define the performance uniformity between cells strings and individual cells connected in a string. For 1-10 cells in series and in parallel the trends for the capacitance and operational voltage satisfied electrophysics rules governing cells addition. However, the measurements of the individual cells in a string revealed the significant performance discrepancy that might result in a shorten life cycling of a circuit. (paper)

  16. HIFI Spectroscopy of H2O Submillimeter Lines in Nuclei of Actively Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Weiß, A.; Perez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Güsten, R.; Liu, D.; Gao, Y.; Menten, K. M.; van der Werf, P.; Israel, F. P.; Harris, A.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Stutzki, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a systematic survey of multiple velocity-resolved H2O spectra using Herschel/Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) toward nine nearby actively star-forming galaxies. The ground-state and low-excitation lines (E up ≤ 130 K) show profiles with emission and absorption blended together, while absorption-free medium-excitation lines (130 K ≤ E up ≤ 350 K) typically display line shapes similar to CO. We analyze the HIFI observation together with archival SPIRE/PACS H2O data using a state-of-the-art 3D radiative transfer code that includes the interaction between continuum and line emission. The water excitation models are combined with information on the dust and CO spectral line energy distribution to determine the physical structure of the interstellar medium (ISM). We identify two ISM components that are common to all galaxies: a warm ({T}{dust}˜ 40{--}70 K), dense (n({{H}})˜ {10}5{--}{10}6 {{cm}}-3) phase that dominates the emission of medium-excitation H2O lines. This gas phase also dominates the far-IR emission and the CO intensities for {J}{up}> 8. In addition, a cold ({T}{dust}˜ 20{--}30 K), dense (n({{H}})˜ {10}4{--}{10}5 {{cm}}-3), more extended phase is present. It outputs the emission in the low-excitation H2O lines and typically also produces the prominent line absorption features. For the two ULIRGs in our sample (Arp 220 and Mrk 231) an even hotter and more compact (R s ≤ 100 pc) region is present, which is possibly linked to AGN activity. We find that collisions dominate the water excitation in the cold gas and for lines with {E}{up}≤slant 300 K and {E}{up}≤slant 800 K in the warm and hot component, respectively. Higher-energy levels are mainly excited by IR pumping.

  17. Submillimeter Stacking in Overdense Environments at z>2: Exploring Galaxies’ ISM Content in the COSMOS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Richard; Hung, Chao-Ling; Casey, Caitlin M.; Chiang, Yi-Kuan

    2018-01-01

    A galaxy’s evolution is affected by its environment. Today, we see quiescent elliptical galaxies preferentially in the high-density environments of galaxy clusters, while star-forming galaxies are found only in lower density environments. However, this trend is less clear at z > 2, with some works arguing for a possible reversal of star formation with environmental density. While star formation is quenched in the cores of today's galaxy clusters, their progenitors likely had ongoing star formation in line with cosmic downsizing. In order to better understand when and how the cores of galaxy protoclusters formed their stars, We search for a dependence between environment and gas content in galaxy protoclusters at z > 2. To do this, we utilize the 2deg^2 COSMOS survey and SCUBA2 850 micron maps of the COSMOS field to trace galaxy gas content and environment. We conduct a stacking analysis with the code SIMSTACK to aide in our search for a relationship between environment and gas content.

  18. The TopHat experiment: A balloon-borne instrument for mapping millimeter and submillimeter emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silverberg, R.F.; Cheng, E.S.; Aguirre, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The TopHat experiment was designed to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on angular scales from 0.degrees 3 to 30 degrees and the thermal emission from both Galactic and extragalactic dust. The balloon-borne instrument had five spectral bands spanning frequencies ...

