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Sample records for height modernization study

  1. A modern Green Revolution gene for reduced height in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Tucker, Matthew R; Leiser, Willmar L

    2017-12-01

    Increases in the yield of wheat during the Green Revolution of the late 20 th century were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting the response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin, and are now widespread through international breeding programs. Despite this advantage, interference with the plant's response to gibberellin also triggers adverse effects for a range of important agronomic traits, and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required. In this study, we revisited the genetic control of wheat height using an association mapping approach and a large panel of 1110 worldwide winter wheat cultivars. This led to the identification of a major Rht locus on chromosome 6A, Rht24, which substantially reduces plant height alone as well as in combination with Rht-1b alleles. Remarkably, behind Rht-D1, Rht24 was the second most important locus for reduced height, explaining 15.0% of the genotypic variance and exerting an allele substitution effect of -8.8 cm. Unlike the two Rht-1b alleles, plants carrying Rht24 remain sensitive to gibberellic acid treatment. Rht24 appears in breeding programs from all countries of origin investigated, with increased frequency over the last decades, indicating that wheat breeders have actively selected for this locus. Taken together, this study reveals Rht24 as an important Rht gene of commercial relevance in worldwide wheat breeding. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Moving to a Modernized Height Reference System in Canada: Rationale, Status and Plans

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    Veronneau, M.; Huang, J.

    2007-05-01

    A modern society depends on a common coordinate reference system through which geospatial information can be interrelated and exploited reliably. For height measurements this requires the ability to measure mean sea level elevations easily, accurately, and at the lowest possible cost. The current national reference system for elevations, the Canadian Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1928 (CGVD28), offers only partial geographic coverage of the Canadian territory and is affected by inaccuracies that are becoming more apparent as users move to space- based technologies such as GPS. Furthermore, the maintenance and expansion of the national vertical network using spirit-levelling, a costly, time consuming and labour intensive proposition, has only been minimally funded over the past decade. It is now generally accepted that the most sustainable alternative for the realization of a national vertical datum is a gravimetric geoid model. This approach defines the datum in relation to an ellipsoid, making it compatible with space-based technologies for positioning. While simplifying access to heights above mean sea level all across the Canadian territory, this approach imposes additional demands on the quality of the geoid model. These are being met by recent and upcoming space gravimetry missions that have and will be measuring the Earth`s gravity field with increasing and unprecedented accuracy. To maintain compatibility with the CGVD28 datum materialized at benchmarks, the current first-order levelling can be readjusted by constraining geoid heights at selected stations of the Canadian Base Network. The new reference would change CGVD28 heights of benchmarks by up to 1 m across Canada. However, local height differences between benchmarks would maintain a relative precision of a few cm or better. CGVD28 will co-exist with the new height reference as long as it will be required, but it will undoubtedly disappear as benchmarks are destroyed over time. The adoption of GNSS

  3. Mechanical Study of a Modern Yo-Yo

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    de Izarra, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the study of a modern yo-yo having a centrifugal clutch allowing the free rolling. First, the mechanical parts of the yo-yo are measured, allowing us to determine analytically its velocity according to its height of fall. Then, we are more particularly interested in the centrifugal device constituted by springs and small…

  4. Mechanical study of a modern yo-yo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Izarra, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the study of a modern yo-yo having a centrifugal clutch allowing the free rolling. First, the mechanical parts of the yo-yo are measured, allowing us to determine analytically its velocity according to its height of fall. Then, we are more particularly interested in the centrifugal device constituted by springs and small masses. The physics of this toy is suitable for undergraduate students, illustrating the concepts of dynamics of rigid bodies and of potential energy.

  5. DMA Modern Programming Environment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    capabilities. The centers are becoming increasingly dependent upon the computer and digital data in the fulfillment of MC&G goals. Successful application...ftticrcsrccessors C140 by Herbert AlteroDigital Citmmuncaticns C141 0 Structuredl Design ’-:orkshocr by Ned Chapin KC 156o Digital Systems En17lrceriirg CC 139 o3...on a programming environment. The study, which resulted in production of a paper entitled An EXEC 8 Programming Support Libary , contends that most of

  6. Taxon lists for studies of modern nannoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, R.W.; Broerse, A.T.C.; Hagino, K.

    2000-01-01

    Six studies in this special issue dealt with modern nannoplankton assemblages. In total during these studies 552 samples were analysed and about 180,000 specimens identified, from 152 species. This paper provides a unified list of taxa from these studies, records the presence/absence of each...... species across the studies and indicates the more common species. Comparison of results indicates a high level of consensus on taxonomy and a high commonality of the floras. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V....

  7. Diagnostic test of predicted height model in Indonesian elderly: a study in an urban area

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    Fatmah Fatmah

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim In an anthropometric assessment, elderly are frequently unable to measure their height due to mobility and skeletal deformities. An alternative is to use a surrogate value of stature from arm span, knee height, and sitting height. The equations developed for predicting height in Indonesian elderly using these three predictors. The equations put in the nutritional assessment card (NSA of older people. Before the card which is the first new technology in Indonesia will be applied in the community, it should be tested. The study aimed was to conduct diagnostic test of predicted height model in the card compared to actual height.Methods Model validation towards 400 healthy elderly conducted in Jakarta City with cross-sectional design. The study was the second validation test of the model besides Depok City representing semi urban area which was undertaken as the first study.Result Male elderly had higher mean age, height, weight, arm span, knee height, and sitting height as compared to female elderly. The highest correlation between knee height and standing height was similar in women (r = 0.80; P < 0.001 and men (r = 0.78; P < 0.001, and followed by arm span and sitting height. Knee height had the lowest difference with standing height in men (3.13 cm and women (2.79 cm. Knee height had the biggest sensitivity (92.2%, and the highest specificity on sitting height (91.2%.Conclusion Stature prediction equation based on knee-height, arm span, and sitting height are applicable for nutritional status assessment in Indonesian elderly. (Med J Indones 2010;19:199-204Key words: diagnostic test, elderly, predicted height model

  8. Study and Evaluation of Ultrasound System for Detecting the Height of Corn Canopy

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    T Mesri Gundoshmian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth of population, deficiency of resources, environmental hazards, fast spatial science progress and relevant subjects have resulted in significant effects of enhanced accuracy and modern technologies in agricultural technology and management methods. One of the modern technologies’ utilities in production and nondestructive tests is determination of product characteristics (such as product height, using electronic sensors at different stages of plant growth. In recent years, electric sensors improved widely in farm science. Regarding to wide performance of sensors, from simple sensors such as thermo, light and moisture sensors, to complex ones such as GPS and lidar, also the ability of electronic sensors to exact identification and measurement of special farm properties, makes these sensors to an important part of precision agriculture. The subject of this study is to identify and measure the height of the product using ultrasonic technology to automate control of breeding and harvesting operations. Suitable price and noise and dust resistance of ultrasonic sensor, make it an attractive subject in biosystem industries and farm operations. Materials and Methods Plant height measurement Ultrasonic sensor includes an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver with more than 20 kHz frequency. As other waves, ultrasonic waves diffuse constantly from a source by mechanical distracting in a gas, liquid or solid environment. The distance between sensor and object is a function of the wave passing time from generation point to receive point. Plant height calculated by estimating this distance and minus it from sensor height. The sensor used in this research had a diffuse angle of 40 degrees to center axis of source. The sensor ability to height measurement depends on leaves angle, leaves surface, plant aggregation in area and plant height. Leaves angle is the most important factor in recognization ability of ultrasonic sensor. Electronic

  9. Wind‐gust parametrizations at heights relevant for wind energy: a study based on mast observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, I.; Vihma, T.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Wind gusts are traditionally observed and reported at the reference height of 10 m and most gust parametrization methods have been developed only for this height. In many practical applications, e.g. in wind energy, the relevant heights are, however, up to a few hundred metres. In this study, mean...... speed, which is parametrized on the basis of the surface friction velocity, the Obukhov length and height and the boundary‐layer height. The new gust parametrization method outperformed the two older methods: the effects of surface roughness, stability and the height above the surface were well...

  10. Modern

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    A.V. Bagrov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the most important problems of modern meteoric astronomy and briefly describes ways and methods of their solutions. Particular attention is paid to the construction and arrangement of meteoric video cameras intended for registration of the meteoric phenomena as the main method of obtaining reliable and objective observational data on the basis of which the solution of the described tasks is possible.

  11. Development of website for studying modern physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saehana, S.; Wahyono, U.; Darmadi, I. W.; Kendek, Y.; Widyawati, W.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce a website in modern physics courses in order to increase student interest in physics learning. To determine the feasibility level of learning media then feasibility test to the product. The feasibility test carried out on the product is divided into three parts: material feasibility test, media feasibility test, and student response test. Based on the results of the test conducted the material obtained an average score of 3.72 and categorized very well. The result of media test that was obtained got the average score of 3.25 and categorized well. The result of the analysis of student's response to the twenty students of class A (fifth semester) of physics education program FKIP UniversitasTadulako obtained an average score of 3.16 with the good category. The results showed that the website developed can be used as one of the learning media that can support the learning process of students.

  12. Studying Innovation Technologies in Modern Education

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    Stukalenko, Nina M.; Zhakhina, Bariya B.; Kukubaeva, Asiya K.; Smagulova, Nurgul K.; Kazhibaeva, Gulden K.

    2016-01-01

    In modern society, innovation technologies expand to almost every field of human activity, including such wide field as education. Due to integrating innovation technologies into the educational process practice, this phenomenon gained special significance within improvement and modernization of the established educational system. Currently, the…

  13. Genome-wide association study identified CNP12587 region underlying height variation in Chinese females.

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    Yin-Ping Zhang

    Full Text Available Human height is a highly heritable trait considered as an important factor for health. There has been limited success in identifying the genetic factors underlying height variation. We aim to identify sequence variants associated with adult height by a genome-wide association study of copy number variants (CNVs in Chinese.Genome-wide CNV association analyses were conducted in 1,625 unrelated Chinese adults and sex specific subgroup for height variation, respectively. Height was measured with a stadiometer. Affymetrix SNP6.0 genotyping platform was used to identify copy number polymorphisms (CNPs. We constructed a genomic map containing 1,009 CNPs in Chinese individuals and performed a genome-wide association study of CNPs with height.We detected 10 significant association signals for height (p<0.05 in the whole population, 9 and 11 association signals for Chinese female and male population, respectively. A copy number polymorphism (CNP12587, chr18:54081842-54086942, p = 2.41 × 10(-4 was found to be significantly associated with height variation in Chinese females even after strict Bonferroni correction (p = 0.048. Confirmatory real time PCR experiments lent further support for CNV validation. Compared to female subjects with two copies of the CNP, carriers of three copies had an average of 8.1% decrease in height. An important candidate gene, ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like (NEDD4L, was detected at this region, which plays important roles in bone metabolism by binding to bone formation regulators.Our findings suggest the important genetic variants underlying height variation in Chinese.

  14. MODERN DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE CHEST TRAUMA ASSOCIATED WITH THE FALL FROM A HEIGHT IN THE REPUBLIC RESEARCH CENTRE OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE

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    A. M. Khadzhibayev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The rate of the multisystem chest trauma and mortality in patients with catatrauma remains high.OBJECTIVE. To study the diagnosis and treatment of the multisystem chest trauma in patients associated with the fall from a height.MATERIAL AND METHODS. 243 patients (208 multisystem injuries and 35 isolated injuries with a chest trauma associated with the fall from a height were examined in the surgical department of Republic research centre of emergency medicine. We performed X-ray, CT and endosurgical examinations.RESULTS. Instrumental examination revealed pneumothorax and hydrothorax in 24.4% and 22.6% of victims respectively. The rib injuries were observed in 181 patients, sternum fractures in 8 victims and thoracic vertebrae fractures in 84 patients. The puncture and thoracocentesis of the pleural cavities were performed in 85 cases. The thoracoscopy was performed in 21 patients, the thoracotomy – in 15 patients, suturing of the lung – in 22 patients, coagulation – in 15 patients, external plate fixation of multiple injured ribs – in 10 patients. The mortality rate was 21.4%.CONCLuSION. The specifics of the multisystem chest trauma associated with the fall from a height is the development of hemothorax and pneumothorax. Thoracocentesis and videothoracoscopy allow to diagnose and stop the hemorrhage properly, to restore the lung rupture and perform the thoracotomy in severe cases, as well as reduce of complications frequency and mortality rate. 

  15. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa.

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    Stein, Aryeh D; Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Norris, Shane A

    2016-07-01

    Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, -1.31 cm (95% CI: -2.32, -0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [-0.56 cm (95% CI: -1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults.

  16. Serum osteoprotegerin levels are related to height loss: The Tromsø Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jørgensen, Lone; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brox, Jan; Mathiesen, Ellisiv; Vik, Anders; Jacobsen, Bjarne K.

    2011-01-01

    Severe loss of body height is often a consequence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) are cytokines essential for the regulation of bone resorption. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the OPG/RANKL system and height loss. A total of 4,435 inhabitants from the municipality of Tromsø, Norway (2,169 men and 2,266 women) were followed for 6 years. Baseline measurements included height, weight, bone mineral density, OPG, RANKL, serum parathyroid hormone and information about lifestyle, prevalent diseases and use of medication. Height was measured again at follow-up, and the loss of height was categorized into 4 groups: ≤1, 1.1–2, 2.1–3, >3 cm. We found increasing height loss with increasing baseline OPG levels in both men and women (P trend = 0.02 and 0.001, respectively), after adjustments for age and other confounders. However, when the women were stratified according to menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), a significant relationship was present only among postmenopausal women not using HRT (P trend = 0.02). No relations between OPG and height loss were found in post-menopausal HRT-users and premenopausal women (P trend ≥0.39). We conclude that height loss is positively associated with OPG in men and in postmenopausal women not using HRT. No relationship was found between RANKL and height loss.

  17. Validity of self-reported weight and height: a cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescents

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    C. C. Kee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Methods Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. Results There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96. In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements was, for boys: weight, −2.1 kg; height, −1.6 cm; BMI, −0.44 kg/m2 and girls: weight, −1.2 kg; height, −0.9 cm; BMI, −0.3 kg/m2. However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI

  18. Validity of self-reported weight and height: a cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, C C; Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Teh, C H; Chan, Y Y; Nuur Hafizah, M I; Cheah, Y K; Tee, E O; Ahmad Faudzi, Y; Amal Nasir, M

    2017-06-02

    Self-reported weight and height are commonly used in lieu of direct measurements of weight and height in large epidemiological surveys due to inevitable constraints such as budget and human resource. However, the validity of self-reported weight and height, particularly among adolescents, needs to be verified as misreporting could lead to misclassification of body mass index and therefore overestimation or underestimation of the burden of BMI-related diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the validity of self-reported weight and height among Malaysian secondary school children. Both self-reported and directly measured weight and height of a subgroup of 663 apparently healthy schoolchildren from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behaviour (MyAHRB) survey 2013/2014 were analysed. Respondents were required to report their current body weight and height via a self-administrative questionnaire before they were measured by investigators. The validity of self-reported against directly measured weight and height was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the Bland-Altman plot and weighted Kappa statistics. There was very good intraclass correlation between self-reported and directly measured weight [r = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.97] and height (r = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.96). In addition the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between self-reported and direct measurement was relatively small. The mean difference (self-reported minus direct measurements) was, for boys: weight, -2.1 kg; height, -1.6 cm; BMI, -0.44 kg/m 2 and girls: weight, -1.2 kg; height, -0.9 cm; BMI, -0.3 kg/m 2 . However, 95% limits of agreement were wide which indicated substantial discrepancies between self-reported and direct measurements method at the individual level. Nonetheless, the weighted Kappa statistics demonstrated a substantial agreement between BMI status categorised based on self-reported weight and height

  19. Study of the electron density variability at fixed heights over San Juan and Tucuman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezquer, R.G.; Mosert, M.; Radicella, S.M.; Jadur, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The electron density (N) variability at fixed heights in the bottomside N profile over two Argentinean stations is presented. In this first study different solar conditions and some seasons are considered. The NHPC and CARP programs were used. The results show that, in general, for nighttime conditions the variability increases above 250 km. By noon the variability decreases with increasing the solar activity. At fixed heights, in general, the variability is larger by night than by day above 220 km. (author)

  20. The Influence of Artificial Cervical Disc Prosthesis Height on the Cervical Biomechanics: A Finite Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Haiping; Zhou, Xiaoshu; Wu, Weidong; Zhu, Yue

    2018-05-01

    Artificial cervical disc replacement is expected to maintain normal cervical biomechanics. At present, the effect of the Prestige LP prosthesis height on cervical biomechanics has not been thoroughly studied. This finite element study of the cervical biomechanics aims to predict how the parameters, like range of motion (ROM), adjacent intradiscal pressure, facet joint force, and bone-implant interface stress, are affected by different heights of Prestige LP prostheses. The finite element model of intact cervical spine (C3-C7) was obtained from our previous study, and the model was altered to implant Prestige LP prostheses at the C5-C6 level. The effects of the height of 5, 6, and 7 mm prosthesis replacement on ROM, adjacent intradiscal pressure, facet joint force, as well as the distribution of bone-implant interface stress were examined. ROM, adjacent intradiscal pressure, and facet joint force increased with the prosthesis height, whereas ROM and facet joint force decreased at C5-C6. The maximal stress on the inferior surface of the prostheses was greater than that on the superior surface, and the stresses increased with the prosthesis height. The biomechanical changes were slightly affected by the height of 5 and 6 mm prostheses, but were strongly affected by the 7-mm prosthesis. An appropriate height of the Prestige LP prosthesis can preserve normal ROM, adjacent intradiscal pressure, and facet joint force. Prostheses with a height of ≥2 mm than normal can lead to marked changes in the cervical biomechanics and bone-implant interface stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An international ecological study of adult height in relation to cancer incidence for 24 anatomical sites.

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    Jiang, Yannan; Marshall, Roger J; Walpole, Sarah C; Prieto-Merino, David; Liu, Dong-Xu; Perry, Jo K

    2015-03-01

    Anthropometric indices associated with childhood growth and height attained in adulthood, have been associated with an increased incidence of certain malignancies. To evaluate the cancer-height relationship, we carried out a study using international data, comparing various cancer rates with average adult height of women and men in different countries. An ecological analysis of the relationship between country-specific cancer incidence rates and average adult height was conducted for twenty-four anatomical cancer sites. Age-standardized rates were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2008. Average female (112 countries) and male (65 countries) heights were sourced and compiled primarily from national health surveys. Graphical and weighted regression analysis was conducted, taking into account BMI and controlling for the random effect of global regions. A significant positive association between a country's average adult height and the country's overall cancer rate was observed in both men and women. Site-specific cancer incidence for females was positively associated with height for most cancers: lung, kidney, colorectum, bladder, melanoma, brain and nervous system, breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, corpus uteri, ovary, and leukemia. A significant negative association was observed with cancer of the cervix uteri. In males, site-specific cancer incidence was positively associated with height for cancers of the brain and nervous system, kidney, colorectum, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, prostate, testicular, lip and oral cavity, and melanoma. Incidence of cancer was associated with tallness in the majority of anatomical/cancer sites investigated. The underlying biological mechanisms are unclear, but may include nutrition and early-life exposure to hormones, and may differ by anatomical site.

  2. An ergonomic study of the optimum operating table height for laparoscopic surgery.

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    Berquer, R; Smith, W D; Davis, S

    2002-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery requires the use of longer instruments than open surgery, thus changing the relation between the height of the surgeon's hands and the desirable height of the operating room table. The optimum height of the operating room table for laparoscopic surgery is investigated in this study. Twenty-one surgeons performed a two-handed, one-fourth circle cutting task using a laparoscopic video system and laparoscopic instruments positioned at five instrument handle heights relative to subjects' elbow height (-20, -10, 0, +10, and +20 cm) by adjusting the height of the trainer box. Subjects rated the difficulty and discomfort experienced during each task on a visual analog scale. Skin conductance (SC) was measured in Micromhos via paired surface electrodes placed near the ulnar edge of the palm of the right (cutting) hand. The mean electromyographic (EMG) signal from the right deltoid and trapezius muscles was measured. Arm orientation was measured in three dimensions using a magnetometer/accelerometer. Signals were acquired using analog circuitry and digitally sampled using a National Instruments DAQCard 700 connected to a Macintosh PowerBook 5300c running LabVIEW software. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance and post hoc testing. Statistically significant changes were found in the subjective rating of discomfort (p operating room tables may be required to meet these ergonomic guidelines.

  3. The Numerical Study on the Influence of Prandtl Number and Height of the Enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated numerically the internal flow depending on Prandtl number of fluid and height of enclosure. The two-dimensional numerical simulations were performed for several heights of enclosure in the range between 0.01 m and 0.074 m. It corresponds to the aspect ratio (H/L) ranged from 0.07 to 0.5. Prandtl number was 0.2, 0.7 and 7. Rayleigh number based on the height of enclosure ranged between 8.49x10 3 and 1.20x10 8 . The numerical calculations were carried out using FLUENT 6.3. In order to confirm the influence of Prandtl number and height of side walls on the internal flow and heat transfer of the horizontal enclosure, the numerical study is carried out using the FLUENT 6.3. The numerical results for the condition of top cooling only agree well with Rayleigh-Benard natural convection. When the top and side walls were cooled, the internal flow of enclosure is more complex. The thickness of thermal and velocity boundary layer varies with Prandtl number. For Pr>1 the behavior of cells is unstable and irregular owing to the entrained plume, whereas the internal flow for Pr<1 is stable and regular. Also, the number of cells increases depending on decrease of height. As a result, the heat exchange increases

  4. [Comparative study of height and age at menarche according to the socioeconomic level in Venezuela].

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    López Contreras, M; Tovar Escobar, G; Farid Coupal, N; Landaeta Jiménez, M; Méndez Castellano, H

    1981-12-01

    This is a retrospective study based on growth and development data published in Venezuela by various authors in the period 1936-1978. The data on height for males of the middle and high socioeconomic strata show growth curves which are very similar to the standards for British children. Likewise, the girls of the same socioeconomic condition follow the British standards, but only up to about 10-12 years of age. After that age, the girls studied by the Venezuelan authors, show a pattern of early maturation with a corresponding lower adult height compared with their British counterparts. There were differences in the growth curves according to the socioeconomic strata. These differences were more marked in the girls data. A secular increase for height was discerned, from the published data, in all socioeconomic strata and in both sexes. The data on sexual maturation showed a tendency for progressively early menarche in Venezuelan girls. These changes in growth in height and age of menarche were more notorious and came about at an earlier age in the upper socioeconomic strata. They were less marked, not constant, and came about later in the lower socioeconomic groups. The secular changes in height and sexual maturation apparent from these data, could be explained by an improvement in the environmental conditions, especially nutrition and hygiene of the population, and also be genetic heterosis from European immigration and with improvement in communications.

  5. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  6. Pontomedullary lacerations in falls from a height--a retrospective autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Babić, Dragan; Djonić, Danijela; Atanasijević, Tatjana; Djurić, Marija

    2012-05-01

    Brainstem pontomedullary laceration (PML) in falls from a height appears as isolated cases and usually in feet-first impacts with a ring fracture. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PML in falls from a height, as well as the frequency of concomitant head and neck injuries. Out of 261 cases, PML was present in 40. An impact to the chin, as well as a feet- or buttocks-first impact, most often led to PML owing to transmission of the impact force. Also, a lateral, frontal, or posterior head impact, with subsequent hinge fracture, as well as the frontoposterior hyperextension of the head associated with an upper spine fracture, could be possible mechanisms of PML in falls from a height. The jawbone and other facial bones act as shock absorbers, and their fracture diminishes energy transfer toward the skull and protects the brain and brainstem from injury. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. A STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SPINE INJURY IN FALL FROM HEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Antony

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study puts in a sincere effort to study the spinal cord injuries in cases of fall from height. This study is intended to help the fellow radiologists to identify and thus help the individuals to cut down the progression of the disease. Identifying the spinal trauma and its clinic - epidemiological aspects will help further the practicing clinicians. The study can also help in formulation of preventive measures and putting forward management protocols in cases of spinal injury. METHODS This study was done in the Department of Radiology, Travancore Medical College, Kollam. This study was done from June 2104 to march 2016. Thirty two cases were identified and were taken up for the study. INCLUSION CRITERIA Spinal injuries following fall from height. EXCLUSION CRITERIA 1. Other spinal pathologies were not considered for the study. 2. Diabetic patients were excluded. RESULTS In the present study male sex amounted to ninety percent which amounted to twenty nine cases of spinal injury followed by female sex which amounted to ten percent which amounted to three cases. The age wise distribution of cases showed that age group of twenty to forty years showed maximum number of cases which amounted to sixteen admissions followed by age group of forty to sixty years which amounted to seven cases followed by age group of zero to twenty years which amounted to five cases, followed by age group of more than sixty years which amounted to four cases. Based on approximate height from which the fall occurred seventeen cases fell from the height of more than twenty feet, followed by nine cases which fell from the height of ten to twenty feet and six cases fell from the height of less than ten feet. The CT scan showed that eighteen cases had displaced spinal fractures followed by forteen cases which had undisplaced spinal fractures. Cord injury was seen in six cases. Based on the level of spine injury twenty six cases had lumbar spine injury, eleven

  8. Computational study of the vortex path variation with the VG height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gámiz, U.; Zamorano, G.; Zulueta, E.

    2014-06-01

    An extensive range of conventional, vane-type, passive vortex generators (VGs) are in use for successful applications of flow separation control. In most cases, the VG height is designed with the same thickness as the local boundary layer at the VG position. However, in some applications, these conventional VGs may produce excess residual drag. The so-called low-profile VGs can reduce the parasitic drag associated to this kind of passive control devices. As suggested by many authors, low-profile VGs can provide enough momentum transfer over a region several times their own height for effective flow-separation control with much lower drag. The main objective of this work is to study the variation of the path and the development of the primary vortex generated by a rectangular VG mounted on a flat plate with five different device heights h = δ, h1 = 0.8δ, h2 = 0.6δ, h3 = 0.4δ and h4 = 0.25m, where 5 is the local boundary layer thickness. For this purpose, computational simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number Re = 1350 based on the height of the conventional VG h = 0.25m with the angle of attack of the vane to the oncoming flow β = 18.5°. The results show that the VG scaling significantly affects the vortex trajectory and the peak vorticity generated by the primary vortex.

  9. Computational study of the vortex path variation with the VG height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Gámiz, U; Zamorano, G; Zulueta, E

    2014-01-01

    An extensive range of conventional, vane-type, passive vortex generators (VGs) are in use for successful applications of flow separation control. In most cases, the VG height is designed with the same thickness as the local boundary layer at the VG position. However, in some applications, these conventional VGs may produce excess residual drag. The so-called low-profile VGs can reduce the parasitic drag associated to this kind of passive control devices. As suggested by many authors, low-profile VGs can provide enough momentum transfer over a region several times their own height for effective flow-separation control with much lower drag. The main objective of this work is to study the variation of the path and the development of the primary vortex generated by a rectangular VG mounted on a flat plate with five different device heights h = δ, h 1 = 0.8δ, h 2 = 0.6δ, h 3 = 0.4δ and h 4 = 0.25m, where 5 is the local boundary layer thickness. For this purpose, computational simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number Re = 1350 based on the height of the conventional VG h = 0.25m with the angle of attack of the vane to the oncoming flow β = 18.5°. The results show that the VG scaling significantly affects the vortex trajectory and the peak vorticity generated by the primary vortex

  10. A Study on the Relationships among Surface Variables to Adjust the Height of Surface Temperature for Data Assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. H.; Song, H. J.; Han, H. J.; Ha, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    The observation processing system, KPOP (KIAPS - Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems - Package for Observation Processing) have developed to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Integrated Model (KIM). Currently, the KPOP has capable of processing almost all of observations for the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration) operational global data assimilation system. The height adjustment of SURFACE observations are essential for the quality control due to the difference in height between observation station and model topography. For the SURFACE observation, it is usual to adjust the height using lapse rate or hypsometric equation, which decides values mainly depending on the difference of height. We have a question of whether the height can be properly adjusted following to the linear or exponential relationship solely with regard to the difference of height, with disregard the atmospheric conditions. In this study, firstly we analyse the change of surface variables such as temperature (T2m), pressure (Psfc), humidity (RH2m and Q2m), and wind components (U and V) according to the height difference. Additionally, we look further into the relationships among surface variables . The difference of pressure shows a strong linear relationship with difference of height. But the difference of temperature according to the height shows a significant correlation with difference of relative humidity than with the height difference. A development of reliable model for the height-adjustment of surface temperature is being undertaken based on the preliminary results.

  11. The study of height variation on outdoor ventilation for Singapore's high-rise residential housing estates

    OpenAIRE

    Rou Xuan Lee; Steve Kardinal Jusuf; Nyuk Hien Wong

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with external ventilation levels within a multi-story Housing and Development Board (HDB) residential estate, focusing toward a deeper understanding of wind flow with respect to different levels of height variation (HV). This study analyzed through parametric study, using numerical simulations with the realizable k – ε turbulence model, the various scenarios of HV within a typical residential HDB estate or precinct. It is found that external wind flow within the prec...

  12. Modernization in Bali, Indonesia and the influence of socio-economic factors on the nutritional status of preschool children in 1989/1990: an anthropometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsman, A C; White, N G

    2007-01-01

    Bali has undergone rapid economic modernization over the past 30 years, however, very few anthropometric studies have examined the impact of modernization variables on the nutritional status of Balinese children. The study examined the relationships between variables associated with the modernization process on the nutritional status of Balinese children in 1989/1990, as assessed by anthropometrics. The mean height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age of 691 preschool children from nine localities across Bali were reported by age group and gender and related to the degree of modernization (using such parameters as household wealth and education level of the mother) and other variables such as the age, weight and height of the mother. Using the CDC/WHO 1978 growth references (Dibley et al. 1978), overall 35% of children were stunted (height-for-age 2 SD). The nutritional status of infants was significantly better than that of older children with growth faltering most evident during the second year of life. Maternal height and weight, the age of the child and wealth index were significantly associated with height-for-age of children, while the age of the child, maternal weight and family size were significantly associated with weight-for-height and weight-for-age of children. Maternal height and weight, wealth index and the age of the child were key factors influencing the body size for age of Balinese children. The strong association between maternal and child nutritional status was most likely due to environmental rather than genetic factors.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the boundary layer height on idealised cities (model study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schayes, G. [Univ. of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Grossi, P. [Joint Research Center, Ispra (Italy)

    1997-10-01

    The behaviour of the typical diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over cities is a complex function of very numerous environmental parameters. Two types of geographical situations have been retained: (i) inland city only surrounded by uniform fields, (ii) coastal city, thus influenced by the sea/land breeze effect. We have used the three-dimensional Thermal Vorticity-mode Mesoscale (TVM) model developed jointly by the UCL (Belgium) and JRC (Italy). In this study it has been used in 2-D mode allowing to perform many sensitivity runs. This implies that a kind of infinitely wide city has been effectively stimulated, but this does not affect the conclusions for the ABL height. The sensibility study has been performed for two turbulence closure schemes, for various assumptions for the ABL height definition in the model, and for a selected parameter, the soil water content. (LN)

  14. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study, Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1958-1960: height-weight tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, D

    1962-11-14

    From measurements taken in the Adult Health Study in Nagasaki and Hiroshima, tables of weight have been compiled. They are presented in the metric system, specific for height, sex, and age group. Five percentiles are presented as a guide for describing the distribution of weights. These values represent smoothing of the original data. This was accomplished by fitting second degree regression equations by least squares to the relationship of the logarithm of weight on height, separately for each age-sex group. This provided medians; other percentiles were obtained by adding or subtracting a term of the form KS, where K was taken from a table of normal deviates, and S was estimated from the data. The use and limitations of the tables were discussed. 10 tables.

  15. Study of natural convection heat transfer characteristics. (1) Influence of ventilation duct height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Mitsuo; Iwaki, Chikako; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Morooka, Shinichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nakada, Kotaro; Masaki, Yoshikazu

    2008-01-01

    Natural cooling system has been investigated in waste storage. It is important to evaluate the flow by natural draft enough to removal the decay heat from the waste. In this study, we carried out the fundamental experiment of ventilation duct height effect for natural convection on vertical cylindrical heater in atmospheric air. The scale of test facility is about 4m height with single heater. The heating value is varied in the range of 33-110W, where Rayleigh number is over 10 10 . Natural convection flow rate were calculated by measured velocity with thermo anemometer in the inlet duct. The temperature of the cylindrical heater wall and fluid were measured with thermocouples. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient difference between long duct and short duct is small in this experiment. (author)

  16. VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT IN YOUNG CHILDREN - A LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN 4- TO 6-YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Koren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preschool children are intensively involved in the process of developing fundamental movement skills such as walking, running, jumping, climbing, crawling and other simple movements. We aimed to compare age- and gender- related trends in countermovement vertical jump (CMJ performance (jumping height measured with a means of ground force plate during a longitudinal study of 4- to 6-year old children (N=79; 43% boys. Furthermore, we classified children CMJ arm-leg coordination into poor, average, or excellent on the grounds of high speed video footage. We found that CMJ height progresses significantly with age when arms are used (P<.001, η2=.632 and without the use of arms (P<.001, η2=.620. There were no sex effects. After classification of CMJ arm - leg coordination we found that children with excellent CMJ coordination progress more intensively than those with average coordination, whereas poorly coordinated jumpers do not progress at all. After extrapolating our data with the data of others, we found logarithmic CMJ height trends until the age of 16 in both sexes, athlete boys jumping higher than the non-athletes after the ages of 14 or 15. It seems that the initial movement patterns level, in this case the observed jumping technic, develops and refines in 4- to 6-year old children at that age. We conclude that jumping coordination is a very important factor of CMJ performance in the studied age span.

  17. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  18. US NDC Modernization: Service Oriented Architecture Study Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Encarnacao, Andre Villanova [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Young, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This report is a progress update on the USNDC Modernization Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) study describing results from Inception Iteration 1, which occurred between October 2012 and March 2013. The goals during this phase are 1) discovering components of the system that have potential service implementations, 2) identifying applicable SOA patterns for data access, service interfaces, and service orchestration/choreography, and 3) understanding performance tradeoffs for various SOA patterns

  19. The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frackelton Edward C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human height is considered highly heritable and correlated with certain disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cancer. Despite environmental influences, genetic factors are known to play an important role in stature determination. A number of genetic determinants of adult height have already been established through genome wide association studies. Methods To examine 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs corresponding to the 46 previously reported genomic loci for height in 8,184 European American children with height measurements. We leveraged genotyping data from our ongoing GWA study of height variation in children in order to query the 51 SNPs in this pediatric cohort. Results Sixteen of these SNPs yielded at least nominally significant association to height, representing fifteen different loci including EFEMP1-PNPT1, GPR126, C6orf173, SPAG17, Histone class 1, HLA class III and GDF5-UQCC. Other loci revealed no evidence for association, including HMGA1 and HMGA2. For the 16 associated variants, the genotype score explained 1.64% of the total variation for height z-score. Conclusion Among 46 loci that have been reported to associate with adult height to date, at least 15 also contribute to the determination of height in childhood.

  20. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  1. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  2. STUDY OF WITHERS HEIGHT AVERAGE PERFORMANCES IN HUCUL HORSE BREED – HROBY BLOODLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MAFTEI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of average performances in a population have a huge importance because, regarding a population, the average of phenotypic value is equal with average of genotypic value. So, the studies of the average value of characters offer us an idea about the population genetic level. The biological material is represented by 177 hucul horse from Hroby bloodline divided in 6 stallion families (tab. 1 analyzed at 18, 30 and 42 months old, owned by Lucina hucul stood farm. The average performances for withers height are presented in tab. 2. We can observe here that the average performances of the character are between characteristic limits of the breed. Both sexes have a small grade of variability with a decreasing tendency in the same time with ageing. We can observe a normal evolution in time for growth process with significant differences only at age of 42 months. We can say in this condition that the average performances for withers height have different values, influenced by the age, with a decreasing tendency.

  3. STUDY OF WITHERS HEIGHT AVERAGE PERFORMANCES IN HUCUL HORSE BREED –GORAL BLOODLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MAFTEI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of average performances in a population have a huge importance because, regarding a population, the average of phenotypic value is equal with average of genotypic value. So, the studies of the average value of characters offer us an idea about the population genetic level. The biological material is represented by 87 hucul horse from Goral bloodline divided in 5 stallion families (tab. 1 analyzed at 18, 30 and 42 months old, owned by Lucina hucul stood farm. The average performances for withers height are presented in tab. 2. We can observe here that the average performances of the character are between characteristic limits of the breed. Both sexes have a small grade of variability with a decreasing tendency in the same time with ageing. We can observe a normal evolution in time for growth process with significant differences only at age of 42 months. We can say in this condition that the average performances for withers height have different values, influenced by the age, with a decreasing tendency.

  4. On the estimation of physical height changes using GRACE satellite mission data – A case study of Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godah Walyeldeen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The dedicated gravity satellite missions, in particular the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission launched in 2002, provide unique data for studying temporal variations of mass distribution in the Earth’s system, and thereby, the geometry and the gravity fi eld changes of the Earth. The main objective of this contribution is to estimate physical height (e.g. the orthometric/normal height changes over Central Europe using GRACE satellite mission data as well as to analyse them and model over the selected study area. Physical height changes were estimated from temporal variations of height anomalies and vertical displacements of the Earth surface being determined over the investigated area. The release 5 (RL05 GRACE-based global geopotential models as well as load Love numbers from the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM were used as input data. Analysis of the estimated physical height changes and their modelling were performed using two methods: the seasonal decomposition method and the PCA/ EOF (Principal Component Analysis/Empirical Orthogonal Function method and the differences obtained were discussed. The main fi ndings reveal that physical height changes over the selected study area reach up to 22.8 mm. The obtained physical height changes can be modelled with an accuracy of 1.4 mm using the seasonal decomposition method.

  5. Modern methods of studying surfaces and their application to glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Haehnert, M.

