WorldWideScience

Sample records for height target estimation

  1. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2012-04-01

    According to the embodied approach to visual perception, individuals scale the environment to their bodies. This approach highlights the central role of the body for immediate, situated action. The present experiments addressed whether body scaling--specifically, eye-height scaling--occurs in memory when action is not immediate. Participants viewed standard targets that were either the same height as, taller than, or shorter than themselves. Participants then viewed a comparison target and judged whether the comparison was taller or shorter than the standard target. Participants were most accurate when the standard target height matched their own heights, taking into account postural changes. Participants were biased to underestimate standard target height, in general, and to push standard target height away from their own heights. These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory.

  2. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  3. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  4. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  5. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  6. Do centimetres matter? Self-reported versus estimated height measurements in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, T; Flück, Ce; L'allemand, D; Dattani, M T; Hindmarsh, P C; Mullis, P E

    2010-04-01

    An impressive discrepancy between reported and measured parental height is often observed. The aims of this study were: (a) to assess whether there is a significant difference between the reported and measured parental height; (b) to focus on the reported and, thereafter, measured height of the partner; (c) to analyse its impact on the calculated target height range. A total of 1542 individual parents were enrolled. The parents were subdivided into three groups: normal height (3-97th Centile), short (97%) stature. Overall, compared with men, women were far better in estimating their own height (p Women of normal stature underestimated the short partner and overestimated the tall partner, whereas male partners of normal stature overestimated both their short as well as tall partners. Women of tall stature estimated the heights of their short partners correctly, whereas heights of normal statured men were underestimated. On the other hand, tall men overestimated the heights of their female partners who are of normal and short stature. Furthermore, women of short stature estimated the partners of normal stature adequately, and the heights of their tall partners were overestimated. Interestingly, the short men significantly underestimated the normal, but overestimated tall female partners. Only measured heights should be used to perform accurate evaluations of height, particularly when diagnostic tests or treatment interventions are contemplated. For clinical trails, we suggest that only quality measured parental heights are acceptable, as the errors incurred in estimates may enhance/conceal true treatment effects.

  7. Subexponential estimates in Shirshov's theorem on height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Aleksei Ya; Kharitonov, Mikhail I

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that F 2,m is a free 2-generated associative ring with the identity x m =0. In 1993 Zelmanov put the following question: is it true that the nilpotency degree of F 2,m has exponential growth? We give the definitive answer to Zelmanov's question by showing that the nilpotency class of an l-generated associative algebra with the identity x d =0 is smaller than Ψ(d,d,l), where Ψ(n,d,l)=2 18 l(nd) 3log 3 (nd)+13 d 2 . This result is a consequence of the following fact based on combinatorics of words. Let l, n and d≥n be positive integers. Then all words over an alphabet of cardinality l whose length is not less than Ψ(n,d,l) are either n-divisible or contain x d ; a word W is n-divisible if it can be represented in the form W=W 0 W 1 …W n so that W 1 ,...,W n are placed in lexicographically decreasing order. Our proof uses Dilworth's theorem (according to V.N. Latyshev's idea). We show that the set of not n-divisible words over an alphabet of cardinality l has height h 87 l·n 12log 3 n+48 . Bibliography: 40 titles.

  8. Tree height integrated into pantropical forest biomass estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldpausch, T.R.; Lloyd, J.; Lewis, S.L.; Brienen, R.J.W.; Gloor, M.; Montegudo Mendoza, A.; Arets, E.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground tropical tree biomass and carbon storage estimates commonly ignore tree height (H). We estimate the effect of incorporating H on tropics-wide forest biomass estimates in 327 plots across four continents using 42 656 H and diameter measurements and harvested trees from 20 sites to answer

  9. Stature estimation using the knee height measurement amongst Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Fogal, Aline; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Eloiza Priore, Silvia; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi M.; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Stature is an important variable in several indices of nutritional status that are applicable to elderly persons. However, stature is difficult or impossible to measure in elderly because they are often unable to maintain the standing position. A alternative is the use of estimated height from measurements of knee height measure. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the formula proposed by Chumlea et al. (1985) based on the knee of a Caucasian population to estimat...

  10. Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefsky; David J. Harding; Michael Keller; Warren B. Cohen; Claudia C. Carabajal; Fernando Del Bom; Maria O. Hunter; Raimundo Jr. de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a vital component of the global carbon cycle. Satellite laser altimetry has a unique capability for estimating forest canopy height, which has a direct and increasingly well understood relationship to aboveground carbon storage. While the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land...

  11. Agreement between estimated and measured heights and weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    index (BMI = kg/m2) and require accurate recording of a patient's height and weight.1. In reality, however, patients often cannot stand up straight for accurate height measurement, or are unable to step on a scale. In such cases, height and weight values are often obtained from the patient or their relatives, who either do not ...

  12. Modeling determinants of growth: evidence for a community-based target in height?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßmann, Christian; Hermanussen, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Human growth is traditionally envisaged as a target-seeking process regulated by genes, nutrition, health, and the state of an individual's social and economic environment; it is believed that under optimal physical conditions, an individual will achieve his or her full genetic potential. Using a panel data set on individual height increments, we suggest a statistical modeling approach that characterizes growth as first-order trend stationary and allows for controlling individual growth tempo via observable measures of individual maturity. A Bayesian framework and corresponding Markov-chain Monte Carlo techniques allowing for a conceptually stringent treatment of missing values are adapted for parameter estimation. The model provides evidence for the adjustment of the individual growth rate toward average height of the population. The increase in adult body height during the past 150 y has been explained by the steady improvement of living conditions that are now being considered to have reached an optimum in Western societies. The current investigation questions the notion that the traditional concept in the understanding of this target-seeking process is sufficient. We consider an additional regulator that possibly points at community-based target seeking in growth.

  13. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...

  14. Arm-associated measurements as estimates of true height in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arm-associated measurements to true height included that of the World Health ... Conclusion: Findings indicate the need for gender and race-specific height estimation ..... New. York, NY: Springer; 2012. 12. Golshan M, Amra B, Hoghoghi MA.

  15. Accuracy of height estimation and tidal volume setting using anthropometric formulas in an ICU Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'her, Erwan; Martin-Babau, Jérôme; Lellouche, François

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of patients' height is essential for daily practice in the intensive care unit. However, actual height measurements are unavailable on a daily routine in the ICU and measured height in the supine position and/or visual estimates may lack consistency. Clinicians do need simple and rapid methods to estimate the patients' height, especially in short height and/or obese patients. The objectives of the study were to evaluate several anthropometric formulas for height estimation on healthy volunteers and to test whether several of these estimates will help tidal volume setting in ICU patients. This was a prospective, observational study in a medical intensive care unit of a university hospital. During the first phase of the study, eight limb measurements were performed on 60 healthy volunteers and 18 height estimation formulas were tested. During the second phase, four height estimates were performed on 60 consecutive ICU patients under mechanical ventilation. In the 60 healthy volunteers, actual height was well correlated with the gold standard, measured height in the erect position. Correlation was low between actual and calculated height, using the hand's length and width, the index, or the foot equations. The Chumlea method and its simplified version, performed in the supine position, provided adequate estimates. In the 60 ICU patients, calculated height using the simplified Chumlea method was well correlated with measured height (r = 0.78; ∂ ventilation, alternative anthropometric methods to obtain patient's height based on lower leg and on forearm measurements could be useful to facilitate the application of protective mechanical ventilation in a Caucasian ICU population. The simplified Chumlea method is easy to achieve in a bed-ridden patient and provides accurate height estimates, with a low bias.

  16. Estimation of Height from Arm Span in 6-11 Years Children in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Prava Mishra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Standing height is an important anthropometric parameter to track longitudinal growth, to estimate body fatness and to calculate energy requirement. Measurement of height may be difficult in children who cannot stand. Aim: To establish regression equation for estimation of height from arm span in children. To check comparative relevancy of this equation with fixed height-to-arm span ratio (HAR for estimation of height. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 6-11 years school children (n=1465, Boys=774, Girls=691 in state of Odisha, India. Height was measured by portable stadiometer and arm span was measured by fiberglass measuring tape to nearest 0.1 cm. Pearson correlation and regression analysis was carried out between height and arm span data. p<0.05 (two tail was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean height and arm span in boys (124.16±8.74 cm and 125.57±10.43 cm respectively was significantly more (p<0.001 than height and arm span in girls (121.18±10.37 cm and 121.50±11.68 cm respectively. Mean HAR was 0.9942±0.0279. Correlation between height and arm span in boys was r = 0.94 (p<0.001 and in girls was r = 0.96 (p<0.001. Overall correlation coefficient was r = 0.95 (p<0.001. Regression equation for estimation of height from arm span was established: Height (cm = 0.8192 * arm span (cm + 21.46. Conclusion: Height in children of 6-11 years showed strong positive correlation with arm span. Regression equation established from this study can be used to estimate height from arm span. This estimation is more reliable than estimation of height from HAR.

  17. Effects of stand density on top height estimation for ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ritchie; Jianwei Zhang; Todd Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    Site index, estimated as a function of dominant-tree height and age, is often used as an expression of site quality. This expression is assumed to be effectively independent of stand density. Observation of dominant height at two different ponderosa pine levels-of-growing-stock studies revealed that top height stability with respect to stand density depends on the...

  18. Object Detection and Tracking-Based Camera Calibration for Normalized Human Height Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized human height estimation algorithm using an uncalibrated camera. To estimate the normalized human height, the proposed algorithm detects a moving object and performs tracking-based automatic camera calibration. The proposed method consists of three steps: (i moving human detection and tracking, (ii automatic camera calibration, and (iii human height estimation and error correction. The proposed method automatically calibrates camera by detecting moving humans and estimates the human height using error correction. The proposed method can be applied to object-based video surveillance systems and digital forensic.

  19. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Celbis, Osman [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Malatya (Turkey); Harma, Ahmet [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya (Turkey); Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya University Health Sciences Institute, Department of Anatomy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 {+-} 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 {+-} 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 {+-} 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 {+-} 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  20. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Celbis, Osman; Harma, Ahmet; Alicioglu, Banu

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 ± 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 ± 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 ± 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 ± 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  1. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height Estimates from Remote Imagery, Zambezi Delta, Mozambique

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides high resolution canopy height estimates for mangrove forests in the Zambezi Delta, Mozambique, Africa. The estimates were derived from three...

  2. Boundary layer height estimation by sodar and sonic anemometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, D; Cava, D; Martano, P; Donateo, A; Grasso, F M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an analysis of different methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH) using sodar and ultrasonic anemometer measurements is presented. All the methods used are based on single point surface measurements. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance, with the calculation of a prognostic model and with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra. Results indicate that in unstable conditions the different methods provide similar pattern, with BLH relatively low, even if the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance is affected by a large scatter that limits its efficiency in evaluating the BLH. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are lower with respect to the ones in unstable conditions. The spectral method, applied to sodar or sonic anemometer data, seems to be the most promising in order to develop an efficient routine for BLH determination

  3. Wood Specific Gravity Variation with Height and Its Implications for Biomass Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; G. Bruce Williamson

    2014-01-01

    Wood specific gravity (SG) is widely employed by ecologists as a key variable in estimates of biomass. When it is important to have nondestructive methods for sampling wood for SG measurements, cores are extracted with an increment borer. While boring is a relatively difficult task even at breast height sampling, it is impossible at ground level and arduous at heights...

  4. Estimating Planetary Boundary Layer Heights from NOAA Profiler Network Wind Profiler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molod, Andrea M.; Salmun, H.; Dempsey, M

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to estimate planetary boundary layer (PBL) heights from hourly archived wind profiler data from the NOAA Profiler Network (NPN) sites located throughout the central United States. Unlike previous studies, the present algorithm has been applied to a long record of publicly available wind profiler signal backscatter data. Under clear conditions, summertime averaged hourly time series of PBL heights compare well with Richardson-number based estimates at the few NPN stations with hourly temperature measurements. Comparisons with clear sky reanalysis based estimates show that the wind profiler PBL heights are lower by approximately 250-500 m. The geographical distribution of daily maximum PBL heights corresponds well with the expected distribution based on patterns of surface temperature and soil moisture. Wind profiler PBL heights were also estimated under mostly cloudy conditions, and are generally higher than both the Richardson number based and reanalysis PBL heights, resulting in a smaller clear-cloudy condition difference. The algorithm presented here was shown to provide a reliable summertime climatology of daytime hourly PBL heights throughout the central United States.

  5. ESTIMATION OF HEIGHT OF EUCALYPTUS TREES WITH NEUROEVOLUTION OF AUGMENTING TOPOLOGIES (NEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the method of neuroevolution of augmenting topologies (NEAT to adjust the weights and the topology of artificial neural networks (ANNs in the estimation of tree height in a clonal population of eucalyptus, and compare with estimates obtained by a hypsometric regression model. To estimate the total tree height (Ht, the RNAs and the regression model, we used as variables a diameter of 1.3 m height (dbh and the dominant height (Hd. The RNAs were adjusted and applied to the computer system NeuroForest, varying the size of the initial population (the genetic algorithm parameter and the density of initial connections. Estimates of the total height of the trees obtained with the use of RNA and the regression model were evaluated based on the correlation coefficient, the percentage of errors scatter plot, the percentage frequency histogram of percentage errors, and the root mean square error (root mean square error - RMSE. Various settings which resulted in superior statistics to the hypsometric regression model were found. Connections had the highest correlation and the lowest RMSE% with a population size value of 300 and an initial density of 0.1 RNA. The NEAT methodology proved effective in estimating the height of trees in clonal population of eucalyptus.

  6. Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joetzjer, E.; Pillet, M.; Ciais, P.; Barbier, N.; Chave, J.; Schlund, M.; Maignan, F.; Barichivich, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Hérault, B.; von Poncet, F.; Poulter, B.

    2017-07-01

    Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.

  7. ESTIMATION OF STAND HEIGHT AND FOREST VOLUME USING HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY AND FOREST TYPE MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha using normalized digital surface model (nDSM from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching. Then, digital terrain model (DTM was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.. Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (% and stand height (m. First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri’s ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service’s FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s–present will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  8. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  9. A stingless bee can use visual odometry to estimate both height and distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckles, M A; Roubik, D W; Nieh, J C

    2012-09-15

    Bees move and forage within three dimensions and rely heavily on vision for navigation. The use of vision-based odometry has been studied extensively in horizontal distance measurement, but not vertical distance measurement. The honey bee Apis mellifera and the stingless bee Melipona seminigra measure distance visually using optic flow-movement of images as they pass across the retina. The honey bees gauge height using image motion in the ventral visual field. The stingless bees forage at different tropical forest canopy levels, ranging up to 40 m at our site. Thus, estimating height would be advantageous. We provide the first evidence that the stingless bee Melipona panamica utilizes optic flow information to gauge not only distance traveled but also height above ground, by processing information primarily from the lateral visual field. After training bees to forage at a set height in a vertical tunnel lined with black and white stripes, we observed foragers that explored a new tunnel with no feeder. In a new tunnel, bees searched at the same height they were trained to. In a narrower tunnel, bees experienced more image motion and significantly lowered their search height. In a wider tunnel, bees experienced less image motion and searched at significantly greater heights. In a tunnel without optic cues, bees were disoriented and searched at random heights. A horizontal tunnel testing these variables similarly affected foraging, but bees exhibited less precision (greater variance in search positions). Accurately gauging flight height above ground may be crucial for this species and others that compete for resources located at heights ranging from ground level to the high tropical forest canopies.

  10. Standing Height and its Estimation Utilizing Foot Length Measurements in Adolescents from Western Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine standing height in both Kosovan genders in the Western Region as well as its association with foot length, as an alternative to estimating standing height. A total of 664 individuals (338 male and 326 female participated in this research. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of ISAK. The relationships between body height and foot length were determined using simple correlation coefficients at a ninety-five percent confidence interval. A comparison of means of standing height and foot length between genders was performed using a t-test. After that a linear regression analysis were carried out to examine extent to which foot length can reliably predict standing height. Results displayed that Western Kosovan male are 179.71±6.00cm tall and have a foot length of 26.73±1.20cm, while Western Kosovan female are 166.26±5.23cm tall and have a foot length of 23.66±1.06cm. The results have shown that both genders made Western-Kosovans a tall group, a little bit taller that general Kosovan population. Moreover, the foot length reliably predicts standing height in both genders; but, not reliably enough as arm span. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo as the results from Western-Kosovans don’t correspond to the general values.

  11. Automated lidar-derived canopy height estimates for the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek, Enrika

    2015-01-01

    Land cover/land use (LCU) classifications serve as important decision support products for researchers and land managers. The LCU classifications produced by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) include canopy height estimates that are assigned through manual aerial photography interpretation techniques. In an effort to improve upon these techniques, this project investigated the use of high-density lidar data for the Upper Mississippi River System to determine canopy height. An ArcGIS tool was developed to automatically derive height modifier information based on the extent of land cover features for forest classes. The measurement of canopy height included a calculation of the average height from lidar point cloud data as well as the inclusion of a local maximum filter to identify individual tree canopies. Results were compared to original manually interpreted height modifiers and to field survey data from U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of utilizing lidar data to more efficiently assign height modifier attributes to LCU classifications produced by the UMESC.

  12. Precise plant height monitoring and biomass estimation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning in paddy rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing crop management is a major topic in the field of precision agriculture as the growing world population puts pressure on the efficiency of field production. Accordingly, methods to measure plant parameters with the needed precision and within-field resolution are required. Studies show that Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a suitable method to capture small objects like crop plants. In this contribution, the results of multi-temporal surveys on paddy rice fields with the TLS system Riegl LMS-Z420i are presented. Three campaigns were carried out during the key vegetative stage of rice plants in the growing period 2012 to monitor the plant height. The TLS-derived point clouds are interpolated to visualize plant height above ground as crop surface models (CSMs with a high resolution of 0.01 m. Spatio-temporal differences within the data of one campaign and between consecutive campaigns can be detected. The results were validated against manually measured plant heights with a high correlation (R2 = 0.71. Furthermore, the dependence of actual biomass from plant height was evaluated. To the present, no method for the non-destructive determination of biomass is found yet. Thus, plant parameters, like the height, have to be used for biomass estimations. The good correlation (R2 = 0.66 leads to the assumption that biomass can be estimated from plant height measurements. The results show that TLS can be considered as a very promising tool for precision agriculture.

  13. High-Resolution Forest Canopy Height Estimation in an African Blue Carbon Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, David; Fatoyinbo, Temilola; Lee, Seung-Kuk; Simard, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove forests are one of the most productive and carbon dense ecosystems that are only found at tidally inundated coastal areas. Forest canopy height is an important measure for modeling carbon and biomass dynamics, as well as land cover change. By taking advantage of the flat terrain and dense canopy cover, the present study derived digital surface models (DSMs) using stereophotogrammetric techniques on high-resolution spaceborne imagery (HRSI) for southern Mozambique. A mean-weighted ground surface elevation factor was subtracted from the HRSI DSM to accurately estimate the canopy height in mangrove forests in southern Mozambique. The mean and H100 tree height measured in both the field and with the digital canopy model provided the most accurate results with a vertical error of 1.18-1.84 m, respectively. Distinct patterns were identified in the HRSI canopy height map that could not be discerned from coarse shuttle radar topography mission canopy maps even though the mode and distribution of canopy heights were similar over the same area. Through further investigation, HRSI DSMs have the potential of providing a new type of three-dimensional dataset that could serve as calibration/validation data for other DSMs generated from spaceborne datasets with much larger global coverage. HSRI DSMs could be used in lieu of Lidar acquisitions for canopy height and forest biomass estimation, and be combined with passive optical data to improve land cover classifications.

  14. Mapping Forest Canopy Height Across Large Areas by Upscaling ALS Estimates with Freely Available Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Wilkes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Operational assessment of forest structure is an on-going challenge for land managers, particularly over large, remote or inaccessible areas. Here, we present an easily adopted method for generating a continuous map of canopy height at a 30 m resolution, demonstrated over 2.9 million hectares of highly heterogeneous forest (canopy height 0–70 m in Victoria, Australia. A two-stage approach was utilized where Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS derived canopy height, captured over ~18% of the study area, was used to train a regression tree ensemble method; random forest. Predictor variables, which have a global coverage and are freely available, included Landsat Thematic Mapper (Tasselled Cap transformed, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data and other ancillary datasets. Reflectance variables were further processed to extract additional spatial and temporal contextual and textural variables. Modeled canopy height was validated following two approaches; (i random sample cross validation; and (ii with 108 inventory plots from outside the ALS capture extent. Both the cross validation and comparison with inventory data indicate canopy height can be estimated with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of ≤ 31% (~5.6 m at the 95th percentile confidence interval. Subtraction of the systematic component of model error, estimated from training data error residuals, rescaled canopy height values to more accurately represent the response variable distribution tails e.g., tall and short forest. Two further experiments were carried out to test the applicability and scalability of the presented method. Results suggest that (a no improvement in canopy height estimation is achieved when models were constructed and validated for smaller geographic areas, suggesting there is no upper limit to model scalability; and (b training data can be captured over a small

  15. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br

    2008-05-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.

  16. A HYBRID METHOD IN VEGETATION HEIGHT ESTIMATION USING POLINSAR IMAGES OF CAMPAIGN BIOSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehnavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been plenty of researches on the retrieval of forest height by PolInSAR data. This paper aims at the evaluation of a hybrid method in vegetation height estimation based on L-band multi-polarized air-borne SAR images. The SAR data used in this paper were collected by the airborne E-SAR system. The objective of this research is firstly to describe each interferometry cross correlation as a sum of contributions corresponding to single bounce, double bounce and volume scattering processes. Then, an ESPIRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques algorithm is implemented, to determine the interferometric phase of each local scatterer (ground and canopy. Secondly, the canopy height is estimated by phase differencing method, according to the RVOG (Random Volume Over Ground concept. The applied model-based decomposition method is unrivaled, as it is not limited to specific type of vegetation, unlike the previous decomposition techniques. In fact, the usage of generalized probability density function based on the nth power of a cosine-squared function, which is characterized by two parameters, makes this method useful for different vegetation types. Experimental results show the efficiency of the approach for vegetation height estimation in the test site.

  17. a Hybrid Method in Vegetation Height Estimation Using Polinsar Images of Campaign Biosar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnavi, S.; Maghsoudi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, there have been plenty of researches on the retrieval of forest height by PolInSAR data. This paper aims at the evaluation of a hybrid method in vegetation height estimation based on L-band multi-polarized air-borne SAR images. The SAR data used in this paper were collected by the airborne E-SAR system. The objective of this research is firstly to describe each interferometry cross correlation as a sum of contributions corresponding to single bounce, double bounce and volume scattering processes. Then, an ESPIRIT (Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Techniques) algorithm is implemented, to determine the interferometric phase of each local scatterer (ground and canopy). Secondly, the canopy height is estimated by phase differencing method, according to the RVOG (Random Volume Over Ground) concept. The applied model-based decomposition method is unrivaled, as it is not limited to specific type of vegetation, unlike the previous decomposition techniques. In fact, the usage of generalized probability density function based on the nth power of a cosine-squared function, which is characterized by two parameters, makes this method useful for different vegetation types. Experimental results show the efficiency of the approach for vegetation height estimation in the test site.

  18. Estimation Of Height Of Oil -Water Contact Above Free Water Level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An estimate of oil-water contact (OWC) and the understanding of the capillary behaviour of hydrocarbon reservoirs are vital for optimum reservoir characterization, hydrocarbon exploration and production. Hence, the height of oil-water contact above free water level for different rock types from some Niger Delta reservoirs ...

  19. Digital baseline estimation method for multi-channel pulse height analyzing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wuyun; Wei Yixiang; Ai Xianyun

    2005-01-01

    The basic features of digital baseline estimation for multi-channel pulse height analysis are introduced. The weight-function of minimum-noise baseline filter is deduced with functional variational calculus. The frequency response of this filter is also deduced with Fourier transformation, and the influence of parameters on amplitude frequency response characteristics is discussed. With MATLAB software, the noise voltage signal from the charge sensitive preamplifier is simulated, and the processing effect of minimum-noise digital baseline estimation is verified. According to the results of this research, digital baseline estimation method can estimate baseline optimally, and it is very suitable to be used in digital multi-channel pulse height analysis. (authors)

  20. Validation of the iPhone app using the force platform to estimate vertical jump height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Vivas, Jorge; Martin-Martinez, Juan P; Hernandez-Mocholi, Miguel A; Perez-Gomez, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Vertical jump performance has been evaluated with several devices: force platforms, contact mats, Vertec, accelerometers, infrared cameras and high-velocity cameras; however, the force platform is considered the gold standard for measuring vertical jump height. The purpose of this study was to validate an iPhone app called My Jump, that measures vertical jump height by comparing it with other methods that use the force platform to estimate vertical jump height, namely, vertical velocity at take-off and time in the air. A total of 40 sport sciences students (age 21.4±1.9 years) completed five countermovement jumps (CMJs) over a force platform. Thus, 200 CMJ heights were evaluated from the vertical velocity at take-off and the time in the air using the force platform, and from the time in the air with the My Jump mobile application. The height obtained was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Correlation between APP and force platform using the time in the air was perfect (ICC=1.000, PJump, is an appropriate method to evaluate the vertical jump performance; however, vertical jump height is slightly overestimated compared with that of the force platform.

  1. Height and Weight Estimation From Anthropometric Measurements Using Machine Learning Regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rativa, Diego; Fernandes, Bruno J T; Roque, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    Height and weight are measurements explored to tracking nutritional diseases, energy expenditure, clinical conditions, drug dosages, and infusion rates. Many patients are not ambulant or may be unable to communicate, and a sequence of these factors may not allow accurate estimation or measurements; in those cases, it can be estimated approximately by anthropometric means. Different groups have proposed different linear or non-linear equations which coefficients are obtained by using single or multiple linear regressions. In this paper, we present a complete study of the application of different learning models to estimate height and weight from anthropometric measurements: support vector regression, Gaussian process, and artificial neural networks. The predicted values are significantly more accurate than that obtained with conventional linear regressions. In all the cases, the predictions are non-sensitive to ethnicity, and to gender, if more than two anthropometric parameters are analyzed. The learning model analysis creates new opportunities for anthropometric applications in industry, textile technology, security, and health care.

  2. Poppy Crop Height and Capsule Volume Estimation from a Single UAS Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate poppy plant height and capsule volume with remote sensing using an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS. Data were obtained from field measurements and UAS flights over two poppy crops at Cambridge and Cressy in Tasmania. Imagery acquired from the UAS was used to produce dense point clouds using structure from motion (SfM and multi-view stereopsis (MVS techniques. Dense point clouds were used to generate a digital surface model (DSM and orthophoto mosaic. An RGB index was derived from the orthophoto to extract the bare ground spaces. This bare ground space mask was used to filter the points on the ground, and a digital terrain model (DTM was interpolated from these points. Plant height values were estimated by subtracting the DSM and DTM to generate a Crop Height Model (CHM. UAS-derived plant height (PH and field measured PH in Cambridge were strongly correlated with R2 values ranging from 0.93 to 0.97 for Transect 1 and Transect 2, respectively, while at Cressy results from a single flight provided R2 of 0.97. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered an important step towards crop surface model (CSM generation from a single UAS flight in situations where a bare ground DTM is unavailable. High correlations were found between UAS-derived PH and poppy capsule volume (CV at capsule formation stage (R2 0.74, with relative error of 19.62%. Results illustrate that plant height can be reliably estimated for poppy crops based on a single UAS flight and can be used to predict opium capsule volume at capsule formation stage.

  3. Influence of micro-topography and crown characteristics on tree height estimations in tropical forests based on LiDAR canopy height models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Cici; Korstjens, Amanda H.; Hill, Ross A.

    2018-03-01

    Tree or canopy height is an important attribute for carbon stock estimation, forest management and habitat quality assessment. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) based on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has advantages over other remote sensing techniques for describing the structure of forests. However, sloped terrain can be challenging for accurate estimation of tree locations and heights based on a Canopy Height Model (CHM) generated from ALS data; a CHM is a height-normalised Digital Surface Model (DSM) obtained by subtracting a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from a DSM. On sloped terrain, points at the same elevation on a tree crown appear to increase in height in the downhill direction, based on the ground elevations at these points. A point will be incorrectly identified as the treetop by individual tree crown (ITC) recognition algorithms if its height is greater than that of the actual treetop in the CHM, which will be recorded as the tree height. In this study, the influence of terrain slope and crown characteristics on the detection of treetops and estimation of tree heights is assessed using ALS data in a tropical forest with complex terrain (i.e. micro-topography) and tree crown characteristics. Locations and heights of 11,442 trees based on a DSM are compared with those based on a CHM. The horizontal (DH) and vertical displacements (DV) increase with terrain slope (r = 0.47 and r = 0.54 respectively, p tree height are up to 16.6 m on slopes greater than 50° in our study area in Sumatra. The errors in locations (DH) and tree heights (DV) are modelled for trees with conical and spherical tree crowns. For a spherical tree crown, DH can be modelled as R sin θ, and DV as R (sec θ - 1). In this study, a model is developed for an idealised conical tree crown, DV = R (tan θ - tan ψ), where R is the crown radius, and θ and ψ are terrain and crown angles respectively. It is shown that errors occur only when terrain angle exceeds the crown angle, with the

  4. Investigation of the Capability of Compact Polarimetric SAR Interferometry to Estimate Forest Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Xie, Lei; Wang, Chao; Chen, Jiehong

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of compact Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (C-PolInSAR) on forest height estimation. For this, the pseudo fully polarimetric interferomteric (F-PolInSAR) covariance matrix is firstly reconstructed, then the three- stage inversion algorithm, hybrid algorithm, Music and Capon algorithm are applied to both C-PolInSAR covariance matrix and pseudo F-PolInSAR covariance matrix. The availability of forest height estimation is demonstrated using L-band data generated by simulator PolSARProSim and X-band airborne data acquired by East China Research Institute of Electronic Engineering, China Electronics Technology Group Corporation.

  5. Estimation of Airborne Lidar-Derived Tropical Forest Canopy Height Using Landsat Time Series in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Ota

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we test and demonstrate the utility of disturbance and recovery information derived from annual Landsat time series to predict current forest vertical structure (as compared to the more common approaches, that consider a sample of airborne Lidar and single-date Landsat derived variables. Mean Canopy Height (MCH was estimated separately using single date, time series, and the combination of single date and time series variables in multiple regression and random forest (RF models. The combination of single date and time series variables, which integrate disturbance history over the entire time series, overall provided better MCH prediction than using either of the two sets of variables separately. In general, the RF models resulted in improved performance in all estimates over those using multiple regression. The lowest validation error was obtained using Landsat time series variables in a RF model (R2 = 0.75 and RMSE = 2.81 m. Combining single date and time series data was more effective when the RF model was used (opposed to multiple regression. The RMSE for RF mean canopy height prediction was reduced by 13.5% when combining the two sets of variables as compared to the 3.6% RMSE decline presented by multiple regression. This study demonstrates the value of airborne Lidar and long term Landsat observations to generate estimates of forest canopy height using the random forest algorithm.

  6. A method to estimate the height of temperature inversion layer and the effective mixing depht

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, D.

    1978-05-01

    A review of the concept PBL or turbulent boundary layer is made as it is understood in meteorology. Some features of the PBL parameterization are also discussed, as well as the methods used to estimate the temperature inversion heights during morning and afternoon hours. The study bases on the assumption of the dry adiabatic lapse rate in the mixing layer that is, water vapor and airborne material are supposed to be homogeneously mixed below the inversion layer or in the effective mixing depth. The mean mixing heights over Rio de Janeiro area respectively about 500m and 1000m at morning and afternoon hours. For Sao Paulo these values are respectively 400m and 1300m at morning and afternoon hours [pt

  7. Magnetic anomaly depth and structural index estimation using different height analytic signals data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Huang, Danian; Su, Chao

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new semi-automatic inversion method for magnetic anomaly data interpretation that uses the combination of analytic signals of the anomaly at different heights to determine the depth and the structural index N of the sources. The new method utilizes analytic signals of the original anomaly at different height to effectively suppress the noise contained in the anomaly. Compared with the other high-order derivative calculation methods based on analytic signals, our method only computes first-order derivatives of the anomaly, which can be used to obtain more stable and accurate results. Tests on synthetic noise-free and noise-corrupted magnetic data indicate that the new method can estimate the depth and N efficiently. The technique is applied to a real measured magnetic anomaly in Southern Illinois caused by a known dike, and the result is in agreement with the drilling information and inversion results within acceptable calculation error.

  8. Effects of LiDAR point density, sampling size and height threshold on estimation accuracy of crop biophysical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shezhou; Chen, Jing M; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Zeng, Hongcheng; Peng, Dailiang; Li, Dong

    2016-05-30

    Vegetation leaf area index (LAI), height, and aboveground biomass are key biophysical parameters. Corn is an important and globally distributed crop, and reliable estimations of these parameters are essential for corn yield forecasting, health monitoring and ecosystem modeling. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is considered an effective technology for estimating vegetation biophysical parameters. However, the estimation accuracies of these parameters are affected by multiple factors. In this study, we first estimated corn LAI, height and biomass (R2 = 0.80, 0.874 and 0.838, respectively) using the original LiDAR data (7.32 points/m2), and the results showed that LiDAR data could accurately estimate these biophysical parameters. Second, comprehensive research was conducted on the effects of LiDAR point density, sampling size and height threshold on the estimation accuracy of LAI, height and biomass. Our findings indicated that LiDAR point density had an important effect on the estimation accuracy for vegetation biophysical parameters, however, high point density did not always produce highly accurate estimates, and reduced point density could deliver reasonable estimation results. Furthermore, the results showed that sampling size and height threshold were additional key factors that affect the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Therefore, the optimal sampling size and the height threshold should be determined to improve the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Our results also implied that a higher LiDAR point density, larger sampling size and height threshold were required to obtain accurate corn LAI estimation when compared with height and biomass estimations. In general, our results provide valuable guidance for LiDAR data acquisition and estimation of vegetation biophysical parameters using LiDAR data.

  9. Estimation of seasonal atmospheric stability and mixing height by using different schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essa, K.S.M.; Embaby, M.; Mubarak, F.; Kamel, I.

    2007-01-01

    Different atmospheric stability schemes were used to characterize the plume growth (dispersion coefficients σ) in the lateral and vertical directions to determine the concentration distribution of pollutants through the PBL. The PBL is the region in which surface friction has a large effect on the mixing of pollutants. It is also suffer large fluctuation in temperature and wind and its depth (mixing depth) changes over a diurnal cycle. In this study, four months of surface meteorological parameters were used (to represent different seasons) to determine seasonal stability, classification. Five different stability schemes were estimated based on temperature gradient, standard deviation of the horizontal wind direction fluctuation, gradient and Bulk Richardson numbers and Monin-Obukhov length. Friction velocity, (u * ) for each stability scheme was estimated for characterizing the hourly, mixing height for each stability class. Also, plume rise was estimated for each stability class depending on the availability of meteorological parameters

  10. Estimating Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH from Digital Surface Models and Orthophotos Obtained with an Unmanned Aerial System for a Japanese Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Iizuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for accurately measuring biophysical parameters are a key component for quantitative evaluation regarding to various forest applications. Conventional in situ measurements of these parameters take time and expense, encountering difficultness at locations with heterogeneous microtopography. To obtain precise biophysical data in such situations, we deployed an unmanned aerial system (UAS multirotor drone in a cypress forest in a mountainous area of Japan. The structure from motion (SfM method was used to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the forest (tree structures from aerial photos. Tree height was estimated from the 3D model and compared to in situ ground data. We also analyzed the relationships between a biophysical parameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, of individual trees with canopy width and area measured from orthorectified images. Despite the constraints of ground exposure in a highly dense forest area, tree height was estimated at an accuracy of root mean square error = 1.712 m for observed tree heights ranging from 16 to 24 m. DBH was highly correlated with canopy width (R2 = 0.7786 and canopy area (R2 = 0.7923, where DBH ranged from 11 to 58 cm. The results of estimating forest parameters indicate that drone-based remote-sensing methods can be utilized to accurately analyze the spatial extent of forest structures.

  11. An Improved Iterative Fitting Method to Estimate Nocturnal Residual Layer Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The planetary boundary layer (PBL is an atmospheric region near the Earth’s surface. It is significant for weather forecasting and for the study of air quality and climate. In this study, the top of nocturnal residual layers—which are what remain of the daytime mixing layer—are estimated by an elastic backscatter Lidar in Wuhan (30.5°N, 114.4°E, a city in Central China. The ideal profile fitting method is widely applied to determine the nocturnal residual layer height (RLH from Lidar data. However, the method is seriously affected by an optical thick layer. Thus, we propose an improved iterative fitting method to eliminate the optical thick layer effect on RLH detection using Lidar. Two typical case studies observed by elastic Lidar are presented to demonstrate the theory and advantage of the proposed method. Results of case analysis indicate that the improved method is more practical and precise than profile-fitting, gradient, and wavelet covariance transform method in terms of nocturnal RLH evaluation under low cloud conditions. Long-term observations of RLH performed with ideal profile fitting and improved methods were carried out in Wuhan from 28 May 2011 to 17 June 2016. Comparisons of Lidar-derived RLHs with the two types of methods verify that the improved solution is practical. Statistical analysis of a six-year Lidar signal was conducted to reveal the monthly average values of nocturnal RLH in Wuhan. A clear RLH monthly cycle with a maximum mean height of about 1.8 km above ground level was observed in August, and a minimum height of about 0.7 km was observed in January. The variation in monthly mean RLH displays an obvious quarterly dependence, which coincides with the annual variation in local surface temperature.

  12. Estimation of the mixing height in Casablanca from parametrisations of surface data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtos Carbonell, Leonor; Sanchez Gacita, Madeleine; Roque Rodriguez, Alfredo; Soltura Morales, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    The mixing height constitutes a basic parameter in the dispersion modelling of atmospheric pollutants inasmuch as it is the lower zone of the atmosphere where the turbulent transport of mass and energy mainly takes place and where the pollutants are transferred and interact among themselves. For the calculation of the mixing layer there are several methodologies that could be used depending of the available data, some of which are extremely simple and others much more complex. The most complex ones require the measurement of different meteorological variables in the upper atmosphere (upper air sounding). This work presents the methodologies used in the 'Integrated system for the evaluation of environmental impact of energy facilities' developed by the Information Management and Energy Development Centre (CUBAENERGIA) for the estimation of this parameter, making emphasis on the parametrisation of surface data for being a novel alternative in the country and because generally upper air data is not available so as to allow the use of other methods

  13. A novel method of basal crevasse height estimation and subsequent rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, L.; Catania, G. A.; Lavier, L. L.; Choi, E.

    2012-12-01

    Basal crevasses may play an important precursory role in the location and propagation of rifts and in ice shelf disintegration. Here we develop a novel method for estimating the locations and heights of basal crevasses formed at the grounding line of ice shelves and ice streams. We assume a thin-elastic beam formulation (TEB) with a tensional plastic yielding criterion to capture the physics of a tidally flexed grounding line. Observations of basal crevasses in the Siple Coast area match well with predictions produced by this method. Areas with large misfit can be delineated by examining the strain rate field; indeed, in our estimations those crevasses which deviate most from the TEB prediction lie directly in a shear margin. We test the method against other areas in the Larsen Ice Shelf, and find again a good match. Thus we suggest the TEB as an alternative to other crevasse estimation methods, as it produces a good fit in predominantly tensile regions, requires no tuning or prior information, and is computationally free to implement into large scale ice models which aim at physically simulating calving and fracture processes. We pursue modeling basal crevasses as they evolve with a thermomechanical finite-difference 3-dimensional model called SNAC. Viscoelastoplastic ice follows Mohr-Coulomb tension failure with Glen's flow law. We examine the conditions necessary for a basal crevasse formed on the downstream side of an ice rise to propagate the full thickness of the ice, developing into a rift.

  14. Vertical Jump Height Estimation Algorithm Based on Takeoff and Landing Identification Via Foot-Worn Inertial Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianren; Xu, Junkai; Shull, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Vertical jump height is widely used for assessing motor development, functional ability, and motor capacity. Traditional methods for estimating vertical jump height rely on force plates or optical marker-based motion capture systems limiting assessment to people with access to specialized laboratories. Current wearable designs need to be attached to the skin or strapped to an appendage which can potentially be uncomfortable and inconvenient to use. This paper presents a novel algorithm for estimating vertical jump height based on foot-worn inertial sensors. Twenty healthy subjects performed countermovement jumping trials and maximum jump height was determined via inertial sensors located above the toe and under the heel and was compared with the gold standard maximum jump height estimation via optical marker-based motion capture. Average vertical jump height estimation errors from inertial sensing at the toe and heel were -2.2±2.1 cm and -0.4±3.8 cm, respectively. Vertical jump height estimation with the presented algorithm via inertial sensing showed excellent reliability at the toe (ICC(2,1)=0.98) and heel (ICC(2,1)=0.97). There was no significant bias in the inertial sensing at the toe, but proportional bias (b=1.22) and fixed bias (a=-10.23cm) were detected in inertial sensing at the heel. These results indicate that the presented algorithm could be applied to foot-worn inertial sensors to estimate maximum jump height enabling assessment outside of traditional laboratory settings, and to avoid bias errors, the toe may be a more suitable location for inertial sensor placement than the heel.

  15. On the estimation of physical height changes using GRACE satellite mission data – A case study of Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godah Walyeldeen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dedicated gravity satellite missions, in particular the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission launched in 2002, provide unique data for studying temporal variations of mass distribution in the Earth’s system, and thereby, the geometry and the gravity fi eld changes of the Earth. The main objective of this contribution is to estimate physical height (e.g. the orthometric/normal height changes over Central Europe using GRACE satellite mission data as well as to analyse them and model over the selected study area. Physical height changes were estimated from temporal variations of height anomalies and vertical displacements of the Earth surface being determined over the investigated area. The release 5 (RL05 GRACE-based global geopotential models as well as load Love numbers from the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM were used as input data. Analysis of the estimated physical height changes and their modelling were performed using two methods: the seasonal decomposition method and the PCA/ EOF (Principal Component Analysis/Empirical Orthogonal Function method and the differences obtained were discussed. The main fi ndings reveal that physical height changes over the selected study area reach up to 22.8 mm. The obtained physical height changes can be modelled with an accuracy of 1.4 mm using the seasonal decomposition method.

  16. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  17. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  18. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Plant Height: Comparing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Ground LiDAR Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madec, Simon; Baret, Fred; de Solan, Benoît; Thomas, Samuel; Dutartre, Dan; Jezequel, Stéphane; Hemmerlé, Matthieu; Colombeau, Gallian; Comar, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The capacity of LiDAR and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to provide plant height estimates as a high-throughput plant phenotyping trait was explored. An experiment over wheat genotypes conducted under well watered and water stress modalities was conducted. Frequent LiDAR measurements were performed along the growth cycle using a phénomobile unmanned ground vehicle. UAV equipped with a high resolution RGB camera was flying the experiment several times to retrieve the digital surface model from structure from motion techniques. Both techniques provide a 3D dense point cloud from which the plant height can be estimated. Plant height first defined as the z -value for which 99.5% of the points of the dense cloud are below. This provides good consistency with manual measurements of plant height (RMSE = 3.5 cm) while minimizing the variability along each microplot. Results show that LiDAR and structure from motion plant height values are always consistent. However, a slight under-estimation is observed for structure from motion techniques, in relation with the coarser spatial resolution of UAV imagery and the limited penetration capacity of structure from motion as compared to LiDAR. Very high heritability values ( H 2 > 0.90) were found for both techniques when lodging was not present. The dynamics of plant height shows that it carries pertinent information regarding the period and magnitude of the plant stress. Further, the date when the maximum plant height is reached was found to be very heritable ( H 2 > 0.88) and a good proxy of the flowering stage. Finally, the capacity of plant height as a proxy for total above ground biomass and yield is discussed.

  19. Observation-based estimation of aerosol-induced reduction of planetary boundary layer height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Sun, Jianning; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Minghuai; Guo, Weidong; Fu, Congbin

    2017-09-01

    Radiative aerosols are known to influence the surface energy budget and hence the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. In this study, we develop a method to estimate the aerosol-induced reduction in the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) based on two years of ground-based measurements at a site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), at Nanjing University, China, and radiosonde data from the meteorological station of Nanjing. The observations show that increased aerosol loads lead to a mean decrease of 67.1 W m-2 for downward shortwave radiation (DSR) and a mean increase of 19.2 W m-2 for downward longwave radiation (DLR), as well as a mean decrease of 9.6 Wm-2 for the surface sensible heat flux (SHF) in the daytime. The relative variations of DSR, DLR and SHF are shown as a function of the increment of column mass concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5). High aerosol loading can significantly increase the atmospheric stability in the planetary boundary layer during both daytime and nighttime. Based on the statistical relationship between SHF and PM2.5 column mass concentrations, the SHF under clean atmospheric conditions (same as the background days) is derived. In this case, the derived SHF, together with observed SHF, are then used to estimate changes in the PBLH related to aerosols. Our results suggest that the PBLH decreases more rapidly with increasing aerosol loading at high aerosol loading. When the daytime mean column mass concentration of PM2.5 reaches 200 mg m-2, the decrease in the PBLH at 1600 LST (local standard time) is about 450 m.

  20. Empirical Guidelines for Use of Irregular Wave Model to Estimate Nearshore Wave Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    height, the easier to use tech- nique presented by McClenan (1975) was employed. The McClenan technique uti- lizes a monogram which was constructed from...the SPM equations and gives the same results. The inputs to the monogram technique are the period, the deep- water wave height, the deepwater wave

  1. BODY HEIGHT AND ITS ESTIMATION UTILIZING ARM SPAN MEASUREMENTS IN FEMALE ADOLESCENTS FROM CENTRAL REGION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bubanja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago (Popovic et al, 2013. As the modern Montenegrins fall partly into the Dinaric racial classification (Bjelica et al., 2012, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin female adolescents from central region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Method: Our investigation analyses 593 female adolescents from the central region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. Results: The results displayed that female Central-Montenegrins are 169.24±11.61cm tall and have an arm span of 168.03±10.34cm. Discussion: Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Central-Macedonians the tall population, taller than general female population in Montenegro (Bjelica et al., 2012. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Central-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was shorter than the body heights (1.21±1.27 centimetres, much more than in general population (Bjelica et al., 2012. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  2. BODY HEIGHT AND ITS ESTIMATION UTILIZING ARM SPAN MEASUREMENTS IN MALE ADOLESCENTS FROM CENTRAL REGION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrislav Vujović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago (Popovic et al, 2013. As the modern Montenegrins fall partly into the Dinaric racial classification (Bjelica et al., 2012, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from central region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Method: Our investigation analyses 548 male adolescents from the central region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. Results: The results displayed that male Central-Montenegrins are 183.66±6.93 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.99±8.30cm. Discussion: Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Central-Macedonians the tall population, taller than general male population in Montenegro (Bjelica et al., 2012. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Central-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (1.33±1.37 centimetres, more than in general population (Bjelica et al., 2012. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  3. Estimation of sea surface wave height from Bhaskara II SAMIR data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.V.; Viswambharan, N.K.; Rao, L.V.G.

    from R V Gaveshani and visual observations from other ships as reported in IDWR) are available. Using this, an attempt has been made to obtain an empirical relation between brightness temperature and significant wave height. Linear correlation between...

  4. Estimation of design wave heights based on exterme value statistics for Kakinada coast, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Raju, N.S.N.