  19. Submillimeter/millimeter observations of the molecular clouds associated with Tycho's supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jinlong; Wang Junjie; Miller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out CO J = 2 - 1 and CO J = 3 - 2 observations toward Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) using the KOSMA 3m-telescope. From these observations, we identified three molecular clouds (MCs) around the SNR. The small cloud in the southwest was discovered for the first time. In the north and east, two MCs (Cloud A and Cloud B) adjacent in space display a bow-shaped morphology, and have broad emission lines, which provide some direct evidences of the SNR-MCs interaction. The MCs are revealed at -69∼ -59 km s -1 , coincident with Tycho's SNR. The MCs associated with Tycho's SNR have a mass of ∼ 2.13 x 10 3 M circleddot . Position-velocity diagrams show the two clouds to be adjacent in velocity, which means cloud-cloud collision could occur in this region. The maximum value (0.66 ± 0.10) of the integrated CO line intensity ratio (I COJ=3-2 /I COJ=2-1 ) for the three MCs agrees well with the previous measurement of individual Galactic MCs, implying that the SNR shock drove into the MCs. The two MCs have a line intensity ratio gradient. The distribution of the ratio appears to indicate that the shock propagates from the southwest to the northeast.

  20. Sub-millimeter arbitrary arrangements of monolithically micro-scale electrical double layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszczyk, Karolina U.; Kazufumi, Kobashi; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N.; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    We report the investigation on the reproducibility of micro-scale electric double layer capacitors (micro-EDLCs). The micro-EDLC components were fabricated parallel using photolithography, wet and dry processing. Electrodes of the micro-EDLCs are highly dense packed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) that form a mesh structure. The micro- EDLCs are connected 1-10 in series and in parallel being unified electrical circuits to tune the capacitance and the operational voltage. To confirm the reproducibility of the cells as well as the yield we performed electrochemical measurements in order to define the performance uniformity between cells strings and individual cells connected in a string. For 1-10 cells in series and in parallel the trends for the capacitance and operational voltage satisfied electrophysics rules governing cells addition. However, the measurements of the individual cells in a string revealed the significant performance discrepancy that might result in a shorten life cycling of a circuit.

  1. Submillimeter Observations of CLASH 2882 and the Evolution of Dust in this Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G; Kovacs, Attila; Decarli, Roberto; Egami, Eiichi; Michalowski, Michal J.; Rawle, Timothy D.; Toft, Sune; Walter, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Two millimeter observations of the MACS J1149.6+2223 cluster have detected a source that was consistent with the location of the lensed MACS 1149-JD galaxy at z = 9.6. A positive identification would have rendered this galaxy as the youngest dust forming galaxy in the universe. Follow up observation with the AzTEC 1.1 mm camera and the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) at 1.3 mm have not confirmed this association. In this paper we show that the NOEMA observations associate the 2 mm source with [PCB2012] 2882,12 source number 2882 in the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) catalog of MACS J1149.6 +2223. This source, hereafter referred to as CLASH 2882, is a gravitationally lensed spiral galaxy at z = 0.99. We combine the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter Observer (GISMO) 2 mm and NOEMA 1.3 mm fluxes with other (rest frame) UV to far-IR observations to construct the full spectral energy distribution of this galaxy, and derive its star formation history, and stellar and interstellar dust content. The current star formation rate of the galaxy is 54/mu/Solar Mass/yr, and its dust mass is about 5 × 10(exp 7)/mu Solar Mass, where mu is the lensing magnification factor for this source, which has a mean value of 2.7. The inferred dust mass is higher than the maximum dust mass that can be produced by core collapse supernovae and evolved AGB stars. As with many other star forming galaxies, most of the dust mass in CLASH 2882 must have been accreted in the dense phases of the interstellar medium.

  2. Millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectrum and molecular constants of cuprous iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, E.L.; De Lucia, F.C.; Gordy, W.