    1977-05-01

    In the works are demonstrated modern methods for study of solid surfaces and its use of glasses. Study of the interaction of ions, electrons and photons with the glass surface provides information about the composition of the surface and its structure on an atomic scale. A qualitative analysis of a surface can be made with the aid of the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and with the ion scattering (ISS and RBS) and the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The structure of a surface can be studied by means of ion scattering and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and the topography of a surface by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ellipsometry is generally confined to measuring the thickness of very thin layers. The application these methods to the glass surfaces is demonstrated on series of examples. (author)

  6. Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2016-03-08

    To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. UK Biobank. 119,669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6 × 10(-3)) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6 × 10(-15)) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6 × 10(-7)), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4 × 10(-8)). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m(2)) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1 × 10(-5)) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. These data support evidence that height and BMI play an important partial role in determining several aspects of a person

  7. Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Design Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Setting UK Biobank. Participants 119 669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Main outcome measures Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. Results In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6×10−3) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6×10−15) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6×10−7), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4×10−8). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m2) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1×10−5) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. Conclusions These data support evidence that height and BMI play an

  8. Data volume of atmospheric tracer studies at Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia -1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Stone, D.J.M.; Pascoe, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been used to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. Tracers have been released from two locations: a laboratory vent near the ridge of the Woronora river valley and from the HIFAR research reactor ventilation system. Most studies have been conducted during the early to late morning periods when valley influences might be expected on dispersion of the tracer plume. This report summarises the meteorological and tracer air concentration data and makes comparisons with estimates from a simple gaussian dispersion model. It is intended that the data will also be used for evaluation of more elaborate wind field and atmospheric models

  9. Modern techniques for studying biofilm-influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, I.B.

    1998-01-01

    In natural and made-made environments the presence of biofilms on surfaces of metals and their alloys influences electrochemistry at the biofilm/substratum interface, enhancing or inhibiting corrosion reactions. Due to the complexity of the biocorrosion phenomenon a range of techniques is commonly employed to study mechanisms involved. In addition to traditional methods of corrosion investigation such as electrochemical measurements and light and scanning electron microscopy observations coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Modern techniques of surface science proved to be very useful in elucidating biofilm/metal interactions. Recent applications of Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to biocorrosion studies allowed better understanding of the biologically influenced metal deterioration process. The scope and promise of these latter techniques will be discussed and their use illustrated on practical examples. (Author)

  10. Wuthering Heights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronte, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his

  11. Can Pillow Height Effect the Body Pressure Distribution and Sleep Comfort: a Study of Quinquagenarian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinzhu; Hu, Huimin; Liao, Su

    2018-03-01

    A proper sleeping pillow can relax the neck muscles during sleep, yet does not impose stress on the spine or other tissues. By analyzing the different body pressure and subjective comfort evaluation of quinquagenarian women with different pillow heights (3cm, 7cm, 11cm and 15cm), this paper found that as the pillow height increased, the neck contact pressure, contact area and force increased at the same time, as well as the peak force and peak contact pressure gradually shifted from the head to the hip area. It was shown that the pillow with a height of 7cm was the most comfortable for supine positions.

  12. Comparative usability of modern anaesthesia ventilators: a human factors study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, J; Schweizer, T; Schmutz, A; Buerkle, H; Schumann, S

    2017-11-01

    The anaesthesia ventilator represents the key equipment for intraoperative respiratory care. Improper operation of this device may threaten a patient's health. A self-explanatory interface facilitates handling and decreases the risk of operating errors. This study systematically evaluates the usability of user interfaces in four modern anaesthesia ventilators. Twenty naïve operators were asked to execute 20 tasks on each of four different anaesthesia ventilators (Avance CS2™, GE Healthcare; Flow-i™, Maquet; and Perseus™ and Primus™, Dräger) in a randomized order. The success of task execution, frequency of requests for assistance, and processing times were recorded. During the tasks, the operators' visual focus was measured via eye-tracking. Additionally, subjective assessments of usability were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire. For comparison, six experienced operators undertook the same protocol. The overall rate of falsely executed tasks was low. Naïve operators requested assistance least when using the Perseus (26). Pooled processing times were shortest for the Perseus (222 s), followed by the Primus (223 s), the Avance (238 s), and the Flow-i (353 s). Task-specific processing times differed considerably between the devices. Eye-tracking analyses revealed associated interface issues that impeded the operators' performance. Operators rated usability best for the Perseus [mean (sd): 67 (17) arbitrary units] and worst for the Flow-i [50 (16) arbitrary units]. Results from experienced operators support these findings by trend. The usability of modern anaesthesia ventilators differs considerably. Interface issues of specific tasks impair the operator's efficiency. Eliminating the specific usability issues might improve the operator's performance and, as a consequence, the patient's safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  13. Mixing heights over hilly terrain - a case study in northern austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, K. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Simultaneous Sodar measurements (Remtech PA2) were conducted from 10 October 1996 to 24 January 1997 at two sites in northern Austria, near the village Allensteig on top of a hill (590 m.s.l.) and in the village Lenzing (460 m.s.l.) near the lake Attersee. The two sites are 145 km apart from each other and differ much according to the complexity of the surrounding terrain, land use and altitude. Mixing height and inversions height estimations from the Sodar measurements are compared with mixing heights derived from radiosonde potential temperature profiles at the next stations Linz and Vienna using the parcel method of Stull (1991) explained by M. Piringer (this volume). The information about the static stability at different Sodar heights, which is provided by the new Sodar software in terms of vertical temperature gradients, is discussed. (au)

  14. A Study on the Type of School during the Dawn of Modern Education in Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Takehiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the state of school education in the Bhutan during the 1940-50s, a period of dawn of the modern education in Bhutan, by classifying schools and identifying their contrasting characteristics. The origins of modern education in Bhutan can be traced back approximately 100 years. Bhutan's modern period began in 1907 when…

  15. Feasibility study on small modular reactors for modern microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, R.; Gabbar, H.A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Microgrid is a solution of conventional power grid problem and offer sustainable decentralized power system. Microgrid with modern distributed energy resources (DER) could play an important role to alleviate dependency on the main electricity grid. Distributed energy resource comprises wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel generator, gas engine, micro turbine, fuel cells, etc.Due to the gap between typical loads and supply within microgrid, larger scale energy generation could provide a possible solution to balance power demand and supply. Feasibility study of Small Nuclear Power Plant, such as Small Modular reactor (SMR), within microgrids could be achieved via different cases. To achieve the target, a comprehensive feasibility study is conducted on microgrid with SMR through electricity generation profiles, geographical and environmental assessment, as well as cost analysis using simulation practices and data analysis.Also potency of SMRs is analyzed. Parameters and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) could be analyzed to achieve feasible solution of microgrids with small modular reactor (SMR) to improve the overall microgrid performance.The study shows that SMR could be a feasible solution if microgrid parameters are selected properly. (author)

  16. Feasibility study on small modular reactors for modern microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, R.; Gabbar, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Microgrid is a solution of conventional power grid problem and offer sustainable decentralized power system. Microgrid with modern distributed energy resources (DER) could play an important role to alleviate dependency on the main electricity grid. Distributed energy resource comprises wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel generator, gas engine, micro turbine, fuel cells, etc.Due to the gap between typical loads and supply within microgrid, larger scale energy generation could provide a possible solution to balance power demand and supply. Feasibility study of Small Nuclear Power Plant, such as Small Modular reactor (SMR), within microgrids could be achieved via different cases. To achieve the target, a comprehensive feasibility study is conducted on microgrid with SMR through electricity generation profiles, geographical and environmental assessment, as well as cost analysis using simulation practices and data analysis.Also potency of SMRs is analyzed. Parameters and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) could be analyzed to achieve feasible solution of microgrids with small modular reactor (SMR) to improve the overall microgrid performance.The study shows that SMR could be a feasible solution if microgrid parameters are selected properly. (author)

  17. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare Family Archive of Walter de la Mare's Printed Oeuvre at Senate House Library, University of London, as an example of a modern author collections in an institutiona...

  18. A study of acoustic halos in active region NOAA 11330 using multi-height SDO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, S. C.; Jain, K.; Kholikov, S.; Hill, F.; Rajaguru, S. P.; Cally, P. S.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to characterize the spatio-temporal acoustic power distribution in active regions as a function of the height in the solar atmosphere. For this, we use Doppler velocity and continuum intensity observed using the magnetically sensitive line at 6173 Å as well as intensity at 1600 Å and 1700 Å. We focus on the power enhancements seen around AR 11330 as a function of wave frequency, magnetic field strength, field inclination and observation height. We find that acoustic halos occur above the acoustic cutoff frequency and extends up to 10 mHz in HMI Doppler and AIA 1700 Å observations. Halos are also found to be strong functions of magnetic field and their inclination angle. We further calculate and examine the spatially averaged relative phases and cross-coherence spectra and find different wave characteristics at different heights.

  19. Carpal height and postoperative strength after proximal row carpectomy or four-corner arthrodesis: Clinical, anatomical and biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laronde, Pascale; Christiaens, Nicolas; Aumar, Aurélien; Chantelot, Christophe; Fontaine, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Proximal row carpectomy (PRC) and four-corner arthrodesis (4CA) are the two most commonly performed surgical procedures to treat wrist arthritis. Postoperative strength is one of the criteria for choosing between the two techniques. Some authors believe that strength is correlated with residual carpal height. The goal of this study was to determine if postoperative carpal height was predictive of postoperative strength. This study consisted of two parts: a clinical evaluation of grip strength after 4CA or PRC; anatomical and radiological measurements of carpal height before and after 4CA or PRC. Grip strength was better preserved after PRC (87.5%) than after 4CA (76.1%), when expressed relative to the opposite hand (P=0.053). There was a significant decrease in carpal height for the PRC group with a Youm's index of 0.37 versus 0.50 for the 4CA group (P<0.0001). Our clinical results and analysis of the literature indicate that 4CA is not superior to PRC when it comes to grip strength, whereas carpal height is significantly decreased after PRC. The decreased tendon excursion after PRC is balanced by an increase in joint stresses after 4CA. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of Tidal Data for Dagang Tidal Gauge and Study of the Changes for the National Height Datum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Fumei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main tides affecting Dagang sea level are analyzed and the national height datum is studied by analyzing 1980—2011 hourly tidal data and 1952—2007 monthly mean tidal data. Firstly, the frequencies and amplitudes of main tides including 180 short-period tides and 6 long-period tides are gained by the Fouirer transform. Then the actual amplitudes and their variations of main tides are obtained by the harmonic analysis of the 1980—2011 hourly tidal data, and the changes with about 19 year period can easily be found in the amplitudes of Q1、O1、M2、K1、K2. And then the changes of the mean sea level at Dagang tidal gauge defining national height datum during the period of 1952—2011 are studied by the harmonic analysis and the shifting average of 18.61 year tidal heights. The results of these methods show that the mean sea level at Dagang tidal gauge descended with the speed of 1.07 mm/a and 0.76 mm/a respectively during 1952—1980, and that it ascended with the speed of 1.59 mm/a and 1.62 mm/a respectively during 1980—2011. And finally the difference of 0.14 cm is achieved by the shifting average of 18.61 year tidal heights for 1985 National Height Datum.

  1. Correlation Equation of Fault Size, Moment Magnitude, and Height of Tsunami Case Study: Historical Tsunami Database in Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Musa, Admiral; Pribadi, Sugeng; Muzli, Muzli

    2018-03-01

    Sulawesi, one of the biggest island in Indonesia, located on the convergence of two macro plate that is Eurasia and Pacific. NOAA and Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory show more than 20 tsunami data recorded in Sulawesi since 1820. Based on this data, determination of correlation between tsunami and earthquake parameter need to be done to proved all event in the past. Complete data of magnitudes, fault sizes and tsunami heights on this study sourced from NOAA and Novosibirsk Tsunami database, completed with Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) catalog. This study aims to find correlation between moment magnitude, fault size and tsunami height by simple regression. The step of this research are data collecting, processing, and regression analysis. Result shows moment magnitude, fault size and tsunami heights strongly correlated. This analysis is enough to proved the accuracy of historical tsunami database in Sulawesi on NOAA, Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory and PTWC.

  2. NATURAL SCIENCE AT SCHOOL: MODERN APPROACHES TO THE DIFFERENTIATED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechtyarenko S.G.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the possibility of differentiated study natural science at school on the basis of ecological educational process. Natural science is the science about nature as a single unity or totality of the natural sciences, which constituting a single unit. The main aim of the course is to develop student’s natural science competence through integrated mastering system knowledge about nature and man, the basics of environmental knowledge, ways of improving teaching and learning activities, development of value orientations in relation to the nature. There is strong need to review approaches to teaching nature science at schools, taking into account the general trend of greening of the educational process. The aim of the work is to analyze the possibility of practical application of modern approaches to differentiated teaching of the nature science at school greening within the educational process. In our view, the environmental component may be a basis to the formation and differentiated teaching in general. The environmental component of the educational sector has been aimed to the student’s environmental consciousness and compliance with rules of environmentally safe behavior in the environment. The learning of the integrated knowledge about nature and man can be submitted through the prism of action of the environmental factors according classic approach to their classification: abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. In parallel, it is reasonable to raise the issues of practical importance as some natural objects and actions of each of these factors. The new degree of the studying of the environment has been provided by the beginning of the systematization of knowledge about natural objects and structure of the universe, by the formation of primary concepts about the relationship between the world of the living and inanimate nature, between organisms and between human activities and changes that has been occurred in the

  3. Meta-analysis of Dense Genecentric Association Studies Reveals Common and Uncommon Variants Associated with Height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanktree, Matthew B.; Guo, Yiran; Murtaza, Muhammed; Glessner, Joseph T.; Bailey, Swneke D.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Lettre, Guillaume; Ongen, Halit; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Toby; Shen, Haiqing; Nelson, Christopher P.; Klopp, Norman; Baumert, Jens; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pankratz, Nathan; Pankow, James S.; Shah, Sonia; Taylor, Kira; Barnard, John; Peters, Bas J.; Maloney, Cliona M.; Lobmeyer, Maximilian T.; Stanton, Alice; Zafarmand, M. Hadi; Romaine, Simon P. R.; Mehta, Amar; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Gong, Yan; Price, Tom S.; Smith, Erin N.; Kim, Cecilia E.; Li, Yun R.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Atwood, Larry D.; Bailey, Kristian M.; Bhatt, Deepak; Bauer, Florianne; Behr, Elijah R.; Bhangale, Tushar; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Brown, Morris; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; Carty, Cara; Chandrupatla, Hareesh R.; Chen, Wei; Connell, John; Dalgeorgou, Chrysoula; de Boer, Anthonius; Drenos, Fotios; Elbers, Clara C.; Fang, James C.; Fox, Caroline S.; Frackelton, Edward C.; Fuchs, Barry; Furlong, Clement E.; Gibson, Quince; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Grobbee, Diederik E.; Hastie, Claire; Howard, Philip J.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Johnson, W. Craig; Li, Qing; Kleber, Marcus E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Kooperberg, Charles; Ky, Bonnie; LaCroix, Andrea; Lanken, Paul; Lathrop, Mark; Li, Mingyao; Marshall, Vanessa; Melander, Olle; Mentch, Frank D.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Monda, Keri L.; Montpetit, Alexandre; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Nakayama, Karen; Nondahl, Dave; Onipinla, Abiodun; Rafelt, Suzanne; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Otieno, F. George; Patel, Sanjey R.; Putt, Mary E.; Rodriguez, Santiago; Safa, Radwan N.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Simpson, Claire; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Suver, Christine; Swergold, Gary; Sweitzer, Nancy K.; Thomas, Kelly A.; Thorand, Barbara; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tischfield, Sam; Tobin, Martin; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tomaszweski, Maciej; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Wallace, Chris; Winkelmann, Bernhard; Zhang, Haitao; Zheng, Dongling; Zhang, Li; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Clarke, Robert; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Danesh, John; Day, Ian N.; Schork, Nicholas J.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Delles, Christian; Duggan, David; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofker, Marten H.; Humphries, Steve E.; Kivimaki, Mika; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Mega, Jessica L.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Morrow, David A.; Palmen, Jutta; Redline, Susan; Shields, Denis C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sleiman, Patrick M.; Smith, George Davey; Farrall, Martin; Jamshidi, Yalda; Christiani, David C.; Casas, Juan P.; Hall, Alistair S.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Christie, Jason D.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Murray, Sarah S.; Illig, Thomas; Dorn, Gerald W.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sever, Peter; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Caulfield, Mark; Talmud, Philippa J.; Topol, Eric; Engert, James C.; Wang, Kai; Dominiczak, Anna; Hamsten, Anders; Curtis, Sean P.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Trip, Mieke; Saleheen, Danish; Peden, John F.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; März, Winfried; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke Hilse; Schadt, Eric E.; Johnson, Julie A.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Papanicolaou, George J.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Munroe, Patricia B.; North, Kari E.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Gaunt, Tom R.; Anand, Sonia S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Soranzo, Nicole; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Reiner, Alex; Hegele, Robert A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Keating, Brendan J.

    2011-01-01

    Height is a classic complex trait with common variants in a growing list of genes known to contribute to the phenotype. Using a genecentric genotyping array targeted toward cardiovascular-related loci, comprising 49,320 SNPs across approximately 2000 loci, we evaluated the association of common and

  4. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  5. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  6. Genetic study on heading time and plant height of wheat irradiated by 137Cs and 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guixue; Zhu Xiaoda

    1995-01-01

    The 137 Cs and 60 Co γ-rays with 0, 20, 30 and 40 krad were used to irradiate two wheat varieties to study the genetic effects of both irradiation sources on heading time and plant height. It revealed that both irradiation sources had similar impact on heading time and plant height and the effects were significant. It was clear that both irradiation sources were able to induce the generation of early ripening and short-stalked mutants. With regard to the heading time and plant height, the means and genetic parameters, e.g., genetic variance, genetic coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance and relative genetic advance, varied with varieties, irradiation dosages and generations. Mutants with good characters were obtained by using variety 77-zhong-2882 and an irradiation dose of 30 krad. The genetic effects of irradiation were remarkable in their M 2 and M 3 generations

  7. Increased number of sex chromosomes affects height in a nonlinear fashion: a study of 305 patients with sex chromosome aneuploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Anne-Marie; Aksglaede, Lise; Garn, Inger

    2010-01-01

    Tall stature and eunuchoid body proportions characterize patients with 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome, whereas patients with 45,X Turner syndrome are characterized by impaired growth. Growth is relatively well characterized in these two syndromes, while few studies describe the growth of patients wi......,XXXX (n = 13), and -1.0 (-3.5 to -0.8) in 49,XXXXX (n = 3). Height increased with an increasing number of extra X or Y chromosomes, except in males with five, and in females with four or five sex chromosomes, consistent with a nonlinear effect on height....

  8. Studying the early modern landscape in the Czech republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodějovská, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 63-98 ISSN 0323-0988 R&D Projects : GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : historical landscape * early modern period * czech research Subject RIV: AB - History

  9. The effect of step stool use and provider height on CPR quality during pediatric cardiac arrest: A simulation-based multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Lin, Yiqun; Nadkarni, Vinay; Wan, Brandi; Duff, Jonathan; Brown, Linda; Bhanji, Farhan; Kessler, David; Tofil, Nancy; Hecker, Kent; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether a) step stool use is associated with improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality; b) provider adjusted height is associated with improved CPR quality; and if associations exist, c) determine whether just-in-time (JIT) CPR training and/or CPR visual feedback attenuates the effect of height and/or step stool use on CPR quality. We analysed data from a trial of simulated cardiac arrests with three study arms: No intervention; CPR visual feedback; and JIT CPR training. Step stool use was voluntary. We explored the association between 1) step stool use and CPR quality, and 2) provider adjusted height and CPR quality. Adjusted height was defined as provider height + 23 cm (if step stool was used). Below-average height participants were ≤ gender-specific average height; the remainder were above average height. We assessed for interaction between study arm and both adjusted height and step stool use. One hundred twenty-four subjects participated; 1,230 30-second epochs of CPR were analysed. Step stool use was associated with improved compression depth in below-average (female, p=0.007; male, pstep stool use (pStep stool use is associated with improved compression depth regardless of height. Increased provider height is associated with improved compression depth, with visual feedback attenuating the effects of height and step stool use.

  10. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...

  11. Studies on the levitation height decay of the high temperature superconducting Maglev vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z.G.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, S.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, L.

    2007-01-01

    The levitation height decay was found in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev test vehicle system during man-loading running. Experimental results show that the no-load levitating system would drift to a new equilibrium position by the external loaded history, but the new equilibrium position will almost not drift by the second-round same loaded history. A new method is proposed to improve the stability of the HTS Maglev vehicle, that is, a pre-load was applied to the HTS Maglev vehicle before running. The impulse responses are performed on the HTS Maglev vehicle before the pre-load and after the pre-load. The results show that the pre-load method is considerably effective to improve the stiffness and damping coefficient of the HTS Maglev vehicle. Moreover, it helps to suppress the levitation height decay and enhance the stability of the HTS Maglev vehicle in practical operation

  12. Antiquity versus modern times in hydraulics - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroia, L; Georgescu, S C; Georgescu, A M

    2010-01-01

    Water supply and water management in Antiquity represent more than Modern World can imagine about how people in that period used to think about, and exploit the resources they had, aiming at developing and improving their society and own lives. This paper points out examples of how they handled different situations, and how they managed to cope with the growing number of population in the urban areas, by adapting or by improving their water supply systems. The paper tries to emphasize the engineering contribution of Rome and the Roman Empire, mainly in the capital but also in the provinces, as for instance the today territory of France, by analysing some aqueducts from the point of view of modern Hydraulic Engineering. A third order polynomial regression is proposed to compute the water flow rate, based on the flow cross-sectional area measured in quinaria. This paper also emphasizes on contradictory things between what we thought we knew about Ancient Roman civilization, and what could really be proven, either by a modern engineering approach, a documentary approach, or by commonsense, where none of the above could be used. It is certain that the world we live in is the heritage of the Greco-Roman culture and therefore, we are due to acknowledge their contribution, especially taking into account the lack of knowledge of that time, and the poor resources they had.

  13. Antiquity versus modern times in hydraulics - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroia, L [Research Department, Sangari Engineering Services SRL, 35-39 Emil Racovita, Complex Azur 1, AP 08, Voluntari, 077191 (Romania); Georgescu, S C [Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machinery Department, University ' Politehnica' of Bucharest 313 Spl. Independentei, S6, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Georgescu, A M, E-mail: liviu.stroia@sangari.r [Hydraulics and Environmental Protection Department, Technical University of Civil Engineering Bucharest, 124 Lacul Tei Bd, S2, Bucharest, 020396 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Water supply and water management in Antiquity represent more than Modern World can imagine about how people in that period used to think about, and exploit the resources they had, aiming at developing and improving their society and own lives. This paper points out examples of how they handled different situations, and how they managed to cope with the growing number of population in the urban areas, by adapting or by improving their water supply systems. The paper tries to emphasize the engineering contribution of Rome and the Roman Empire, mainly in the capital but also in the provinces, as for instance the today territory of France, by analysing some aqueducts from the point of view of modern Hydraulic Engineering. A third order polynomial regression is proposed to compute the water flow rate, based on the flow cross-sectional area measured in quinaria. This paper also emphasizes on contradictory things between what we thought we knew about Ancient Roman civilization, and what could really be proven, either by a modern engineering approach, a documentary approach, or by commonsense, where none of the above could be used. It is certain that the world we live in is the heritage of the Greco-Roman culture and therefore, we are due to acknowledge their contribution, especially taking into account the lack of knowledge of that time, and the poor resources they had.

  14. Evolution of Human Body Height and Its Implications in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet DUYAR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Body height is an crucial variable in the design and production of all physical spaces, primarily in the manifacturing of clothes and means of transportation. Having such an ergonomic significance, the height of the human being has constantly changed during the course of history. There exist strong data suggesting that this change is still continue. To find out stages of evolution of human height throughout the ages up to the present will help us to illuminate the human-environment relations, and to predict the possible changes that the human height might be subjected to in the future. In view of these reasons, the changes that has occured in human height from the period at which hominids appeared until humans’ transition into settled life have been closely examined. The study was carried out on the basis of the data obtained from the earlier studies in literature. These data, when considered as a whole, reveal that the human height did not continuously increase in a linear fashion in its evolutionary path but recorded some increases and decreases at different stages. The difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism has not shown a steady decrease either; instead, it has exhibited an oscillating pattern. The modern humans as a species is not unique in terms of their height; as a matter of fact, two million years ago hominids had existed at approximately the same height as the Homo sapiens. Although the average height had shown some decrease in Homo erectus, its distribution pattern was not much different than the one observed in the modern human societies. In the findings dated to the early stages of the Upper Paleolithic Age, height showed a tendency to increase again

  15. An hybrid and non-modern approach to urban studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Grau i Solés

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon the so-called Forat de la Vergonya urban controversy and the urban transformation process of a neighborhood in Barcelona: el Casc Antic. Drawing on inputs from Actor-Network Theory (ANT, the city is explored as a multiple urban assemblage. Besides, we analyze the dichotomous nature of the modern notion of politics. Especially, the role of object-subject dichotomy is explored. Through the analysis of citizen participation opportunities we propose a new hybrid notion of citizen participation and urban policy.

  16. Acute effects of fine particulate air pollution on ST segment height: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Rongling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms for the relationship between particulate air pollution and cardiac disease are not fully understood. Air pollution-induced myocardial ischemia is one of the potentially important mechanisms. Methods We investigate the acute effects and the time course of fine particulate pollution (PM2.5 on myocardium ischemic injury as assessed by ST-segment height in a community-based sample of 106 healthy non-smokers. Twenty-four hour beat-to-beat electrocardiogram (ECG data were obtained using a high resolution 12-lead Holter ECG system. After visually identifying and removing all the artifacts and arrhythmic beats, we calculated beat-to-beat ST-height from ten leads (inferior leads II, III, and aVF; anterior leads V3 and V4; septal leads V1 and V2; lateral leads I, V5, and V6,. Individual-level 24-hour real-time PM2.5 concentration was obtained by a continuous personal PM2.5 monitor. We then calculated, on a 30-minute basis, the corresponding time-of-the-day specific average exposure to PM2.5 for each participant. Distributed lag models under a linear mixed-effects models framework were used to assess the regression coefficients between 30-minute PM2.5 and ST-height measures from each lead; i.e., one lag indicates a 30-minute separation between the exposure and outcome. Results The mean (SD age was 56 (7.6 years, with 41% male and 74% white. The mean (SD PM2.5 exposure was 14 (22 μg/m3. All inferior leads (II, III, and aVF and two out of three lateral leads (I and V6, showed a significant association between higher PM2.5 levels and higher ST-height. Most of the adverse effects occurred within two hours after PM2.5 exposure. The multivariable adjusted regression coefficients β (95% CI of the cumulative effect due to a 10 μg/m3 increase in Lag 0-4 PM2.5 on ST-I, II, III, aVF and ST-V6 were 0.29 (0.01-0.56 μV, 0.79 (0.20-1.39 μV, 0.52 (0.01-1.05 μV, 0.65 (0.11-1.19 μV, and 0.58 (0.07-1.09 μV, respectively, with all p

  17. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  18. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D. [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Filderklinik, Filderstadt (Germany); Schittenhelm, Jan [Tuebingen University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2016-02-15

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  19. Validation of adult height prediction based on automated bone age determination in the Paris Longitudinal Study of healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, David D.; Schittenhelm, Jan; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    An adult height prediction model based on automated determination of bone age was developed and validated in two studies from Zurich, Switzerland. Varied living conditions and genetic backgrounds might make the model less accurate. To validate the adult height prediction model on children from another geographical location. We included 51 boys and 58 girls from the Paris Longitudinal Study of children born 1953 to 1958. Radiographs were obtained once or twice a year in these children from birth to age 18. Bone age was determined using the BoneXpert method. Radiographs in children with bone age greater than 6 years were considered, in total 1,124 images. The root mean square deviation between the predicted and the observed adult height was 2.8 cm for boys in the bone age range 6-15 years and 3.1 cm for girls in the bone age range 6-13 years. The bias (the average signed difference) was zero, except for girls below bone age 12, where the predictions were 0.8 cm too low. The accuracy of the BoneXpert method in terms of root mean square error was as predicted by the model, i.e. in line with what was observed in the Zurich studies. (orig.)

  20. Methodology - PSA Regulatory handbook. Comparisons to a modern PSA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Urban; Jung, Gunnar; Flodin, Yngve

    2003-03-01

    fault tree model correspond. The main focus of the review has been on the plant model. The comments and conclusions are dominated by issues concerning modelling. As of part 1.5, the criteria for the review as presented in the PSA Handbook are not to be seen as strict requirements. The layout of the Handbook does not follow the traditional PSA with its subdivision of into internal and external events, level 1 and level 2 PSA, or power operation and shut-down. The reason for this is that this has given the regulatory handbook a more logical structure, and that this approach underlines the integrated character of PSA when it comes to creating the plan risk profile. When the Handbook is used as the reference for a review of a PSA this has to be taken into consideration. One partial analysis of a PSA program can not be expected to meet all requirements of the PSA Handbook. On a general level, the PSA in question in many ways seem to be on a satisfactory level with modern PSA standard. As expected though, in relation to the level of ambition as described in the Handbook, some areas could be improved. The main conclusions can be summarised as: The PSA Handbook (PSAHB) is not intended to be used for detailed review of analyses, but for an overall judgement of a complete PSA program - The PSAHB pictures an 'ideal' version of a complete PSA. During a comparative review, as the one described in this report, considerable discrepancies show up concerning level of ambition etc. - The PSAHB, and in particular its chapters on presentation and analysis of results are well written and worth considering for any PSA analyst. - The specific PSA analysis studied shows a high level of ambition, but as - A thorough analysis of the results is missing. - Some of the analyses are overly conservative. - The CCI-analysis is presented only in a 'first screening' status. - No uncertainty analysis is presented. - The criteria for the sensitivity analysis are not shown. - The models used for internal

  1. Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosano Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight, height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age (3592 girls and 3605 boys. They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age (32 categories of 0.5 years and gender, using cluster sampling. Subjects from >18 to 23 years of age (947 women and 921 men were sampled in 6 non-university educational centers and several university centers in Granada. Exclusion criteria included sons of non-Spanish mother or father, and individuals with chronic conditions and/or therapies affecting growth. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December 2004, for the first sample, and through January to May 2005, for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for 9065 cases (4539 women and 4526 men were obtained; 79.39% (n = 7197 in the up to 18 years of age group. In the first sampling only 0.07% (3 girls and 2 boys refused to participate in the study. In addition, 327 students (4.5% were absent when sampling was done. We present mean and standard deviation fort height, weight and BMI at 0.5 years intervals, from 3 to 23 years of age, for both genders. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height, weight (percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97 and BMI (percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97 are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is

  2. Study of trends in the trucking market in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Popovych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the transport services market in accordance with its segmentation from the position of statistics on the field of automotive freight. The tendencies of development dynamics and road trucking transport market structure, and particularly the impact of transportation logistics market, including foreign trade cargo traffic of road transport, on the basic trends and the impact of logistics infrastructure development for aggregate indicators of development of transport communications, the size and dynamics of development, market compatibility on investment attractiveness. Balance of consumer, wholesale and logistics market in Ukraine, having similar development trends are established. Market logistics of trucking transport services have a steady trend of development in an objective decline in growth. The necessity of modernization policies in the transport sector at the state level as a software-oriented transport sector investment resources of the economy, taking into account that the share of road transport in the transport system of the country demonstrates the dynamic development with a positive trend in demand for transportation of goods.

  3. Experimental Study of the Slit Spacing and Bed Height on the Thermal Performance of Slit-Glazed Solar Air Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mahdi Taheri Mousavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal performances of three slit-glazed solar air heaters (SGSAHs were investigated experimentally. Three SGSAHs with different bed heights (7 cm, 5 cm, and 3 cm were fabricated with multiple glass panes used for glazing. The length, width, and thickness of each pane were 154 cm, 6 cm, and 0.4 cm, respectively. Ambient air was continuously withdrawn through the gaps between the glass panes by fans. The experiments were conducted for four different gap distances between the glass panes (0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm and the air mass flow rate was varied between 0.014 kg/s and 0.057 kg/s. The effects of air mass flux on the outlet temperature and thermal efficiency were studied. For the SGSAH with bed height of 7 cm and glass pane gap distance of 0.5 mm, the highest efficiency was obtained as 82% at a mass flow rate of 0.057 kg/s and the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet (∆T was maximum (27°C when the mass flow rate was least. The results demonstrate that for lower mass flow rates and larger gaps, the performance of SGSAH with a bed height of 3 cm was better compared to that of others. However, for higher mass flow rates, the SGSAH with 7 cm bed height performed better.

  4. Predicting wind shear effects: A study of Minnesota wind data collected at heights up to 70 meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artig, R. [Minnesota Dept. of Public Service, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Minnesota Department of Public Service (DPS) collects wind data at carefully selected sites around the state and analyzes the data to determine Minnesota`s wind power potential. DPS recently installed advanced new monitoring equipment at these sites and began to collect wind data at 30, 50, and 70 meters above ground level, with two anemometers at each level. Previously, the Department had not collected data at heights above ground level higher than 30 meters. DPS also, with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), installed four sophisticated monitoring sites as part of a Tall Tower Wind Shear Study that is assessing the effects of wind shear on wind power potential. At these sites, wind data are being collected at the 10, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 meter heights. This paper presents the preliminary results of the analysis of wind data from all sites. These preliminary results indicate that the traditional 1/7 power law does not effectively predict wind shear in Minnesota, and the result is an underestimation of Minnesota`s wind power potential at higher heights. Using a power factor of 1/5 or 1/4 may be more accurate and provide sound justification for installing wind turbines on taller towers in Minnesota.

  5. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  6. [Perspective and application of metabonomics in modern study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kun-Ming; Wang, Bin; Chen, Lin-Wei; Zhang, Mao-Sen; Yang, Guang-Ming; Shu, Ya-Chun; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2014-08-01

    Metabonomics is a new method to study on the metabolic network and the relationship between body and environment, which conforms to the way of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. In the study process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, effectively conjunction with metabonomics method will facilitate the integration of TCM with modern biological science and technology, and promote the modernization of TCM. This paper introduce the application of metabonomics in the research of toxicity mechanism of TCM, compatibility mechanism of TCM formula, pharmacology effect of TCM and processing mechanism of TCM. This paper summarize the problems in the TCM metabonomics research and prospect its bright future.

  7. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years: A prospective cohort study among children in Jimma, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Admassu, B.; Wells, J. C. K.; Girma, T.; Andersen, G. S.; Owino, V.; Belachew, T.; Michaelsen, K. F.; Abera, M.; Wibaek, R.; Friis, H.; Kaestel, P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess associations between birth BC and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. / METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured using air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth. Linear regression models were applied to study the relationship between BC at bi...

  8. Smoke inputs to climate models: optical properties and height distribution for nuclear winter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    Smoke from fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in land surface temperatures. The extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change depend on the optical characteristics of the smoke and how it is distributed with altitude. The height distribution of smoke over a fire is determined by the amount of buoyant energy produced by the fire and the amount of energy released by the latent heat of condensation of water vapor. The optical properties of the smoke depend on the size distribution of smoke particles which changes due to coagulation within the lofted plume. We present calculations demonstrating these processes and estimate their importance for the smoke source term input for climate models. For high initial smoke densities and for absorbing smoke ( m = 1.75 - 0.3i), coagulation of smoke particles within the smoke plume is predicted to first increase, then decrease, the size-integrated extinction cross section. However, at the smoke densities predicted in our model (assuming a 3% emission rate for smoke) and for our assumed initial size distribution, the attachment rates for brownian and turbulent collision processes are not fast enough to alter the smoke size distribution enough to significantly change the integrated extinction cross section. Early-time coagulation is, however, fast enough to allow further coagulation, on longer time scales, to act to decrease the extinction cross section. On these longer time scales appropriate to climate models, coagulation can decrease the extinction cross section by almost a factor of two before the smoke becomes well mixed around the globe. This process has been neglected in past climate effect evaluations, but could have a significant effect, since the extinction cross section enters as an exponential factor in calculating the light attenuation due to smoke. 10 refs., 20 figs

  9. Early Period of Modern Architecture in Turkey - A Case Study of Eskisehir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasozen, Rana

    2017-10-01

    modern buildings of Eskisehir as a medium-size city of Turkey will be examined in this study within the scope of the early modern architectural period of Turkey.

  10. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth...

  11. Height premium for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical study of the structure of thermal plume in a vertical channel: Effect of the height of canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouini Belgacem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to study numerically, by means of a software Named Calculation FDS, a thermal plume evolve from a source at the entrance to of a vertical channel. In the literature, there are researchers who interested in the interaction of plume with his the confinement medium. These studies are based on the determination of the global structure of plume confined. They found that this plume consists of three distinct zones. A first zone near source (instability zone followed by a second zone, such as the development of plume, and a third zone which is the zone of turbulence, Comparing the overall structure of the plume confined to that of the free plume, we can identify the presence of a third zone (zone of instability. The aim is firstly to determine the height of the instability zone located above of source, and secondly, to make a spectral study frequencies exhaust. Thus, effects of the geometrical parameters on frequencies of these escapements and the height an instability zone. The final aim is to establish correlations between the dimensionless numbers of Strouhal and Grashof.

  13. Improved final predicted height with the injection of leuprolide in children with earlier puberty: A retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available The adult height of children with early onset puberty is limited by the premature maturation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. To evaluate the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa treatment on the final height (FH and bone maturation rate (BMR in girls with early puberty (EP or idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP, we examined data from girls who were diagnosed with EP or ICPP and underwent GnRHa (Leuplin Depot: 3.75 mg/month at China Medical University Hospital, in Taiwan, between 2006 and 2015. Patients were observed until the achievement of FH and divided into an "EP group" (T-ep and "ICPP group" (T-icpp according to the age of onset of puberty. Eighty-seven patients were enrolled (T-ep, N = 44, puberty onset at 8-10 years; T-icpp, N = 43, puberty onset before 8 years. The demographic data of girls with EP or IPP was characterized. BMR, change in predicted final height (PFH after GnRHa treatment, target height (TH and FH were measured. After GnRHa treatment, the study groups (T-ep: 160.24±6.18 cm, T-icpp: 158.99±5.92 cm both had higher PFH than at initiation (T-ep: 159.83±7.19 cm, T-icpp: 158.58±5.93 cm. There was deceleration of BMR in both groups (T-ep: 0.57±0.39; T-icpp: 0.97±0.97 and a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.027. The gap in FH standard deviation scores (SDS and TH SDS had a significant difference in T-ep (p = 0.045 but not in T-icpp. Moreover, there was no difference in the gap of PFH SDS between the 1st and final treatment in both groups. We concluded that GnRHa decelerated BMR in girls with earlier puberty. Further prospective clinical studies are warranted.