    Statistical analyses for longterm distribution of significant wave heights were performed using Lognormal, Weibull, Gumbel and Fretcher distributions for waves measured off Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India from June 1983 to May 1984. Fretcher...

  5. Estimating fog-top height through near-surface micrometeorological measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Román Cascón, Carlos; Yagüe Anguis, Carlos; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon Ander; Maqueda Burgos, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Fog-top height (fog thickness) is very useful information for aircraft maneuvers, data assimilation/validation of Numerical Weather Prediction models or nowcasting of fog dissipation. This variable is usually difficult to determine, since the fog-layer top cannot be observed from the surface. In some cases, satellite data, ground remote sensing instruments or atmospheric soundings are used to provide approximations of fog-top height. These instruments are expensive and their data not always a...

  6. Biomass estimation as a function of vertical forest structure and forest height: potential and limitations for radar remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Torano Caicoya, Astor; Kugler, Florian; Papathanassiou, Kostas; Biber, Peter; Pretzsch, Hans

    2010-01-01

    One common method to estimate biomass is measuring forest height and applying allometric equations to get forest biomass. Conditions like changing forest density or changing forest structure bias the allometric relations or biomass estimation fails completely. Remote sensing systems like SAR or LIDAR allow to measure vertical structure of forests. In this paper it is investigated whether vertical structure is sensitive to biomass. For this purpose vertical biomass profiles were calculated usi...

  7. Body Height and its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Male Adolescents from Southern Region in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from southern region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Our investigation analyses 87 male adolescents from the southern region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results displayed that male Southern-Montenegrins are 182.53±7.53 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.55±9.03 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Southern- Montenegrins the tall population, taller than most of nation around the Europe. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Southern-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (2.03±1.50 cm, more than in general population. Hence, this study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  8. Wave Height Estimation from Shadowing Based on the Acquired X-Band Marine Radar Images in Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the retrieving significant wave height from X-band marine radar images based on shadow statistics is investigated, since the retrieving accuracy can not be seriously affected by environmental factors and the method has the advantage of without any external reference to calibrate. However, the accuracy of the significant wave height estimated from the radar image acquired at the near-shore area is not ideal. To solve this problem, the effect of water depth is considered in the theoretical derivation of estimated wave height based on the sea surface slope. And then, an improved retrieving algorithm which is suitable for both in deep water area and shallow water area is developed. In addition, the radar data are sparsely processed in advance in order to achieve high quality edge image for the requirement of shadow statistic algorithm, since the high resolution radar images will lead to angle-blurred for the image edge detection and time-consuming in the estimation of sea surface slope. The data acquired from Pingtan Test Base in Fujian Province were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the improved method which takes into account the water depth is more efficient and effective and has better performance for retrieving significant wave height in the shallow water area, compared to the in situ buoy data as the ground truth and that of the existing shadow statistic method.

  9. Estimation of Biomass and Canopy Height in Bermudagrass, Alfalfa, and Wheat Using Ultrasonic, Laser, and Spectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Joshua Pittman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick and the traditional harvest method (clipping. Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha−1, respectively, except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass < 0.79 t·ha−1 and greatest measured biomass (average percent error of 18% for harvester and quad harvested biomass >6.4 t·ha−1. These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation.

  10. Some aspects of estimation of mixing height using vertical sodar records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczewski, J. [Inst. for Meteorology and Water Management, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The changes of the vertical range of sodar, depending on technical parameters, were illustrated by resulting changes of the height distribution of convective and elevated layers echoes. The extent of the difference`s in vertical range may be compartively large. In analyzed case, the maximal heights of convective plumes recorded at the same site with use of 3 types of sodar, were like 1:1.35:1.96. The relations of mean centers of gravity of frequency distributions were like 1:1.4:2.4. (au)

  11. Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements of both Gender Adolescents from Central Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Arifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on measurements of Central region Kosovar adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the Body Height of adolescents from Central region as well relationship between arm span and Body Height in both Kosovar genders. A total measured subject participated in this research was 193 out of which (93 girls and 100 boys, females average of age is 18.15±0.35 years old (range 18-20 years and for male 18.26±0.44 years old (range 18-20 years. The anthropometric measurements were done by trained people and were taken according to the ISAK manual. Relationship between Body Height and arm span has been analyzed by the simple correlation coefficient at a 95% confidence interval. The linear regression analysis was carried out to examine extent to which arm span can reliably predict of Body Height. Statistical importance was placed at level p<0.05. As a result anthropometric measurements for both sexes showed that the average of Body Height for boys adolescents from Central region are 180.62±5.88 centimeters and have the arm span average of 181.36±7.08 centimeters, while girls from Central 166.77±4.71 centimeters tall, and have the arm span average of 167.08±5.03 centimeters. The results have shown that the arm span was estimated as a reliable indicator of Body Height assessment to the both genders adolescents from Central region of Kosovo population. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo.

  12. A Middle-School Classroom Inquiry: Estimating the Height of a Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Brown, Natalie; Wright, Suzie; Skalicky, Jane

    2011-01-01

    There is an old saying that "there is more than one way to skin a cat." Such is the case with finding the height of tall objects, a task that people have been approximating for centuries. Following an article in the "Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom" (APMC) with methods appropriate for primary students (Brown, Watson,…

  13. Estimating fog-top height through near-surface micrometeorological measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Román-Cascón, Carlos; Yagüe, Carlos; Steeneveld, Gert Jan; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon Ander; Maqueda, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Fog-top height (fog thickness) is very useful information for aircraft maneuvers, data assimilation/validation of Numerical Weather Prediction models or nowcasting of fog dissipation. This variable is usually difficult to determine, since the fog-layer top cannot be observed from the surface. In

  14. Estimation of heritability and genetic gain in height growth in Ceiba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is relatively inefficient information available on the heritability and genetic gain in height growth in C. pentandra based on which selection and subsequent breeding could be made. This poses a major challenge to the production of new cultivars for the forestry industry of Ghana. The current study looked at ...

  15. Estimating Neonatal Mortality Rates from the Heights of Children: The Case of American Slaves

    OpenAIRE

    Richard H. Steckel

    1985-01-01

    Underenumeration of vital events is a problem familiar topeople who work with historical demographic records. This paper proposes a method for recovering information about neonatal mortality.The approach utilizes average heights of young children to predict the birth weight of American slaves. The results suggest that slave newborns weighed on average about 5.1 pounds, which places them among the poorest populations of developing countries in the mid-twentieth century. The birth weight distri...

  16. Assessment of mixed-layer height estimation from single-wavelength ceilometer profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Knepp

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Differing boundary/mixed-layer height measurement methods were assessed in moderately polluted and clean environments, with a focus on the Vaisala CL51 ceilometer. This intercomparison was performed as part of ongoing measurements at the Chemistry And Physics of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE site in Hampton, Virginia and during the 2014 Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ field campaign that took place in and around Denver, Colorado. We analyzed CL51 data that were collected via two different methods (BLView software, which applied correction factors, and simple terminal emulation logging to determine the impact of data collection methodology. Further, we evaluated the STRucture of the ATmosphere (STRAT algorithm as an open-source alternative to BLView (note that the current work presents an evaluation of the BLView and STRAT algorithms and does not intend to act as a validation of either. Filtering criteria were defined according to the change in mixed-layer height (MLH distributions for each instrument and algorithm and were applied throughout the analysis to remove high-frequency fluctuations from the MLH retrievals. Of primary interest was determining how the different data-collection methodologies and algorithms compare to each other and to radiosonde-derived boundary-layer heights when deployed as part of a larger instrument network. We determined that data-collection methodology is not as important as the processing algorithm and that much of the algorithm differences might be driven by impacts of local meteorology and precipitation events that pose algorithm difficulties. The results of this study show that a common processing algorithm is necessary for light detection and ranging (lidar-based MLH intercomparisons and ceilometer-network operation, and that sonde-derived boundary layer heights are higher (10–15 % at

  17. Kalman filter data assimilation: targeting observations and parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellsky, Thomas; Kostelich, Eric J; Mahalov, Alex

    2014-06-01

    This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting observations within the Kalman filter for a linear model can significantly reduce state estimation error as opposed to fixed or randomly located observations. We next conduct observing system simulation experiments for a chaotic model of meteorological interest, where we demonstrate that the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with targeted observations based on largest ensemble variance is skillful in providing more accurate state estimates than the LETKF with randomly located observations. Additionally, we find that a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter parameter estimation method accurately updates model parameters within the targeted observation context to further improve state estimation.

  18. Kalman filter data assimilation: Targeting observations and parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellsky, Thomas; Kostelich, Eric J.; Mahalov, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting observations within the Kalman filter for a linear model can significantly reduce state estimation error as opposed to fixed or randomly located observations. We next conduct observing system simulation experiments for a chaotic model of meteorological interest, where we demonstrate that the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with targeted observations based on largest ensemble variance is skillful in providing more accurate state estimates than the LETKF with randomly located observations. Additionally, we find that a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter parameter estimation method accurately updates model parameters within the targeted observation context to further improve state estimation

  19. Intercomparison of methods for the estimation of displacement height and roughness length from single-level eddy covariance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Alexander; van de Boer, Anneke; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Moene, Arnold; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    The displacement height d and roughness length z0 are parameters of the logarithmic wind profile and as such these are characteristics of the surface, that are required in a multitude of meteorological modeling applications. Classically, both parameters are estimated from multi-level measurements of wind speed over a terrain sufficiently homogeneous to avoid footprint-induced differences between the levels. As a rule-of thumb, d of a dense, uniform crop or forest canopy is 2/3 to 3/4 of the canopy height h, and z0 about 10% of canopy height in absence of any d. However, the uncertainty of this rule-of-thumb becomes larger if the surface of interest is not "dense and uniform", in which case a site-specific determination is required again. By means of the eddy covariance method, alternative possibilities to determine z0 and d have become available. Various authors report robust results if either several levels of sonic anemometer measurements, or one such level combined with a classic wind profile is used to introduce direct knowledge on the friction velocity into the estimation procedure. At the same time, however, the eddy covariance method to measure various fluxes has superseded the profile method, leaving many current stations without a wind speed profile with enough levels sufficiently far above the canopy to enable the classic estimation of z0 and d. From single-level eddy covariance measurements at one point in time, only one parameter can be estimated, usually z0 while d is assumed to be known. Even so, results tend to scatter considerably. However, it has been pointed out, that the use of multiple points in time providing different stability conditions can enable the estimation of both parameters, if they are assumed constant over the time period regarded. These methods either rely on flux-variance similarity (Weaver 1990 and others following), or on the integrated universal function for momentum (Martano 2000 and others following). In both cases

  20. Extraction and height estimation of artificial vertical structures based on the wrapped interferometric phase difference within their layovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Jyunpei; Nadai, Akitsugu; Kojima, Shoichiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuharu; Umehara, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Uratsuka, Seiho; Satake, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    The geometric modulation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery such as radar shadow, foreshortening, and layover often complicates image interpretation while it contains useful information about targets. Recently, some methods for automatic building detection utilizing a peculiar pattern of phase differences (PDs) within building layovers on SAR interferograms have been proposed. One of the merits of these methods is the capability to detect buildings even taller than the height of ambiguity without incorporating any external data. In this paper, we propose a new method that has achieved the following improvements while maintaining the merit mentioned above. The first improvement is freedom from the dependence of target heights; without changing any parameters and thresholds, the proposed method can detect low-rise apartments to skyscrapers. The second one is the prevention of the false grouping of vertical structure constituents by considering relationships between their PDs. In addition, the method can measure the height of vertical structures without assuming their shape to be simple ones such as a parallelogram. These improvements have been verified by applying the method to real datasets acquired from an airborne X-band SAR. The quantitative assessment for apartment complexes has demonstrated the high performance of the method; the correctness and completeness are 94% and 83%, respectively. The mean error in the measured height is -0.2 m, while the standard deviation is 1.8 m. The verification using real datasets has revealed at the same time that the performance of the method can be degraded due to the crowdedness in dense urban areas including skyscrapers and owing to the poor discriminability between artificial vertical structures and trees. Overcoming these limitations is necessary in future studies.

  1. Low Complexity Parameter Estimation For Off-the-Grid Targets

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, a derived cost function is usually evaluated and optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms

  2. Low Complexity Parameter Estimation For Off-the-Grid Targets

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2015-10-05

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to estimate the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, a derived cost function is usually evaluated and optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the size of the grid: increasing the number of points will enhance the resolution of the algorithm but exponentially increase its complexity. In this work, to estimate the parameters of a target, a reduced complexity super resolution algorithm is proposed. For off-the-grid targets, it uses a low order two dimensional fast Fourier transform to determine a suboptimal solution and then an iterative algorithm to jointly estimate the spatial location and Doppler shift. Simulation results show that the mean square estimation error of the proposed estimators achieve the Cram\\'er-Rao lower bound. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  4. Forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using general model-based decomposition for polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nghia Pham; Zou, Bin; Cai, Hongjun; Wang, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of forest parameters over mountain forest areas using polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PolInSAR) images is one of the greatest interests in remote sensing applications. For mountain forest areas, scattering mechanisms are strongly affected by the ground topography variations. Most of the previous studies in modeling microwave backscattering signatures of forest area have been carried out over relatively flat areas. Therefore, a new algorithm for the forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using the general model-based decomposition (GMBD) for PolInSAR image is proposed. This algorithm enables the retrieval of not only the forest parameters, but also the magnitude associated with each mechanism. In addition, general double- and single-bounce scattering models are proposed to fit for the cross-polarization and off-diagonal term by separating their independent orientation angle, which remains unachieved in the previous model-based decompositions. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated with simulated data from PolSARProSim software and ALOS-PALSAR spaceborne PolInSAR datasets over the Kalimantan areas, Indonesia. Experimental results indicate that forest height could be effectively estimated by GMBD.

  5. Estimating the Ocean Flow Field from Combined Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Surface Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This project was part of a previous grant at MIT that was moved over to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) together with the principal investigator. The final report provided here is concerned only with the work performed at SIO since January 2000. The primary focus of this project was the study of the three-dimensional, absolute and time-evolving general circulation of the global ocean from a combined analysis of remotely sensed fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH). The synthesis of those two fields was performed with other relevant physical data, and appropriate dynamical ocean models with emphasis on constraining ocean general circulation models by a combination of both SST and SSH data. The central goal of the project was to improve our understanding and modeling of the relationship between the SST and its variability to internal ocean dynamics, and the overlying atmosphere, and to explore the relative roles of air-sea fluxes and internal ocean dynamics in establishing anomalies in SST on annual and longer time scales. An understanding of those problems will feed into the general discussion on how SST anomalies vary with time and the extend to which they interact with the atmosphere.

  6. Estimation of Radar Cross Section of a Target under Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun-Mog

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In allocating radar beam for tracking a target, it is attempted to maintain the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of signal returning from the illuminated target close to an optimum value for efficient track updates. An estimate of the average radar cross section (RCS of the target is required in order to adjust transmitted power based on the estimate such that a desired SNR can be realized. In this paper, a maximum-likelihood (ML approach is presented for estimating the average RCS, and a numerical solution to the approach is proposed based on a generalized expectation maximization (GEM algorithm. Estimation accuracy of the approach is compared to that of a previously reported procedure.

  7. Self-estimation of physical ability in stepping over an obstacle is not mediated by visual height perception: a comparison between young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryota; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Masami; Yasunaga, Masashi; Ogawa, Susumu; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Imanaka, Kuniyasu

    2017-07-01

    Older adults tend to overestimate their step-over ability. However, it is unclear as to whether this is caused by inaccurate self-estimation of physical ability or inaccurate perception of height. We, therefore, measured both visual height perception ability and self-estimation of step-over ability among young and older adults. Forty-seven older and 16 young adults performed a height perception test (HPT) and a step-over test (SOT). Participants visually judged the height of vertical bars from distances of 7 and 1 m away in the HPT, then self-estimated and, subsequently, actually performed a step-over action in the SOT. The results showed no significant difference between young and older adults in visual height perception. In the SOT, young adults tended to underestimate their step-over ability, whereas older adults either overestimated their abilities or underestimated them to a lesser extent than did the young adults. Moreover, visual height perception was not correlated with the self-estimation of step-over ability in both young and older adults. These results suggest that the self-overestimation of step-over ability which appeared in some healthy older adults may not be caused by the nature of visual height perception, but by other factor(s), such as the likely age-related nature of self-estimation of physical ability, per se.

  8. Simple method for direct crown base height estimation of individual conifer trees using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Laiping; Zhai, Qiuping; Su, Yanjun; Ma, Qin; Kelly, Maggi; Guo, Qinghua

    2018-05-14

    Crown base height (CBH) is an essential tree biophysical parameter for many applications in forest management, forest fuel treatment, wildfire modeling, ecosystem modeling and global climate change studies. Accurate and automatic estimation of CBH for individual trees is still a challenging task. Airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) provides reliable and promising data for estimating CBH. Various methods have been developed to calculate CBH indirectly using regression-based means from airborne LiDAR data and field measurements. However, little attention has been paid to directly calculate CBH at the individual tree scale in mixed-species forests without field measurements. In this study, we propose a new method for directly estimating individual-tree CBH from airborne LiDAR data. Our method involves two main strategies: 1) removing noise and understory vegetation for each tree; and 2) estimating CBH by generating percentile ranking profile for each tree and using a spline curve to identify its inflection points. These two strategies lend our method the advantages of no requirement of field measurements and being efficient and effective in mixed-species forests. The proposed method was applied to a mixed conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada, California and was validated by field measurements. The results showed that our method can directly estimate CBH at individual tree level with a root-mean-squared error of 1.62 m, a coefficient of determination of 0.88 and a relative bias of 3.36%. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed the accuracies among different height groups and tree species by comparing with field measurements. Our results implied that taller trees had relatively higher uncertainties than shorter trees. Our findings also show that the accuracy for CBH estimation was the highest for black oak trees, with an RMSE of 0.52 m. The conifer species results were also good with uniformly high R 2 ranging from 0.82 to 0.93. In general, our method has

  9. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  10. Targeted estimation of nuisance parameters to obtain valid statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain concrete results, we focus on estimation of the treatment specific mean, controlling for all measured baseline covariates, based on observing independent and identically distributed copies of a random variable consisting of baseline covariates, a subsequently assigned binary treatment, and a final outcome. The statistical model only assumes possible restrictions on the conditional distribution of treatment, given the covariates, the so-called propensity score. Estimators of the treatment specific mean involve estimation of the propensity score and/or estimation of the conditional mean of the outcome, given the treatment and covariates. In order to make these estimators asymptotically unbiased at any data distribution in the statistical model, it is essential to use data-adaptive estimators of these nuisance parameters such as ensemble learning, and specifically super-learning. Because such estimators involve optimal trade-off of bias and variance w.r.t. the infinite dimensional nuisance parameter itself, they result in a sub-optimal bias/variance trade-off for the resulting real-valued estimator of the estimand. We demonstrate that additional targeting of the estimators of these nuisance parameters guarantees that this bias for the estimand is second order and thereby allows us to prove theorems that establish asymptotic linearity of the estimator of the treatment specific mean under regularity conditions. These insights result in novel targeted minimum loss-based estimators (TMLEs) that use ensemble learning with additional targeted bias reduction to construct estimators of the nuisance parameters. In particular, we construct collaborative TMLEs (C-TMLEs) with known influence curve allowing for statistical inference, even though these C-TMLEs involve variable selection for the propensity score based on a criterion that measures how effective the resulting fit of the propensity score is in removing bias for the estimand. As a particular special

  11. Characterizing sub-arctic peatland vegeation using height estimates from structure from motion and an unmanned aerial system (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; DelGreco, J.; Herrick, C.; Sullivan, F.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    The collapse of permafrost, due to thawing, changes landscape topography, hydrology and vegetation. Changes in plant species composition influence methane production pathways and methane emission rates. The complex spatial heterogeneity of vegetation composition across peatlands proves important in quantifying methane emissions. Effort to characterize vegetation across these permafrost peatlands has been conducted with varied success, with difficulty seen in estimating some cover types that are at opposite ends of the permafrost collapse transition, ie palsa/tall shrub and tall graminoid. This is because some of the species are the same (horsetail) and some of the species have similar structure (horsetail/Carex spp.). High resolution digital elevation maps, developed with airborne LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) have provided insight into some wetland attributes, but lidar collection is costly and requires extensive data processing effort. Lidar information also lacks the spectral information that optical sensors provide. We used an inexpensive Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with an optical sensor to image a mire in northern Sweden (Stordalen Mire) in 2015. We collected 700 overlapping images that were stitched together using Structure from Motion (SfM). SfM analysis also provided, due to parallax, the ability to develop a height map of vegetation. This height map was used, along with textural analysis, to develop an artificial neural network to predict five vegetation cover types. Using 200 training points, we found improvements in our prediction of these cover types. We suggest that using the digital height model from SfM provides useful information in remotely sensing vegetation across a permafrost collapsing region that exhibit resulting changes in vegetation composition. The ability to rapidly and inexpensively deploy such a UAV system provides the opportunity to examine multiple sites with limited personnel effort in remote areas.

  12. Estimates of fission barrier heights for neutron-deficient Po to Ra nuclei produced in fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagaidak Roman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section data for fission and evaporation residue production in fusion reactions leading to nuclei from Po to Ra have been considered in a systematic way in the framework of the conventional barrier-passing (fusion model coupled with the statistical model. The cross section data obtained in very asymmetric projectile-target combinations can be described within these models rather well with the adjusted model parameters. In particular, one can scale and fix the macroscopic (liquid-drop fission barrier heights (FBHs for nuclei involved in the de-excitation of compound nuclei produced in the reactions. The macroscopic FBHs for nuclei from Po to Ra have been derived in the framework of such analysis and compared with the predictions of various theoretical models.

  13. Estimates of ocean wave heights and attenuation in sea ice using the SAR wave mode on Sentinel-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Chapron, Bertrand; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Guitton, Gilles; Mouche, Alexis; Stopa, Justin E.

    2015-04-01

    Swell evolution from the open ocean into sea ice is poorly understood, in particular the amplitude attenuation expected from scattering and dissipation. New synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from Sentinel-1A wave mode reveal intriguing patterns of bright oscillating lines shaped like instant noodles. We investigate cases in which the oscillations are in the azimuth direction, around a straight line in the range direction. This observation is interpreted as the distortion by the SAR processing of crests from a first swell, due to the presence of a second swell. Since deviations from a straight line should be proportional to the orbital velocity toward the satellite, swell height can be estimated, from 1.5 to 5 m in the present case. The evolution of this 13 s period swell across the ice pack is consistent with an exponential attenuation on a length scale of 200 km.

  14. Estimations of bone maturation and calculations of prediction of adult height as tools for the evaluation of growth disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachmann, M

    1982-03-01

    The methods of estimation of bone maturation (Greulich and Pyle, Tanner et al.) and the possibilities for the calculation of future adult heigth (Bayley and Pinneau, Roche et al., Tanner et al.) are briefly described and their advantages and disadvantages in normal children and in children with growth disorders are discussed. In normal children, all methods provide valuable results, but there are small differences of precision depending on whether the pubertal development is early, average, or late. In pathological conditions, however, as e.g. in precocious puberty or in girls with Turner syndrome, the methods of Roche et al. and of Tanner et al. may overestimate adult height considerably, while that of Bayley and Pinneau remains reasonably accurate. A computerized system, which facilitates the complicated and time-consuming calculations is briefly presented.

  15. Evaluation and adjustment of altimeter measurement and numerical hindcast in wave height trend estimation in China's coastal seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuiqing; Guan, Shoude; Hou, Yijun; Liu, Yahao; Bi, Fan

    2018-05-01

    A long-term trend of significant wave height (SWH) in China's coastal seas was examined based on three datasets derived from satellite measurements and numerical hindcasts. One set of altimeter data were obtained from the GlobWave, while the other two datasets of numerical hindcasts were obtained from the third-generation wind wave model, WAVEWATCH III, forced by wind fields from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) and NCEP's Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). The mean and extreme wave trends were estimated for the period 1992-2010 with respect to the annual mean and the 99th-percentile values of SWH, respectively. The altimeter wave trend estimates feature considerable uncertainties owing to the sparse sampling rate. Furthermore, the extreme wave trend tends to be overestimated because of the increasing sampling rate over time. Numerical wave trends strongly depend on the quality of the wind fields, as the CCMP waves significantly overestimate the wave trend, whereas the CFSR waves tend to underestimate the trend. Corresponding adjustments were applied which effectively improved the trend estimates from the altimeter and numerical data. The adjusted results show generally increasing mean wave trends, while the extreme wave trends are more spatially-varied, from decreasing trends prevailing in the South China Sea to significant increasing trends mainly in the East China Sea.

  16. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  17. Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of sternal lengths in a Northwest Indian population of Chandigarh region: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmahender; Pathak, R K; Chavali, Krishnadutt H

    2011-03-20

    Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of eight sternal lengths in the subjects of Chandigarh zone of Northwest India is the topic of discussion in this study. Analysis of eight sternal lengths (length of manubrium, length of mesosternum, combined length of manubrium and mesosternum, total sternal length and first four intercostals lengths of mesosternum) measured from 252 male and 91 female sternums obtained at postmortems revealed that mean cadaver stature and sternal lengths were more in North Indians and males than the South Indians and females. Except intercostal lengths, all the sternal lengths were positively correlated with stature of the deceased in both sexes (P regression analysis of sternal lengths was found more useful than the linear regression for stature estimation. Using multivariate regression analysis, the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum in both sexes and the length of manubrium along with 2nd and 3rd intercostal lengths of mesosternum in males were selected as best estimators of stature. Nonetheless, the stature of males can be predicted with SEE of 6.66 (R(2) = 0.16, r = 0.318) from combination of MBL+BL_3+LM+BL_2, and in females from MBL only, it can be estimated with SEE of 6.65 (R(2) = 0.10, r = 0.318), whereas from the multiple regression analysis of pooled data, stature can be known with SEE of 6.97 (R(2) = 0.387, r = 575) from the combination of MBL+LM+BL_2+TSL+BL_3. The R(2) and F-ratio were found to be statistically significant for almost all the variables in both the sexes, except 4th intercostal length in males and 2nd to 4th intercostal lengths in females. The 'major' sternal lengths were more useful than the 'minor' ones for stature estimation The universal regression analysis used by Kanchan et al. [39] when applied to sternal lengths, gave satisfactory estimates of stature for males only but female stature was comparatively better estimated from simple linear regressions. But they are not proposed for the

  18. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Bianca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI. Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values. The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height, weight and BMI values of preschool children (3-7 y-old, when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement. Methods The subjects were 297 Belgian preschool children (52.9% male. Participation rate was 73%. A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity. Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height, weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents. Sensitivity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 73% and 47% when parents measured their child's height and weight, and 55% and 47% when parents estimated values without measurement. Specificity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 82% and 97% when parents measured the children, and 75% and 93% with parent estimations. Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements. When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height

  19. New Hybrid Algorithms for Estimating Tree Stem Diameters at Breast Height Using a Two Dimensional Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlei Kong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new algorithm to improve the accuracy of estimating diameter at breast height (DBH for tree trunks in forest areas is proposed. First, the information is collected by a two-dimensional terrestrial laser scanner (2DTLS, which emits laser pulses to generate a point cloud. After extraction and filtration, the laser point clusters of the trunks are obtained, which are optimized by an arithmetic means method. Then, an algebraic circle fitting algorithm in polar form is non-linearly optimized by the Levenberg-Marquardt method to form a new hybrid algorithm, which is used to acquire the diameters and positions of the trees. Compared with previous works, this proposed method improves the accuracy of diameter estimation of trees significantly and effectively reduces the calculation time. Moreover, the experimental results indicate that this method is stable and suitable for the most challenging conditions, which has practical significance in improving the operating efficiency of forest harvester and reducing the risk of causing accidents.

  20. An estimation of the height system bias parameter N (0) using least squares collocation from observed gravity and GPS-levelling data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadiq, Muhammad; Tscherning, Carl C.; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of gravity anomaly and precise levelling in conjunction with GPS-Levelling data for the computation of a gravimetric geoid and an estimate of the height system bias parameter N-o for the vertical datum in Pakistan by means of least squares collocation technique...... covariance parameters has facilitated to achieve gravimetric height anomalies in a global geocentric datum. Residual terrain modeling (RTM) technique has been used in combination with the EGM96 for the reduction and smoothing of the gravity data. A value for the bias parameter N-o has been estimated...... with reference to the local GPS-Levelling datum that appears to be 0.705 m with 0.07 m mean square error. The gravimetric height anomalies were compared with height anomalies obtained from GPS-Levelling stations using least square collocation with and without bias adjustment. The bias adjustment minimizes...

  1. Multitemporal field-based plant height estimation using 3D point clouds generated from small unmanned aerial systems high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malambo, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Murray, S. C.; Putman, E.; Pugh, N. A.; Horne, D. W.; Richardson, G.; Sheridan, R.; Rooney, W. L.; Avant, R.; Vidrine, M.; McCutchen, B.; Baltensperger, D.; Bishop, M.

    2018-02-01

    Plant breeders and agronomists are increasingly interested in repeated plant height measurements over large experimental fields to study critical aspects of plant physiology, genetics and environmental conditions during plant growth. However, collecting such measurements using commonly used manual field measurements is inefficient. 3D point clouds generated from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) images using Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques offer a new option for efficiently deriving in-field crop height data. This study evaluated UAS/SfM for multitemporal 3D crop modelling and developed and assessed a methodology for estimating plant height data from point clouds generated using SfM. High-resolution images in visible spectrum were collected weekly across 12 dates from April (planting) to July (harvest) 2016 over 288 maize (Zea mays L.) and 460 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) plots using a DJI Phantom 3 Professional UAS. The study compared SfM point clouds with terrestrial lidar (TLS) at two dates to evaluate the ability of SfM point clouds to accurately capture ground surfaces and crop canopies, both of which are critical for plant height estimation. Extended plant height comparisons were carried out between SfM plant height (the 90th, 95th, 99th percentiles and maximum height) per plot and field plant height measurements at six dates throughout the growing season to test the repeatability and consistency of SfM estimates. High correlations were observed between SfM and TLS data (R2 = 0.88-0.97, RMSE = 0.01-0.02 m and R2 = 0.60-0.77 RMSE = 0.12-0.16 m for the ground surface and canopy comparison, respectively). Extended height comparisons also showed strong correlations (R2 = 0.42-0.91, RMSE = 0.11-0.19 m for maize and R2 = 0.61-0.85, RMSE = 0.12-0.24 m for sorghum). In general, the 90th, 95th and 99th percentile height metrics had higher correlations to field measurements than the maximum metric though differences among them were not statistically significant. The

  2. Quantitative PET Imaging in Drug Development: Estimation of Target Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Mika; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Rossano, Samantha; Carson, Richard E

    2017-12-11

    Positron emission tomography, an imaging tool using radiolabeled tracers in humans and preclinical species, has been widely used in recent years in drug development, particularly in the central nervous system. One important goal of PET in drug development is assessing the occupancy of various molecular targets (e.g., receptors, transporters, enzymes) by exogenous drugs. The current linear mathematical approaches used to determine occupancy using PET imaging experiments are presented. These algorithms use results from multiple regions with different target content in two scans, a baseline (pre-drug) scan and a post-drug scan. New mathematical estimation approaches to determine target occupancy, using maximum likelihood, are presented. A major challenge in these methods is the proper definition of the covariance matrix of the regional binding measures, accounting for different variance of the individual regional measures and their nonzero covariance, factors that have been ignored by conventional methods. The novel methods are compared to standard methods using simulation and real human occupancy data. The simulation data showed the expected reduction in variance and bias using the proper maximum likelihood methods, when the assumptions of the estimation method matched those in simulation. Between-method differences for data from human occupancy studies were less obvious, in part due to small dataset sizes. These maximum likelihood methods form the basis for development of improved PET covariance models, in order to minimize bias and variance in PET occupancy studies.

  3. Concurrent validity and reliability of torso-worn inertial measurement unit for jump power and height estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantalainen, Timo; Gastin, Paul B; Spangler, Rhys; Wundersitz, Daniel

    2018-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the concurrent validity and test-retest repeatability of torso-worn IMU-derived power and jump height in a counter-movement jump test. Twenty-seven healthy recreationally active males (age, 21.9 [SD 2.0] y, height, 1.76 [0.7] m, mass, 73.7 [10.3] kg) wore an IMU and completed three counter-movement jumps a week apart. A force platform and a 3D motion analysis system were used to concurrently measure the jumps and subsequently derive power and jump height (based on take-off velocity and flight time). The IMU significantly overestimated power (mean difference = 7.3 W/kg; P jump heights exhibited poorer concurrent validity (ICC = 0.72 to 0.78) and repeatability (ICC = 0.68) than flight-time-derived jump heights, which exhibited excellent validity (ICC = 0.93 to 0.96) and reliability (ICC = 0.91). Since jump height and power are closely related, and flight-time-derived jump height exhibits excellent concurrent validity and reliability, flight-time-derived jump height could provide a more desirable measure compared to power when assessing athletic performance in a counter-movement jump with IMUs.

  4. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation for a binary treatment: A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Schomaker, Michael; Rachet, Bernard; Schnitzer, Mireille E

    2018-04-23

    When estimating the average effect of a binary treatment (or exposure) on an outcome, methods that incorporate propensity scores, the G-formula, or targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) are preferred over naïve regression approaches, which are biased under misspecification of a parametric outcome model. In contrast propensity score methods require the correct specification of an exposure model. Double-robust methods only require correct specification of either the outcome or the exposure model. Targeted maximum likelihood estimation is a semiparametric double-robust method that improves the chances of correct model specification by allowing for flexible estimation using (nonparametric) machine-learning methods. It therefore requires weaker assumptions than its competitors. We provide a step-by-step guided implementation of TMLE and illustrate it in a realistic scenario based on cancer epidemiology where assumptions about correct model specification and positivity (ie, when a study participant had 0 probability of receiving the treatment) are nearly violated. This article provides a concise and reproducible educational introduction to TMLE for a binary outcome and exposure. The reader should gain sufficient understanding of TMLE from this introductory tutorial to be able to apply the method in practice. Extensive R-code is provided in easy-to-read boxes throughout the article for replicability. Stata users will find a testing implementation of TMLE and additional material in the Appendix S1 and at the following GitHub repository: https://github.com/migariane/SIM-TMLE-tutorial. © 2018 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Colocated MIMO Radar: Beamforming, Waveform design, and Target Parameter Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2014-04-01

    Thanks to its improved capabilities, the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar is attracting the attention of researchers and practitioners alike. Because it transmits orthogonal or partially correlated waveforms, this emerging technology outperformed the phased array radar by providing better parametric identifiability, achieving higher spatial resolution, and designing complex beampatterns. To avoid jamming and enhance the signal to noise ratio, it is often interesting to maximize the transmitted power in a given region of interest and minimize it elsewhere. This problem is known as the transmit beampattern design and is usually tackled as a two-step process: a transmit covariance matrix is firstly designed by minimizing a convex optimization problem, which is then used to generate practical waveforms. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method maps easily generated Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability density function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. The second part of this thesis covers the topic of target parameter estimation. To determine the reflection coefficient, spatial location, and Doppler shift of a target, maximum likelihood estimation yields the best performance. However, it requires a two dimensional search problem. Therefore, its computational complexity is prohibitively high. So, we proposed a reduced complexity and optimum performance algorithm which allows the two dimensional fast Fourier transform to jointly estimate the spatial location

  6. Accuracy of LiDAR-based tree height estimation and crown recognition in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Ahmad Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present an approach for estimating tree heights, stand density and crown patches using LiDAR data in a subtropical broad-leaved forest. Area of study: The study was conducted within the Yambaru subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, Okinawa main island, Japan. Materials and methods: A digital canopy height model (CHM was extracted from the LiDAR data for tree height estimation and a watershed segmentation method was applied for the individual crown delineation. Dominant tree canopy layers were estimated using multi-scale filtering and local maxima detection. The LiDAR estimation results were then compared to the ground inventory data and a high resolution orthophoto image for accuracy assessment. Main results: A Wilcoxon matched pair test suggests that LiDAR data is highly capable of estimating tree height in a subtropical forest (z = 4.0, p = 0.345, but has limitation to detect small understory trees and a single tree delineation. The results show that there is a statistically significant different type of crown detection from LiDAR data over forest inventory (z = 0, p = 0.043. We also found that LiDAR computation results underestimated the stand density and overestimated the crown size. Research highlights: Most studies involving crown detection and tree height estimation have focused on the analysis of plantations, boreal forests and temperate forests, and less was conducted on tropical and/or subtropical forests. Our study tested the capability of LiDAR as an effective application for analyzing a highly dense forest

  7. Approximation of the breast height diameter distribution of two-cohort stands by mixture models III Kernel density estimators vs mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal Podlaski; Francis A. Roesch

    2014-01-01

    Two-component mixtures of either the Weibull distribution or the gamma distribution and the kernel density estimator were used for describing the diameter at breast height (dbh) empirical distributions of two-cohort stands. The data consisted of study plots from the Å wietokrzyski National Park (central Poland) and areas close to and including the North Carolina section...

  8. Estimating canopy bulk density and canopy base height for conifer stands in the interior Western United States using the Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Ex; Frederick Smith; Tara Keyser; Stephanie Rebain

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE-FVS) is often used to estimate canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH), which are key indicators of crown fire hazard for conifer stands in the Western United States. Estimated CBD from FFE-FVS is calculated as the maximum 4 m running mean bulk density of predefined 0.3 m thick canopy layers (...

  9. Estimating Vegetation Height from WorldView-02 and ArcticDEM Data for Broad Ecological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, A. J.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.; Jennewein, J. S.; White, J. C.; Wulder, M.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal and arctic regions are warming at an unprecedented rate, and at a rate higher than in other regions across the globe. Ecological processes are highly responsive to temperature and therefore substantial changes in these northern ecosystems are expected. Recently, NASA initiated the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE), which is a large-scale field campaign that aims to gain a better understanding of how the arctic responds to environmental change. High-resolution data products that quantify vegetation structure and function will improve efforts to assess these environmental change impacts. Our objective was to develop and test an approach that allows for mapping vegetation height at a 5m grid cell resolution across the ABoVE domain. To accomplish this, we selected three study areas across a north-south gradient in Alaska, representing an area of approximately 130 km2. We developed a RandomForest modeling approach for predicting vegetation height using the ArcticDEM (a digital surface model produced across the Arctic by the Polar Geospatial Center) and high-resolution multispectral satellite data (WorldView-2) in conjunction with aerial lidar data for calibration and validation. Vegetation height was successfully predicted across the three study areas and evaluated using an independent dataset, with R2 ranging from 0.58 to 0.76 and RMSEs ranging from 1.8 to 2.4 m. This predicted vegetation height dataset also led to the development of a digital terrain model using the ArcticDEM digital surface model by removing canopy heights from the surface heights. Our results show potential to establish a high resolution pan-arctic vegetation height map, which will provide useful information to a broad range of ongoing and future ecological research in high northern latitudes.

  10. X-Ray Source Heights in a Solar Flare: Thick-Target Versus Thermal Conduction Front Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, J. W.; Bradshaw, S. J.; Holman, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of solar flares with RHESSI have shown X-ray sources traveling along flaring loops, from the corona down to the chromosphere and back up. The 2002 November 28 C1.1 flare, first observed with RHESSI by Sui et al. and quantitatively analyzed by O'Flannagain et al., very clearly shows this behavior. By employing numerical experiments, we use these observations of X-ray source height motions as a constraint to distinguish between heating due to a non-thermal electron beam and in situ energy deposition in the corona. We find that both heating scenarios can reproduce the observed light curves, but our results favor non-thermal heating. In situ heating is inconsistent with the observed X-ray source morphology and always gives a height dispersion with photon energy opposite to what is observed.

  11. Estimation of thermochemical behavior of spallation products in mercury target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Aso, Tomokazu; Teshigawara, Makoto; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    In order to examine the radiation safety of a spallation mercury target system, especially source term evaluation, it is necessary to clarify the chemical forms of spallation products generated by spallation reaction with proton beam. As for the chemical forms of spallation products in mercury that involves large amounts of spallation products, these forms were estimated by using the binary phase diagrams and the thermochemical equilibrium calculation based on the amounts of spallation product. Calculation results showed that the mercury would dissolve Al, As, B, Be, Bi, C, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Re, Ru, Sb, Si, Ta, Tc, V and W in the element state, and Ag, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Gd, Hf, Ho, I, In, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, O, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Rh, S, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr in the form of inorganic mercury compounds. As for As, Be, Co, Cr, Fe, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Pt, Re, Ru, Se, Ta, V, W and Zr, precipitation could be occurred when increasing the amounts of spallation products with operation time of the spallation target system. On the other hand, beryllium-7 (Be-7), which is produced by spallation reaction of oxygen in the cooling water of a safety hull, becomes the main factor of the external exposure to maintain the cooling loop. Based on the thermochemical equilibrium calculation to Be-H{sub 2}O binary system, the chemical forms of Be in the cooling water were estimated. Then the Be could exist in the form of cations such as BeOH{sup +}, BeO{sup +} and Be{sup 2+} under the condition of less than 10{sup -8} of the Be mole fraction in the cooling water. (author)

  12. Estimation of thermochemical behavior of spallation products in mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Aso, Tomokazu; Teshigawara, Makoto; Hino, Ryutaro

    2002-02-01

    In order to examine the radiation safety of a spallation mercury target system, especially source term evaluation, it is necessary to clarify the chemical forms of spallation products generated by spallation reaction with proton beam. As for the chemical forms of spallation products in mercury that involves large amounts of spallation products, these forms were estimated by using the binary phase diagrams and the thermochemical equilibrium calculation based on the amounts of spallation product. Calculation results showed that the mercury would dissolve Al, As, B, Be, Bi, C, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Re, Ru, Sb, Si, Ta, Tc, V and W in the element state, and Ag, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Gd, Hf, Ho, I, In, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, O, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Rh, S, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr in the form of inorganic mercury compounds. As for As, Be, Co, Cr, Fe, Ge, Ir, Mo, Nb, Os, Pt, Re, Ru, Se, Ta, V, W and Zr, precipitation could be occurred when increasing the amounts of spallation products with operation time of the spallation target system. On the other hand, beryllium-7 (Be-7), which is produced by spallation reaction of oxygen in the cooling water of a safety hull, becomes the main factor of the external exposure to maintain the cooling loop. Based on the thermochemical equilibrium calculation to Be-H 2 O binary system, the chemical forms of Be in the cooling water were estimated. Then the Be could exist in the form of cations such as BeOH + , BeO + and Be 2+ under the condition of less than 10 -8 of the Be mole fraction in the cooling water. (author)

  13. Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Generalized Pareto Distribution to Estimate Extreme Significant Wave Height in The Banda Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursamsiah; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Suprijanto, Jusup; Munasik; Yulianto, Bambang

    2018-02-01

    The information of extreme wave height return level was required for maritime planning and management. The recommendation methods in analyzing extreme wave were better distributed by Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). Seasonal variation was often considered in the extreme wave model. This research aims to identify the best model of GPD by considering a seasonal variation of the extreme wave. By using percentile 95 % as the threshold of extreme significant wave height, the seasonal GPD and non-seasonal GPD fitted. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to identify the goodness of fit of the GPD model. The return value from seasonal and non-seasonal GPD was compared with the definition of return value as criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test result shows that GPD fits data very well both seasonal and non-seasonal model. The seasonal return value gives better information about the wave height characteristics.

  14. Bone age estimation and prediction of final height in patients with β-thalassaemia major: a comparison between the two most common methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Katzos, George; Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda; Badouraki, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Thalassaemic patients are in need of frequent assessment of bone age because of growth failure and pubertal disorders. To compare the ''rapid'' Greulich and Pyle (G and P) method with the third edition of the Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) method for determining skeletal maturity and predicting final height in thalassaemic patients. A total of 191 radiographs from 58 patients (28 male, 30 female) were retrospectively evaluated by two investigators, one for each method. In 47 radiographs from 15 patients having attained their adult height, predicted final height was calculated according to each method. The mean bone ages determined by both the G and P and TW3 methods were lower than mean chronological age, although the differences were not statistically significant (10.04 ± 3.69 years and 9.98 ± 3.39 years vs. 10.78 ± 3.96 years, respectively). Both methods had a tendency to over-estimate final height. Overall, the TW3 method seemed to be more accurate than the G and P method (mean absolute error 3.21 ± 2.51 years vs. 3.99 ± 2.99 years, respectively, P=0.048). The same method should be used when serial assessments are performed, as both methods provide similarly reliable, although not equivalent, results. The TW3 height prediction method seemed to be more accurate in patients with β-thalassaemia major than the G and P method, albeit with a large confidence interval. (orig.)

  15. Bone age estimation and prediction of final height in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major: a comparison between the two most common methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoforidis, Athanasios; Katzos, George; Athanassiou-Metaxa, Miranda [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1st Paediatric Department, Thessaloniki (Greece); Badouraki, Maria [Ippokratio Hospital, Paediatric Radiology Department, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-12-15

    Thalassaemic patients are in need of frequent assessment of bone age because of growth failure and pubertal disorders. To compare the ''rapid'' Greulich and Pyle (G and P) method with the third edition of the Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) method for determining skeletal maturity and predicting final height in thalassaemic patients. A total of 191 radiographs from 58 patients (28 male, 30 female) were retrospectively evaluated by two investigators, one for each method. In 47 radiographs from 15 patients having attained their adult height, predicted final height was calculated according to each method. The mean bone ages determined by both the G and P and TW3 methods were lower than mean chronological age, although the differences were not statistically significant (10.04 {+-} 3.69 years and 9.98 {+-} 3.39 years vs. 10.78 {+-} 3.96 years, respectively). Both methods had a tendency to over-estimate final height. Overall, the TW3 method seemed to be more accurate than the G and P method (mean absolute error 3.21 {+-} 2.51 years vs. 3.99 {+-} 2.99 years, respectively, P=0.048). The same method should be used when serial assessments are performed, as both methods provide similarly reliable, although not equivalent, results. The TW3 height prediction method seemed to be more accurate in patients with {beta}-thalassaemia major than the G and P method, albeit with a large confidence interval. (orig.)

  16. SU-F-I-37: How Fat Distribution and Table Height Affect Estimates of Patient Size in CT Scanning: A Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silosky, M; Marsh, R [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Localizer projection radiographs acquired prior to CT scans are used to estimate patient size, affecting the function of Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM) and hence CTDIvol and SSDE. Due to geometric effects, the projected patient size varies with scanner table height and with the orientation of the localizer (AP versus PA). This study sought to determine if patient size estimates made from localizer scans is affected by variations in fat distribution, specifically when the widest part of the patient is not at the geometric center of the patient. Methods: Lipid gel bolus material was wrapped around an anthropomorphic phantom to simulate two different body mass distributions. The first represented a patient with fairly rigid fat and had a generally oval shape. The second was bell-shaped, representing corpulent patients more susceptible to gravity’s lustful tug. Each phantom configuration was imaged using an AP localizer and then a PA localizer. This was repeated at various scanner table heights. The width of the phantom was measured from the localizer and diagnostic images using in-house software. Results: 1) The projected phantom width varied up to 39% as table height changed.2) At some table heights, the width of the phantom, designed to represent larger patients, exceeded the localizer field of view, resulting in an underestimation of the phantom width.3) The oval-shaped phantom approached a normalized phantom width of 1 at a table height several centimeters lower (AP localizer) or higher (PA localizer) than did the bell-shaped phantom. Conclusion: Accurate estimation of patient size from localizer scans is dependent on patient positioning with respect to scanner isocenter and is limited in large patients. Further, patient size is more accurately measured on projection images if the widest part of the patient, rather than the geometric center of the patient, is positioned at scanner isocenter.