    1975-01-01

    Monomeric cuprous iodide (CuI) in the vapor state has been produced as an intermediate product of the reaction of copper with iodine vapor at 1100 degreeK in a quasi-free-space microwave absorption cell. Rotational transitions of 63 Cu 127 I and 65 Cu 127 I were measured for J as high as 87→88 and for ν as high as 11. Hyperfine splittings due to 127 I were observed, and eqQ ( 127 I) =-935(15) MHz was derived. Analysis of the rotational frequencies yields the following Dunham and equilibrium coefficients for 63 Cu 127 I: Y 01 =2197.10172(98) MHz, Y 11 =-8.51120(66) MHz, Y 21 =0.00934(14) MHz, Y 31 =-0.0375(88) kHz, Y 02 =-0.67269(10) kHz, Y 12 =0.031(34) Hz, Y 03 =-0.00006858(10) Hz, B/sube/=2197.102(2) MHz, ω/sube/=264.897(18) cm -1 , ω/sube/chi/sube/=0.715(2) cm -1 , r/sube/=2.33831686(104) A; for 65 Cu 127 I: Y 01 =2151.89989(94) MHz, Y 11 =-8.24990(66) MHz, Y 21 =0.00896(14) MHz, Y 31 =-0.0356(88) kHz, Y 02 =-0.64530(10) kHz, Y 12 =0.030(34) Hz, Y 03 =-0.00006443(10) Hz, B/sube/=2151.900(2) MHz, ω/sube/=262.157(18) cm -1 , ω/sube/chi/sube/=0.700(2) cm -1 , r/sube/=2.33831664(102) A. The Dunham potential constants for CuI are a 0 =239 366(34) cm -1 , a 1 =-3.33365(36), a 2 =7.391(16), and a 3 =-13.20(18)

  3. Sub-millimeter planar imaging with positron emitters: EGS4 code simulation and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, D.; Del Guerra, A.; Di Domenico, G.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data for Planar Imaging with positron emitters (pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution) obtained with two matrices of 25 crystals (2 x 2 x 30 mm 3 each) of YAP:Ce coupled with a Position Sensitive PhotoMultiplier (Hamamatsu R2486-06) have been reproduced with high accuracy using the EGS4 code. Extensive simulation provides a detailed description of the performance of this type of detector as a function of the matrix granularity, the geometry of the detector and detection threshold. We present the Monte Carlo simulation and the preliminary experimental results of a prototype planar imaging system made of two matrices, each one consisting of 400 (2 x 2 x 30 mm 3 ) crystals of YAP-Ce

  4. Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Giorgio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ade, Peter A R

    2006-12-10

    We adopted an existing formalism and modified it to simulate, with high precision, the transmission, reflection, and absorption of multiple-plate birefringent devices as a function of frequency. To validate the model, we use it to compare the measured properties of an achromatic five-plate device with a broadband antireflection coating to expectations derived from the material optical constants and its geometric configuration. The half-wave plate presented here is observed to perform well with a phase shift variation of < 2 degrees from the ideal 180 degrees over a bandwidth of Deltav/v approximately 1 at millimeter wavelengths. This formalism represents a powerful design tool for birefringent polarization modulators and enables its optical properties to be specified with high accuracy.

  5. Achromatic half-wave plate for submillimeter instruments in cosmic microwave background astronomy: experimental characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Giampaolo; Savini, Giorgio; Ade, Peter A R; Haynes, Vic; Gear, Walter K

    2006-09-20

    An achromatic half-wave plate (HWP) to be used in millimeter cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments has been designed, manufactured, and tested. The design is based on the 5-plates Pancharatnam recipe and it works in the frequency range 85-185 GHz. A model has been used to predict the transmission, reflection, absorption, and phase shift as a function of frequency. The HWP has been tested by using coherent radiation from a back-wave oscillator to investigate its modulation efficiency and with incoherent radiation from a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to explore its frequency behavior. The FTS measurements have been fitted with an optical performance model which is in excellent agreement with the data. A detailed analysis of the data also allows a precise determination of the HWP fast and slow axes in the frequency band of operation. A list of the HWP performance characteristics is reported including estimates of its cross polarization.

  6. Low-Noise Wide Bandwith, Hot Electron Bolometer Mixers for Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a novel superconductive hot-electron micro-bolometer has been proposed which is both fast and sensitive (D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2119, 1993). This device has several important properties which make it useful as a heterodyne sensor for radioastronomy applications at frequencies above 1 THz. The thermal response time of the device is fast enough, several 10's of picoseconds, to allow for IF's of several GHz. This bolometer mixer should operate well up to at least 10 THz. There is no energy gap limitation as in an SIS mixer, since the mixing process relies on heating of the electron gas. In fact, rf power is absorbed more uniformly above the gap frequency. The mixer noise should be near quantum-limited, and the local oscillator (LO) power requirement is very low: / 10 nW for a Nb device. One of the unique features of this device is that it employs rapid electron diffusion into a normal metal, rather than phonon emission, as the thermal conductance that cools the heated electrons. In order for diffusion to dominate over phonon emission, the device must be short, less than 0.5.