  14. Partially Biodegradable Distraction Implant to Replace Conventional Implants in Alveolar Bone of Insufficient Height: A Preliminary Study in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Shao, Bo; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Chen; Cao, Qiang; Kong, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Dental implants have been widely used in the last few decades. However, patients with insufficient bone height need reconstructive surgeries before implant insertion. The distraction implant (DI) has been invented to simplify the treatment procedure, but the shortcomings of DIs have limited their clinical use. We incorporated biodegradable polyester into a novel DI called the partially biodegradable distraction implant (PBDI). The purpose of this study was to assess the radiological, histological, and biomechanical properties of the PBDI in animal models. PBDIs were manufactured and inserted into the atrophied mandibles of nine dogs. Box-shaped alveolar bones were segmented and distracted. The dogs were randomly divided into three groups that were sacrificed 1, 2, and 3 months after the implant insertion. Actual augmentation height (AAH) of the bone segments was measured to evaluate the effect of distraction. X-ray examination and micro-CT reconstruction and analysis were used to evaluate the regenerated bone in the distraction gap and bone around the functional element. Histological sections were used to evaluate the osseointegration and absorption of the PBDI. Fatigue tests were used to evaluate the biomechanical properties of the PBDI. Little change was found in AAH among the three groups. X-ray examination and micro-CT reconstruction showed good growth of regenerated bone in the distraction gap. Alveolar bone volume around the functional element increased steadily. No obvious bone absorption occurred in the alveolar crest around PBDI. Three months after distraction, the functional element achieved osseointegration, and the support element began to be absorbed. All PBDIs survived the fatigue test. The PBDI is a novel and reliable dental implant. It becomes a conventional implant after the absorption of the support element and the removal of the distraction screw. It is a promising replacement for conventional implants in patients with insufficient alveolar bone

  15. Height-obesity relationship in school children in Sub-Saharan Africa: results of a cross-sectional study in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navti, Lifoter K; Ferrari, Uta; Tange, Emmanuel; Parhofer, Klaus G; Pozza, Susanne Bechtold-Dalla

    2015-03-26

    In developed nations, taller children exhibit a greater propensity to overweight/obesity. This study investigates whether this height-adiposity relationship holds true for Cameroon children using two parameters of adiposity including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In 557 children (287 boys and 270 girls, mean age 9.0 ± 1.8 years) from the North West Region of Cameroon height, weight and WC were measured and BMI calculated. Variables were converted to standard deviation scores (SDS). Participants were divided into quartiles of height SDS, then mean of age and sex-standardized body fat parameters compared across quartiles. The frequency of excess adiposity was calculated within each quartile. Correlation and regression analysis were used to assess height-adiposity relationships. Multiple comparisons indicated a significant increase in mean BMI (-0.08 to 0.65) and WC (-0.11 to 0.87) SDSs with increasing quartiles of height SDS. Frequency of overweight/obesity and abdominal overweight/obesity was highest among children with highest height SDS (30.2 - 33.1%) and lowest in their shortest peers (0.7 - 5.0%). There was a linear relationship between height SDS and BMI SDS (R(2) = 0.087, p economies a higher height SDS is associated with a higher frequency of overweight/obesity. This is independent of the parameter used to evaluate overweight/obesity (BMI SDS or WC SDS).

  16. Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer : Results from Meta-analyses of Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khankari, Nikhil K.; Shu, Xiao Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Peters, Ulrike; Schildkraut, Joellen; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bofetta, Paolo; Risch, Angela; Bickeböller, Heike; Amos, Christopher I.; Easton, Douglas; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Zheng, Wei; Blalock, Kendra; Campbell, Peter T.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Figueiredo, Jane; James Gauderman, W.; Gong, Jian; Green, Roger C.; Harju, John F.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Manion, Frank J.; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Raskin, Leon; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Severi, Gianluca; Stenzel, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Ahsan, Habib; Whittemore, Alice; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Crisponi, Laura; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Easton, Douglas F.; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Eeles, Rosalind; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher; Schumacher, Fred; Travis, Ruth; Riboli, Elio; Hunter, David; Gapstur, Susan; Berndt, Sonja; Chanock, Stephen; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil; Teresa Landi, Maria; Heinrich, Joachim; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using

  17. A Case Study in Transnational Crime: Ukraine and Modern Slavery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholas, Matthew L

    2007-01-01

    ... about? The study involves an analysis of governance, social conditions, and economic conditions in the Ukraine, and an evaluation of why the Ukraine has been unable to manipulate political, legal, social...

  18. Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure; Teucher, Birgit; Steindorf, Karen; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra Hm; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2013-06-01

    Associations of breast cancer overall with indicators of exposures during puberty are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the associations of height, leg length, sitting height and menarcheal age with hormone receptor-defined malignancies. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of adult height, leg length and sitting height and age at menarche with risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-) (n = 990) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,524) breast tumors. Height as a single risk factor was compared to a model combining leg length and sitting height. The possible interactions of height, leg length and sitting height with menarche were also analyzed. Risk of both ER-PR- and ER+PR+ malignancies was positively associated with standing height, leg length and sitting height and inversely associated with increasing age at menarche. For ER+PR+ disease, sitting height (hazard ratios: 1.14[95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.20]) had a stronger risk association than leg length (1.05[1.00-1.11]). In comparison, for ER-PR- disease, no distinct differences were observed between leg length and sitting height. Women who were tall and had an early menarche (≤13 years) showed an almost twofold increase in risk of ER+PR+ tumors but no such increase in risk was observed for ER-PR- disease. Indicators of exposures during rapid growth periods were associated with risks of both HR-defined breast cancers. Exposures during childhood promoting faster development may establish risk associations for both HR-positive and -negative malignancies. The stronger associations of the components of height with ER+PR+ tumors among older women suggest possible hormonal links that could be specific for postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  20. A comparative study of modern and fossil cone scales and seeds of conifers: A geochemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Kruge, M.A.; Van Bergen, P. F.; Sadowska, A.

    1997-01-01

    Modern cone scales and seeds of Pinus strobus and Sequoia sempervirens, and their fossil (Upper Miocene, c. 6 Mar) counterparts Pinus leitzii and Sequoia langsdorfi have been studied using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), electron-microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic observations revealed only minor microbial activity and high-quality structural preservation of the fossil material. The pyrolysates of both modern genera showed the presence of ligno-cellulose characteristic of conifers. However, the abundance of (alkylated)phenols and 1,2-benzenediols in modern S. sempervirens suggests the presence of non-hydrolysable tannins or abundant polyphenolic moieties not previously reported in modern conifers. The marked differences between the pyrolysis products of both modern genera are suggested to be of chemosystematic significance. The fossil samples also contained ligno-cellulose which exhibited only partial degradation, primarily of the carbohydrate constituents. Comparison between the fossil cone scale and seed pyrolysates indicated that the ligno-cellulose complex present in the seeds is chemically more resistant than that in the cone scales. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the pyrolysis data allowed for the determination of the discriminant functions used to assess the extent of degradation and the chemosystematic differences between both genera and between cone scales and seeds. Elemental composition (C, O, S), obtained using electron-microprobe, corroborated the pyrolysis results. Overall, the combination of chemical, microscopic and statistical methods allowed for a detailed characterization and chemosystematic interpretations of modern and fossil conifer cone scales and seeds.

  1. Modern Middle Eastern Fiction: An Approach to Studying the Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    The annotated listing cites Middle Eastern fiction which has been translated into English and can be used in humanities or social studies classes at the secondary level. The eight works of fiction listed contain materials that can be used to investigate the following topics: 1) contrasts between urban and village styles of life in the Middle East;…

  2. Feasibility study for Tashkent Heat and Power Plant Modernizing Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was carried out of the project for energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction by introducing the newest and most powerful gas turbine cogeneration facilities to the Tashkent cogeneration plant in Uzbekistan. At the Tashkent cogeneration plant, each of the facilities is being superannuated, which leads to lowering of operational reliability and increase in cost of repairs. In the project, studied was the introduction of the newest and most powerful gas turbine cogeneration facilities with heat output of 100 Gcal/h equivalent to that of one can of the existing hot water boiler and with generated output of 80MW. As a result of the study, obtained were the energy conservation amount of 83.9 ktoe/y and the greenhouse effect gas reduction amount of 179.7 kt-CO2/y. The initial investment amount was 10.003 billion yen. Expenses vs. effects were 8.39 toe/y-million yen in energy conservation amount and 18.0 t-CO2/y-million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction amount. In the study of profitability, the internal earning rate was 9.24% after tax, the return yield of capital was 41.26%, and the period of ROI was 16.9 years. (NEDO)

  3. Anatomical explorations of mind: Studies with modern imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichle, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    From studies of patients with various lesions affecting areas of the brain thought to be important in language processing, two general theories have emerged; a serial model that posits information flow in an obligatory, stepwise fashion from perception to speech, and a parallel model that posits a flexible modular organization governed by specific information processing requirements that can vary under particular circumstances. The processing of single words has been studied in normal adult humans using positron emission tomography to determine whether either of these theories best explains the manner in which single words are processed by the human brain. Results indicate that the processing of single words is accomplished in a highly modular, parallel fashion that is flexibly determined by specific task requirements and the familiarity of the subject with the task

  4. John Archibald Wheeler: A study of mentoring in modern physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Terry M.

    This dissertation has two objectives. The first objective is to determine where best to situate the study of mentoring (i.e. the 'making of scientists') on the landscape of the history of science and science studies. This task is accomplished by establishing mentoring studies as a link between the robust body of literature dealing with Research Schools and the emerging scholarship surrounding the development, dispersion, and evolution of pedagogy in the training of twentieth century physicists. The second, and perhaps more significant and novel objective, is to develop a means to quantitatively assess the mentoring workmanship of scientific craftsmen who preside over the final stages of preparation when apprentices are transformed into professional scientists. The project builds upon a 2006 Master's Thesis that examined John Archibald Wheeler's work as a mentor of theoretical physicists at Princeton University in the years 1938--1976. It includes Wheeler's work as a mentor at the University of Texas and is qualitatively and quantitatively enhanced by virtue of the author having access to five separate collections with archival holdings of John Wheeler's papers and correspondence, as well as having access to thirty one tape recorded interviews that feature John Wheeler as either the interviewee or a prominent subject of discussion. The project also benefited from the opportunity to meet with and gather background information from a number of John Wheeler's former colleagues and students. Included in the dissertation is a content analysis of the acknowledgements in 949 Ph.D. dissertations, 122 Master's Theses, and 670 Senior Theses that were submitted during Wheeler's career as an active mentor. By establishing a census of the students of the most active mentors at Princeton and Texas, it is possible to tabulate the publication record of these apprentice groups and obtain objective measures of mentoring efficacy. The dissertation concludes by discussing the wider

  5. DOE ZERH Case Study: Dwell Development, Reclaimed Modern, Seattle, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 30 without PV, with 2x8 24” on center walls with blown fiberglass and 4” polysio rigid foam; basement with 2” XPS interior, 4” under slab, 4” exterior of foundation wall; vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater.

  6. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  7. Strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-05-31

    Safety measures should be applied to reduce work-related fatal and non-fatal fall injuries. However, according to the labor inspectorate, more than 80% of Dutch construction sites violate safety regulations for working from heights. To increase compliance with safety regulations, employers and workers have to select, implement and monitor safety measures. To facilitate this behavioral change, stimulating knowledge awareness and personalized feedback are frequently advocated behavior change techniques. For this study, two behavior change strategies have been developed in addition to the announcement of safety inspections by the labor inspectorate. These strategies consist of 1) face-to-face contacts with safety consultants and 2) direct mail with access to internet facilities. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these two strategies on the safety violations for working from heights, the process and the cost measures. This study is a block randomized intervention trial in 27 cities to establish the effects of the face-to-face guidance strategy (N = 9), a direct mailing strategy (N = 9) and a control condition of no guidance (N = 9) on safety violations to record by labor inspectors after three months. A process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine program implementation (reach, dose delivered and dose received), satisfaction, knowledge and perceived safety behavior. A cost analysis will be performed to establish the financial costs for both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. This study increases insight into performing practice-based randomized controlled trials. The outcome will help to evaluate the effect of two guidance strategies on safety violations. If these strategies are effective, implementation of these strategies through the national institute of safety and health or labor inspectorate can take place to guide construction companies in complying with

  8. A modern study of HD 166734: a massive supergiant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, L.; Damerdji, Y.; Gosset, E.; Nitschelm, C.; Eenens, P.; Sana, H.; Klotz, A.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: HD 166734 is an eccentric eclipsing binary system composed of two supergiant O-type stars, orbiting with a 34.5-day period. In this rare configuration for such stars, the two objects mainly evolve independently, following single-star evolution so far. This system provides a chance to study the individual parameters of two supergiant massive stars and to derive their real masses. Methods: An intensive monitoring was dedicated to HD 166734. We analyzed mid- and high-resolution optical spectra to constrain the orbital parameters of this system. We also studied its light curve for the first time, obtained in the VRI filters. Finally, we disentangled the spectra of the two stars and modeled them with the CMFGEN atmosphere code in order to determine the individual physical parameters. Results: HD 166734 is a O7.5If+O9I(f) binary. We confirm its orbital period but we revise the other orbital parameters. In comparison to what we found in the literature, the system is more eccentric and, now, the hottest and the most luminous component is also the most massive one. The light curve exhibits only one eclipse and its analysis indicates an inclination of 63.0° ± 2.7°. The photometric analysis provides us with a good estimation of the luminosities of the stars, and therefore their exact positions in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The evolutionary and the spectroscopic masses show good agreement with the dynamical masses of 39.5 M⊙ for the primary and 33.5 M⊙ for the secondary, within the uncertainties. The two components are both enriched in helium and in nitrogen and depleted in carbon. In addition, the primary also shows a depletion in oxygen. Their surface abundances are however not different from those derived from single supergiant stars, yielding, for both components, an evolution similar to that of single stars. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) with FEROS and TAROT and on data collected at the San Pedro

  9. Computational study on effects of rib height and thickness on heat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A computational study was carried out for the heat transfer augmentation in a three-dimensional square channel fitted with different types of ribs. The standard k–e model and its two variants (RNG and realizable) were used for turbulence modeling. The predictions were compared with available experimental ...

  10. Feasibility study on modernization of North Bangkok Thermal Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to save energies and reduce global warming gas emission, a feasibility study was performed on the oil burning thermal power plant in the city of North Bangkok in Thailand to reconstruct the plant into a natural gas burning combined cycle power plant. In the project, the old facilities with an output of 237.8 MW using three steam turbines in total will be reconstructed into a plant comprising of two steam turbines for 256,2 MW and two gas turbines for 460.4 MW, or a facility of 716.6 MW in total. The plant construction will have the gas turbines, steam turbines, generators, and a waste heat recovered steam generator fixed on one axis, two of which will be installed. The gas turbines will use natural gas as fuel, and the steam turbines will be operated by steam from the waste heat recovered steam generator. As a result of the discussions, the reduction of the energy consumption for a period of 40 years will correspond to crude oil of 20,560 kt, while the reduction of the global warming gas emission will be 107,200 t-CO2. In addition, the energy saving cost will be 9-ton crude oil equivalent/one million yen, and the cost for reduction of the global warming gas emission will be 47 t-CO2/one million yen. (NEDO)

  11. Chromosome X-wide association study identifies Loci for fasting insulin and height and evidence for incomplete dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukiainen, Taru; Pirinen, Matti; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Ladenvall, Claes; Kettunen, Johannes; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Perola, Markus; Sinisalo, Juha; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Eriksson, Johan G; Groop, Leif; Jula, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Raitakari, Olli T; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli

    2014-02-01

    The X chromosome (chrX) represents one potential source for the "missing heritability" for complex phenotypes, which thus far has remained underanalyzed in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we demonstrate the benefits of including chrX in GWAS by assessing the contribution of 404,862 chrX SNPs to levels of twelve commonly studied cardiometabolic and anthropometric traits in 19,697 Finnish and Swedish individuals with replication data on 5,032 additional Finns. By using a linear mixed model, we estimate that on average 2.6% of the additive genetic variance in these twelve traits is attributable to chrX, this being in proportion to the number of SNPs in the chromosome. In a chrX-wide association analysis, we identify three novel loci: two for height (rs182838724 near FGF16/ATRX/MAGT1, joint P-value = 2.71×10(-9), and rs1751138 near ITM2A, P-value = 3.03×10(-10)) and one for fasting insulin (rs139163435 in Xq23, P-value = 5.18×10(-9)). Further, we find that effect sizes for variants near ITM2A, a gene implicated in cartilage development, show evidence for a lack of dosage compensation. This observation is further supported by a sex-difference in ITM2A expression in whole blood (P-value = 0.00251), and is also in agreement with a previous report showing ITM2A escapes from X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in the majority of women. Hence, our results show one of the first links between phenotypic variation in a population sample and an XCI-escaping locus and pinpoint ITM2A as a potential contributor to the sexual dimorphism in height. In conclusion, our study provides a clear motivation for including chrX in large-scale genetic studies of complex diseases and traits.

  12. Weight, height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdaninia Mariam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index.

  13. Modern standardization case studies at the crossroads of technology, economics, and politics

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiderman, R

    2015-01-01

    Modern Standardization -- Case Studies at the Crossroads of Technology, Economics, and Politics covers the development of new technical standards, how these standards are typically triggered, and how they are submitted to standards development organizations (SDOs) for review and evaluation. It fills the gap in the shortage of reference material in the development of real-world standards. The increasing pace of innovation in technology has accelerated the competitive nature of standardization, particularly in emerging markets. Modern Standardization addresses these and other issues through a series of case studies in a format designed for academics and their engineering, business, and law school students.

  14. Environmental Approach to the Study of the Modern Stage of Information Society Development: Research Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, Vitali Yu.; Barkova, Eleonora V.; Ivleva, Marina I.; Buzskaya, Olga M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyses modern information society in terms of an information ecology approach. Its aim is to determine the place of the human being in the human-society-ecosystem relations system and to study the prospects of a humanistic approach to the understanding of the essence of subject-object relationships in the communication space of…

  15. STUDY TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROGRAM FOR THE DESIGN DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN COLLEGE LIBRARIES. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historical Evaluation and Research Organization, McLean, VA.

    THIS STUDY FORMULATES A RESEARCH PROGRAM TO FACILITATE THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LIBRARIES FOR SMALL LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGES USING MODERN LIBRARY METHODS AND TECHNOLOGY AND NEW TECHNIQUES OF INFORMATION STORAGE, RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER. AS A RESULT OF INTERVIEWS WITH LIBRARIANS AND OTHERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE AND FROM A REVIEW OF CURRENT…

  16. Depressed height gain of children associated with intrauterine exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals: the cohort prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wiesław A; Perera, Frederica P; Majewska, Renata; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Mroz, Elżbieta; Roen, Emily L; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Fetal exposure to environmental toxicants may program the development of children and have long-lasting health impacts. The study tested the hypothesis that depressed height gain in childhood is associated with prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals (lead and mercury). The study sample comprised 379 children born to non-smoking mothers among whom a total of 2011 height measurements were carried out over the 9-year follow-up period. Prenatal airborne PAH exposure was assessed by personal air monitoring of the mother in the second trimester of pregnancy and heavy metals were measured in cord blood. At the age of 3 residential air monitoring was done to evaluate the level of airborne PAH, and at the age 5 the levels of heavy metals were measured in capillary blood. The effect estimates of prenatal PAH exposure on height growth over the follow-up were adjusted in the General Estimated Equation (GEE) models for a wide set of relevant covariates. Prenatal exposure to airborne PAH showed a significant negative association with height growth, which was significantly decreased by 1.1cm at PAH level above 34.7 ng/m(3) (coeff.=-1.07, p=0.040). While prenatal lead exposure was not significantly associated with height restriction, the effect of mercury was inversely related to cord blood mercury concentration above 1.2 μg/L (coeff.=-1.21, p=0.020), The observed negative impact of prenatal PAH exposure on height gain in childhood was mainly mediated by shorter birth length related to maternal PAH exposure during pregnancy. The height gain deficit associated with prenatal mercury exposure was not seen at birth, but the height growth was significantly slower at later age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chromosome X-wide association study identifies Loci for fasting insulin and height and evidence for incomplete dosage compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Tukiainen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The X chromosome (chrX represents one potential source for the "missing heritability" for complex phenotypes, which thus far has remained underanalyzed in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Here we demonstrate the benefits of including chrX in GWAS by assessing the contribution of 404,862 chrX SNPs to levels of twelve commonly studied cardiometabolic and anthropometric traits in 19,697 Finnish and Swedish individuals with replication data on 5,032 additional Finns. By using a linear mixed model, we estimate that on average 2.6% of the additive genetic variance in these twelve traits is attributable to chrX, this being in proportion to the number of SNPs in the chromosome. In a chrX-wide association analysis, we identify three novel loci: two for height (rs182838724 near FGF16/ATRX/MAGT1, joint P-value = 2.71×10(-9, and rs1751138 near ITM2A, P-value = 3.03×10(-10 and one for fasting insulin (rs139163435 in Xq23, P-value = 5.18×10(-9. Further, we find that effect sizes for variants near ITM2A, a gene implicated in cartilage development, show evidence for a lack of dosage compensation. This observation is further supported by a sex-difference in ITM2A expression in whole blood (P-value = 0.00251, and is also in agreement with a previous report showing ITM2A escapes from X chromosome inactivation (XCI in the majority of women. Hence, our results show one of the first links between phenotypic variation in a population sample and an XCI-escaping locus and pinpoint ITM2A as a potential contributor to the sexual dimorphism in height. In conclusion, our study provides a clear motivation for including chrX in large-scale genetic studies of complex diseases and traits.

  18. Validity of parent-reported weight and height of preschool children measured at home or estimated without home measurement: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Bianca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental reports are often used in large-scale surveys to assess children's body mass index (BMI. Therefore, it is important to know to what extent these parental reports are valid and whether it makes a difference if the parents measured their children's weight and height at home or whether they simply estimated these values. The aim of this study is to compare the validity of parent-reported height, weight and BMI values of preschool children (3-7 y-old, when measured at home or estimated by parents without actual measurement. Methods The subjects were 297 Belgian preschool children (52.9% male. Participation rate was 73%. A questionnaire including questions about height and weight of the children was completed by the parents. Nurses measured height and weight following standardised procedures. International age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off values were employed to determine categories of weight status and obesity. Results On the group level, no important differences in accuracy of reported height, weight and BMI were identified between parent-measured or estimated values. However, for all 3 parameters, the correlations between parental reports and nurse measurements were higher in the group of children whose body dimensions were measured by the parents. Sensitivity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 73% and 47% when parents measured their child's height and weight, and 55% and 47% when parents estimated values without measurement. Specificity for underweight and overweight/obesity were respectively 82% and 97% when parents measured the children, and 75% and 93% with parent estimations. Conclusions Diagnostic measures were more accurate when parents measured their child's weight and height at home than when those dimensions were based on parental judgements. When parent-reported data on an individual level is used, the accuracy could be improved by encouraging the parents to measure weight and height

  19. Study of weight, height, body mass index, energy and nutrients intake of 11-14 years old girls, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeqipoor H

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive, analytical cross-sectional syudy was conducted in 1996 on 350 female students 11-14 years old in the center of Tehran, Iran. The general objective was determining energy and nutrient intakes and weight, height and BMI (Body Mass Index of the girls, using anthropometric measurements, interviews (24-hour dietary recall and food consumption frequency, and the NCHS standards. The results were as follows: 1 Based on weight for age and the Z-score, 20% of the girls suffered from mild past and present malnutrition. 2 Based on height for age and BMI, 16.6%, 12.5%, and 1.3% suffered from mild past malnutrition, severe present malnutrition and overweight, respectively. 3 The height curves were normal, as compared to the respective standards. 4 The BMI curves were quite different from the respective standards. 5 On the whole, 53.7%, 49.7%, 86.0%, 59.0%, 67.7%, 76.5% and 88.0% of the girls had low intakes of energy, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folic acid, calcium, and iron, respectively. 6 A positive linear correlation was observed between energy intake and height, vitamin A intake and weight, zinc intake and height, and carbohydrate intake and height.

  20. Modernism and Postmodernism: A Study of the Islamic Teachings with Special Reference to the Related Issues of Pakistani Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdul Muhaimin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study elaborates the difference and connection between modernism and postmodernism eras while highlighting their backgrounds. The research highlights the teachings of Islam in terms of modernism and postmodernism. The research brings to light the influence of modernism and postmodernism on Muslim societies. What are the far reaching impacts of the modernism and postmodernism eras of Muslim societies and how well a common Muslim is equipped to address the issues related to postmodernism. The study primarily focuses on the related issues in Pakistani society and explains the role and the influence of religious scholars of their understanding of the terms modernism and postmodernism. The study focuses on the awareness of the ’Ulamā in addressing these global challenges and subsequently the future of Pakistani society. The study has an element of quantitative research and it indicates towards the on ground realities on the issue with the help of a latest survey on modernism and postmodernism.

  1. Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer: Results from Meta-analyses of Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankari, Nikhil K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Peters, Ulrike; Schildkraut, Joellen; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bofetta, Paolo; Risch, Angela; Bickeböller, Heike; Amos, Christopher I.; Easton, Douglas; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using height-associated genetic variants identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS), to evaluate the association of adult height with these cancers. Methods and Findings A systematic review of prospective studies was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Using meta-analyses, results obtained from 62 studies were summarized for the association of a 10-cm increase in height with cancer risk. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted using summary statistics obtained for 423 genetic variants identified from a recent GWAS of adult height and from a cancer genetics consortium study of multiple cancers that included 47,800 cases and 81,353 controls. For a 10-cm increase in height, the summary relative risks derived from the meta-analyses of prospective studies were 1.12 (95% CI 1.10, 1.15), 1.07 (95% CI 1.05, 1.10), and 1.06 (95% CI 1.02, 1.11) for colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers, respectively. Mendelian randomization analyses showed increased risks of colorectal (odds ratio [OR] = 1.58, 95% CI 1.14, 2.18) and lung cancer (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.22) associated with each 10-cm increase in genetically predicted height. No association was observed for prostate cancer (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92, 1.15). Our meta-analysis was limited to published studies. The sample size for the Mendelian randomization analysis of colorectal cancer was relatively small, thus affecting the precision of the point estimate. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for a potential causal association of adult height with the risk of colorectal and lung cancers and suggests that certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height may also affect the

  2. Fall from heights: does height really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizo, G; Sciarretta, J D; Gibson, S; Muertos, K; Romano, A; Davis, J; Pepe, A

    2018-06-01

    Fall from heights is high energy injuries and constitutes a fraction of all fall-related trauma evaluations while bearing an increase in morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that despite advancements in trauma care, the overall survivability has not improved in this subset of trauma patients. All adult trauma patients treated after sustaining a fall from heights during a 40-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Admission demographics, clinical data, fall height (ft), injury patterns, ISS, GCS, length of stay, and mortality were reviewed. 116 patients sustained a fall from heights, 90.4% accidental. A mean age of 37± 14.7 years, 86% male, and a fall height of 19 ± 10 ft were encountered. Admission GCS was 13 ± 2 with ISS 10 ± 11. Overall LOS was 6.6 ± 14.9 days and an ICU LOS of 2.8 ± 8.9 days. Falls ≥ 25 ft.(16%) had lower GCS 10.4 ± 5.8, increased ISS 22.6 ± 13.8, a fall height 37.9 ± 13.1 ft and associated increased mortality (p < 0.001). Mortality was 5.2%, a mean distance fallen of 39 ± 22 ft. and an ISS of 31.5 ±16.5. Brain injury was the leading cause of death, 50% with open skull fractures. Level of height fallen is a good predictor of overall outcome and survival. Despite advances in trauma care, death rates remain unchanged. Safety awareness and injury prevention programs are needed to reduce the risk of high-level falls.

  3. Synthesizing genome-wide association studies and expression microarray reveals novel genes that act in the human growth plate to modulate height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Julian C; Nilsson, Ola; Chan, Yingleong; Palmer, Cameron D; Andrade, Anenisia C; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Baron, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Previous meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies has identified 180 loci that influence adult height. However, each GWA locus typically comprises a set of contiguous genes, only one of which presumably modulates height. We reasoned that many of the causative genes within these loci influence height because they are expressed in and function in the growth plate, a cartilaginous structure that causes bone elongation and thus determines stature. Therefore, we used expression microarray studies of mouse and rat growth plate, human disease databases and a mouse knockout phenotype database to identify genes within the GWAS loci that are likely required for normal growth plate function. Each of these approaches identified significantly more genes within the GWA height loci than at random genomic locations (P analysis strongly implicates 78 genes in growth plate function, including multiple genes that participate in PTHrP-IHH, BMP and CNP signaling, and many genes that have not previously been implicated in the growth plate. Thus, this analysis reveals a large number of novel genes that regulate human growth plate chondrogenesis and thereby contribute to the normal variations in human adult height. The analytic approach developed for this study may be applied to GWA studies for other common polygenic traits and diseases, thus providing a new general strategy to identify causative genes within GWA loci and to translate genetic associations into mechanistic biological insights.

  4. Montreal Modern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    , and the space age modernism of the 1960s following the Expo 67 and Quebec’s Quiet Revolution. This is reflected in the city’s thriving retro culture through the study of two groups of retro shops. In circulating specific memories and objects in a specific context, retro is an important negotiation of the past...

  5. A comparative study of the ocular skeleton of fossil and modern chondrichthyans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Brettney L; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A

    2009-01-01

    Many vertebrates have an ocular skeleton composed of cartilage and/or bone situated within the sclera of the eye. In this study we investigated whether modern and fossil sharks have an ocular skeleton, and whether it is conserved in morphology. We describe the scleral skeletal elements of three species of modern sharks and compare them to those found in fossil sharks from the Cleveland Shale (360 Mya). We also compare the elements to contemporaneous arthrodires from the same deposit. Surprisingly, the morphology of the skeletal support of the eye was found to differ significantly between modern and fossil sharks. All three modern shark species examined (spiny dogfish shark Squalus acanthias, porbeagle shark Lamna nasus and blue shark Prionace glauca) have a continuous skeletal element that encapsulates much of the eyeball; however, the tissue composition is different in each species. Histological and morphological examination revealed scleral cartilage with distinct tesserae in parts of the sclera of the porbeagle and blue shark, and more diffuse calcification in the dogfish. Strengthening of the scleral cartilage by means of tesserae has not been reported previously in the shark eye. In striking contrast, the ocular skeleton of fossil sharks comprises a series of individual elements that are arranged in a ring, similar to the arrangement in modern and fossil reptiles. Fossil arthrodires also have a multi-unit sclerotic ring but these are composed of fewer elements than in fossil sharks. The morphology of these elements has implications for the behaviour and visual capabilities of sharks that lived during the Devonian Period. This is the first time that such a dramatic variation in the morphology of scleral skeletal elements has been observed in a single lineage (Chondrichthyes), making this lineage important for broadening our understanding of the evolution of these elements within jawed vertebrates. PMID:19538630

  6. The reliability of in-home measures of height and weight in large cohort studies: Evidence from Add Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hussey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the emergence of obesity as a global health issue, an increasing number of major demographic surveys are collecting measured anthropometric data. Yet little is known about the characteristics and reliability of these data. Objective: We evaluate the accuracy and reliability of anthropometric data collected in the home during Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health, compare our estimates to national standard, clinic-based estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES and, using both sources, provide a detailed anthropometric description of young adults in the United States. Methods: The reliability of Add Health in-home anthropometric measures was estimated from repeat examinations of a random subsample of study participants. A digit preference analysis evaluated the quality of anthropometric data recorded by field interviewers. The adjusted odds of obesity and central obesity in Add Health vs. NHANES were estimated with logistic regression. Results: Short-term reliabilities of in-home measures of height, weight, waist and arm circumference - as well as derived body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 - were excellent. Prevalence of obesity (37Š vs. 29Š and central obesity (47Š vs. 38Š was higher in Add Health than in NHANES, while socio-demographic patterns of obesity and central obesity were comparable in the two studies. Conclusions: Properly trained non-medical field interviewers can collect reliable anthropometric data in a nationwide, home visit study. This national cohort of young adults in the United States faces a high risk of early-onset chronic disease and premature mortality.

  7. Weight and height z-scores improve after initiating ART among HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinywimaanzi Pamela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in growth observed in HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings can be reversed with antiretroviral treatment (ART. However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pediatric populations. This study was undertaken to evaluate growth patterns after ART initiation in a young pediatric population in rural Zambia with a high prevalence of undernutrition. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, 193 HIV-infected children were enrolled in a cohort study in Macha, Zambia. Children were evaluated every 3 months, at which time a questionnaire was administered, height and weight were measured, and blood specimens were collected. Weight- and height-for-age z-scores were constructed from WHO growth standards. All children receiving ART at enrollment or initiating ART during the study were included in this analysis. Linear mixed effects models were used to model trajectories of weight and height-for-age z-scores. Results A high proportion of study children were underweight (59% and stunted (72% at treatment initiation. Improvements in both weight- and height-for-age z-scores were observed, with weight-for-age z-scores increasing during the first 6 months of treatment and then stabilizing, and height-for-age z-scores increasing consistently over time. Trajectories of weight-for-age z-scores differed by underweight status at treatment initiation, with children who were underweight experiencing greater increases in z-scores in the first 6 months of treatment. Trajectories of height-for-age z-scores differed by age, with children older than 5 years of age experiencing smaller increases over time. Conclusions Some of the effects of HIV on growth were reversed with ART initiation, although a high proportion of children remained underweight and stunted after two years of treatment. Partnerships between treatment and nutrition programs should be explored so that HIV-infected children can receive optimal nutritional

  8. Study of microbial contamination of broilers in modern abattoirs in Khartoum state

    OpenAIRE

    S.E. Mohamed-Noor; Y.A. Shuaib; S.E. Suliman; M.A. Abdalla

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the contaminating microorganisms that can be found on the breast, legs and backs of broilers during processing. A total of 81 swab samples from 27 carcasses were collected randomly from chicken carcasses slaughtered at modern poultry abattoir in Khartoum State, the Sudan. The samples were taken from 9 Critical Control Points (CCPs), namely; after bleeding with feathers, after scalding, after defeathering, after evisceration, after spray wash, after ch...

  9. The perturbed angular correlation method - a modern technique in studying solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterricker, S.; Hunger, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Starting from theoretical fundamentals the differential perturbed angular correlation method has been explained. By using the probe nucleus 111 Cd the magnetic dipole interaction in Fesub(x)Alsub(1-x) alloys and the electric quadrupole interaction in Cd have been measured. The perturbed angular correlation method is a modern nuclear measuring method and can be applied in studying ordering processes, phase transformations and radiation damages in metals, semiconductors and insulators

  10. Grip strength is strongly associated with height, weight and gender in childhood : a cross sectional study of 2241 children and adolescents providing reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegmakers, Joris J. W.; Hepping, Ann M.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Question: What are reference values for grip strength in children and adolescents based on a large and heterogeneous study population? What is the association of grip strength with age, gender, weight, and height in this population? Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: Participants were

  11. Study of molecular-beam epitaxy growth on patterned GaAs (311)A substrates with different mesa height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Q.; Nötzel, R.; Schönherr, H.-P.; Ploog, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the evolution of the growth front during molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs (3 1 1)A substrates stripe patterned along the [ ] direction as a function of the mesa height. During growth (1 0 0) and (2 1 1)A facets are formed and expand at the corners near the two opposite lying ( )A and (1 1

  12. Body mass index, height and risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, A.H.H.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the last decades, the incidence of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has increased rapidly in the Western world. We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI), height and risk of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort

  13. Strategies to reduce safety violations for working from heights in construction companies: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Henk F.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Safety measures should be applied to reduce work-related fatal and non-fatal fall injuries. However, according to the labor inspectorate, more than 80% of Dutch construction sites violate safety regulations for working from heights. To increase compliance with safety regulations, employers and

  14. Socio-cultural inhibitors to use of modern contraceptive techniques in rural Uganda: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Reid, Alice; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Family planning is one of the cost-effective strategies in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Yet in Uganda, the contraceptive prevalence rate is only 30% among married women in conjunction with a persistently high fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman. These demographic indicators have contributed to a high population growth rate of over 3.2% annually. This study examines the role of socio-cultural inhibitions in the use of modern contraceptives in rural Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative study conducted in 2012 among men aged 15-64 and women aged 15-49 in the districts of Mpigi and Bugiri in rural Uganda. Eighteen selected focus group discussions (FGDs), each internally homogeneous, and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among men and women. Data were collected on sociocultural beliefs and practices, barriers to modern contraceptive use and perceptions of and attitudes to contraceptive use. All interviews were tape recoded, translated and transcribed verbatim. All the transcripts were coded, prearranged into categories and later analyzed using a latent content analysis approach, with support of ATLAS.ti qualitative software. Suitable quotations were used to provide in-depth explanations of the findings. Results Three themes central in hindering the uptake of modern contraceptives emerged: (i) persistence of socio-cultural beliefs and practices promoting births (such as polygamy, extending family lineage, replacement of the dead, gender-based violence, power relations and twin myths). (ii) Continued reliance on traditional family planning practices and (iii) misconceptions and fears about modern contraception. Conclusion Sociocultural expectations and values attached to marriage, women and child bearing remain an impediment to using family planning methods. The study suggests a need to eradicate the cultural beliefs and practices that hinder people from using contraceptives, as well as a need to scale

  15. Socio-cultural inhibitors to use of modern contraceptive techniques in rural Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagenyi, Allen; Reid, Alice; Ntozi, James; Atuyambe, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Family planning is one of the cost-effective strategies in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality rates. Yet in Uganda, the contraceptive prevalence rate is only 30% among married women in conjunction with a persistently high fertility rate of 6.2 children per woman. These demographic indicators have contributed to a high population growth rate of over 3.2% annually. This study examines the role of socio-cultural inhibitions in the use of modern contraceptives in rural Uganda. This was a qualitative study conducted in 2012 among men aged 15-64 and women aged 15-49 in the districts of Mpigi and Bugiri in rural Uganda. Eighteen selected focus group discussions (FGDs), each internally homogeneous, and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted among men and women. Data were collected on sociocultural beliefs and practices, barriers to modern contraceptive use and perceptions of and attitudes to contraceptive use. All interviews were tape recoded, translated and transcribed verbatim. All the transcripts were coded, prearranged into categories and later analyzed using a latent content analysis approach, with support of ATLAS.ti qualitative software. Suitable quotations were used to provide in-depth explanations of the findings. Three themes central in hindering the uptake of modern contraceptives emerged: (i) persistence of socio-cultural beliefs and practices promoting births (such as polygamy, extending family lineage, replacement of the dead, gender-based violence, power relations and twin myths). (ii) Continued reliance on traditional family planning practices and (iii) misconceptions and fears about modern contraception. Sociocultural expectations and values attached to marriage, women and child bearing remain an impediment to using family planning methods. The study suggests a need to eradicate the cultural beliefs and practices that hinder people from using contraceptives, as well as a need to scale-up family planning services and sensitization

  16. Study of the distribution of radon in the atmosphere to a height of 457 meters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, C.E.; Rubin, R.M.; Wells, M.B.