  17. Estimating the planetary boundary layer height from radiosonde and doppler lidar measurements in the city of São Paulo - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcia T. A.; Moreira, Gregori de A.; Pinero, Maciel; Oliveira, Amauri P.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to compare the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) values estimated by radiosonde data through the bulk Richardson number (BRN) method and by Doppler lidar measurements through the Carrier to Noise Ratio (CNR) method, which corresponds to the maximum of the variance of CNR profile. The measurement campaign was carried during the summer of 2015/2016 in the city of São Paulo. Despite the conceptual difference between these methods, the results show great agreement between them.

  18. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Juntaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF% is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. Results. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 − 0.159 (HWDI + 0.161 (age for men and 53.35 − 0.265 (HWDI + 0.132 (age for women. Conclusions. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  19. Maximum Likelihood-Based Methods for Target Velocity Estimation with Distributed MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxin Cao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimation problem for target velocity is addressed in this in the scenario with a distributed multi-input multi-out (MIMO radar system. A maximum likelihood (ML-based estimation method is derived with the knowledge of target position. Then, in the scenario without the knowledge of target position, an iterative method is proposed to estimate the target velocity by updating the position information iteratively. Moreover, the Carmér-Rao Lower Bounds (CRLBs for both scenarios are derived, and the performance degradation of velocity estimation without the position information is also expressed. Simulation results show that the proposed estimation methods can approach the CRLBs, and the velocity estimation performance can be further improved by increasing either the number of radar antennas or the information accuracy of the target position. Furthermore, compared with the existing methods, a better estimation performance can be achieved.

  20. Coastal Amplification Laws for the French Tsunami Warning Center: Numerical Modeling and Fast Estimate of Tsunami Wave Heights Along the French Riviera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, A.; Hébert, H.; Schindelé, F.; Reymond, D.

    2018-04-01

    Tsunami modeling tools in the French tsunami Warning Center operational context provide rapidly derived warning levels with a dimensionless variable at basin scale. A new forecast method based on coastal amplification laws has been tested to estimate the tsunami onshore height, with a focus on the French Riviera test-site (Nice area). This fast prediction tool provides a coastal tsunami height distribution, calculated from the numerical simulation of the deep ocean tsunami amplitude and using a transfer function derived from the Green's law. Due to a lack of tsunami observations in the western Mediterranean basin, coastal amplification parameters are here defined regarding high resolution nested grids simulations. The preliminary results for the Nice test site on the basis of nine historical and synthetic sources show a good agreement with the time-consuming high resolution modeling: the linear approximation is obtained within 1 min in general and provides estimates within a factor of two in amplitude, although the resonance effects in harbors and bays are not reproduced. In Nice harbor especially, variation in tsunami amplitude is something that cannot be really assessed because of the magnitude range and maximum energy azimuth of possible events to account for. However, this method is well suited for a fast first estimate of the coastal tsunami threat forecast.

  1. Estimating Stand Height and Tree Density in Pinus taeda plantations using in-situ data, airborne LiDAR and k-Nearest Neighbor Imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Accurate forest inventory is of great economic importance to optimize the entire supply chain management in pulp and paper companies. The aim of this study was to estimate stand dominate and mean heights (HD and HM and tree density (TD of Pinus taeda plantations located in South Brazil using in-situ measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data and the non- k-nearest neighbor (k-NN imputation. Forest inventory attributes and LiDAR derived metrics were calculated at 53 regular sample plots and we used imputation models to retrieve the forest attributes at plot and landscape-levels. The best LiDAR-derived metrics to predict HD, HM and TD were H99TH, HSD, SKE and HMIN. The Imputation model using the selected metrics was more effective for retrieving height than tree density. The model coefficients of determination (adj.R2 and a root mean squared difference (RMSD for HD, HM and TD were 0.90, 0.94, 0.38m and 6.99, 5.70, 12.92%, respectively. Our results show that LiDAR and k-NN imputation can be used to predict stand heights with high accuracy in Pinus taeda. However, furthers studies need to be realized to improve the accuracy prediction of TD and to evaluate and compare the cost of acquisition and processing of LiDAR data against the conventional inventory procedures.

  2. Estimating Stand Height and Tree Density in Pinus taeda plantations using in-situ data, airborne LiDAR and k-Nearest Neighbor Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Alberto; Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T; Vierling, Lee A; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Bernett, Luiz G; Scheraiber, Clewerson F; Schoeninger, Emerson R

    2018-01-01

    Accurate forest inventory is of great economic importance to optimize the entire supply chain management in pulp and paper companies. The aim of this study was to estimate stand dominate and mean heights (HD and HM) and tree density (TD) of Pinus taeda plantations located in South Brazil using in-situ measurements, airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and the non- k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) imputation. Forest inventory attributes and LiDAR derived metrics were calculated at 53 regular sample plots and we used imputation models to retrieve the forest attributes at plot and landscape-levels. The best LiDAR-derived metrics to predict HD, HM and TD were H99TH, HSD, SKE and HMIN. The Imputation model using the selected metrics was more effective for retrieving height than tree density. The model coefficients of determination (adj.R2) and a root mean squared difference (RMSD) for HD, HM and TD were 0.90, 0.94, 0.38m and 6.99, 5.70, 12.92%, respectively. Our results show that LiDAR and k-NN imputation can be used to predict stand heights with high accuracy in Pinus taeda. However, furthers studies need to be realized to improve the accuracy prediction of TD and to evaluate and compare the cost of acquisition and processing of LiDAR data against the conventional inventory procedures.

  3. An iterative procedure for estimating areally averaged heat flux using planetary boundary layer mixed layer height and locally measured heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R. L.; Gao, W.; Lesht, B. M.

    2000-04-04

    Measurements at the central facility of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) are intended to verify, improve, and develop parameterizations in radiative flux models that are subsequently used in General Circulation Models (GCMs). The reliability of this approach depends upon the representativeness of the local measurements at the central facility for the site as a whole or on how these measurements can be interpreted so as to accurately represent increasingly large scales. The variation of surface energy budget terms over the SGP CART site is extremely large. Surface layer measurements of the sensible heat flux (H) often vary by a factor of 2 or more at the CART site (Coulter et al. 1996). The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) effectively integrates the local inputs across large scales; because the mixed layer height (h) is principally driven by H, it can, in principal, be used for estimates of surface heat flux over scales on the order of tens of kilometers. By combining measurements of h from radiosondes or radar wind profiles with a one-dimensional model of mixed layer height, they are investigating the ability of diagnosing large-scale heat fluxes. The authors have developed a procedure using the model described by Boers et al. (1984) to investigate the effect of changes in surface sensible heat flux on the mixed layer height. The objective of the study is to invert the sense of the model.

  4. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  5. Calculational estimations of neutron yield from ADS target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, I.I.; Liashenko, O.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Belyakov-Bodin, V.I.; Blokhin, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    Results of computational studies of high power spallation thick ADS (Accelerator-Driven System) targets with 0.8-1.2 GeV proton beams are given. Comparisons of experiments and calculations of double differential and integral n/p yield are also described. (author)

  6. Wuthering Heights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronte, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his

  7. Oil Palm Counting and Age Estimation from WorldView-3 Imagery and LiDAR Data Using an Integrated OBIA Height Model and Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mojaddadi Rizeei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a new method for oil palm age estimation and counting. A support vector machine algorithm (SVM of object-based image analysis (OBIA was implemented for oil palm counting. It was integrated with height model and multiregression methods to accurately estimate the age of trees based on their heights in five different plantation blocks. Multiregression and multi-kernel size models were examined over five different oil palm plantation blocks to achieve the most optimized model for age estimation. The sensitivity analysis was conducted on four SVM kernel types (sigmoid (SIG, linear (LN, radial basis function (RBF, and polynomial (PL with associated parameters (threshold values, gamma γ, and penalty factor (c to obtain the optimal OBIA classification approaches for each plantation block. Very high-resolution imageries of WorldView-3 (WV-3 and light detection and range (LiDAR were used for oil palm detection and age assessment. The results of oil palm detection had an overall accuracy of 98.27%, 99.48%, 99.28%, 99.49%, and 97.49% for blocks A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Moreover, the accuracy of age estimation analysis showed 90.1% for 3-year-old, 87.9% for 4-year-old, 88.0% for 6-year-old, 87.6% for 8-year-old, 79.1% for 9-year-old, and 76.8% for 22-year-old trees. Overall, the study revealed that remote sensing techniques can be useful to monitor and detect oil palm plantation for sustainable agricultural management.

  8. Waveform identification and retracking analyses of Jason-2 altimeter satellite data for improving sea surface height estimation in Southern Java Island Waters and Java Sea, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nababan, Bisman; Hakim, Muhammad R.; Panjaitan, James P.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesian waters containing many small islands and shallow waters leads to a less accurate of sea surface height (SSH) estimation from satellite altimetry. Little efforts are also given for the validation of SSH estimation from the satellite in Indonesian waters. The purpose of this research was to identify and retrack waveforms of Jason-2 altimeter satellite data in southern Java island waters and Java Sea using several retrackers and performed improvement percentage analyses for new SSH estimation. The study used data of the Sensor Geophysical Data Record type D (SGDR-D) of Jason-2 satellite altimeter of the year 2010 in the southern Java island waters and 2012-2014 in Java Sea. Waveform retracking analyses were conducted using several retrackers (Offset Center of Gravity, Ice, Threshold, and Improved Threshold) and examined using a world reference undulation geoid of EGM08 and Oceanic retracker. Result showed that shape and pattern of waveforms were varied in all passes, seasons, and locations specifically along the coastal regions. In general, non-Brownish and complex waveforms were identified along coastal region specifically within the distance of 0-10 km from the shoreline. In contrary, generally Brownish waveforms were found in offshore. However, Brownish waveform can also be found within coastal region and non-Brownish waveforms within offshore region. The results were also showed that the four retrackers produced a better SSH estimation in coastal region. However, there was no dominant retracker to improve the accuracy of the SSH estimate.

  9. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  10. Real-Time Estimation of Volcanic ASH/SO2 Cloud Height from Combined Uv/ir Satellite Observations and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Gilberto A.

    An efficient iterative method has been developed to estimate the vertical profile of SO2 and ash clouds from volcanic eruptions by comparing near real-time satellite observations with numerical modeling outputs. The approach uses UV based SO2 concentration and IR based ash cloud images, the volcanic ash transport model PUFF and wind speed, height and directional information to find the best match between the simulated and the observed displays. The method is computationally fast and is being implemented for operational use at the NOAA Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) in Washington, DC, USA, to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) effort to detect, track and measure volcanic ash cloud heights for air traffic safety and management. The presentation will show the methodology, results, statistical analysis and SO2 and Aerosol Index input products derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the NASA EOS/Aura research satellite and from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument in the MetOp-A. The volcanic ash products are derived from AVHRR instruments in the NOAA POES-16, 17, 18, 19 as well as MetOp-A. The presentation will also show how a VAAC volcanic ash analyst interacts with the system providing initial condition inputs such as location and time of the volcanic eruption, followed by the automatic real-time tracking of all the satellite data available, subsequent activation of the iterative approach and the data/product delivery process in numerical and graphical format for operational applications.

  11. Improved target detection and bearing estimation utilizing fast orthogonal search for real-time spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Abdalla; El-Sheimy, Naser; Nourledin, Aboelamgd; Theriault, Jim; Campbell, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The problem of target detection and tracking in the ocean environment has attracted considerable attention due to its importance in military and civilian applications. Sonobuoys are one of the capable passive sonar systems used in underwater target detection. Target detection and bearing estimation are mainly obtained through spectral analysis of received signals. The frequency resolution introduced by current techniques is limited which affects the accuracy of target detection and bearing estimation at a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This research investigates the development of a bearing estimation method using fast orthogonal search (FOS) for enhanced spectral estimation. FOS is employed in this research in order to improve both target detection and bearing estimation in the case of low SNR inputs. The proposed methods were tested using simulated data developed for two different scenarios under different underwater environmental conditions. The results show that the proposed method is capable of enhancing the accuracy for target detection as well as bearing estimation especially in cases of a very low SNR

  12. Avaliação da aplicabilidade de fórmulas preditivas de peso e estatura em homens adultos Assessment of equations that estimate weight and height in adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida Canaan Rezende

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade de fórmulas preditivas de peso e de altura, bem como a composição corporal em homens adultos. MÉTODOS: A amostra constituiu-se de 98 homens saudáveis, com idades entre 20 e 58 anos. Para a análise das equações de estimativa de peso e altura, coletaram-se dados de peso, altura, altura do joelho, envergadura, semi-envergadura, circunferências da panturrilha e do braço e dobra cutânea subescapular. Avaliou-se a composição corporal por meio de bioimpedância elétrica. RESULTADOS: O peso estimado diferiu significantemente do peso aferido (pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of equations that predict weight, height and body composition in adult men. METHODS: The sample consisted of 98 healthy men aged from 20 to 58 years. In order to analyze the equations, weight, height, knee height, arm span, half-arm span, calf and arm circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness were collected. Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. RESULTS: Estimated weights were significantly different from measured weights (p<0.001. The only equation that estimated height properly was that validated for adult Caucasian men. Both arm span (r=0.789; d=2.67; p<0.001 and half-arm span (r=0.790; d=2.51; p<0.001 overestimated height. When weight and height estimates were used to calculate body mass index, underweight was overestimated and overweight was underestimated, except when height was estimated with the equations for adult Caucasian men. CONCLUSION: The equation to estimate height validated for adult Caucasian men estimated the height of adult young men properly; the other validated equations presented significant differences. It is important to validate the equations assessed in this study in other population groups, making sure to use the estimated weights and heights to calculate body mass index.

  13. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  14. Non-Cooperative Target Imaging and Parameter Estimation with Narrowband Radar Echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-mao Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the rotating target imaging and parameter estimation with narrowband radar echoes, which is essential for radar target recognition. First, a two-dimensional (2D imaging model with narrowband echoes is established in this paper, and two images of the target are formed on the velocity-acceleration plane at two neighboring coherent processing intervals (CPIs. Then, the rotating velocity (RV is proposed to be estimated by utilizing the relationship between the positions of the scattering centers among two images. Finally, the target image is rescaled to the range-cross-range plane with the estimated rotational parameter. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed using numerical simulations.

  15. SAR target recognition and posture estimation using spatial pyramid pooling within CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lijiang; Liu, Xiaohua; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Zhao, Yuejin

    2018-01-01

    Many convolution neural networks(CNN) architectures have been proposed to strengthen the performance on synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition (SAR-ATR) and obtained state-of-art results on targets classification on MSTAR database, but few methods concern about the estimation of depression angle and azimuth angle of targets. To get better effect on learning representation of hierarchies of features on both 10-class target classification task and target posture estimation tasks, we propose a new CNN architecture with spatial pyramid pooling(SPP) which can build high hierarchy of features map by dividing the convolved feature maps from finer to coarser levels to aggregate local features of SAR images. Experimental results on MSTAR database show that the proposed architecture can get high recognition accuracy as 99.57% on 10-class target classification task as the most current state-of-art methods, and also get excellent performance on target posture estimation tasks which pays attention to depression angle variety and azimuth angle variety. What's more, the results inspire us the application of deep learning on SAR target posture description.

  16. Low Complexity Moving Target Parameter Estimation for MIMO Radar using 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah

    2017-06-16

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to localize a target and estimate its reflection coefficient, a given cost function is usually optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the grid resolution. Increasing the number of grid points enhances the resolution of the estimator but also increases its computational complexity exponentially. In this work, two reduced complexity algorithms are derived based on Capon and amplitude and phase estimation (APES) to estimate the reflection coefficient, angular location and, Doppler shift of multiple moving targets. By exploiting the structure of the terms, the cost-function is brought into a form that allows us to apply the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform (2D-FFT) and reduce the computational complexity of estimation. Using low resolution 2D-FFT, the proposed algorithm identifies sub-optimal estimates and feeds them as initial points to the derived Newton gradient algorithm. In contrast to the grid-based search algorithms, the proposed algorithm can optimally estimate on- and off-the-grid targets in very low computational complexity. A new APES cost-function with better estimation performance is also discussed. Generalized expressions of the Cramér-Rao lower bound are derived to asses the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Low Complexity Moving Target Parameter Estimation for MIMO Radar using 2D-FFT

    KAUST Repository

    Jardak, Seifallah; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar, to localize a target and estimate its reflection coefficient, a given cost function is usually optimized over a grid of points. The performance of such algorithms is directly affected by the grid resolution. Increasing the number of grid points enhances the resolution of the estimator but also increases its computational complexity exponentially. In this work, two reduced complexity algorithms are derived based on Capon and amplitude and phase estimation (APES) to estimate the reflection coefficient, angular location and, Doppler shift of multiple moving targets. By exploiting the structure of the terms, the cost-function is brought into a form that allows us to apply the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform (2D-FFT) and reduce the computational complexity of estimation. Using low resolution 2D-FFT, the proposed algorithm identifies sub-optimal estimates and feeds them as initial points to the derived Newton gradient algorithm. In contrast to the grid-based search algorithms, the proposed algorithm can optimally estimate on- and off-the-grid targets in very low computational complexity. A new APES cost-function with better estimation performance is also discussed. Generalized expressions of the Cramér-Rao lower bound are derived to asses the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Low complexity algorithms to independently and jointly estimate the location and range of targets using FMCW

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2017-05-12

    The estimation of angular-location and range of a target is a joint optimization problem. In this work, to estimate these parameters, by meticulously evaluating the phase of the received samples, low complexity sequential and joint estimation algorithms are proposed. We use a single-input and multiple-output (SIMO) system and transmit frequency-modulated continuous-wave signal. In the proposed algorithm, it is shown that by ignoring very small value terms in the phase of the received samples, fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) and two-dimensional FFT can be exploited to estimate these parameters. Sequential estimation algorithm uses FFT and requires only one received snapshot to estimate the angular-location. Joint estimation algorithm uses two-dimensional FFT to estimate the angular-location and range of the target. Simulation results show that joint estimation algorithm yields better mean-squared-error (MSE) for the estimation of angular-location and much lower run-time compared to conventional MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm.

  19. Low complexity algorithms to independently and jointly estimate the location and range of targets using FMCW

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid; Jardak, Seifallah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    The estimation of angular-location and range of a target is a joint optimization problem. In this work, to estimate these parameters, by meticulously evaluating the phase of the received samples, low complexity sequential and joint estimation algorithms are proposed. We use a single-input and multiple-output (SIMO) system and transmit frequency-modulated continuous-wave signal. In the proposed algorithm, it is shown that by ignoring very small value terms in the phase of the received samples, fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) and two-dimensional FFT can be exploited to estimate these parameters. Sequential estimation algorithm uses FFT and requires only one received snapshot to estimate the angular-location. Joint estimation algorithm uses two-dimensional FFT to estimate the angular-location and range of the target. Simulation results show that joint estimation algorithm yields better mean-squared-error (MSE) for the estimation of angular-location and much lower run-time compared to conventional MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm.

  20. Joint angle and Doppler frequency estimation of coherent targets in monostatic MIMO radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Renzheng; Zhang, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    This paper discusses the problem of joint direction of arrival (DOA) and Doppler frequency estimation of coherent targets in a monostatic multiple-input multiple-output radar. In the proposed algorithm, we perform a reduced dimension (RD) transformation on the received signal first and then use forward spatial smoothing (FSS) technique to decorrelate the coherence and obtain joint estimation of DOA and Doppler frequency by exploiting the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm. The joint estimated parameters of the proposed RD-FSS-ESPRIT are automatically paired. Compared with the conventional FSS-ESPRIT algorithm, our RD-FSS-ESPRIT algorithm has much lower complexity and better estimation performance of both DOA and frequency. The variance of the estimation error and the Cramer-Rao Bound of the DOA and frequency estimation are derived. Simulation results show the effectiveness and improvement of our algorithm.

  1. Targeting estimation of CCC-GARCH models with infinite fourth moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Søndergaard

    . In this paper we consider the large-sample properties of the variance targeting estimator for the multivariate extended constant conditional correlation GARCH model when the distribution of the data generating process has infinite fourth moments. Using non-standard limit theory we derive new results...... for the estimator stating that its limiting distribution is multivariate stable. The rate of consistency of the estimator is slower than √Τ (as obtained by the quasi-maximum likelihood estimator) and depends on the tails of the data generating process....

  2. Target Tracking in 3-D Using Estimation Based Nonlinear Control Laws for UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimation based backstepping like control law design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV to track a moving target in 3-D space. A ground-based sensor or an onboard seeker antenna provides range, azimuth angle, and elevation angle measurements to a chaser UAV that implements an extended Kalman filter (EKF to estimate the full state of the target. A nonlinear controller then utilizes this estimated target state and the chaser’s state to provide speed, flight path, and course/heading angle commands to the chaser UAV. Tracking performance with respect to measurement uncertainty is evaluated for three cases: (1 stationary white noise; (2 stationary colored noise and (3 non-stationary (range correlated white noise. Furthermore, in an effort to improve tracking performance, the measurement model is made more realistic by taking into consideration range-dependent uncertainties in the measurements, i.e., as the chaser closes in on the target, measurement uncertainties are reduced in the EKF, thus providing the UAV with more accurate control commands. Simulation results for these cases are shown to illustrate target state estimation and trajectory tracking performance.

  3. Methodology for estimation of potential for solar water heating in a target area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Indu R.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2007-01-01

    Proper estimation of potential of any renewable energy technology is essential for planning and promotion of the technology. The methods reported in literature for estimation of potential of solar water heating in a target area are aggregate in nature. A methodology for potential estimation (technical, economic and market potential) of solar water heating in a target area is proposed in this paper. This methodology links the micro-level factors and macro-level market effects affecting the diffusion or adoption of solar water heating systems. Different sectors with end uses of low temperature hot water are considered for potential estimation. Potential is estimated at each end use point by simulation using TRNSYS taking micro-level factors. The methodology is illustrated for a synthetic area in India with an area of 2 sq. km and population of 10,000. The end use sectors considered are residential, hospitals, nursing homes and hotels. The estimated technical potential and market potential are 1700 m 2 and 350 m 2 of collector area, respectively. The annual energy savings for the technical potential in the area is estimated as 110 kW h/capita and 0.55 million-kW h/sq. km. area, with an annual average peak saving of 1 MW. The annual savings is 650-kW h per m 2 of collector area and accounts for approximately 3% of the total electricity consumption of the target area. Some of the salient features of the model are the factors considered for potential estimation; estimation of electrical usage pattern for typical day, amount of electricity savings and savings during the peak load. The framework is general and enables accurate estimation of potential of solar water heating for a city, block. Energy planners and policy makers can use this framework for tracking and promotion of diffusion of solar water heating systems. (author)

  4. Joint sparsity based heterogeneous data-level fusion for target detection and estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ruixin; Zulch, Peter; Distasio, Marcello; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe

    2017-05-01

    Typical surveillance systems employ decision- or feature-level fusion approaches to integrate heterogeneous sensor data, which are sub-optimal and incur information loss. In this paper, we investigate data-level heterogeneous sensor fusion. Since the sensors monitor the common targets of interest, whose states can be determined by only a few parameters, it is reasonable to assume that the measurement domain has a low intrinsic dimensionality. For heterogeneous sensor data, we develop a joint-sparse data-level fusion (JSDLF) approach based on the emerging joint sparse signal recovery techniques by discretizing the target state space. This approach is applied to fuse signals from multiple distributed radio frequency (RF) signal sensors and a video camera for joint target detection and state estimation. The JSDLF approach is data-driven and requires minimum prior information, since there is no need to know the time-varying RF signal amplitudes, or the image intensity of the targets. It can handle non-linearity in the sensor data due to state space discretization and the use of frequency/pixel selection matrices. Furthermore, for a multi-target case with J targets, the JSDLF approach only requires discretization in a single-target state space, instead of discretization in a J-target state space, as in the case of the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) or the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate that the proposed JSDLF approach achieves excellent performance with near real-time accurate target position and velocity estimates.

  5. A network-based multi-target computational estimation scheme for anticoagulant activities of compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional virtual screening method pays more attention on predicted binding affinity between drug molecule and target related to a certain disease instead of phenotypic data of drug molecule against disease system, as is often less effective on discovery of the drug which is used to treat many types of complex diseases. Virtual screening against a complex disease by general network estimation has become feasible with the development of network biology and system biology. More effective methods of computational estimation for the whole efficacy of a compound in a complex disease system are needed, given the distinct weightiness of the different target in a biological process and the standpoint that partial inhibition of several targets can be more efficient than the complete inhibition of a single target. METHODOLOGY: We developed a novel approach by integrating the affinity predictions from multi-target docking studies with biological network efficiency analysis to estimate the anticoagulant activities of compounds. From results of network efficiency calculation for human clotting cascade, factor Xa and thrombin were identified as the two most fragile enzymes, while the catalytic reaction mediated by complex IXa:VIIIa and the formation of the complex VIIIa:IXa were recognized as the two most fragile biological matter in the human clotting cascade system. Furthermore, the method which combined network efficiency with molecular docking scores was applied to estimate the anticoagulant activities of a serial of argatroban intermediates and eight natural products respectively. The better correlation (r = 0.671 between the experimental data and the decrease of the network deficiency suggests that the approach could be a promising computational systems biology tool to aid identification of anticoagulant activities of compounds in drug discovery. CONCLUSIONS: This article proposes a network-based multi-target computational estimation

  6. A network-based multi-target computational estimation scheme for anticoagulant activities of compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Xudong; Li, Canghai; Chen, Lirong; Song, Jun; Tang, Yalin; Xu, Xiaojie

    2011-03-22

    Traditional virtual screening method pays more attention on predicted binding affinity between drug molecule and target related to a certain disease instead of phenotypic data of drug molecule against disease system, as is often less effective on discovery of the drug which is used to treat many types of complex diseases. Virtual screening against a complex disease by general network estimation has become feasible with the development of network biology and system biology. More effective methods of computational estimation for the whole efficacy of a compound in a complex disease system are needed, given the distinct weightiness of the different target in a biological process and the standpoint that partial inhibition of several targets can be more efficient than the complete inhibition of a single target. We developed a novel approach by integrating the affinity predictions from multi-target docking studies with biological network efficiency analysis to estimate the anticoagulant activities of compounds. From results of network efficiency calculation for human clotting cascade, factor Xa and thrombin were identified as the two most fragile enzymes, while the catalytic reaction mediated by complex IXa:VIIIa and the formation of the complex VIIIa:IXa were recognized as the two most fragile biological matter in the human clotting cascade system. Furthermore, the method which combined network efficiency with molecular docking scores was applied to estimate the anticoagulant activities of a serial of argatroban intermediates and eight natural products respectively. The better correlation (r = 0.671) between the experimental data and the decrease of the network deficiency suggests that the approach could be a promising computational systems biology tool to aid identification of anticoagulant activities of compounds in drug discovery. This article proposes a network-based multi-target computational estimation method for anticoagulant activities of compounds by

  7. Brand market positions estimation and defining the strategic targets of its development

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Makhnusha

    2010-01-01

    In this article the author generalizes the concept of brand characteristics which influenceits profitability and market positions. An approach to brand market positions estimation anddefining the strategic targets of its development is proposed.Keywords: brand, brand expansion, brand extension, brand value, brand power, brandrelevance, brand awareness.

  8. Multimedia approach to estimating target cleanup levels for soils at hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1990-04-01

    Contaminated soils at hazardous and nuclear waste sites pose a potential threat to human health via transport through environmental media and subsequent human intake. To minimize health risks, it is necessary to identify those risks and ensure that appropriate actions are taken to protect public health. The regulatory process may typically include identification of target cleanup levels and evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial alternatives and the corresponding reduction in risks at a site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends that exposure assessments be combined with toxicity information to quantify the health risk posed by a specific site. This recommendation then forms the basis for establishing target cleanup levels. An exposure assessment must first identify the chemical concentration in a specific medium (soil, water, air, or food), estimate the exposure potential based on human intake from that media, and then combined with health criteria to estimate the upperbound health risks for noncarcinogens and carcinogens. Estimation of target cleanup levels involves the use of these same principles but can occur in reverse order. The procedure starts from establishing a permissible health effect level and ends with an estimated target cleanup level through an exposure assessment process. 17 refs

  9. Estimation of the target stem-cell population size in chronic myeloid leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radivoyevitch, T.; Ramsey, M.J.; Tucker, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Estimation of the number of hematopoietic stem cells capable of causing chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is relevant to the development of biologically based risk models of radiation-induced CML. Through a comparison of the age structure of CML incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the age structure of chromosomal translocations found in healthy subjects, the number of CML target stem cells is estimated for individuals above 20 years of age. The estimation involves three steps. First, CML incidence among adults is fit to an exponentially increasing function of age. Next, assuming a relatively short waiting time distribution between BCR-ABL induction and the appearance of CML, an exponential age function with rate constants fixed to the values found for CML is fitted to the translocation data. Finally, assuming that translocations are equally likely to occur between any two points in the genome, the parameter estimates found in the first two steps are used to estimate the number of target stem cells for CML. The population-averaged estimates of this number are found to be 1.86 x 10 8 for men and 1.21 x 10 8 for women; the 95% confidence intervals of these estimates are (1.34 x 10 8 , 2.50 x 10 8 ) and (0.84 x 10 8 , 1.83 x 10 8 ), respectively. (orig.)

  10. Source fault model of the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, estimated from the detailed distribution of tsunami run-up heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuta, Nobuhisa; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sugito, Nobuhiko; Nakata, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of tsunami run-up heights generally has spatial variations, because run-up heights are controlled by coastal topography including local-scale landforms such as natural levees, in addition to land use. Focusing on relationships among coastal topography, land conditions, and tsunami run-up heights of historical tsunamis—Meiji Sanriku (1896 A.D.), Syowa Sanriku (1933 A.D.), and Chilean Sanriku (1960 A.D.) tsunamis—along the Sanriku coast, it is found that the wavelength of a tsunami determines inundation areas as well as run-up heights. Small bays facing the Pacific Ocean are sensitive to short wavelength tsunamis, and large bays are sensitive to long wavelength tsunamis. The tsunami observed off Kamaishi during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake was composed of both short and long wavelength components. We examined run-up heights of the Tohoku tsunami, and found that: (1) coastal areas north of Kamaishi and south of Yamamoto were mainly attacked by short wavelength tsunamis; and (2) no evidence of short wavelength tsunamis was observed from Ofunato to the Oshika Peninsula. This observation coincides with the geomorphologically proposed source fault model, and indicates that the extraordinary large slip along the shallow part of the plate boundary off Sendai, proposed by seismological and geodesic analyses, is not needed to explain the run-up heights of the Tohoku tsunami. To better understand spatial variations of tsunami run-up heights, submarine crustal movements, and source faults, a detailed analysis is required of coastal topography, land conditions, and submarine tectonic landforms from the perspective of geomorphology. (author)

  11. Target Centroid Position Estimation of Phase-Path Volume Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjun Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of easily losing track target when obstacles appear in intelligent robot target tracking, this paper proposes a target tracking algorithm integrating reduced dimension optimal Kalman filtering algorithm based on phase-path volume integral with Camshift algorithm. After analyzing the defects of Camshift algorithm, compare the performance with the SIFT algorithm and Mean Shift algorithm, and Kalman filtering algorithm is used for fusion optimization aiming at the defects. Then aiming at the increasing amount of calculation in integrated algorithm, reduce dimension with the phase-path volume integral instead of the Gaussian integral in Kalman algorithm and reduce the number of sampling points in the filtering process without influencing the operational precision of the original algorithm. Finally set the target centroid position from the Camshift algorithm iteration as the observation value of the improved Kalman filtering algorithm to fix predictive value; thus to make optimal estimation of target centroid position and keep the target tracking so that the robot can understand the environmental scene and react in time correctly according to the changes. The experiments show that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper shows good performance in target tracking with obstructions and reduces the computational complexity of the algorithm through the dimension reduction.

  12. Estimation of direction of arrival of a moving target using subspace based approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ripul; Das, Utpal; Akula, Aparna; Kumar, Satish; Sardana, H. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, array processing techniques based on subspace decomposition of signal have been evaluated for estimation of direction of arrival of moving targets using acoustic signatures. Three subspace based approaches - Incoherent Wideband Multiple Signal Classification (IWM), Least Square-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotation Invariance Techniques (LS-ESPRIT) and Total Least Square- ESPIRIT (TLS-ESPRIT) are considered. Their performance is compared with conventional time delay estimation (TDE) approaches such as Generalized Cross Correlation (GCC) and Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). Performance evaluation has been conducted on experimentally generated data consisting of acoustic signatures of four different types of civilian vehicles moving in defined geometrical trajectories. Mean absolute error and standard deviation of the DOA estimates w.r.t. ground truth are used as performance evaluation metrics. Lower statistical values of mean error confirm the superiority of subspace based approaches over TDE based techniques. Amongst the compared methods, LS-ESPRIT indicated better performance.

  13. Sensitivity of postplanning target and OAR coverage estimates to dosimetric margin distribution sampling parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huijun; Gordon, J James; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2011-02-01

    A dosimetric margin (DM) is the margin in a specified direction between a structure and a specified isodose surface, corresponding to a prescription or tolerance dose. The dosimetric margin distribution (DMD) is the distribution of DMs over all directions. Given a geometric uncertainty model, representing inter- or intrafraction setup uncertainties or internal organ motion, the DMD can be used to calculate coverage Q, which is the probability that a realized target or organ-at-risk (OAR) dose metric D, exceeds the corresponding prescription or tolerance dose. Postplanning coverage evaluation quantifies the percentage of uncertainties for which target and OAR structures meet their intended dose constraints. The goal of the present work is to evaluate coverage probabilities for 28 prostate treatment plans to determine DMD sampling parameters that ensure adequate accuracy for postplanning coverage estimates. Normally distributed interfraction setup uncertainties were applied to 28 plans for localized prostate cancer, with prescribed dose of 79.2 Gy and 10 mm clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. Using angular or isotropic sampling techniques, dosimetric margins were determined for the CTV, bladder and rectum, assuming shift invariance of the dose distribution. For angular sampling, DMDs were sampled at fixed angular intervals w (e.g., w = 1 degree, 2 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees). Isotropic samples were uniformly distributed on the unit sphere resulting in variable angular increments, but were calculated for the same number of sampling directions as angular DMDs, and accordingly characterized by the effective angular increment omega eff. In each direction, the DM was calculated by moving the structure in radial steps of size delta (=0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 mm) until the specified isodose was crossed. Coverage estimation accuracy deltaQ was quantified as a function of the sampling parameters omega or omega eff and delta. The

  14. Methodological Considerations in Estimation of Phenotype Heritability Using Genome-Wide SNP Data, Illustrated by an Analysis of the Heritability of Height in a Large Sample of African Ancestry Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Height has an extremely polygenic pattern of inheritance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed hundreds of common variants that are associated with human height at genome-wide levels of significance. However, only a small fraction of phenotypic variation can be explained by the aggregate of these common variants. In a large study of African-American men and women (n = 14,419, we genotyped and analyzed 966,578 autosomal SNPs across the entire genome using a linear mixed model variance components approach implemented in the program GCTA (Yang et al Nat Genet 2010, and estimated an additive heritability of 44.7% (se: 3.7% for this phenotype in a sample of evidently unrelated individuals. While this estimated value is similar to that given by Yang et al in their analyses, we remain concerned about two related issues: (1 whether in the complete absence of hidden relatedness, variance components methods have adequate power to estimate heritability when a very large number of SNPs are used in the analysis; and (2 whether estimation of heritability may be biased, in real studies, by low levels of residual hidden relatedness. We addressed the first question in a semi-analytic fashion by directly simulating the distribution of the score statistic for a test of zero heritability with and without low levels of relatedness. The second question was addressed by a very careful comparison of the behavior of estimated heritability for both observed (self-reported height and simulated phenotypes compared to imputation R2 as a function of the number of SNPs used in the analysis. These simulations help to address the important question about whether today's GWAS SNPs will remain useful for imputing causal variants that are discovered using very large sample sizes in future studies of height, or whether the causal variants themselves will need to be genotyped de novo in order to build a prediction model that ultimately captures a large fraction of the

  15. Estimation of Bridge Height over Water from Polarimetric SAR Image Data Using Mapping and Projection Algorithm and De-Orientation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haipeng; Xu, Feng; Jin, Ya-Qiu; Ouchi, Kazuo

    An inversion method of bridge height over water by polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is developed. A geometric ray description to illustrate scattering mechanism of a bridge over water surface is identified by polarimetric image analysis. Using the mapping and projecting algorithm, a polarimetric SAR image of a bridge model is first simulated and shows that scattering from a bridge over water can be identified by three strip lines corresponding to single-, double-, and triple-order scattering, respectively. A set of polarimetric parameters based on the de-orientation theory is applied to analysis of three types scattering, and the thinning-clustering algorithm and Hough transform are then employed to locate the image positions of these strip lines. These lines are used to invert the bridge height. Fully polarimetric image data of airborne Pi-SAR at X-band are applied to inversion of the height and width of the Naruto Bridge in Japan. Based on the same principle, this approach is also applicable to spaceborne ALOSPALSAR single-polarization data of the Eastern Ocean Bridge in China. The results show good feasibility to realize the bridge height inversion.

  16. An MCMC Algorithm for Target Estimation in Real-Time DNA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikalo Haris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA microarrays detect the presence and quantify the amounts of nucleic acid molecules of interest. They rely on a chemical attraction between the target molecules and their Watson-Crick complements, which serve as biological sensing elements (probes. The attraction between these biomolecules leads to binding, in which probes capture target analytes. Recently developed real-time DNA microarrays are capable of observing kinetics of the binding process. They collect noisy measurements of the amount of captured molecules at discrete points in time. Molecular binding is a random process which, in this paper, is modeled by a stochastic differential equation. The target analyte quantification is posed as a parameter estimation problem, and solved using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique. In simulation studies where we test the robustness with respect to the measurement noise, the proposed technique significantly outperforms previously proposed methods. Moreover, the proposed approach is tested and verified on experimental data.

  17. Bayesian Nonparametric Estimation of Targeted Agent Effects on Biomarker Change to Predict Clinical Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Rebecca; Guindani, Michele; Thall, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The effect of a targeted agent on a cancer patient's clinical outcome putatively is mediated through the agent's effect on one or more early biological events. This is motivated by pre-clinical experiments with cells or animals that identify such events, represented by binary or quantitative biomarkers. When evaluating targeted agents in humans, central questions are whether the distribution of a targeted biomarker changes following treatment, the nature and magnitude of this change, and whether it is associated with clinical outcome. Major difficulties in estimating these effects are that a biomarker's distribution may be complex, vary substantially between patients, and have complicated relationships with clinical outcomes. We present a probabilistically coherent framework for modeling and estimation in this setting, including a hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric mixture model for biomarkers that we use to define a functional profile of pre-versus-post treatment biomarker distribution change. The functional is similar to the receiver operating characteristic used in diagnostic testing. The hierarchical model yields clusters of individual patient biomarker profile functionals, and we use the profile as a covariate in a regression model for clinical outcome. The methodology is illustrated by analysis of a dataset from a clinical trial in prostate cancer using imatinib to target platelet-derived growth factor, with the clinical aim to improve progression-free survival time. PMID:25319212

  18. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  19. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:\\ud To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood.\\ud \\ud STUDY DESIGN:\\ud Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estim...

  20. Target parameter estimation for spatial and temporal formulations in MIMO radars using compressive sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Hussain; Ahmed, Sajid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Sharawi, Mohammad S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Conventional algorithms used for parameter estimation in colocated multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radars require the inversion of the covariance matrix of the received spatial samples. In these algorithms, the number of received snapshots should be at least equal to the size of the covariance matrix. For large size MIMO antenna arrays, the inversion of the covariance matrix becomes computationally very expensive. Compressive sensing (CS) algorithms which do not require the inversion of the complete covariance matrix can be used for parameter estimation with fewer number of received snapshots. In this work, it is shown that the spatial formulation is best suitable for large MIMO arrays when CS algorithms are used. A temporal formulation is proposed which fits the CS algorithms framework, especially for small size MIMO arrays. A recently proposed low-complexity CS algorithm named support agnostic Bayesian matching pursuit (SABMP) is used to estimate target parameters for both spatial and temporal formulations for the unknown number of targets. The simulation results show the advantage of SABMP algorithm utilizing low number of snapshots and better parameter estimation for both small and large number of antenna elements. Moreover, it is shown by simulations that SABMP is more effective than other existing algorithms at high signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Target parameter estimation for spatial and temporal formulations in MIMO radars using compressive sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Hussain

    2017-01-09

    Conventional algorithms used for parameter estimation in colocated multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radars require the inversion of the covariance matrix of the received spatial samples. In these algorithms, the number of received snapshots should be at least equal to the size of the covariance matrix. For large size MIMO antenna arrays, the inversion of the covariance matrix becomes computationally very expensive. Compressive sensing (CS) algorithms which do not require the inversion of the complete covariance matrix can be used for parameter estimation with fewer number of received snapshots. In this work, it is shown that the spatial formulation is best suitable for large MIMO arrays when CS algorithms are used. A temporal formulation is proposed which fits the CS algorithms framework, especially for small size MIMO arrays. A recently proposed low-complexity CS algorithm named support agnostic Bayesian matching pursuit (SABMP) is used to estimate target parameters for both spatial and temporal formulations for the unknown number of targets. The simulation results show the advantage of SABMP algorithm utilizing low number of snapshots and better parameter estimation for both small and large number of antenna elements. Moreover, it is shown by simulations that SABMP is more effective than other existing algorithms at high signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Reduced complexity FFT-based DOA and DOD estimation for moving target in bistatic MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Hussain

    2016-06-24

    In this paper, we consider a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. We propose a reduced complexity algorithm to estimate the direction-of-arrival (DOA) and direction-of-departure (DOD) for moving target. We show that the calculation of parameter estimation can be expressed in terms of one-dimensional fast-Fourier-transforms which drastically reduces the complexity of the optimization algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the two-dimension multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC) and reduced-dimension MUSIC (RD-MUSIC) algorithms. It is shown by simulations, our proposed algorithm has better estimation performance and lower computational complexity compared to the 2D-MUSIC and RD-MUSIC algorithms. Moreover, simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm achieves the Cramer-Rao lower bound. © 2016 IEEE.

  3. Does sitting height ratio affect estimates of obesity prevalence among Canadian Inuit? Results from the 2007-2008 Inuit Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tracey; Chateau-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Egeland, Grace M; Young, T Kue

    2011-01-01

    High sitting height ratio (SHR) is a characteristic commonly associated with Inuit morphology. Inuit are described as having short leg lengths and high trunk-to-stature proportions such that cutoffs for obesity derived from European populations may not adequately describe thresholds of disease risk. Further, high SHR may help explain the reduced impact of BMI on metabolic risk factors among Inuit relative to comparison populations. This study investigates the relationship between SHR and body mass index (BMI) in Inuit. Subjects are 2,168 individuals (837 males and 1,331 females) from 36 Inuit communities in the Canadian Arctic. Mean age is 42.63 ± 14.86 years in males and 41.71 ± 14.83 years in females. We use linear regression to examine the association between age, sex, height, sitting height, SHR, waist circumference (WC), and BMI. We then evaluate the efficacy of the relative sitting height adjustment as a method of correcting observed BMI to a population-standardized SHR. Mean BMI is significantly higher than among non-Inuit Canadians. Obesity prevalence is high, particularly among Inuit women. In the regression, only age and WC are significant predictors of BMI. While SHR is significantly greater than that of the US population, there is substantial agreement between overweight and obesity prevalence using observed and corrected BMI. We find no consistent relationship between SHR and BMI and suggest the unique anthropometric and metabolic profile observed in Inuit arise from factors not yet delineated. More complex anthropometric and imaging studies in Inuit are needed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  5. Rotating Parabolic-Reflector Antenna Target in SAR Data: Model, Characteristics, and Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parabolic-reflector antennas (PRAs, usually possessing rotation, are a particular type of targets of potential interest to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR community. This paper is aimed to investigate PRA’s scattering characteristics and then to extract PRA’s parameters from SAR returns, for supporting image interpretation and target recognition. We at first obtain both closed-form and numeric solutions to PRA’s backscattering by geometrical optics (GO, physical optics, and graphical electromagnetic computation, respectively. Based on the GO solution, a migratory scattering center model is at first presented for representing the movement of the specular point with aspect angle, and then a hybrid model, named the migratory/micromotion scattering center (MMSC model, is proposed for characterizing a rotating PRA in the SAR geometry, which incorporates PRA’s rotation into its migratory scattering center model. Additionally, we in detail analyze PRA’s radar characteristics on radar cross-section, high-resolution range profiles, time-frequency distribution, and 2D images, which also confirm the models proposed. A maximal likelihood estimator is developed for jointly solving the MMSC model for PRA’s multiple parameters by optimization. By exploiting the aforementioned characteristics, the coarse parameter estimation guarantees convergency upon global minima. The signatures recovered can be favorably utilized for SAR image interpretation and target recognition.

  6. Adaptive estimation for control of uncertain nonlinear systems with applications to target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyastha, Venkatesh Kattigari

    2005-08-01

    Design of nonlinear observers has received considerable attention since the early development of methods for linear state estimation. The most popular approach is the extended Kalman filter (EKF), that goes through significant degradation in the presence of nonlinearities, particularly if unmodeled dynamics are coupled to the process and the measurement. For uncertain nonlinear systems, adaptive observers have been introduced to estimate the unknown state variables where no priori information about the unknown parameters is available. While establishing global results, these approaches are applicable only to systems transformable to output feedback form. Over the recent years, neural network (NN) based identification and estimation schemes have been proposed that relax the assumptions on the system at the price of sacrificing on the global nature of the results. However, most of the NN based adaptive observer approaches in the literature require knowledge of the full dimension of the system, therefore may not be suitable for systems with unmodeled dynamics. We first propose a novel approach to nonlinear state estimation from the perspective of augmenting a linear time invariant observer with an adaptive element. The class of nonlinear systems treated here are finite but of otherwise unknown dimension. The objective is to improve the performance of the linear observer when applied to a nonlinear system. The approach relies on the ability of the NNs to approximate the unknown dynamics from finite time histories of available measurements. Next we investigate nonlinear state estimation from the perspective of adaptively augmenting an existing time varying observer, such as an EKF. EKFs find their applications mostly in target tracking problems. The proposed approaches are robust to unmodeled dynamics, including unmodeled disturbances. Lastly, we consider the problem of adaptive estimation in the presence of feedback control for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems

  7. An algorithm for 3D target scatterer feature estimation from sparse SAR apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie Ann; Moses, Randolph L.

    2009-05-01

    We present an algorithm for extracting 3D canonical scattering features from complex targets observed over sparse 3D SAR apertures. The algorithm begins with complex phase history data and ends with a set of geometrical features describing the scene. The algorithm provides a pragmatic approach to initialization of a nonlinear feature estimation scheme, using regularization methods to deconvolve the point spread function and obtain sparse 3D images. Regions of high energy are detected in the sparse images, providing location initializations for scattering center estimates. A single canonical scattering feature, corresponding to a geometric shape primitive, is fit to each region via nonlinear optimization of fit error between the regularized data and parametric canonical scattering models. Results of the algorithm are presented using 3D scattering prediction data of a simple scene for both a densely-sampled and a sparsely-sampled SAR measurement aperture.