  7. (Sub)millimeter emission lines of molecules in born-again stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoya, D.; Toalá, J. A.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Guerrero, M. A.; De Beck, E.; González, M.; Kimeswenger, S.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Treviño-Morales, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Born-again stars provide a unique possibility to study the evolution of the circumstellar envelope of evolved stars in human timescales. Up until now, most of the observations of the circumstellar material in these stars have been limited to studying the relatively hot gas and dust. In other evolved stars, the emission from rotational transitions of molecules, such as CO, is commonly used to study the cool component of their circumstellar envelopes. Thus, the detection and study of molecular gas in born-again stars is of great importance when attempting to understand their composition and chemical evolution. In addition, the molecular emission is an invaluable tool for exploring the physical conditions, kinematics, and formation of asymmetric structures in the circumstellar envelopes of these evolved stars. However, up until now, all attempts to detect molecular emission from the cool material around born-again stars have failed. Aims: We searched for emission from rotational transitions of molecules in the hydrogen-deficient circumstellar envelopes of born-again stars to explore the chemical composition, kinematics, and physical parameters of the relatively cool gas. Methods: We carried out observations using the APEX and IRAM 30 m telescopes to search for molecular emission toward four well-studied born-again stars, V4334 Sgr, V605 Aql, A30, and A78, that are thought to represent an evolutionary sequence. Results: For the first time, we detected emission from HCN and H13CN molecules toward V4334 Sgr, and CO emission in V605 Aql. No molecular emission was detected above the noise level toward A30 and A78. The detected lines exhibit broad linewidths ≳150 km s-1, which indicates that the emission comes from gas ejected during the born-again event, rather than from the old planetary nebula. A first estimate of the H12CN/H13CN abundance ratio in the circumstellar environment of V4334 Sgr is ≈3, which is similar to the value of the 12C/13C ratio measured from other observations. We derived a rotational temperature of Trot = 13 ± 1 K, and a total column density of NHCN = 1.6 ± 0.1 × 1016 cm-2 for V4334 Sgr. This result sets a lower limit on the amount of hydrogen that was ejected into the wind during the born-again event of this source. For V605 Aql, we obtained a lower limit for the integrated line intensities I12CO/I13CO> 4. This publication is based on data acquired with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) and IRAM 30 m telescopes. APEX is a collaboration between the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  8. A deeply embedded young protoplanetary disk around L1489 IRS observed by the Submillimeter Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, C.; Crapsi, A.; Jørgensen, J. K.

    2007-01-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks are expected to form early in the process that leads to the formation of a young star, during the collapse of the dense molecular cloud core. Currently, it is not well understood at what stage of the collapse the disk is formed or how it subsequently evolves. Aims. We....... This misalignment of the angular momentum axes may be caused by a gradient within the angular momentum in the parental cloud, or if L1489 IRS is a binary system rather than just a single star. In the latter case, future observations looking for variability at sub-arcsecond scales may be able to constrain...

  9. Ultralong Radiative States in Hybrid Perovskite Crystals: Compositions for Submillimeter Diffusion Lengths

    KAUST Repository

    Alarousu, Erkki

    2017-08-29

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently evolved into the leading candidate solution-processed semiconductor for solar cells due to their combination of desirable optical and charge transport properties. Chief among these properties is the long carrier diffusion length, which is essential to optimizing the device architecture and performance. Herein, we used time-resolved photoluminescence (at low excitation fluence, 10.59 μJ·cm upon two-photon excitation), which is the most accurate and direct approach to measure the radiative charge carrier lifetime and diffusion lengths. Lifetimes of about 72 and 4.3 μs for FAPbBr and FAPbI perovskite single crystals have been recorded, presenting the longest radiative carrier lifetimes reported to date for perovskite materials. Subsequently, carrier diffusion lengths of 107.2 and 19.7 μm are obtained. In addition, we demonstrate the key role of the organic cation units in modulating the carrier lifetime and its diffusion lengths, in which the defect formation energies for FA cations are much higher than those with the MA ones.