    1981-05-01

    An experimental program has been conducted to provide a measurement of the distribution of radon in the atmosphere from ground level to a height of 457 meters above the ground. An extensive set of measurements were obtained using alpha-particle detectors of the Track Etch/sup TM/ type supplied by the Terradex Corporation. These detectors were exposed for periods of approximately three months on four television towers and were read by Terradex. Radon measurements were also made as a function of ground depth. A statistical F-test analysis of the readings from the exposed Track Etch/sup TM/ detectors on the towers leads to the conclusion that the radon concentration in air at each of the tower sites does not vary with height above ground for heights to 457 meters. In order to obtain additional measured data on the altitude variation of the radon concentration in the air, five NaI detectors were incrementally placed in positions ranging from ground level to 457-meters altitude on the Oklahoma City tower. The NaI measurements were evaluated through comparison with calculated predictions of the expected count rate as a function of altitude using ANISN, a discrete-ordinates-transport code. The source distributions in the air and ground and the NaI counter efficiency versus energy were determined analytically. Considering the large uncertainties in the Track Etch/sup TM/ detector data from the 4 television towers and the results of the analysis of the NaI detector measurements on the Oklahoma City tower, it is concluded that the radon concentration in air does not vary significantly with height above ground for heights up to 457 m

  17. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:\\ud To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood.\\ud \\ud STUDY DESIGN:\\ud Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estim...

  18. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the

  19. Enacting resilience for adaptive water governance: a case study of irrigation modernization in an Australian catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L. Ayre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance relies on the collaboration of a diverse set of stakeholders in multiple institutions and organizations at different times and places. In the context of unprecedented water policy and management reform in Australia over the past decade, we add to insights from resilience scholarship, which identifies adaptive governance as critical to improving complex social-ecological systems, such as water management. We present empirical research with agricultural industry stakeholders who are responding to a major change initiative to renew or modernize the largest irrigation system in Australia's Murray Darling Basin and who ask: "What can a resilience assessment intervention contribute to adaptive water governance in this context?" Using resilience approaches and connecting these with insights from science and technology studies (STS, we found that a particular resilience assessment intervention supported dairy industry stakeholders to manage the complexity, uncertainty, and diversity of an irrigation modernization governance challenge. It did so by explicitly accounting for, representing, and aligning different water governing practices through the use of resilience concepts, a particular resilience assessment tool, and a participatory process for engaging social actors. Possibilities for adaptive governance emerged from the intervention in the form of new joint strategic actions and new understandings, alliances, and roles between people and institutions for addressing irrigation modernization.

  20. Science for Survival: The Modern Synthesis of Evolution and The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lisa Anne

    In this historical dissertation, I examined the process of curriculum development in the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the United States during the period 1959-1963. The presentation of evolution in the high school texts was based on a more robust form of Darwinian evolution which developed during the 1930s and 1940s called "the modern synthesis of evolution." Building primarily on the work of historians Vassiliki Smocovitis and John L. Rudolph, I used the archival papers and published writings of the four architects of the modern synthesis and the four most influential leaders of the BSCS in regards to evolution to investigate how the modern synthetic theory of evolution shaped the BSCS curriculum. The central question was "Why was evolution so important to the BSCS to make it the central theme of the texts?" Important answers to this question had already been offered in the historiography, but it was still not clear why every citizen in the world needed to understand evolution. I found that the emphasis on natural selection in the modern synthesis shifted the focus away from humans as passive participants to the recognition that humans are active agents in their own cultural and biological evolution. This required re-education of the world citizenry, which was accomplished in part by the BSCS textbooks. I also found that BSCS leaders Grobman, Glass, and Muller had serious concerns regarding the effects of nuclear radiation on the human gene pool, and were actively involved in informing th public. Lastly, I found that concerns of 1950s reform eugenicists were addressed in the BSCS textbooks, without mentioning eugenics by name. I suggest that the leaders of the BSCS, especially Bentley Glass and Hermann J. Muller, thought that students needed to understand genetics and evolution to be able to make some of the tough choices they might be called on to make as the dominant species on earth and the next reproductive generation in the nuclear age. This

  1. A student's guide to the study, practice, and tools of modern mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bindner, Donald

    2010-01-01

    A Student's Guide to the Study, Practice, and Tools of Modern Mathematics provides an accessible introduction to the world of mathematics. It offers tips on how to study and write mathematics as well as how to use various mathematical tools, from LaTeX and Beamer to Mathematica® and Maple™ to MATLAB® and R. Along with a color insert, the text includes exercises and challenges to stimulate creativity and improve problem solving abilities.The first section of the book covers issues pertaining to studying mathematics. The authors explain how to write mathematical proofs and papers, how to perform

  2. Trends of wave height and period in the Central Arabian Sea from 1996 to 2012: A study based on satellite altimeter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hithin, N.K.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.

    The variability of annual maximum and annual mean significant wave height (SWH) and wave period in the Central Arabian Sea is studied using satellite altimeter data from 1996 to 2012 at a deep water (water depth~3500 m) buoy location (15.5°N, 69...

  3. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  4. Increases of Chamber Height and Base Diameter Have Contrasting Effects on Grazing Rate of Two Cladoceran Species: Implications for Microcosm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Zhang, Yunshu; Peng, Yan; Zhao, Qinghua; Sun, Shucun

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic microcosm studies often increase either chamber height or base diameter (to increase water volume) to test spatial ecology theories such as “scale” effects on ecological processes, but it is unclear whether the increase of chamber height or base diameter have the same effect on the processes, i.e., whether the effect of the shape of three-dimensional spaces is significant. We orthogonally manipulated chamber height and base diameter and determined swimming activity, average swimming velocity and grazing rates of the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Moina micrura (on two algae Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella vulgaris; leading to four aquatic algae-cladoceran systems in total) under different microcosm conditions. Across all the four aquatic systems, increasing chamber height at a given base diameter significantly decreased the duration and velocity of horizontal swimming, and it tended to increase the duration but decrease the velocity of vertical swimming. These collectively led to decreases in both average swimming velocity and grazing rate of the cladocerans in the tall chambers (at a given base diameter), in accordance with the positive relationship between average swimming velocity and grazing rate. In contrast, an increase of base diameter at a given chamber height showed contrasting effects on the above parameters. Consistently, at a given chamber volume increasing ratio of chamber height to base diameter decreased the average swimming velocity and grazing rate across all the aquatic systems. In general, increasing chamber depth and base diameter may exert contrasting effects on zooplankton behavior and thus phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions. We suggest that spatial shape plays an important role in determining ecological process and thus should be considered in a theoretical framework of spatial ecology and also the physical setting of aquatic microcosm experiments. PMID:26273836

  5. Modern teaching for modern education

    OpenAIRE

    Mirascieva, Snezana

    2016-01-01

    Carrying the epithet of being contemporary education today means modern teaching. If modern education is a state in the field of education of all its elements, then teaching will also be a state with its own special features defining it as modern. The main issues of concern in this paper relate to what constitutes modern teaching, which features determine it as being modern, and how much is teaching today following the trend of modernization.

  6. Validation Study for an Atmospheric Dispersion Model, Using Effective Source Heights Determined from Wind Tunnel Experiments in Nuclear Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Oura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than fifty years, atmospheric dispersion predictions based on the joint use of a Gaussian plume model and wind tunnel experiments have been applied in both Japan and the U.K. for the evaluation of public radiation exposure in nuclear safety analysis. The effective source height used in the Gaussian model is determined from ground-level concentration data obtained by a wind tunnel experiment using a scaled terrain and site model. In the present paper, the concentrations calculated by this method are compared with data observed over complex terrain in the field, under a number of meteorological conditions. Good agreement was confirmed in near-neutral and unstable stabilities. However, it was found to be necessary to reduce the effective source height by 50% in order to achieve a conservative estimation of the field observations in a stable atmosphere.

  7. Trends in Genetic and Environmental Parameters for Height, Diameter, and Volume in a Multilocation Clonal Study with Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Paul; G. Sam Foster; T. Caldwell; J. McRae

    1997-01-01

    Seedlings from 30 full-sib families (contained in 2,4 x 4 factorials) of loblollynine(Pinus taeda L.) were cloned and planted in three test sites in Georgia. Analyses were conducted on total height at ages 1 to 5 yr in the field, dbh at age 5, and individual tree volume at age 5. Four sources of genetic control were tested: male parent, female parent, male x female...

  8. The height of the pituitary in preterm infants during the first 2 years of life: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiortsis, D.; Xydis, V.; Argyropoulou, P.I.; Efremidis, S.C.; Argyropoulou, M.I.; Drougia, A.G.; Andronikou, S.

    2004-01-01

    Pituitary secretory activity is different in premature and full-term infants. The height of the pituitary is a marker of its secretory activity. Our purpose was to use MRI to measure height of the pituitary of premature infants and to compare it with full-term controls. The height was measured on a midline sagittal T1-weighted image in 86 premature infants (gestational age 26-36.9 weeks, mean 32.3±2.85 weeks, corrected age 0.33-2 years, mean 0.76±0.42 years) and in 70 age- and sex-matched full-term controls. The children were was divided into four age groups: A: ≥0.5 years; B: 0.51-1.0 year; C: 1.01-1.5 years; and D: 1.51-2.00 years. The gland was significantly (P <0.01) higher in the preterm infants than in the controls (3.88±0.61 vs 3.31±0.64 mm). In the preterm group no significant difference was found between children small or appropriate for gestational age or between those with and without periventricular leukomalacia. Pituitary height by age group was: A: 3.71±0.57, B: 3.81±0.56, C: 4.09±0.68; and D:4.45±0.57 mm; statistically significant (P <0.01) differences were found between groups A and D and B and D. The pituitary is thus higher in premature than in full-term controls and shows a trend to increase after the first year of corrected-age life. (orig.)

  9. Study on lumbar kinematics and the risk of low back disorder in female university students by using shoes of different heel heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Rauf; De, Amitabha; Mishra, Wricha; Maulik, Shreya; Chandra, A M

    2012-01-01

    The study was taken up to investigate the effects of heel heights on lumbar kinematics and the risk of Low Back Disorder (LBD) in females. Nineteen female university students (24.5 ± 3.36 yrs) volunteered in the study. Lumbar kinematics was measured by using Industrial Lumbar Motion Monitor (iLMM). The volunteers were asked to walk for a distance of 50 meters in 3 different given conditions i.e bare foot (Heel 0), with flat heels (Heel 1) and with high heels (Heel 2). Heights of Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 1.5 ± 0.84 cm and 5.5 ± 1.70 cm respectively. The Lumbar kinematic parameters studied were- Average Twisting Velocity (ATV), Maximum Sagital Flexion (MSF) and Maximum Lateral Velocity (MLV). It was observed that all the above mentioned Lumbar kinematics - ATV, MSF and MLV increases with increase of heel heights, which in turn increases the risk of LBD. As a result of increase in Lumbar kinematic values with increase in heel heights, LBD risk has also increased. Mean and SD of the LBD risk with Heel 0, Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 16.79 ± 6.04%, 19.00 ± 7.38% and 22.11 ± 6.98% respectively. Lower stature with high heels showed higher risk of LBD than the higher stature with high heels.

  10. Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of sternal lengths in a Northwest Indian population of Chandigarh region: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmahender; Pathak, R K; Chavali, Krishnadutt H

    2011-03-20

    Skeletal height estimation from regression analysis of eight sternal lengths in the subjects of Chandigarh zone of Northwest India is the topic of discussion in this study. Analysis of eight sternal lengths (length of manubrium, length of mesosternum, combined length of manubrium and mesosternum, total sternal length and first four intercostals lengths of mesosternum) measured from 252 male and 91 female sternums obtained at postmortems revealed that mean cadaver stature and sternal lengths were more in North Indians and males than the South Indians and females. Except intercostal lengths, all the sternal lengths were positively correlated with stature of the deceased in both sexes (P regression analysis of sternal lengths was found more useful than the linear regression for stature estimation. Using multivariate regression analysis, the combined length of manubrium and mesosternum in both sexes and the length of manubrium along with 2nd and 3rd intercostal lengths of mesosternum in males were selected as best estimators of stature. Nonetheless, the stature of males can be predicted with SEE of 6.66 (R(2) = 0.16, r = 0.318) from combination of MBL+BL_3+LM+BL_2, and in females from MBL only, it can be estimated with SEE of 6.65 (R(2) = 0.10, r = 0.318), whereas from the multiple regression analysis of pooled data, stature can be known with SEE of 6.97 (R(2) = 0.387, r = 575) from the combination of MBL+LM+BL_2+TSL+BL_3. The R(2) and F-ratio were found to be statistically significant for almost all the variables in both the sexes, except 4th intercostal length in males and 2nd to 4th intercostal lengths in females. The 'major' sternal lengths were more useful than the 'minor' ones for stature estimation The universal regression analysis used by Kanchan et al. [39] when applied to sternal lengths, gave satisfactory estimates of stature for males only but female stature was comparatively better estimated from simple linear regressions. But they are not proposed for the

  11. Waist-to-Height Gain and Triiodothyronine Concentrations in a Cohort of Socially Vulnerable Short-Stature Women: A Four-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florêncio, Telma M M T; Bueno, Nassib B; Britto, Revilane A P; Albuquerque, Fabiana C A; Lins, Isabela L L; Sawaya, Ana L

    2016-01-01

    Short stature that results from undernourishment during perinatal period is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, particularly in poor populations. The present study investigated changes on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of socially vulnerable women with short stature. A prospective study with 48 women (19-45 years) who were mothers of undernourished children was conducted. Twenty-five of them were short (height ≤150 cm), and 23 were not short, to serve as a control (height >159 cm). Biochemical, anthropometric and dietary intake data were collected, before and after 4 years of follow-up. A mixed within-between analysis of covariance was used to assess the interaction between 'group' and 'time'. Waist-to-height ratio increased only in the short stature group, with significant interaction (+0.03 ± 0.03 in short group vs. +0.01 ± 0.03 in control; p for interaction = 0.04). The short stature group showed a significant decrease in the plasma triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, without significant interaction (-0.16 ± 0.23 ng/ml in short group vs. -0.04 ± 0.29 ng/ml in control; p for interaction = 0.20). Women of short stature presented an increase in waist-to-height ratio, with a simultaneous decrease in total plasma T3. These alterations may lead them to increased risk of comorbidities. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A combinatorial and probabilistic study of initial and end heights of descents in samples of geometrically distributed random variables and in permutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Prodinger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In words, generated by independent geometrically distributed random variables, we study the l th descent, which is, roughly speaking, the l th occurrence of a neighbouring pair ab with a>b. The value a is called the initial height, and b the end height. We study these two random variables (and some similar ones by combinatorial and probabilistic tools. We find in all instances a generating function Ψ(v,u, where the coefficient of v j u i refers to the j th descent (ascent, and i to the initial (end height. From this, various conclusions can be drawn, in particular expected values. In the probabilistic part, a Markov chain model is used, which allows to get explicit expressions for the heights of the second descent. In principle, one could go further, but the complexity of the results forbids it. This is extended to permutations of a large number of elements. Methods from q-analysis are used to simplify the expressions. This is the reason that we confine ourselves to the geometric distribution only. For general discrete distributions, no such tools are available.

  13. A morphometric study of measurements of heart in adults and its relation with age and height of the individual: A post-mortem study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Reconstructive and replacement operations of diseased cardiac valves are commonly practiced these days. It may be noted that the choice of proper reconstructive intervention and prosthetic replacement might require the normal morphometric measurements of heart in relation with general body parameters, like age and height. So, this study was undertaken to measure various measurements of heart and its relation with age and height of the individual. Materials and Methods: Sixty five normal post-mortem hearts of adults were taken from the mortuary of Department of Forensic Medicine. Age of the individual was noted. Length of the deceased was measured with a measuring tape from the level of vertex to the outer border of heel. Length (from apex to base, breadth (at broadest diameter and thickness of the heart were measured with slide callipers. Weight was measured with weighing machine. Results: The mean length, breadth, thickness of heart in males and females are 11.25, 8.78, 3.97 cm and 10.60, 8.31, 3.63 cm. The mean weight of heart in males and females was 323 and 276 gms. There was significant correlation with weight of individual and weight of heart in males. There was significant correlation with age of individual and length of heart in females. Conclusion: This study will be helpful for cardiothoracic surgeons while doing surgery on hearts.

  14. Accuracy Combination Test of Classical and Modern Technical Analysis: A Case Study in Stock of PT Wijaya Karya Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustini Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to measure the accuracy and combination of Classic and Modern Technical Analysis. PT Wijaya Karya Tbk (WIKA’s stock in two periods is the sample of research. Technical analysis was used to predict stock prices by observing changes in historical share price. Practically, technical analysis is divided into Classic Technical and Modern. Research was conducted by library study and using a computer software. Microsft Excel was used for the simulation and Chart Nexus for analyzing Modern Technical Analysis. The research period started in January 1, 2013 until December 31, 2013 and January 1, 2014 until December 31, 2014. The Classic Technical Analysis used Support, Resistance, Trendline, and Flag Patern. Meanwhile for Modern Technical Analysis used Moving Average, Stochastic, Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD indicator. The Classical Technical Analysis gave less result than Modern Technical Analysis. The classical give 14 investment decisions in two periods. The average return of Classical Technical is 15,50%. Meanwhile the Modern Technical Analysis gave 18 investment decisions in two periods. The average return of Modern Technical is 18,14%. Combining Classic Technical Analysis and Modern Technical Analysis gave 20 investment decisions with the average rate of return 20,41%.

  15. Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: A study of the CODATwins project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-01-01

    A trend towards greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the CODATwins project and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from age 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Likewise, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes. PMID:26337138

  16. [The application of metabonomics in modern studies of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Bin; Zhou, Hong-Guang; Yu, Xiao-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Metabonomics, a newly developing subject secondary to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, is an important constituent part of systems biology. It is believed to be the final direction of the systems biology. It can be directly applied to understand the physiological and biochemical states by its "metabolome profile" as a whole. Therefore, it can provide a huge amount of information different from those originating from other "omics". In the modernization of Chinese materia medica research, the application of metabonomics methods and technologies has a broad potential for future development. Especially it is of important theoretical significance and application value in holistic efficacies evaluation, active ingredients studies, and safety research of Chinese materia medica.

  17. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Perng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short stature or short legs is associated with cardiometabolic disease. Few studies have addressed this issue in children, incorporated repeated measures, or studied modern cohorts. METHODS: We examined if change in total height, leg length and trunk length between two time points from...... was a cardiometabolic risk score based on sex-specific internal z-scores for systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. RESULTS: Mean (SD) total height was 97.9 (4.5) cm in boys and 97.1 (4.7) cm in girls...... in early childhood and 129.1 (7.2) cm in boys and 128.3 (7.9) cm in girls in mid-childhood. Trunk length constituted about half of total height. In linear regression models adjusted for parental anthropometry and socio-demographics, faster growth in total height, leg length and particularly trunk length...

  18. Utility of Hippocrates' prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Philip D; Montgomery, Patrick R

    2014-12-15

    To determine if one of Hippocrates' aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Time to death. We recreated the hippocratic prognosticator using an item that measures appetite drawn from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-depression subscale, and the mini-mental state examination, with a score of >25 being considered as normal. People with normal cognition and appetite were compared with those with either poor cognition or poor appetite. We constructed Cox regression models, adjusted for age, sex, education, and functional status. The prognostic aphorism predicted death, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.37 (95% confidence interval 1.93 to 2.88) and a hazard ratio of 1.71 (1.37 to 2.12) adjusted for age, sex, and education. Both poor appetite and poor cognition predicted death. The sensitivity and specificity were not, however, sufficient for the measure to be used alone. An aphorism devised by Hippocrates millennia ago can predict death in the modern era. © St John et al 2014.

  19. Utility of Hippocrates’ prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. Methods We recreated the hippocratic prognosticator using an item that measures appetite drawn from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-depression subscale, and the mini-mental state examination, with a score of >25 being considered as normal. People with normal cognition and appetite were compared with those with either poor cognition or poor appetite. We constructed Cox regression models, adjusted for age, sex, education, and functional status. Results The prognostic aphorism predicted death, with an unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.37 (95% confidence interval 1.93 to 2.88) and a hazard ratio of 1.71 (1.37 to 2.12) adjusted for age, sex, and education. Both poor appetite and poor cognition predicted death. The sensitivity and specificity were not, however, sufficient for the measure to be used alone. Conclusion An aphorism devised by Hippocrates millennia ago can predict death in the modern era. PMID:25512328

  20. Validity of self-reported weight, height, and body mass index among university students in Thailand: Implications for population studies of obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lynette Ly; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2009-09-25

    Large-scale epidemiological studies commonly use self-reported weights and heights to determine weight status. Validity of such self-reported data has been assessed primarily in Western populations in developed countries, although its use is widespread in developing countries. We examine the validity of obesity based on self-reported data in an Asian developing country, and derive improved obesity prevalence estimates using the "reduced BMI threshold" method. Self-reported and measured heights and weights were obtained from 741 students attending an open university in Thailand (mean age 34 years). Receiver operator characteristic techniques were applied to derive "reduced BMI thresholds." Height was over-reported by a mean of 1.54 cm (SD 2.23) in men and 1.33 cm (1.84) in women. Weight was under-reported by 0.93 kg (3.47) in men and 0.62 kg (2.14) in women. Sensitivity and specificity for determining obesity (Thai BMI threshold 25 kg/m2) using self-reported data were 74.2% and 97.3%, respectively, for men and 71.9% and 100% for women. For men, reducing the BMI threshold to 24.5 kg/m2 increased the estimated obesity prevalence based on self-reports from 29.1% to 33.8% (true prevalence was 36.9%). For women, using a BMI threshold of 24.4 kg/m2, the improvement was from 12.0% to 15.9% (true prevalence 16.7%). Young educated Thais under-report weight and over-report height in ways similar to their counterparts in developed countries. Simple adjustments to BMI thresholds will overcome these reporting biases for estimation of obesity prevalence. Our study suggests that self-reported weights and heights can provide economical and valid measures of weight status in high school-educated populations in developing countries.

  1. A comparative study of modern carbonate mud in reefs and carbonate platforms: Mostly biogenic, some precipitated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischler, Eberhard; Dietrich, Sarah; Harris, Daniel; Webster, Jody M.; Ginsburg, Robert N.

    2013-06-01

    Carbonate mud from reefs and carbonate platforms in six locations of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans (Belize, Bahamas, Florida, the Maldives, French Polynesia, Great Barrier Reef) was systematically and quantitatively analyzed with regard to texture, composition, mineralogy, and geochemistry. Mud composition shows considerable variability, however, the data supports the contention that these muds are largely derived from the breakdown of skeletal grains and codiacean algae. Only mud from the Bahamas and northern Belize, areas which are characterized by common whitings, is interpreted to be mainly inorganically precipitated. Three grain-size fractions (63-20 μm, 20-4 μm, aragonite needles, nanograins, and coccoliths. Coccoliths are common in deeper lagoonal settings of the open ocean settings (Maldives, French Polynesia). The geochemistry of the aragonite contents and strontium concentrations, suggesting physico-chemical precipitation. The northern Belize and Great Barrier Reef samples show the highest magnesium calcite values and, accordingly, produced the lowest aragonite and strontium measurements. The high-magnesium calcite portion of the northern Belize mud is either precipitated or due to abundant micritized skeletal grains (e.g., foraminifera): more studies are needed to verify the origin. In the case of the Great Barrier Reef sample, coralline algae appear to be the source of abundant high-magnesium calcite. This study emphasizes that from a global perspective, modern muds in reefs and carbonate platforms exhibit different compositions but are in many cases biologically derived. Even though the composition of modern carbonate muds varies among the six locations investigated, they may serve as analogs for the formation of muds in Cenozoic and Mesozoic reefs and carbonate platforms. Limitations of the interpretation of carbonate-mud origin include the difficulty of identifying, quantifying, and analyzing small grains, the ease with which small

  2. A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S. H.; Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H.; Park, C. H.; Park, S. P.; Kim, H. S.

    2014-01-01

    As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system

  3. A Case Study on Cyber-security Program for the Programmable Logic Controller of Modern NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S. H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. S.; Kim, T. H. [Formal Work Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, C. H. [LINE Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Park, S. P. [Ahnlab Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. S. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    As instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for modern Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been digitalized to cope with their growing complexity, the cyber-security has become an important issue. To protect the I and C systems adequately from cyber threats, such as Stuxnet that attacked Iran's nuclear facilities, regulations of many countries require a cyber-security program covering all the life cycle phases of the system development, from the concept to the retirement. This paper presents a case study of cyber-security program that has been performed during the development of the programmable logic controller (PLC) for modern NPPs of Korea. In the case study, a cyber-security plan, including technical, management, and operational controls, was established through a security risk assessment. Cyber-security activities, such as development of security functions and periodic inspections, were conducted according to the plan: the security functions were applied to the PLC as the technical controls, and periodic inspections and audits were held to check the security of the development environment, as the management and operational controls. A final penetration test was conducted to inspect all the security problems that had been issued during the development. The case study has shown that the systematic cyber-security program detected and removed the vulnerabilities of the target system, which could not be found otherwise, enhancing the cyber-security of the system.

  4. SU-F-I-37: How Fat Distribution and Table Height Affect Estimates of Patient Size in CT Scanning: A Phantom Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silosky, M; Marsh, R [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Localizer projection radiographs acquired prior to CT scans are used to estimate patient size, affecting the function of Automatic Tube Current Modulation (ATCM) and hence CTDIvol and SSDE. Due to geometric effects, the projected patient size varies with scanner table height and with the orientation of the localizer (AP versus PA). This study sought to determine if patient size estimates made from localizer scans is affected by variations in fat distribution, specifically when the widest part of the patient is not at the geometric center of the patient. Methods: Lipid gel bolus material was wrapped around an anthropomorphic phantom to simulate two different body mass distributions. The first represented a patient with fairly rigid fat and had a generally oval shape. The second was bell-shaped, representing corpulent patients more susceptible to gravity’s lustful tug. Each phantom configuration was imaged using an AP localizer and then a PA localizer. This was repeated at various scanner table heights. The width of the phantom was measured from the localizer and diagnostic images using in-house software. Results: 1) The projected phantom width varied up to 39% as table height changed.2) At some table heights, the width of the phantom, designed to represent larger patients, exceeded the localizer field of view, resulting in an underestimation of the phantom width.3) The oval-shaped phantom approached a normalized phantom width of 1 at a table height several centimeters lower (AP localizer) or higher (PA localizer) than did the bell-shaped phantom. Conclusion: Accurate estimation of patient size from localizer scans is dependent on patient positioning with respect to scanner isocenter and is limited in large patients. Further, patient size is more accurately measured on projection images if the widest part of the patient, rather than the geometric center of the patient, is positioned at scanner isocenter.

  5. Genetic and environmental contributions to weight, height, and BMI from birth to 19 years of age: an international study of over 12,000 twin pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Dubois

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the genetic and environmental influences on variances in weight, height, and BMI, from birth through 19 years of age, in boys and girls from three continents. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Cross-sectional twin study. Data obtained from a total of 23 twin birth-cohorts from four countries: Canada, Sweden, Denmark, and Australia. Participants were Monozygotic (MZ and dizygotic (DZ (same- and opposite-sex twin pairs with data available for both height and weight at a given age, from birth through 19 years of age. Approximately 24,036 children were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Heritability for body weight, height, and BMI was low at birth (between 6.4 and 8.7% for boys, and between 4.8 and 7.9% for girls but increased over time, accounting for close to half or more of the variance in body weight and BMI after 5 months of age in both sexes. Common environmental influences on all body measures were high at birth (between 74.1-85.9% in all measures for boys, and between 74.2 and 87.3% in all measures for girls and markedly reduced over time. For body height, the effect of the common environment remained significant for a longer period during early childhood (up through 12 years of age. Sex-limitation of genetic and shared environmental effects was observed. CONCLUSION: Genetics appear to play an increasingly important role in explaining the variation in weight, height, and BMI from early childhood to late adolescence, particularly in boys. Common environmental factors exert their strongest and most independent influence specifically in pre-adolescent years and more significantly in girls. These findings emphasize the need to target family and social environmental interventions in early childhood years, especially for females. As gene-environment correlation and interaction is likely, it is also necessary to identify the genetic variants that may predispose individuals to obesity.

  6. The Effects of Administrated Sildenafil Citrate on Uterine Luminal Epithelium Height Associated with Ovarian Angiogenesis: An Experimental Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Golkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ovarian angiogenesis (OA remains in lifetime and normal ovarian function depends to this continual remodeling of a complex vascular system. Endometrial thickness (ET is one of the strongest predictors of successful implantation and pregnancy. Appropriate OA effects on ET by facilitating of ovarian hormone delivery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult female mice and twenty adult male mice were purchased. The female mice were divided into three groups: (1 control group without any intervention (n = 10, (2 gonadotropin group: receiving human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG and human chorionic gonadotropin (n = 10, and (3 gonadotropin and sildenafil citrate (SC group: receiving HMG and SC administration (n = 10. After mating, animals were deeply anesthetized, and the ovary and uterus was rapidly removed for histology and immunohistochemistry process. Results: Four days after ovarian induction, all three layers of the uterus with specified thickness can be clearly seen. The heights of endometrial epithelial cells in gonadotropin group were not significantly different than those in control group. In gonadotropin and SC group, heights of the cells were significantly (P 0.05 each. Our results of immunohistochemistry survey for ovarian CD31 demonstrated that administrated SC increased OA but not significantly (P > 0.05 each. Conclusion: It may finally conclude that administration of SC does not cause notable alterations in OA and ET; although for realistic decision about the SC effects on aforementioned parameters, more molecular investigations and longer drug consumption period are necessary.

  7. The modern Russian teacher: Studying awareness with the use of the semi-structured interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyushin, Leonid S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on the ideas of Humanistic-Existential Psychology, a positive approach to personal growth, and modern educational concepts concerning the dynamics of professional and social identity in the stratum of secondary and primary school teachers. The goal of the study is to get an objective picture of the professional and personal changes among Russian teachers under the conditions of school modernization. We offer a detailed model of the semi-structured interview with modern teachers, in combination with observation. The interview consists of 63 questions divided into 9 topics, and deals with issues related to what their professional activities mean to the teachers; the teachers’ evaluation of professional dynamics; their attitude toward various aspects of professional life; and their general world outlook and values. We also briefly describe a pre-interview “warm-up” strategy. This stage of the research resulted in the successful pilot use of the research methodology, and data sufficient to evaluate the initial trends of the analysis of all the data. The study’s main conclusions concern the observation technique, which offers a significant increase in the potential of the interview method, mainly through providing the ability to interpret non-verbal reactions, the level of openness, and the teacher’s trust in the dialogue. Moreover, we must note that, when we asked teachers to answer complicated written questions, their answers, judgments, and arguments varied greatly, regardless of their professional and personal characteristics (employment history, qualification category, the subject they teach, type of school, etc.

  8. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage due to motor vehicle crash versus fall from height: a 4-year epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchani, Ashok; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Faramawy, Ahmed; Zarour, Ahmad; Asim, Mohammad; Latifi, Rifat

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is difficult to estimate the real incidence of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (TSAH). Although TSAH after trauma is associated with poor prognoses, the impact of mechanism of injury (MOI) and the pathophysiology remains unknown. We hypothesized that outcome of TSAH caused by motor vehicle crash (MVC) or fall from height (FFH) varies based on the MOI. Data were collected retrospectively from a prospectively created database registry in the section of Trauma Surgery at Hamad General Hospital between January 2008 and July 2012. All patients presented with head trauma and TSAH were included. Patient data included age, gender, nationality, mechanism of injury, injury severity score (ISS), types of head injuries, and associated injuries. Ventilator days, intensive care unit length of stay, pneumonia, and mortality were also studied. A total of 1665 patients with TBI were identified, of them 403 had TSAH with a mean age of 35 ± 15 years. Of them 93% were male patients and 86% were expatriates. MVC (53%) and FFH (35%) were the major mechanisms of injury. The overall mean ISS and head abbreviated injury score were 19 ± 10.6 and 3.4 ± 0.96, respectively. Patients in MVC group sustained severe TSAH, had significantly greater head abbreviated injury score (3.5 ± 0.9 vs. 3.2 ± 0.9; P = 0.009) and ISS (21.6 ± 10.6 vs. 15.9 ± 9.5; P = 0.001), and lower scene Glasgow coma scale (10.8 ± 4.8 vs. 13.2 ± 3.4; P = 0.001) compared with the FFH group. In addition, the MVC group sustained more intraventricular hemorrhage (4.7 vs. 0.7; P = 0.001) and diffuse axonal injury (4.2 vs. 2.9; P = 0.001). In contrast, extradural hemorrhage (14.3% vs. 11.6%; P = 0.008) was higher in the FFH group. Lower extremities (14% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.004) injury was mainly associated with the MVC group. The overall mortality was 19 % among patients with TSAH. The mortality rate was higher in the MVC group when

  9. STUDI POTENSI KOMPETISI ANTARA PASAR TRADISIONAL DENGAN TOKO MODERN PASCA PERATURAN PRESIDEN (PERPRES NOMOR 112 TAHUN 2007 DI MADURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uswatun Hasanah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Regulation the President No. 112 of 2007 is expected to realize the presence of a modern store that can compete in a healthy and fair with traditional markets. Although it has been mentioned that the establishment of modern stores have to pay attention spatial plan district, does not detract from the fact zoning violations on the establishment of a modern store. The study was based on indepth interviews with informants, traditional markets, modern store merchants, officials in the region Bangkalan, Sampang, Pamekasan, Sumenep.The results of this study can be concluded that the competition between the traditional market with modern stores after the enactment of Regulation the Presidential No.112 of 2007 increasingly stringent, as evidenced by the increasing proliferation of modern stores, especially the mini-sale systems and types of merchandise similar to the traditional markets. The factors that became the driving and inhibiting competition is no regulation and management matters. Efforts are being made in overcoming the constraints of competition through improved physical infrastructure, but have not touched on the professionalism of the management of traditional markets.   Key words    : competition, traditional market, modern store after the enactment Regulation the President No. 112 of 2007

  10. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  11. Comparative study of radon concentration in selected modern and traditional building at Kenyatta University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chege, W.M.; Rathore, I.V.S.; Chhabra, S.C.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Radon is leading source of radiation exposure to the public and increases risk of cancer (UNSCEAR, 2000). There is general lack of data on indoor radon in Kenya especially on building design-traditional versus modern. In rural Kenya traditional mud huts coexist with modern stone building. Indoor radon found to vary widely in Kenya: Mustapha et al (2002): 5-1200 Bqm3, Maina et al (2004): 5-704 Bqm3. None of previous works indicates radon variation with building design. The aim of the current study is to compare radon concentrations in coexisting stone buildings and mud huts. Such data would be useful in formulation of policies regarding housing, as part of radon data base in Kenya Experimental Techniques Characteristic of selected buildings: Traditional Huts: Single roomed, Wall made of wood and plastered using mud, bare floor and no ceiling, grass-thatched or mud plastered, doors and windows remained open during the sampling period. Modern Buildings: (Classes used to represent modern building). Those made of natural stone, wooden floor, ceiling, doors and windows remained shut during the sampling period. Measurement of Radon Concentration Radon sampling was done using Charcoal canisters (EPA type). They were activated, and then exposed simultaneously at sampling sites for 48 hours. Analysis and data acquisition was done using NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Radon concentration was calculated based on gamma rays emitted by 214Pb (295 and 352 keV) and 214Bi (609 keV). 13 Results and Discussion Radon levels were higher in classrooms and significantly high in huts. Mean (Bqm-3 ) Minimum (Bqm-3 ) Maximum (Bqm-3 ). Traditional huts had 170.3 15.6 30.2 315.4 while modern buildings had 193 ±19.3 115.76 257.2. There were higher levels in classroom despite lower levels of 226Ra (50.18 Bqkg-1) in natural stone. Possible source of high concentrations: - radon seeping in through floor boards building up over time as building more closed up - Radon concentration was more varied

  12. Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an on-road study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Lähde, Tero; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2014-11-01

    Vehicle technology development and upcoming particle emission limits have increased the need for detailed analyses of particle emissions of vehicles using gasoline direct injection (GDI) techniques. In this paper the particle emission characteristics of modern GDI passenger cars were studied in a laboratory and on the road, with the focus on exhaust particle number emissions, size distributions, volatility and morphology. Both during acceleration and steady conditions the number size distribution of nonvolatile exhaust particles consisted of two modes, one with mean particle size below 30 nm and the other with mean particle size approximately 70 nm. Results indicate that both of these particles modes consisted of soot but with different morphologies. Both in laboratory and on the road, significant emissions of exhaust particles were observed also during decelerations conducted by engine braking. These particles are most likely originating from lubricant oil ash components. The semivolatile nucleation particles were observed in the laboratory experiments at high engine load conditions. Thus, in general, the study indicates that a modern gasoline vehicle can emit four distinctive types of exhaust particles. The differences in particle characteristics and formation should be taken into account in the development of emission control strategies and technologies and, on the other hand, in the assessment of the impact of particle emissions on environment and human health.

  13. Critical evaluation of food intake and energy balance in young modern pentathlon athletes: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Leticia Azen Alves; Porto, Cristiana Pedrosa Melo; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Background Modern pentathlon comprises five sports: fencing, swimming, equestrian jumping, and a combined event of pistol shooting and running. Despite the expected high energy demand of this sport, there are few studies that provide support for the nutritional recommendations for pentathletes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate young modern pentathlon athletes with respect to body composition, biochemical profile, and consumption of food and supplements. Methods Fifty-six young...

  14. Introduction. [usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying components of California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Since May 1970, personnel on several campuses of the University of California have been conducting investigations which seek to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Emphasis has been given to California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan. This study is designed to consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships. The specific geographic areas studied are the Feather River drainage in northern California, the Chino-Riverside Basin and Imperial Valley areas in southern California, and selected portions of the west side of San Joaquin Valley in central California. An analysis is also given on how an effective benefit-cost study of remote sensing in relation to California's water resources might best be made.

  15. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  16. PENGARUH TANGGAPAN KONSUMEN TERHADAP RITEL MODERN BARU 2010 DI KOTA SEMARANG TERHADAP PERUBAHAN PERILAKU PEMBELIAN (Studi Perempuan Pekerja di Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Indriyanti Supatra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analysis responses women workers in new retail presence in the city of Semarang. The type of data used are primary data using questionnaire data collection method that guided the interviews. As for the data analysis techniques, for the shopping habits of respondents before the new modern retail, the response to the new modern retail 7P viewed from the side, so that it could be concluded about the spending habits of behavior had changed after the new modern retail. The conclusion of this study, only a few respondents who intend to move to new modern retail, though seen some positive findings from both these retail. Suggestions provided, before making a new retail, retail manager must select the consumer that will be addressed and also study the characteristics of existing customers in the city of Semarang that retail businesses can survive and become a favorite shopping place for consumers.