  8. Signal Processing of Ground Penetrating Radar Using Spectral Estimation Techniques to Estimate the Position of Buried Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanker Man Shrestha

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution is very important for the signal processing of GPR (ground penetration radar to resolve closely buried targets. However, it is not easy to get high resolution as GPR signals are very weak and enveloped by the noise. The MUSIC (multiple signal classification algorithm, which is well known for its super-resolution capacity, has been implemented for signal and image processing of GPR. In addition, conventional spectral estimation technique, FFT (fast Fourier transform, has also been implemented for high-precision receiving signal level. In this paper, we propose CPM (combined processing method, which combines time domain response of MUSIC algorithm and conventional IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform to obtain a super-resolution and high-precision signal level. In order to support the proposal, detailed simulation was performed analyzing SNR (signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, a field experiment at a research field and a laboratory experiment at the University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, were also performed for thorough investigation and supported the proposed method. All the simulation and experimental results are presented.

  9. Target selection and mass estimation for manned NEO exploration using a baseline mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Ralf C.; Hein, Andreas M.; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-06-01

    In recent years Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have received an increased amount of interest as a target for human exploration. NEOs offer scientifically interesting targets, and at the same time function as a stepping stone for achieving future Mars missions. The aim of this research is to identify promising targets from the large number of known NEOs that qualify for a manned sample-return mission with a maximum duration of one year. By developing a baseline mission design and a mass estimation model, mission opportunities are evaluated based on on-orbit mass requirements, safety considerations, and the properties of the potential targets. A selection of promising NEOs is presented and the effects of mission requirements and restrictions are discussed. Regarding safety aspects, the use of free-return trajectories provides the lowest on-orbit mass, when compared to an alternative design that uses system redundancies to ensure return of the spacecraft to Earth. It is discovered that, although a number of targets are accessible within the analysed time frame, no NEO offers both easy access and high incentive for its exploration. Under the discussed aspects a first human exploration mission going beyond the vicinity of Earth will require a trade off between targets that provide easy access and those that are of scientific interest. This lack of optimal mission opportunities can be seen in the small number of only 4 NEOs that meet all requirements for a sample-return mission and remain below an on-orbit mass of 500 metric Tons (mT). All of them require a mass between 315 and 492 mT. Even less ideal, smaller asteroids that are better accessible require an on-orbit mass that exceeds the launch capability of future heavy lift vehicles (HLV) such as SLS by at least 30 mT. These mass requirements show that additional efforts are necessary to increase the number of available targets and reduce on-orbit mass requirements through advanced mission architectures. The need for on

  10. Scenario based tsunami wave height estimation towards hazard evaluation for the Hellenic coastline and examples of extreme inundation zones in South Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Nikolaos S.; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Frentzos, Elias; Krassanakis, Vassilios

    2016-04-01

    A scenario based methodology for tsunami hazard assessment is used, by incorporating earthquake sources with the potential to produce extreme tsunamis (measured through their capacity to cause maximum wave height and inundation extent). In the present study we follow a two phase approach. In the first phase, existing earthquake hazard zoning in the greater Aegean region is used to derive representative maximum expected earthquake magnitude events, with realistic seismotectonic source characteristics, and of greatest tsunamigenic potential within each zone. By stacking the scenario produced maximum wave heights a global maximum map is constructed for the entire Hellenic coastline, corresponding to all expected extreme offshore earthquake sources. Further evaluation of the produced coastline categories based on the maximum expected wave heights emphasizes the tsunami hazard in selected coastal zones with important functions (i.e. touristic crowded zones, industrial zones, airports, power plants etc). Owing to its proximity to the Hellenic Arc, many urban centres and being a popular tourist destination, Crete Island and the South Aegean region are given a top priority to define extreme inundation zoning. In the second phase, a set of four large coastal cities (Kalamata, Chania, Heraklion and Rethymno), important for tsunami hazard, due i.e. to the crowded beaches during the summer season or industrial facilities, are explored towards preparedness and resilience for tsunami hazard in Greece. To simulate tsunamis in the Aegean region (generation, propagation and runup) the MOST - ComMIT NOAA code was used. High resolution DEMs for bathymetry and topography were joined via an interface, specifically developed for the inundation maps in this study and with similar products in mind. For the examples explored in the present study, we used 5m resolution for the topography and 30m resolution for the bathymetry, respectively. Although this study can be considered as

  11. Integrated detection, estimation, and guidance in pursuit of a maneuvering target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Dany

    The thesis focuses on efficient solutions of non-cooperative pursuit-evasion games with imperfect information on the state of the system. This problem is important in the context of interception of future maneuverable ballistic missiles. However, the theoretical developments are expected to find application to a broad class of hybrid control and estimation problems in industry. The validity of the results is nevertheless confirmed using a benchmark problem in the area of terminal guidance. A specific interception scenario between an incoming target with no information and a single interceptor missile with noisy measurements is analyzed in the form of a linear hybrid system subject to additive abrupt changes. The general research is aimed to achieve improved homing accuracy by integrating ideas from detection theory, state estimation theory and guidance. The results achieved can be summarized as follows. (i) Two novel maneuver detectors are developed to diagnose abrupt changes in a class of hybrid systems (detection and isolation of evasive maneuvers): a new implementation of the GLR detector and the novel adaptive- H0 GLR detector. (ii) Two novel state estimators for target tracking are derived using the novel maneuver detectors. The state estimators employ parameterized family of functions to described possible evasive maneuvers. (iii) A novel adaptive Bayesian multiple model predictor of the ballistic miss is developed which employs semi-Markov models and ideas from detection theory. (iv) A novel integrated estimation and guidance scheme that significantly improves the homing accuracy is also presented. The integrated scheme employs banks of estimators and guidance laws, a maneuver detector, and an on-line governor; the scheme is adaptive with respect to the uncertainty affecting the probability density function of the filtered state. (v) A novel discretization technique for the family of continuous-time, game theoretic, bang-bang guidance laws is introduced. The

  12. Cost-effectiveness of targeted screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Monte Carlo-based estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentikäinen, T J; Sipilä, T; Rissanen, P; Soisalon-Soininen, S; Salo, J

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a cost-effectiveness analysis of targeted screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A major emphasis was on the estimation of distributions of costs and effectiveness. We performed a Monte Carlo simulation using C programming language in a PC environment. Data on survival and costs, and a majority of screening probabilities, were from our own empirical studies. Natural history data were based on the literature. Each screened male gained 0.07 life-years at an incremental cost of FIM 3,300. The expected values differed from zero very significantly. For females, expected gains were 0.02 life-years at an incremental cost of FIM 1,100, which was not statistically significant. Cost-effectiveness ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were FIM 48,000 (27,000-121,000) and 54,000 (22,000-infinity) for males and females, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the results for males were stable. Individual variation in life-year gains was high. Males seemed to benefit from targeted AAA screening, and the results were stable. As far as the cost-effectiveness ratio is considered acceptable, screening for males seemed to be justified. However, our assumptions about growth and rupture behavior of AAAs might be improved with further clinical and epidemiological studies. As a point estimate, females benefited in a similar manner, but the results were not statistically significant. The evidence of this study did not justify screening of females.

  13. In vivo estimation of target registration errors during augmented reality laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen; Schneider, Crispin; Bosi, Michele; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Ourselin, Sébastien; Davidson, Brian; Hawkes, David; Clarkson, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    Successful use of augmented reality for laparoscopic surgery requires that the surgeon has a thorough understanding of the likely accuracy of any overlay. Whilst the accuracy of such systems can be estimated in the laboratory, it is difficult to extend such methods to the in vivo clinical setting. Herein we describe a novel method that enables the surgeon to estimate in vivo errors during use. We show that the method enables quantitative evaluation of in vivo data gathered with the SmartLiver image guidance system. The SmartLiver system utilises an intuitive display to enable the surgeon to compare the positions of landmarks visible in both a projected model and in the live video stream. From this the surgeon can estimate the system accuracy when using the system to locate subsurface targets not visible in the live video. Visible landmarks may be either point or line features. We test the validity of the algorithm using an anatomically representative liver phantom, applying simulated perturbations to achieve clinically realistic overlay errors. We then apply the algorithm to in vivo data. The phantom results show that using projected errors of surface features provides a reliable predictor of subsurface target registration error for a representative human liver shape. Applying the algorithm to in vivo data gathered with the SmartLiver image-guided surgery system shows that the system is capable of accuracies around 12 mm; however, achieving this reliably remains a significant challenge. We present an in vivo quantitative evaluation of the SmartLiver image-guided surgery system, together with a validation of the evaluation algorithm. This is the first quantitative in vivo analysis of an augmented reality system for laparoscopic surgery.

  14. Preliminary estimation of minimum target dose in intracavitary radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Oishi-Tanaka, Yumiko; Sugahara, Shinji; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2001-08-01

    In intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) for cervical cancer, minimum target dose (D{sub min}) will pertain to local disease control more directly than will reference point A dose (D{sub A}). However, ICRT has been performed traditionally without specifying D{sub min} since the target volume was not identified. We have estimated D{sub min} retrospectively by identifying tumors using magnetic resonance (MR) images. Pre- and posttreatment MR images of 31 patients treated with high-dose-rate ICRT were used. ICRT was performed once weekly at 6.0 Gy D{sub A}, and involved 2-5 insertions for each patient, 119 insertions in total. D{sub min} was calculated arbitrarily simply at the point A level using the tumor width (W{sub A}) to compare with D{sub A}. W{sub A} at each insertion was estimated by regression analysis with pre- and posttreatment W{sub A}. D{sub min} for each insertion varied from 3.0 to 46.0 Gy, a 16-fold difference. The ratio of total D{sub min} to total D{sub A} for each patient varied from 0.5 to 6.5. Intrapatient D{sub min} difference between the initial insertion and final insertion varied from 1.1 to 3.4. Preliminary estimation revealed that D{sub min} varies widely under generic dose prescription. Thorough D{sub min} specification will be realized when ICRT-applicator insertion is performed under MR imaging. (author)

  15. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  16. Fall from heights: does height really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizo, G; Sciarretta, J D; Gibson, S; Muertos, K; Romano, A; Davis, J; Pepe, A

    2018-06-01

    Fall from heights is high energy injuries and constitutes a fraction of all fall-related trauma evaluations while bearing an increase in morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that despite advancements in trauma care, the overall survivability has not improved in this subset of trauma patients. All adult trauma patients treated after sustaining a fall from heights during a 40-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Admission demographics, clinical data, fall height (ft), injury patterns, ISS, GCS, length of stay, and mortality were reviewed. 116 patients sustained a fall from heights, 90.4% accidental. A mean age of 37± 14.7 years, 86% male, and a fall height of 19 ± 10 ft were encountered. Admission GCS was 13 ± 2 with ISS 10 ± 11. Overall LOS was 6.6 ± 14.9 days and an ICU LOS of 2.8 ± 8.9 days. Falls ≥ 25 ft.(16%) had lower GCS 10.4 ± 5.8, increased ISS 22.6 ± 13.8, a fall height 37.9 ± 13.1 ft and associated increased mortality (p < 0.001). Mortality was 5.2%, a mean distance fallen of 39 ± 22 ft. and an ISS of 31.5 ±16.5. Brain injury was the leading cause of death, 50% with open skull fractures. Level of height fallen is a good predictor of overall outcome and survival. Despite advances in trauma care, death rates remain unchanged. Safety awareness and injury prevention programs are needed to reduce the risk of high-level falls.

  17. Multivariate analysis for the estimation of target localization errors in fiducial marker-based radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Masanori [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: m-nkmr@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Akimoto, Mami; Ueki, Nami; Yamada, Masahiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Tanabe, Hiroaki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Division of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe 650-0047, Japan and Department of Radiation Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Itoh, Akio [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the target localization error (TLE) in terms of the distance between the target and the localization point estimated from the surrogates (|TMD|), the average of respiratory motion for the surrogates and the target (|aRM|), and the number of fiducial markers used for estimating the target (n). Methods: This study enrolled 17 lung cancer patients who subsequently underwent four fractions of real-time tumor tracking irradiation. Four or five fiducial markers were implanted around the lung tumor. The three-dimensional (3D) distance between the tumor and markers was at maximum 58.7 mm. One of the markers was used as the target (P{sub t}), and those markers with a 3D |TMD{sub n}| ≤ 58.7 mm at end-exhalation were then selected. The estimated target position (P{sub e}) was calculated from a localization point consisting of one to three markers except P{sub t}. Respiratory motion for P{sub t} and P{sub e} was defined as the root mean square of each displacement, and |aRM| was calculated from the mean value. TLE was defined as the root mean square of each difference between P{sub t} and P{sub e} during the monitoring of each fraction. These procedures were performed repeatedly using the remaining markers. To provide the best guidance on the answer with n and |TMD|, fiducial markers with a 3D |aRM ≥ 10 mm were selected. Finally, a total of 205, 282, and 76 TLEs that fulfilled the 3D |TMD| and 3D |aRM| criteria were obtained for n = 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) was used to evaluate TLE as a function of |TMD| and |aRM| in each n. Results: |TMD| for n = 1 was larger than that for n = 3. Moreover, |aRM| was almost constant for all n, indicating a similar scale for the marker’s motion near the lung tumor. MRA showed that |aRM| in the left–right direction was the major cause of TLE; however, the contribution made little difference to the 3D TLE because of the small amount of motion in the left–right direction. The TLE

  18. Estimated refractive index and solid density of DT, with application to hollow-microsphere laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, C.K.; Tsugawa, R.T.; Hendricks, C.D.; Souers, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The literature values for the 0.55-μm refractive index N of liquid and gaseous H 2 and D 2 are combined to yield the equation (N - 1) = [(3.15 +- 0.12) x 10 -6 ]rho, where rho is the density in moles per cubic meter. This equation can be extrapolated to 300 0 K for use on DT in solid, liquid, and gas phases. The equation is based on a review of solid-hydrogen densities measured in bulk and also by diffraction methods. By extrapolation, the estimated densities and 0.55-μm refractive indices for DT are given. Radiation-induced point defects could possibly cause optical absorption and a resulting increased refractive index in solid DT and T 2 . The effect of the DT refractive index in measuring glass and cryogenic DT laser targets is also described

  19. Estimation of CO2 flux from targeted satellite observations: a Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Graham

    2014-01-01

    We consider the estimation of carbon dioxide flux at the ocean–atmosphere interface, given weighted averages of the mixing ratio in a vertical atmospheric column. In particular we examine the dependence of the posterior covariance on the weighting function used in taking observations, motivated by the fact that this function is instrument-dependent, hence one needs the ability to compare different weights. The estimation problem is considered using a variational data assimilation method, which is shown to admit an equivalent infinite-dimensional Bayesian formulation. The main tool in our investigation is an explicit formula for the posterior covariance in terms of the prior covariance and observation operator. Using this formula, we compare weighting functions concentrated near the surface of the earth with those concentrated near the top of the atmosphere, in terms of the resulting covariance operators. We also consider the problem of observational targeting, and ask if it is possible to reduce the covariance in a prescribed direction through an appropriate choice of weighting function. We find that this is not the case—there exist directions in which one can never gain information, regardless of the choice of weight. (paper)

  20. Estimation of the tritium retention in ITER tungsten divertor target using macroscopic rate equations simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodille, E. A.; Bernard, E.; Markelj, S.; Mougenot, J.; Becquart, C. S.; Bisson, R.; Grisolia, C.

    2017-12-01

    Based on macroscopic rate equation simulations of tritium migration in an actively cooled tungsten (W) plasma facing component (PFC) using the code MHIMS (migration of hydrogen isotopes in metals), an estimation has been made of the tritium retention in ITER W divertor target during a non-uniform exponential distribution of particle fluxes. Two grades of materials are considered to be exposed to tritium ions: an undamaged W and a damaged W exposed to fast fusion neutrons. Due to strong temperature gradient in the PFC, Soret effect’s impacts on tritium retention is also evaluated for both cases. Thanks to the simulation, the evolutions of the tritium retention and the tritium migration depth are obtained as a function of the implanted flux and the number of cycles. From these evolutions, extrapolation laws are built to estimate the number of cycles needed for tritium to permeate from the implantation zone to the cooled surface and to quantify the corresponding retention of tritium throughout the W PFC.

  1. Estimation of Inflationary Expectations and the Effectiveness of Inflation Targeting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia CRISTESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The credibility and accountability of a central bank, acting in an inflation targeting regime, are essential because they allow a sustainable anchoring of the inflationary anticipation of economic agents. Their decisions and behavior will increasingly be grounded on information provided by the central bank, especially if it shows transparency in the process of communicating with the public. Thus, inflationary anticipations are one of the most important channels through which the monetary policy affects the economic activity. They are crucial in the formation of the consumer prices among producers and traders, especially since it is relatively expensive for the economic agents to adjust their prices at short intervals. That is why many central banks use response functions containing inflationary anticipations, in their inflation targeting models. The most frequently problem in relation to these anticipations is that they are based on the assumption of optimal forecasts of future inflation, which are, implicitly, rational anticipations. In fact, the economic agents’ inflationary anticipations are most often adaptive or even irrational. Thus, rational anticipations cannot be used to estimate equations for the Romanian economy because the agents who form their expectations do not have sufficient information and an inflationary environment stable enough to fully anticipate the inflation evolution. The inflation evolution in the Romanian economy helps to calculate adaptive forecasts for which the weight of the "forward looking" component has to be rather important. The economic agents form their inflation expectations for periods of time that, usually, coincide with a production cycle (one year and consider the official and unofficial inflation forecasts present on the market in order to make strategic decisions. Thus, in recent research on inflation modeling, actual inflationary anticipations of economic agents which are revealed based on national

  2. Targeted alpha therapy of mCRPC. Dosimetry estimate of {sup 213}bismuth-PSMA-617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochwil, Clemens; Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Rathke, Hendrik; Giesel, Frederik L. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Schmidt, Karl [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haberkorn, Uwe [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    PSMA-617 is a small molecule targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). In this work, we estimate the radiation dosimetry for this ligand labeled with the alpha-emitter {sup 213}Bi. Three patients with metastatic prostate cancer underwent PET scans 0.1 h, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h and 5 h after injection of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-617. Source organs were kidneys, liver, spleen, salivary glands, bladder, red marrow and representative tumor lesions. The imaging nuclide {sup 68}Ga was extrapolated to the half-life of {sup 213}Bi. The residence times of {sup 213}Bi were forwarded to the instable daughter nuclides. OLINDA was used for dosimetry calculation. Results are discussed in comparison to literature data for {sup 225}Ac-PSMA-617. Assuming a relative biological effectiveness of 5 for alpha radiation, the dosimetry estimate revealed equivalent doses of mean 8.1 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq for salivary glands, 8.1 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq for kidneys and 0.52 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq for red marrow. Liver (1.2 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq), spleen (1.4 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq), bladder (0.28 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq) and other organs (0.26 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq) were not dose-limiting. The effective dose is 0.56 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq. Tumor lesions were in the range 3.2-9.0 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq (median 7.6 Sv{sub RBE5}/GBq). Kidneys would limit the cumulative treatment activity to 3.7 GBq; red marrow might limit the maximum single fraction to 2 GBq. Despite promising results, the therapeutic index was inferior compared to {sup 225}Ac-PSMA-617. Dosimetry of {sup 213}Bi-PSMA-617 is in a range traditionally considered reasonable for clinical application. Nevertheless, compared to {sup 225}Ac-PSMA-617, it suffers from higher perfusion-dependent off-target radiation and a longer biological half-life of PSMA-617 in dose-limiting organs than the physical half-life of {sup 213}Bi, rendering this nuclide as a second choice radiolabel for targeted alpha therapy of prostate cancer. (orig.)

  3. Estimating Elevation Angles From SAR Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Scheme for processing polarimetric synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image data yields estimates of elevation angles along radar beam to target resolution cells. By use of estimated elevation angles, measured distances along radar beam to targets (slant ranges), and measured altitude of aircraft carrying SAR equipment, one can estimate height of target terrain in each resolution cell. Monopulselike scheme yields low-resolution topographical data.

  4. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    /unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...... or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only...

  5. DMPDS: A Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm Targeting High Resolution Videos and Its FPGA Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sanchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new fast motion estimation (ME algorithm targeting high resolution digital videos and its efficient hardware architecture design. The new Dynamic Multipoint Diamond Search (DMPDS algorithm is a fast algorithm which increases the ME quality when compared with other fast ME algorithms. The DMPDS achieves a better digital video quality reducing the occurrence of local minima falls, especially in high definition videos. The quality results show that the DMPDS is able to reach an average PSNR gain of 1.85 dB when compared with the well-known Diamond Search (DS algorithm. When compared to the optimum results generated by the Full Search (FS algorithm the DMPDS shows a lose of only 1.03 dB in the PSNR. On the other hand, the DMPDS reached a complexity reduction higher than 45 times when compared to FS. The quality gains related to DS caused an expected increase in the DMPDS complexity which uses 6.4-times more calculations than DS. The DMPDS architecture was designed focused on high performance and low cost, targeting to process Quad Full High Definition (QFHD videos in real time (30 frames per second. The architecture was described in VHDL and synthesized to Altera Stratix 4 and Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGAs. The synthesis results show that the architecture is able to achieve processing rates higher than 53 QFHD fps, reaching the real-time requirements. The DMPDS architecture achieved the highest processing rate when compared to related works in the literature. This high processing rate was obtained designing an architecture with a high operation frequency and low numbers of cycles necessary to process each block.

  6. Imagery and fear influence height perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2009-04-01

    The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).

  7. Moving-Target Position Estimation Using GPU-Based Particle Filter for IoT Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongseop Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A particle filter (PF has been introduced for effective position estimation of moving targets for non-Gaussian and nonlinear systems. The time difference of arrival (TDOA method using acoustic sensor array has normally been used to for estimation by concealing the location of a moving target, especially underwater. In this paper, we propose a GPU -based acceleration of target position estimation using a PF and propose an efficient system and software architecture. The proposed graphic processing unit (GPU-based algorithm has more advantages in applying PF signal processing to a target system, which consists of large-scale Internet of Things (IoT-driven sensors because of the parallelization which is scalable. For the TDOA measurement from the acoustic sensor array, we use the generalized cross correlation phase transform (GCC-PHAT method to obtain the correlation coefficient of the signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, and we try to accelerate the calculations of GCC-PHAT based TDOA measurements using FFT with GPU compute unified device architecture (CUDA. The proposed approach utilizes a parallelization method in the target position estimation algorithm using GPU-based PF processing. In addition, it could efficiently estimate sudden movement change of the target using GPU-based parallel computing which also can be used for multiple target tracking. It also provides scalability in extending the detection algorithm according to the increase of the number of sensors. Therefore, the proposed architecture can be applied in IoT sensing applications with a large number of sensors. The target estimation algorithm was verified using MATLAB and implemented using GPU CUDA. We implemented the proposed signal processing acceleration system using target GPU to analyze in terms of execution time. The execution time of the algorithm is reduced by 55% from to the CPU standalone operation in target embedded board, NVIDIA Jetson TX1. Also, to apply large

  8. DOA Estimation of Low Altitude Target Based on Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization-multiple Signal Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC algorithm requires significant computational effort and can not be employed for the Direction Of Arrival (DOA estimation of targets in a low-altitude multipath environment. As such, a novel MUSIC approach is proposed on the basis of the algorithm of Adaptive Step Glowworm Swarm Optimization (ASGSO. The virtual spatial smoothing of the matrix formed by each snapshot is used to realize the decorrelation of the multipath signal and the establishment of a fullorder correlation matrix. ASGSO optimizes the function and estimates the elevation of the target. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can overcome the low altitude multipath effect and estimate the DOA of target readily and precisely without radar effective aperture loss.

  9. FrFT-CSWSF: Estimating cross-range velocities of ground moving targets using multistatic synthetic aperture radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chenlei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating cross-range velocity is a challenging task for space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR, which is important for ground moving target indication (GMTI. Because the velocity of a target is very small compared with that of the satellite, it is difficult to correctly estimate it using a conventional monostatic platform algorithm. To overcome this problem, a novel method employing multistatic SAR is presented in this letter. The proposed hybrid method, which is based on an extended space-time model (ESTIM of the azimuth signal, has two steps: first, a set of finite impulse response (FIR filter banks based on a fractional Fourier transform (FrFT is used to separate multiple targets within a range gate; second, a cross-correlation spectrum weighted subspace fitting (CSWSF algorithm is applied to each of the separated signals in order to estimate their respective parameters. As verified through computer simulation with the constellations of Cartwheel, Pendulum and Helix, this proposed time-frequency-subspace method effectively improves the estimation precision of the cross-range velocities of multiple targets.

  10. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Comparison of dust-layer heights from active and passive satellite sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, Arve; Vandenbussche, Sophie; Capelle, Virginie; Cuesta, Juan; Klüser, Lars; Lelli, Luca; Popp, Thomas; Stebel, Kerstin; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2018-05-01

    Aerosol-layer height is essential for understanding the impact of aerosols on the climate system. As part of the European Space Agency Aerosol_cci project, aerosol-layer height as derived from passive thermal and solar satellite sensors measurements have been compared with aerosol-layer heights estimated from CALIOP measurements. The Aerosol_cci project targeted dust-type aerosol for this study. This ensures relatively unambiguous aerosol identification by the CALIOP processing chain. Dust-layer height was estimated from thermal IASI measurements using four different algorithms (from BIRA-IASB, DLR, LMD, LISA) and from solar GOME-2 (KNMI) and SCIAMACHY (IUP) measurements. Due to differences in overpass time of the various satellites, a trajectory model was used to move the CALIOP-derived dust heights in space and time to the IASI, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY dust height pixels. It is not possible to construct a unique dust-layer height from the CALIOP data. Thus two CALIOP-derived layer heights were used: the cumulative extinction height defined as the height where the CALIOP extinction column is half of the total extinction column, and the geometric mean height, which is defined as the geometrical mean of the top and bottom heights of the dust layer. In statistical average over all IASI data there is a general tendency to a positive bias of 0.5-0.8 km against CALIOP extinction-weighted height for three of the four algorithms assessed, while the fourth algorithm has almost no bias. When comparing geometric mean height there is a shift of -0.5 km for all algorithms (getting close to zero for the three algorithms and turning negative for the fourth). The standard deviation of all algorithms is quite similar and ranges between 1.0 and 1.3 km. When looking at different conditions (day, night, land, ocean), there is more detail in variabilities (e.g. all algorithms overestimate more at night than during the day). For the solar sensors it is found that on average SCIAMACHY data

  12. Estimating Single and Multiple Target Locations Using K-Means Clustering with Radio Tomographic Imaging in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    clustering is an algorithm that has been used in data mining applications such as machine learning applications , pattern recognition, hyper-spectral imagery...42 3.7.2 Application of K-means Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.8 Experiment Design...Tomographic Imaging WLAN Wireless Local Area Networks WSN Wireless Sensor Network xx ESTIMATING SINGLE AND MULTIPLE TARGET LOCATIONS USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING

  13. OligoRAP - an Oligo Re-Annotation Pipeline to improve annotation and estimate target specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, P.B.T.; Rauwerda, H.; Nie, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Breit, T.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: High throughput gene expression studies using oligonucleotide microarrays depend on the specificity of each oligonucleotide (oligo or probe) for its target gene. However, target specific probes can only be designed when a reference genome of the species at hand were completely sequenced,

  14. Margin estimation and disturbances of irradiation field in layer-stacking carbon-ion beams for respiratory moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Shinya; Tashiro, Mutsumi; Mizukami, Tomohiro; Tsukishima, Chihiro; Torikoshi, Masami; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2017-11-01

    Carbon-ion therapy by layer-stacking irradiation for static targets has been practised in clinical treatments. In order to apply this technique to a moving target, disturbances of carbon-ion dose distributions due to respiratory motion have been studied based on the measurement using a respiratory motion phantom, and the margin estimation given by the square root of the summation Internal margin2+Setup margin2 has been assessed. We assessed the volume in which the variation in the ratio of the dose for a target moving due to respiration relative to the dose for a static target was within 5%. The margins were insufficient for use with layer-stacking irradiation of a moving target, and an additional margin was required. The lateral movement of a target converts to the range variation, as the thickness of the range compensator changes with the movement of the target. Although the additional margin changes according to the shape of the ridge filter, dose uniformity of 5% can be achieved for a spherical target 93 mm in diameter when the upward range variation is limited to 5 mm and the additional margin of 2.5 mm is applied in case of our ridge filter. Dose uniformity in a clinical target largely depends on the shape of the mini-peak as well as on the bolus shape. We have shown the relationship between range variation and dose uniformity. In actual therapy, the upper limit of target movement should be considered by assessing the bolus shape. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  15. ROV advanced magnetic survey for revealing archaeological targets and estimating medium magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2013-04-01

    magnetic field for the models of thin bed, thick bed and horizontal circular cylinder; some of these procedures demand performing measurements at two levels over the earth's surface), (6) advanced 3D magnetic-gravity modeling for complex media, and (7) development of 3D physical-archaeological (or magnetic-archaeological) model of the studied area. ROV observations also permit to realize a multimodel approach to magnetic data analysis (Eppelbaum, 2005). Results of performed 3D modeling confirm an effectiveness of the proposed ROV low-altitude survey. Khesin's methodology (Khesin et al., 2006) for estimation of upper geological section magnetization consists of land magnetic observations along a profile disposing under inclined relief with the consequent data processing (this method cannot be applied at flat topography). The improved modification of this approach is based on combination of straight and inclined ROV observations that will help to obtain parameters of the medium magnetization with areas of flat terrain relief. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This investigation is funding from the Tel Aviv University - the Cyprus Research Institute combined project "Advanced coupled electric-magnetic archaeological prospecting in Cyprus and Israel". REFERENCES Eppelbaum, L.V., 2005. Multilevel observations of magnetic field at archaeological sites as additional interpreting tool. Proceed. of the 6th Conference of Archaeological Prospection, Roma, Italy, 1-4. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2010. Archaeological geophysics in Israel: Past, Present and Future. Advances of Geosciences, 24, 45-68. Eppelbaum, L.V., 2011. Study of magnetic anomalies over archaeological targets in urban conditions. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 36, No. 16, 1318-1330. Eppelbaum, L.V., Alperovich, L., Zheludev, V. and Pechersky, A., 2011. Application of informational and wavelet approaches for integrated processing of geophysical data in complex environments. Proceed. of the 2011 SAGEEP Conference, Charleston, South Carolina

  16. Estimating the Contribution of Industry Structure Adjustment to the Carbon Intensity Target: A Case of Guangdong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Industry structure adjustment is an effective measure to achieve the carbon intensity target of Guangdong Province. Accurately evaluating the contribution of industry structure adjustment to the carbon intensity target is helpful for the government to implement more flexible and effective policies and measures for CO2 emissions reduction. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the contribution of industry structure adjustment to the carbon intensity target. Firstly, we predict the gross domestic product (GDP with scenario forecasting, industry structure with the Markov chain model, CO2 emissions with a novel correlation mode based on least squares support vector machine, and then we assess the contribution of industry structure adjustment to the carbon intensity target of Guangdong during the period of 2011–2015 under nine scenarios. The obtained results show, in the ideal scenario, that the economy will grow at a high speed and the industry structure will be significantly adjusted, and thus the carbon intensity in 2015 will decrease by 25.53% compared to that in 2010, which will make a 130.94% contribution to the carbon intensity target. Meanwhile, in the conservative scenario, the economy will grow at a low speed and the industry structure will be slightly adjusted, and thus the carbon intensity in 2015 will decrease by 23.89% compared to that in 2010, which will make a 122.50% contribution to the carbon intensity target.

  17. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  18. An antithetic variate to facilitate upper-stem height measurements for critical height sampling with importance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2013-01-01

    Critical height sampling (CHS) estimates cubic volume per unit area by multiplying the sum of critical heights measured on trees tallied in a horizontal point sample (HPS) by the HPS basal area factor. One of the barriers to practical application of CHS is the fact that trees near the field location of the point-sampling sample point have critical heights that occur...

  19. Some estimates of mirror plasma startup by neutral beam heating of pellet and gas cloud targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Willmann, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Hot plasma buildup by neutral beam injection into an initially cold solid or gaseous target is found to be conceivable in large mirror machine experiments such as 2XIIB or MFTF. A simple analysis shows that existing neutral beam intensities are sufficient to ablate suitable targets to form a gas or vapor cloud. An approximate rate equation model is used to follow the subsequent processes of ionization, heating, and hot plasma formation. Solutions of these rate equations are obtained by means of the ''GEAR'' techniques for solving ''stiff'' systems of differential equations. These solutions are in rough agreement with the 2XIIB stream plasma buildup experiment. They also predict that buildup on a suitable nitrogen-like target will occur in the MFTF geometry. In 2XIIB the solutions are marginal; buildup may be possible, but is not certain

  20. Using a Regression Method for Estimating Performance in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Target-Detection Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Fig. 2 Simulation method; the process for one iteration of the simulation . It was repeated 250 times per combination of HR and FAR. Analysis was...distribution is unlimited. 8 Fig. 2 Simulation method; the process for one iteration of the simulation . It was repeated 250 times per combination of HR...stimuli. Simulations show that this regression method results in an unbiased and accurate estimate of target detection performance. The regression

  1. Size matters: Perceived depth magnitude varies with stimulus height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Both the upper and lower disparity limits for stereopsis vary with the size of the targets. Recently, Tsirlin, Wilcox, and Allison (2012) suggested that perceived depth magnitude from stereopsis might also depend on the vertical extent of a stimulus. To test this hypothesis we compared apparent depth in small discs to depth in long bars with equivalent width and disparity. We used three estimation techniques: a virtual ruler, a touch-sensor (for haptic estimates) and a disparity probe. We found that depth estimates were significantly larger for the bar stimuli than for the disc stimuli for all methods of estimation and different configurations. In a second experiment, we measured perceived depth as a function of the height of the bar and the radius of the disc. Perceived depth increased with increasing bar height and disc radius suggesting that disparity is integrated along the vertical edges. We discuss size-disparity correlation and inter-neural excitatory connections as potential mechanisms that could account for these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This plan details command co-ordination and support responses of Commonwealth and State Authorities in the event of an accident with offsite consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plan has been prepared by the AAEC Local Liaison Working Party, comprising representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, NSW Police Department, NSW Board of Fire Commissioners, NSW State Emergency Services and Civil Defence Organisation, NSW Department of Health, NSW Department of Environment and Planning and Sutherland Shire Council

  3. Reduced complexity FFT-based DOA and DOD estimation for moving target in bistatic MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Hussain; Ahmed, Sajid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    classification (2D-MUSIC) and reduced-dimension MUSIC (RD-MUSIC) algorithms. It is shown by simulations, our proposed algorithm has better estimation performance and lower computational complexity compared to the 2D-MUSIC and RD-MUSIC algorithms. Moreover

  4. Estimating Target Orientation with a Single Camera for Use in a Human-Following Robot

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burke, Michael G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a monocular vision-based technique for extracting orientation information from a human torso for use in a robotic human-follower. Typical approaches to human-following use an estimate of only human position for navigation...

  5. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  6. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  7. Estimation of peak heat flux onto the targets for CFETR with extended divertor leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanjia; Chen, Bin; Xing, Zhe; Wu, Haosheng; Mao, Shifeng; Luo, Zhengping; Peng, Xuebing; Ye, Minyou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the outer divertor leg in CFETR. • Density scan SOLPS simulation is done to study the peak heat flux onto target. • Attached–detached regime transition in out divertor occurs at lower puffing rate. • Unexpected delay of attached–detached regime transition occurs in inner divertor. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is now in conceptual design phase. CFETR is proposed as a good complement to ITER for demonstrating of fusion energy. Divertor is a crucial component which faces the plasmas and handles huge heat power for CFETR and future fusion reactor. To explore an effective way for heat exhaust, various methods to reduce the heat flux to divertor target should be considered for CFETR. In this work, the effect of extended out divertor leg on the peak heat flux is studied. The magnetic configuration of the long leg divertor is obtained by EFIT and Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), while a hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the out divertor leg as long as possible inside vacuum vessel. A SOLPS simulation is performed to study peak heat flux of the long leg divertor for CFETR. D 2 gas puffing is used and increasing of the puffing rate means increase of plasma density. Both peak heat flux onto inner and outer targets are below 10 MW/m 2 is achieved. A comparison between the peak heat flux between long leg and conventional divertor shows that an attached–detached regime transition of out divertor occurs at lower gas puffing gas puffing rate for long leg divertor. While for the inner divertor, even the configuration is almost the same, the situation is opposite.

  8. Estimation of peak heat flux onto the targets for CFETR with extended divertor leg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chuanjia; Chen, Bin [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Xing, Zhe [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Haosheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mao, Shifeng, E-mail: sfmao@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Luo, Zhengping; Peng, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the outer divertor leg in CFETR. • Density scan SOLPS simulation is done to study the peak heat flux onto target. • Attached–detached regime transition in out divertor occurs at lower puffing rate. • Unexpected delay of attached–detached regime transition occurs in inner divertor. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is now in conceptual design phase. CFETR is proposed as a good complement to ITER for demonstrating of fusion energy. Divertor is a crucial component which faces the plasmas and handles huge heat power for CFETR and future fusion reactor. To explore an effective way for heat exhaust, various methods to reduce the heat flux to divertor target should be considered for CFETR. In this work, the effect of extended out divertor leg on the peak heat flux is studied. The magnetic configuration of the long leg divertor is obtained by EFIT and Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), while a hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the out divertor leg as long as possible inside vacuum vessel. A SOLPS simulation is performed to study peak heat flux of the long leg divertor for CFETR. D{sub 2} gas puffing is used and increasing of the puffing rate means increase of plasma density. Both peak heat flux onto inner and outer targets are below 10 MW/m{sup 2} is achieved. A comparison between the peak heat flux between long leg and conventional divertor shows that an attached–detached regime transition of out divertor occurs at lower gas puffing gas puffing rate for long leg divertor. While for the inner divertor, even the configuration is almost the same, the situation is opposite.

  9. Bayesian approach to estimate AUC, partition coefficient and drug targeting index for studies with serial sacrifice design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianli; Baron, Kyle; Zhong, Wei; Brundage, Richard; Elmquist, William

    2014-03-01

    The current study presents a Bayesian approach to non-compartmental analysis (NCA), which provides the accurate and precise estimate of AUC 0 (∞) and any AUC 0 (∞) -based NCA parameter or derivation. In order to assess the performance of the proposed method, 1,000 simulated datasets were generated in different scenarios. A Bayesian method was used to estimate the tissue and plasma AUC 0 (∞) s and the tissue-to-plasma AUC 0 (∞) ratio. The posterior medians and the coverage of 95% credible intervals for the true parameter values were examined. The method was applied to laboratory data from a mice brain distribution study with serial sacrifice design for illustration. Bayesian NCA approach is accurate and precise in point estimation of the AUC 0 (∞) and the partition coefficient under a serial sacrifice design. It also provides a consistently good variance estimate, even considering the variability of the data and the physiological structure of the pharmacokinetic model. The application in the case study obtained a physiologically reasonable posterior distribution of AUC, with a posterior median close to the value estimated by classic Bailer-type methods. This Bayesian NCA approach for sparse data analysis provides statistical inference on the variability of AUC 0 (∞) -based parameters such as partition coefficient and drug targeting index, so that the comparison of these parameters following destructive sampling becomes statistically feasible.

  10. Variable selection for confounder control, flexible modeling and Collaborative Targeted Minimum Loss-based Estimation in causal inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Mireille E.; Lok, Judith J.; Gruber, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the appropriateness of the integration of flexible propensity score modeling (nonparametric or machine learning approaches) in semiparametric models for the estimation of a causal quantity, such as the mean outcome under treatment. We begin with an overview of some of the issues involved in knowledge-based and statistical variable selection in causal inference and the potential pitfalls of automated selection based on the fit of the propensity score. Using a simple example, we directly show the consequences of adjusting for pure causes of the exposure when using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Such variables are likely to be selected when using a naive approach to model selection for the propensity score. We describe how the method of Collaborative Targeted minimum loss-based estimation (C-TMLE; van der Laan and Gruber, 2010) capitalizes on the collaborative double robustness property of semiparametric efficient estimators to select covariates for the propensity score based on the error in the conditional outcome model. Finally, we compare several approaches to automated variable selection in low-and high-dimensional settings through a simulation study. From this simulation study, we conclude that using IPTW with flexible prediction for the propensity score can result in inferior estimation, while Targeted minimum loss-based estimation and C-TMLE may benefit from flexible prediction and remain robust to the presence of variables that are highly correlated with treatment. However, in our study, standard influence function-based methods for the variance underestimated the standard errors, resulting in poor coverage under certain data-generating scenarios. PMID:26226129

  11. Concordant preferences for actual height and facial cues to height

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Daniel Edward; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical height has a well-documented effect on human mate preferences. In general, both sexes prefer opposite-sex romantic relationships in which the man is taller than the woman, while individual preferences for height are affected by a person’s own height. Research in human mate choice has demonstrated that attraction to facial characteristics, such as facial adiposity, may reflect references for body characteristics. Here, we tested preferences for facial cues to height. In general, incre...

  12. Role of Target Indicators in Determination of Prognostic Estimates for the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalunina Olha M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers interrelation of planning and forecasting in the construction industry. It justifies a need of determining key indicators for specific conditions of formation of the market model of development of economy, inconstant volumes of production in industry, absence of required volumes of investments for technical re-equipment of the branch, absence of sufficient volumes of own primary energy carriers, sharp growth of prices on imported energy carriers, absence of the modern system of tariffs on electric energy, and inefficiency of energy saving measures. The article offers to form key indicators on the basis of a factor analysis, which envisages stage-by-stage transformation of the matrix of original data with the result of “compression” of information. This allows identification of the most significant properties that influence economic state of the region under conditions of use of minimum of original information. The article forms key target indicators of the energy sector for the Poltava oblast. It calculates, using the proposed method, prognostic values of key indicators of territorial functioning for the Poltava oblast.

  13. The capability of professional- and lay-rescuers to estimate the chest compression-depth target: a short, randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tulder, Raphael; Laggner, Roberta; Kienbacher, Calvin; Schmid, Bernhard; Zajicek, Andreas; Haidvogel, Jochen; Sebald, Dieter; Laggner, Anton N; Herkner, Harald; Sterz, Fritz; Eisenburger, Philip

    2015-04-01

    In CPR, sufficient compression depth is essential. The American Heart Association ("at least 5cm", AHA-R) and the European Resuscitation Council ("at least 5cm, but not to exceed 6cm", ERC-R) recommendations differ, and both are hardly achieved. This study aims to investigate the effects of differing target depth instructions on compression depth performances of professional and lay-rescuers. 110 professional-rescuers and 110 lay-rescuers were randomized (1:1, 4 groups) to estimate the AHA-R or ERC-R on a paper sheet (given horizontal axis) using a pencil and to perform chest compressions according to AHA-R or ERC-R on a manikin. Distance estimation and compression depth were the outcome variables. Professional-rescuers estimated the distance according to AHA-R in 19/55 (34.5%) and to ERC-R in 20/55 (36.4%) cases (p=0.84). Professional-rescuers achieved correct compression depth according to AHA-R in 39/55 (70.9%) and to ERC-R in 36/55 (65.4%) cases (p=0.97). Lay-rescuers estimated the distance correctly according to AHA-R in 18/55 (32.7%) and to ERC-R in 20/55 (36.4%) cases (p=0.59). Lay-rescuers yielded correct compression depth according to AHA-R in 39/55 (70.9%) and to ERC-R in 26/55 (47.3%) cases (p=0.02). Professional and lay-rescuers have severe difficulties in correctly estimating distance on a sheet of paper. Professional-rescuers are able to yield AHA-R and ERC-R targets likewise. In lay-rescuers AHA-R was associated with significantly higher success rates. The inability to estimate distance could explain the failure to appropriately perform chest compressions. For teaching lay-rescuers, the AHA-R with no upper limit of compression depth might be preferable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  15. Methane Flux Estimation from Point Sources using GOSAT Target Observation: Detection Limit and Improvements with Next Generation Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Kataoka, F.; Shiomi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Crisp, D.; Butz, A.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) has an important role in global radiative forcing of climate but its emission estimates have larger uncertainties than carbon dioxide (CO2). The area of anthropogenic emission sources is usually much smaller than 100 km2. The Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has measured CO2 and CH4 column density using sun light reflected from the earth's surface. It has an agile pointing system and its footprint can cover 87-km2 with a single detector. By specifying pointing angles and observation time for every orbit, TANSO-FTS can target various CH4 point sources together with reference points every 3 day over years. We selected a reference point that represents CH4 background density before or after targeting a point source. By combining satellite-measured enhancement of the CH4 column density and surface measured wind data or estimates from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we estimated CH4emission amounts. Here, we picked up two sites in the US West Coast, where clear sky frequency is high and a series of data are available. The natural gas leak at Aliso Canyon showed a large enhancement and its decrease with time since the initial blowout. We present time series of flux estimation assuming the source is single point without influx. The observation of the cattle feedlot in Chino, California has weather station within the TANSO-FTS footprint. The wind speed is monitored continuously and the wind direction is stable at the time of GOSAT overpass. The large TANSO-FTS footprint and strong wind decreases enhancement below noise level. Weak wind shows enhancements in CH4, but the velocity data have large uncertainties. We show the detection limit of single samples and how to reduce uncertainty using time series of satellite data. We will propose that the next generation instruments for accurate anthropogenic CO2 and CH

  16. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  17. The determination of the mixing height. Current progress and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.; Beyrich, F.; Batchvarova, E. [eds.

    1997-10-01

    This report contains extended abstracts of presentations given at a EURASAP Workshop on The Determination of the Mixing Height - Current Progress and Problems. The Workshop, initiated from discussions with Peter Builtjes, was held at Risoe National Laboratory 1-3 October 1997 within the framework of EURASAP (European Association for the Sciences of Air Pollution). The specific topics and chairpersons of the Workshop were: Theoretical Considerations (Sven-Erik Gryning), Mixing Height Estimation from Turbulence Measurements and In-Situ Soundings (Douw Steyn), Mixing Height Determination from NWP-Models (Han van Dop), Climatology and Global Aspects (Werner Klug), Mixing Height Determination from Remote Systems (Werner Klug), Verification of Mixing Height Parameterizations and Models (Frank Beyrich), Mixing Height over Complex Terrain (Ekaterina Batchvarova), Internal Boundary Layers: Mixing Height in Coastal Areas and Over Cities (Allen White). The discussion at the end of the Workshop was chaired by Robert Bornstein. (au)

  18. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  19. Estimating the Causal Impact of Proximity to Gold and Copper Mines on Respiratory Diseases in Chilean Children: An Application of Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Herrera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a town located in a desert area of Northern Chile, gold and copper open-pit mining is carried out involving explosive processes. These processes are associated with increased dust exposure, which might affect children’s respiratory health. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the causal attributable risk of living close to the mines on asthma or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis risk burden in children. Data on the prevalence of respiratory diseases and potential confounders were available from a cross-sectional survey carried out in 2009 among 288 (response: 69 % children living in the community. The proximity of the children’s home addresses to the local gold and copper mine was calculated using geographical positioning systems. We applied targeted maximum likelihood estimation to obtain the causal attributable risk (CAR for asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and both outcomes combined. Children living more than the first quartile away from the mines were used as the unexposed group. Based on the estimated CAR, a hypothetical intervention in which all children lived at least one quartile away from the copper mine would decrease the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis by 4.7 percentage points (CAR: − 4.7 ; 95 % confidence interval ( 95 % CI: − 8.4 ; − 0.11 ; and 4.2 percentage points (CAR: − 4.2 ; 95 % CI: − 7.9 ; − 0.05 for both outcomes combined. Overall, our results suggest that a hypothetical intervention intended to increase the distance between the place of residence of the highest exposed children would reduce the prevalence of respiratory disease in the community by around four percentage points. This approach could help local policymakers in the development of efficient public health strategies.