  10. Cold spraying of aluminum bronze on profiled submillimeter cermet structures formed by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryashin, N. S.; Malikov, A. G.; Shikalov, V. S.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Kuchumov, B. M.; Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents results of the cold spraying of aluminum bronze coatings on substrates profiled with WC/Ni tracks obtained by laser cladding. Reinforcing cermet frames shaped as grids with varied mesh sizes were clad on stainless steel substrates using a CO2 laser machine "Siberia" (ITAM SB RAS, Russia). As a result, surfaces/substrates with heterogeneous shape, composition, and mechanical properties were obtained. Aluminum bronze coatings were deposited from 5lF-NS powder (Oerlikon Metco, Switzerland) on those substrates using cold spraying equipment (ITAM SB RAS). Data of profiling, microstructure diagnostics, EDS analysis, and mechanical tests of obtained composites is reported. Surface relief of the sprayed coatings dependence on substrate structure has been demonstrated.

  11. A 3D HIDAC-PET camera with sub-millimeter resolution for imaging small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeavons, A.P.; Chandler, R.A.; Dettmar, C.A.R.

    1999-01-01

    A HIDAC-PET camera consisting essentially of 5 million 0.5 mm gas avalanching detectors has been constructed for small-animal imaging. The particular HIDAC advantage--a high 3D spatial resolution--has been improved to 0.95 mm fwhm and to 0.7 mm fwhm when reconstructing with 3D-OSEM methods incorporating resolution recovery. A depth-of-interaction resolution of 2.5 mm is implicit, due to the laminar construction. Scatter-corrected sensitivity, at 8.9 cps/kBq (i.e. 0.9%) from a central point source, or 7.2 cps/kBq (543 cps/kBq/cm 3 ) from a distributed (40 mm diameter, 60 mm long) source is now much higher than previous, and other, work. A field-of-view of 100 mm (adjustable to 200 mm) diameter by 210 mm axially permits whole-body imaging of small animals, containing typically 4MBqs of activity, at 40 kcps of which 16% are random coincidences, with a typical scatter fraction of 44%. Throughout the field-of-view there are no positional distortions and relative quantitation is uniform to ± 3.5%, but some variation of spatial resolution is found. The performance demonstrates that HIDAC technology is quite appropriate for small-animal PET cameras

  12. On Surface Losses in Direct Metal Laser Sintering Printed Millimeter and Submillimeter Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Max; Dancila, Dragos; Rydberg, Anders; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin; Jansson, Ulf; Marattukalam, Jithin James; Johansson, Niklas; Andersson, Joakim

    2018-06-01

    Different lengths of WR3 (220-330 GHz) and WR10 (75-110 GHz) waveguides are fabricated through direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The losses in these waveguides are measured and modelled using the Huray surface roughness model. The losses in WR3 are around 0.3 dB/mm and in WR10 0.05 dB/mm. The Huray equation model is accounting relatively good for the attenuation in the WR10 waveguide but deviates more in the WR3 waveguide. The model is compared to finite element simulations of the losses assuming an approximate surface structure similar to the resulting one from the DMLS process.

  13. Ultralong Radiative States in Hybrid Perovskite Crystals: Compositions for Submillimeter Diffusion Lengths

    KAUST Repository

    Alarousu, Erkki; El-Zohry, Ahmed M.; Yin, Jun; Zhumekenov, Ayan A.; Yang, Chen; Alhabshi, Esra; Gereige, Issam; AlSaggaf, Ahmed; Malko, Anton V.; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently evolved into the leading candidate solution-processed semiconductor for solar cells due to their combination of desirable optical and charge transport properties. Chief among

  14. First extragalactic detection of submillimeter CH rotational lines from the Herschel space observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 1255 38th street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Wilson, Christine D.; Schirm, Maximilien R. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira Santaella, Miguel [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-20