  17. Proximal tibial osteophytes and their relationship with the height of the tibial spines of the intercondylar eminence: paleopathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayeri, Mohammad Reza; Shiehmorteza, Masoud; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald; Hefflin, Tori

    2010-01-01

    Tibial spiking (i.e., spurring of tibial spines), eburnation, and osteophytes are considered features of osteoarthritis. This investigation employed direct inspection of the medial and lateral tibial plateaus in paleopathological specimens to analyze the frequency and morphological features of osteoarthritis and to define any relationship between the size of osteophytes and that of the intercondylar tibial spines. A total of 35 tibial bone specimens were evaluated for the degree of osteoarthritis and presence of eburnation. Each plateau was also divided into four quadrants and the presence and size of bone outgrowths were recorded in each quadrant. The ''medial/lateral tibial intercondylar spine index'' for each specimen was calculated as follows: (medial/lateral intercondylar tibial spine height)/(anteroposterior width of the superior tibial surface). The relationships between medial and lateral tibial height indexes with the degree of osteoarthritis were then tested. Osteophytes were observed more frequently in the anterior quadrants of both tibial plateaus than in the posterior quadrants (29 vs 16 for the medial tibial plateau [p = 0.01] and 28 vs 20 for the lateral tibial plateau [p = 0.04]). Eburnation was seen more frequently in the posterior regions of both tibial plateaus than in the anterior regions (17 vs 5, p < 0.01). In specimens with no signs of osteoarthritis the lateral intercondylar tibial index was significantly lower than that in specimens with some degree of osteoarthritis (p = 0.02). The medial intercondylar tibial index of the specimens with no signs of osteoarthritis was not significantly different from that of the specimens with some degree of osteoarthritis (p = 0.45). There was a positive correlation between the lateral spine height index and the overall grading of osteoarthritis, (r = 0.6, p < 0.01). In the anteromedial and posteromedial quadrants of the lateral tibial plateau, the association between the lateral intercondylar tibial spine

  18. Proximal tibial osteophytes and their relationship with the height of the tibial spines of the intercondylar eminence: paleopathological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayeri, Mohammad Reza [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Shiehmorteza, Masoud; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Hefflin, Tori [Museum of Man San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Tibial spiking (i.e., spurring of tibial spines), eburnation, and osteophytes are considered features of osteoarthritis. This investigation employed direct inspection of the medial and lateral tibial plateaus in paleopathological specimens to analyze the frequency and morphological features of osteoarthritis and to define any relationship between the size of osteophytes and that of the intercondylar tibial spines. A total of 35 tibial bone specimens were evaluated for the degree of osteoarthritis and presence of eburnation. Each plateau was also divided into four quadrants and the presence and size of bone outgrowths were recorded in each quadrant. The ''medial/lateral tibial intercondylar spine index'' for each specimen was calculated as follows: (medial/lateral intercondylar tibial spine height)/(anteroposterior width of the superior tibial surface). The relationships between medial and lateral tibial height indexes with the degree of osteoarthritis were then tested. Osteophytes were observed more frequently in the anterior quadrants of both tibial plateaus than in the posterior quadrants (29 vs 16 for the medial tibial plateau [p = 0.01] and 28 vs 20 for the lateral tibial plateau [p = 0.04]). Eburnation was seen more frequently in the posterior regions of both tibial plateaus than in the anterior regions (17 vs 5, p < 0.01). In specimens with no signs of osteoarthritis the lateral intercondylar tibial index was significantly lower than that in specimens with some degree of osteoarthritis (p = 0.02). The medial intercondylar tibial index of the specimens with no signs of osteoarthritis was not significantly different from that of the specimens with some degree of osteoarthritis (p = 0.45). There was a positive correlation between the lateral spine height index and the overall grading of osteoarthritis, (r = 0.6, p < 0.01). In the anteromedial and posteromedial quadrants of the lateral tibial plateau, the association between the lateral

  19. Astronomical References in Chaucer: What Can Modern Students Learn from Studying Ancient Texts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kennedy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in the field of English literature studies is that, with compartmentalization and specialization, it becomes introspective to the point where it devolves into the study of metafiction and metacriticism. At its heart, however, literature has to be about something: Thackeray claimed its subject is human nature, but human nature is based in the interface between human and nature. This paper explores some of the problems in the interface between human knowledge, institutions, and nature, and will offer an example of cross-disciplinary, historical study to illustrate a well-known but, to most modern readers, impenetrable medieval text, Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe. It ends with three recommendations: look to history, cross boundaries between academic fields, and use practical, as well as theoretical, teaching methods.

  20. Aerodynamic study of a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height for Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunteanu, D. E.; Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbines will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, the complexity and the price of pitch regulated small horizontal-axis wind turbines represent ones of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. In contrast to these wind turbines, the Darrieus wind turbines are simpler and their price is lower. Unfortunately, their blades run at high variations of angles of attack, in stall and post-stall regimes, which can induce significant vibrations, fatigue and even the wind turbine failure. For this reason, the present paper deals with a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height because it has better behavior in stall and post-stall regimes than the classic blade with constant chord length.

  1. Meteor head echo altitude distributions and the height cutoff effect studied with the EISCAT HPLA UHF and VHF radars

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    A. Westman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Meteor head echo altitude distributions have been derived from data collected with the EISCAT VHF (224MHz and UHF (930MHz high-power, large-aperture (HPLA radars. At the high-altitude end, the distributions cut off abruptly in a manner reminiscent of the trail echo height ceiling effect observed with classical meteor radars. The target dimensions are shown to be much smaller than both the VHF and the UHF probing wavelengths, but the cutoff heights for the two systems are still clearly different, the VHF cutoff being located several km above the UHF one. A single-collision meteor-atmosphere interaction model is used to demonstrate that meteors in the (1.3–7.2µg mass range will ionise such that critical electron density at 224MHz is first reached at or around the VHF cutoff altitude and critical density at 930MHz will be reached at the UHF cutoff altitude. The observed seasonal variation in the cutoff altitudes is shown to be a function of the seasonal variation of atmospheric density with altitude. Assuming that the electron density required for detection is in the order of the critical density, the abrupt altitude cutoffs can be explained as a consequence of the micrometeoroid joint size-speed distribution dropping off so fast at the large-mass, high-velocity end that above a certain altitude the number of detectable events becomes vanishingly small. Conversely, meteors at the low-mass end of the distribution will be gradually retarded such that the ionisation they generate never reaches critical density. These particles will remain unobservable.Key words. Radio science (instruments and techniques – Interplatery physics (interplanetary dust – General or miscellaneous (new fields

  2. Contextualization of early modernism in Serbian music: Case studies of two works from 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the first Serbian oratorio, Vaskrsenje (Resurrection by Stevan Hristić, and the first Serbian musical drama, Divina Tragoedia by Milenko Paunović. These works are based on two different interpretations of the same theme (the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. They were composed almost at the same time (1912, but separately, with no inter-textual relations. They represent the first steps of Modernism in Serbian music. Hristić’s work follows the French and Italian heritage whereas Paunović’s is connected with the German, post-Wagnerian tradition. In this text we highlight the different intensities of modernity realized by the composers, by comparing numerous aspects of the theme, genre and style with new types of expressiveness and procedures in the treatment of all musical resources. The parallel investigation of the oratorio and musical drama shows the closeness of these two young composers in their musical attempts, but also emphasizes some factors that were decisive for the public presentation of their works. Hristić predicted that the genre of oratorio had better chances of placement than, for example, a symphonic or musical-dramatic composition. Actually, a choir had strong links with tradition and it presented a significant means of potential communication, as well as penetrating novelties into other parts of the oratorio. Due to his readiness to make an effort and to compromise, the composer succeeded in performing his work. On the other hand, Paunović did not anticipate problems in the national cultural system of his time. Numerous aspects of his work, which prevented performance, confirm this. The chosen genre of German musical drama was a very speculative investment in the local musical context. Furthermore, the score was inappropriate for the real reproductive potential of Serbian performers. In addition, an avant-garde gesture was marked by the blasphemous treatment of the New-Testament theme in the dramatic

  3. Modern plasmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Maradudin, Alexei A; Barnes, William L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is entering the curriculum of many universities, either as a stand alone subject, or as part of some course or courses. Nanotechnology institutes have been, and are being, established in universities, in which plasmonics is a significant topic of research. Modern Plasmonics book offers a comprehensive presentation of the properties of surface plasmon polaritons, in systems of different structures and various natures, e.g. active, nonlinear, graded, theoretical/computational and experimental techniques for studying them, and their use in a variety of applications. Contains materia

  4. Accuracy Combination Test of Classical and Modern Technical Analysis: A Case Study in Stock of PT Wijaya Karya Tbk

    OpenAIRE

    Agustini Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to measure the accuracy and combination of Classic and Modern Technical Analysis. PT Wijaya Karya Tbk (WIKA)’s stock in two periods is the sample of research. Technical analysis was used to predict stock prices by observing changes in historical share price. Practically, technical analysis is divided into Classic Technical and Modern. Research was conducted by library study and using a computer software. Microsft Excel was used for the simulation and Chart Nexus for analyzi...

  5. Ontogenetic study of the supraorbital region in modern humans: a longitudinal test of the spatial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscella, Gabriela N; Smith, Fred H

    2006-06-01

    The structural significance of the hominid supraorbital torus and its morphological variation have always been a controversial topic in physical anthropology. Understanding the function of browridge variation in living and fossil human populations is relevant to questions of human evolution. This study utilizes radiograph images to evaluate the spatial model in modern humans during ontogeny. This structural model attributes variation in the supraorbital region to the positional relationship between the neurocranium and the orbits. The relationship between measurements of the antero-posterior supraorbital length and the factors specified in the spatial model were assessed by correlation and partial correlation analyses. Growth rates were also examined to study ontogenetic trajectories and infer aspects of developmental relationships between critical variables. Results agree with previous research supporting the existence of spatial influences between the neural and orbital-upper facial regions on browridge length during ontogeny.

  6. Sparking Thinking: Studying Modern Precision Medicine Will Accelerate the Progression of Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao-Cheng; Ji, Guang

    2017-07-01

    Incorporating "-omics" studies with environmental interactions could help elucidate the biological mechanisms responsible for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) patterns. Based on the authors' own experiences, this review outlines a model of an ideal combination of "-omics" biomarkers, environmental factors, and TCM pattern classifications; provides a narrative review of the relevant genetic and TCM studies; and lists several successful integrative examples. Two integration tools are briefly introduced. The first is the integration of modern devices into objective diagnostic methods of TCM patterning, which would improve current clinical decision-making and practice. The second is the use of biobanks and data platforms, which could broadly support biological and medical research. Such efforts will transform current medical management and accelerate the progression of precision medicine.

  7. Development of a computer program to determine the pulse-height distribution in a gamma-ray detector from an arbitrary geometry source -feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, G.D.; Marshall, M.

    1989-03-01

    The feasibility of developing a computer program suitable for evaluating the pulse-height spectrum in a gamma-ray detector from a complex geometry source has been examined. A selection of relevant programs, Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, have been identified and their applicability to this study discussed. It is proposed that the computation be performed in two parts: the evaluation of the photon fluence at the detector using a photon transport code, and calculation of the pulse-height distribution from this spectrum using response functions determined with an electron-photon transport code. The two transport codes selected to perform this procedure are MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon code), and EGS4 (Electron Gamma Shower code). (Author)

  8. Alterations in mindset of modern Buryats: the evidence from psychosemantic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyana Ts. Dugarova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the changes in the mindset of Buryats from the standpoint of the psychosemantic approach. This qualitative methodology is especially relevant for cross-cultural studies. The authors have conducted a number of studies of value orientations, namely of the core of youth mindset. In 2009, 60 college students in the city of Ulan-Ude (capital of Buryatia were asked to assess 22 paintings on different subjects by Buryat artists of mid-20th century. The students were supposed to give their judgments of how marked   was the expression of certain values in each painting (a list of values was provided to them. The outcomes were processed through factor analysis. The survey revealed that a clash of values can be observed in Buryats. In their value orientations, modern focus on personal development coexisted with some traditional values, such as social appraisal, and with insensitiveness to others (family ties, respect of parents. A latent intraethnic tension is clearly present – a personal identity status which determines the choice of individual strategy under the mutual interference between the world of archaic ancestral traditions and that of integrated cultures. A tension in identificational practices was also revealed in 2017 survey of 140 students at Buryat State University. Logging on to the website of associative experiments, they received 104 stimulating words in Buryat language and asked to type in words and phrases triggering associations with the initial concept. This revealed the peculiarities of mindset of modern Buryats (plurality, multi-level identity, from the tribal and most local to the universal; self-consciousness of being “Buryat” with predominance of traditional values, religious syncretism, etc.. Another cross-cultural study of value orientations among the youth (Buryat and Mongol students, 536 in total was conducted in 2016-2017. It showed that Buryat youth is generally oriented towards traditional

  9. Accuracy of Blood Pressure-to-Height Ratio to Define Elevated Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Bahreynian, Maryam; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmail; Djalalinia, Shirin; Naji, Fatemeh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a simple practical diagnostic criterion for pre-hypertension (pre-HTN) and hypertension (HTN) in the pediatric age group. This study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years. HTN and pre-HTN were defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 95 and 90-95th percentile for age, gender, and height, respectively. By using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operator characteristic curves, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of two indexes of SBP-to-height ratio (SBPHR) and DBP-to-height (DBPHR) to define pre-HTN and HTN. Overall, SBPHR performed relatively well in classifying subjects to HTN (AUC 0.80-0.85) and pre-HTN (AUC 0.84-0.90). Likewise, DBPHR performed relatively well in classifying subjects to HTN (AUC 0.90-0.97) and pre-HTN (AUC 0.70-0.83). Two indexes of SBPHR and DBPHR are considered as valid, simple, inexpensive, and accurate tools to diagnose pre-HTN and HTN in pediatric age group.

  10. Modern Wildlife Monitoring Technologies: Conservationists versus Communities? A Case Study: The Terai-Arc Landscape, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashaswi Shrestha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of new and advanced wildlife monitoring technologies is shifting the paradigm of wildlife conservation and management. These digital technologies are helping wildlife conservationists and researchers around the world to monitor and manage wildlife with more precision and efficiency. However, this research study highlights some of the key drawbacks of using such modern technologies for wildlife conservation and management especially in developing countries, where the digital divide often clearly separates well-endowed conservation organisations and rural communities. It provides an insight into how the extensive use of such digital wildlife monitoring technologies can often marginalise the role of local and indigenous communities in wildlife management. Our case study, which was conducted in the Terai Arc Landscape (TAL in southern Nepal, includes interviews with several wildlife experts, biologists, and members of local and indigenous communities. Findings indicate that the increasing militarisation and centralisation of protected area management, and the lack of universal access to the information gathered using modern monitoring technologies, have notably led to the marginalisation of local and indigenous communities in the region. These developments not only undermine the benefits of using such technologies but have also caused a rift between conservation organisations and local communities. As a result, this research study recommends that conservation organisations who advocate for the use of such technologies need to hold consultations and dialogues between conservationists and local and indigenous community members in order to be more inclusive and allow for a cross cultural and an interdisciplinary understanding of the best practices for the conservation and management of wildlife.

  11. Promoting survival: A grounded theory study of consequences of modern health practices in Ouramanat region of Iranian Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpur, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Rasoul

    2010-05-14

    The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society.

  12. Promoting survival: A grounded theory study of consequences of modern health practices in Ouramanat region of Iranian Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpur, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Rasoul

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society. PMID:20640020

  13. Studies Regarding Design and Optimization of Mechanisms Using Modern Techniques of CAD and CAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tufoi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents applications of modern techniques of CAD (Computer Aided Design and CAE (Computer Aided Engineering to design and optimize the mechanisms used in mechanical engineering. The use exemplification of these techniques was achieved by designing and optimizing parts of a drawing installation for horizontal continuous casting of metals. By applying these design methods and using finite element method at simulations on designed mechanisms results a number of advantages over traditional methods of drawing and design: speed in drawing, design and optimization of parts and mechanisms, kinematic analysis option, kinetostatic and dynamic through simulation, without requiring physical realization of the part or mechanism, the determination by finite element method of tension, elongations, travel and safety factor and the possibility of optimization for these sizes to ensure the mechanical strength of each piece separately. Achieving these studies was possible using SolidWorks 2009 software suite.

  14. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age: A Study of the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth J F; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.

  15. Does the sex of one's co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood? A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogl, Leonie H; Jelenkovic, Aline; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Cutler, Tessa L; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Pang, Zengchang; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Rebato, Esther; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Busjahn, Andreas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hopper, John L; Loos, Ruth J F; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of being overweight or obese between men and women from OS and SS dizygotic twin pairs. The data were derived from the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) database, and included 68,494 SS and 53,808 OS dizygotic twin individuals above the age of 20 years from 31 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. Zygosity was determined by questionnaires or DNA genotyping depending on the study. Multiple regression and logistic regression models adjusted for cohort, age, and birth year with the twin type as a predictor were carried out to compare height and BMI in twins from OS pairs with those from SS pairs and to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for being overweight or obese. OS females were, on average, 0.31 cm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20, 0.41) taller than SS females. OS males were also, on average, taller than SS males, but this difference was only 0.14 cm (95% CI 0.02, 0.27). Mean BMI and the prevalence of overweight or obesity did not differ between males and females from SS and OS twin pairs. The statistically significant differences between OS and SS twins for height were small and appeared to reflect our large sample size rather than meaningful differences of public health relevance. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal hormonal exposure or postnatal socialization (i.e., having grown up with a twin of the opposite sex) has a major impact on height and BMI in adulthood.

  16. Clinical use of the resorbable bioscaffold poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) in post-extraction socket for maintaining the alveolar height: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoda, Nadeemul; Saifi, Aamir Malick; Giraddi, Girish B

    2016-01-01

    A common sequel of tooth extraction is alveolar bone resorption. It makes the placement of dental implants difficult and creates an esthetic problem for the fabrication of conventional prostheses. Therefore, alveolar bone following tooth extraction should be preserved. The present prospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the resorbable bioscaffold poly lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) in maintaining the alveolar height in post-extraction socket. 20 patients were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and were randomly divided into two groups: cases and control comprising of 10 patients each. Atraumatic tooth extraction was done in all patients. PLGA bioscaffold was placed in cases and socket was closed with 3-0 vicryl. In control group, socket was directly closed with 3-0 vicryl. The patients were kept on follow-up and complications such as dry socket, pain, and swelling were recorded. IOPA were taken at 1st, 4th, 12th, and 24th week to record changes in the height of alveolar bone. The radiographic measurements were compared and the differences were statistically analyzed. Reduction in alveolar bone height after placement of PLGA bioscaffold was significantly less in cases as compared to controls at 4th, 12th, and 24th week following extraction. No complications were observed throughout the follow-up period. PLGA scaffold significantly reduces bone resorption. Application is very simple and can be easily performed in a dental setup. However, PLGA scaffold adds significantly to the cost of treatment.

  17. Philosophical Study on Two Contemporary Iranian Muslim Intellectual Responses to Modern Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsaei, Maryam; Shah, Mohd Hazim

    2017-01-01

    Iranian modern thinkers in either of the two categories: Western-minded and religious. The most prominent aspect of Western minded thinkers is their emphasis on separation of tradition and modernity. On the other hand, religious thinkers look forward to combining the two. The Western-minded thinkers believe that the most important burden on…

  18. The Vestige Of Court Poetry In Modern Yoruba Music: A Study Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the retention of some features of traditional court poetry in modern Yoruba music. The article's focus is the juju music even as Sikiru Ayinde Barrister attracts the attention of the article. Efforts are made to establish the similarities between court poets and modern musicians in the performance of the roles ...

  19. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this 'physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean' was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the 'physiological sequence of lumbar disc height' leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [de

  20. Integration of Composite Structures in Modern Day Architecture: Case Study of City Business Centre, Timisoara, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vataman, Adina; Gaivoronschi, Vlad; Mosoarca, Marius

    2017-10-01

    In current day structural design the use of composite steel-concrete structures has become the norm; because of the advantages that each of these materials has to offer. Composite structures also have the benefit of a faster execution at a lower cost, compared to traditional structures. While the arguments in favour of designing composite structures are well-known and appreciated by civil engineers; there remains a question of integrating these structures in modern-day urban landscapes. Eastern European countries are welcoming a blossoming of culture, arts, economy and industry, which unavoidably and necessarily will lead to a change in urban landscapes. With an increasing amount of foreign companies opening offices in these areas, the need for modern office solutions has arisen. The current paper presents a case study of an office building complex situated in the western part of Romania, in the city of Timişoara. The complex consists of 5 office buildings; all designed in composite steel-concrete structure, an underground parking lot, multiple terraces and adjacent promenade areas. Within the context of rapid growth and development of the city, the City Business Centre has offered high quality office spaces in the heart of the city, while considering the needs of the community. A very important aspect in the successful completion of the project was the efficient and professional collaboration between the separate project teams, between the owner, represented by the project management team, the architect, the structural designer and the building company. The successful joining of seismic structural solutions with modern architectural aesthetics has led to a dynamic, vibrant environment, making the City Business Centre the core of the region’s business life, at the same time redefining Timisoara’s architectural landscape. A testimony to the success of the project was the Civil Engineering Structural Designers Associations’ (AICPS) 3rd Prize awarded for great

  1. Modern process study on Chen Co and Ranwu Lake of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are important junctions of geospheres. There are many lakes distributed on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Lake sediment is one of the important media for retrieving the past environmental changes. Because of the uniqueness of environment of the TP, sediment, water and ecological system in lakes has local characteristic inevitably. Modern process research on different lakes will benefit interpreting the proxies more accurately. The development of observation station makes the observation and sampling more convenient. Modern process of lakes can be fulfilled in two ways, spatial or seasonal variation study, with a same aim finding out the dominant factors controlling the variations. Chen Co is a closed lake locating at inland area of southern Tibet. Ranwu Lake is an open lake locating at outflow area of SE Tibet. In this study, I studied the spatial and (or) seasonal variation of lake water and sediment in the two distinct types of lakes to make clear the mechanism of modern process. Particular attention was given to the pattern and degree of influence of rivers supplied by glaciers on lakes. Preliminary conclusions are outlined as follow: (1) In the lakes with glacier melt supplying rivers, the patterns of supply of the rivers to the lake are different. In close lake Chen Co, the influence of glacier melt is mainly reflected in the south lake area. In the open lake Ranwu Lake, the influence is comprehensive and direct. This difference influencing patterns how the lake sediments reflected the glacier melt under the past environmental changes. (2) The supply of Kaluxiong Qu River, supplied mainly by glacier melt, to Chen co has North-South difference: more directly to south lake area, reflecting by lower value of conductivity and pH, finer grain size and west to east transporting trend, greater deposition rate, more allogenic fine sediments, not obvious biological and endogenic deposition there. This enlightens the site selection for lake cores and interpretation of

  2. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  3. Imagery and fear influence height perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2009-04-01

    The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).

  4. Reporting the methodology of height and weight acquisition in studies of body mass index-based prognosis in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2013-10-01

    Conflicting findings were reported on the body mass index (BMI)-based prognosis of critically patients. Errors in source weight and height data can confound BMI group allocation. The aim of the present work was to examine investigators' reporting on the methods of height and weight acquisition (HWA). PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies describing BMI group-based risk of death in critically ill patients. Eligible studies were examined for reporting on (1) the use of measured and/or estimated HWA, (2) details of measuring devices, (3) device accuracy, and (4) methods of adjustment for acute and chronic fluid-related weight changes. Thirty studies met the eligibility criteria, including 159,565 patients. No data were provided in 13 studies (52% of reported patients) on whether estimates or measurements were used for HWA. Measured HWA was used exclusively in 6 studies (3% of patients), and an unspecified combination of estimated and/or measured HWA was reported for the remainder. Only 1 study reported the specific devices used. None of the studies provided data on the bias and precision of measuring devices. Adjustment for chronic and/or acute fluid-related weight changes was addressed in 2 studies for each. These findings demonstrate the prevalent risk for BMI group misallocation in the reviewed studies, which may confound BMI-based prognosis, raising concerns about the validity of reported BMI-related prognostic impact. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship of weight, height, and body mass index with fracture risk at different sites in postmenopausal women: the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E; Flahive, Julie; Hosmer, David W; Watts, Nelson B; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Nieves, Jeri W; Netelenbos, J Coen; March, Lyn; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Hooven, Frederick H; Greenspan, Susan L; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Cooper, Cyrus; Chapurlat, Roland D; Boonen, Steven; Anderson, Frederick A; Adami, Silvano; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2014-02-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women. Height and obesity have also been associated with increased fracture risk at some sites. We investigated the relationships of weight, BMI, and height with incident clinical fracture in a practice-based cohort of postmenopausal women participating in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. For hip, spine, wrist, pelvis, rib, upper arm/shoulder, clavicle, ankle, lower leg, and upper leg fractures, we modeled the time to incident self-reported fracture over a 3-year period using the Cox proportional hazards model and fitted the best linear or nonlinear models containing height, weight, and BMI. Of 52,939 women, 3628 (6.9%) reported an incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up period. Linear BMI showed a significant inverse association with hip, clinical spine, and wrist fractures: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) per increase of 5 kg/m(2) were 0.80 (0.71-0.90), 0.83 (0.76-0.92), and 0.88 (0.83-0.94), respectively (all p fractures, linear weight showed a significant positive association: adjusted HR per 5-kg increase 1.05 (1.02-1.07) (p fractures, only linear height was significantly associated: adjusted HRs per 10-cm increase were 0.85 (0.75-0.97) (p = 0.02) and 0.73 (0.57-0.92) (p = 0.009), respectively. For pelvic and rib fractures, the best models were for nonlinear BMI or weight (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively), with inverse associations at low BMI/body weight and positive associations at high values. These data demonstrate that the relationships between fracture and weight, BMI, and height are site-specific. The different associations may be mediated, at least in part, by effects on bone mineral density, bone structure and geometry, and patterns of falling. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Modern Theories of Pelvic Floor Support : A Topical Review of Modern Studies on Structural and Functional Pelvic Floor Support from Medical Imaging, Computational Modeling, and Electromyographic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun; Miller, Brandi D; Boone, Timothy B; Zhang, Yingchun

    2018-02-12

    Weakened pelvic floor support is believed to be the main cause of various pelvic floor disorders. Modern theories of pelvic floor support stress on the structural and functional integrity of multiple structures and their interplay to maintain normal pelvic floor functions. Connective tissues provide passive pelvic floor support while pelvic floor muscles provide active support through voluntary contraction. Advanced modern medical technologies allow us to comprehensively and thoroughly evaluate the interaction of supporting structures and assess both active and passive support functions. The pathophysiology of various pelvic floor disorders associated with pelvic floor weakness is now under scrutiny from the combination of (1) morphological, (2) dynamic (through computational modeling), and (3) neurophysiological perspectives. This topical review aims to update newly emerged studies assessing pelvic floor support function among these three categories. A literature search was performed with emphasis on (1) medical imaging studies that assess pelvic floor muscle architecture, (2) subject-specific computational modeling studies that address new topics such as modeling muscle contractions, and (3) pelvic floor neurophysiology studies that report novel devices or findings such as high-density surface electromyography techniques. We found that recent computational modeling studies are featured with more realistic soft tissue constitutive models (e.g., active muscle contraction) as well as an increasing interest in simulating surgical interventions (e.g., artificial sphincter). Diffusion tensor imaging provides a useful non-invasive tool to characterize pelvic floor muscles at the microstructural level, which can be potentially used to improve the accuracy of the simulation of muscle contraction. Studies using high-density surface electromyography anal and vaginal probes on large patient cohorts have been recently reported. Influences of vaginal delivery on the

  7. MODERN COMPLEMENTARY FOODS IN THE PREVENTION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES: PROSPECTIVE STUDY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. E. Borovik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rate allergenic properties of the complementary food line based on grains, fruits/vegetables and meat in the diet of infants (0–1 years old. Methods: The study included children aged 4–6 months with natural, mixed or artificial feeding, who had not received any complementary food before. The children were almost healthy or had a burdened allergic history. Complementary foods (porridge, vegetable puree, meat puree and fruit puree were administered basing on an individual plan depending on age, nutritional status and nature of feces. Tolerability of products and dynamics of mass-height and laboratory parameters were evaluated. At the beginning and at the end of the study, capillary blood was taken to determine the content of hemoglobin in red blood cells (MCH, the equivalent of hemoglobin in reticulocytes (RetHe, iron, ferritin, prealbumin, and specific E class immunoglobulin (IgE to the proteins in cow's and goat milk, apples, pears, prunes, zucchini, broccoli, cauliflower, rice, maize, buckwheat, turkey meat, and rabbit meat (quantitative allergy diagnostics using an express method. In addition, a scatological study was performed. Results: 60 healthy children received complementary foods based on grains, fruits/vegetables and meat on a step-by-step basis. The level of specific IgE to food allergens in all children under the study was within normal range (0–135 IU/ml both initially and after the administration of all the complementary foods studied. Conclusion: The investigated complementary foods have a low sensitizing potential, including in children with a burdened allergic history. This allows us to describe them as hypoallergenic products.

  8. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen R Isasi

    Full Text Available The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084, a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA. Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing, and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and percentage body fat (%BF. Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background. Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF. These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  9. Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Jung, Molly; Parrinello, Christina M; Kaplan, Robert C; Kim, Ryung; Crespo, Noe C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Gouskova, Natalia A; Penedo, Frank J; Perreira, Krista M; Perrino, Tatiana; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Van Horn, Linda; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one's family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0-12, 13-18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

  10. An integrated spectroscopic approach for the non-invasive study of modern art materials and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, F.; Miliani, C.; Clementi, C.; Kahrim, K.; Presciutti, F.; Vagnini, M.; Manuali, V.; Daveri, A.; Cartechini, L.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2010-09-01

    A non-invasive study has been carried out on 18 paintings by Alberto Burri (1915-1995), one of Italy’s most important contemporary painters. The study aims to demonstrate the appropriate and suitable use of portable non-invasive instrumentation for the characterization of materials and techniques found in works dating from 1948 to 1975 belonging to the Albizzini Collection. Sampling of any kind has been forbidden, in order to maintain the integrity of the paintings. Furthermore, the material heterogeneity of each single artwork could potentially result in a poorly representative sampling campaign. Therefore, a non-invasive and in situ analytical approach has been deemed mandatory, notwithstanding the complexity of modern materials and challenging data interpretation. It is the non-invasive nature of the study that has allowed for the acquisition of vast spectral data (a total of about 650 spectra including XRF, mid and near FTIR, micro-Raman and UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopies). In order to better handle and to extrapolate the most meaningful information from these data, a statistical multivariate analysis, namely principal component analysis (PCA), has been applied to the spectral results. In particular, the possibility of combining elemental and molecular information has been explored by uniting XRF and infrared spectra in one PCA dataset. The combination of complementary spectroscopic techniques has allowed for the characterization of both inorganic and organic pigments, extenders, fillers, and binders employed by Alberto Burri.

  11. APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This plan details command co-ordination and support responses of Commonwealth and State Authorities in the event of an accident with offsite consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plan has been prepared by the AAEC Local Liaison Working Party, comprising representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, NSW Police Department, NSW Board of Fire Commissioners, NSW State Emergency Services and Civil Defence Organisation, NSW Department of Health, NSW Department of Environment and Planning and Sutherland Shire Council

  12. The traditional and modern in church music: A study in canon and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of the terms "traditional" and "modern", relating to the chanting tradition of the Eastern Church, sprang from research into so-called kalophony – a specific compositional method that established melismatic melody. Despite differing academic opinions about the origins of this melody in the liturgical practice of the Eastern Church, it is evident that very embellished and elaborate kalophonic melodies appeared frequently from the mid-13th century onwards. The compositional treatment of various genres of these melodies began historically with partial respect for the established hymnographic text. This was followed by a more liberal arrangement, ending in a total departure from any textual base (kratema. The fact that the melody in melismatic mode superseded the text suggests that kalophony represented a certain kind of modernity. Even though musical manuscripts in neumatic notation had no written rules about methods of composition or how to balance tones and words, in the tradition of the Easternchanting practice, melody was always recognized as a helpful addition, an exegesis of the textus receptus. In order to fully comprehend the introduction of this "new sound" and "new style", this study focuses on the work of a major protagonist of them, a monk from the Great Lavra, blessed John Koukouzeles. I consider the following questions: 1 The purpose and function of chant in the art of Byzantium in general 2 The role of the composer/ artist and his creative freedom 3 Evaluating criteria for church-related arts/composition 4 Criteria which immortalized or buried artwork/composition of the time Allowing for what possibly motivated John Koukouzeles and his contemporaries to compose kalophonic melodies or to kalophonically modify old, traditional melodies this study focuses on the effects that hesychasm had on the chanting practice of the time. Considering the theological validation of kalophonic modifications of some liturgical hymns, an

  13. Comparison of three methods for measuring height in rehabilitation inpatients and the impact on body mass index classification: An open prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Karen E; Stewart, Alison J; Argiriou, Alison M; Huggins, Catherine E; New, Peter W

    2018-02-01

    To compare standing height, estimated current height and demi-span estimated height and examine their impact on body mass index (BMI) classification. Cross-sectional data was collected on 104 patients admitted to an adult rehabilitation ward and seen by the dietitian. Patient's standing, estimated current height and demi-span estimated height were collected and grouped by age: 19-64 and ≥65 years. The limits of agreement (95% confidence interval) for estimated current height compared with standing height were +9.9 cm and -7.9 cm, in contrast to +8.7 cm and -14.3 cm for demi-span estimated height. Demi-span underestimated height when compared with standing height in both age groups, 19-64 years: (mean ± SD) 3.0 ± 6.5 cm (P = 0.001, n = 68) and ≥ 65 year age group 4.0 ± 6.0 cm (P < 0.001, n = 36), resulting in a significantly greater mean BMI (analysis of variance P < 0.001, P = 0.02). In the 19-64 and ≥65 year age groups, 3% (2/68) and 10% (4/36) of patients, respectively, had a different BMI classification using demi-span estimated height compared with standing height. Estimated current height is a simple and practical alternative if standing height is unable to be obtained when performing a nutrition assessment. Demi-span estimated height should be used with caution when calculating BMI to assess nutritional status, particularly in the elderly. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  14. Study of microbial contamination of broilers in modern abattoirs in Khartoum state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Mohamed-Noor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the contaminating microorganisms that can be found on the breast, legs and backs of broilers during processing. A total of 81 swab samples from 27 carcasses were collected randomly from chicken carcasses slaughtered at modern poultry abattoir in Khartoum State, the Sudan. The samples were taken from 9 Critical Control Points (CCPs, namely; after bleeding with feathers, after scalding, after defeathering, after evisceration, after spray wash, after chilling and packing, workers’ hand, knives and Scalding water. Total Viable Count (TVC was carried for each sample besides isolation and identification of contaminating bacteria. The study revealed a statistically significant difference at P-value (p≤0.05 in the 9 CCPs between the legs, backs and breast respectively. The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus and Salmonella species. Sudanese abattoirs may reflect the hygienic status of chicken meat production in the developing countries and the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in poultry industry is extremely important, because it involves the constant monitoring of all steps of the process.

  15. The perceived value of dairy product traceability in modern society: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Sylvain; Haratifar, Sanaz

    2015-05-01

    The current study assessed the perceived value of food traceability in modern society by young consumers. After experiencing numerous recalls and food safety-related incidences, consumers are increasingly aware of the tools available to mitigate risks. Food traceability has been associated with food safety procedures for many years, but recent high-profile cases of food fraud around the world have given traceability a different strategic purpose. Focusing solely on dairy products, our survey results offer a glimpse of consumer perceptions of traceability as a means to preserve food integrity and authenticity. This study explored the various influences that market-oriented traceability has had on dairy consumers. For example, results show that if the dairy sector could guarantee that their product is in fact organic, 53.8% of respondents who often purchase organic milk would consider always purchasing traceable organic milk. This research produced a quantitative set of information related to the perceived value of food traceability, which could be useful for the creation and development of improved guidelines and better education for consumers. We discuss limitations and suggest areas for new research. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Technology Integration in Science Education: A Study of How Teachers Use Modern Learning Technologies in Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanakkan, Dionysius Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This multiple case-study investigated how high school biology teachers used modern learning technologies (probes, interactive simulations and animations, animated videos) in their classrooms and why they used the learning technologies. Another objective of the study was to assess whether the use of learning technologies alleviated misconceptions…

  17. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    /unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...... or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only...

  18. Young adult outcomes in the follow-up of the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: symptom persistence, source discrepancy, and height suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, James M; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G; Sibley, Margaret H; Hechtman, Lily T; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Abikoff, Howard B; Stehli, Annamarie; Owens, Elizabeth B; Mitchell, John T; Nichols, Quyen; Howard, Andrea; Greenhill, Laurence L; Hoza, Betsy; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Jensen, Peter S; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy; Epstein, Jeffery N; Tamm, Leanne; Lakes, Kimberly D; Waxmonsky, James; Lerner, Marc; Etcovitch, Joy; Murray, Desiree W; Muenke, Maximilian; Acosta, Maria T; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Pelham, William E; Kraemer, Helena C

    2017-06-01

    The Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) began as a 14-month randomized clinical trial of behavioral and pharmacological treatments of 579 children (7-10 years of age) diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type. It transitioned into an observational long-term follow-up of 515 cases consented for continuation and 289 classmates (258 without ADHD) added as a local normative comparison group (LNCG), with assessments 2-16 years after baseline. Primary (symptom severity) and secondary (adult height) outcomes in adulthood were specified. Treatment was monitored to age 18, and naturalistic subgroups were formed based on three patterns of long-term use of stimulant medication (Consistent, Inconsistent, and Negligible). For the follow-up, hypothesis-generating analyses were performed on outcomes in early adulthood (at 25 years of age). Planned comparisons were used to estimate ADHD-LNCG differences reflecting persistence of symptoms and naturalistic subgroup differences reflecting benefit (symptom reduction) and cost (height suppression) associated with extended use of medication. For ratings of symptom severity, the ADHD-LNCG comparison was statistically significant for the parent/self-report average (0.51 ± 0.04, p ADHD group was 1.29 ± 0.55 cm shorter than the LNCG (p ADHD group showed symptom persistence compared to local norms from the LNCG. Within naturalistic subgroups of ADHD cases, extended use of medication was associated with suppression of adult height but not with reduction of symptom severity. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Big Data access and infrastructure for modern biology: case studies in data repository utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Nathan C; Stone, Tyler; Bergeron, Charles; Kiehl, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Big Data is no longer solely the purview of big organizations with big resources. Today's routine tools and experimental methods can generate large slices of data. For example, high-throughput sequencing can quickly interrogate biological systems for the expression levels of thousands of different RNAs, examine epigenetic marks throughout the genome, and detect differences in the genomes of individuals. Multichannel electrophysiology platforms produce gigabytes of data in just a few minutes of recording. Imaging systems generate videos capturing biological behaviors over the course of days. Thus, any researcher now has access to a veritable wealth of data. However, the ability of any given researcher to utilize that data is limited by her/his own resources and skills for downloading, storing, and analyzing the data. In this paper, we examine the necessary resources required to engage Big Data, survey the state of modern data analysis pipelines, present a few data repository case studies, and touch on current institutions and programs supporting the work that relies on Big Data. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Geomicrobiological study of modern microbialites from Mexico: towards a better understanding of the ancient fossil record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzerara K.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbialites are sedimentary formations that are found throughout the geological record and are usually considered as one of the oldest traces of life on Earth. Although they have been known for more than a century and hold as an emblematic object in Earth Sciences, we yet do not understand in details how they form and how microbial processes impact their chemistry, structure and macroscopic morphology. Here, we show recent advances achieved owing to funding provided by the EPOV program on the formation of modern microbialites in the crater Lake Alchichica (Mexico. We first show that very diverse microbial communities populate these microbialites, including diverse microbial groups able to induce carbonate precipitation. We demonstrate that this microbial diversity can be preserved for several years in laboratory aquaria offering a nice opportunity for future studies to assess the relationships between biodiversity and microbialite formation. We then detail the textural modifications affecting cyanobacterial cells during the first steps of fossilization as captured in Alchichica microbialites. Finally, we report the discovery of a new deepbranching cyanobacterium species, Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora, able to form intracellular Ca-, Mg-, Sr- and Ba-rich carbonates and discuss the implications for the interpretation of the fossil record.