  20. Estimating the Causal Impact of Proximity to Gold and Copper Mines on Respiratory Diseases in Chilean Children: An Application of Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ronald; Berger, Ursula; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Díaz, Iván; Huber, Stella; Moraga Muñoz, Daniel; Radon, Katja

    2017-12-27

    In a town located in a desert area of Northern Chile, gold and copper open-pit mining is carried out involving explosive processes. These processes are associated with increased dust exposure, which might affect children's respiratory health. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the causal attributable risk of living close to the mines on asthma or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis risk burden in children. Data on the prevalence of respiratory diseases and potential confounders were available from a cross-sectional survey carried out in 2009 among 288 (response: 69 % ) children living in the community. The proximity of the children's home addresses to the local gold and copper mine was calculated using geographical positioning systems. We applied targeted maximum likelihood estimation to obtain the causal attributable risk (CAR) for asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and both outcomes combined. Children living more than the first quartile away from the mines were used as the unexposed group. Based on the estimated CAR, a hypothetical intervention in which all children lived at least one quartile away from the copper mine would decrease the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis by 4.7 percentage points (CAR: - 4.7 ; 95 % confidence interval ( 95 % CI): - 8.4 ; - 0.11 ); and 4.2 percentage points (CAR: - 4.2 ; 95 % CI: - 7.9 ; - 0.05 ) for both outcomes combined. Overall, our results suggest that a hypothetical intervention intended to increase the distance between the place of residence of the highest exposed children would reduce the prevalence of respiratory disease in the community by around four percentage points. This approach could help local policymakers in the development of efficient public health strategies.

  1. Height premium for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of diameter and height of individual trees for Pinus sylvestris L. based on the individualising of crowns using airborne LiDAR and the National Forestry Inventory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valbuena-Rabadán, M.A.; Santamaría-Peña, J.; Sanz-Adán, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The objective of this study is to test the validity of the DBH and total height allometric models fitted to the crown polygon data obtained by the application of a crown delineation and individualisation algorithm which uses the geometrical relationships between the points in the original LiDAR point clouds in the Pinus sylvestris L. stands. Area of study: The study area is located in the province of Álava in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. Material and Methods: The crowns are delineated using data from airborne LiDAR point clouds obtained in the 2008 overflight of the Basque Autonomous Community. The DBH and total height data for field trees are obtained from the plots in the 4th National forest inventory. Main Results: For the adjusted total height and DBH models coefficients of determination of 0.87 and 0.74 respectively were obtained. The root mean squared errors were 10.67% and 18.97% respectively. The distributions of obtained DBH and total height fitted values and the distributions of the DBH and total height of the field trees are very similar except for the DBH below 15 cm. Research highlights: For stands of Pinus sylvestris L. in Álava, the geometrical relationships between the points that correspond to laser signal echoes obtained with airborne LiDAR sensors can be used directly to delineate approximations of the horizontal projections of the crowns of the trees. Although the procedure set out here was developed for stands of P. sylvestris L. in Álava, it can be applied to other conifers in regular stands by adjusting the working parameters of the function which delineates the crowns on the basis of the point cloud. (Author)

  3. Final height after gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist treatment for central precocious puberty : The Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, D; Oostdijk, W; Otten, BJ; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, HA; Waelkens, JJJ; Drop, SLS

    Final height (FH) data of 96 children (87 girls) treated with GnRH agonist for central precocious puberty were studied. In girls mean FH exceeded initial height prediction by 7.4 (5.7) cm (p <0.001); FH was significantly lower than target height, but still in the genetic target range. When treatment

  4. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... and stand density) into the base height-diameter models increased the accuracy of prediction for P. tremula. .... parameter estimates compared with those obtained with ... using coefficient of determination for non-linear regression (. 2. R ), ..... stochastic height-diameter model for maritime pine ecoregions in.

  5. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. (Johan); Sung, Y.-T. (Yn-Tz); J. Sunyer (Jordi); Suriyawongpaisal, P. (Paibul); Swinburn, B.A. (Boyd A.); Sy, R.G. (Rody G.); Szponar, L. (Lucjan); E. Shyong Tai; M.L. Tammesoo; A. Tamosiunas (Abdonas); Tang, L. (Line); Tang, X. (Xun); F. Tanser (Frank); Tao, Y. (Yong); Tarawneh, M.R. (Mohammed Rasoul); Tarp, J. (Jakob); Tarqui-Mamani, C.B. (Carolina B.); Taylor, A. (Anne); Tchibindat, F. (Félicité); Theobald, H. (Holger); L. Thijs (Lutgarde); L. Thuesen (Leif); A. Tjønneland (Anne); Tolonen, H.K. (Hanna K.); Tolstrup, J.S. (Janne S.); Topbas, M. (Murat); Topór-Madry, R. (Roman); M. Torrent (Maties); Toselli, S. (Stefania); Traissac, P. (Pierre); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); Trichopoulos, D. (Dimitrios); Trinh, O.T.H. (Oanh T. H.); Trivedi, A. (Atul); Tshepo, L. (Lechaba); Tulloch-Reid, M.K. (Marshall K.); Tuomainen, T.-P. (Tomi-Pekka); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Turley, M.L. (Maria L.); Tynelius, P. (Per); Tzotzas, T. (Themistoklis); C. Tzourio (Christophe); Ueda, P. (Peter); Ukoli, F.A.M. (Flora A. M.); Ulmer, H. (Hanno); Unal, B. (Belgin); Uusitalo, H.M.T. (Hannu M. T.); Valdivia, G. (Gonzalo); Vale, S. (Susana); D. Valvi (Damaskini); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); Van Herck, K. (Koen); Van Minh, H. (Hoang); L. van Rossem (Lenie); I. van Valkengoed (Irene); D. Vanderschueren (Dirk); D. Vanuzzo (Diego); L. Vatten (Lars); Vega, T. (Tomas); Velasquez-Melendez, G. (Gustavo); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); Monique Verschuren, W.M.; Verstraeten, R. (Roosmarijn); Victora, C.G. (Cesar G.); G. Viegi; L. Viet (Lucie); E. Viikari-Juntura (Eira); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. Vioque (Jesus); Virtanen, J.K. (Jyrki K.); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); B. Viswanathan (Bharathi); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Voutilainen, S. (Sari); Vrdoljak, A. (Ana); M. Vrijheid (Martine); Wade, A.N. (Alisha N.); Wagner, A. (Aline); Walton, J. (Janette); Mohamud, W.N.W. (Wan Nazaimoon Wan); Wang, M.-D. (Ming-Dong); Wang, Q. (Qian); Y. Wang (Ying); Goya Wannamethee, S.; N.J. Wareham (Nick); Weerasekera, D. (Deepa); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Widhalm, K. (Kurt); Widyahening, I.S. (Indah S.); Wiecek, A. (Andrzej); A.H. Wijga (Alet); Wilks, R.J. (Rainford J.); J. Willeit (Johann); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); Wong, J.E. (Jyh Eiin); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Woo, J. (Jean); M. Woodward (Mark); F.C.W. Wu (Frederick C.); Wu, J. (Jianfeng); Wu, S.L. (Shou Ling); Xu, H. (Haiquan); Xu, L. (Liang); Yamborisut, U. (Uruwan); Yan, W. (Weili); Yang, X. (Xiaoguang); Yardim, N. (Nazan); X. Ye (Xingwang); P.K. Yiallouros (P.); Yoshihara, A. (Akihiro); You, Q.S. (Qi Sheng); Younger-Coleman, N.O. (Novie O.); Yusoff, A.F. (Ahmad F.); Zainuddin, A.A. (Ahmad A.); Zambon, S. (Sabina); T. Zdrojewski (T.); Zeng, Y. (Yi); Zhao, D. (Dong); Zhao, W. (Wenhua); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); M. Zhou (Ming); Zhu, D. (Dan); E. Zimmermann; Cisneros, J.Z. (Julio Zuñiga)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The

  6. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Cowan, Melanie; Fortunato, Léa; Bennett, James E.; Danaei, Goodarz; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M.; Laxmaiah, Avula; Kontis, Vasilis; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Riboli, Elio; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Hamid, Zargar Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Othman, Amani Rashed; Raddadi, Rajaa Al; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Aly, Eman; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Wit, Tobias F. Rinke de; Schultsz, Constance; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien; Valkengoed, Irene Gm van

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in

  7. Honeybees (Apis mellifera exhibit flexible visual search strategies for vertical targets presented at various heights [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/51p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Morawetz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When honeybees are presented with a colour discrimination task, they tend to choose swiftly and accurately when objects are presented in the ventral part of their frontal visual field. In contrast, poor performance is observed when objects appear in the dorsal part. Here we investigate if this asymmetry is caused by fixed search patterns or if bees can increase their detection ability of objects in search scenarios when targets appear frequently or exclusively in the dorsal area of the visual field. We trained individual honeybees to choose an orange rewarded target among blue distractors. Target and distractors were presented in the ventral visual field, the dorsal field or both. Bees presented with targets in the ventral visual field consistently had the highest search efficiency, with rapid decisions, high accuracy and direct flight paths. In contrast, search performance for dorsally located targets was inaccurate and slow at the beginning of the experimental phase, but bees increased their search performance significantly after a few foraging bouts: they found the target faster, made fewer errors and flew in a straight line towards the target. However, bees needed thrice as long to improve the search for a dorsally located target when the target’s position changed randomly between the ventral and the dorsal visual field. We propose that honeybees form expectations of the location of the target’s appearance and adapt their search strategy accordingly. A variety of possible mechanisms underlying this behavioural adaptation, for example spatial attention, are discussed.

  8. Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...

  9. Unified height systems after GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  10. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower limb measurements, such as knee height, as well as upper limb measures ... had with bone injuries/fractures affecting height or ulna length; and n = 1 had a ... and heels, buttocks and upper back in contact with the vertical surface of the .... found striking similarity in linear growth of infants to five-year- olds among all ...

  11. Effect of firing conditions & release height on terminal performance of submunitions and conditions for optimum height of release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Gite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Submunitions should exhibit optimum terminal performance at target end when released from certain pre-determined height. Selection of an optimum height of release of the submunitions depends on the terminal parameters like forward throw, remaining velocity, impact angle and flight time. In this paper, the effects of initial firing conditions and height of release on terminal performance of submunitions discussed in detail. For different height of release, the relation between range and forward throw is also established & validated for a number of firing altitude and rocket configurations.

  12. Comments on ‘Temporal significant wave height estimation from wind speed by perceptron Kalman filtering’ by A. Altunkaynak and M. Ozger, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 31(10); 2004,1245-1255

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    wind speed. Interestingly the PKF model is a two layered network (input and output) without hidden layer. Also it is a fact that numerical or physical models have restrictions by certain assumptions and conditions, whereas artificial neural network... is shown by Tsai et al (2002). They have carried out forecasting of significant wave heights and periods at a desired location directly from the observed wave records using a supervised artificial neural network with error back-propagation procedures...

  13. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rabito,Estela Iraci; Vannucchi,Gabriela Bergamini; Suen,Vivian Marques Miguel; Castilho Neto,Laércio Lopes; Marchini,Júlio Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the adequacy of the formula suggested in the literature and/or to develop appropriate equations for the Brazilian population of immobilized patients based on simple anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients were submitted to anthropometry and methods to estimate weight and height of bedridden patients were developed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight-predicting...

  14. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  15. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  16. A new mode of fear expression: perceptual bias in height fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2008-04-01

    Emotion and psychopathology researchers have described the fear response as consisting of four main components--subjective affect, physiology, cognition, and behavior. The current study provides evidence for an additional component in the domain of height fear (perception) and shows that it is distinct from measures of cognitive processing. Individuals High (N = 35) and Low (N = 36) in acrophobic symptoms looked over a two-story balcony ledge and estimated its vertical extent using a direct height estimation task (visual matching), and an indirect task (size estimation); the latter task seems to exhibit little influence from cognitive factors. In addition, implicit and explicit measures of cognitive processing were obtained. Results indicated that, as expected, the High Fear group showed greater relative, implicit height fear associations and explicit threat cognitions. Of primary interest, the High (compared to Low) Fear group estimated the vertical extent to be higher, and judged target sizes to be greater, even when controlling for the cognitive bias measures. These results suggest that emotional factors such as fear are related to perception. (Copyright) 2008 APA.

  17. Joint Direction-of-Departure and Direction-of-Arrival Estimation in a UWB MIMO Radar Detecting Targets with Fluctuating Radar Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idnin Pasya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a joint direction-of-departure (DOD and direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar utilizing ultra wideband (UWB signals in detecting targets with fluctuating radar cross sections (RCS. The UWB MIMO radar utilized a combination of two-way MUSIC and majority decision based on angle histograms of estimated DODs and DOAs at each frequency of the UWB signal. The proposed angle estimation scheme was demonstrated to be effective in detecting targets with fluctuating RCS, compared to conventional spectra averaging method used in subband angle estimations. It was found that a wider bandwidth resulted in improved estimation performance. Numerical simulations along with experimental evaluations in a radio anechoic chamber are presented.

  18. Polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation using high-throughput DNA sequencing of target-enriched pooled DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central role of the somatotrophic axis in animal post-natal growth, development and fertility is well established. Therefore, the identification of genetic variants affecting quantitative traits within this axis is an attractive goal. However, large sample numbers are a pre-requisite for the identification of genetic variants underlying complex traits and although technologies are improving rapidly, high-throughput sequencing of large numbers of complete individual genomes remains prohibitively expensive. Therefore using a pooled DNA approach coupled with target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing, the aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and estimate allele frequency differences across 83 candidate genes of the somatotrophic axis, in 150 Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls divided into two groups divergent for genetic merit for fertility. Results In total, 4,135 SNPs and 893 indels were identified during the resequencing of the 83 candidate genes. Nineteen percent (n = 952 of variants were located within 5' and 3' UTRs. Seventy-two percent (n = 3,612 were intronic and 9% (n = 464 were exonic, including 65 indels and 236 SNPs resulting in non-synonymous substitutions (NSS. Significant (P ® MassARRAY. No significant differences (P > 0.1 were observed between the two methods for any of the 43 SNPs across both pools (i.e., 86 tests in total. Conclusions The results of the current study support previous findings of the use of DNA sample pooling and high-throughput sequencing as a viable strategy for polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation. Using this approach we have characterised the genetic variation within genes of the somatotrophic axis and related pathways, central to mammalian post-natal growth and development and subsequent lactogenesis and fertility. We have identified a large number of variants segregating at significantly different frequencies between cattle groups divergent for calving

  19. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  20. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  1. Development of a method for the estimation of the useful life of the target in one helical; Desarrollo de un metodo para la estimacion de la vida util del target en una unidad de tomoterapia helicoidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Aparicio, J. M.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Martin Rincon, C.; Perez Alvarez, M. E.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Saez Beltran, M.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, N.; Sena Espinel, E. de

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of this degradation and develop a method for the estimation of the duration of the life of the target independently used internally by the technical service. This can serve to plan the date of intervention when it comes to replace this component. (Author)

  2. Simulation of ICESat-2 canopy height retrievals for different ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Slated for launch in late 2017 (or early 2018), the ICESat-2 satellite will provide a global distribution of geodetic measurements from a space-based laser altimeter of both the terrain surface and relative canopy heights which will provide a significant benefit to society through a variety of applications ranging from improved global digital terrain models to producing distribution of above ground vegetation structure. The ATLAS instrument designed for ICESat-2, will utilize a different technology than what is found on most laser mapping systems. The photon counting technology of the ATLAS instrument onboard ICESat-2 will record the arrival time associated with a single photon detection. That detection can occur anywhere within the vertical distribution of the reflected signal, that is, anywhere within the vertical distribution of the canopy. This uncertainty of where the photon will be returned from within the vegetation layer is referred to as the vertical sampling error. Preliminary simulation studies to estimate vertical sampling error have been conducted for several ecosystems including woodland savanna, montane conifers, temperate hardwoods, tropical forest, and boreal forest. The results from these simulations indicate that the canopy heights reported on the ATL08 data product will underestimate the top canopy height in the range of 1 - 4 m. Although simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 will underestimate top canopy height, there is, however, a strong correlation between ICESat-2 heights and relative canopy height metrics (e.g. RH75, RH90). In tropical forest, simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 height correlates strongly with RH90. Similarly, in temperate broadleaf forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights were also strongly correlated with RH90. In boreal forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights are strongly correlated with RH75 heights. It is hypothesized that the correlations between simulated ICESat-2 heights and canopy height metrics are a

  3. The probability of a tornado missile hitting a target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.; Koch, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that tornado missile transportation is a diffusion Markovian process. Therefore, the Green's function method is applied for the estimation of the probability of hitting a unit target area. This propability is expressed through a joint density of tornado intensity and path area, a probability of tornado missile injection and a tornado missile height distribution. (orig.)

  4. An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels.

  5. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  6. Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.

  7. OligoRAP – an Oligo Re-Annotation Pipeline to improve annotation and estimate target specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, P.; Rauwerda, H.; Nie, H.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Breit, T.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - High throughput gene expression studies using oligonucleotide microarrays depend on the specificity of each oligonucleotide (oligo or probe) for its target gene. However, target specific probes can only be designed when a reference genome of the species at hand were completely

  8. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  9. A global boundary-layer height climatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

  10. Measuring perceived ceiling height in a visual comparison task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a height-matching method in which perceived ceiling height had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The height-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling heights between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling height. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling height. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The height matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling height to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.

  11. Estimasi kebutuhan spektrum untuk memenuhi target rencana pita lebar Indonesia di wilayah perkotaan [The estimation of spectrum requirements to meet the target of Indonesia broadband plan in urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasmad Ariansyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pemerintah Indonesia telah mengesahkan Rencana Pita Lebar Indonesia menjelang akhir tahun 2014. Dokumen tersebut berisi panduan dan arah pembangunan pita lebar nasional dan berisi berisi target-target pencapaian berkelanjutan antara tahun 2014-2019. Terkait target capaian pita lebar nirkabel, ketersediaan dan kecukupan spektrum frekuensi merupakan salah satu hal yang sangat penting.  Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengestimasi kebutuhan spektrum frekuensi dalam rangka memenuhi target capaian Rencana Pita Lebar Indonesia khususnya layanan pita lebar nirkabel di wilayah perkotaan. DKI Jakarta dipilih sebagai sampel wilayah perkotaan. Analisis dilakukan dengan menghitung luas cakupan BTS, mengestimasi jumlah potensi pengguna, mengestimasi kebutuhan spektrum dan membandingkannya dengan spektrum yang sudah dialokasikan untuk mendapatkan jumlah kekurangan spektrum. 3G dan 4G diasumsikan sebagai teknologi yang digunakan untuk memenuhi sasaran pita lebar bergerak. Hasil analisis menunjukkan pada rentang tahun 2016-2019 akan terjadi kekurangan spektrum di wilayah perkotaan sebesar 2x234,5 MHz sampai dengan 2x240,5MHz (untuk mode FDD atau sebesar 313 MHz sampai dengan 321 MHz (untuk mode TDD. Spektrum frekuensi merupakan sumber daya yang reusable, dengan mengasumsikan kebutuhan spektrum di perdesaan lebih rendah dibanding kebutuhan di perkotaan, maka estimasi ini dapat pula digunakan untuk menggambarkan kebutuhan spektrum di Indonesia secara keseluruhan.*****Indonesian government has issued Indonesia Broadband Plan (IBP at the end of 2014. IBP provides guidance and direction for the development of national broadband and contains targets in the period of 2014 to 2019. Relating to wireless broadband target, the availability and the adequacy of spectrum is very important. This study was conducted to estimate the spectrum requirements to meet the Indonesia broadband plan target especially the target of mobile broadband in urban area. DKI Jakarta was taken as

  12. Reducing uncertainty of estimated nitrogen load reductions to aquatic systems through spatially targeting agricultural mitigation measures using groundwater nitrogen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Fatemeh; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Jabloun, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    variation across the landscape in natural N-reduction (denitrification) of leached nitrate in the groundwater and surface water systems. A critical basis for including spatial targeting in regulation of N-load in Denmark is the uncertainty associated with the effect of spatially targeting measures, since......The need to further abate agricultural nitrate (N)-loadings to coastal waters in Denmark represents the main driver for development of a new spatially targeted regulation that focus on locating N-mitigation measures in agricultural areas with high N-load. This targeting makes use of the spatial...... the effect will be critically affected by uncertainty in the quantification of the spatial variation in N-reduction. In this study, we used 30 equally plausible N-reduction maps, at 100 m grid and sub-catchment resolutions, for the 85-km2 groundwater dominated Norsminde catchment in Denmark, applying set...

  13. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Takenobu Michioka; Koichi Sada; Kazuki Okabayashi

    2016-01-01

    Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking) on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the...

  14. Spatio-temporal evaluation of plant height in corn via unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sebastian; Assefa, Yared; Vara Prasad, P. V.; Peralta, Nahuel R.; Griffin, Terry W.; Sharda, Ajay; Ferguson, Allison; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.

    2017-07-01

    Detailed spatial and temporal data on plant growth are critical to guide crop management. Conventional methods to determine field plant traits are intensive, time-consuming, expensive, and limited to small areas. The objective of this study was to examine the integration of data collected via unmanned aerial systems (UAS) at critical corn (Zea mays L.) developmental stages for plant height and its relation to plant biomass. The main steps followed in this research were (1) workflow development for an ultrahigh resolution crop surface model (CSM) with the goal of determining plant height (CSM-estimated plant height) using data gathered from the UAS missions; (2) validation of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing plant height (measured plant height); and (3) final estimation of plant biomass via integration of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing stem diameter data. Results indicated a correlation between CSM-estimated plant height and ground-truthing plant height data at two weeks prior to flowering and at flowering stage, but high predictability at the later growth stage. Log-log analysis on the temporal data confirmed that these relationships are stable, presenting equal slopes for both crop stages evaluated. Concluding, data collected from low-altitude and with a low-cost sensor could be useful in estimating plant height.

  15. A new approach to hierarchical data analysis: Targeted maximum likelihood estimation for the causal effect of a cluster-level exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Laura B; Zheng, Wenjing; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya L

    2018-01-01

    We often seek to estimate the impact of an exposure naturally occurring or randomly assigned at the cluster-level. For example, the literature on neighborhood determinants of health continues to grow. Likewise, community randomized trials are applied to learn about real-world implementation, sustainability, and population effects of interventions with proven individual-level efficacy. In these settings, individual-level outcomes are correlated due to shared cluster-level factors, including the exposure, as well as social or biological interactions between individuals. To flexibly and efficiently estimate the effect of a cluster-level exposure, we present two targeted maximum likelihood estimators (TMLEs). The first TMLE is developed under a non-parametric causal model, which allows for arbitrary interactions between individuals within a cluster. These interactions include direct transmission of the outcome (i.e. contagion) and influence of one individual's covariates on another's outcome (i.e. covariate interference). The second TMLE is developed under a causal sub-model assuming the cluster-level and individual-specific covariates are sufficient to control for confounding. Simulations compare the alternative estimators and illustrate the potential gains from pairing individual-level risk factors and outcomes during estimation, while avoiding unwarranted assumptions. Our results suggest that estimation under the sub-model can result in bias and misleading inference in an observational setting. Incorporating working assumptions during estimation is more robust than assuming they hold in the underlying causal model. We illustrate our approach with an application to HIV prevention and treatment.

  16. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Hirt, Christian; Pitoňák, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Regio. The largest geoid undulations between - 747 and 1685 m were found on Mars, with the extreme positive geoidal heights under Olympus Mons in Tharsis region. Large variations in the geoidal geometry are also confirmed on the Moon, with the geoidal heights ranging from - 298 to 461 m. For comparison, the terrestrial geoid undulations are mostly within ± 100 m. We also demonstrate that a commonly used method for computing the geoidal heights that disregards the differences between the gravity field outside and inside topographic masses yields relatively large errors. According to our estimates, these errors are - 0.3/+ 3.4 m for Mercury, 0.0/+ 13.3 m for Venus, - 1.4/+ 125.6 m for Mars, and - 5.6/+ 45.2 m for the Moon.

  17. Estimation of Partial Safety Factors and Target Failure Probability Based on Cost Optimization of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung-Woo; Suh, Kyung-Duck; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2010-01-01

    The breakwaters are designed by considering the cost optimization because a human risk is seldom considered. Most breakwaters, however, were constructed without considering the cost optimization. In this study, the optimum return period, target failure probability and the partial safety factors...

  18. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  19. Discrimination of Vegetation Height Categories With Passive Satellite Sensor Imagery Using Texture Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, Z.; Manakos, I.; Stathaki, T.; Mücher, C.A.; Adamo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation height is a crucial factor in environmental studies, landscape analysis, and mapping applications. Its estimation may prove cost and resource demanding, e.g., employing light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. This study presents a cost-effective framework for height estimation, built

  20. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  1. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T

    2012-01-01

    Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to remote sensing

  2. Estimating Accurate Target Coordinates with Magnetic Resonance Images by Using Multiple Phase-Encoding Directions during Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Jung, Na Young; Park, Chang Kyu; Chang, Won Seok; Jung, Hyun Ho; Chang, Jin Woo

    2018-06-01

    Stereotactic procedures are image guided, often using magnetic resonance (MR) images limited by image distortion, which may influence targets for stereotactic procedures. The aim of this work was to assess methods of identifying target coordinates for stereotactic procedures with MR in multiple phase-encoding directions. In 30 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation, we acquired 5 image sets: stereotactic brain computed tomography (CT), T2-weighted images (T2WI), and T1WI in both right-to-left (RL) and anterior-to-posterior (AP) phase-encoding directions. Using CT coordinates as a reference, we analyzed anterior commissure and posterior commissure coordinates to identify any distortion relating to phase-encoding direction. Compared with CT coordinates, RL-directed images had more positive x-axis values (0.51 mm in T1WI, 0.58 mm in T2WI). AP-directed images had more negative y-axis values (0.44 mm in T1WI, 0.59 mm in T2WI). We adopted 2 methods to predict CT coordinates with MR image sets: parallel translation and selective choice of axes according to phase-encoding direction. Both were equally effective at predicting CT coordinates using only MR; however, the latter may be easier to use in clinical settings. Acquiring MR in multiple phase-encoding directions and selecting axes according to the phase-encoding direction allows identification of more accurate coordinates for stereotactic procedures. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. An interdimensional correlation framework for real-time estimation of six degree of freedom target motion using a single x-ray imager during radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Bertholet, J.; Kim, J.-H.; O'Brien, R.; Booth, J. T.; Poulsen, P. R.; Keall, P. J.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that intrafraction tumour motion monitoring needs to include both 3D translations and 3D rotations. Presently, methods to estimate the rotation motion require the 3D translation of the target to be known first. However, ideally, translation and rotation should be estimated concurrently. We present the first method to directly estimate six-degree-of-freedom (6DoF) motion from the target’s projection on a single rotating x-ray imager in real-time. This novel method is based on the linear correlations between the superior-inferior translations and the motion in the other five degrees-of-freedom. The accuracy of the method was evaluated in silico with 81 liver tumour motion traces from 19 patients with three implanted markers. The ground-truth motion was estimated using the current gold standard method where each marker’s 3D position was first estimated using a Gaussian probability method, and the 6DoF motion was then estimated from the 3D positions using an iterative method. The 3D position of each marker was projected onto a gantry-mounted imager with an imaging rate of 11 Hz. After an initial 110° gantry rotation (200 images), a correlation model between the superior-inferior translations and the five other DoFs was built using a least square method. The correlation model was then updated after each subsequent frame to estimate 6DoF motion in real-time. The proposed algorithm had an accuracy (±precision) of  -0.03  ±  0.32 mm, -0.01  ±  0.13 mm and 0.03  ±  0.52 mm for translations in the left-right (LR), superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions respectively; and, 0.07  ±  1.18°, 0.07  ±  1.00° and 0.06  ±  1.32° for rotations around the LR, SI and AP axes respectively on the dataset. The first method to directly estimate real-time 6DoF target motion from segmented marker positions on a 2D imager was devised. The algorithm was evaluated using 81

  4. Baldcypress Height-Diamter Equations and Their Prediction Confindence Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    1992-01-01

    Height-diameter relationships are an important component in yield estimation, stand description, and damage appraisals. A nonlinear exponential function used extensively in the northwest United States was chosen for bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.). Homogeneity and normality of residuals were examined, and the function as well as the...

  5. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  6. Significant wave height retrieval from synthetic radar images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijaya, Andreas Parama; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2014-01-01

    In many offshore activities radar imagery is used to observe and predict ocean waves. An important issue in analyzing the radar images is to resolve the significant wave height. Different from 3DFFT methods that use an estimate related to the square root of the signal-to-noise ratio of radar images,

  7. Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.R. Feldpausch; L. Banin; O.L. Phillips; T.R. Baker; S.L. Lewis; C.A. Quesada; K. Affum-Baffoe; E.J.M.M. Arets; N.J. Berry; M. Bird; E.S. Brondizio; P de Camargo; J. Chave; G. Djagbletey; T.F. Domingues; M. Drescher; P.M. Fearnside; M.B. Franca; N.M. Fyllas; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; A. Hladik; N. Higuchi; M.O. Hunter; Y. Iida; K.A. Salim; A.R. Kassim; M. Keller; J. Kemp; D.A. King; J.C. Lovett; B.S. Marimon; B.H. Marimon-Junior; E. Lenza; A.R. Marshall; D.J. Metcalfe; E.T.A. Mitchard; E.F. Moran; B.W. Nelson; R. Nilus; E.M. Nogueira; M. Palace; S. Patiño; K.S.-H. Peh; M.T. Raventos; J.M. Reitsma; G. Saiz; F. Schrodt; B. Sonke; H.E. Taedoumg; S. Tan; L. White; H. Woll; J. Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical...

  8. Maternal and Paternal Height and the Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunsung; Magnus, Per

    2018-04-01

    The etiology of preeclampsia is unknown. Tall women have been found to have lower incidence of preeclampsia. This points to a possible biological causal effect but may be because of socioeconomic confounding. We used paternal height as an unexposed control to examine confounding. The MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study) was used to extract data on parental heights, maternal prepregnancy weight, other background factors, and pregnancy outcomes for 99 968 singleton births. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for preeclampsia according to parental height. The adjusted odds ratio for preeclampsia was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for women >172 cm as compared with women 186 cm was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.15) compared with men <178 cm. The association between maternal height and preeclampsia is unlikely to be because of confounding by familial, socioeconomic factors or by fetal genes related to height. The observed association between maternal height and preeclampsia merits further investigation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on an estimation of the public health impact of setting a new target for the reduction of Salmonella in turkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    The quantitative contribution of turkeys and other major animal-food sources to the burden of human salmonellosis in the European Union was estimated. A ‘Turkey Target Salmonella Attribution Model’ (TT-SAM) based on the microbial-subtyping approach was used. TT-SAM includes data from 25 EU Member...... States, four animal-food sources of Salmonella and 23 Salmonella serovars. The model employs 2010 EU statutory monitoring data on Salmonella in animal populations (EU baseline survey data for pigs), data on reported cases of human salmonellosis and food availability data. It estimates that 2.6 %, 10.......6 %, 17.0 % and 56.8 % of the human salmonellosis cases are attributable to turkeys, broilers, laying hens (eggs) and pigs, respectively. The top-6 serovars of fattening turkeys that contribute most to human cases are S. Enteritidis, S. Kentucky, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Virchow and S. Saintpaul...

  10. The taking of Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandilands, B.

    1993-01-01

    Plans for a new research reactor at Lucas Heights have sparked a 'civil war' in New South Wales. The author considers the arguments. The leading antagonists are the local government body - The Sutherland Shire Council, Greenpeace, and the Sutherland Shire Environment Centre. Many of the economic benefits claimed for the existing and proposed replacement reactor have been tagged with question marks. However, ANSTO is confident of refuting claims that the money could be better spent on alternative methods of producing medical isotopes and neutron streams for industry or research, such as particle accelerators. If ANSTO's critics have their way, non-reactor-dependent work like the laser enrichment project could continue without the alleged hazards of sustained nuclear fission. If ANSTO wins the day, a far more efficient reactor will be built which is capable of keeping pace with the emerging nuclear industries of Asia. ills

  11. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Christopher P.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C.; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Phillipe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Clarke, Robert J.; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W.; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R.; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas; Willer, Cristen J.; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Erdmann, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested

  12. The importance of postural cues for determining eye height in immersive virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrer, Markus; Linkenauger, Sally A; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

    2015-01-01

    In human perception, the ability to determine eye height is essential, because eye height is used to scale heights of objects, velocities, affordances and distances, all of which allow for successful environmental interaction. It is well understood that eye height is fundamental to determine many of these percepts. Yet, how eye height itself is provided is still largely unknown. While the information potentially specifying eye height in the real world is naturally coincident in an environment with a regular ground surface, these sources of information can be easily divergent in similar and common virtual reality scenarios. Thus, we conducted virtual reality experiments where we manipulated the virtual eye height in a distance perception task to investigate how eye height might be determined in such a scenario. We found that humans rely more on their postural cues for determining their eye height if there is a conflict between visual and postural information and little opportunity for perceptual-motor calibration is provided. This is demonstrated by the predictable variations in their distance estimates. Our results suggest that the eye height in such circumstances is informed by postural cues when estimating egocentric distances in virtual reality and consequently, does not depend on an internalized value for eye height.

  13. The importance of postural cues for determining eye height in immersive virtual reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Leyrer

    Full Text Available In human perception, the ability to determine eye height is essential, because eye height is used to scale heights of objects, velocities, affordances and distances, all of which allow for successful environmental interaction. It is well understood that eye height is fundamental to determine many of these percepts. Yet, how eye height itself is provided is still largely unknown. While the information potentially specifying eye height in the real world is naturally coincident in an environment with a regular ground surface, these sources of information can be easily divergent in similar and common virtual reality scenarios. Thus, we conducted virtual reality experiments where we manipulated the virtual eye height in a distance perception task to investigate how eye height might be determined in such a scenario. We found that humans rely more on their postural cues for determining their eye height if there is a conflict between visual and postural information and little opportunity for perceptual-motor calibration is provided. This is demonstrated by the predictable variations in their distance estimates. Our results suggest that the eye height in such circumstances is informed by postural cues when estimating egocentric distances in virtual reality and consequently, does not depend on an internalized value for eye height.

  14. Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT Markers to Estimate Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Chinese Elymus sibiricus Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elymus sibiricus as an important forage grass and gene pool for improving cereal crops, that is widely distributed in West and North China. Information on its genetic diversity and relationships is limited but necessary for germplasm collection, conservation and future breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT markers were used for studying the genetic diversity and relationships among 53 E. sibiricus accessions from its primary distribution area in China. A total of 173 bands were generated from 16 SCoT primers, 159 bands of which were polymorphic with the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB of 91.91%. Based upon population structure analysis five groups were formed. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into two major clusters and three sub-clusters, similar to results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA showed that genetic variation was greater within geographical regions (50.99% than between them (49.01%. Furthermore, the study also suggested that collecting and evaluating E. sibiricus germplasm for major geographic regions and special environments broadens the available genetic base and illustrates the range of variation. The results of the present study showed that SCoT markers were efficient in assessing the genetic diversity among E. sibiricus accessions.

  15. Estimation of urban mixed layer height in Zanjan using LIDAR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIDAR observations and numerical modeling. A A Bidokhti1,∗, M ... because of the effects of aerosols, water vapor and ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117 ... also more abundant in the ABL apart from clouds .... Zanjan has a rather Mediterranean climate,.

  16. Estimation of wind speed and wave height during cyclones

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Mandal, S.; AshokKumar, K.

    , the isobaric charts were collected at three hourly intervals from the India Meteorological Department. The storm variables such as central pressure, radius of maximum wind, speed of forward motion and direction of storm movement were extracted and the method...

  17. Selective Photothermolysis to target Sebaceous Glands: Theoretical Estimation of Parameters and Preliminary Results Using a Free Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernanda Sakamoto, Apostolos Doukas, William Farinelli, Zeina Tannous, Michelle D. Shinn, Stephen Benson, Gwyn P. Williams, H. Dylla, Richard Anderson

    2011-12-01

    The success of permanent laser hair removal suggests that selective photothermolysis (SP) of sebaceous glands, another part of hair follicles, may also have merit. About 30% of sebum consists of fats with copious CH2 bond content. SP was studied in vitro, using free electron laser (FEL) pulses at an infrared CH2 vibrational absorption wavelength band. Absorption spectra of natural and artificially prepared sebum were measured from 200 nm to 3000 nm, to determine wavelengths potentially able to target sebaceous glands. The Jefferson National Accelerator superconducting FEL was used to measure photothermal excitation of aqueous gels, artificial sebum, pig skin, human scalp and forehead skin (sebaceous sites). In vitro skin samples were exposed to FEL pulses from 1620 to 1720 nm, spot diameter 7-9.5 mm with exposure through a cold 4C sapphire window in contact with the skin. Exposed and control tissue samples were stained using H and E, and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride staining (NBTC) was used to detect thermal denaturation. Natural and artificial sebum both had absorption peaks near 1210, 1728, 1760, 2306 and 2346 nm. Laser-induced heating of artificial sebum was approximately twice that of water at 1710 and 1720 nm, and about 1.5x higher in human sebaceous glands than in water. Thermal camera imaging showed transient focal heating near sebaceous hair follicles. Histologically, skin samples exposed to {approx}1700 nm, {approx}100-125 ms pulses showed evidence of selective thermal damage to sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands were positive for NBTC staining, without evidence of selective loss in samples exposed to the laser. Epidermis was undamaged in all samples. Conclusions: SP of sebaceous glands appears to be feasible. Potentially, optical pulses at {approx}1720 nm or {approx}1210 nm delivered with large beam diameter and appropriate skin cooling in approximately 0.1 s may provide an alternative treatment for acne.

  18. Program Merges SAR Data on Terrain and Vegetation Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Paul; Hensley, Scott; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Simard, Marc

    2007-01-01

    X/P Merge is a computer program that estimates ground-surface elevations and vegetation heights from multiple sets of data acquired by the GeoSAR instrument [a terrain-mapping synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system that operates in the X and bands]. X/P Merge software combines data from X- and P-band digital elevation models, SAR backscatter magnitudes, and interferometric correlation magnitudes into a simplified set of output topographical maps of ground-surface elevation and tree height.

  19. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Michioka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the additional structure. When the source height is equivalent to the reactor building height, the additional structure enhances both the vertical and horizontal gas dispersion widths and decreases the ground gas concentration, and it means that the additional structure does not decrease the effective stack height. When the source height is larger than the reactor height, the additional structures might affect the effective stack height. As the distance between the source and the additional structure decreases, or as the height of the additional structure increases, the structure has a larger effect on the effective stack height.

  20. Stereoscopic, thermal, and true deep cumulus cloud top heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.; Lawrence, S. P.; Remedios, J. J.; Sherwood, S. C.; Chae, J.; Minnis, P.; McGill, M.

    2004-05-01

    We compare cloud-top height estimates from several sensors: thermal tops from GOES-8 and MODIS, stereoscopic tops from MISR, and directly measured heights from the Goddard Cloud Physics Lidar on board the ER-2, all collected during the CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign. Comparisons reveal a persistent 1-2 km underestimation of cloud-top heights by thermal imagery, even when the finite optical extinctions near cloud top and in thin overlying cirrus are taken into account. The most severe underestimates occur for the tallest clouds. The MISR "best-sinds" and lidar estimates disagree in very similar ways with thermally estimated tops, which we take as evidence of excellent performance by MISR. Encouraged by this, we use MISR to examine variations in cloud penetration and thermal top height errors in several locations of tropical deep convection over multiple seasons. The goals of this are, first, to learn how cloud penetration depends on the near-tropopause environment; and second, to gain further insight into the mysterious underestimation of tops by thermal imagery.

  1. In defense of the classical height system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Vaníček, Petr; Sheng, Michael; Kingdon, Robert William; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2017-11-01

    In many European countries, normal heights referred to the quasi-geoid as introduced by Molodenskij in the mid-20th century are preferred to the classical height system that consists of orthometric heights and the geoid as a reference surface for these heights. The rationale for this choice is supposed to be that in the classical height system, neither the geoid, nor the orthometric height can be ever known with centimetre level accuracy because one would need to know the topographical mass density to a level that can never be achieved. The aim of this paper is to question the validity of this rationale. The common way of assessing the congruency of a local geoid model and the orthometric heights is to compare the geoid heights with the difference between orthometric heights provided by leveling and geodetic heights provided by GNSS. On the other hand, testing the congruency of a quasi-geoidal model with normal height a similar procedure is used, except that instead of orthometric heights, normal heights are employed. For the area of Auvergne, France, which is now a more or less standard choice for precise geoid or quasi-geoid testing, only the normal heights are supplied by the Institute Geographic National, the provider of the data. This is clearly the consequence of the European preference for the Molodenskij system. The quality of the height system is to be judged by the congruency of the difference of the geoid/quasi-geoid heights subtracted from the geodetic heights and orthometric/normal heights. To assess the congruency of the classical height system, the Helmert approximation of orthometric heights is typically used as the transformation between normal and Helmert's heights is easily done. However, the evaluation of the differences between Helmert's and the rigorous orthometric heights is somewhat more involved as will be seen from the review in this paper. For the area of interest, the differences between normal and Helmert's heights at the control

  2. Melhoramento do trigo: V. Estimativas da herdabilidade e correlações entre altura, produção de grãos e outros caracteres agronômicos em trigo Wheat breeding: V. Heritability estimates and correlations between plant height, grain yield and other agronomic characteristics in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1983-01-01

    significativamente com maior produção de grãos por planta, de espigas por planta, de espiguetas por espiga, de grãos por espiga, grãos mais pesados e espigas mais longas. Nas populações F2 dos cruzamentos IAC-5 x Olesen e IAC-5 x Tordo, planta alta não se associou significativamente com maior número de grãos por espigueta, o mesmo se observando no F2 dos cruzamentos IAC-5 x Vican-71 e IAC-5 x Olesen para essa característica em relação ao maior comprimento do internódio da raque. Os resultados mostraram também que para a obtenção de plantas de porte médio com alto potencial de produção, qualquer uma das fontes de nanismo estudadas poderia ser utilizada, desde que grandes populações F2 fossem plantadas para assegurar maior freqüência de recombinantes desejáveis.In an experiment carried out at Itararé Experimental Station, a standard height cultivar IAC-5 was crossed with the semidwarf cultivar Siete Cerros and the dwarf cultivars Tordo, Vican-71 and Olesen. Parents, F1s , F2's and reciprocal backcrosses were tested for grain yield, plant height, number of spikes per plant, number of spikelets per spike, number of grain per spike, number of grain per spikelet, 100 grain weight, spike lenght, rachis internode lenght. All data were determined on an individual plant basis. Broad sense heritability estimates were very high for plant height, moderate for number of spikelets per spike, rachis internode lenght, number of grain per spikelet, number of spikes per plant, number of grain per spike and 100 grain weight, low for grain yield and spike lenght. Narrow sense heritability estimates were very high for plant height and moderate to low for the rest of agronomic characteristics under study. Additive effects were the main source of genetic variation for all studied characters except for 100 grain weight. Plant height was significantly correlated in all studied populations with grain yield, number of spikes per plant, number of spikelets per spike, number of grain

  3. Why is countermovement jump height greater than squat jump height?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; Gerritsen, Karin G M; Litjens, Maria C A; Van Soest, Arthur J.

    1996-01-01

    In the literature, it is well established that subjects are able to jump higher in a countermovement jump (CMJ) than in a squat jump (SJ). The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of the time available for force development and the storage and reutilization of elastic

  4. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2012-01-01

    Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. WE-G-BRD-06: Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Estimated Based On Prior Knowledge for On-Board Target Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique to generate on-board VC-MRI using patient prior 4D-MRI, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI for real-time 3D target verification of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-expiration phase images of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation are used as patient prior images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract 3 major respiratory deformation patterns from the Deformation Field Maps (DFMs) generated between end-expiration phase and all other phases. On-board 2D-cine MRI images are acquired in the axial view. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI at the end-expiration phase. The DFM is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by matching the corresponding 2D slice of the estimated VC-MRI with the acquired single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT (a computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from a real liver cancer patient. The 3D-MRI at every phase except end-expiration phase was used to simulate the ground-truth on-board VC-MRI at different instances, and the center-tumor slice was selected to simulate the on-board 2D-cine images. Results: Image subtraction of ground truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground truth with prior image. Excellent agreement between profiles was achieved. The normalized cross correlation coefficients between the estimated and ground-truth in the axial, coronal and sagittal views for each time step were >= 0.982, 0.905, 0.961 for XCAT data and >= 0.998, 0.911, 0.9541 for patient data. For XCAT data, the maximum-Volume-Percent-Difference between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes was 1.6% and the maximum-Center-of-Mass-Shift was 0.9 mm. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrated the feasibility to estimate real-time VC-MRI for on

  6. WE-G-BRD-06: Volumetric Cine MRI (VC-MRI) Estimated Based On Prior Knowledge for On-Board Target Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W; Yin, F; Cai, J; Zhang, Y; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique to generate on-board VC-MRI using patient prior 4D-MRI, motion modeling and on-board 2D-cine MRI for real-time 3D target verification of liver and lung radiotherapy. Methods: The end-expiration phase images of a 4D-MRI acquired during patient simulation are used as patient prior images. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to extract 3 major respiratory deformation patterns from the Deformation Field Maps (DFMs) generated between end-expiration phase and all other phases. On-board 2D-cine MRI images are acquired in the axial view. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI at the end-expiration phase. The DFM is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by matching the corresponding 2D slice of the estimated VC-MRI with the acquired single 2D-cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both XCAT (a computerized patient model) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from a real liver cancer patient. The 3D-MRI at every phase except end-expiration phase was used to simulate the ground-truth on-board VC-MRI at different instances, and the center-tumor slice was selected to simulate the on-board 2D-cine images. Results: Image subtraction of ground truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground truth with prior image. Excellent agreement between profiles was achieved. The normalized cross correlation coefficients between the estimated and ground-truth in the axial, coronal and sagittal views for each time step were >= 0.982, 0.905, 0.961 for XCAT data and >= 0.998, 0.911, 0.9541 for patient data. For XCAT data, the maximum-Volume-Percent-Difference between ground-truth and estimated tumor volumes was 1.6% and the maximum-Center-of-Mass-Shift was 0.9 mm. Conclusion: Preliminary studies demonstrated the feasibility to estimate real-time VC-MRI for on

  7. Retrieving Smoke Aerosol Height from DSCOVR/EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Unlike industrial pollutant particles that are often confined within the planetary boundary layer, smoke from forest and agriculture fires can inject massive carbonaceous aerosols into the upper troposphere due to the intense pyro-convection. Sensitivity of weather and climate to absorbing carbonaceous aerosols is regulated by the altitude of those aerosol layers. However, aerosol height information remains limited from passive satellite sensors. Here we present an algorithm to estimate smoke aerosol height from radiances in the oxygen A and B bands measured by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) from the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). With a suit of case studies and validation efforts, we demonstrate that smoke aerosol height can be well retrieved over both ocean and land surfaces multiple times daily.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Models for the Relationship between Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height for Chinese-Fir Plantations in Subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-qiong; Deng, Xiang-wen; Huang, Zhi-hong; Xiang, Wen-hua; Yan, Wen-de; Lei, Pi-feng; Zhou, Xiao-lu; Peng, Chang-hui

    2015-01-01

    Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) and height are the most important variables used in forest inventory and management as well as forest carbon-stock estimation. In order to identify the key stand variables that influence the tree height-dbh relationship and to develop and validate a suit of models for predicting tree height, data from 5961 tree samples aged from 6 years to 53 years and collected from 80 Chinese-fir plantation plots were used to fit 39 models, including 33 nonlinear models and 6 linear models, were developed and evaluated into two groups. The results showed that composite models performed better in height estimate than one-independent-variable models. Nonlinear composite Model 34 and linear composite Model 6 were recommended for predicting tree height in Chinese fir plantations with a dbh range between 4 cm and 40 cm when the dbh data for each tree and the quadratic mean dbh of the stand (Dq) and mean height of the stand (Hm) were available. Moreover, Hm could be estimated by using the formula Hm = 11.707 × l n(Dq)-18.032. Clearly, Dq was the primary stand variable that influenced the height-dbh relationship. The parameters of the models varied according to stand age and site. The inappropriate application of provincial or regional height-dbh models for predicting small tree height at local scale may result in larger uncertainties. The method and the recommended models developed in this study were statistically reliable for applications in growth and yield estimation for even-aged Chinese-fir plantation in Huitong and Changsha. The models could be extended to other regions and to other tree species only after verification in subtropical China.