    We present the first extragalactic detections of several CH rotational transitions in the far-infrared in four nearby galaxies, NGC 1068, Arp 220, M82, and NGC 253, using the Herschel Space Observatory. The CH lines in all four galaxies are a factor of 2-4 brighter than the adjacent HCN and HCO{sup +} J = 6-5 lines (also detected in the same spectra). In the star-formation-dominated galaxies, M82, NGC 253, and Arp 220, the CH/CO abundance ratio is low (∼10{sup –5}), implying that the CH is primarily arising in diffuse and translucent gas where the chemistry is driven by UV radiation as found in the Milky Way interstellar matter. In NGC 1068, which has a luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN), the CH/CO ratio is an order of magnitude higher, suggesting that CH formation is driven by an X-ray-dominated region (XDR). Our XDR models show that both the CH and CO abundances in NGC 1068 can be explained by an XDR-driven chemistry for gas densities and molecular hydrogen column densities that are well constrained by the CO observations. We conclude that the CH/CO ratio may a good indicator of the presence of AGN in galaxies. We also discuss the feasibility of detecting CH in intermediate- to high-z galaxies with ALMA.

  15. Superconducting hot-electron bolometer: from the discovery of hot-electron phenomena to practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurakov, A; Lobanov, Y; Goltsman, G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of hot-electron phenomena in a thin superconducting film in the last century was followed by numerous experimental studies of its appearance in different materials aiming for a better understanding of the phenomena and consequent implementation of terahertz detection systems for practical applications. In contrast to the competitors such as superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions and Schottky diodes, the hot electron bolometer (HEB) did not demonstrate any frequency limitation of the detection mechanism. The latter, in conjunction with a decent performance, rapidly made the HEB mixer the most attractive candidate for heterodyne observations at frequencies above 1 THz. The successful operation of practical instruments (the Heinrich Hertz Telescope, the Receiver Lab Telescope, APEX, SOFIA, Hershel) ensures the importance of the HEB technology despite the lack of rigorous theoretical routine for predicting the performance. In this review, we provide a summary of experimental and theoretical studies devoted to understanding the HEB physics, and an overview of various fabrication routes and materials. (topical review)

  16. Des physiciens de A à Z

    CERN Document Server

    Rousset, André

    2000-01-01

    L'enseignement de la physique peut donner de cette discipline l'image d'une science achevée, avec ses théories, ses principes, ses lois. Cependant, cette science n'a été que progressivement édifiée par l'accumulation de contributions apportées par de nombreux scientifiques. Pour comprendre comment s'est construit cet édifice, pierre après pierre, il est instructif de connaître dans quelles conditions un physicien a été conduit à telle découverte. Qui était Isaac Newton ? Comment Heinrich Hertz a-t-il découvert les ondes électromagnétiques ? Pourquoi Benjamin Franklin est-il l'inventeur du paratonnerre ? Quel a été le rôle de Jean Perrin dans la découverte de l'atome ? 700 physiciens, des plus anciens aux plus modernes, ont trouvé leur place dans cet ouvrage.

  17. X-Ray Timing Analysis of Cyg X-3 Using AstroSat/LAXPC: Detection of Milli-hertz Quasi-periodic Oscillations during the Flaring Hard X-Ray State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Antia, H M; Yadav, J S; Chauhan, Jai Verdhan; Chitnis, V R; Dedhia, Dhiraj; Katoch, Tilak; Madhwani, P; Shah, Parag [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Agrawal, P C [UM-DAE Center of Excellence for Basic Sciences, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai 400098 (India); Manchanda, R K [University of Mumbai, Kalina, Mumbai 400098 (India); Paul, B, E-mail: mayukh@iucaa.in [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru 560080 (India)

    2017-11-01

    We present here results from the X-ray timing and spectral analysis of the X-ray binary Cyg X-3 using observations from the Large Area X-ray proportional Counter on board AstroSat . Consecutive light curves observed over a period of one year show the binary orbital period of 17253.56 ± 0.19 s. Another low-amplitude, slow periodicity of the order of 35.8 ± 1.4 days is observed, which may be due to the orbital precession as suggested earlier by Molt