  1. Plasmodium vivax: modern strategies to study a persistent parasite's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinski, Mary R; Meyer, Esmeralda V S; Barnwell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax has unique attributes to support its survival in varying ecologies and climates. These include hypnozoite forms in the liver, an invasion preference for reticulocytes, caveola-vesicle complex structures in the infected erythrocyte membrane and rapidly forming and circulating gametocytes. These characteristics make this species very different from P. falciparum. Plasmodium cynomolgi and other related simian species have identical biology and can serve as informative models of P. vivax infections. Plasmodium vivax and its model parasites can be grown in non-human primates (NHP), and in short-term ex vivo cultures. For P. vivax, in the absence of in vitro culture systems, these models remain highly relevant side by side with human clinical studies. While post-genomic technologies allow for greater exploration of P. vivax-infected blood samples from humans, these come with restrictions. Two advantages of NHP models are that infections can be experimentally tailored to address hypotheses, including genetic manipulation. Also, systems biology approaches can capitalise on computational biology combined with set experimental infection periods and protocols, which may include multiple sampling times, different types of samples, and the broad use of "omics" technologies. Opportunities for research on vivax malaria are increasing with the use of existing and new methodological strategies in combination with modern technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SPECIAL AND INCLUSIVE MODELS OF EDUCATION IN MODERN AMERICAN AND BRITISH STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Andriichuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a comparative description of inclusive and special systems of education. On the basis of American and British studies are shown that modern scientists, voluntary organizations and parents of the disabled kids meet two problems: to prove that inclusion is necessary for children with special needs as the alternative to special education and to illustrate the real ways of inclusive education implementation into general educational process. The main goal of inclusive education is defined – to educate an absolutely full member of society by attracting all participants of education process to the general school activities. The author of the article points out that the professionals in the sphere of special education created and worked out a great amount of forms, methods and techniques of teaching which work with particular categories of children with special educational needs. This potential is useful and valuable from the point of view of inclusion which cannot succeed without the professional participation of specialists in different fields of pedagogy, psychology and rehabilitology.

  3. Feasibility study on energy conservation and modernization of Chhatak Cement Co., Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energies and reducing greenhouse gas emission, discussions were given on a modernization plan for the Chhatak cement factory in The People's Republic of Bangladesh. The Chhatak cement factory having a nominal production capability of 267,000 tons a year uses mainly wet-type long kilns of old type, consuming a great amount of natural gas. The present plan has discussed adoption of the Japanese energy saving technologies. The technologies use a vertical roller mill for raw material pulverization, a suspension preheater and a short kiln for clinker sintering, a grate cooler for clinker cooling, and the pre-crushing system. The result of the discussions provided the prospects of reduction in the natural gas consumption at 50%, and reduction of electric power consumption at 16%. This will mean the annual reduction of about 22,000 tons as converted to crude oil. The CO2 reduction amount would reach 51,800 tons a year. The total investment amount would be US$37,327,000. The result of the financial analysis according to the case studies appears severe, wherein reduction of the various expenses is desired possibly by the finance from Japan with generous conditions.(NEDO)

  4. Modernization Theory and House Garden Transformation; Erbil City as Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahaddin Y. Baper

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concept of modernity and its influences on global warming comes to be a common topic in architectural debates. The disappearance of gardens in the contemporary house layouts generated a need for new approaches to create a sustainable network of green areas within residential neighborhoods. The objectives of this paper intend to emphasize on the holistic phenomenon of house garden transformations. The rationale behind selecting cases inside Erbil city, Iraq return to its historical background which passed through rapid transformations due to the political, economic, and cultural changes. This paper aims to identify reason behind disappearance of house gardens in new developments. Moreover, it describes the physical elements of local traditions in different periods. The analytical methodology used in this paper relies on four different periods of the city evolution. It discusses the building garden visual elements in terms of architectural physical factors. The study emphases on two types of analyses, the morphology analyses for each period individually, and comparative analyses between different periods. The findings of this paper will indicate the crucial factors that affecting the disappearance of house garden as well as the general positive effects of vegetation in urban contexts.

  5. Feasibility study on energy conservation and modernization of Chhatak Cement Co., Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energies and reducing greenhouse gas emission, discussions were given on a modernization plan for the Chhatak cement factory in The People's Republic of Bangladesh. The Chhatak cement factory having a nominal production capability of 267,000 tons a year uses mainly wet-type long kilns of old type, consuming a great amount of natural gas. The present plan has discussed adoption of the Japanese energy saving technologies. The technologies use a vertical roller mill for raw material pulverization, a suspension preheater and a short kiln for clinker sintering, a grate cooler for clinker cooling, and the pre-crushing system. The result of the discussions provided the prospects of reduction in the natural gas consumption at 50%, and reduction of electric power consumption at 16%. This will mean the annual reduction of about 22,000 tons as converted to crude oil. The CO2 reduction amount would reach 51,800 tons a year. The total investment amount would be US$37,327,000. The result of the financial analysis according to the case studies appears severe, wherein reduction of the various expenses is desired possibly by the finance from Japan with generous conditions.(NEDO)

  6. INTRODUCTION OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS AND FOOD ALLERGIES: NEW STUDIES AND MODERN CLINICAL GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted  to the issues  of introducing  complementary  foods  as prevention  of atopy  and diet therapy in children with food allergy. Food sensibilization,  as a rule, is the initial link of allergy manifestations.  It represents  the first step of the so-called atopic  march,  followed  by  possible  development  of more  severe,  including  respiratory,  manifestations.  Considering  the  fact  that allergic diseases  are currently one of the most common pathologies with a growing tendency,  the correct choice of foods and the timely introduction of complementary foods are relevant, especially for children with hereditary tainted allergies. These products should be as safe as possible, should not cause sensibilization and at the same time should provide the child with the necessary macroand micronutrients. The publication provides an overview of the most relevant studies conducted in this field as well as a modern approach based on evidence-based  medicine and presented in the clinical guidelines on food allergy in children developed and approved by the professional association «Union of Pediatricians of Russia».

  7. Comparative study of the introduction of modern botany in Japan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métailié, Georges

    2002-03-01

    Prior to the eighteenth-century, a similar approach towards the vegetable kingdom, mainly influenced by the tradition of the Chinese pharmacopoeias, could be observed in China and Japan. During the eighteenth-century, the interest for "Dutch learning" led some Japanese physicians and interpreters to be more and more interested in Western knowledge about medicinal plants. At the beginning of the nineteenth-century, a few scholars, through direct contact with foreigners or with foreign books, realised that there was a specific scientific field called "botany" and began to introduce the Japanese scholarly community to this new science which became one of the subjects taught at the "University of Tokyo" in 1877. In China, up to the middle of the nineteenth-century, no trace of modern botany can be found in any published document. In the second half of the century, a few botanical treatises were published, all being adaptations or translations of Western books, done by foreign-Chinese teams of translators. This situation began to change when Chinese students had the opportunity to go and study abroad, mainly to Japan, at the beginning of the twentieth-century, and, actually, it is between 20 and 30 years later that botany became a real scientific practice in China. We will analyse these two processes, their specificities and their interactions.

  8. LIFESTYLE PECULIARITIES OF MODERN MYOPIC SCHOOLCHILDREN: A MEDICO-SOCIAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Gurileva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia — is the most common vision defect, that is being formed due to impaired school routine, work and recreation conditions, motion activity and against the background of increased physical and psychological stress. Study objective: study lifestyle peculiarities of myopic schoolchildren. Methods: 349 pupils from 5–9 forms of a school with profound studying of various subjects were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. After a preventive examination the schoolchildren were divided into two groups according to ophthalmologists report, comparable by age and gender (162 myopic vs 182 without myopia. Results: all participants were poorly informed about myopia and possible preventive care, and during breaks behaved themselves in an unreasonable way judging from the positions of vision care. At home myopic children tended to spend more time doing their homework and on extracurricular studies, as well as on reading; these children in general spent more time watching TV or working on a computer; failed to rest properly, couldn’t switch from one type of activity to another, were working under conditions of unreasonable vision workload. In contrast to participants from control group, myopic schoolchildren spent less time resting: they were sleeping less and spent less time outdoors. Conclusion: revealed lifestyle peculiarities of modern myopic schoolchildren must become a target for preventive care. Their irrational lifestyle can be corrected by correction of daily routine, better organization of extracurricular exercises, visual exercises, better education of schoolchildren about disease risk factors.Key words: schoolchildren, myopia, risk factors.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 5–9

  9. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bann, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain. Methods: We used data from four British longitudinal, observational, birth cohort studies: the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 NSHD, 1958 National Child Development Study (1958 NCDS, 1970 British Cohort Study (1970 BCS, and 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (2001 MCS. BMI (kg/m2 was derived in each study from measured weight and height. Childhood socioeconomic position was indicated by the father's occupational social class, measured at the ages of 10–11 years. We examined associations between childhood socioeconomic position and anthropometric outcomes at age 7 years, 11 years, and 15 years to assess socioeconomic inequalities in each cohort using gender-adjusted linear regression models. We also used multilevel models to examine whether these inequalities widened or narrowed from childhood to adolescence, and quantile regression was used to examine whether the magnitude of inequalities differed across the outcome distribution. Findings: In England, Scotland, and Wales, 5362 singleton births were enrolled in 1946, 17 202 in 1958, 17 290 in 1970, and 16 404 in 2001. Low socioeconomic position was associated with lower weight at childhood and adolescent in the earlier-born cohorts (1946–70, but with higher weight in the 2001 MCS cohort. Weight disparities became larger from childhood to adolescence in the 2001 MCS but not the earlier-born cohorts (pinteraction=0·001. Low socioeconomic

  10. Possibilities of implementing modern philosophy of cost accounting: The case study of costs in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient cost management is one of the key tasks in modern management, primarily because of causal connection of costs, profitability and competitive advantage on the market. As a market-based concept, Target Costing represents modern accounting philosophy of cost accounting and profit planning. In modern business, efficient cost planning and management is provided by accounting information system as an integrated accounting and information solution which supplies enterprises with accounting data processing necessary for making business decisions related to the efficient management in accordance with the declared mission and goals of an enterprise. Basic information support in the process of planning and cost management is carried out by the cost accounting module which is a very important part of the accounting information system in every enterprise. The cost monitoring is provided according to the type, place and bearer within the cost accounting module as a segment of an integral accounting information system.

  11. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2012-04-01

    According to the embodied approach to visual perception, individuals scale the environment to their bodies. This approach highlights the central role of the body for immediate, situated action. The present experiments addressed whether body scaling--specifically, eye-height scaling--occurs in memory when action is not immediate. Participants viewed standard targets that were either the same height as, taller than, or shorter than themselves. Participants then viewed a comparison target and judged whether the comparison was taller or shorter than the standard target. Participants were most accurate when the standard target height matched their own heights, taking into account postural changes. Participants were biased to underestimate standard target height, in general, and to push standard target height away from their own heights. These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory.

  12. Genome-wide association study of primary tooth eruption identifies pleiotropic loci associated with height and craniofacial distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Hoggart, Clive J; Paternoster, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    Twin and family studies indicate that the timing of primary tooth eruption is highly heritable, with estimates typically exceeding 80%. To identify variants involved in primary tooth eruption, we performed a population-based genome-wide association study of 'age at first tooth' and 'number of teeth......' using 5998 and 6609 individuals, respectively, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and 5403 individuals from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966). We tested 2 446 724 SNPs imputed in both studies. Analyses were controlled for the effect of gestational age, sex...

  13. BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio of stunted v. non-stunted Indian children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanur, Mitravinda S; Ghugre, Padmini S

    2016-06-01

    To compare the BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of stunted and non-stunted children following different growth trajectories from low socio-economic strata in Mumbai, India. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were measured. Information regarding the duration of breast-feeding, age at initiation of complementary feeding and income was obtained. Birth weight was obtained from records. BMI, body fat, WHtR and change in weight sd were calculated. Children who were beneficiaries of anganwadis, Mumbai city, India. Three hundred and thirty children aged 2-4 years were selected in each of the stunted and non-stunted groups after matching for age and sex. After adjusting for birth weight, change in weight sd, duration of breast-feeding, age at complementary feeding initiation and income, stunted children had significantly higher body fat, WHtR and BMI than the non-stunted (Pchildren were classified based on their change in weight sd. Stunted children with no change in weight sd had higher mean body fat, BMI (Pchildren had higher BMI and WHtR than the non-stunted (both Pchildren had higher BMI than the non-stunted (Pfat in young children. Such a tendency, if continued during later childhood and adolescence, can increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases.

  14. Modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Y.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper fives a general review of modern cosmology. The following subjects are discussed: hot big bang and periodization of the evolution; Hubble expansion; the structure of the universe (pancake theory); baryon asymmetry; inflatory universe. (Auth.)

  15. Concordant preferences for actual height and facial cues to height

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Daniel Edward; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical height has a well-documented effect on human mate preferences. In general, both sexes prefer opposite-sex romantic relationships in which the man is taller than the woman, while individual preferences for height are affected by a person’s own height. Research in human mate choice has demonstrated that attraction to facial characteristics, such as facial adiposity, may reflect references for body characteristics. Here, we tested preferences for facial cues to height. In general, incre...

  16. APPLICATION OF EYE TRACKING FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION IN HUMAN FACTORS STUDIES IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Spielman, Z.; LeBlanc, K.; Rice, B.

    2017-05-01

    An important element of human factors engineering (HFE) pertains to measurement and evaluation (M&E). The role of HFE-M&E should be integrated throughout the entire control room modernization (CRM) process and be used for human-system performance evaluation and diagnostic purposes with resolving potential human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) and other human machine interface (HMI) design issues. NUREG-0711 describes how HFE in CRM should employ a hierarchical set of measures, particularly during integrated system validation (ISV), including plant performance, personnel task performance, situation awareness, cognitive workload, and anthropometric/ physiological factors. Historically, subjective measures have been primarily used since they are easier to collect and do not require specialized equipment. However, there are pitfalls with relying solely on subjective measures in M&E such that negatively impact reliability, sensitivity, and objectivity. As part of comprehensively capturing a diverse set of measures that strengthen findings and inferences made of the benefits from emerging technologies like advanced displays, this paper discusses the value of using eye tracking as an objective method that can be used in M&E. A brief description of eye tracking technology and relevant eye tracking measures is provided. Additionally, technical considerations and the unique challenges with using eye tracking in full-scaled simulations are addressed. Finally, this paper shares preliminary findings regarding the use of a wearable eye tracking system in a full-scale simulator study. These findings should help guide future full-scale simulator studies using eye tracking as a methodology to evaluate human-system performance.

  17. Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galobardes

    Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.

  18. Early Modern Philosophical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Bunge (Wiep)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe occurrence of an entry on early modern philosophical systems in an encyclopaedia of Neo-Latin studies is fraught with complications, if only on account of the gradual disappearance during the early modern period of Latin as the main vehicle of philosophical communication. What

  19. Perceived Indoor Environment and Occupants' Comfort in European "Modern" Office Buildings: The OFFICAIR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, Ioannis A; Saraga, Dikaia E; Mandin, Corinne; Roda, Célina; Fossati, Serena; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Carrer, Paolo; Dimitroulopoulou, Sani; Mihucz, Victor G; Szigeti, Tamás; Hänninen, Otto; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Bartzis, John G; Bluyssen, Philomena M

    2016-04-25

    Indoor environmental conditions (thermal, noise, light, and indoor air quality) may affect workers' comfort, and consequently their health and well-being, as well as their productivity. This study aimed to assess the relations between perceived indoor environment and occupants' comfort, and to examine the modifying effects of both personal and building characteristics. Within the framework of the European project OFFICAIR, a questionnaire survey was administered to 7441 workers in 167 "modern" office buildings in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain). Occupants assessed indoor environmental quality (IEQ) using both crude IEQ items (satisfaction with thermal comfort, noise, light, and indoor air quality), and detailed items related to indoor environmental parameters (e.g., too hot/cold temperature, humid/dry air, noise inside/outside, natural/artificial light, odor) of their office environment. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relations between perceived IEQ and occupants' comfort. The highest association with occupants' overall comfort was found for "noise", followed by "air quality", "light" and "thermal" satisfaction. Analysis of detailed parameters revealed that "noise inside the buildings" was highly associated with occupants' overall comfort. "Layout of the offices" was the next parameter highly associated with overall comfort. The relations between IEQ and comfort differed by personal characteristics (gender, age, and the Effort Reward Imbalance index), and building characteristics (office type and building's location). Workplace design should take into account both occupant and the building characteristics in order to provide healthier and more comfortable conditions to their occupants.

  20. Study of Near-Stall Flow Behavior in a Modern Transonic Fan with Composite Sweep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, Chunill; Shin, Hyoun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Detailed flow behavior in a modern transonic fan with a composite sweep is investigated in this paper. Both unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods are applied to investigate the flow field over a wide operating range. The calculated flow fields are compared with the data from an array of high-frequency response pressure transducers embedded in the fan casing. The current study shows that a relatively fine computational grid is required to resolve the flow field adequately and to calculate the pressure rise across the fan correctly. The calculated flow field shows detailed flow structure near the fan rotor tip region. Due to the introduction of composite sweep toward the rotor tip, the flow structure at the rotor tip is much more stable compared to that of the conventional blade design. The passage shock stays very close to the leading edge at the rotor tip even at the throttle limit. On the other hand, the passage shock becomes stronger and detaches earlier from the blade passage at the radius where the blade sweep is in the opposite direction. The interaction between the tip clearance vortex and the passage shock becomes intense as the fan operates toward the stall limit, and tip clearance vortex breakdown occurs at near-stall operation. URANS calculates the time-averaged flow field fairly well. Details of measured RMS static pressure are not calculated with sufficient accuracy with URANS. On the other hand, LES calculates details of the measured unsteady flow features in the current transonic fan with composite sweep fairly well and reveals the flow mechanism behind the measured unsteady flow field.

  1. An empirical study of cultural evolution: the development of European cooking from medieval to modern times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindenfors, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out an empirical study of long-term change in European cookery to test if the development of this cultural phenomenon matches a general hypothesis about cultural evolution: that human cultural change is characterized by cumulativity. Data from seven cookery books, evenly spaced across time, the oldest one written in medieval times (~1200 and the most recent one dating from late modernity (1999, were compared. Ten recipes from each of the categories “poultry recipes”, “fish recipes” and “meat recipes” were arbitrarily selected from each cookery book by selecting the first ten recipes in each category, and the numbers (per recipe of steps, separate partial processes, methods, ingredients, semi-manufactured ingredients, compound semi-manufactured ingredients (defined as semi-manufactured ingredients containing no less than two raw products, and self-made semi-manufactured ingredients were counted. Regression analyses were used to quantitatively compare the cookery from different ages. We found a significant increase in the numbers (per recipe of steps, separate partial processes, methods, ingredients and semi-manufactured ingredients. These significant increases enabled us to identify the development of cookery as an example of the general trend of cumulativity in long-term cultural evolution. The number of self-made semi-manufactured ingredients per recipe, however, may have decreased somewhat over time, something which may reflect the cumulative characteristics of cultural evolution at the level of society, considering the accumulation of knowledge that is required to industrialize food production.

  2. Historic Buildings and Modern Technology: The California State Library Remodels for Automation--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Provides background on the California State Library, a description of the Library and Courts Building, and a summary of automation objectives. Concerns in renovation to accommodate a modern library are then discussed: (1) environment; (2) electrical and telephone circuitry; (3) data and voice communications; (4) physical factors; and (5)…

  3. Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy-Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagy, Gabriel; Jonkmann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    In modern expectancy-value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy x Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study…

  4. X-ray diffuse scattering study of height fluctuations at the liquid-vapor interface of gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Binhua [CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Meron, Mati [CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gebhardt, Jeff [CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Graber, Tim [CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Li Dongxu [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Yang Bin [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rice, Stuart A. [Department of Chemistry and James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)]. E-mail: s-rice@uchicago.edu

    2005-02-28

    We report an experimental study of wavelength dependent interfacial tension of liquid Ga using X-ray surface diffusion scattering. The observed surface tension can be explained by Mecke-Dietrich formalism derived from a microscopic density functional theory when the known stratified liquid-vapor interfacial density profile of Ga and a so-called individual local pseudo-potential for the pair-interaction potential of liquid metal are used. The quantitative behavior of the surface tension as a function of wavelength is very sensitive to the forms of both the interfacial density profile and the asymptotic part of the pair-potential, and is different from that observed from several dielectric liquids reported previously (Nature 403 (2000) 871; Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 216101)

  5. Understanding the Steric Height Long Term Variability at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) Site with a Neutral Density Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves Neto, A.; Johnson, R. J.; Bates, N. R.

    2016-02-01

    Rising sea level is one of the main concerns for human life in a scenario with global atmosphere and ocean warming, which is of particular concern for oceanic islands. Bermuda, located in the center of the Sargasso Sea, provides an ideal location to investigate sea level rise since it has a long term tide gauge (1933-present) and is in close proximity to deep ocean time-series sites, namely, Hydrostation `S' (1954-present) and the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study site (1988-present). In this study, we use the monthly CTD deep casts at BATS to compute the contribution of steric height (SH) to the local sea surface height (SSH) for the past 24 years. To determine the relative contribution from the various water masses we first define 8 layers (Surface Layer, Upper Thermocline, Subtropical Mode-Water, Lower Thermocline, Antarctic Intermediate Water, Labrador Sea Water, Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water, Denmark Strait Overflow Water) based on neutral density criteria for which SH is computed. Additionally, we calculate the thermosteric and halosteric components for each of the defined neutral density layers. Surprisingly, the results show that, despite a 3.3mm/yr sea level rise observed at the Bermuda tide gauge, the steric contribution to the SSH at BATS has decreased at a rate of -1.1mm/yr during the same period. The thermal component is found to account for the negative trend in the steric height (-4.4mm/yr), whereas the halosteric component (3.3mm/yr) partially compensates the thermal signal and can be explained by an overall cooling and freshening at the BATS site. Although the surface layer and the upper thermocline waters are warming, all the subtropical and polar water masses, which represent most of the local water column, are cooling and therefore drive the overall SH contribution to the local SSH. Hence, it suggests that the mass contribution to the local SSH plays an important role in the sea level rise, for which we investigate with GRACE data.

  6. A fixed full-matrix method for determining ice sheet height change from satellite altimeter: an ENVISAT case study in East Antarctica with backscatter analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuande; Hwang, Cheinway; E, Dongchen

    2014-09-01

    A new method, called the fixed full-matrix method (FFM), is used to compute height changes at crossovers of satellite altimeter ground tracks. Using the ENVISAT data in East Antarctica, FFM results in crossovers of altimeter heights that are 1.9 and 79 times more than those from the fixed half method (FHM) and the one-row method (ORM). The mean standard error of height changes is about 14 cm from ORM, which is reduced to 7 cm by FHM and to 3 cm by FFM. Unlike FHM, FFM leads to uniform errors in the first-half and second-half height-change time series. FFM has the advantage in improving the accuracy of the change of height and backscattered power over ORM and FHM. Assisted by the ICESat-derived height changes, we determine the optimal threshold correlation coefficient (TCC) for a best correction for the backscatter effect on ENVISAT height changes. The TCC value of 0.92 yields an optimal result for FFM. With this value, FFM yields ENVISAT-derived height change rates in East Antarctica mostly falling between and 3 cm/year, and matching the ICESat result to 0.94 cm/year. The ENVISAT result will provide a constraint on the current mass balance result along the Chinese expedition route CHINARE.

  7. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Jelenkovic, A.; Sund, R.; Sung, J.; Hopper, J.L.; Ooki, S.; Heikkilä, K.; Aaltonen, S.; Tarnoki, A.D.; Tarnoki, D.L.; Willemsen, G.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Saudino, K.J.; Cutler, T.L.; Nelson, T.L.; Whitfield, K.E.; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.; Fisher, A.; He, M.; Ding, X.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sodemann, M.; Song, Y.M.; Yang, S.; Lee, K.; Jeong, H.U.; Knafo-Noam, A.; Mankuta, D.; Abramson, L.; Burt, S.A.; Klump, K.L.; Ordonana, J.R.; Sanchez-Romera, J.F.; Colodro-Conde, L.; Harris, J.R.; Brandt, I.; Sevenius Nilsen, T.; Craig, J.M.; Saffery, R.; Ji, F.; Ning, F.; Pang, Z.; Dubois, L.; Boivin, M.; Brendgen, M.; Dionne, G.; Vitaro, F.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dahl Aslan, A.K.; Tynelius, P.; Haworth, C.M.A.; Plomin, R.; Rebato, E.; Rose, R.J.; Goldberg, J.H.; Rasmussen, F.; Hur, Y.M.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Kaprio, J.; Silventoinen, K.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of

  8. Studi Identifikasi Kandungan Formalin pada Ikan Pindang di Pasar Tradisional dan Modern Kota Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Sitiopan Telaumbanua, Henny Putri

    2012-01-01

    Ikan pindang adalah salah satu jenis makanan olahan yang dikonsumsi masyarakat dan harus segera dijual karena daya tahan yang terbatas dan akan cepat membusuk. Penggunaan formalin sebagai pengawet ternyata telah disalahgunakan oleh pihak-pihak yang tidak bertanggungjawab, dengan cara menggunakan formalin tersebut sebagai bahan pengawet dalam industri makanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kandungan formalin pada ikan pindang yang dijual di pasar tradisional dan modern Kota S...

  9. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's Frankenstein, or the modern Prometheus: a psychological study of unrepaired shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Sally K; Morrison, Nancy K

    2013-01-01

    Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's modern Prometheus shows us the eternal punishment of unrepaired shame--eternal entrapment within the shame triangle of victim, perpetrator and rescuer. This paper describes how Shelley's insight--that lack of love creates a monster living in shame--is being confirmed by neuroscience and how this is exemplified in two characters--the creature and Victor Frankenstein. Additionally, it delineates how pastoral counselors can help those suffering from unrepaired shame

  10. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  11. STORY OF BIG FLOOD IN THE MODERN INDONESIAN LITERARY: AN ECOCRITICISM STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifur Rohman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature of paper shows that Ecocriticism is not popular issue in the modern Indonesian criticism. Hence, it is very crucial to develop the Indonesian criticism based on the ecological perspective because nowday that the term development is synonym with exploiting the nature. The paper is to find out the ecological issue in the modern indonesian literary, especially in fiction prose and poems publised for late ten years. To analyze the work, researcher is used semiotic method and hermeneutic design of research as an approach. Semiotic will investigate the symbol behind the words and hermeneutic will translated the symbol to actual message. Based on the analysis, the ecological theme in the modern Indonesian literary is crucial interpretation. The meaning appeared in the work  has given the imporant values of increasing care of nature, human kind, and harmonization. For recomentation, in the future researcher should have interpretate the work based on the ecocriticism to increase meaning of human and nature.

  12. Height perception influenced by texture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine whether a texture gradient influences perception of relative object height. Previous research implicated texture cues in judgments of object width, but similar influences have not been demonstrated for relative height. In this study, I evaluate a hypothesis that the projective ratio of the number of texture elements covered by the objects combined with the ratio of the retinal object heights determines percepts of relative object height. Density of texture background was varied: four density conditions ranged from no-texture to very dense texture. In experiments 1 and 2, participants judged the height of comparison bar compared to the standard bar positioned on no-texture or textured backgrounds. Results showed relative height judgments differed with texture manipulations, consistent with predictions from a hypothesised combination of the number of texture elements with retinal height (experiment 1), or partially consistent with this hypothesis (experiment 2). In experiment 2, variations in the position of a comparison object showed that comparisons located far from the horizon were judged more poorly than in other positions. In experiment 3 I examined distance perception; relative distance judgments were found to be also affected by textured backgrounds. Results are discussed in terms of Gibson's relational theory and distance calibration theory.

  13. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  14. Abdominal Obesity in German Adolescents Defined by Waist-to-Height Ratio and Its Association to Elevated Blood Pressure: The KiGGS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kromeyer-Hauschild

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the fixed 0.5 cut-off and the age- and sex-specific 90th percentile (P90 for waist-to-height ratio (WHtR in German adolescents with respect to the prevalence of abdominal obesity and to compare the screening ability of WHtR and BMI to identify hypertensive blood pressure (BP values. Methods: Between 2003 and 2006, the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS was carried out including 3,492 boys and 3,321 girls aged 11-17 years. Abdominal obesity was assessed by two WHtR cut-points (P90; 0.5. Hypertensive BP was defined as BP exceeding age-, sex- and height-specific 95th percentiles or the adult threshold for hypertension (140/90 mm Hg. Results: Agreement between the WHtR cut-offs was very good (Kappa 0.89 for boys; 0.81 for girls, and the prevalence of abdominal obesity was slightly higher using P90 (boys 12.0%; girls 11.3% compared to 0.5 (boys 10.7%; girls 8.0%. WHtR and BMI-for-age had equivalent ability to discriminate hypertensive BP (ROC-AUC Conclusion: The fixed 0.5 WHtR cut-off can be used in German adolescents to characterize abdominal obesity. However, WHtR is not suitable as a screening tool for hypertensive BP in adolescents.

  15. New quality assurance program integrating ''modern radiotherapy'' within the German Hodgkin Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, J.; Haverkamp, U.; Eich, H.T. [University of Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany); Baues, C.; Marnitz-Schulze, S. [University of Cologne, Department of Radiation Oncology, Koeln (Germany); Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [University of Marburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Marburg (Germany); Herfarth, K. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Lukas, P. [University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Innsbruck (Austria); Schmidberger, H. [University of Mainz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mainz (Germany); Fuchs, M.; Engert, A. [University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine, Koeln (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Field design changed substantially from extended-field RT (EF-RT) to involved-field RT (IF-RT) and now to involved-node RT (IN-RT) and involved-site RT (IS-RT) as well as treatment techniques in radiotherapy (RT) of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the establishment of a quality assurance program (QAP) including modern RT techniques and field designs within the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). In the era of modern conformal RT, this QAP had to be fundamentally adapted and a new evaluation process has been intensively discussed by the radiotherapeutic expert panel of the GHSG. The expert panel developed guidelines and criteria to analyse ''modern'' field designs and treatment techniques. This work is based on a dataset of 11 patients treated within the sixth study generation (HD16-17). To develop a QAP of ''modern RT'', the expert panel defined criteria for analysing current RT procedures. The consensus of a modified QAP in ongoing and future trials is presented. With this schedule, the QAP of the GHSG could serve as a model for other study groups. (orig.) [German] Nicht nur die Zielvolumendefinitionen haben sich von der Extended-Field- (EF-RT) ueber die Involved-Field- (IF-RT) bis zur Involved-Node- (IN-RT) und Involved-Site-Radiotherapie (IS-RT) weiterentwickelt. Auch die Radiotherapie(RT)-Techniken in der Behandlung von Patienten mit Hodgkin-Lymphom haben Aenderungen erfahren. Wir moechten aufzeigen, wie die Arbeit des Qualitaetssicherungsprogramms (QAP) innerhalb der Deutschen Hodgkin Studiengruppe (German Hodgkin Study Group [GHSG]) in der Aera der ''modernen RT'' hinsichtlich intensitaetsmodulierter RT (IMRT) und bildgefuehrter RT (IGRT), aber auch hinsichtlich moderner Felddefinitionen wie bei der IN-RT angepasst wurde. In der Aera der ''modernen RT'' wurde das QAP vom radiotherapeutischen Expertenpanel der GHSG im Rahmen einiger

  16. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  17. A study of the daily life of modern teenagers: the presence in social networks as an integral component of communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroleva D.O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the methodologies of the study of the everyday life of modern teenagers whiсh can simultaneously be used to traceevents occurring in real and virtual space: “Online and offline diary" and "15 minutes". The data of pilot studies showed that the teenager’s online performance is mainly presented in a form of communication in social networks. We have discovered that the on- and offline convergence of space for growth is inseparable from respondents themselves. Through the active use of social networks, a modern teenager is able to be present in different socialenvironments simultaneously. Constant checking news and posts in social networks is a new, peculiar to teenage daily ritual. The so-called "red zones", where a teenager consciously waives the possibility of "escape" into a parallel reality, are linked to significant events in everyday life, while a feeling of boredom brings to life the compensation through "getting about" in virtual space.

  18. MARKET FAIRNESS IN ISLAMIC ECONOMICS LAW AND ETHICS: A Study on Modern and Traditional Market Regulations in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapa Khamal Rokan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been motivated by unfair market conditions in the form of marginalization of traditional markets in Indonesia due to unequal competition with the modern market. This article tries to find a fair legal formulation to maintain the existence of a small market (traditional. To find the legal formulation, the author attempts to discuss market regulation in Indonesian legislation, analyzed and found it to be optimized to create a fair market arrangements in the perspective of Islamic law. This study propose a paradigm that the market functions not only as an business institution but also as religious and social institutions based on brotherhood which requires mutual respect and responsibility. There are prescriptive law to maintain the existence of traditional markets in Indonesia, which optimizes the concept of ownership as a form of common ownership and optimize the regulation of cooperation between the traditional and the modern market economy based on the doctrine of Islamic law.

  19. Effect of growth hormone treatment on the adult height of children with chronic renal failure. German Study Group for Growth Hormone Treatment in Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, D; Schaefer, F; Nissel, R; Wühl, E; Tönshoff, B; Mehls, O

    2000-09-28

    Growth hormone treatment stimulates growth in short children with chronic renal failure. However, the extent to which this therapy increases final adult height is not known. We followed 38 initially prepubertal children with chronic renal failure treated with growth hormone for a mean of 5.3 years until they reached their final adult height. The mean (+/-SD) age at the start of treatment was 10.4+/-2.2 years, the mean bone age was 7.1+/-2.3 years, and the mean height was 3.1+/-1.2 SD below normal. Fifty matched children with chronic renal failure who were not treated with growth hormone served as controls. The children treated with growth hormone had sustained catch-up growth, whereas the control children had progressive growth failure. The mean final height of the growth hormone-treated children was 165 cm for boys and 156 cm for girls. The mean final adult height of the growth hormone-treated children was 1.6+/-1.2 SD below normal, which was 1.4 SD above their standardized height at base line (Pgrowth hormone-treated children, treatment was not associated with a shortening of the pubertal growth spurt. The total height gain was positively associated with the initial target-height deficit and the duration of growth hormone therapy and was negatively associated with the percentage of the observation period spent receiving dialysis treatment. Long-term growth hormone treatment of children with chronic renal failure induces persistent catch-up growth, and the majority of patients achieve normal adult height.

  20. Use of traditional and modern contraceptives among childbearing women: findings from a mixed methods study in two southwestern Nigerian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Akpan, Wilson

    2018-05-09

    Contraceptive use has numerous health benefits such as preventing unplanned pregnancies, ensuring optimum spacing between births, reducing maternal and child mortality, and improving the lives of women and children in general. This study examines the level of contraceptive use, its determinants, reasons for non-use of contraception among women in the reproductive age group (18-49 years) in two southwestern Nigerian states. The study adopted an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data from 809 participants selected using a 3-stage cluster random sampling technique. We also conducted 46 in-depth interviews. In order to investigate the association between the socio-demographic variables and use of contraceptive methods, we estimated the binary logistic regression models. The findings indicated that knowledge of any methods of contraception was almost universal among the participants. The rates of ever use and current use of contraception was 80 and 66.6%, respectively. However, only 43.9% of the participants had ever used any modern contraceptive methods, considered to be more reliable. The fear of side effects of modern contraceptive methods drove women to rely on less effective traditional methods (withdrawal and rhythm methods). Some women employed crude and unproven contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancies. Our findings show that the rate of contraceptive use was high in the study setting. However, many women chose less effective traditional contraceptive methods over more effective modern contraceptive methods due to fear of side effects of the latter. Patient education on the various options of modern contraceptives, their side effects and management would be crucial towards expanding the family planning services in the study setting.

  1. An epidemiological study of cancer incidence and mortality among nuclear industry workers at Lucas Heights Science and Technology centre in collaboration with IARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, R.R.; Kaldor, J.