  9. Accuracy of Jump-Mat Systems for Measuring Jump Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueo, Basilio; Lipinska, Patrycja; Jiménez-Olmedo, José M; Zmijewski, Piotr; Hopkins, Will G

    2017-08-01

    Vertical-jump tests are commonly used to evaluate lower-limb power of athletes and nonathletes. Several types of equipment are available for this purpose. To compare the error of measurement of 2 jump-mat systems (Chronojump-Boscosystem and Globus Ergo Tester) with that of a motion-capture system as a criterion and to determine the modifying effect of foot length on jump height. Thirty-one young adult men alternated 4 countermovement jumps with 4 squat jumps. Mean jump height and standard deviations representing technical error of measurement arising from each device and variability arising from the subjects themselves were estimated with a novel mixed model and evaluated via standardization and magnitude-based inference. The jump-mat systems produced nearly identical measures of jump height (differences in means and in technical errors of measurement ≤1 mm). Countermovement and squat-jump height were both 13.6 cm higher with motion capture (90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm), but this very large difference was reduced to small unclear differences when adjusted to a foot length of zero. Variability in countermovement and squat-jump height arising from the subjects was small (1.1 and 1.5 cm, respectively, 90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm); technical error of motion capture was similar in magnitude (1.7 and 1.6 cm, ±0.3 and ±0.4 cm), and that of the jump mats was similar or smaller (1.2 and 0.3 cm, ±0.5 and ±0.9 cm). The jump-mat systems provide trustworthy measurements for monitoring changes in jump height. Foot length can explain the substantially higher jump height observed with motion capture.

  10. Estrogen-mediated Height Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Hyun, Hye Sun; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for height control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final height was estimated using the initial height percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final height was compared to the actual final height (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old.

  11. INTEGRAL ESTIMATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE OF INDICES OF STATE TARGET PROGRAMS FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Senyshyn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article deals with the integral estimate of the effectiveness of performance of indices of the state target programs for protection of the natural environment in Ukraine, namely – the subject of the research is quantitative indices of the State target program “Forests of Ukraine” for 2010–2015 and their estimate. Methodology. The methodological basis of the study is the system of indices for the estimate of effectiveness and performance of the state target programs for the protection of the natural environment that include the following indices (indicators: an integrated index of financing the program actions and indicators of co-financing. The author applies integrated indicator of financing the program tasks and actions to assess the actual level of financing the program from various sources through the entire period of the program implementation and to carry out a comparative analysis of financial support for various programs implemented at the expense of the budgetary funds and other sources. The author uses indicator of co-financing for calculating the ratio of actual and planned indicators of the attraction of the funds from other sources (public borrowings, extrabudgetary funds per 1 UAH of the budget funds. Results. Proceeding from the analysis of quantitative indices of the State target program “Forests of Ukraine” for 2010–2015, it was established that for all 5 years of activity, the planned level of budget financing of the Program has not been achieved. In particular, in 2010–2011, operations and tasks of the Program had been financed from the budget funds by 77% and in 2014–2015 by 33% and 27% respectively. During the entire period of the Program implementation, the average annual rate of actual financing from all sources attained 147%, including 53% from the state budget and 206% from other sources of financing. The author has proved that the said indices of the performance of the Program

  12. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this 'physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean' was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the 'physiological sequence of lumbar disc height' leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [de

  13. Corrections for the effects of significant wave height and attitude on Geosat radar altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, G. S.; Hancock, D. W., III

    1990-01-01

    Range estimates from a radar altimeter have biases which are a function of the significant wave height (SWH) and the satellite attitude angle (AA). Based on results of prelaunch Geosat modeling and simulation, a correction for SWH and AA was already applied to the sea-surface height estimates from Geosat's production data processing. By fitting a detailed model radar return waveform to Geosat waveform sampler data, it is possible to provide independent estimates of the height bias, the SWH, and the AA. The waveform fitting has been carried out for 10-sec averages of Geosat waveform sampler data over a wide range of SWH and AA values. The results confirm that Geosat sea-surface-height correction is good to well within the original dm-level specification, but that an additional height correction can be made at the level of several cm.

  14. 5C.07: A METHOD TO ESTIMATE 24-HOUR SODIUM EXCRETION THROUGH SPOT URINE SAMPLES AND ITS APPLICATION VALUE FOR TARGET-ORGAN DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhao, L; Xi, Y; Sun, N

    2015-06-01

    24-h urine sodium excretion is considered the most reliable method to evaluate the salt intakes. However, this method is cumbersome. So we want to develop formulas to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion using spot urinary samples in Chinese hypertensive population and explore the application value of this method in salt intake assessment and target organ damage. 1. We enrolled 510 cases of hospitalized patients with hypertension, 2/3 of them were arranged randomly to formula group to develop a new formula and the remainings were used to test the performance of the formula. All participants were instructed to collect a 24-h urine sample, a second morning voiding urine sample (SMU), and a post-meridiem urine sample in the late afternoon or early evening, prior to the evening meal (PMU). All samples were sent to measure sodium and creatinine concentration.2. We compared the differences of office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular stiffness and urine protein among groups of different sodium intake. 24hour sodium excretion formulas was obtained using SMU and PMU respectively, which have good cosistency. The difference between the estimated and measured values in sodium excretion is 12.66mmol/day (SMU) and 9.41mmol/day (PM), to be equal to 0.7 g (SMU) and 0.6 g (PM) salt intake. Comparing with Kawasaki and Tanaka method, the new formula shows the lower degree of deviation, and higher accuracy and precision. Blood pressure of high urinary sodium group is higher than that in low urinary sodium group (P < 0.05). Left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin/creatinine aggravated with the salt intake increase, this has eliminated the influence of other factors. All of morphologies of the relationship between ambulatory arterial stiffness index, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness with quartiles of sodium intake resembled a J-shaped curve. In Chinese hypertensive population, the

  15. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  16. Modification of Displacement Coefficient Method in Estimation of Target Displacement for Regular Concrete Bridges Based on ASCE 41-06 Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Bahram Beheshti-Aval

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Displacement Coefficient Method (DCM stipulated in the ASCE 41-06 standard is becoming the preferred method for seismic rehabilitation of buildings in many high-seismic-hazard countries. Applications of the method for non-building constructions such as bridges are beyond the scope of this standard. Thus its application to this kind of structure should be approached with care. Target displacement has reasonable accuracy for buildings with strong columns and weak beams, where there is the development of plastic hinges. Due to high stiffness and strength of the deck relative to the piers in most bridges, this mechanism does not occur, and it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of DCM for such structures. In this research, an attempt is made to evaluate the credibility of DCM in the ASCE/SEI 41-06 standard for estimating target drifts in concrete regular bridges under strong ground motions. To apply the extension of the method to bridge structures, the definition of new correction factor CB, which should be multiplied to previous coefficients, is required. This novel coefficient can improve the accuracy of the mentioned method in accessing seismic displacement demands. The coefficient is presented for soil types A to D based on NEHRP soil classification. The validity of the modified DCM is examined for several bridges with use of nonlinear dynamic analysis. Good correlation is found between both procedures.

  17. An attempt to link the Brazilian Height System to a World Height System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ferreira

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the geopotential approach to investigate the present Brazilian Height System (BHS. Geopotential numbers are derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite surveying and disturbing potential on selected benchmarks. A model for the disturbing potential can be obtained by an existing set of spherical harmonic coefficients such as the Earth Gravity Model 2008 (EGM08. The approach provides absolute evaluation of local normal geopotential numbers (aka spheropotential numbers related to a so-called World Height System (WHS. To test the validity of the proposed methodology, a numerical experiment was carried out related to a test region in Southern Brazil. The accuracy of the derived geopotential numbers was tested versus local normal geopotential numbers based on 262 GPS/leveling points. The root mean square error (RMSE value for metric offset of BHS derived from geopotential numbers and the disturbing potential modeling in the test area was estimated to be near 0.224 meters in the absolute view. Therefore, since these spheropotential numbers are referred to a local datum, these results of comparisons may be an indicator of the mean bias of local network due to the effect of local Sea Surface Topography (SSTop and possible offset between the unknown reference for the BHS and the quasigeoid model in the region.

  18. Growth and Final Height Among Children With Phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alena G; Gausche, Ruth; Lindenberg, Cornelia; Beger, Christoph; Arelin, Maria; Rohde, Carmen; Mütze, Ulrike; Weigel, Johannes F; Mohnike, Klaus; Baerwald, Christoph; Scholz, Markus; Kiess, Wieland; Pfäffle, Roland; Beblo, Skadi

    2017-11-01

    Growth is an important criterion to evaluate health in childhood and adolescence, especially in patients depending on special dietary treatment. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inherited disease of amino acid metabolism. Patients with PKU depend on a special phenylalanine-restricted diet, low in natural protein. The study aimed to evaluate growth, growth rate, and target height in 224 patients with PKU. Retrospective, longitudinal analysis of standardized, yearly measurements of height, weight, and calculated growth rate (SD score [SDS]) of patients with PKU aged 0 to 18 years were conducted by using the national computerized CrescNet database. Inclusion was restricted to patients carried to term with a confirmed diagnosis of PKU or mild hyperphenylalaninemia determined by newborn screening and early treatment initiation. From birth to adulthood, patients with PKU were significantly shorter than healthy German children (height SDS at 18 years: -0.882 ± 0.108, P < .001). They missed their target height by 3 cm by adulthood (women: P = .02) and 5 cm (men: P = .01). In patients receiving casein hydrolysate during childhood, this was more pronounced compared with patients receiving amino acid mixtures ( P < .001). Growth rate was significantly reduced during their first 2 years of life and in puberty (growth rate SDS: -1.1 to -0.5 m/year, P < .001 and -0.5; P < .02). Early diagnosed, treated, and continuously monitored patients with PKU showed reduced height from birth onward. During the last 2 decades, this phenomenon attenuated, probably because of advances in PKU therapy related to protein supplements and special low-protein foods. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Measurement of neutron spectra generated from bombardment of 4 to 24 MeV protons on a thick 9Be target and estimation of neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Sunil, C.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Sharma, S. C.; Ramjilal,; Ninawe, N. G.; Gupta, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the measurement of neutron spectra emitted from the interaction of protons of various energies with a thick beryllium target has been carried out. The measurements were carried out in the forward direction (at 0° with respect to the direction of protons) using CR-39 detectors. The doses were estimated using the in-house image analyzing program autoTRAK-n, which works on the principle of luminosity variation in and around the track boundaries. A total of six different proton energies starting from 4 MeV to 24 MeV with an energy gap of 4 MeV were chosen for the study of the neutron yields and the estimation of doses. Nearly, 92% of the recoil tracks developed after chemical etching were circular in nature, but the size distributions of the recoil tracks were not found to be linearly dependent on the projectile energy. The neutron yield and dose values were found to be increasing linearly with increasing projectile energies. The response of CR-39 detector was also investigated at different beam currents at two different proton energies. A linear increase of neutron yield with beam current was observed

  20. Determination of Vertical Datum Offset between the Regional and the Global Height Datum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jiancheng

    2017-10-01

    /Levelling points around Qingdao, which will lead to big differences in estimating the vertical datum offset between the China 1985 national height datum and the global height datum with respect to different selected data sets. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the current global gravity field models needs to be further improved if they were used for the height datum vertical offset determination. The theoretical and practical results of this paper could be used for the realization of the unification of the regional height datum and the global height datum.

  1. Consideration of impact behaviour of radioactive packages onto real targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, K.; Akamatsu, H.; Ito, C.; Ryu, H.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, distinct element method (DEM) was applied to simulate the dynamic fracture impact behaviours of the real targets, and drop tests and analyses onto various object surfaces were performed using 48Y-cylinder in order to clarify the relation between the object surface hardness and the associated impact response of the packages. Following the results of the drop tests and analysis, the outline of contents and results is summarized below. 1) Drop Tests were performed using 48Y-cylinder considering target object hardness in real drop accidents nad the effects of the target object hardness on the drop impact response was made clear experimentally. 2) DEM was applied to the drop analysis onto real targets and it is confirmed that the accuracy of the drop analysis onto real targets using DEM is good enough to estimate the impact load that occurred in the packages. 3) Based on the drop tests and analysis results onto various object surfaces, the relation between the target hardness and the impact response of 48Y-cylinder was made clear, and also the method to estimate the relationship between the drop height for real targets and the equivalent drop height onto the unyielding surface was proposed. (J.P.N.)

  2. CMS: Mangrove Canopy Height from High-resolution Stereo Image Pairs, Mozambique, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides canopy height estimates for mangrove forests at 0.6 x 0.6 m resolution in three study sites located in southeastern Mozambique, Africa: two...

  3. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive,

  4. Developments in the Aerosol Layer Height Retrieval Algorithm for the Copernicus Sentinel-4/UVN Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Swadhin; Sanders, Abram; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2016-04-01

    The Sentinel-4 mission is a part of the European Commission's Copernicus programme, the goal of which is to provide geo-information to manage environmental assets, and to observe, understand and mitigate the effects of the changing climate. The Sentinel-4/UVN instrument design is motivated by the need to monitor trace gas concentrations and aerosols in the atmosphere from a geostationary orbit. The on-board instrument is a high resolution UV-VIS-NIR (UVN) spectrometer system that provides hourly radiance measurements over Europe and northern Africa with a spatial sampling of 8 km. The main application area of Sentinel-4/UVN is air quality. One of the data products that is being developed for Sentinel-4/UVN is the Aerosol Layer Height (ALH). The goal is to determine the height of aerosol plumes with a resolution of better than 0.5 - 1 km. The ALH product thus targets aerosol layers in the free troposphere, such as desert dust, volcanic ash and biomass during plumes. KNMI is assigned with the development of the Aerosol Layer Height (ALH) algorithm. Its heritage is the ALH algorithm developed by Sanders and De Haan (ATBD, 2016) for the TROPOMI instrument on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor mission that is to be launched in June or July 2016 (tentative date). The retrieval algorithm designed so far for the aerosol height product is based on the absorption characteristics of the oxygen-A band (759-770 nm). The algorithm has heritage to the ALH algorithm developed for TROPOMI on the Sentinel 5 precursor satellite. New aspects for Sentinel-4/UVN include the higher resolution (0.116 nm compared to 0.4 for TROPOMI) and hourly observation from the geostationary orbit. The algorithm uses optimal estimation to obtain a spectral fit of the reflectance across absorption band, while assuming a single uniform layer with fixed width to represent the aerosol vertical distribution. The state vector includes amongst other elements the height of this layer and its aerosol optical

  5. Tree height-diameter allometry across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height-diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales.

  6. Maternal height and child mortality in 42 developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Smits, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research reports mixed results about the association between maternal height and child mortality. Some studies suggest that the negative association might be stronger in contexts with fewer resources. This hypothesis has yet not been tested in a cross-nationally comparative design. We use data on 307,223 children born to 194,835 women in 444 districts of 42 developing countries to estimate the association between maternal height and child mortality and test whether this association is modified by indicators at the level of the household (like sex, age and twin status of the child and socio-economic characteristics of the mother and her partner), district (regional level of development, public health facilities and female occupational attainment) and country (GDP per capita). We find a robust negative effect of logged maternal height on child mortality. The effect of maternal health is strongest for women with least education and is more important in the first year after birth and for twin births. The indicators of development at the district and country level do not modify the effect of maternal height. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Boundary-layer height detection with a ceilometer at a coastal site in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannesdóttir, Ásta; Hansen, Aksel Walle

    in atmospheric transport- and dispersion models. A new method of filtering clouds from the ceilometer data is presented. This allows for the inclusion of more than half of the data in the subsequent analysis, as the presence of clouds would otherwise complicate the boundary-layer height estimations. The boundary....... The boundary-layer height estimates are then used to analyse the daily evolution of the boundary layer and to perform monthly and annual frequency distributions of the boundary-layer height. For westerly winds bi-modal distributions are often found, which may be separated by different criteria, while...

  8. Height perception influenced by texture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine whether a texture gradient influences perception of relative object height. Previous research implicated texture cues in judgments of object width, but similar influences have not been demonstrated for relative height. In this study, I evaluate a hypothesis that the projective ratio of the number of texture elements covered by the objects combined with the ratio of the retinal object heights determines percepts of relative object height. Density of texture background was varied: four density conditions ranged from no-texture to very dense texture. In experiments 1 and 2, participants judged the height of comparison bar compared to the standard bar positioned on no-texture or textured backgrounds. Results showed relative height judgments differed with texture manipulations, consistent with predictions from a hypothesised combination of the number of texture elements with retinal height (experiment 1), or partially consistent with this hypothesis (experiment 2). In experiment 2, variations in the position of a comparison object showed that comparisons located far from the horizon were judged more poorly than in other positions. In experiment 3 I examined distance perception; relative distance judgments were found to be also affected by textured backgrounds. Results are discussed in terms of Gibson's relational theory and distance calibration theory.

  9. On the Specification of Smoke Injection Heights for Aerosol Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A.; Schaefer, C.; Randles, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The proper forecasting of biomass burning (BB) aerosols in global or regional transport models requires not only the specification of emission rates with sufficient temporal resolution but also the injection layers of such emissions. While current near realtime biomass burning inventories such as GFAS, QFED, FINN, GBBEP and FLAMBE provide such emission rates, it is left for each modeling system to come up with its own scheme for distributing these emissions in the vertical. A number of operational aerosol forecasting models deposits BB emissions in the near surface model layers, relying on the model's parameterization of turbulent and convective transport to determine the vertical mass distribution of BB aerosols. Despite their simplicity such schemes have been relatively successful reproducing the vertical structure of BB aerosols, except for those large fires that produce enough buoyancy to puncture the PBL and deposit the smoke at higher layers. Plume Rise models such as the so-called 'Freitas model', parameterize this sub-grid buoyancy effect, but require the specification of fire size and heat fluxes, none of which is readily available in near real-time from current remotely-sensed products. In this talk we will introduce a bayesian algorithm for estimating file size and heat fluxes from MODIS brightness temperatures. For small to moderate fires the Freitas model driven by these heat flux estimates produces plume tops that are highly correlated with the GEOS-5 model estimate of PBL height. Comparison to MINX plume height estimates from MISR indicates moderate skill of this scheme predicting the injection height of large fires. As an alternative, we make use of OMPS UV aerosol index data in combination with estimates of Overshooting Convective Tops (from MODIS and Geo-stationary satellites) to detect PyCu events and specify the BB emission vertical mass distribution in such cases. We will present a discussion of case studies during the SEAC4RS field campaign in

  10. Concentrations of Selected Metals In Some Ready-To-Eat-Foods Consumed in Southern Nigeria: Estimation of Dietary Intakes and Target Hazard Quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwujindu Maxwell Iwegbue

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of selected metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr and Co in some ready-to-eat-foods consumed in Nigeria were investigated with a view providing information on the risk associated with the consumption of these products. The concentrations of metals (mg.kg-1 in these ready-to-eat-foods are in the ranges of 2.4 – 5.2 for Cu; 0.1– 0.8 for Cd; 0.7 – 4.0 for Ni; 8.1 – 53.7 for Fe; 8.9 – 20.0 for Zn; 0.1 – 3.8 for Pb; 5.1 – 14.4 for Mn; 0.83 – 21.4 for Cr and 0.20 – 1.32 for Co. The concentrations and estimated intakes of Cd, Ni and Pb in some of these food types exceeded the permissible limits and tolerable daily intake respectively. The target hazard quotients (THQ for the individual metals indicate levels of concern for Ni, Cd, and Co in some of the ready-to-eat-foods. The combined THQ values for the metals in the examined samples ranged from 1.7 to 10 with significant contributions from Cd, Ni and Co.

  11. Global effects of income and income inequality on adult height and sexual dimorphism in height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Scheffler, Christiane; Hermanussen, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height. Average height data come from the NCD-RisC health risk factor collaboration. Economic indicators are derived from the World Bank data archive and include gross domestic product (GDP), Gross National Income per capita adjusted for personal purchasing power (GNI_PPP), and income equality assessed by the Gini coefficient calculated by the Wagstaff method. Hypothesis 1 is supported. Greater income equality is most predictive of average height for both sexes. GNI_PPP explains a significant, but smaller, amount of the variation. National GDP has no association with height. Hypothesis 2 is rejected. With greater average adult height there is greater sexual dimorphism. Findings support a growing literature on the pernicious effects of inequality on growth in height and, by extension, on health. Gradients in height reflect gradients in social disadvantage. Inequality should be considered a pollutant that disempowers people from the resources needed for their own healthy growth and development and for the health and good growth of their children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-09-01

    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  13. U.S. Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the GEOID96 model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  14. PR/VI Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 26,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  15. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  16. Comparison of three methods for measuring height in rehabilitation inpatients and the impact on body mass index classification: An open prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Karen E; Stewart, Alison J; Argiriou, Alison M; Huggins, Catherine E; New, Peter W

    2018-02-01

    To compare standing height, estimated current height and demi-span estimated height and examine their impact on body mass index (BMI) classification. Cross-sectional data was collected on 104 patients admitted to an adult rehabilitation ward and seen by the dietitian. Patient's standing, estimated current height and demi-span estimated height were collected and grouped by age: 19-64 and ≥65 years. The limits of agreement (95% confidence interval) for estimated current height compared with standing height were +9.9 cm and -7.9 cm, in contrast to +8.7 cm and -14.3 cm for demi-span estimated height. Demi-span underestimated height when compared with standing height in both age groups, 19-64 years: (mean ± SD) 3.0 ± 6.5 cm (P = 0.001, n = 68) and ≥ 65 year age group 4.0 ± 6.0 cm (P < 0.001, n = 36), resulting in a significantly greater mean BMI (analysis of variance P < 0.001, P = 0.02). In the 19-64 and ≥65 year age groups, 3% (2/68) and 10% (4/36) of patients, respectively, had a different BMI classification using demi-span estimated height compared with standing height. Estimated current height is a simple and practical alternative if standing height is unable to be obtained when performing a nutrition assessment. Demi-span estimated height should be used with caution when calculating BMI to assess nutritional status, particularly in the elderly. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  17. The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.

    2005-11-01

    over land, especially extensive data sets from the Lower Fraser Valley in Vancouver, Canada were useful. The performance of the model over water was examined on measurements of marine boundary layer developments over Christiansoe in the Baltic Sea. The model is found to perform relative well for both small and large distance downwind from the shoreline. The validation covers a scale of 100 km. In some practical applications meteorological data are taken as the output from operational Numerical Weather Prediction models. The mixing height is not a part of the model output but has to be determined from the available data. This aspect is dealt with in chapter 4. Methods that are used to determine the mixing height from the available data are examined and improvements suggested. Numerical Weather Prediction models have a rather coarse resolution. The issue of grid resolution and its effect on the estimated mixing height is discussed. It is found that the mixing height in the coastal zone is not resolved. In chapter 5 a new method for determining the regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over chessboard type patchy landscapes is presented. It is based on inversion of the model for the growth of the mixed-layer in combination with a parameterized form of the blending height concept. An example from sub-arctic Lapland illustrates that the forest dominates both the aggregated (area averaged) momentum and heat fluxes, but in quite different ways. Chapter 6 provides a description of present problems and gives an outlook for future research in the field. (au)

  18. Observing Crop-Height Dynamics Using a UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliani, M. G.; Parkes, S. D.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Retrieval of vegetation height during a growing season is a key indicator for monitoring crop status, offering insight to the forecast yield relative to previous planting cycles. Improvement in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies, supported by advances in computer vision and photogrammetry software, has enabled retrieval of crop heights with much higher spatial resolution and coverage. These methodologies retrieve a Digital Surface Map (DSM), which combine terrain and crop elements to obtain a Crop Surface Map (CSM). Here we describe an automated method for deriving high resolution CSMs from a DSM, using RGB imagery from a UAV platform. Importantly, the approach does not require the need for a digital terrain map (DTM). The method involves distinguishing between vegetation and bare-ground cover pixels, using vegetation index maps from the RGB orthomosaic derived from the same flight as the DSM. We show that the absolute crop height can be extracted to within several centimeters, exploiting the data captured from a single UAV flight. In addition, the method is applied across five surveys during a maize growing cycle and compared against a terrain map constructed from a baseline UAV survey undertaken prior to crop growth. Results show that the approach is able to reproduce the observed spatial variability of the crop height within the maize field throughout the duration of the growing season. This is particularly valuable since it may be employed to detect intra-field problems (i.e. fertilizer variability, inefficiency in the irrigation system, salinity etc.) at different stages of the season, from which remedial action can be initiated to mitigate against yield loss. The method also demonstrates that UAV imagery combined with commercial photogrammetry software can determine a CSM from a single flight without the requirement of a prior DTM. This, together with the dynamic crop height estimation, provide useful information with which to inform precision

  19. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Mungov, G.; Sweeney, A.; Arcos, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 Mw earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum peak measurement.

  20. Modelling the development of mixing height in near equatorial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samah, A.A. [Univ. of Malaya, Air Pollution Research Unit, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1997-10-01

    Most current air pollution models were developed for mid-latitude conditions and as such many of the empirical parameters used were based on observations taken in the mid-latitude boundary layer which is physically different from that of the equatorial boundary layer. In the equatorial boundary layer the Coriolis parameter f is small or zero and moisture plays a more important role in the control of stability and the surface energy balance. Therefore air pollution models such as the OMLMULTI or the ADMS which were basically developed for mid-latitude conditions must be applied with some caution and would need some adaptation to properly simulate the properties of equatorial boundary layer. This work elucidates some of the problems of modelling the evolution of mixing height in the equatorial region. The mixing height estimates were compared with routine observations taken during a severe air pollution episodes in Malaysia. (au)

  1. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  2. Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galobardes

    Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.

  3. Birth order progressively affects childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Derraik, José G B; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    There is evidence suggesting that first-born children and adults are anthropometrically different to later-borns. Thus, we aimed to assess whether birth order was associated with changes in growth and metabolism in childhood. We studied 312 healthy prepubertal children: 157 first-borns and 155 later-borns. Children were aged 3-10 years, born 37-41 weeks gestation, and of birth weight appropriate-for-gestational-age. Clinical assessments included measurement of children's height, weight, fasting lipid and hormonal profiles and DEXA-derived body composition. First-borns were taller than later-borns (P < 0·0001), even when adjusted for parents' heights (0·31 vs 0·03 SDS; P = 0·001). There was an incremental height decrease with increasing birth order, so that first-borns were taller than second-borns (P < 0·001), who were in turn taller than third-borns (P = 0·007). Further, among sibling pairs both height SDS (P = 0·009) and adjusted height SDS (P < 0·0001) were lower in second- vs first-born children. Consistent with differences in stature, first- (P = 0·043) and second-borns (P = 0·003) had higher IGF-I concentrations than third-borns. Both first- (P < 0·001) and second-borns (P = 0·004) also had reduced abdominal adiposity (lower android fat to gynoid fat ratio) when compared with third-borns. Other parameters of adiposity and blood lipids were unaffected by birth order. First-borns were taller than later-born children, with an incremental height reduction from first to third birth order. These differences were present after correction for genetic height, and associated to some extent with alterations in plasma IGF-I. Our findings strengthen the evidence that birth order is associated with phenotypic changes in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Height in eighteenth-century Chilean men: Evidence from military records, 1730-1800s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca-Jaña, Manuel; Navarrete-Montalvo, Juan; Droller, Federico; Araya-Valenzuela, Roberto

    2018-03-26

    This article provides the first height estimates for the adult population for any period of Chilean history. Based on military records, it gives an analysis of the average heights of male soldiers in the last eight decades of the colonial period, c.1730-1800s. The average height of Chilean men was around 167 centimetres, making them on average taller than men from Mexico, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Venezuela, but of a similar height to men from Sweden. However, Chilean men were clearly shorter than men in neighbouring Argentina, the USA and the UK. Chilean height remained stable during the 1740-1770s, but it declined by some 2-3 centimetres between the 1780 s and the 1800s, in line with a fall in real wages due to increasing food prices and population growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of usual and alternative methods to measure height in mechanically ventilated patients: potential impact on protective ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojmehrani, Azadeh; Bergeron-Duchesne, Maude; Bouchard, Carmelle; Simard, Serge; Bouchard, Pierre-Alexandre; Vanderschuren, Abel; L'Her, Erwan; Lellouche, François

    2014-07-01

    Protective ventilation implementation requires the calculation of predicted body weight (PBW), determined by a formula based on gender and height. Consequently, height inaccuracy may be a limiting factor to correctly set tidal volumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods in measuring heights in mechanically ventilated patients. Before cardiac surgery, actual height was measured with a height gauge while subjects were standing upright (reference method); the height was also estimated by alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements. After cardiac surgery, upon ICU admission, a subject's height was visually estimated by a clinician and then measured with a tape measure while the subject was supine and undergoing mechanical ventilation. One hundred subjects (75 men, 25 women) were prospectively included. Mean PBW was 61.0 ± 9.7 kg, and mean actual weight was 30.3% higher. In comparison with the reference method, estimating the height visually and using the tape measure were less accurate than both lower leg and forearm measurements. Errors above 10% in calculating the PBW were present in 25 and 40 subjects when the tape measure or visual estimation of height was used in the formula, respectively. With lower leg and forearm measurements, 15 subjects had errors above 10% (P bedridden patients on mechanical ventilation. Alternative methods based on lower leg and forearm measurements are potentially interesting solutions to facilitate the accurate application of protective ventilation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Jumping to (fatal) conclusions? An analysis of video film on a social networking web site of recreational jumping from height into water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In high-income countries, death as a consequence of recreational jumping into water from height has not been well investigated partly because it traditionally has been a covert activity within youth culture. An observational study of video recordings posted on the YouTube web site was used to gather data on the nature of jumping activity in New Zealand and Australia. An analytical framework was developed to identify site- participant- social characteristics (10 variables) and online feedback (4 variables). Of the 389 videos recorded in New Zealand (n = 210) and Australia (n = 179), 929 jumpers were observed, and rivers were the most frequently reported site of jumping activity (New Zealand 47%; Australia 35%). One fifth (20%) of the jumps in New Zealand and one third (33%) in Australia were from heights estimated to be more than 12 m. The YouTube website portraying jumps from height were visited almost half a million times (495,686 hits). Ways of reducing recreational jumping risk via targeted education interventions may be best directed at young male adults. Use of social network sites to foster safe behaviours may be an effective way to educate young people of the inherent risks of jumping from height into water.

  7. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  8. The height of watermelons with wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15–22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067–83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions. (paper)

  9. Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)

  10. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  11. Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Larramendi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a growing interest in proboscideans’ body size, given that mass is highly correlated with biological functions. Different allometric equations have been proposed in the recent decades to estimate their body masses, based on a large number of living examples. However, the results obtained by these formulae are not accurate because extinct animals often had different body proportions and some were outside the size range of extant samples. Here the body mass of a large number of extinct proboscideans has been calculated by the Graphic Double Integration volumetric method which is based on technical restorations from graphical reconstructions of fossils employing photos, measurements and comparative anatomy of extant forms. The method has been tested on extant elephants with highly accurate results. The reconstructions necessary to apply this method give important information such as body proportions. On the other hand, equations to calculate the skeletal shoulder height have been developed, with a large number of published shoulder heights being recalculated. From the shoulder heights, several equations were created to find out the body mass of a series of extant and extinct species. A few of the largest proboscideans, namely Mammut borsoni and Palaeoloxodon namadicus, were found out to have reached and surpassed the body size of the largest indricotheres. Bearing this in mind, the largest land mammal that ever existed seems to be within the order of Proboscidea, contrary to previous understanding.

  12. Aerosol layer height from synergistic use of VIIRS and OMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Sayer, A. M.; Kim, W.; Seftor, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents an Aerosol Single-scattering albedo and Height Estimation (ASHE) algorithm, which retrieves the height of UV-absorbing aerosols by synergistically using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). ASHE provides height information over a much broader area than ground-based or spaceborne lidar measurements by benefitting from the wide swaths of the two instruments used. As determination of single-scattering albedo (SSA) of the aerosol layer is the most critical part for the performance and coverage of ASHE, here we demonstrate three different strategies to constrain the SSA. First, ASHE is able to retrieve the SSA of UV-absorbing aerosols when Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) provides vertical profiles of the aerosol layer of interest. Second, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) inversions can directly constrain the SSA of the aerosol layer when collocated with VIIRS or OMPS. Last, a SSA climatology from ASHE, AERONET, or other data sources can be used for large-scale, aged aerosol events, for which climatological SSA is well-known, at the cost of a slight decrease in retrieval accuracy. The same algorithm can be applied to measurements of similar type, such as those made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), for a long-term, consistent data record.

  13. Research on digital multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wuyun; Wei Yixiang; Ai Xianyun; Ao Qi

    2005-01-01

    Multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques are developing in the direction of digitalization. Based on digital signal processing techniques, digital multi-channel analyzers are characterized by powerful pulse processing ability, high throughput, improved stability and flexibility. This paper analyzes key techniques of digital nuclear pulse processing. With MATLAB software, main algorithms are simulated, such as trapezoidal shaping, digital baseline estimation, digital pole-zero/zero-pole compensation, poles and zeros identification. The preliminary general scheme of digital MCA is discussed, as well as some other important techniques about its engineering design. All these lay the foundation of developing homemade digital nuclear spectrometers. (authors)

  14. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Arthur, J.

    1990-09-01

    Results are presented of an environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1989. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is one per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. 9 refs., 17 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.

    1991-10-01

    Results are presented of an environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1990. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is one per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. 11 refs., 16 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, M.S.; Foy, J.J.; Hoffmann, E.L.

    1989-12-01

    Results are presented of an environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1987. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorized limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is one per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. 9 refs., 18 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, M.S.; Dudaitis, A.

    1986-12-01

    Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1984. These results are satisfactory. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is one per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council

  18. Environmental survey at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, M.S.; Dudaitis, A.

    1985-12-01

    Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1983. These results are satisfactory. No radioactivity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne waste discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 millisieverts, which is 1 per cent of the limit for long-term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council

  19. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McQuillan

    Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.

  20. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Leg length, sitting height, and body proportions references for achondroplasia: New tools for monitoring growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino, Mariana; Ramos Mejía, Rosario; Fano, Virginia

    2018-04-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of inherited disproportionate short stature. We report leg length, sitting height, and body proportion curves for achondroplasia. Seven centile format of sitting height, leg length, sitting height/leg length ratio, sitting height/height ratio, and head circumference/height ratio were estimated by the LMS method. The Q-test was applied to assess the goodness of fit. For comparison, centiles of sitting height and leg length were graphed using Argentine national growth references for achondroplasia and non-achondroplasia populations. The sample consisted of 342 children with achondroplasia (171 males, 171 females) aged 0-18 years. The median (interquartile range) number of measurements per child was 6 (3, 12) for sitting height and 8 (3, 13) for head circumference. Median leg length increased from 14 cm at age 1 week to 44 and 40 cm (males and females, respectively) in achondroplasia adolescents which is 3.5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children at age 1 week and, 38 cm shorter at adolescence. Median sitting height increased from 34 cm at birth to 86 and 81 in adolescents' boys and girls respectively, only 5 cm shorter than non-achondroplasia children. Sitting height/leg length decreased from 2.61 at birth to approximately 1.90 at adolescent. Median head circumference/height ratio decreased from 0.79 at birth to 0.46 at 18 years in both sexes. Growth of lower limbs is affected early in life and becomes more noticeable throughout childhood. The disharmonic growth between the less affected trunk and the severely affected limbs determine body disproportion in achondroplasia. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comprehensive Prediction of Large-height Swell-like Waves in East Coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S. J.; Lee, C.; Ahn, S. J.; Kim, H. K.

    2014-12-01

    There have been growing interests in the large-height swell-like wave (LSW) in the east coast of Korea because such big waves have caused human victims as well as damages to facilities such as breakwaters in the coast. The LSW was found to be generated due to an atmospherically great valley in the north area of the East Sea and then propagate long distance to the east coast of Korea in prominently southwest direction (Oh et al., 2010).In this study, we will perform two methods, real-time data based and numerical-model based predictions in order to predict the LSW in the east coast of Korea. First, the real-time data based prediction method uses information which is collected by the directional wave gauge installed near Sokcho. Using the wave model SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) and the wave ray method (Munk and Arthur, 1952), we will estimate wave data in open sea from the real-time data and predict the travel time of LSW from the measurement site (near Sokcho) to several target points in the east coast of Korea. Second, the numerical-model based method uses three different numerical models; WW3 in deep water, SWAN in shallow water, and CADMAS-SURF for wave run-up (CDIT). The surface winds from the 72 hours prediction system of NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) GFS (Global Forecast System) will be inputted in finer grids after interpolating these in certain domains of WW3 and SWAN models. The significant wave heights and peak wave directions predicted by the two methods will be compared to the measured data of LSW at several target points near the coasts. Further, the prediction method will be improved using more measurement sites which will be installed in the future. ReferencesBooij, N., Ris, R.C., and Holthuijsen, L.H. (1999). A third-generation wave model for coastal regions 1. Model description and validation. J. of Geophysical Research, 103(C4), 7649-7666.Munk, W.H. and Arthur, R.S. (1952). Gravity Waves. 13. Wave Intensity along a Refracted Ray

  3. Validity of Hip-worn Inertial Measurement Unit Compared to Jump Mat for Jump Height Measurement in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantalainen, T; Hesketh, K D; Rodda, C; Duckham, R L

    2018-06-16

    Jump tests assess lower body power production capacity, and can be used to evaluate athletic ability and development during growth. Wearable inertial measurement units (IMU) seem to offer a feasible alternative to laboratory-based equipment for jump height assessments. Concurrent validity of these devices for jump height assessments has only been established in adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of IMU-based jump height estimate compared to contact mat-based jump height estimate in adolescents. Ninety-five adolescents (10-13 years-of-age; girls N=41, height = 154 (SD 9) cm, weight = 44 (11) kg; boys N=54, height=156 (10) cm, weight = 46 (13) kg) completed three counter-movement jumps for maximal jump height on a contact mat. Inertial recordings (accelerations, rotations) were concurrently recorded with a hip-worn IMU (sampling at 256 Hz). Jump height was evaluated based on flight time. The mean IMU-derived jump height was 27.1 (SD 3.8) cm, and the corresponding mean jump-mat-derived value was 21.5 (3.4) cm. While a significant 26% mean difference was observed between the methods (5.5 [95% limits of agreement 2.2 to 8.9] cm, p = 0.006), the correspondence between methods was excellent (ICC = 0.89). The difference between methods was weakly positively associated with jump height (r = 0.28, P = 0.007). Take-off velocity derived jump height was also explored but produced only fair congruence. In conclusion, IMU-derived jump height exhibited excellent congruence to contact mat-based jump height and therefore presents a feasible alternative for jump height assessments in adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. X-chromosome gene dosage as a determinant of impaired pre and postnatal growth and adult height in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiot, Elodie; Zenaty, Delphine; Boizeau, Priscilla; Haigneré, Jeremy; Dos Santos, Sophie; Léger, Juliane

    2016-03-01

    Short stature is a key aspect of the phenotype of patients with Turner syndrome (TS). SHOX haploinsufficiency is responsible for about two-thirds of the height deficit. The aim was to investigate the effect of X-chromosome gene dosage on anthropometric parameters at birth, spontaneous height, and adult height (AH) after growth hormone (GH) treatment. We conducted a national observational multicenter study. Birth parameter SDS for gestational age, height, and AH before and after GH treatment respectively, and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) were classified by karyotype subgroup in a cohort of 1501 patients with TS: 45,X (36%), isoXq (19%), 45,X/46,XX (15%), XrX (7%), presence of Y (6%), or other karyotypes (17%). Birth weight, length (P<0.0001), and head circumference (P<0.001), height and height deficit with respect to target height (SDS) before GH treatment, at a median age of 8.8 (5.3-11.8) years and after adjustment for age and correction for multiple testing (P<0.0001), and AH deficit with respect to target height at a median age of 19.3 (18.0-21.8) years and with additional adjustment for dose and duration of GH treatment (P=0.006), were significantly associated with karyotype subgroup. Growth retardation tended to be more severe in patients with XrX, isoXq, and, to a lesser extent, 45,X karyotypes than in patients with 45,X/46,XX karyotypes or a Y chromosome. These data suggest that haploinsufficiency for an unknown Xp gene increases the risk of fetal and postnatal growth deficit and short AH with respect to target height after GH therapy. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Falls from height: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Kasim; Sarihan, Mehmet Ediz; Colak, Cemil; Güven, Taner; Gür, Ali; Gürbüz, Sükrü

    2018-01-01

    Emergency services manage trauma patients frequently and falls from height comprise the main cause of emergency service admissions. In this study, we aimed to analyse the demographic characteristics of falls from height and their relationship to the mortality. A total of 460 patients, who admitted to the Emergency Department of Inonu University between November 2011 and November 2014 with a history of fall from height, were examined retrospectively. Demographic parameters, fall characteristics and their effect to mortality were evaluated statistically. The study comprised of 292 (63.5%) men and 168 (36.5%) women patients. The mean age of all patients was 27±24.99 years. Twenty-six (5.6%) patients died and the majority of them were in ≥62 years old group. The highest percentage of falls was at 0-5 years age group (28.3%). People fell mainly from 1.1-4 metres(m) level (46.1%). The causes of falls were ordered as unintentional (92.2%), workplace (8.1%) and suicidal (1.7%). Skin and soft tissue injuries (37.4%) were the main traumatic lesions. Age, fall height, fall place, lineer skull fracture, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, cervical fracture, thoracic vertebra fracture and trauma scores had statistically significant effect on mortality. The casualties died because of subarachnoid hemorrhage mostly.

  6. Optimizing height presentation for aircraft cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Chris S.; Croft, D.; Selcon, Stephen J.; Markin, H.; Jackson, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an experiment conducted to investigate the type of display symbology that most effectively conveys height information to users of head-down plan-view radar displays. The experiment also investigated the use of multiple information sources (redundancy) in the design of such displays. Subjects were presented with eight different height display formats. These formats were constructed from a control, and/or one, two, or three sources of redundant information. The three formats were letter coding, analogue scaling, and toggling (spatially switching the position of the height information from above to below the aircraft symbol). Subjects were required to indicate altitude awareness via a four-key, forced-choice keyboard response. Error scores and response times were taken as performance measures. There were three main findings. First, there was a significant performance advantage when the altitude information was presented above and below the symbol to aid the representation of height information. Second, the analogue scale, a line whose length indicated altitude, proved significantly detrimental to performance. Finally, no relationship was found between the number of redundant information sources employed and performance. The implications for future aircraft and displays are discussed in relation to current aircraft tactical displays and in the context of perceptual psychological theory.

  7. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  8. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. McQuillan (Ruth); N. Eklund (Niina); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Kuningas (Maris); B.P. McEvoy (Brian); T. Esko (Tõnu); T. Corre (Tanguy); G. Davies (Gail); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K. Kristiansson (Kati); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); M. Gögele (Martin); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Tenesa (Albert); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Hayward (Caroline); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Boban (Mladen); S. Ulivi (Shelia); A. Robino (Antonietta); V. Boraska (Vesna); W. Igl (Wilmar); S.H. Wild (Sarah); L. Zgaga (Lina); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Girotto; L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Sala (Cinzia); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); I. Prokopenko (Inga); M. Kals (Mart); J. Viikari (Jorma); J. Yang (Joanna); A. Pouta (Anneli); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Hofman (Albert); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Kähönen (Mika); L. Milani (Lili); M. Heliovaara (Markku); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); K. Räikkönen (Katri); C. Masciullo (Corrado); J.M. Starr (John); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L. Esposito (Laura); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.M. Farrington (Susan); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Kirin (Mirna); M. Pehlic (Marina); F. Faletra (Flavio); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Widen (Elisabeth); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Koskinen (Seppo); K. Fischer (Krista); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.C. Heath (Andrew); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.L. Hartikainen; P.A.F. Madden (Pamela); P. d' Adamo (Pio); N. Hastie (Nick); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); I. Rudan (Igor); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I.J. Deary (Ian); D. Toniolo (Daniela); K. Hagen (Knut); A. Jula (Antti); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Perola (Markus); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has

  9. Optimally combined regional geoid models for the realization of height systems in developing countries - ORG4heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Verena; Schmidt, Michael; Willberg, Martin; Pail, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Precise height systems require high-resolution and high-quality gravity data. However, such data sets are sparse especially in developing or newly industrializing countries. Thus, we initiated the DFG-project "ORG4heights" for the formulation of a general scientific concept how to (1) optimally combine all available data sets and (2) estimate realistic errors. The resulting regional gravity field models then deliver the fundamental basis for (3) establishing physical national height systems. The innovative key aspects of the project incorporate the development of a method which links (low- up to mid-resolution) gravity satellite mission data and (high- down to low-quality) terrestrial data. Hereby, an optimal combination of the data utilizing their highest measure of information including uncertainty quantification and analyzing systematic omission errors is pursued. Regional gravity field modeling via Multi-Resolution Representation (MRR) and Least Squares Collocation (LSC) are studied in detail and compared based on their theoretical fundamentals. From the findings, MRR shall be further developed towards implementing a pyramid algorithm. Within the project, we investigate comprehensive case studies in Saudi Arabia and South America, i. e. regions with varying topography, by means of simulated data with heterogeneous distribution, resolution, quality and altitude. GPS and tide gauge records serve as complementary input or validation data. The resulting products include error propagation, internal and external validation. A generalized concept then is derived in order to establish physical height systems in developing countries. The recommendations may serve as guidelines for sciences and administration. We present the ideas and strategies of the project, which combines methodical development and practical applications with high socio-economic impact.