    1999-01-01

    An epidemiological study is being undertaken at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) where the only nuclear reactor in Australia has been in operation since 1958. The study is part of an international collaborative study coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and has dual objectives, first to assess whether workers at LHSTC have had different levels of mortality or cancer incidence from the New South Wales and the Australian populations, and second, as part of the IARC study, to estimate as precisely as possible, through collaboration with IARC, the risk of contracting cancer from low-level, long-term exposure to ionising radiation. The research project is a retrospective cohort study based on records of employment and exposure to radiation kept at LHSTC since 1957. Electronic linkage of all the available dosimetry and employment information with national registers of cancer incidence and mortality is being undertaken for the cohort of LHSTC workers, to allow for a passive follow-up of more than 7000 workers employed from 1957 onwards

  2. Medicinal plants used with Thai Traditional Medicine in modern healthcare services: a case study in Kabchoeng Hospital, Surin Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotchoungchatchai, Somtanuek; Saralamp, Promchit; Jenjittikul, Thaya; Pornsiripongse, Saowapa; Prathanturarug, Sompop

    2012-05-07

    Thai Traditional Medicine (TTM) is available in many modern hospitals in Thailand. However, there have been difficulties in integrating TTM, particularly the practices of the use of herbal medicines, into modern healthcare services. Kabchoeng Hospital is one hospital that has been able to overcome these difficulties. Thus, this study aimed to document the successful utilization of herbal medicine at Kabchoeng Hospital. The documentation focused on both the knowledge of medicinal plants and the success factors that facilitated the utilization of herbal medicine in the context of a modern hospital in Thailand. Kabchoeng Hospital was intentionally selected for this case study. Participatory observation was used for the data collection. There were six groups of key informants: three applied Thai Traditional Medicine practitioners (ATTMPs), a pharmacist, two physicians, two folk healers, the head of an herbal cultivation and collection group, and 190 patients. The plant specimens were collected and identified based on the botanical literature and a comparison with authentic specimens; these identifications were assisted by microscopic and thin layer chromatography (TLC) techniques. Eighty-nine medicinal plants were used for the herbal preparations. The ATTMPs used these plants to prepare 29 standard herbal preparations and occasional extemporaneous preparations. Moreover, in this hospital, seven herbal preparations were purchased from herbal medicine manufacturers. In total, 36 preparations were used for 10 groups of symptoms, such as the treatment of respiratory system disorders, musculo-skeletal system disorders, and digestive system disorders. Four success factors that facilitated the utilization of herbal medicine at Kabchoeng Hospital were determined. These factors included a proper understanding of the uses of herbal medicines, the successful integration of the modern and TTM healthcare teams, the support of an herbal cultivation and collection group, and the

  3. Ethnic variation in the correlation between waist to height ratio and total daily insulin requirement in children with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday, Suma; Gorman, Shaun; Feltbower, Richard G; Mathai, Mathew

    2017-03-01

    Total daily insulin required to achieve glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on numerous factors. Correlation of insulin requirement to body mass index and waist circumference has been variably reported in the literature and that of waist-to-height ratio has not been studied. To study the correlation between daily insulin requirement [total daily dose (TDD)] and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in a multiethnic population. A cross-sectional study of children (5-18 years) with T1D attending a diabetes clinic in a multiethnic population in Bradford, UK was conducted. Physical measurements were undertaken in the clinic setting and data collected from case notes and patients/carers. Sixty nine patients with mean age 12.7(±3.1) yr, duration of diabetes 5.4(±3.5) yr and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 80(±18)mmol/mol(9.5 ± 1.6%) were recruited. Nearly 54% (n = 37) were white and 46% were non-white (29 Asian Pakistani; 1 Indian; 2 mixed White Afro-Caribbean). The two groups had similar demographics and disease profiles. Non-whites compared with whites had a higher prevalence of obesity (15 vs 5%, p 1), family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) (49% vs. 33%), microalbuminuria (22% vs. 11%, p 1). WHtR and TDD were poorly correlated in the whole group. There was however a significant positive correlation in Caucasians (r = 0.583, N = 37, p 1) and a negative correlation in Asian Pakistanis (r = -0.472, N = 32, p 1); with a significant negative correlation seen in subjects with relatives with T2D (r = -0.86, N = 6, p = 0.02). The variation in correlations highlights that the two ethnic groups behave differently and should therefore be studied separately with regards to factors influencing insulin requirements with careful consideration to the presence of parental IR. Further prospective studies are required to explore the reasons for these differences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Feasibility study on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at Thanlyin oil refinery by the modernization of existing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The feasibility study was conducted on a project in Myanmar for the energy saving effect and reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions by introducing modern refining facilities in Thanlyin Refinery of Myanmar Petrochemical Enterprise. The project items selected as a result of the study are improvement in the heat recovery efficiency of crude distillation unit, improvement in the furnace efficiency of crude distillation unit and coker plant, improvement in the efficiency of power plant, reduction of steam loss, modernization of the cooling water system, recovery and reuse of off-gas and LPG in crude distillation unit, and modernization of intermediate products run-down system. The conceptual designs and studies on these items indicate that implementation of these projects could lead to energy saving of 25,844 tons/y as crude and CO2 emission abatement of 57,457 tons/y, 46% and 33% reduction from the baseline. The total expenses for all of these items are estimated at 4,300 million yen. These are judged to be promising projects, with estimated investment recovery period of 9 years and internal profit rate of 12.9%, when the special yen loans are available. (NEDO)

  5. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawada, Norie; Wark, Petra A.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Silva, Marisa Da; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality

  6. Electro-thermal Modeling of Modern Power Devices for Studying Abnormal Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui

    in industrial power electronic systems in the range above 10 kW. The failure of IGBTs can be generally classified as catastrophic failures and wear out failures. A wear out failure is mainly induced by accumulated degradation with time, while a catastrophic failure is triggered by a single-event abnormal....... The objective of this project has been to model and predict the electro-thermal behavior of IGBT power modules under abnormal conditions, especially short circuits. A thorough investigation on catastrophic failure modes and mechanisms of modern power semiconductor devices, including IGBTs and power diodes, has...

  7. Antara Makkah, Basrah dan Kemerdekaan Studi Konstruksi Historis Pendidikan Islam Era Klasik hingga Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Islamic Education at first period was showed its superiority. It was proved by the emergency of superior, dinamic and creative generation. The generation from companions of the prophet, tabi’in and tabi’it tabiin are a sturdy generation, have a high comitment for moral values of Islam. Whereas on the pre-modern, Islam was suffered a decrease. Its quite alarming setback. Its period of deteriorate. This periode was identified as time of the demise of the Islamic struggle. So, education was not incised achievement then previous generations.

  8. Fit-To-Fight: Waist vs Waist/Height Measurements to Determine an Individual's Fitness Level - A Study in Statistical Regression and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swiderski, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    .... The abdominal measurement is a "one-size-fits-all" fitness standard. This research determines that a person's waist-to-height ratio is a better measurement than the waist measurement to estimate an individual's fitness level...

  9. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  10. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  11. The politics of China studies in South Korea: A critical examination of South Korean historiography of modern China since 1945

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyoun HWANG

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the South Korean scholarship on modem Chinese history since 1945 can be characterized as apolitical with its objectivism,positivism,liberalism,and anti-communist nationalism.This characteristic is a product of not only the Cold War and the military regimes of South Korea but also the political orientation and stance of the senior historians who played an initial and decisive role in determining the goal,direc tion,and research methods of South Korean studies concerning modem China.The SouthKorean perspective they promoted usually meant the study of liberal,apolitical topics in Chinese history from a nationalist perspective without any political/ideological influences.The utility of modern Chinese history has mainly lain in helping to construct an anti-socialist,modern Korean nation-state through modernization.South Korean historians of modem China,the paper argues,have not been able to induce a meaningful,broad discussion of critical historical issues in modem China as they might pertain to South Korean society,thus failing to utilize them to help challenge and transform the undemocratic South Korean society and regimes.Hence,the future success of new academic undertakings since the 1990s by South Korean historians will be determined by whether or not they are able to make a radical break from the previous scholarship,in particular,from its objectivism and nationalism.

  12. Inclusive design in the implementation of projects for schools modernization in Portugal - case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lígia; Aguiar, Carlos; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    The Project for Schools Modernization taking place in Portugal, with an estimated total investment of 2450 million for the intervention in the first 205 schools, provide the reclassification of 332 secondary schools by 2015. One of the questions we can pose is if the authorities and the teams of architects selected to design these schools considered fundamental for the correctness of architectural barriers within the school and its accessibility the implementation of standards and principles of inclusion of children/teenagers with special needs within their school environment. As most of the projects are already being implemented, the main aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of a comparative analysis and synthesis of six schools located in the northern part of the country. This analysis occurs from the of Participatory Design perspective which appeals to the experience of the disable children to look (or evaluate) the negative and positive factors in terms of physical space, interpreted by inclusive design rules and orientations. Therefore, the evaluation of schools modernization project, and its discussion, is central for the understanding how these children are addressed in projects which are directed at them.

  13. Simulasi Citra Nasionalis Melalui Fashion: Studi Kasus Batik Printing dalam Gaya Hidup Post Modern Masyarakat Kota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oscario

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Batik printing, especially imported batik printing has threatened Indonesian handwritten batik and Indonesian stamp batik. Batik printing, that from the point of view of post-modern aesthetic is called pastiche, is an imitation of Batik that lack of authenticity and orisinality. Ironically, Indonesian people, especially those who live in Jakarta and who always want to preserve Indonesian culture by wearing batik, are often wearing imported Batik printing. This allegedly occurred because majority of people who live in Jakarta are always searching for an identity. They are new comers that come from many Indonesian areas; that had already lost bonding with their origin areas. Therefore they easily fallen into imitation that can provide identitiy –eventhough it’s only an artificial identity- such as batik printing. Batik printing is able to provide an artificial identity by stimulating a nationalist image. People didn’t realize they have been living in fatamorgana of post-modern era. In this era, image becomes very dominant. It constructs reality, an illusive reality. People in Jakarta become concerned only with appearance and style. They have merged into a massive consumption. 

  14. Comparison of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization references/standards for height in contemporary Australian children: analyses of the Raine Study and Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ian; Harris, Mark; Cotterill, Andrew; Garnett, Sarah; Bannink, Ellen; Pennell, Craig; Sly, Peter; Leong, Gary M; Cowell, Chris; Ambler, Geoff; Werther, George; Hofman, Paul; Cutfield, Wayne; Choong, Catherine S

    2014-11-01

    (i) To compare the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference and World Health Organization (WHO) standard/reference for height, particularly with respect to short stature and eligibility for growth hormone (GH) treatment by applying them to contemporary Australian children; (ii) To examine the implications for identifying short stature and eligibility for GH treatment. Children from the longitudinal Raine Study were serially measured for height from 1991 to 2005 (2-15-year-old girls (660) and boys (702) from Western Australia). In the cross-sectional Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity survey (2-16-year-old boys (2415) and girls (2379) from all states), height was measured in 2007. Heights were converted to standard deviation scores (SDSs) based on CDC and WHO. Means and standard deviations of height-SDS varied between CDC and WHO definitions and with age and gender within each definition. However, both identified similar frequencies of short stature (standard/reference for height. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  16. Modern Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Yuan Zhong

    2002-01-01

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The ...

  17. Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...

  18. Unified height systems after GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  19. Modern bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Toye, John

    2006-01-01

    Max Weber believed that bureaucracy could be understood by analysing its ideal-typical characteristics, and that these characteristics would become more pervasive as the modern age advanced. Weber’s horizontal account of bureaucracy can be criticised on various grounds, including its unrealistic notion of bureaucratic rationality. An alternative view is proposed, namely, that the development of state bureaucracies is driven by the trajectory of the highpower politics in which they are nested....

  20. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  1. Modern maths

    CERN Multimedia

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  2. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower limb measurements, such as knee height, as well as upper limb measures ... had with bone injuries/fractures affecting height or ulna length; and n = 1 had a ... and heels, buttocks and upper back in contact with the vertical surface of the .... found striking similarity in linear growth of infants to five-year- olds among all ...

  3. Anterior Face Height Values in a Nigerian Population | Folaranmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Anterior Upper Face Height 47.7 (4) mm, Anterior Total Face Height (ATFH) 108.5 (5) mm, ratio of ALFH to ATFH ALFH: ATFH 56 (4)%. Conclusion: This study provides anterior face height measurements, which will be of great significance in evaluating facial proportions andesthetics in orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, ...

  4. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  5. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  6. Modern Supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, Petr P

    2006-01-01

    We have spent more than twenty years applying supersymmetry (SUSY) to elementary particle physics and attempting to find an experimental manifestation of this symmetry. Terning's monograph demonstrates the strong influence of SUSY on theoretical elaborations in the field of elementary particles. It gives both an overview of modern supersymmetry in elementary particle physics and calculation techniques. The author, trying to be closer to applications of SUSY in the real world of elementary particles, is also anticipating the importance of supersymmetry for rigorous study of nonperturbative phenomena in quantum field theory. In particular, he presents the 'exact' SUSY β function using instanton methods, phenomena of anomalies and dualities. Supersymmetry algebra is introduced by adding two anticommuting spinor generators to Poincare algebra and by presenting massive and massless supermultiplets of its representations. The author prefers to use mostly the component description of field contents of the theories in question rather than the superfield formalism. Such a style makes the account closer to physical characteristics. Relations required by SUSY among β functions of the gauge, Yukawa and quartic interactions are checked by direct calculations as well as to all orders in perturbation theory, thus demonstrating that SUSY survives quantization. A discussion is included of the hierarchy problem of different scales of weak and strong interactions and its possible solution by the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Different SUSY breaking mechanisms are presented corresponding to a realistic phenomenology. The monograph can also be considered as a guide to 'duality' relations connecting different SUSY gauge theories, supergravities and superstrings. This is demonstrated referring to the particular properties and characteristics of these theories (field contents, scaling dimensions of appropriate operators etc). In particular, the last chapter deals with the Ad

  7. Adult Height after Growth Hormone Treatment at Pubertal Onset in Short Adolescents Born Small for Gestational Age: Results from a Belgian Registry-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Information on the efficacy of GH treatment in short SGA children starting their treatment in adolescence is limited. Therefore, adult height (AH, total height gain, and pubertal height gain were evaluated in short SGA children who started GH treatment at pubertal onset. Patient and Methods. Growth data of 47 short SGA adolescents (22 boys who started GH treatment at pubertal onset (PUB group were compared with results from 27 short SGA patients (11 boys who started GH therapy at least 1 year before pubertal onset (PrePUB group. Results. The PUB group achieved a mean (±SD total height gain of 0.8 ± 0.7 SDS and an AH of −2.5 ± 0.7 SDS after 4.1 ± 1.1 years of GH treatment with a dosage of 41.8 ± 8.4 μg/kg/day. These results were comparable with those in the PrePUB group, which was treated for a longer duration (5.8 ± 2.1 years, resulting in a total height gain of 1.1 ± 0.7 SDS and an AH of −2.1 ± 1.0 SDS. Multiple regression analysis showed a significantly lower height gain in pubertal patients, females, and patients weighing less at start of GH treatment. An AH above −2 SDS and above the parent-specific lower limit of height was, respectively, reached in 28% and 70% of PUB and 44% and 67% of PrePUB patients (NS. AH SDS was positively correlated with the height SDS at start of GH. Conclusions. Short SGA adolescents starting GH therapy at an early pubertal stage have a modest and variable height gain. A normal AH can be expected in one third of the patients, especially in those with a smaller height deficit at onset of GH treatment.

  8. Percentage height of center of mass is associated with the risk of falls among elderly women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cláudio W L; Castro, Charlles H M; Pedreira, Paulo G; Heymann, Roberto E; Szejnfeld, Vera L

    2011-06-01

    Falls are a serious health problem for aged people, causing social and economic burden. Despite being an important determinant of balance, the positioning of the center of mass (COM) has not been evaluated as a risk factor for falls. This study examined the association between the percentage height of COM (%COM) and the risk of falls in the elderly. Healthy women aged 60 years and older were consecutively selected in a case-control study. Forty-eight individuals classified as "fallers" (having suffered two or more falls in the previous year) were the cases while 48 age and weight-matched women with one fall or no falls in the previous year were the controls ("non-fallers"). Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA, 30-second chair stand test, abdominal circumference, Berg's balance scale and %COM using the reaction board method were evaluated in all participants. Body composition parameters were not significantly different between groups. Spine and hip BMD tended to be lower in the fallers, but the difference was significant only at the femoral neck (0.80±0.10g/cm(2) versus 0.87±0.76g/cm(2); pfalls. Further work is needed in order to determine the value of board reaction measurements in a clinical setting to identify patients at high risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73 competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively. After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90°s-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  10. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  11. Atomic nature of the Schottky barrier height formation of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface: An in-situ synchrotron radiation photoemission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Wan-Sin; Lin, Keng-Yung; Wei, Guo-Jhen; Cheng, Yi-Ting; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Wan, Hsien-Wen; Pi, Tun-Wen; Tung, Raymond T.; Kwo, Jueinai; Hong, Minghwei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction of Ag on a p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 surface has been studied. • The dipole formation mechanism of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface is proposed. • Determination of the SBH prior to metal formation is found. • Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining the SBH is evident. - Abstract: The Interface of Ag with p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 has been studied to further understand the formation mechanism of the Schottky barrier height (SBH). In the initial phase of Ag deposition, high-resolution core-level data show that Ag adatoms effectively passivate the surface As-As dimers without breaking them apart. The Ag(+)-As(−) dipoles are thus generated with a maximal potential energy of 0.26 eV; a SBH of 0.38 eV was measured. Greater Ag coverage causes elemental segregation of As/Ga atoms, reversing the direction of the net dipole. The band bending effect near the interface shows a downward shift of 0.08 eV, and the final SBH is similar to the value as measured at the initial Ag deposition. Both parameters are secured at 0.25 Å of Ag thickness prior to the observation of metallic behavior of Ag. Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining SBH is evident.

  12. Evaluating Lightning-generated NOx (LNOx) Parameterization based on Cloud Top Height at Resolutions with Partially-resolved Convection for Upper Tropospheric Chemistry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J.; Barth, M. C.; Noone, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Lightning-generated nitrogen oxides (LNOx) is an important precursor to tropospheric ozone production. With a meteorological time-scale variability similar to that of the ozone chemical lifetime, it can nonlinearly perturb tropospheric ozone concentration. Coupled with upper-air circulation patterns, LNOx can accumulate in significant amount in the upper troposphere with other precursors, thus enhancing ozone production (see attached figure). While LNOx emission has been included and tuned extensively in global climate models, its inclusions in regional chemistry models are seldom tested. Here we present a study that evaluates the frequently used Price and Rind parameterization based on cloud-top height at resolutions that partially resolve deep convection using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) over the contiguous United States. With minor modifications, the parameterization is shown to generate integrated flash counts close to those observed. However, the modeled frequency distribution of cloud-to-ground flashes do not represent well for storms with high flash rates, bringing into question the applicability of the intra-cloud/ground partitioning (IC:CG) formulation of Price and Rind in some studies. Resolution dependency also requires attention when sub-grid cloud-tops are used instead of the originally intended grid-averaged cloud-top. LNOx passive tracers being gathered by monsoonal upper tropospheric anticyclone.

  13. Atomic nature of the Schottky barrier height formation of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface: An in-situ synchrotron radiation photoemission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping, E-mail: cpcheng@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Wan-Sin [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Keng-Yung [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wei, Guo-Jhen; Cheng, Yi-Ting [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, 60004, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yen-Hsun; Wan, Hsien-Wen [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pi, Tun-Wen, E-mail: pi@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, 30076, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tung, Raymond T. [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College, CUNY, NY 11210 (United States); Kwo, Jueinai, E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hong, Minghwei, E-mail: mhong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • The interaction of Ag on a p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 surface has been studied. • The dipole formation mechanism of the Ag/GaAs(001)-2 × 4 interface is proposed. • Determination of the SBH prior to metal formation is found. • Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining the SBH is evident. - Abstract: The Interface of Ag with p-type α2 GaAs(001)-2 × 4 has been studied to further understand the formation mechanism of the Schottky barrier height (SBH). In the initial phase of Ag deposition, high-resolution core-level data show that Ag adatoms effectively passivate the surface As-As dimers without breaking them apart. The Ag(+)-As(−) dipoles are thus generated with a maximal potential energy of 0.26 eV; a SBH of 0.38 eV was measured. Greater Ag coverage causes elemental segregation of As/Ga atoms, reversing the direction of the net dipole. The band bending effect near the interface shows a downward shift of 0.08 eV, and the final SBH is similar to the value as measured at the initial Ag deposition. Both parameters are secured at 0.25 Å of Ag thickness prior to the observation of metallic behavior of Ag. Inadequacy of the metal-induced gap-state model for explaining SBH is evident.

  14. Evaluation of four designs of short implants placed in atrophic areas with reduced bone height: a three-year, retrospective, clinical and radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Torres, J A; Gehrke, S A; Calvo Guirado, J L; Aristazábal, L F R

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical and radiographic behaviour of four commercially-available short implants with different macrodesigns and microdesigns in areas in which the height of the bone was reduced. We took into account the success and survival, peri-implant crestal bone loss, and the level of probing at which the gum bled. Patients were included if they had been given one or more short implants (≤8.5mm long) in the posterior jaws at least three years earlier. Three hundred and ninety-one short implants were placed in 170 subjects, and were divided in four groups based on the brand of implant. The implants were evaluated one, two, and three years after they had been inserted. Short implants had a three-year survival and success rate of 90% in all groups, and bone loss was acceptable after three years with no significant differences between them. These results support the use of short implants as an effective and safe treatment. However, within the limitations of this study, the design of the implant does seem to influence the behaviour of peri-implant bone at the crestal level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sub-federal ecological modernization: A case study of Colorado's new energy economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakouros, Stratis

    European nations have often employed policies of explicit government intervention as a preferred means of addressing environmental and economic challenges. These policies have ranged from grey industrial policies focused solely on industrial growth, competitiveness and innovation to policies of stronger ecological modernization, which seek to align industrial interests with environmental protection. In recent years these policies have been mobilized to address the threat of climate change and promote environmental innovation. While some US Administrations have similarly recognized the need to address these challenges, the particular historical and political institutional dynamics of the US have meant that explicit government intervention has been eschewed in favor of more indirect strategies when dealing with economic and environmental challenges. This is evident in the rise of sub-federal policies at the level of US states. Supported by federal laboratories and public research, US states have adopted policies that look very much like sub-federal versions of industrial or ecological modernization policy. This thesis uses the Colorado case to highlight the importance of sub-federal institutions in addressing environmental and economic challenges in the US and explore its similarities to, and differences from, European approaches. To achieve this goal it first develops an analytical scheme within which to place policy initiatives on a continuum from grey industrial policy to strong ecological modernization policy by identifying key institutions that are influential in each policy type. This analytical scheme is then applied to the transitional renewable energy policy period from 2004-2012 in the state of Colorado. This period starts with the adoption of a renewable energy portfolio in 2004 and includes the `new energy economy' period from 2007-2010 as well as the years since. Looking at three key turning points this paper interprets the `new energy economy' strategy

  16. Comparison of midupper arm circumference and weight-for-height z score for assessing acute malnutrition in Bangladeshi children aged 6-60 mo: an analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Arifeen, Shams El; Billah, Sk Masum; Faruque, Asg; Islam, M Munirul; Jackson, Alan A

    2017-11-01

    Background : In clinical settings, wasting in childhood has primarily been assessed with the use of a weight-for-height z score (WHZ), and in community settings, it has been assessed via the midupper arm circumference (MUAC) with a cutoff children were not identified when these cutoffs for MUAC were used. Objective: We determined the cutoffs for MUAC to detect wasting in Bangladeshi children aged 6-60 mo. Design: A secondary analysis was carried out on data from 27,767 children aged 6-59 mo. This analysis comprised 1 ) 9131 children across Bangladesh and 2 ) 18,636 children enrolled in a surveillance study in the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b during 1996-2014. The area under the receiver operating curve was used to indicate the most appropriate choice for cutoffs that related MUAC with WHZ. Results: The mean ± SD age for the entire group was 21 ± 14 mo, WHZ was -1.18 ± 1.23, height-for-age z score was -1.63 ± 1.39, MUAC was 136 ± 14 mm, and 45% of subjects were girls. MUAC correlated with the WHZ ( r : 0.618, P < 0.001). Age-stratified analyses revealed that, for ages 6-24 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <120 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <125 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 72.9% and 63.2%, respectively, and a specificity of 84.7% and 85.3%, respectively; for ages 25-36 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <125 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <135 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 55.0% and 71.7%, respectively, and a specificity of 92.8% and 78.7% respectively; and for ages 37-60 mo, MUAC cutoffs were <135 mm for a WHZ <-3 and <140 mm for a WHZ <-2 with a sensitivity of 71.4% and 70.4%, respectively, and a specificity of 84.6% and 80.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The respective cutoffs for MUAC to better capture the vulnerability and risk of severe (WHZ <-3) and moderate (WHZ <-2) wasting would be <120 and <125 mm for ages 6-24 mo, <125 and <135 mm for ages 25-36 mo, and <135 and <140 mm for ages 37-60 mo. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Disparities in children’s vocabulary and height in relation to household wealth and parental schooling: A longitudinal study in four low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Reynolds

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Children from low socio-economic status (SES households often demonstrate worse growth and developmental outcomes than wealthier children, in part because poor children face a broader range of risk factors. It is difficult to characterize the trajectories of SES disparities in low- and middle-income countries because longitudinal data are infrequently available. We analyze measures of children’s linear growth (height at ages 1, 5, 8 and 12y and receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at ages 5, 8 and 12y in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam in relation to household SES, measured by parental schooling or household assets. We calculate children’s percentile ranks within the distributions of height-for-age z-scores and of age- and language-standardized receptive vocabulary scores. We find that children in the top quartile of household SES are taller and have better language performance than children in the bottom quartile; differences in vocabulary scores between children with high and low SES are larger than differences in the height measure. For height, disparities in SES are present by age 1y and persist as children age. For vocabulary, SES disparities also emerge early in life, but patterns are not consistent across age; for example, SES disparities are constant over time in India, widen between 5 and 12y in Ethiopia, and narrow in this age range in Vietnam and Peru. Household characteristics (such as mother’s height, age, and ethnicity, and community fixed effects explain most of the disparities in height and around half of the disparities in vocabulary. We also find evidence that SES disparities in height and language development may not be fixed over time, suggesting opportunities for policy and programs to address these gaps early in life.

  18. Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of Modern Radiotherapy & Brachytherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2009-01-01

    This volume collects a series of lectures presented at the tenth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2007 and dedicated to radiotherapy and brachytherapy. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of radiotherapy in general, including external radiotherapy (often called teletherapy) as well as internal radiotherapy (called brachytherapy). Radiotherapy strategy and dose management as well as the decisive role of digital imaging in the associated clinical practice are developed in several articles. Grouped under the discipline of Conformal Radiotherapy (CRT), numerous modern techniques, from Multi-Leaf Collimators (MLC) to Intensity Modulated RadioTherapy (IMRT), are explained in detail. The importance of treatment planning based upon patient data from digital imaging (Computed Tomography) is also underlined. Finally, despite the quasi- totality of patients being presently treated with gamma and X-rays, novel powerful tools are emerging using proton and light ions (like carbon ions) beams, bound to bec...

  19. Sulfur isotope study of a modern intertidal environment, and the interpretation of ancient sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Extensive sulfur isotope distribution data for sulfides precipitated in an intertidal environment show no distinctive features when compared with isotope values for other marine, sedimentary sulfides. The fractionation ranges from α = 1.030 to α = 1.048. The pattern is characteristic for a system essentially open to sulfate, and isotope analyses of interstitial sulfates are corroborative. A population of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the order of 10 9 organisms per cc of interstitial water is indicated. Seasonal variation of the isotope distribution reflects a transient sulfide composition and a bacterial population in which the fractionation effect is indirectly controlled by temperature. The data presented for this modern shallow water environment are at variance with an earlier assessment of isotopic distributions in ancient sulfides which linked shallow water environments with limited fractionation (α =< 1.025) in a closed system. (author)

  20. Sulfur isotope study of a modern intertidal environment, and the interpretation of ancient sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, L.A. (Baas Becking Geobiological Lab., Canberra City (Australia))

    1982-05-01

    Extensive sulfur isotope distribution data for sulfides precipitated in an intertidal environment show no distinctive features when compared with isotope values for other marine, sedimentary sulfides. The fractionation ranges from ..cap alpha.. = 1.030 to ..cap alpha.. = 1.048. The pattern is characteristic for a system essentially open to sulfate, and isotope analyses of interstitial sulfates are corroborative. A population of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the order of 10/sup 9/ organisms per cc of interstitial water is indicated. Seasonal variation of the isotope distribution reflects a transient sulfide composition and a bacterial population in which the fractionation effect is indirectly controlled by temperature. The data presented for this modern shallow water environment are at variance with an earlier assessment of isotopic distributions in ancient sulfides which linked shallow water environments with limited fractionation (..cap alpha.. =< 1.025) in a closed system.

  1. Semmelweis's methodology from the modern stand-point: intervention studies and causal ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Johannes

    2009-09-01

    Semmelweis's work predates the discovery of the power of randomization in medicine by almost a century. Although Semmelweis would not have consciously used a randomized controlled trial (RCT), some features of his material-the allocation of patients to the first and second clinics-did involve what was in fact a randomization, though this was not realised at the time. This article begins by explaining why Semmelweis's methodology, nevertheless, did not amount to the use of a RCT. It then shows why it is descriptively and normatively interesting to compare what he did with the modern approach using RCTs. The argumentation centres on causal inferences and the contrast between Semmelweis's causal concept and that deployed by many advocates of RCTs. It is argued that Semmelweis's approach has implications for matters of explanation and medical practice.

  2. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  3. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  4. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.

  5. Modern Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuanzhong

    2002-06-21

    This book is one of a series in the areas of high-energy physics, cosmology and gravitation published by the Institute of Physics. It includes courses given at a doctoral school on 'Relativistic Cosmology: Theory and Observation' held in Spring 2000 at the Centre for Scientific Culture 'Alessandro Volta', Italy, sponsored by SIGRAV-Societa Italiana di Relativita e Gravitazione (Italian Society of Relativity and Gravitation) and the University of Insubria. This book collects 15 review reports given by a number of outstanding scientists. They touch upon the main aspects of modern cosmology from observational matters to theoretical models, such as cosmological models, the early universe, dark matter and dark energy, modern observational cosmology, cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing, and numerical simulations in cosmology. In particular, the introduction to the basics of cosmology includes the basic equations, covariant and tetrad descriptions, Friedmann models, observation and horizons, etc. The chapters on the early universe involve inflationary theories, particle physics in the early universe, and the creation of matter in the universe. The chapters on dark matter (DM) deal with experimental evidence of DM, neutrino oscillations, DM candidates in supersymmetry models and supergravity, structure formation in the universe, dark-matter search with innovative techniques, and dark energy (cosmological constant), etc. The chapters about structure in the universe consist of the basis for structure formation, quantifying large-scale structure, cosmic background fluctuation, galaxy space distribution, and the clustering of galaxies. In the field of modern observational cosmology, galaxy surveys and cluster surveys are given. The chapter on gravitational lensing describes the lens basics and models, galactic microlensing and galaxy clusters as lenses. The last chapter, 'Numerical simulations in cosmology', deals with spatial and

  6. Modern spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hollas, J Michael

    2013-01-01

    The latest edition of this highly acclaimed title introduces the reader to a wide range of spectroscopies, and includes both the background theory and applications to structure determination and chemical analysis.  It covers rotational, vibrational, electronic, photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy, as well as EXAFs and the theory of lasers and laser spectroscopy. A  revised and updated edition of a successful, clearly written book Includes the latest developments in modern laser techniques, such as cavity ring-down spectroscopy and femtosecond lasers Provides numerous worked examples, calculations and questions at the end of chapters.

  7. Eastward Expansion of Western Learning: A Study of Westernisation of China's Modern Education by Chinese Government Overseas-Study Scholarships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ren-Jie Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to trace back the history of how Chinese Government attempted to strengthen its national power by learning from the USA, Western Europe and Japan since the mid-nineteenth century, as well as to analyse the influences Westernisation had on the development of China's modern education. In this process, the Chinese Government…

  8. Utilization of O4 Slant Column Density to Derive Aerosol Layer Height from a Space-Borne UV-Visible Hyperspectral Sensor: Sensitivity and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(sup 40) molecules (sup 2) per centimeters(sup -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nanometers, the O4 absorption band at 477 nanometers is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nanometers is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 meters for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80 percent of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 kilometer compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.

  9. Utilization of O4 Slant Column Density to Derive Aerosol Layer Height from a Spaceborne UV-Visible Hyperspectral Sensor: Sensitivity and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Seo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Torres, Omar; Lee, Kwang-Mog; Lee, Sang Deok

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using the simulated radiances by a radiative transfer model, the linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT), and the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. The sensitivities of the O4 index (O4I), which is defined as dividing O4 SCD by 10(exp 40) sq molecules cm(exp -5), to aerosol types and optical properties are also evaluated and compared. Among the O4 absorption bands at 340, 360, 380, and 477 nm, the O4 absorption band at 477 nm is found to be the most suitable to retrieve the aerosol effective height. However, the O4I at 477 nm is significantly influenced not only by the aerosol layer effective height but also by aerosol vertical profiles, optical properties including single scattering albedo (SSA), aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size, and surface albedo. Overall, the error of the retrieved aerosol effective height is estimated to be 1276, 846, and 739 m for dust, non-absorbing, and absorbing aerosol, respectively, assuming knowledge on the aerosol vertical distribution shape. Using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), a new algorithm is developed to derive the aerosol effective height over East Asia after the determination of the aerosol type and AOD from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). About 80% of retrieved aerosol effective heights are within the error range of 1 km compared to those obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements on thick aerosol layer cases.

  10. Waist-to-height ratio is the best anthropometric predictor of hypertension: A population-based study with women from a state of northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Tainá C S; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Costa, Narithania S; Nakano, Ricardo P; Carvalho, Renata Elyonara S; Xavier, Antônio F S; Assunção, Monica L

    2017-01-01

    The WHO recommends the use of some anthropometric parameters as a screening resource for individuals under cardiometabolic risk. However, in the validation of these indicators, Brazilian women were not included. These women have different anthropometric profile compared to women who integrated the samples of the validation studies. We aimed to verify the accuracy of anthropometric indicators as a resource for the screening of women with hypertension. A cross-sectional study, with a probability sample of 3143 women (20-49 years) from the state of Alagoas (northeast of Brazil), was carried out. Hypertension was identified by systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg and/or regular use of antihypertensive drugs. The anthropometric indicators analyzed were BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage, and conicity index. The accuracy definition of the indicators and the identification of best cut-off points were carried out on the basis of ROC curve analysis and Youden index, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was 21.8%. All indicators used in hypertension identification had area under the ROC curve (AUC) >0.5. The WHtR with cut-off point of 0.54 was the best performance indicator (AUC = 0.72; P hypertension. In the absence of specific studies and considering the largest ethnic proximity and environmental/epidemiological similarity, the findings now obtained can be extended to women of other Brazilian states, especially those in the Northeastern region.

  11. Experimental studies and computational benchmark on heavy liquid metal natural circulation in a full height-scale test loop for small modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: chaotics@snu.ac.kr [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero, 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jueun; Ju, Heejae; Sohn, Sungjune; Kim, Yeji; Noh, Hyunyub; Hwang, Il Soon [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Experimental studies on natural circulation for lead-bismuth eutectic were conducted. • Adiabatic wall boundaries conditions were established by compensating heat loss. • Computational benchmark with a system thermal-hydraulics code was performed. • Numerical simulation and experiment showed good agreement in mass flow rate. • An empirical relation was formulated for mass flow rate with experimental data. - Abstract: In order to test the enhanced safety of small lead-cooled fast reactors, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) natural circulation characteristics have been studied. We present results of experiments with LBE non-isothermal natural circulation in a full-height scale test loop, HELIOS (heavy eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of operability and safety of PEACER), and the validation of a system thermal-hydraulics code. The experimental studies on LBE were conducted under steady state as a function of core power conditions from 9.8 kW to 33.6 kW. Local surface heaters on the main loop were activated and finely tuned by trial-and-error approach to make adiabatic wall boundary conditions. A thermal-hydraulic system code MARS-LBE was validated by using the well-defined benchmark data. It was found that the predictions were mostly in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of mass flow rate and temperature difference that were both within 7%, respectively. With experiment results, an empirical relation predicting mass flow rate at a non-isothermal, adiabatic condition in HELIOS was derived.

  12. The dimensions of 'traditional food' in reflexive modernity: Norway as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amilien, Virginie; Hegnes, Atle Wehn

    2013-11-01

    This article aims to better understand the definition(s) of 'traditional' food. The authors discuss and exemplify how this rhetorical concept is used in the specialist literature and in Norwegian public debate. The authors ultimately propose a set of central dimensions of traditional food and their relevance across various discourses. After examining the use of the concept 'tradition' in scientific publications, the authors note that it is based on two main axes: time and know-how. These are interwoven in a 'meaning' dimension in the connection between time and culture, but also in a 'place' dimension that is systematically materialised in food. In order to better describe and understand the dynamic that emerges from the interplay of innovation and tradition, the article goes through the broadest use of 'traditional food' in public discourses, in national and regional newspapers, and in consumers' attitudes. There, the concept of 'traditional food' is used for both preserving historic values and renewing sense of identity. The article can be regarded as an empirical example which elaborates the understanding of tradition in reflexive modernity. It concludes that the concept of traditional food is neither fixed nor finite but is a fluid and energetic concept which, based on the tensions between four central axes, can adapt to the discourses of preservation, moderation and innovation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Osteometric sorting of skeletal elements from a sample of modern Colombians: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Manuel Guerrero; Hackman, Lucina; Martínez, Wendy; Medina, César Sanabria

    2016-03-01

    The Colombian armed conflict has been catalogued not only as the longest civil war in the western hemisphere, but also as having one of the highest indexes of missing persons. Among the several challenges faced by forensic practitioners in Colombia, the commingling of human remains has been recognised as one of the most difficult to approach. The method of osteometric sorting described by Byrd and Adams and Byrd (2008) has proven relevant as a powerful tool to aid in the reassociation process of skeletal structures. The aim of this research was to evaluate the three osteometric sorting models developed by Byrd (2008) (paired elements, articulating bone portions and other bone portions) in a sample of modern Colombian individuals. A set of 39 linear measurements was recorded from a sample of 100 individuals (47 females and 53 males aged between 20 and 74 and 18 and 77 years, respectively), which was used to create a reference sample database. A different subset of eight individuals (five females aged between 23 and 48 years, and three males aged between 27 and 43 years) was employed to randomly create six small-scale commingled assemblages for the purposes of testing the osteometric sorting models. Results demonstrate that this method has significant potential for use in the Colombian forensic context.

  14. Comparative study of modern extraction techniques for the determination of environmental samples (M14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfrerer, M.; Lankmayr, E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of any extraction method in analytical chemistry is, to effectively separate the analytes from the matrix. The whole step should be fast and quantitative with minimal solvent and time required. The classical Soxhlet extraction usually requires large volumes (up to 200 ml) of solvent to be refluxed through the solid samples for several hours. Therefore, in the last decades, alternatives for this extraction method have been presented and investigated such as ultrasonic extraction (UE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and fluidized-bed extraction (FBE). The actual choice for analytical application is frequently the initial capital cost, operating costs, simplicity of operation, amount of organic solvent required and sample throughput. Since sample preparation is a critical step in the analytical cycle, special care has to be taken for an accurate choice and optimization of extraction techniques and clean-up procedures. Therefore, MAE and FBE were investigated for their influential extraction parameters and these parameters were optimized for the extraction of organochlorine biocides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental matrices like soil, sediment and sewage sludge. The extraction yields were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction performed following DIN-methods. Finally, the optimized modern methods were validated by systematic experiments with certified reference materials. Refs. 3 (author)

  15. The Palermo Capuchin Catacombs Project: a multidisciplinary approach to the study of a modern Mummy Collection (ca 1600-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sineo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a multidisciplinary project for the study of the present conditions, history, bioanthropological features and conservation status of a large collection of modern human mummies, kept in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo (Sicily, Italy. Due to the large amount of spontaneously and anthropogenically mummified human bodies, and to an abundant presence of associated artefacts, this collection provides a unique opportunity to carry out a large multidisciplinary survey useful for a thorough biocultural understanding of these remains, a conservation plan, and testing of new restoration protocols.