  10. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  11. Estimating the Economic Value of Information for Screening in Disseminating and Targeting Effective School-based Preventive Interventions: An Illustrative Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen S; Salkever, David S; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Slade, Eric P; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    When candidates for school-based preventive interventions are heterogeneous in their risk of poor outcomes, an intervention's expected economic net benefits may be maximized by targeting candidates for whom the intervention is most likely to yield benefits, such as those at high risk of poor outcomes. Although increasing amounts of information about candidates may facilitate more accurate targeting, collecting information can be costly. We present an illustrative example to show how cost-benefit analysis results from effective intervention demonstrations can help us to assess whether improved targeting accuracy justifies the cost of collecting additional information needed to make this improvement.

  12. Mapping Forest Canopy Height over Continental China Using Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-detailed forest height data are useful to monitor local, regional and global carbon cycle. LiDAR remote sensing can measure three-dimensional forest features but generating spatially-contiguous forest height maps at a large scale (e.g., continental and global is problematic because existing LiDAR instruments are still data-limited and expensive. This paper proposes a new approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN for modeling of forest canopy heights over the China continent. Our model ingests spaceborne LiDAR metrics and multiple geospatial predictors including climatic variables (temperature and precipitation, forest type, tree cover percent and land surface reflectance. The spaceborne LiDAR instrument used in the study is the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS, which can provide within-footprint forest canopy heights. The ANN was trained with pairs between spatially discrete LiDAR metrics and full gridded geo-predictors. This generates valid conjugations to predict heights over the China continent. The ANN modeled heights were evaluated with three different reference data. First, field measured tree heights from three experiment sites were used to validate the ANN model predictions. The observed tree heights at the site-scale agreed well with the modeled forest heights (R = 0.827, and RMSE = 4.15 m. Second, spatially discrete GLAS observations and a continuous map from the interpolation of GLAS-derived tree heights were separately used to evaluate the ANN model. We obtained R of 0.725 and RMSE of 7.86 m and R of 0.759 and RMSE of 8.85 m, respectively. Further, inter-comparisons were also performed with two existing forest height maps. Our model granted a moderate agreement with the existing satellite-based forest height maps (R = 0.738, and RMSE = 7.65 m (R2 = 0.52, and RMSE = 8.99 m. Our results showed that the ANN model developed in this paper is capable of estimating forest heights over the China continent with a

  13. Modelling flight heights of lesser black-backed gulls and great skuas from GPS: a Bayesian approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross-Smith, V.H.; Thaxter, C.B.; Masden, E.A.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Burton, N.H.K.; Wright, L.J.; Rehfisch, M.M.; Johnston, A.

    2016-01-01

    * Wind energy generation is increasing globally, and associated environmental impacts must be considered. The risk of seabirds colliding with offshore wind turbines is influenced by flight height, and flight height data usually come from observers on boats, making estimates in daylight in fine

  14. Impurity 'hot' atoms 67Ga in a role a physical-chemical studies at an estimation of radiation damage in Zn cyclotron targets after bombardment with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, I.E.; Lazarev, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the migration of impurity 'hot atoms' 67 Ga produced from various types of nuclear reaction on zinc targets is reported. The type of charged particles as well as their energy, beam current, total fluency was varied

  15. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing the height of Hawaiian lava fountains: implications for the use of fountain height as an indicator of magma gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, E.A.; Wilson, L.; Neal, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The heights of lava fountains formed in Hawaiian-style eruptions are controlled by magma gas content, volume flux and the amounts of lava re-entrainment and gas bubble coalescence. Theoretical models of lava fountaining are used to analyse data on lava fountain height variations collected during the 1983-1986 Pu'u 'O'o vent of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The results show that the variable fountain heights can be largely explained by the impact of variations in volume flux and amount of lava re-entrainment on erupting magmas with a constant gas content of ???0.32 wt.% H2O. However, the gas content of the magma apparently declined by ???0.05 wt.% during the last 10 episodes of the eruption series and this decline is attributed to more extensive pre-eruption degassing due to a shallowing of the sub-vent feeder dike. It is concluded that variations in lava fountain height cannot be simply interpreted as variations in gas content, as has previously been suggested, but that fountain height can still be a useful guide to minimum gas contents. Where sufficient data are available on eruptive volume fluxes and extent of lava entrainment, greatly improved estimates can be made of magma gas content from lava fountain height. ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  17. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; Deery, David M; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Condon, Anthony Tony G; Rebetzke, Greg J; James, Richard A; Bovill, William D; Furbank, Robert T; Sirault, Xavier R R

    2018-01-01

    Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR ( r 2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m) were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association ( r 2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02) at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI) and 3D profile index (3DPI). The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass ( r 2 = 0.93 and r 2 = 0.92) for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  18. Comparative evaluation of hemodynamic and respiratory parameters during mechanical ventilation with two tidal volumes calculated by demi-span based height and measured height in normal lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mousavi Seresht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Appropriate determination of tidal volume (VT is important for preventing ventilation induced lung injury. We compared hemodynamic and respiratory parameters in two conditions of receiving VTs calculated by using body weight (BW, which was estimated by measured height (HBW or demi-span based body weight (DBW. Materials and Methods : This controlled-trial was conducted in St. Alzahra Hospital in 2009 on American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I and II, 18-65-years-old patients. Standing height and weight were measured and then height was calculated using demi-span method. BW and VT were calculated with acute respiratory distress syndrome-net formula. Patients were randomized and then crossed to receive ventilation with both calculated VTs for 20 min. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were analyzed with SPSS version 20.0 using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results : Forty nine patients were studied. Demi-span based body weight and thus VT (DTV were lower than Height based body weight and VT (HTV (P = 0.028, in male patients (P = 0.005. Difference was observed in peak airway pressure (PAP and airway resistance (AR changes with higher PAP and AR at 20 min after receiving HTV compared with DTV. Conclusions : Estimated VT based on measured height is higher than that based on demi-span and this difference exists only in females, and this higher VT results higher airway pressures during mechanical ventilation.

  19. Inverted Polarity Thunderstorms Linked with Elevated Cloud Base Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, K. L.; Williams, E.

    2016-12-01

    The great majority of thunderstorms worldwide exhibit gross positive dipole structure, produce intracloud lightning that reduces this positive dipole (positive intracloud flashes), and produce negative cloud-to-ground lightning from the lower negative end of this dipole. During the STEPS experiment in 2000 much new evidence for thunderstorms (or cells within multi-cellular storms) with inverted polarity came to light, both from balloon soundings of electric field and from LMA analysis. Many of the storms with inverted polarity cells developed in eastern Colorado. Fleenor et al. (2009) followed up after STEPS to document a dominance of positive polarity CG lightning in many of these cases. In the present study, surface thermodynamic observations (temperature and dew point temperature) have been used to estimate the cloud base heights and temperatures at the time of the Fleenor et al. lightning observations. It was found that when more than 90% of the observed CG lightning polarity within a storm is negative, the cloud base heights were low (2000 m AGL or lower, and warmer, with T>10 C), and when more than 90% of the observed CG lightning within a storm was positive, the cloud base heights were high (3000 m AGL or higher, and colder, with Tmixed polarity were generally associated with intermediate cloud base heights. These findings on inverted polarity thunderstorms are remarkably consistent with results in other parts of the world where strong instability prevails in the presence of high cloud base height: the plateau regions of China (Liu et al., 1989; Qie et al., 2005), and in pre-monsoon India (Pawar et al., 2016), particularly when mixed polarity cases are excluded. Calculations of adiabatic cloud water content for lifting from near 0 oC cast some doubt on earlier speculation (Williams et al., 2005) that the graupel particles in these inverted polarity storms attain a wet growth condition, and so exhibit positive charging following laboratory experiments. This

  20. CALIOP-based Biomass Burning Smoke Plume Injection Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Pouliot, G.; Baker, K. R.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Szykman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and aerosols are cycled between terrestrial and atmosphere environments during fire events, and these emissions have strong feedbacks to near-field weather, air quality, and longer-term climate systems. Fire severity and burned area are under the control of weather and climate, and fire emissions have the potential to alter numerous land and atmospheric processes that, in turn, feedback to and interact with climate systems (e.g., changes in patterns of precipitation, black/brown carbon deposition on ice/snow, alteration in landscape and atmospheric/cloud albedo). If plume injection height is incorrectly estimated, then the transport and deposition of those emissions will also be incorrect. The heights to which smoke is injected governs short- or long-range transport, which influences surface pollution, cloud interaction (altered albedo), and modifies patterns of precipitation (cloud condensation nuclei). We are working with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) science team and other stakeholder agencies, primarily the Environmental Protection Agency and regional partners, to generate a biomass burning (BB) plume injection height database using multiple platforms, sensors and models (CALIOP, MODIS, NOAA HMS, Langley Trajectory Model). These data have the capacity to provide enhanced smoke plume injection height parameterization in regional, national and international scientific and air quality models. Statistics that link fire behavior and weather to plume rise are crucial for verifying and enhancing plume rise parameterization in local-, regional- and global-scale models used for air quality, chemical transport and climate. Specifically, we will present: (1) a methodology that links BB injection height and CALIOP air parcels to specific fires; (2) the daily evolution of smoke plumes for specific fires; (3) plumes transport and deposited on the Greenland Ice Sheet; and (4) compare CALIOP-derived smoke plume injection

  1. Absence of modulatory action on haptic height perception with musical pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eGeronazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although acoustic frequency is not a spatial property of physical objects, in common language, pitch, i.e., the psychological correlated of frequency, is often labeled spatially (i.e., high in pitch or low in pitch. Pitch-height is known to modulate (and interact with the response of participants when they are asked to judge spatial properties of non-auditory stimuli (e.g., visual in a variety of behavioral tasks. In the current study we investigated whether the modulatory action of pitch-height extended to the haptic estimation of height of a virtual step.We implemented a HW/SW setup which is able to render virtual 3D objects (stair-steps haptically through a PHANTOM device, and to provide real-time continuous auditory feedback depending on the user interaction with the object. The haptic exploration was associated with a sinusoidal tone whose pitch varied as a function of the interaction point’s height within (i a narrower and (ii a wider pitch range, or (iii a random pitch variation acting as a control audio condition. Explorations were also performed with no sound (haptic only. Participants were instructed to explore the virtual step freely, and to communicate height estimation by opening their thumb and index finger to mimic the step riser height, or verbally by reporting the height in centimeters of the step riser. We analyzed the role of musical expertise by dividing participants into non musicians and musicians. Results showed no effects of musical pitch on high-realistic haptic feedback. Overall there is no difference between the two groups in the proposed multimodal conditions. Additionally, we observed a different haptic response distribution between musicians and non musicians when estimations of the auditory conditions are matched with estimations in the no sound condition.

  2. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  3. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  4. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  5. Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn

    Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a

  6. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  7. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor, Lucas Heights, NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-12

    On 17 February 1999, the House of Representatives referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works for consideration and report the proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights, New South Wales. The Committee received a written submission from ANSTO and took evidence from ANSTO officials at public hearings held at Parliament House. It has also received submissions and took evidence from a number of organisations and individuals. Prior to the first day of public hearings, the Committee undertook an extensive inspection of the facilities at Lucas Heights. The Committee's main conclusion and recommendations are as follows: (1) A need exists to replace HIFAR with a modern research reactor. The need for the replacement of HIFAR arises as a consequence of national interest considerations, research and development requirements and the need to sustain the local production of radiopharmaceuticals. The comparative costs of locating the replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights or a green fields site favour the former by a considerable margin. The refurbishing HIFAR of would not provide an enhancement of its research and operational capabilities which are considered by the scientific community to be limited. Such limitations have led to a reduction in national research and development opportunities. It is estimated that the new national research reactor must be operational some time before HIFAR is decommissioned. Provided all recommendations and commitments contained in the Environment Assessment Report are implemented during construction and commissioning and for the expected life of the research reactor, the Committee believes, based on the evidence, that all known risks have been identified and their impact on public safety will be as low as technically possible. It is recommended that during the licensing, construction and commissioning phases ANSTO should provide the Committee with six-monthly reports on progress and that removal of

  8. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor, Lucas Heights, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On 17 February 1999, the House of Representatives referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works for consideration and report the proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights, New South Wales. The Committee received a written submission from ANSTO and took evidence from ANSTO officials at public hearings held at Parliament House. It has also received submissions and took evidence from a number of organisations and individuals. Prior to the first day of public hearings, the Committee undertook an extensive inspection of the facilities at Lucas Heights. The Committee's main conclusion and recommendations are as follows: 1) A need exists to replace HIFAR with a modern research reactor. The need for the replacement of HIFAR arises as a consequence of national interest considerations, research and development requirements and the need to sustain the local production of radiopharmaceuticals.The comparative costs of locating the replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights or a green fields site favour the former by a considerable margin. The refurbishing HIFAR of would not provide an enhancement of its research and operational capabilities which are considered by the scientific community to be limited. Such limitations have led to a reduction in national research and development opportunities. It is estimated that the new national research reactor must be operational some time before HIFAR is decommissioned. Provided all recommendations and commitments contained in the Environment Assessment Report are implemented during construction and commissioning and for the expected life of the research reactor, the Committee believes, based on the evidence, that all known risks have been identified and their impact on public safety will be as low as technically possible. It is recommended that during the licensing, construction and commissioning phases ANSTO should provide the Committee with six-monthly reports on progress and that removal of

  9. Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.

  10. Use of reflected GNSS SNR data to retrieve either soil moisture or vegetation height from a wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to estimate soil moisture and vegetation height from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR data using direct and reflected signals by the land surface surrounding a ground-based antenna. Observations are collected from a rainfed wheat field in southwestern France. Surface soil moisture is retrieved based on SNR phases estimated by the Least Square Estimation method, assuming the relative antenna height is constant. It is found that vegetation growth breaks up the constant relative antenna height assumption. A vegetation-height retrieval algorithm is proposed using the SNR-dominant period (the peak period in the average power spectrum derived from a wavelet analysis of SNR. Soil moisture and vegetation height are retrieved at different time periods (before and after vegetation's significant growth in March. The retrievals are compared with two independent reference data sets: in situ observations of soil moisture and vegetation height, and numerical simulations of soil moisture, vegetation height and above-ground dry biomass from the ISBA (interactions between soil, biosphere and atmosphere land surface model. Results show that changes in soil moisture mainly affect the multipath phase of the SNR data (assuming the relative antenna height is constant with little change in the dominant period of the SNR data, whereas changes in vegetation height are more likely to modulate the SNR-dominant period. Surface volumetric soil moisture can be estimated (R2  =  0.74, RMSE  =  0.009 m3 m−3 when the wheat is smaller than one wavelength (∼ 19 cm. The quality of the estimates markedly decreases when the vegetation height increases. This is because the reflected GNSS signal is less affected by the soil. When vegetation replaces soil as the dominant reflecting surface, a wavelet analysis provides an accurate estimation of the wheat crop height (R2  =  0.98, RMSE  =  6

  11. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Frode [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: frode.kolstad@medisin.ntnu.no; Myhr, Gunnar [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Kvistad, Kjell Arne [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Nygaard, Oystein P. [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Leivseth, Gunnar [Department of Neuromedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-09-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration.

  12. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Frode; Myhr, Gunnar; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Nygaard, Oystein P.; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration

  13. Incorporating shape constraints in generalized additive modelling of the height-diameter relationship for Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measurements of tree heights and diameters are essential in forest assessment and modelling. Tree heights are used for estimating timber volume, site index and other important variables related to forest growth and yield, succession and carbon budget models. However, the diameter at breast height (dbh can be more accurately obtained and at lower cost, than total tree height. Hence, generalized height-diameter (h-d models that predict tree height from dbh, age and other covariates are needed. For a more flexible but biologically plausible estimation of covariate effects we use shape constrained generalized additive models as an extension of existing h-d model approaches. We use causal site parameters such as index of aridity to enhance the generality and causality of the models and to enable predictions under projected changeable climatic conditions. Methods: We develop unconstrained generalized additive models (GAM and shape constrained generalized additive models (SCAM for investigating the possible effects of tree-specific parameters such as tree age, relative diameter at breast height, and site-specific parameters such as index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature during vegetation period, on the h-d relationship of forests in Lower Saxony, Germany. Results: Some of the derived effects, e.g. effects of age, index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature have significantly non-linear pattern. The need for using SCAM results from the fact that some of the model effects show partially implausible patterns especially at the boundaries of data ranges. The derived model predicts monotonically increasing levels of tree height with increasing age and temperature sum and decreasing aridity and social rank of a tree within a stand. The definition of constraints leads only to marginal or minor decline in the model statistics like AIC. An observed structured spatial trend in tree height is modelled via 2-dimensional surface

  14. Height at Ages 7-13 Years in Relation to Developing Type 2 Diabetes Throughout Adult Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Jensen, Britt W; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    measured at ages 7-13 years. Hazard ratios (HR) of type 2 diabetes (age ≥30 years) were estimated without and with adjustment for birthweight and BMI. RESULTS: In men, associations between height and type 2 diabetes changed from inverse for below-average heights at age 7 years to positive for above...... for BMI, short childhood height at all ages and greater growth during childhood are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that this period of life warrants mechanistic investigations.......BACKGROUND: Short adults have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Although adult height results from childhood growth, the effects of height and growth trajectories during childhood are sparsely investigated. We investigated sex-specific associations between childhood height, growth and adult...

  15. End height of fireball as a function of their residual kinetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelle, D.O.

    1987-01-01

    Previous analyses of meteoroid compositional groupings have utilized the end height of fireballs as a diagnostic tool. From an observational perspective this definition is straight forward, but from a theoretical viewpoint there are problems with using this operational definition. In order to realistically assess the estimated geometric uncertainty of + 1 km in the observed end height, a theoretical definition of the end height of meteoritic fireballs is proposed using the results from the integral radiation efficiency model of ReVelle. Three photographed and recovered meteorites are used as a calibration for this proposed definition. This definition was used to evaluate the end height of all fireballs that were deduced by Wetherill and ReVelle as being meteoritic. In almost all cases the theoretical values are lower than the observed values, in some cases as much as 5 km lower. A preliminary summary of results are given

  16. Mixing heights over hilly terrain - a case study in northern austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, K. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Simultaneous Sodar measurements (Remtech PA2) were conducted from 10 October 1996 to 24 January 1997 at two sites in northern Austria, near the village Allensteig on top of a hill (590 m.s.l.) and in the village Lenzing (460 m.s.l.) near the lake Attersee. The two sites are 145 km apart from each other and differ much according to the complexity of the surrounding terrain, land use and altitude. Mixing height and inversions height estimations from the Sodar measurements are compared with mixing heights derived from radiosonde potential temperature profiles at the next stations Linz and Vienna using the parcel method of Stull (1991) explained by M. Piringer (this volume). The information about the static stability at different Sodar heights, which is provided by the new Sodar software in terms of vertical temperature gradients, is discussed. (au)

  17. Message valence, familiarity, sex, and personality effects on the perceptual distortion of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, W E; Angoli, M

    1980-03-01

    The perceptual distortion of height was examined in a group of American male and female college student volunteers (n = 139). A message which announced either good or bad news was delivered by a familiar or unfamiliar person who was either male or female. After hearing the message, the students were asked to estimate the height of the communicator. Additionally, the variables of self-esteem and independence of judgment were measured. Results indicated that familiarity with the message source (p less than .0025) as well as sex of the communicator (p less than .024) were predictors of the perceptual distortion of height, but message valence was not. Neither self-esteem nor independence of judgment was functionally related to the proclivity to distort the heights of the communicators.

  18. Strength Determinants of Jump Height in the Jump Throw Movement in Women Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, David; Østerås, Sindre; Ettema, Gertjan; Paulsen, Gøran; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2018-06-08

    McGhie, D, Østerås, S, Ettema, G, Paulsen, G, and Sandbakk, Ø. Strength determinants of jump height in the jump throw movement in women handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to improve the understanding of the strength demands of a handball-specific jump through examining the associations between jump height in a jump throw jump (JTJ) and measures of lower-body maximum strength and impulse in handball players. For comparison, whether the associations between jump height and strength differed between the JTJ and the customarily used countermovement jump (CMJ) was also examined. Twenty women handball players from a Norwegian top division club participated in the study. Jump height was measured in the JTJ and in unilateral and bilateral CMJ. Lower-body strength (maximum isometric force, one-repetition maximum [1RM], impulse at ∼60% and ∼35% 1RM) was measured in seated leg press. The associations between jump height and strength were assessed with correlation analyses and t-tests of dependent r's were performed to determine if correlations differed between jump tests. Only impulse at ∼35% 1RM correlated significantly with JTJ height (p jump height and strength were significantly weaker in the JTJ than in both CMJ tests for all strength measures (p = 0.001-0.044) except one. Maximum strength and impulse at ∼60% 1RM did not seem to sufficiently capture the capabilities associated with JTJ height, highlighting the importance of employing tests targeting performance-relevant neuromuscular characteristics when assessing jump-related strength in handball players. Further, CMJ height seemed to represent a wider range of strength capabilities and care should be taken when using it as a proxy for handball-specific movements.

  19. Height and Biomass of Mangroves in Africa from ICEsat/GLAS and SRTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.; Simard, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The accurate quantification of forest 3-D structure is of great importance for studies of the global carbon cycle and biodiversity. These studies are especially relevant in Africa, where deforestation rates are high and the lack of background data is great. Mangrove forests are ecologically significant and it is important to measure mangrove canopy heights and biomass. The objectives of this study are to estimate: 1. The total area, 2. Canopy height distributions and 3. Aboveground biomass of mangrove forests in Africa. To derive mangrove 3-D structure and biomass maps, we used a combination of mangrove maps derived from Landsat ETM+, LiDAR canopy height estimates from ICEsat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) and elevation data from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) for the African continent. More specifically, we extracted mangrove forest areas on the SRTM DEM using Landsat based landcover maps. The LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements from the large footprint GLAS sensor were used to derive local estimates of canopy height and calibrate the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from SRTM. We then applied allometric equations relating canopy height to biomass in order to estimate above ground biomass (AGB) from the canopy height product. The total mangrove area of Africa was estimated to be 25 960 square kilometers with 83% accuracy. The largest mangrove areas and greatest total biomass was 29 found in Nigeria covering 8 573 km2 with 132 x10(exp 6) Mg AGB. Canopy height across Africa was estimated with an overall root mean square error of 3.55 m. This error also includes the impact of using sensors with different resolutions and geolocation error which make comparison between measurements sensitive to canopy heterogeneities. This study provides the first systematic estimates of mangrove area, height and biomass in Africa. Our results showed that the combination of ICEsat/GLAS and

  20. Direct Measurement of Tree Height Provides Different Results on the Assessment of LiDAR Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Sibona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, airborne laser scanning-based and traditional field-based survey methods for tree heights estimation are assessed by using one hundred felled trees as a reference dataset. Comparisons between remote sensing and field-based methods were applied to four circular permanent plots located in the western Italian Alps and established within the Alpine Space project NewFor. Remote sensing (Airborne Laser Scanning, ALS, traditional field-based (indirect measurement, IND, and direct measurement of felled trees (DIR methods were compared by using summary statistics, linear regression models, and variation partitioning. Our results show that tree height estimates by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS approximated to real heights (DIR of felled trees. Considering the species separately, Larix decidua was the species that showed the smaller mean absolute difference (0.95 m between remote sensing (ALS and direct field (DIR data, followed by Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris (1.13 m and 1.04 m, respectively. Our results cannot be generalized to ALS surveys with low pulses density (<5/m2 and with view angles far from zero (nadir. We observed that the tree heights estimation by laser scanner is closer to actual tree heights (DIR than traditional field-based survey, and this was particularly valid for tall trees with conical shape crowns.

  1. Meta-analysis of Dense Genecentric Association Studies Reveals Common and Uncommon Variants Associated with Height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanktree, Matthew B.; Guo, Yiran; Murtaza, Muhammed; Glessner, Joseph T.; Bailey, Swneke D.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Lettre, Guillaume; Ongen, Halit; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Toby; Shen, Haiqing; Nelson, Christopher P.; Klopp, Norman; Baumert, Jens; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pankratz, Nathan; Pankow, James S.; Shah, Sonia; Taylor, Kira; Barnard, John; Peters, Bas J.; Maloney, Cliona M.; Lobmeyer, Maximilian T.; Stanton, Alice; Zafarmand, M. Hadi; Romaine, Simon P. R.; Mehta, Amar; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Gong, Yan; Price, Tom S.; Smith, Erin N.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Li, Yun R.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Atwood, Larry D.; Bailey, Kristian M.; Bhatt, Deepak; Bauer, Florianne; Behr, Elijah R.; Bhangale, Tushar; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Brown, Morris; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; Carty, Cara; Chandrupatla, Hareesh R.; Chen, Wei; Connell, John; Dalgeorgou, Chrysoula; de Boer, Anthonius; Drenos, Fotios; Elbers, Clara C.; Fang, James C.; Fox, Caroline S.; Frackelton, Edward C.; Fuchs, Barry; Furlong, Clement E.; Gibson, Quince; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Grobbee, Diederik E.; Hastie, Claire; Howard, Philip J.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Johnson, W. Craig; Li, Qing; Kleber, Marcus E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Kooperberg, Charles; Ky, Bonnie; LaCroix, Andrea; Lanken, Paul; Lathrop, Mark; Li, Mingyao; Marshall, Vanessa; Melander, Olle; Mentch, Frank D.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Monda, Keri L.; Montpetit, Alexandre; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Nakayama, Karen; Nondahl, Dave; Onipinla, Abiodun; Rafelt, Suzanne; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Otieno, F. George; Patel, Sanjey R.; Putt, Mary E.; Rodriguez, Santiago; Safa, Radwan N.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Simpson, Claire; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Suver, Christine; Swergold, Gary; Sweitzer, Nancy K.; Thomas, Kelly A.; Thorand, Barbara; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tischfield, Sam; Tobin, Martin; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tomaszweski, Maciej; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Wallace, Chris; Winkelmann, Bernhard; Zhang, Haitao; Zheng, Dongling; Zhang, Li; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Clarke, Robert; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Danesh, John; Day, Ian N.; Schork, Nicholas J.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Delles, Christian; Duggan, David; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofker, Marten H.; Humphries, Steve E.; Kivimaki, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Mega, Jessica L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Morrow, David A.; Palmen, Jutta; Redline, Susan; Shields, Denis C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sleiman, Patrick M.; Smith, George Davey; Farrall, Martin; Jamshidi, Yalda; Christiani, David C.; Casas, Juan P.; Hall, Alistair S.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Christie, Jason D.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Murray, Sarah S.; Illig, Thomas; Dorn, Gerald W.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sever, Peter; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Caulfield, Mark; Talmud, Philippa J.; Topol, Eric; Engert, James C.; Wang, Kai; Dominiczak, Anna; Hamsten, Anders; Curtis, Sean P.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Trip, Mieke; Saleheen, Danish; Peden, John F.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; März, Winfried; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke Hilse; Schadt, Eric E.; Johnson, Julie A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Papanicolaou, George J.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Munroe, Patricia B.; North, Kari E.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gaunt, Tom R.; Anand, Sonia S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Soranzo, Nicole; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Reiner, Alex; Hegele, Robert A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Keating, Brendan J.

    2011-01-01

    Height is a classic complex trait with common variants in a growing list of genes known to contribute to the phenotype. Using a genecentric genotyping array targeted toward cardiovascular-related loci, comprising 49,320 SNPs across approximately 2000 loci, we evaluated the association of common and

  2. Prediction of Canopy Heights over a Large Region Using Heterogeneous Lidar Datasets: Efficacy and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Gopalakrishnan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating accurate and unbiased wall-to-wall canopy height maps from airborne lidar data for large regions is useful to forest scientists and natural resource managers. However, mapping large areas often involves using lidar data from different projects, with varying acquisition parameters. In this work, we address the important question of whether one can accurately model canopy heights over large areas of the Southeastern US using a very heterogeneous dataset of small-footprint, discrete-return airborne lidar data (with 76 separate lidar projects. A unique aspect of this effort is the use of nationally uniform and extensive field data (~1800 forested plots from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program of the US Forest Service. Preliminary results are quite promising: Over all lidar projects, we observe a good correlation between the 85th percentile of lidar heights and field-measured height (r = 0.85. We construct a linear regression model to predict subplot-level dominant tree heights from distributional lidar metrics (R2 = 0.74, RMSE = 3.0 m, n = 1755. We also identify and quantify the importance of several factors (like heterogeneity of vegetation, point density, the predominance of hardwoods or softwoods, the average height of the forest stand, slope of the plot, and average scan angle of lidar acquisition that influence the efficacy of predicting canopy heights from lidar data. For example, a subset of plots (coefficient of variation of vegetation heights <0.2 significantly reduces the RMSE of our model from 3.0–2.4 m (~20% reduction. We conclude that when all these elements are factored into consideration, combining data from disparate lidar projects does not preclude robust estimation of canopy heights.

  3. A cloud shadow detection method combined with cloud height iteration and spectral analysis for Landsat 8 OLI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Liu, Xinyan; Yang, Yikun; Chen, TingTing; Wang, Quan; Zhou, Xueying

    2018-04-01

    Although enhanced over prior Landsat instruments, Landsat 8 OLI can obtain very high cloud detection precisions, but for the detection of cloud shadows, it still faces great challenges. Geometry-based cloud shadow detection methods are considered the most effective and are being improved constantly. The Function of Mask (Fmask) cloud shadow detection method is one of the most representative geometry-based methods that has been used for cloud shadow detection with Landsat 8 OLI. However, the Fmask method estimates cloud height employing fixed temperature rates, which are highly uncertain, and errors of large area cloud shadow detection can be caused by errors in estimations of cloud height. This article improves the geometry-based cloud shadow detection method for Landsat OLI from the following two aspects. (1) Cloud height no longer depends on the brightness temperature of the thermal infrared band but uses a possible dynamic range from 200 m to 12,000 m. In this case, cloud shadow is not a specific location but a possible range. Further analysis was carried out in the possible range based on the spectrum to determine cloud shadow location. This effectively avoids the cloud shadow leakage caused by the error in the height determination of a cloud. (2) Object-based and pixel spectral analyses are combined to detect cloud shadows, which can realize cloud shadow detection from two aspects of target scale and pixel scale. Based on the analysis of the spectral differences between the cloud shadow and typical ground objects, the best cloud shadow detection bands of Landsat 8 OLI were determined. The combined use of spectrum and shape can effectively improve the detection precision of cloud shadows produced by thin clouds. Several cloud shadow detection experiments were carried out, and the results were verified by the results of artificial recognition. The results of these experiments indicated that this method can identify cloud shadows in different regions with correct

  4. Mixing height determination using remote sensing systems. General remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyrich, F. [BTU Cottbus, LS Umweltmeteorologie, Cottbus (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Remote sensing systems can be considered today as a real alternative to classical soundings with respect to the MH (mixing height) determination. They have the basic advantage to allow continuous monitoring of the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer). Some technical issues which limit their operational use at present should be solved in the near future (frequency allocation, eye safety, costs). Taking into account specific operating conditions and the formulated-above requirements of a sounding system to be used for MH determination it becomes obvious that none of the available systems meets all of them, i.e., the `Mixing height-meter` does not exist. Therefore, reliable MH determination under a wide variety of conditions can be achieved only by integrating different instruments into a complex sounding system. The S-profiles provide a suitable data base for MH estimation from all types of remote sensing instruments. The criteria to deduce MH-values from these profiles should consider the structure type and the evolution stage of the ABL as well as the shape of the profiles. A certain kind of harmonization concerning these criteria should be achieved. MH values derived automatically from remote sensing data appear to be not yet reliable enough for direct operational use, they should be in any case critically examined by a trained analyst. Contemporary mathematical methods (wavelet transforms, fuzzy logics) are supposed to allow considerable progress in this field in the near future. (au) 19 refs.

  5. Estimation of error in maximal intensity projection-based internal target volume of lung tumors: a simulation and comparison study using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Read, Paul W; Baisden, Joseph M; Larner, James M; Benedict, Stanley H; Sheng, Ke

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)-based lung tumor internal target volume determination using a simulation method based on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Eight healthy volunteers and six lung tumor patients underwent a 5-min MRI scan in the sagittal plane to acquire dynamic images of lung motion. A MATLAB program was written to generate re-sorted dMRI using 4D-CT acquisition methods (RedCAM) by segmenting and rebinning the MRI scans. The maximal intensity projection images were generated from RedCAM and dMRI, and the errors in the MIP-based internal target area (ITA) from RedCAM (epsilon), compared with those from dMRI, were determined and correlated with the subjects' respiratory variability (nu). Maximal intensity projection-based ITAs from RedCAM were comparatively smaller than those from dMRI in both phantom studies (epsilon = -21.64% +/- 8.23%) and lung tumor patient studies (epsilon = -20.31% +/- 11.36%). The errors in MIP-based ITA from RedCAM correlated linearly (epsilon = -5.13nu - 6.71, r(2) = 0.76) with the subjects' respiratory variability. Because of the low temporal resolution and retrospective re-sorting, 4D-CT might not accurately depict the excursion of a moving tumor. Using a 4D-CT MIP image to define the internal target volume might therefore cause underdosing and an increased risk of subsequent treatment failure. Patient-specific respiratory variability might also be a useful predictor of the 4D-CT-induced error in MIP-based internal target volume determination.

  6. Phase height measurements on the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Phase height measurements have been taken on 2.5 MHz E-region reflection over two paths during the day. The two paths have equivalent vertical frequencies of 2.4 MHz and 1.8 MHz. Vertical pulse measurements on 2.4 MHz have also been recorded. Results and discussion on comparisons between these measurements are presented. Phase and amplitude measurements using 4.5 MHz O and E rays have also been taken at night, F-region reflection. In particular, spectral analysis of these results is discussed. (author)

  7. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  8. Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ghim Gooi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.

  9. Population genetic differentiation of height and body mass index across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Hemani, Gibran; Medina-Gomez, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Across-nation differences in the mean values for complex traits are common(1-8), but the reasons for these differences are unknown. Here we find that many independent loci contribute to population genetic differences in height and body mass index (BMI) in 9,416 individuals across 14 European...... countries. Using discovery data on over 250,000 individuals and unbiased effect size estimates from 17,500 sibling pairs, we estimate that 24% (95% credible interval (CI) = 9%, 41%) and 8% (95% CI = 4%, 16%) of the captured additive genetic variance for height and BMI, respectively, reflect population...... genetic differences. Population genetic divergence differed significantly from that in a null model (height, P

  10. Distribution of rain height over subtropical region: Durban, South Africa for satellite communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurotimi, E. O.; Sokoya, O.; Ojo, J. S.; Owolawi, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    Rain height is one of the significant parameters for prediction of rain attenuation for Earth-space telecommunication links, especially those operating at frequencies above 10 GHz. This study examines Three-parameter Dagum distribution of the rain height over Durban, South Africa. 5-year data were used to study the monthly, seasonal, and annual variations using the parameters estimated by the maximum likelihood of the distribution. The performance estimation of the distribution was determined using the statistical goodness of fit. Three-parameter Dagum distribution shows an appropriate distribution for the modeling of rain height over Durban with the Root Mean Square Error of 0.26. Also, the shape and scale parameters for the distribution show a wide variation. The probability exceedance of time for 0.01% indicates the high probability of rain attenuation at higher frequencies.

  11. Polarimetric SAR Interferometry based modeling for tree height and aboveground biomass retrieval in a tropical deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashi; Khati, Unmesh G.; Chandola, Shreya; Agrawal, Shefali; Kushwaha, Satya P. S.

    2017-08-01

    The regulation of the carbon cycle is a critical ecosystem service provided by forests globally. It is, therefore, necessary to have robust techniques for speedy assessment of forest biophysical parameters at the landscape level. It is arduous and time taking to monitor the status of vast forest landscapes using traditional field methods. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are efficient tools that can monitor the health of forests regularly. Biomass estimation is a key parameter in the assessment of forest health. Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) remote sensing has already shown its potential for forest biophysical parameter retrieval. The current research work focuses on the retrieval of forest biophysical parameters of tropical deciduous forest, using fully polarimetric spaceborne C-band data with Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques. PolSAR based Interferometric Water Cloud Model (IWCM) has been used to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB). Input parameters to the IWCM have been extracted from the decomposition modeling of SAR data as well as PolInSAR coherence estimation. The technique of forest tree height retrieval utilized PolInSAR coherence based modeling approach. Two techniques - Coherence Amplitude Inversion (CAI) and Three Stage Inversion (TSI) - for forest height estimation are discussed, compared and validated. These techniques allow estimation of forest stand height and true ground topography. The accuracy of the forest height estimated is assessed using ground-based measurements. PolInSAR based forest height models showed enervation in the identification of forest vegetation and as a result height values were obtained in river channels and plain areas. Overestimation in forest height was also noticed at several patches of the forest. To overcome this problem, coherence and backscatter based threshold technique is introduced for forest area identification and accurate height estimation in non-forested regions. IWCM based modeling for forest

  12. Measured parental height in Turner syndrome-a valuable but underused diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouarezki, Yasmine; Cizmecioglu, Filiz Mine; Mansour, Chourouk; Jones, Jeremy Huw; Gault, Emma Jane; Mason, Avril; Donaldson, Malcolm D C

    2018-02-01

    Early diagnosis of Turner syndrome (TS) is necessary to facilitate appropriate management, including growth promotion. Not all girls with TS have overt short stature, and comparison with parental height (Ht) is needed for appropriate evaluation. We examined both the prevalence and diagnostic sensitivity of measured parental Ht in a dedicated TS clinic between 1989 and 2013. Lower end of parental target range (LTR) was calculated as mid-parental Ht (correction factor 12.5 cm minus 8.5 cm) and converted to standard deviation scores (SDS) using UK 1990 data, then compared with patient Ht SDS at first accurate measurement aged > 1 year. Information was available in 172 girls of whom 142 (82.6%) were short at first measurement. However, both parents had been measured in only 94 girls (54.6%). In 92 of these girls age at measurement was 6.93 ± 3.9 years, Ht SDS vs LTR SDS - 2.63 ± 0.94 vs - 1.77 ± 0.81 (p Turner syndrome are short in relation to parental heights, with untreated final height approximately 20 cm below female population mean. • Measured parental height is more accurate than reported height. What is New: • In a dedicated Turner clinic, there was 85% sensitivity when comparing patient height standard deviation score at first accurate measurement beyond 1 year of age with the lower end of the parental target range standard deviation. • However, measured height in both parents had been recorded in only 54.6% of the Turner girls attending the clinic. This indicates the need to improve the quality of growth assessment in tertiary care.

  13. Estimation of alertness levels with changes in decibel scale wavelength of EEG during dual-task simulation of auditory sonar target detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Changes in alertness levels can have dire consequences for people operating and controlling motorized equipment. Past research studies have shown the relationship of Electroencephalogram (EEG) with alertness of the person. This research reports the fractal analysis of EEG and estimation of the alertness levels of the individual based on the changes in the maximum fractal length (MFL) of EEG. The results indicate that MFL of only 2 channels of EEG can be used to identify the loss of alertness of the individual with mean (inverse) correlation coefficient = 0.82. This study has also reported that using the changes in MFL of EEG, the changes in alertness level of a person was estimated with a mean correlation coefficient = 0.69.

  14. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Camilleri, A.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Looz, T.

    1995-04-01

    Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1993. No activity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv, which is one per cent of the dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. A list of previous environmental survey reports is attached. 22 refs., 21 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E L; Camilleri, A; Loosz, T; Farrar, Y

    1995-12-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Development of a pulse height analizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a Pulse Height Analizer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consist of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable to memorize pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consist of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. As application, this device was used to adquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this Department. The apparatus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results. (Author) [pt

  18. Tree diameter at breast height in relation to stump diameter by species group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur G. Horn; Richard C. Keller

    1957-01-01

    A stump tally is one method of determining the volume of timber previously removed from an area in a logging operation. To estimate volume of standing timber from stumps, foresters must first know the relationship between stump diameters and tree diameters at breast height (d.b.h.).

  19. Female strobili incidence in a Minnesota population of black spruce: heritability and correlation with height growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; C. A. Mohn

    1989-01-01

    Significant family variation in female strobili incidence, ripeness-to-flower and production were found in a Minnesota black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) population tested at four locations. Heritability estimates indicated that gain in early flowering from selection would be possible. Height growth through age 12 years was positively correlated (genetic and...

  20. An empirical InSAR-optical fusion approach to mapping vegetation canopy height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne S. Walker; Josef M. Kellndorfer; Elizabeth LaPoint; Michael Hoppus; James Westfall

    2007-01-01

    Exploiting synergies afforded by a host of recently available national-scale data sets derived from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and passive optical remote sensing, this paper describes the development of a novel empirical approach for the provision of regional- to continental-scale estimates of vegetation canopy height. Supported by data from the...

  1. On determination of the urban mixing height for air quality application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallistratova, M.A. [Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lokoschchenko, M.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The verification of different estimates of MH (mixing height) through their comparison with the aero-logical profiles of potential temperature is not reliable due to great errors of this method assumed as a standard one. Only results of complex fluctuation measurements of height dependencies of meteoparameters may serve as a standard. The criterion of admissible relative errors in estimating MH depends on the degree of their effect on final results of calculations of the admixture concentration field. Such criteria can depend essentially not only on the type of a dispersion model but also on the character of atmospheric stratification, underlying surface, and synoptic processes. Sodars are the most cost-effective and accessible means of operative estimation of urban MH. Errors in sodar estimates of MH are admissible for elementary dispersion models. This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Researches, grants no. 96-05-65741 and 97.05-65697. (au) 17 refs.

  2. Relationship between Arm Span Measurements and Body Height in Dinaric Alpes Population: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Masanovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Several researches have reported the benefit of using various body parameters in predicting standing height, and arm span happened to be one of the most reliable ones in adults. On the other hand, it is well-known the tallness and body proportions are specific in the area that are covered by Dinaric Alpes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between arm span measurements and body height in Dinaric Alpes population. The most visible electronic database (Google Scholar was searched for original research articles available until September 2017. Then research findings were summarized and relationship between arm span measurements and body height in Dinaric Alpes population were identified, as well as areas of future research were recommended. The assessment of body height using various anthropometric measures is very typical from the past centuries and it has been attempted to be studied by many researchers. However, it is important to underline that the arm span has been obtained as the most reliable body indicator for predicting the true height of an individual. However, the studies sampled with the populations lived at Dinaric Alpes mountains have specific estimates. Therefore, all above-mentioned have confirmed the necessity for developing separate body height models for each population on account of ethnic as well as regional differences.

  3. Mixing height derived from the DMI-HIRLAM NWP model, and used for ETEX dispersion modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, J.H.; Rasmussen, A. [Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    For atmospheric dispersion modelling it is of great significance to estimate the mixing height well. Mesoscale and long-range diffusion models using output from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models may well use NWP model profiles of wind, temperature and humidity in computation of the mixing height. This is dynamically consistent, and enables calculation of the mixing height for predicted states of the atmosphere. In autumn 1994, the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) was carried out with the objective to validate atmospheric dispersion models. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) participates in the model evaluations with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA) using NWP model data from the DMI version of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) as well as from the global model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). In DERMA, calculation of mixing heights are performed based on a bulk Richardson number approach. Comparing with tracer gas measurements for the first ETEX experiment, a sensitivity study is performed for DERMA. Using DMI-HIRLAM data, the study shows that optimum values of the critical bulk Richardson number in the range 0.15-0.35 are adequate. These results are in agreement with recent mixing height verification studies against radiosonde data. The fairly large range of adequate critical values is a signature of the robustness of the method. Direct verification results against observed missing heights from operational radio-sondes released under the ETEX plume are presented. (au) 10 refs.

  4. Validity and reliability of the Myotest accelerometric system for the assessment of vertical jump height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casartelli, Nicola; Müller, Roland; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the validity and reliability of the Myotest accelerometric system (Myotest SA, Sion, Switzerland) for the assessment of vertical jump height. Forty-four male basketball players (age range: 9-25 years) performed series of squat, countermovement and repeated jumps during 2 identical test sessions separated by 2-15 days. Flight height was simultaneously quantified with the Myotest system and validated photoelectric cells (Optojump). Two calculation methods were used to estimate the jump height from Myotest recordings: flight time (Myotest-T) and vertical takeoff velocity (Myotest-V). Concurrent validity was investigated comparing Myotest-T and Myotest-V to the criterion method (Optojump), and test-retest reliability was also examined. As regards validity, Myotest-T overestimated jumping height compared to Optojump (p 0.98), that is, excellent validity. Myotest-V overestimated jumping height compared to Optojump (p 12 cm), high limits of agreement ratios (>36%), and low ICCs (9 cm). In conclusion, Myotest-T is a valid and reliable method for the assessment of vertical jump height, and its use is legitimate for field-based evaluations, whereas Myotest-V is neither valid nor reliable.

  5. Height-adjusted percentiles evaluated central obesity in children and adolescents more effectively than just waist circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Kelishadi, Roya; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Qorbani, Mostafa; Bazargani, Behnaz; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmail; Mirminachi, Babak; Ataei, Neamatollah

    2017-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of obesity based on both waist circumference for height and body mass index (BMI) in Iranian children and adolescents. Data on 13 120 children with a mean age of 12.45 ± 3.36 years (50.8% male) from the fourth Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable Disease study were included. Measured waist circumference values were modelled according to age, gender and height percentiles. The prevalence of obesity was estimated using the 90th percentiles for both unadjusted and height-adjusted waist circumferences and compared with the World Health Organization BMI cut-offs. They were analysed further for short, average and tall children. Waist circumference values increased steadily with age. For short and average height children, the prevalence of obesity was higher when height-adjusted waist circumference was used. For taller children, the prevalence of obesity using height-adjusted waist circumference and BMI was similar, but lower than the prevalence based on measurements unadjusted for height. Height-adjusted waist circumference and BMI identified different children as having obesity, with overlaps of 69.47% for boys and 68.42% for girls. Just using waist circumference underestimated obesity in some Iranian children and measurements should be adjusted for height. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Near-adult height in male kidney transplant recipients started on growth hormone treatment in late puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Silvia; Aziz, Mariana; Adragna, Marta; Monteverde, Marta; Belgorosky, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Growth retardation and its impact on adult height is considered to be one of the most common complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) has been effective in improving growth in kidney transplantation (KTx) patients, but little data are available on adult height in patients who began rhGh treatment in late puberty. Near-adult height was evaluated in 13 KTx patients treated with rhGH [growth hormone group (GHGr); dose 9.33 mg/m 2 per week] for a period of at least 18 months. At initiation of rhGH treatment, testicular volume was >8 ml and serum testosterone was >1 ng/ml compared with the control group (CGr) of ten KTx patients who did not receive rHGH. All subjects were of similar chronological age and bone age and had similar creatinine clearance (CrCl) levels, cumulative corticoid dose, height standard deviation score (SDS), target height SDS, and target height:initial height at the beginning of the study. Near-adult height was significantly greater in the GHGr than in the CGr (-1.8 ± 0.8 vs. -2.9 ± 1.1; p = 0.018). The difference between initial height and near-adult height in the GHGr revealed a significant height gain (initial height -3.1 ± 1.1; near-adult height -1.8 ± 0.8 SDS, respectively; delta 1.2 ± 0.3; p = 0.021). The CrCl level was not significantly different between the GHGr and CGr at either at study initiation or when attaining near-adult height (p = 0.74 and p = 0.23, respectively). Treatment with rhGH was effective in improving adult height in KTx patients who began treatment in late puberty, without any effect on renal function.

  7. Long-term statistics of extreme tsunami height at Crescent City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheng; Zhai, Jinjin; Tao, Shanshan

    2017-06-01

    Historically, Crescent City is one of the most vulnerable communities impacted by tsunamis along the west coast of the United States, largely attributed to its offshore geography. Trans-ocean tsunamis usually produce large wave runup at Crescent Harbor resulting in catastrophic damages, property loss and human death. How to determine the return values of tsunami height using relatively short-term observation data is of great significance to assess the tsunami hazards and improve engineering design along the coast of Crescent City. In the present study, the extreme tsunami heights observed along the coast of Crescent City from 1938 to 2015 are fitted using six different probabilistic distributions, namely, the Gumbel distribution, the Weibull distribution, the maximum entropy distribution, the lognormal distribution, the generalized extreme value distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution. The maximum likelihood method is applied to estimate the parameters of all above distributions. Both Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square error method are utilized for goodness-of-fit test and the better fitting distribution is selected. Assuming that the occurrence frequency of tsunami in each year follows the Poisson distribution, the Poisson compound extreme value distribution can be used to fit the annual maximum tsunami amplitude, and then the point and interval estimations of return tsunami heights are calculated for structural design. The results show that the Poisson compound extreme value distribution fits tsunami heights very well and is suitable to determine the return tsunami heights for coastal disaster prevention.

  8. Austrian height and body proportion references for children aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Andreas; Lassi, Michael; Blümel, Peter; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Mayer, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Häusler, Gabriele

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences between national and the WHO reference curves in children older than 5 years. Moreover, reference curves for body proportions (sitting height, subischial leg length and their ratio) based on state-of-the-art statistics are not available. To develop reference curves for height and body proportions for use in Austria and compare the curves with WHO reference curves. To estimate and statistically investigate extreme percentiles. A sample of ∼14 500 children between 4-19 years of age was drawn via schooling institutions, stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions. GAMLSS models were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. After the age of 5 years national reference curves are more suitable than the WHO reference curves for clinical use in Austria. These height curves are very similar to the German reference curves published recently. Therefore, these reference curves for criteria of body proportions are recommended for use in other populations. Further validation studies are needed to establish whether the recently recommended -2.5 and -3.0 SD for height are a sensitive and specific cut-off in the diagnostic work-up for children with a suspected growth disorder using this new Austrian height chart.

  9. Equations of bark thickness and volume profiles at different heights with easy-measurement variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellini, J. M.; Galarza, M.; Burns, S. L.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.; Lencinas, M. V.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop equations of thickness profile and bark volume at different heights with easy-measurement variables, taking as a study case Nothofagus pumilio forests, growing in different site qualities and growth phases in Southern Patagonia. Data was collected from 717 harvested trees. Three models were fitted using multiple, non-lineal regression and generalized linear model, by stepwise methodology, iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation and Marquardt algorithm. The dependent variables were diameter at 1.30 m height (DBH), relative height (RH) and growth phase (GP). The statistic evaluation was made through the adjusted determinant coefficient (r2-adj), standard error of the estimation (SEE), mean absolute error and residual analysis. All models presented good fitness with a significant correlation with the growth phase. A decrease in the thickness was observed when the relative height increase. Moreover, a bark coefficient was made to calculate volume with and without bark of individual trees, where significant differences according to site quality of the stands and DBH class of the trees were observed. It can be concluded that the prediction of bark thickness and bark coefficient is possible using DBH, height, site quality and growth phase, common and easy measurement variables used in forest inventories. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. On-Line Use of Three-Dimensional Marker Trajectory Estimation From Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Projections for Precise Setup in Radiotherapy for Targets With Respiratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worm, Esben S.; Høyer, Morten; Fledelius, Walther; Nielsen, Jens E.; Larsen, Lars P.; Poulsen, Per R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate accurate and objective on-line patient setup based on a novel semiautomatic technique in which three-dimensional marker trajectories were estimated from two-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections. Methods and Materials: Seven treatment courses of stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver tumors were delivered in 21 fractions in total to 6 patients by a linear accelerator. Each patient had two to three gold markers implanted close to the tumors. Before treatment, a CBCT scan with approximately 675 two-dimensional projections was acquired during a full gantry rotation. The marker positions were segmented in each projection. From this, the three-dimensional marker trajectories were estimated using a probability based method. The required couch shifts for patient setup were calculated from the mean marker positions along the trajectories. A motion phantom moving with known tumor trajectories was used to examine the accuracy of the method. Trajectory-based setup was retrospectively used off-line for the first five treatment courses (15 fractions) and on-line for the last two treatment courses (6 fractions). Automatic marker segmentation was compared with manual segmentation. The trajectory-based setup was compared with setup based on conventional CBCT guidance on the markers (first 15 fractions). Results: Phantom measurements showed that trajectory-based estimation of the mean marker position was accurate within 0.3 mm. The on-line trajectory-based patient setup was performed within approximately 5 minutes. The automatic marker segmentation agreed with manual segmentation within 0.36 ± 0.50 pixels (mean ± SD; pixel size, 0.26 mm in isocenter). The accuracy of conventional volumetric CBCT guidance was compromised by motion smearing (≤21 mm) that induced an absolute three-dimensional setup error of 1.6 ± 0.9 mm (maximum, 3.2) relative to trajectory-based setup. Conclusions: The first on-line clinical use of

  11. Current recommendations on the estimation of transition probabilities in Markov cohort models for use in health care decision-making: a targeted literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olariu E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elena Olariu,1 Kevin K Cadwell,1 Elizabeth Hancock,1 David Trueman,1 Helene Chevrou-Severac2 1PHMR Ltd, London, UK; 2Takeda Pharmaceuticals International AG, Zurich, Switzerland Objective: Although Markov cohort models represent one of the most common forms of decision-analytic models used in health care decision-making, correct implementation of such models requires reliable estimation of transition probabilities. This study sought to identify consensus statements or guidelines that detail how such transition probability matrices should be estimated. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify relevant publications in the following databases: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed. Electronic searches were supplemented by manual-searches of health technology assessment (HTA websites in Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the UK. One reviewer assessed studies for eligibility. Results: Of the 1,931 citations identified in the electronic searches, no studies met the inclusion criteria for full-text review, and no guidelines on transition probabilities in Markov models were identified. Manual-searching of the websites of HTA agencies identified ten guidelines on economic evaluations (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and UK. All identified guidelines provided general guidance on how to develop economic models, but none provided guidance on the calculation of transition probabilities. One relevant publication was identified following review of the reference lists of HTA agency guidelines: the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research taskforce guidance. This provided limited guidance on the use of rates and probabilities. Conclusions: There is limited formal guidance available on the estimation of transition probabilities for use in decision-analytic models. Given the increasing importance of cost

  12. On the Flame Height Definition for Upward Flame Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Consalvi, Jean L; Pizzo, Yannick; Porterie, Bernard; Torero, Jose L

    2007-01-01

    Flame height is defined by the experimentalists as the average position of the luminous flame and, consequently is not directly linked with a quantitative value of a physical parameter. To determine flame heights from both numerical and theoretical results, a more quantifiable criterion is needed to define flame heights and must be in agreement with the experiments to allow comparisons. For wall flames, steady wall flame experiments revealed that flame height may be define...

  13. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...

  14. Motion compensation for MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device: estimation of targeting accuracy in MRI-guided kidney cryoablations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Chauvin, Laurent; Ninni, Brian; Kato, Takahisa; King, Franklin; Tuncali, Kemal; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Patient-mounted needle guide devices for percutaneous ablation are vulnerable to patient motion. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a software system for an MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device that can adaptively compensate for displacement of the device due to patient motion using a novel image-based automatic device-to-image registration technique. We have developed a software system for an MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device for percutaneous ablation. It features fully-automated image-based device-to-image registration to track the device position, and a device controller to adjust the needle trajectory to compensate for the displacement of the device. We performed: (a) a phantom study using a clinical MR scanner to evaluate registration performance; (b) simulations using intraoperative time-series MR data acquired in 20 clinical cases of MRI-guided renal cryoablations to assess its impact on motion compensation; and (c) a pilot clinical study in three patients to test its feasibility during the clinical procedure. FRE, TRE, and success rate of device-to-image registration were mm, mm, and 98.3% for the phantom images. The simulation study showed that the motion compensation reduced the targeting error for needle placement from 8.2 mm to 5.4 mm (p  <  0.0005) in patients under general anesthesia (GA), and from 14.4 mm to 10.0 mm () in patients under monitored anesthesia care (MAC). The pilot study showed that the software registered the device successfully in a clinical setting. Our simulation study demonstrated that the software system could significantly improve targeting accuracy in patients treated under both MAC and GA. Intraprocedural image-based device-to-image registration was feasible.

  15. Dominant height-based height-diameter equations for trees in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A., Jr. Kershaw; Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert; James B. McCarter

    2008-01-01

    Height-diameter equations are developed based on dominant tree data collected in 1986 in 8- to 17-year-old clearcuts and the phase 2 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots on the Hoosier National Forest in south central Indiana. Two equation forms are explored: the basic, three-parameter Chapman-Richards function, and a modification of the three-parameter equation...

  16. Anterior Face Height Values in a Nigerian Population | Folaranmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Anterior Upper Face Height 47.7 (4) mm, Anterior Total Face Height (ATFH) 108.5 (5) mm, ratio of ALFH to ATFH ALFH: ATFH 56 (4)%. Conclusion: This study provides anterior face height measurements, which will be of great significance in evaluating facial proportions andesthetics in orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, ...

  17. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  18. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  19. Practical application of the geometric geoid for heighting over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because a geoid model is required to convert ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights that are used in practice. A local geometric geoid ... The geoid height is expressed as a function of the local plane coordinates through a biquadratic surface polynomial, using 14 GPS/levelling points. Five points have been used ...

  20. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable power failure condition in paragraph (b) of this section, a limiting height-speed envelope must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be established...

  2. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a...

  3. [Final height in symptomatic boys with late-onset adrenal hyperplasia (LOCAH), treated with glucocorticoids. Clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Titania; Alonso, Guillermo; Fernández, Cecilia; Buzzalino, Noemí; Dain, Liliana

    2013-04-01

    Although corticoid replacement is recommended for those late-onset adrenal hyperplasia with clinical manifestations, asymptomatic patients do not need treatment. We describe clinical features at diagnosis, treatment, and growth till adult- height, in 4 boys. At diagnosis, age ranged from 9.2-11.6 years. The initial symptoms/signs were: precocious pubarche (n = 2), accelerated bone age (n = 1) and precocious puberty (n = 1). All of them presented elevated 17 hydroxyprogesterone levels and were compound heterozygotes carrying p.V281L mutation. Since, at diagnosis, bone age was significantly advanced for chronological age (13.1 ± 0.5 vs. 10.2 ± 1.1 p = 0.008), hydrocortisone therapy was initiated. During follow-up, mean height Z score decreased 1.4 ± 0.4 SDS (p = 0.007), though adult mean height was not different from target height (-0.39 ± 0.7 vs. -0.04 ± 0.5 SDS, p = 0.054). In conclusion, in 4 symptomatic patients, accurate treatment of late-onset adrenal hyperplasia led to an adult mean height not different from target height. Advanced bone age at diagnosis and the loss of height during pubertal development suggest the need of therapy.

  4. Shadow Analysis Technique for Extraction of Building Height using High Resolution Satellite Single Image and Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Chaudhary, H.; Jha, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    These High resolution satellite data with metadata information is used to extract the height of the building using shadow. Proposed approach divides into two phases 1) rooftop and shadow extraction and 2) height estimation. Firstly the rooftop and shadow region were extracted by manual/ automatic methods using Example - Based and Rule - Based approaches. After feature extraction next step is estimating height of the building by taking rooftop in association with shadow using Ratio Method and by using the relation between sun-satellite geometry. The performance analysis shows the total mean error of height is 0.67 m from ratio method, 1.51 m from Example - Based Approach and 0.96 m from Rule - Based Approach. Analysis concluded that Ratio Method i.e. manual method is best for height estimation but it is time consuming so the automatic Rule Based approach is best for height estimation in comparison to Example Based Approach because it require more knowledge and selection of more training samples as well as slows the processing rate of the method.

  5. The role of deep level traps in barrier height of 4H-SiC Schottky diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaremba, G., E-mail: gzaremba@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Adamus, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Jung, W.; Kaminska, E.; Borysiewicz, M.A.; Korwin-Mikke, K. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a discussion about the influence of deep level defects on the height of Ni-Si based Schottky barriers to 4H-SiC. The defects were characterized by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) in a wide range of temperatures (78-750 K). The numerical simulation of barrier height value as a function of dominant defect concentration was carried out to estimate concentration, necessary to 'pin' Fermi level and thus significantly influence the barrier height. From comparison of the results of simulation with barrier height values obtained by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements it seems that dominant defect in measured concentration has a very small impact on the barrier height and on the increase of reverse current.

  6. Estimates of internal dose equivalent to 22 target organs for radionuclides occurring in routine releases from nuclear fuel-cycle facilities. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Bernard, S.R.; Pleasant, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This report is the first of a two-volume tabulation of internal radiation dose conversion factors for man for radionuclides of interest in environmental assessments of light-water-reactor fuel cycles. This volume treats 68 radionuclides, all of mass number less than 150. Intake by inhalation and ingestion is considered. In the former case, the ICRP Task Group Lung Model has been used to simulate the behavior of particulate matter in the respiratory tract. Results corresponding to activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) of 0.3, 1.0, and 5.0 μm are given. The GI tract has been represented by a four-segment catenary model with exponential transfer of radioactivity from one segment to the next. Retention of radionuclides in other organs was characterized by linear combinations of decaying exponential functions. Dose equivalent per microcurie intake of each parent nuclide is given for 22 target organs with contributions from specified source organs plus surplus activity in the rest of the body. Cross irradiation due to penetrating radiations has also been considered in the calculations

  7. Parentally-adjusted deficit of height as a prognostic factor of the effectiveness of growth hormone (GH) therapy in children with GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilczer, Maciej; Smyczyńska, Joanna; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Parental height is the most important identifiable factor influencing final height (FH) of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD), treated with GH. Assessment of FH of patients with GHD--classified into familial short stature (FSS) and non-familial short stature (non-FSS) according to parentally adjusted deficit of height. The analysis comprised 101 patients (76 boys) with childhood-onset GHD. Final height was compared with patients' height before GH therapy, predicted adult height (PAH) and target height (TH). Both GH peak in stimulating tests and height standard deviation score (SDS) before the therapy were significantly lower in non-FSS than in FSS. Target height was significantly lower in FSS than in non-FSS. Parentally-adjusted deficit of height was significantly more profound in non-FSS than in FSS. The prognosis of adult height was very similar in both groups of patients, being significantly worse in non-FSS than in FSS while corrected by TH. The absolute FH was similar in FSS and non-FSS, being, however, significantly lower in non-FSS than in FSS while corrected by TH. Improvement of height was significantly better in non-FSS than in FSS. In both groups, FH SDS was significantly better than height SDS before the therapy (H0SDS). In FSS group, PAH was similar to TH, moreover, FH corresponded to both PAH and TH. In non-FSS group FH was significantly higher than PAH, but both FH and PAH were significantly lower than TH. 1) Growth hormone therapy was more effective in the patients with non-FSS than in those with FSS. 2) Parentally-adjusted deficit of height is an important prognostic factor of GH therapy effectiveness.

  8. Growth and final height of children with Gaucher disease: A 15-year follow-up at an Israeli Gaucher center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Espen; Meir, Amos; Abrahamov, Aya; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Levy-Khademi, Floris

    2018-02-01

    It is held that enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) accelerates the growth rate in children with Gaucher disease, but its effect on final height has not been established with certainty. This study presents final heights of Gaucher patients followed up for 15years. The study included 41 adults with non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease. The final height of the patients and age at puberty was compared to their mid-parental target height and to their siblings' heights. Mean final height standard deviation score (HSDS) in the patients was -0.22, but none of the patients was abnormally short (HSDS of less than -2.2). Mean age at menarche of the female patients (14.7years) was significantly delayed compared to that of their mothers (P=0.0005), and mean age at first shaving in the boys was 16years. Our study showed that the mean final height of Gaucher patients fell below the mean of the 2000 CDC growth charts, but the patients were not of short stature (height less than the 3rd percentile). ERT treatment did not significantly impact the mean final HSDS. The onset of puberty, as indicated by the age at menarche, was delayed in girls with Gaucher disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of a method of analysis of remote sensing data obtained by targeting the estimated productivity in cane for quantifying panela NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rueda Calier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity estimation sugar cane is very important for Colombian economy. The Net Primary Production (NPP model is applied on present investigation from Kumar & Monteith to regional scale. Analyzing spatiotemporal with geomantic techniques and edaphoclimatic environment characterization. Field surveys were conducted too, to acquire physiological information of plants evaluated and soil conditions of the plantation under study. The data acquired was input in ArcGIS10.1 software, to make processing these. A series thematic map was resulted from data processing from spatiotemporal distribution of plantation soil characteristics and biophysical characteristics. The variables fPAR, PAR, EUR was calculate from Kumar & Monteith efficiency model. Remote sensing and mathematic models related and fraction absorbed photosynthetically active radiation derivates from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and incident photosynthetically active radiation in land sensors recorded was calculated. Chemical and physical properties in laboratory tests were realized to soil, for relation knowledge between edaphoclimatic conditions and biophysical variables related with the sugar cane biomass gainer for Panela production. The information integrated from Geographic Information System (GIS and edaphic data and climatic data in country recorded, shows the behavior of the plantation as it develops.

  10. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  11. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect

  12. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  13. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  14. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  15. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  16. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  17. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  18. Regional Distribution of Forest Height and Biomass from Multisensor Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifan; Saatchi, Sassan; Heath, Linda S.; LaPoint, Elizabeth; Myneni, Ranga; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Elevation data acquired from radar interferometry at C-band from SRTM are used in data fusion techniques to estimate regional scale forest height and aboveground live biomass (AGLB) over the state of Maine. Two fusion techniques have been developed to perform post-processing and parameter estimations from four data sets: 1 arc sec National Elevation Data (NED), SRTM derived elevation (30 m), Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) bands (30 m), derived vegetation index (VI) and NLCD2001 land cover map. The first fusion algorithm corrects for missing or erroneous NED data using an iterative interpolation approach and produces distribution of scattering phase centers from SRTM-NED in three dominant forest types of evergreen conifers, deciduous, and mixed stands. The second fusion technique integrates the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) ground-based plot data to develop an algorithm to transform the scattering phase centers into mean forest height and aboveground biomass. Height estimates over evergreen (R2 = 0.86, P forests (R2 = 0.93, P forests were less accurate because of the winter acquisition of SRTM data and loss of scattering phase center from tree ]surface interaction. We used two methods to estimate AGLB; algorithms based on direct estimation from the scattering phase center produced higher precision (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 25 Mg/ha) than those estimated from forest height (R2 = 0.25, RMSE = 66 Mg/ha). We discuss sources of uncertainty and implications of the results in the context of mapping regional and continental scale forest biomass distribution.

  19. Assessing the accuracy of self-reported height and weight in an elective surgical population in a Melbourne metropolitan hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, C; Loughnan, T

    2006-10-01

    A Health Questionnaire serves as a screening form as part of our Hospital Preadmission process and is completed by all patients scheduled for elective surgery. We reviewed the completed Health Questionaires of 444 patients. Completion of the Health Questionnaire requires patients to record their height and weight. At the time of admission their actual height and weight was measured and recorded by nursing staff as part of the preoperative assessment. We compared their estimated body mass index (BMI) from self-reported height and weight, with their actual BMI calculated from height and weight measured upon admission. The measured BMI accorded well with that calculated from reported values and showed no systematic over- or under-reporting. Of 70 patients with a BMI greater than 35, only ten estimated their BMI less than 35 and only five of these had more than a two unit difference. Perioperative patients appear to be more accurate at providing height and weight than previously analysed non-patient groups. However there is not complete accuracy and some patients still provide unreliable information. Whether or not individual practitioners utilize BMI from self-reported height and weight will depend on the accuracy that they require for their purposes. Of note there was greater accuracy in prediction of height and weight than in the derived variable of BMI due to the calculations required.

  20. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.

  1. [Is olfactory function impaired in moderate height?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M; Welsch, H; Zahnert, T; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The human sense of smell seems to be influenced by the surrounding barometric pressure. These factors appear to be especially important during flights, for example, in order to recognize the smell of fire etc. Thus, questions are whether pilots or passengers exhibit an impaired smell sensitivity when tested at moderate heights, or, whether changes in humidity would affect the sense of smell. Using climate chambers, odor discrimination and butanol odor thresholds were tested in 77 healthy normosmic volunteers (5 female, 72 male; aged 25+/-8 years from 18 up to 53 years) under hypobaric (2 700+/-20 m, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, rh=50+/-5%) and hyperbaric, (10+/-0.5 m (2 bar)) and different humidity conditions (30 vs. 80%, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, normobaric). During all conditions cognitive performance was tested. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity was impaired at threshold, but not suprathreshold level, in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests. During flight hypobaric conditions, mild hypoxia and dry air may cause impaired sensitivity of smell. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  2. Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J M; Whitehouse, R H

    1976-01-01

    New charts for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity are presented for clinical (as opposed to population survey) use. They are based on longitudinal-type growth curves, using the same data as in the British 1965 growth standards. In the velocity standards centiles are given for children who are early- and late-maturing as well as for those who mature at the average age (thus extending the use of the previous charts). Limits of normality for the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt are given and also for the successive stages of penis, testes, and pubic hair development in boys, and for stages of breast and pubic hair development in girls. PMID:952550

  3. Building a Model Using Bayesian Network for Assessment of Posterior Probabilities of Falling From Height at Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls from height are one of the main causes of fatal occupational injuries. The objective of this study was to present a model for estimating occurrence probability of falling from height. Methods: In order to make a list of factors affecting falls, we used four expert group's judgment, literature review and an available database. Then the validity and reliability of designed questionnaire were determined and Bayesian networks were built. The built network, nodes and curves were quantified. For network sensitivity analysis, four types of analysis carried out. Results: A Bayesian network for assessment of posterior probabilities of falling from height proposed. The presented Bayesian network model shows the interrelationships among 37 causes affecting the falling from height and can calculate its posterior probabilities. The most important factors affecting falling were Non-compliance with safety instructions for work at height (0.127, Lack of safety equipment for work at height (0.094 and Lack of safety instructions for work at height (0.071 respectively. Conclusion: The proposed Bayesian network used to determine how different causes could affect the falling from height at work. The findings of this study can be used to decide on the falling accident prevention programs.

  4. Ecological analysis of secular trends in low birth weight births and adult height in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Urayama, Kevin Yuji; Yoshii, Keisuke; Subramanian, S V; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan. LBW rates exhibited a U-shaped pattern showing reductions until 1978-1979 (5.5%), after which it increased. Conversely, average adult height peaked for those born during the same period (men, 171.5 cm; women, 158.5 cm), followed by a reduction over the next 20 years. LBW rate and adult height showed a strong inverse correlation (men, r=-0.98; women, r=-0.88). A prediction model based on birth and economical characteristics estimated the national average of adult height would continue to decline, to 170.0cm (95% CI 169.6 to 170.3) for men and 157.9cm (95% CI 157.5 to 158.3) for women among those born in 2014. Adult height in Japan has started to decline for those born after 1980, a trend that may be attributed to increases in LBW births over time. Considering the known association between shorter adult height and adverse health outcomes, evidence of population-level decline in adult health due to long-term consequences of increasing LBW births in Japan is anticipated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Barrier height inhomogeneity in electrical transport characteristics of InGaN/GaN heterostructure interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore 560013 (India); Mukundan, Shruti; Chandan, Greeshma; Mohan, Lokesh; Krupanidhi, S. B., E-mail: sbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-03-15

    We have grown InGaN/GaN heterostructures using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and studied the temperature dependent electrical transport characteristics. The barrier height (φ{sub b}) and the ideally factor (η) estimated using thermionic emission model were found to be temperature dependent. The conventional Richardson plot of ln(J{sub s}/T{sup 2}) versus 1/kT showed two temperature regions (region-I: 400–500 K and region-II: 200–350 K) and it provides Richardson constants (A{sup ∗}) which are much lower than the theoretical value of GaN. The observed variation in the barrier height and the presence of two temperature regions were attributed to spatial barrier inhomogeneities at the heterojunction interface and was explained by assuming a double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights with mean barrier height values 1.61 and 1.21 eV with standard deviation (σ{sub s}{sup 2}) of 0.044 and 0.022 V, respectively. The modified Richardson plot of ln(J{sub s}/T{sup 2}) − (q{sup 2}σ{sub s}{sup 2}/2k{sup 2}T{sup 2}) versus 1/kT for two temperature regions gave mean barrier height values as 1.61 eV and 1.22 eV with Richardson constants (A{sup ∗}) values 25.5 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2} and 43.9 Acm{sup −2}K{sup −2}, respectively, which are very close to the theoretical value. The observed barrier height inhomogeneities were interpreted on the basis of the existence of a double Gaussian distribution of barrier heights at the interface.

  6. On Displacement Height, from Classical to Practical Formulation: Stress, Turbulent Transport and Vorticity Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Kelly, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Displacement height ( d) is an important parameter in the simple modelling of wind speed and vertical fluxes above vegetative canopies, such as forests. Here we show that, aside from implicit definition through a (displaced) logarithmic profile, accepted formulations for d do not consistently predict flow properties above a forest. Turbulent transport can affect the displacement height, and is an integral part of what is called the roughness sublayer. We develop a more general approach for estimation of d, through production of turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent transport, and show how previous stress-based formulations for displacement height can be seen as simplified cases of a more general definition including turbulent transport. Further, we also give a simplified and practical form for d that is in agreement with the general approach, exploiting the concept of vortex thickness scale from mixing-layer theory. We assess the new and previous displacement height formulations by using flow statistics derived from the atmospheric boundary-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model SCADIS as well as from wind-tunnel observations, for different vegetation types and flow regimes in neutral conditions. The new formulations tend to produce smaller d than stress-based forms, falling closer to the classic logarithmically-defined displacement height. The new, more generally defined, displacement height appears to be more compatible with profiles of components of the turbulent kinetic energy budget, accounting for the combined effects of turbulent transport and shear production. The Coriolis force also plays a role, introducing wind-speed dependence into the behaviour of the roughness sublayer; this affects the turbulent transport, shear production, stress, and wind speed, as well as the displacement height, depending on the character of the forest. We further show how our practical (`mixing-layer') form for d matches the new turbulence-based relation, as well as

  7. The Impact of Forest Density on Forest Height Inversion Modeling from Polarimetric InSAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changcheng Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest height is of great significance in analyzing the carbon cycle on a global or a local scale and in reconstructing the accurate forest underlying terrain. Major algorithms for estimating forest height, such as the three-stage inversion process, are depending on the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG model. However, the RVoG model is characterized by a lot of parameters, which influence its applicability in forest height retrieval. Forest density, as an important biophysical parameter, is one of those main influencing factors. However, its influence to the RVoG model has been ignored in relating researches. For this paper, we study the applicability of the RVoG model in forest height retrieval with different forest densities, using the simulated and real Polarimetric Interferometric SAR data. P-band ESAR datasets of the European Space Agency (ESA BioSAR 2008 campaign were selected for experiments. The test site was located in Krycklan River catchment in Northern Sweden. The experimental results show that the forest density clearly affects the inversion accuracy of forest height and ground phase. For the four selected forest stands, with the density increasing from 633 to 1827 stems/Ha, the RMSEs of inversion decrease from 4.6 m to 3.1 m. The RVoG model is not quite applicable for forest height retrieval especially in sparsely vegetated areas. We conclude that the forest stand density is positively related to the estimation accuracy of the ground phase, but negatively correlates to the ground-to-volume scattering ratio.

  8. Height - Diameter predictive equations for Rubber (Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BUKOLA

    They proffer logistic data for modeling and futuristic prediction for sustainable forest management. Diameter is one of the most ... in various quantitative estimation following the intricacy of time, availability of modern equipments .... growth functions. This trend is shown in Figure 1 where the prediction equations are plotted.

  9. An examination of environmental correlates with childhood height-for-age in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoi, Ebenezer; Anthamatten, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between a child's environment and nutritional status is difficult to examine yet could offer an important guide to policy. The objective of the present work was to examine individual and environmental correlates with childhood height-for-age in Ghana. Data were derived from the 2008 MEASURE Demographic and Health Survey in Ghana, the 2000 Ghana Population and Housing Census, and the World Wide Fund for Nature's eco-regions database. A generalized linear mixed regression model was used to estimate the effects of individual and environmental correlates on height-for-age. The study examined 2225 Ghanaian children aged 0-59 months. The setting was all districts in Ghana for the year 2008. After accounting for individual characteristics of children, mothers and households, height-for-age was significantly associated with population density. Other significantly associated variables in the final model were the age of the child, vaccination status, the size of the child at birth, months of breast-feeding, mother's BMI, whether the child's mother had health insurance and wealth quintile. In addition to a number of characteristics of the children and their households, the social milieu is important to understanding differences in height-for-age among children in Ghana. The biophysical environment was not associated with height-for-age.

  10. Impact of height and shape of building roof on air quality in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F.

    2011-09-01

    A building's roof shape and roof height play an important role in determining pollutant concentrations from vehicle emissions and its complex flow patterns within urban street canyons. The impact of the roof shape and height on wind flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants from vehicle exhaust within urban canyons were investigated numerically using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Two-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were analyzed using standard κ- ɛ turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion fields in the urban canyons were examined with three roof heights ( Z H/ H = 0.17, 0.33 and 0.5) and five roof shapes: (1) flat-shaped roof, (2) slanted-shaped roof, (3) downwind wedge-shaped roof, (4) upwind wedge-shaped roof, and (5) trapezoid-shaped roof. The numerical model was validated against the wind tunnels results in order to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical simulations agreed reasonably with the wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicated that the pollutant concentration increased as the roof height decreases. It also decreased with the slanted and trapezoid-shaped roofs but increased with the flat-shaped roof. The pollutant concentration distributions simulated in the present work, indicated that the variability of the roof shapes and roof heights of the buildings are important factors for estimating air quality within urban canyons.

  11. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  12. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM

  13. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  14. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  15. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  16. THE HEIGHT OF A WHITE-LIGHT FLARE AND ITS HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Krucker, Saem; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lindsey, Charles [North West Research Associates, CORA Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Couvidat, Sebastien; Schou, Jesper [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Thompson, W. T. [Adnet Systems, Inc., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, code 671, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We describe observations of a white-light (WL) flare (SOL2011-02-24T07:35:00, M3.5) close to the limb of the Sun, from which we obtain estimates of the heights of the optical continuum sources and those of the associated hard X-ray (HXR) sources. For this purpose, we use HXR images from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager and optical images at 6173 A from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We find that the centroids of the impulsive-phase emissions in WL and HXRs (30-80 keV) match closely in central distance (angular displacement from Sun center), within uncertainties of order 0.''2. This directly implies a common source height for these radiations, strengthening the connection between visible flare continuum formation and the accelerated electrons. We also estimate the absolute heights of these emissions as vertical distances from Sun center. Such a direct estimation has not been done previously, to our knowledge. Using a simultaneous 195 Angstrom-Sign image from the Solar-Terrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft to identify the heliographic coordinates of the flare footpoints, we determine mean heights above the photosphere (as normally defined; {tau} = 1 at 5000 A) of 305 {+-} 170 km and 195 {+-} 70 km, respectively, for the centroids of the HXR and WL footpoint sources of the flare. These heights are unexpectedly low in the atmosphere, and are consistent with the expected locations of {tau} = 1 for the 6173 Angstrom-Sign and the {approx}40 keV photons observed, respectively.

  17. The Height of a White-Light Flare and its Hard X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Juan-Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Kriucker, Saem; Lin, R. P.; Lindsey, Charles; Couvidat, Sebastien; Schou, Jesper; Thompson, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    We describe observations of a white-light (WL) flare (SOL2011-02-24T07:35:00, M3.5) close to the limb of the Sun, from which we obtain estimates of the heights of the optical continuum sources and those of the associated hard X-ray (HXR) sources. For this purpose, we use HXR images from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager and optical images at 6173 Ang. from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.We find that the centroids of the impulsive-phase emissions in WL and HXRs (30 -80 keV) match closely in central distance (angular displacement from Sun center), within uncertainties of order 0".2. This directly implies a common source height for these radiations, strengthening the connection between visible flare continuum formation and the accelerated electrons. We also estimate the absolute heights of these emissions as vertical distances from Sun center. Such a direct estimation has not been done previously, to our knowledge. Using a simultaneous 195 Ang. image from the Solar-Terrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft to identify the heliographic coordinates of the flare footpoints, we determine mean heights above the photosphere (as normally defined; tau = 1 at 5000 Ang.) of 305 +/- 170 km and 195 +/- 70 km, respectively, for the centroids of the HXR and WL footpoint sources of the flare. These heights are unexpectedly low in the atmosphere, and are consistent with the expected locations of tau = 1 for the 6173 Ang and the approx 40 keV photons observed, respectively.

  18. Relationship between eruption plume heights and seismic source amplitudes of eruption tremors and explosion events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A.; Kumagai, H.

    2016-12-01

    It is crucial to analyze and interpret eruption tremors and explosion events for estimating eruption size and understanding eruption phenomena. Kumagai et al. (EPS, 2015) estimated the seismic source amplitudes (As) and cumulative source amplitudes (Is) for eruption tremors and explosion events at Tungurahua, Ecuador, by the amplitude source location (ASL) method based on the assumption of isotropic S-wave radiation in a high-frequency band (5-10 Hz). They found scaling relations between As and Is for eruption tremors and explosion events. However, the universality of these relations is yet to be verified, and the physical meanings of As and Is are not clear. In this study, we analyzed the relations between As and Is for eruption tremors and explosion events at active volcanoes in Japan, and estimated As and Is by the ASL method. We obtained power-law relations between As and Is, in which the powers were different between eruption tremors and explosion events. These relations were consistent with the scaling relations at Tungurahua volcano. Then, we compared As with maximum eruption plume heights (H) during eruption tremors analyzed in this study, and found that H was proportional to 0.21 power of As. This relation is similar to the plume height model based on the physical process of plume rise, which indicates that H is proportional to 0.25 power of volumetric flow rate for plinian eruptions. This suggests that As may correspond to volumetric flow rate. If we assume a seismic source with volume changes and far-field S-wave, As is proportional to the source volume rate. This proportional relation and the plume height model give rise to the relation that H is proportional to 0.25 power of As. These results suggest that we may be able to estimate plume heights in realtime by estimating As during eruptions from seismic observations.

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Aaltonen, Sari; Heikkilä, Kauko; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth Jf; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spector, Timothy D; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos Cem; Willemsen, Gonneke; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Goldberg, Jack H; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Rasmussen, Finn; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-12-14

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve.

  20. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  1. Focused CT using a height-adjusted metric and the umbilicus as a landmark for children undergoing evaluation for appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children' s Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY (United States); Nixon, Abigail F.; Meltzer, James A. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Blumfield, Einat [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatrics, Jacobi Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Confirmation of appendicitis in children often requires CT. A focused CT scan that is limited to the lower abdomen/pelvis might help to reduce radiation exposure. To determine the position of the appendix relative to the umbilicus and derive a height-adjusted threshold for a focused CT that would identify most appendices. We conducted a retrospective study of children younger than 18 years who underwent a CT scan for suspected appendicitis. A pediatric radiologist determined the distance from the most cephalad portion of the appendix to the center of the umbilicus. This distance was divided by the child's height to create a ratio for each child. We then assessed the largest of these distance/height ratios (''height constants'') as potential height-adjusted thresholds that, when multiplied by any patient's height, would yield the superior threshold for the focused CT scan. Radiation reduction was calculated as percentage decrease in scan length compared to a complete abdominopelvic CT. Of 270 patients whose entire appendix was identified on CT, all were identified within 10.5 cm above the umbilicus. A focused CT using a height constant of 0.07 identified 100% of the appendices visualized on the complete CT scan and resulted in an estimated mean percentage radiation reduction of 27% (standard deviation [SD] +/-4.7). If a height constant of 0.03 was used, 97% of appendices were identified and the estimated radiation reduction was 43% (SD +/-4.3). A height-adjusted focused abdominopelvic CT scan might reduce radiation exposure without sacrificing the diagnostic accuracy of the complete CT scan. (orig.)

  2. Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, D.A.; Brunkov, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm"−"1. At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq"4 law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q"−"3"."1"5 but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.

  3. Using a network-based approach and targeted maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the effect of adding pre-exposure prophylaxis to an ongoing test-and-treat trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Laura; Staples, Patrick; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; DeGruttola, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Several cluster-randomized trials are underway to investigate the implementation and effectiveness of a universal test-and-treat strategy on the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. We consider nesting studies of pre-exposure prophylaxis within these trials. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is a general strategy where high-risk HIV- persons take antiretrovirals daily to reduce their risk of infection from exposure to HIV. We address how to target pre-exposure prophylaxis to high-risk groups and how to maximize power to detect the individual and combined effects of universal test-and-treat and pre-exposure prophylaxis strategies. We simulated 1000 trials, each consisting of 32 villages with 200 individuals per village. At baseline, we randomized the universal test-and-treat strategy. Then, after 3 years of follow-up, we considered four strategies for targeting pre-exposure prophylaxis: (1) all HIV- individuals who self-identify as high risk, (2) all HIV- individuals who are identified by their HIV+ partner (serodiscordant couples), (3) highly connected HIV- individuals, and (4) the HIV- contacts of a newly diagnosed HIV+ individual (a ring-based strategy). We explored two possible trial designs, and all villages were followed for a total of 7 years. For each village in a trial, we used a stochastic block model to generate bipartite (male-female) networks and simulated an agent-based epidemic process on these networks. We estimated the individual and combined intervention effects with a novel targeted maximum likelihood estimator, which used cross-validation to data-adaptively select from a pre-specified library the candidate estimator that maximized the efficiency of the analysis. The universal test-and-treat strategy reduced the 3-year cumulative HIV incidence by 4.0% on average. The impact of each pre-exposure prophylaxis strategy on the 4-year cumulative HIV incidence varied by the coverage of the universal test-and-treat strategy with lower coverage resulting in a larger

  4. PRE-ACTIVITY MODULATION OF LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLES WITHIN DIFFERENT TYPES AND HEIGHTS OF DEEP JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mrdakovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine modulation of pre- activity related to different types and heights of deep jump. Sixteen male soccer players without experience in deep jumps training (the national competition; 15.0 ± 0.5yrs; weight 61.9 ± 6.1kg; height 1.77 ± 0.07m, who participated in the study, performed three types of deep jump (bounce landing, counter landing, and bounce drop jump from three different heights (40cm, 60cm, and 80cm. Surface EMG device (1000Hz was used to estimate muscle activity (maximal amplitude of EMG - AmaxEMG; integral EMG signal - iEMG of five muscles (mm.gastrocnemii, m.soleus, m.tibialis anterior, m.vastus lateralis within 150ms before touchdown. All the muscles, except m. gastrocnemius medialis, showed systematic increase in pre-activity when platform height was raised. For most of the lower extremity muscles, the most significant differences were between values of pre-activity obtained for 40 cm and 80 cm platforms. While the amount of muscle pre-activity in deep jumps from the heights above and beneath the optimal one did not differ significantly from that generated in deep jumps from the optimal drop height of 60 cm, the patterns of muscle pre-activity obtained for the heights above the optimal one did differ from those obtained for the optimal drop height. That suggests that deep jumps from the heights above the optimal one do not seem to be an adequate exercise for adjusting muscle activity for the impact. Muscle pre-activity in bounce drop jumps differed significantly from that in counter landing and bounce landing respectively, which should indicate that a higher amount of pre-activity generated during bounce drop jumps was used for performing take-offs. As this study included the subjects who were not familiar with deep jumps training, the prospective studies should reveal the results of athletes with previous experience

  5. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of

  6. Extrapolating Satellite Winds to Turbine Operating Heights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wind retrievals from satellite sensors are typically performed for the standard level of 10 m. This restricts their full exploitation for wind energy planning, which requires wind information at much higher levels where wind turbines operate. A new method is presented for the vertical...... extrapolation of satellitebased wind maps. Winds near the sea surface are obtained from satellite data and used together with an adaptation of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory to estimate the wind speed at higher levels. The thermal stratification of the atmosphere is taken into account through a long...

  7. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing for the determination of the nocturnal atmospheric boundary layer height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Keller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method for measuring air temperature profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer at high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The measurements are based on Raman scattering distributed temperature sensing (DTS with a fiber optic cable attached to a tethered balloon. These data were used to estimate the height of the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The experiment was successfully deployed during a two-day campaign in September 2009, providing evidence that DTS is well suited for this atmospheric application. Observed stable temperature profiles exhibit an exponential shape confirming similarity concepts of the temperature inversion close to the surface. The atmospheric mixing height (MH was estimated to vary between 5 m and 50 m as a result of the nocturnal boundary layer evolution. This value is in good agreement with the MH derived from concurrent Radon-222 (222Rn measurements and in previous studies.

  8. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Loosz, T.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarises the results from the environmental survey during 1992 and assesses the effects of radioactive discharges on both local population and the environment. None of the samples taken from possible human food chains in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories contained radioactivity which could be attributed to the operation of the site. The data presented din this report clearly shows that the environmental impact of operations at LHRL has been very low. The effective dose to residents living in the immediate neighbourhood of the reactor are very difficult to measure directly but calculated dose estimates are far lower than those due to natural background radiation and medical exposures. Discharges of airborne radioactive gases were within authorised limits when averaged over the year. The dose to the most sensitive members of the public from iodine-131 releases, was -2 mSv/year and the calculated dose from released noble gases to the most exposed individuals was less than 0.01 mSv/year. These figures represent less than one per cent of the limits recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. The monthly average liquid effluent discharge to the Water Board Sewer during 1992 was less than 30 per cent of the permitted level for all periods except May which rose to 62 per cent. For tritium, the concentration was less than 2 per cent of the specified limit. 23 refs., 19 tabs., 5 tabs

  9. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Looz, T.

    1994-05-01

    In common with many other nuclear facilities, ANSTO undertakes an extensive program of meteorological measurements. The prime reason for such a program is to allow estimates to be made of the downwind concentration of any airborne pollutants, particularly radionuclides, released from the site through routine operations or under accident conditions. The data collection from this program provide the necessary input to the atmospheric dispersion model called ADDCOR (ANSTO 1989) which can be used to compute the effective dose to an individual due to the routine airborne or accidental release of radionuclides from the LHRL. None of the samples taken from possible human food chains in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories contained radioactivity which could be attributed to the operation of the site. Discharges of airborne radioactive gases were within authorised limits when averaged over the year. The dose to the most sensitive members of the public from iodine-131 release, was -3 mSv/year and the calculated dose from released noble gases to the most exposed individuals was less than 0.01 mSv/year. These figures represent less than one per cent of the most restrictive limits recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. The annual average liquid effluent discharge to the Water Board Sewer during 1991 was less than 29 per cent of the permitted level. For tritium, the concentration was less than 2 per cent of the specified limit. The data presented in this report clearly shows that the environmental impact of operations at LHRL has been very low. The effective dose to residents living in the immediate neighbourhood of the reactor are very difficult to measure directly but calculated dose estimates are far lower than those due to natural background radiation and medical exposures. 24 refs., 19 tabs., 4 figs

  10. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  11. Inheritance of height and maturity in crosses between pearl millet landraces and inbred Tift 85DB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J P; Burton, G W; Bondari, K

    1990-11-01

    Over 300 landraces of pearl millet were collected in Burkina Faso and grown at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton/GA. At Tifton, these landraces are predominantly tall and late-maturing. The photoperiod requirements of these landraces hinder evaluation of their performance in the field and their use in breeding programs. A conversion program has been initiated to transfer genes for dwarf stature and early flowering into the tall, late-maturing landraces. The inbred Tift 85DB is being used as a donor of genes for the dwarf and early characteristics, and was crossed to nine randomly selected landraces from Burkina Faso. The parents, F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent were grown in the field and evaluated for plant height at anthesis and time in days from planting to anthesis. In general, plant height of F1s was taller than the tallest parent, and in all crosses the maturity of F1s was intermediate between the parents. Numbers of loci conferring height varied among crosses, ranging from 0 to 9.6, and averaged 1.6. Estimated numbers of loci conferring maturity ranged from 0 to 12.8 and averaged 3.4. Broad-sense heritability estimates for height and maturity averaged 60.2 and 65.7%, respectively. Corresponding narrow-sense estimates averaged 23.8 and 48.2%. Joint scaling tests revealed that additive-genetic effects were highly significant for both traits, but dominance and epistatic-genetic effects contributed to the inheritance of each trait in some crosses. The low gene numbers, high heritability estimates, and preponderance of additive-genetic effects suggest that selection for these traits should be effective.

  12. A Novel Methodology to Estimate Single-Tree Biophysical Parameters from 3D Digital Imagery Compared to Aerial Laser Scanner Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Hernández-Clemente

    2014-11-01

    (LPI, interquartile distance (IQ, and Percentile 30 (P30 yielded an R2 = 0.75 and an RMSE = 0.14 m2/m−2. The results provide insight on the appropriateness of using cost-effective 3D photo-reconstruction methods for targeting single trees with irregular and heterogeneous tree crowns in complex open-canopy forests. It quantitatively demonstrates that low-cost CIR cameras can be used to estimate both single-tree height and LAI in forest inventories.

  13. Active numerical model of human body for reconstruction of falls from height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowicz, Marcin; Kędzior, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Falls from height constitute the largest group of incidents out of approximately 90,000 occupational accidents occurring each year in Poland. Reconstruction of the exact course of a fall from height is generally difficult due to lack of sufficient information from the accident scene. This usually results in several contradictory versions of an incident and impedes, for example, determination of the liability in a judicial process. In similar situations, in many areas of human activity, researchers apply numerical simulation. They use it to model physical phenomena to reconstruct their real course over time; e.g. numerical human body models are frequently used for investigation and reconstruction of road accidents. However, they are validated in terms of specific road traffic accidents and are considerably limited when applied to the reconstruction of other types of accidents. The objective of the study was to develop an active numerical human body model to be used for reconstruction of accidents associated with falling from height. Development of the model involved extension and adaptation of the existing Pedestrian human body model (available in the MADYMO package database) for the purposes of reconstruction of falls from height by taking into account the human reaction to the loss of balance. The model was developed by using the results of experimental tests of the initial phase of the fall from height. The active numerical human body model covering 28 sets of initial conditions related to various human reactions to the loss of balance was developed. The application of the model was illustrated by using it to reconstruct a real fall from height. From among the 28 sets of initial conditions, those whose application made it possible to reconstruct the most probable version of the incident was selected. The selection was based on comparison of the results of the reconstruction with information contained in the accident report. Results in the form of estimated

  14. Progress Report on the GROWTH (GNSS Reflectometry for Ocean Waves, Tides, and Height) Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Akiyama, H.; Ebinuma, T.; Isoguchi, O.; Kimura, N.; Konda, M.; Kouguchi, N.; Tamura, H.; Tomita, H.; Yoshikawa, Y.; Waseda, T.

    2016-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as GPS is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic rec