  16. Study on Waste Heat Utilization Device of High-Temperature Freshwater in the Modern Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuaijun; Liu, Chentao; Zhou, Yao

    2018-01-01

    Based on using the waste heat recycling from high temperature freshwater in marine diesel engine to heat fuel oil tank, lubrication oil tank and settling tank and so on to achieve energy saving, improve fuel efficiency as the goal, study on waste heat utilization device of high-temperature freshwater in the modern marine diesel engine to make the combustion chamber effectively cooled by high-temperature freshwater and the inner liner freshwater temperature heat is effectively utilized and so on to improve the overall efficiency of the power plant of the ship and the diesel optimum working condition.

  17. Predicting cardiometabolic disturbances from waist-to-height ratio: findings from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Marcelo; Chor, Dóra; Braga, José Uéleres; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in predicting cardiometabolic outcomes and compare cut-off points for Brazilian adults. Cross-sectional study. WHtR areas under the curve (AUC) were compared with those for BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The outcomes of interest were hypertension, diabetes, hypertriacylglycerolaemia and presence of at least two components of metabolic syndrome (≥2 MetS). Cut-offs for WHtR were compared and validity measures were estimated for each point. Teaching and research institutions in six Brazilian state capitals, 2008-2010. Women (n 5026) and men (n 4238) aged 35-54 years who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) at baseline. WHtR age-adjusted AUC ranged from 0·68 to 0·72 in men and 0·69 to 0·75 in women, with smaller AUC for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and the largest for ≥2 MetS. WHtR performed better than BMI for practically all outcomes; better than WHR for hypertension in both sexes; and displayed larger AUC than WC in predicting diabetes mellitus. It also offered better discriminatory power for ≥2 MetS in men; and was better than WC, but not WHR, in women. Optimal cut-off points of WHtR were 0·55 (women) and 0·54 (men), but they presented high false-negative rate compared with 0·50. We recommend using WHtR (which performed similarly to, or better than, other available indices of adiposity) as an anthropometric index with good discriminatory power for cardiometabolic outcomes in Brazilian adults, indicating the already referenced limit of WHtR≥0·50.

  18. Association of the Waist-to-Height Ratio with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents: The Three Cities Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in relation tocardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents.Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conductedamong a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in threelarge cities in Brazil.Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%,respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1 of thedistribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile(Q4 presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio of having elevatedtotal cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 timeshigher risk of having elevated systolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 timeshigher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students.The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of havingwaist-to-height ratio (WHtR above the upper tertile (Q3. WHtR meanvalues was 0.46 (SE 0.00 presented the largest area under the curve(AUC [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647] for high total cholesterol levels,[0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614(CI95%: 0.577-0.651] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass indexpresented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699] for increaseddiastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circumference for increasedsystolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787].Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometricparameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors.In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors inchildren and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventivestrategies against CVDs, and screening programs.

  19. Correlation of Index Finger Length (2D with Height, Weight and BMI in Adult Bangladeshi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rezwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human hand is one of the most versatile parts of the human body which plays an important role in modern medical science and evolutionary biology. By virtue of evolution and genetic arrangements, digital lengths vary from person to person according to age, sex, races, occupation or even environmental influences. It has been found that the digital lengths and their ratios are not same in different sexes and even in both hands of same individual. Specially, index to ring digit lengths and their ratios which already have been proved to represent sexual dimorphism may differ in both hands of an individual and show positive correlations with other morphological attributes like height, weight and BMI. Objectives: To analyze the variation of index finger (2D length and its correlation with height, weight and BMI in adult Bangladeshi male. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013 on 100 male MBBS students (20−25 years of age. With the help of digital vernier caliper measurements of index finger length (2D was recorded. Height and weight were measured by the stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. BMI was calculated from height and weight. Pearson’s correlation analysis was done to find out the correlation of index finger length with height, weight and BMI. Results: Significant correlation has been found between the lengths of index fingers (2D and height (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, we found variation in index finger lengths of both hands of Bangladeshi male subjects, which needs further study and comparison.

  20. Incorporation of Trace Elements in Ancient and Modern Human Bone: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Price, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) affords the opportunity to probe the atomic environment of trace elements in human bone. We are using XAS to investigate the mode(s) of incorporation of Sr, Zn, Pb, and Ba in both modern and ancient (and thus possibly altered) human and animal bone. Because burial and diagenesis may add trace elements to bone, we performed XAS analysis on samples of pristine contemporary and ancient, buried human and animal bone. We assume that deposition of these elements during burial occurs by processes distinct from those in vivo, and this will be reflected in their atomic environments. Archaeologists measure strontium in human and animal bone as a guide to diet. Carnivores show lower Sr/Ca ratios than their herbivore prey due to discrimination against Sr relative to Ca up the food chain. In an initial sample suite no difference was observed between modern and buried bone. Analysis of additional buried samples, using a more sensitive detector, revealed significant differences in the distance to the second and third neighbors of the Sr in some of the buried samples. Distances to the first neighbor, oxygen, were similar in all samples. Zinc is also used in paleo-diet studies. Initial x-ray absorption spectroscopy of a limited suite of bones did not reveal any differences between modern and buried samples. This may reflect the limited number of samples examined or the low levels of Zn in typical aqueous solutions in soils. Signals from barium and lead were too low to record useful XAS spectra. Additional samples will be studied for Zn, Ba, and Pb. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam lines 4-1 and 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a Lytle detector and appropriate filter, and a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector.

  1. Birth order progressively affects childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Derraik, José G B; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    There is evidence suggesting that first-born children and adults are anthropometrically different to later-borns. Thus, we aimed to assess whether birth order was associated with changes in growth and metabolism in childhood. We studied 312 healthy prepubertal children: 157 first-borns and 155 later-borns. Children were aged 3-10 years, born 37-41 weeks gestation, and of birth weight appropriate-for-gestational-age. Clinical assessments included measurement of children's height, weight, fasting lipid and hormonal profiles and DEXA-derived body composition. First-borns were taller than later-borns (P < 0·0001), even when adjusted for parents' heights (0·31 vs 0·03 SDS; P = 0·001). There was an incremental height decrease with increasing birth order, so that first-borns were taller than second-borns (P < 0·001), who were in turn taller than third-borns (P = 0·007). Further, among sibling pairs both height SDS (P = 0·009) and adjusted height SDS (P < 0·0001) were lower in second- vs first-born children. Consistent with differences in stature, first- (P = 0·043) and second-borns (P = 0·003) had higher IGF-I concentrations than third-borns. Both first- (P < 0·001) and second-borns (P = 0·004) also had reduced abdominal adiposity (lower android fat to gynoid fat ratio) when compared with third-borns. Other parameters of adiposity and blood lipids were unaffected by birth order. First-borns were taller than later-born children, with an incremental height reduction from first to third birth order. These differences were present after correction for genetic height, and associated to some extent with alterations in plasma IGF-I. Our findings strengthen the evidence that birth order is associated with phenotypic changes in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Does the sex of one’s co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood? A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H; Jelenkovic, Aline; Vuoksimaa, Eero

    2017-01-01

    Background: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and th...

  3. Can resource dilution explain differences in height by birth order and family size? A study of 389,287 male recruits in twentieth-century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stradford, L.; van Poppel, F.W.A.; Lumey, L.H.

    2017-01-01

    ‘Resource dilution’ has been invoked as a possible mechanism to explain the inverse relation between sibship size and sibling heights in European populations (Öberg, 2015). Alternative explanations include confounding of the relation by other measured or unmeasured family characteristics including

  4. Some studies on the pulse-height loss due to capacitive decay in the detector-circuit of parallel plate ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.L.; Anil Kumar, G.; Choudhury, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Pulse-type ionization chambers are invariably operated in the electron-sensitive mode where the capacitive decay in the detector-circuit during the electron collection produces loss in the pulse-height. In order to understand and appreciate the effect of this capacitive decay on the detector response, we have carried out Monte Carlo simulations of the response of two-electrode parallel plate ionization chambers with and without the capacitive decay keeping shaping time so large that the ballistic deficit is negligibly small. These simulations have been carried out incorporating the physical processes, namely, emission of charged particles from a point radioactive source, the generation of charge carriers in the active volume, separation and acceleration of the charge carriers, transport of the charge carriers, induction of charges on the electrodes, pulse processing by preamplifier-amplifier network, etc. These simulations have shown that the concerned capacitive decay produces appreciable loss in the pulse-height, if the detector-circuit time constant is of the order of maximum electron collection time. We have also carried out measurements on the pulse-height loss due to the capacitive decay in the detector-circuit during the electron collection for a two-electrode parallel plate ionization chamber. The experimental data on the pulse-height loss match reasonably well with the theoretical predictions

  5. Height system connection between island and mainland using a hydrodynamic model: a case study connecting the Dutch Wadden islands to the Amsterdam ordnance datum (NAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobbe, D. C.; Klees, R.; Verlaan, M.; Zijl, F.; Alberts, B.; Farahani, H. H.

    2018-03-01

    We present an efficient and flexible alternative method to connect islands and offshore tide gauges with the height system on land. The method uses a regional, high-resolution hydrodynamic model that provides total water levels. From the model, we obtain the differences in mean water level (MWL) between tide gauges at the mainland and at the islands or offshore platforms. Adding them to the MWL relative to the national height system at the mainland's tide gauges realizes a connection of the island and offshore platforms with the height system on the mainland. Numerical results are presented for the connection of the Dutch Wadden islands with the national height system (Normaal Amsterdams Peil, NAP). Several choices of the period over which the MWLs are computed are tested and validated. The best results were obtained when we computed the MWL only over the summer months of our 19-year simulation period. Based on this strategy, the percentage of connections for which the absolute differences between the observation- and model-derived MWL differences are ≤ 1 cm is about 34% (46 out of 135 possible leveling connections). In this case, for each Wadden island we can find several connections that allow the transfer of NAP with (sub-)centimeter accuracy.

  6. Does the sex of one's co-twin affect height and BMI in adulthood? : A study of dizygotic adult twins from 31 cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogl, Leonie H; Jelenkovic, Aline; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Cutler, Tessa L; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; Pang, Zengchang; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Rebato, Esther; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Busjahn, Andreas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hopper, John L; Loos, Ruth J F; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The comparison of traits in twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) dizygotic twin pairs is considered a proxy measure of prenatal hormone exposure. To examine possible prenatal hormonal influences on anthropometric traits, we compared mean height, body mass index (BMI), and the

  7. Concordance and population studies along with stutter and peak height ratio analysis for the PowerPlex ® ESX 17 and ESI 17 Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Carolyn R; Duewer, David L; Kline, Margaret C; Sprecher, Cynthia J; McLaren, Robert S; Rabbach, Dawn R; Krenke, Benjamin E; Ensenberger, Martin G; Fulmer, Patricia M; Storts, Douglas R; Butler, John M

    2011-08-01

    The PowerPlex(®) ESX 17 and ESI 17 Systems for short tandem repeat (STR) amplification were developed by the Promega Corporation to meet the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) and the European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group recommendations for increasing the number of STR loci included in the European Standard Set (ESS). The PowerPlex ESX 17 and ESI 17 Systems utilize different PCR primer combinations to co-amplify the following 17 loci: D1S1656, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, D8S1179, D10S1248, D12S391, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, D22S1045, FGA, TH01, vWA, SE33, and the sex-typing locus amelogenin. A total of 1443 U.S. population samples were evaluated with pre-commercialization versions of both kits. Stutter and heterozygote peak height ratios have been used to characterize kit performance. Typing results have been used to estimate the match probabilities provided by the chosen loci as well as in concordance studies. Full concordance between the typing results for the two kits was observed in 99.994% (49,055 out of 49,062) STR allele calls compared. All genotyping discrepancies were confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. As a result of these comparisons, a second forward primer for the D22S1045 locus has been added to the PowerPlex ESX 17 System to address a primer binding site mutation and the D1S1656 locus reverse primer in the PowerPlex ESI 17 System was modified to eliminate an amplification-efficiency reducing primer dimer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Modern thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...

  10. Modern electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zangwill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...

  11. BODY HEIGHT AND ITS ESTIMATION UTILIZING ARM SPAN MEASUREMENTS IN FEMALE ADOLESCENTS FROM CENTRAL REGION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bubanja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago (Popovic et al, 2013. As the modern Montenegrins fall partly into the Dinaric racial classification (Bjelica et al., 2012, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin female adolescents from central region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Method: Our investigation analyses 593 female adolescents from the central region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. Results: The results displayed that female Central-Montenegrins are 169.24±11.61cm tall and have an arm span of 168.03±10.34cm. Discussion: Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Central-Macedonians the tall population, taller than general female population in Montenegro (Bjelica et al., 2012. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Central-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was shorter than the body heights (1.21±1.27 centimetres, much more than in general population (Bjelica et al., 2012. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  12. BODY HEIGHT AND ITS ESTIMATION UTILIZING ARM SPAN MEASUREMENTS IN MALE ADOLESCENTS FROM CENTRAL REGION IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrislav Vujović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago (Popovic et al, 2013. As the modern Montenegrins fall partly into the Dinaric racial classification (Bjelica et al., 2012, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from central region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Method: Our investigation analyses 548 male adolescents from the central region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. Results: The results displayed that male Central-Montenegrins are 183.66±6.93 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.99±8.30cm. Discussion: Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Central-Macedonians the tall population, taller than general male population in Montenegro (Bjelica et al., 2012. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Central-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (1.33±1.37 centimetres, more than in general population (Bjelica et al., 2012. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  13. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  14. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  15. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...

  16. Laterality and grip strength influence hand bone micro-architecture in modern humans, an HRpQCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Nicolas; Cavaignac, Etienne; Trousdale, William H; Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Braga, José

    2017-06-01

    It is widely hypothesized that mechanical loading, specifically repetitive low-intensity tasks, influences the inner structure of cancellous bone. As such, there is likely a relationship between handedness and bone morphology. The aim of this study is to determine patterns in trabecular bone between dominant and non-dominant hands in modern humans. Seventeen healthy patients between 22 and 32 years old were included in the study. Radial carpal bones (lunate, capitate, scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, 1st, 2nd and 3rd metacarpals) were analyzed with high-resolution micro-computed tomography. Additionally, crush and pinch grip were recorded. Factorial analysis indicated that bone volume ratio, trabeculae number (Tb.N), bone surface to volume ratio (BS.BV), body weight, stature and crush grip were all positively correlated with principal components 1 and 2 explaining 78.7% of the variance. Volumetric and trabecular endostructural parameters (BV/TV, BS/BV or Tb.Th, Tb.N) explain the observed inter-individual variability better than anthropometric or clinical parameters. Factors analysis regressions showed correlations between these parameters and the dominant side for crush strength for the lunate (r 2 = 0.640, P modern human wrist. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  17. Incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries among elite ballet and modern dancers: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liederbach, Marijeanne; Dilgen, Faye E; Rose, Donald J

    2008-09-01

    Ballet and modern dance are jump-intensive activities, but little is known about the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among dancers. Rigorous jump and balance training has been shown in some prospective studies to significantly reduce ACL injury rates among athletes. Dancers advance to the professional level only after having achieved virtuosic jump and balance technique. Therefore, dancers on the elite level may be at relatively low risk for ACL injury. Descriptive epidemiology study. Dance exposure, injuries, and injury conditions were systematically recorded at 4 dance organizations over 5 years. Select neuromuscular and psychometric variables were compared between and within ACL-injured and noninjured dancers. Of 298 dancers, 12 experienced an ACL injury over the 5-year period. The incidence of ACL injury was 0.009 per 1000 exposures. Landing from a jump onto 1 leg was the mechanism of injury in 92% of cases. Incidence was not statistically different between gender or dance groups, although women modern dancers had a 3 to 5 times greater relative risk than women ballet dancers and men dancers. No difference between ACL-injured and noninjured dancers emerged with regard to race, oral contraceptive use, or select musculoskeletal measures. Dancers suffer considerably fewer ACL injuries than athletes participating in team ball sports. The training dancers undertake to perfect lower extremity alignment, jump, and balance skills may serve to protect them against ACL injury. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries happened most often late in the day and season, suggesting an effect of fatigue.

  18. Carnivore specific bone bioapatite and collagen carbon isotope fractionations: Case studies of modern and fossil grey wolf populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox-Dobbs, K.; Wheatley, P. V.; Koch, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    -tissue differences we measured for wolves are applicable to future isotopic studies of consumers with purely carnivorous diets. For example, we collected bone bioapatite and collagen carbon isotope data from late Pleistocene grey wolf fossils from eastern Beringia (Fairbanks, Alaska), and used the modern inter-tissue difference presented here to verify bioapatite preservation. We then compared the wolves to herbivores (horse and caribou) from the same locality, and found the difference in their bone bioapatite carbon isotope values corresponded to the modern carnivore-herbivore trophic spacing given above. We therefore were able to conclude that horse and caribou were part of Beringian wolf diet.

  19. Determinants of modern family planning use among women of reproductive age in the Nkwanta district of Ghana: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Average contraceptive prevalence rate in the Nkwanta district of Ghana was estimated to be 6.2% relative to the national average at the time, of 19%. While several efforts had been made to improve family planning in the country, the district still had very low use of modern family planning methods. This study sought to determine the factors that influenced modern family planning use in general and specifically, the factors that determined the consistently low use of modern family planning methods in the district. Methods A case–control study was conducted in the Nkwanta district of Ghana to determine socio-economic, socio-cultural and service delivery factors influencing family planning usage. One hundred and thirty cases and 260 controls made up of women aged 15–49 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires. A logistic regression was fitted. Results Awareness and knowledge of modern family planning methods were high among cases and controls (over 90%). Lack of formal education among women, socio-cultural beliefs and spousal communication were found to influence modern family planning use. Furthermore, favourable opening hours of the facilities and distance to health facilities influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Conclusion While modern family planning seemed to be common knowledge among these women, actual use of such contraceptives was limited. There is need to improve use of modern family planning methods in the district. In addition to providing health facilities and consolidating close-to-client service initiatives in the district, policies directed towards improving modern family planning method use need to consider the influence of formal education. Promoting basic education, especially among females, will be a crucial step as the district is faced with high levels of school dropout and illiteracy rates. PMID:25117887

  20. Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)

  1. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Frode [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: frode.kolstad@medisin.ntnu.no; Myhr, Gunnar [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Kvistad, Kjell Arne [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Nygaard, Oystein P. [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Leivseth, Gunnar [Department of Neuromedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-09-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration.

  2. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Frode; Myhr, Gunnar; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Nygaard, Oystein P.; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration

  3. Validade do peso e da altura auto-referidos: o estudo de Goiânia Validity of self-reported weight and height: the Goiânia study, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Gondim Peixoto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade do peso e altura referidos no diagnóstico da obesidade e identificar características sociodemográficas e individuais que podem constituir viés de informação. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal populacional realizado na cidade de Goiânia em 2001. Em entrevista domiciliar com 1.023 indivíduos de 20-64 anos, foram coletadas informações sociodemográficas e sobre peso e altura referidos. Na ocasião, os indivíduos foram pesados e medidos. Foram calculadas diferenças entre médias, coeficiente de correlação e de medidas referidas e aferidas, segundo idade, índice de massa corporal, escolaridade, renda e altura. RESULTADOS: Homens e mulheres superestimaram a altura (p0,05. O comportamento de supestimar a altura foi influenciado pela idade, escolaridade, altura e índice de massa corporal. Embora o índice obtido a partir dos dados referidos tenha sido subestimado (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of self-reported weight and height at the time of diagnosing obesity, and to identify the sociodemographic and individual characteristics that might be a source of information bias. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study carried out in the city of Goiânia in 2001. Interviews were conducted with 1,023 individuals aged 20-64 years, in their homes, to collect sociodemographic and self-reported weight and height information. On the same occasion, weight and height measurements were made on these individuals. The mean differences and correlation coefficients between self-reported and measured data were calculated according to age, body mass index (BMI, schooling, income and height. RESULTS: Both the men and women overestimated their heights (p0.05. The behavior of overestimating height was influenced by age, schooling, height and body mass index. Although this index obtained from the self-reported data was underestimated (p<0.05, by 0.27 kg/m² and 0.67 kg/m² for men and women respectively, the measured

  4. Respondence and feedback of modern sand deserts to climate change--A case study in Gurbantunggut Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The research on the respondence and feedback of modern sand deserts to the climate change is an important component part in the studies on the global climate change. Deserts respond to the climate change, meanwhile, they affect the climate with their feedback of peculiar environment during the respondence. Many researches on desert climate have been carried out at home and abroad. However, there is little research on the respondence and feedback of modern fixed, semi-fixed and mobile deserts in arid areas to the climate change, in which the factor analysis as well as the parameter changing effects is especially the difficult problem all along. In this note, the parameters of the respondence and feedback of Gurbantunggut Desert to the climate change are measured and analyzed, some variable parameters of water-heat exchange are obtained, and a numerical model of desertification is developed according to a series of climate change of about 40 years and the variable relations of meteorological and physical features of the sand surface in Gurbantunggut Desert.

  5. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Association of the waist-to-height ratio with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: The three cities heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robespierre C Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the best anthropometric index in rela-tion to cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional school-based study was conducted among a random sample of 3179 students, aged 6 to 18 years, in three large cities in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10% and 5%, respectively. In relation to the students in the lower quartile (Q1 of the distribution of subscapular skinfold, the students in the upper quartile (Q4 presented a 2.0 times higher risk (odds ratio of having elevated total cholesterol levels. Overweight and obese students had a 3.3 times higher risk of having elevated sys-tolic blood pressure, and a 1.9 times higher risk of elevated diastolic blood pressure than other students. The less active students presented a 1.58 times higher risk of having waist-to-height ratio (WHtR above the upper tertile (Q3. WHtR mean values was 0.46 (SE 0.00 presented the largest area under the curve (AUC [0.613 (CI995%:0.578-0.647] for high total cholesterol levels, [0.546 (CI995%: 0.515-0.578] for low HDL-C levels, and [0.614 (CI95%: 0.577-0.651] for high LDL-C levels, while body mass index presented the largest AUC [0.669 (CI95%: 0.64-0.699] for increased diastolic blood pressure followed by the waist circum-ference for increased systolic blood pressure [0.761 (CI95%: 0.735-0.787]. Conclusions: WHtR is considered as a simple and accurate anthropometric parameter that identifies youth with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, WHtR above 0.44 was indicative of risk factors in children and adolescents. These findings can be applied in future preventive strategies against CVDs, and screening pro-grams.

  7. Association of BMI and height with the risk of endometrial cancer, overall and by histological subtype: a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Asuka; Shimazu, Taichi; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Sawada, Norie; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-04-18

    Evidence on the association between BMI, height, and endometrial cancer risk, including by subtypes, among Asian populations remains limited. We evaluated the impact of BMI and height on the risk of endometrial cancer, overall and by histological subtype. We prospectively investigated 53 651 Japanese women aged 40-69 years. With an average follow-up duration of 18.6 years, 180 newly diagnosed endometrial cancers were reported, including 119 type 1 and 21 type 2. The association between BMI, height, and endometrial cancer risk was assessed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model with adjustment for potential confounders. Overweight and obesity were associated positively with the risk of endometrial cancer. Compared with BMI of 23.0-24.9 kg/m, hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were 1.93 (1.17-3.16) for BMI of 27.0-29.9 kg/m and 2.37 (1.20-4.66) for BMI of at least 30.0 kg/m. On analysis by histological subtype, with each increase in BMI of 5 U, the estimated HR of type 1 endometrial cancer increased (HR=1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-1.98), but HR of type 2 endometrial cancer was unaffected. There was no statistically significant association between height and endometrial cancer risk. In conclusion, the risk of endometrial cancer was elevated in women with a BMI of at least 27.0 kg/m. By histological subtype, BMI was associated with type 1, but not type 2 endometrial cancer risk among a population with a relatively low BMI compared with western populations.

  8. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. McQuillan (Ruth); N. Eklund (Niina); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Kuningas (Maris); B.P. McEvoy (Brian); T. Esko (Tõnu); T. Corre (Tanguy); G. Davies (Gail); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K. Kristiansson (Kati); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); M. Gögele (Martin); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Tenesa (Albert); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Hayward (Caroline); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Boban (Mladen); S. Ulivi (Shelia); A. Robino (Antonietta); V. Boraska (Vesna); W. Igl (Wilmar); S.H. Wild (Sarah); L. Zgaga (Lina); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Girotto; L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Sala (Cinzia); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); I. Prokopenko (Inga); M. Kals (Mart); J. Viikari (Jorma); J. Yang (Joanna); A. Pouta (Anneli); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Hofman (Albert); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Kähönen (Mika); L. Milani (Lili); M. Heliovaara (Markku); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); K. Räikkönen (Katri); C. Masciullo (Corrado); J.M. Starr (John); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L. Esposito (Laura); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.M. Farrington (Susan); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Kirin (Mirna); M. Pehlic (Marina); F. Faletra (Flavio); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Widen (Elisabeth); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Koskinen (Seppo); K. Fischer (Krista); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.C. Heath (Andrew); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.L. Hartikainen; P.A.F. Madden (Pamela); P. d' Adamo (Pio); N. Hastie (Nick); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); I. Rudan (Igor); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I.J. Deary (Ian); D. Toniolo (Daniela); K. Hagen (Knut); A. Jula (Antti); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Perola (Markus); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has

  9. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McQuillan

    Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.

  10. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  11. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria

    2011-01-01

    of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11......: Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern, non-persistent pesticides during early pregnancy was associated with affected growth, both prenatally and postnatally. We found...... a biphasic association with lower weight at birth followed by increased body fat accumulation from birth to school age. We cannot rule out some residual confounding due to differences in social class, although this was adjusted for. Associations were stronger in highly exposed than in medium exposed children...

  12. Main Tendencies in the Problem of the Legal Collisions Study in Modern Science of the Law Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V. Ahmetjanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the main tendencies within studying of problems of legal collisions in modern jurisprudence are considered. The main attention is paid to a question of consideration of the specified problem from a position of various types of law understanding. By results of the conducted research, author comes to a conclusion that the most part of researches on problems of collisions in law is sustained in the spirit of legal positivism, however there is a number of works in which attempt of consideration of legal collisions from a position of sociological type of understanding of the right is traced. Tendency, according to the author, is the most significant and the specified subject having a certain potential to carrying out further actual researches on.

  13. Main factors in the formation of socio-cultural identity under the conditions of incomplete modernization (case study of the Republic of Bashkortostan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al’fira Raisovna Mazhitova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modernization caused deep and extensive socio-cultural changes in the Russian society. According to the research conducted by the Centre for the Study of Social and Cultural Change of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, modernization processes in Russia are different on the national and regional levels. The republic studies show that indexes and phase values of modernization in the Republic of Bashkortostan are lower than in Russia as a whole. Like Russia, the Republic is now in the phase of mature primary modernization. With regard to secondary modernization, Russia has entered the phase of high medium development and Bashkortostan – a phase of medium medium development. The processes of integrated modernization in Russia are already at the medium medium level, in the Republic – at the low medium level. The secondary modernization leads to the formation of the society that is based on knowledge, and on information and communication systems. Combining the means of communication, radio, television and computer in a coherent system resulted in emergence of a single socio-cultural space. Modern people live in a world of signs and symbols, which largely determine their behavior. Since that time it is not only people that create signs and symbols, but, in a sense, it is the signs and symbols that form people. If modernization implies the transition from a traditional society to a modern information society, then in the field of culture it is the transition from a national culture to the global culture. Currently, mass culture is the major factor determining people’s way of life, outlook, habits and behavior. Such influence aligns the personality in a way, and forms an average individual. Recent years have seen the increase in the number of people advocating the preservation and development of national culture, traditions, folk crafts and the sense of uniqueness of the nation. The author is convinced that it is the

  14. Falls from height: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Kasim; Sarihan, Mehmet Ediz; Colak, Cemil; Güven, Taner; Gür, Ali; Gürbüz, Sükrü

    2018-01-01

    Emergency services manage trauma patients frequently and falls from height comprise the main cause of emergency service admissions. In this study, we aimed to analyse the demographic characteristics of falls from height and their relationship to the mortality. A total of 460 patients, who admitted to the Emergency Department of Inonu University between November 2011 and November 2014 with a history of fall from height, were examined retrospectively. Demographic parameters, fall characteristics and their effect to mortality were evaluated statistically. The study comprised of 292 (63.5%) men and 168 (36.5%) women patients. The mean age of all patients was 27±24.99 years. Twenty-six (5.6%) patients died and the majority of them were in ≥62 years old group. The highest percentage of falls was at 0-5 years age group (28.3%). People fell mainly from 1.1-4 metres(m) level (46.1%). The causes of falls were ordered as unintentional (92.2%), workplace (8.1%) and suicidal (1.7%). Skin and soft tissue injuries (37.4%) were the main traumatic lesions. Age, fall height, fall place, lineer skull fracture, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, cervical fracture, thoracic vertebra fracture and trauma scores had statistically significant effect on mortality. The casualties died because of subarachnoid hemorrhage mostly.

  15. Modern Versus Traditional Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of different secondary school mathematics syllabi on first-year performance in college-level mathematics was studied in an attempt to evaluate the syllabus change. Students with a modern mathematics background performed sigficantly better on most first-year units. A topic-by-topic analysis of results is included. (DT)

  16. [Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X Y; Zhang, M; Luo, X P; Wang, J J; Yin, L; Pang, C; Wang, G A; Shen, Y X; Wu, D T; Zhang, L; Ren, Y C; Wang, B Y; Zhang, H Y; Zhou, J M; Han, C Y; Zhao, Y; Feng, T P; Hu, D S; Zhao, J Z

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and the incidence risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In total, 20 194 participants ≥18 years old were selected randomly by cluster sampling from two township (town) of the county in Henan province from July to August of 2007 and July to August of 2008 and the investigation included questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile examination were performed at baseline; 17 236 participants were enrolled in this cohort study. 14 720 (85.4%) were followed up from July to August 2013 and July to October 2014. Finally, 11 643 participants (4 301 males and 7 342 females) were included in this study. Incidence density and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the risk of T2DM associated with baseline BMI, WC, WHtR, and their dynamic changes. After average of 6.01 years following up for 11 643 participants, 613 developed T2DM and the incidence density was 0.89 per 100 person-years. After adjusted for baseline sex, age, smoking, drinking, family history of diabetes, as well as the difference of fasting plasma-glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between baseline and follow-up, Cox Proportional-Hazards regression analysis indicated that T2DM risk of baseline BMI overweight group, BMI obesity group, abnormal WC group and abnormal WHtR group were significantly higher than that of the corresponding baseline normal groups , and the incidence risk of T2DM reached the highest for those whose baseline BMI, WC and WHtR were all abnormal, the corresponding HR (95%CI) were 2.05 (1.62-2.59), 3.01 (2.33-3.90), 2.34 (1.89-2.90), 2.88 (2.21-3.74), 3.32 (2.50-4.40), respectively. Whether baseline BMI/WC was normal or not, T2DM risk increased if baseline WHtR was abnormal, and

  17. Modern needs in health technology assessment: a study of comparative effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pavlysh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Health technology assessment is a key component of healthcare decision making in most of the developed countries. Comparative effectiveness research as one of the elements of such assessment is becoming increasingly important in recent years. It is based on the effectiveness analysis of health technologies in real clinical practice setting. The authors have analyzed publications dedicated to these issues and showed the main methods of such study, its peculiarities, advantages and disadvantages. It has been revealed that the most frequently used designs of expert analysis are observational and pragmatic randomized studies. The main recommendations on analyzing comparative effectiveness are given in view of the literary data.

  18. The use of modern methods for complex studies of the hydrotechnical structures of the Barents Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Barents region hydrotechnical structures (HTS as part of the bulk earth dams and levees tailings of mining enterprises in terms of requirements of the responsible entities have been considered. The brief review of emergencies and accidents of HTS with an analysis of their causes and geo-ecological consequences has been fulfilled. The necessity and urgency of the application of modern techniques for comprehensive research and monitoring of the HTS state have been shown: geo-fluid mechanics computer modeling, subsurface georadar sensing, GPS geodetic measurements, optical and radar satellite imagery. Joint use of GPR and satellite imagery in combination with traditional engineering-geological, hydro-geological and geodetic studies allows obtaining a more complete picture of the HTS state taking into account local and regional geological and fluid dynamic processes. The system structure of HTS complex researches which creates a scientific and technical basis for researching the geologic-geophysical environment, shifts, deformations and power influence has been developed. This allows to reveal the hidden filtration and deformation zones in HTS at early stages of their formation and in due time to make the administrative decision on prevention and localization of any emergency. Application of modern methods for HTS complex researches will allow to receive operational information on their state, parametrical sizes of volume, angular and linear deformations and movements, intensity of natural and technogenic influence. The obtained data have to be integrated in the "Database and Parameters" geoportal by means of which their logical processing and comparison to standard and extreme values has to be carried out. On this basis expert assessment of the current and expected state of HTS is carried out and the operating decisions including on development, in case of need, of preventive and protective measures are made

  19. The Realization of Address Terms in Modern Persian in Iran: A Sociolinguistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbari, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important feature of interface between language and society, address terms can provide valuable sociolinguistic information about the interlocutors, their relationship and their circumstances. As a result, in the past few decades address terms in different languages have been studied from different angles and with varying focus. In line with those studies this article focuses on identifying different types of addressing terminology that Persian interlocutors may use in different contexts. Personal names, general and occupation titles, kinship related terms, religious oriented expressions, honorifics, terms of intimacy, personal pronouns, descriptive phrases and employing greetings or attention getters to avoid address terms were found to be the possible categories for Persian addressers choice. The study also reveals that Persian language is rich enough in this respect and that an artful skill is required for Persian speakers to make an accurate and proper use of the vast range of choices for addressing individuals in various contexts. In addition to account for the abandonment of certain socioeconomic-referenced terms, the study also shows a number of culture-specific address terms which may have no equivalent in English.

  20. Predictors of modern contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age groups in Western Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Melka, Alemu Sufa; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-07-17

    In Ethiopia, the prevalence of modern contraceptive use is very low (27 %) and the percentage of those with unmet needs for family planning is 25 %. The current study identified factors associated with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods among married women in Western Ethiopia. A community based, cross-sectional study was employed from April 10 to April 25, 2014, among married women of reproductive age in Nekemte Town. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 1003 study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data, and data collectors who had completed high school were involved in the data collection process. A bivariate, multivariable logistic regression model was fit, and statistical significance was determined with a 95% confidence level. The overall utilization rate of modern contraceptives in this study was 71.9%. The most common form of modern contraceptives used was injectable (60.3%). Age (AOR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.35-2.98), women's educational level (AOR = 2.50, 95 % CI = 1.62-3.84), monthly income (AOR = 2.26, 95 % CI = 1.24-4.10), respondent's fertility (AOR = 2.60, 95 % CI = 1.48-4.56), fertility-related decision (AOR = 3.70, 95 % CI = 2.45-5.58), and having radio (AOR = 1.93, 95 % CI = 1.37-2.71) showed significant positive associations with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods. The findings showed that women's empowerment, fertility-related discussions among couples, and the availability of the media were important factors that influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Thus, policymakers and implementers should work on those factors to increase the utilization of modern contraceptive methods.

  1. A numerical study on the effects of wave-current-surge interactions on the height and propagation of sea surface waves in Charleston Harbor during Hurricane Hugo 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiqing; Xie, Lian

    2009-06-01

    The effects of wave-current interactions on ocean surface waves induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal waters are examined by using a three-dimensional (3D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3D storm surge modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), the wave modeling component is based on the third generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the inundation model is adopted from [Xie, L., Pietrafesa, L. J., Peng, M., 2004. Incorporation of a mass-conserving inundation scheme into a three-dimensional storm surge model. J. Coastal Res., 20, 1209-1223]. The results indicate that the change of water level associated with the storm surge is the primary cause for wave height changes due to wave-surge interaction. Meanwhile, waves propagating on top of surge cause a feedback effect on the surge height by modulating the surface wind stress and bottom stress. This effect is significant in shallow coastal waters, but relatively small in offshore deep waters. The influence of wave-current interaction on wave propagation is relatively insignificant, since waves generally propagate in the direction of the surface currents driven by winds. Wave-current interactions also affect the surface waves as a result of inundation and drying induced by the storm. Waves break as waters retreat in regions of drying, whereas waves are generated in flooded regions where no waves would have occurred without the flood water.

  2. Assessment of modern methods of human factor reliability analysis in PSA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, J.

    2001-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: Classical terms and objects (Probabilistic safety assessment as a framework for human reliability assessment; Human failure within the PSA model; Basic types of operator failure modelled in a PSA study and analyzed by HRA methods; Qualitative analysis of human reliability; Quantitative analysis of human reliability used; Process of analysis of nuclear reactor operator reliability in a PSA study); New terms and objects (Analysis of dependences; Errors of omission; Errors of commission; Error forcing context); and Overview and brief assessment of human reliability analysis (Basic characteristics of the methods; Assets and drawbacks of the use of each of HRA method; History and prospects of the use of the methods). (P.A.)

  3. Modern Scientific Literacy: A Case Study of Multiliteracies and Scientific Practices in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth; Goldston, M. Jenice

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the convergence of multiliteracies and scientific practices in a fifth grade classroom. As students' lives become increasingly multimodal, diverse, and globalized, the traditional notions of literacy must be revisited (New London Group 1996). With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013a) in many states, either in their entirety or in adapted forms, it becomes useful to explore the interconnectedness multiliteracies and scientific practices and the resulting implications for scientific literacy. The case study included a fifth grade classroom, including the students and teacher. In order to create a rich description of the cases involved, data were collected and triangulated through teacher interviews, student interviews and focus groups, and classroom observations. Findings reveal that as science activities were enriched with multiliteracies and scientific practices, students were engaged in developing skills and knowledge central to being scientifically literate. Furthermore, this study establishes that characteristics of scientific literacy, by its intent and purpose, are a form of multiliteracies in elementary classrooms. Therefore, the teaching and learning of science and its practices for scientific literacy are in turn reinforcing the development of broader multiliteracies.

  4. Turning point in the study of human factors: From centurion to modern man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, C.; Larchier-Boulanger, J.

    1988-01-01

    For many years, it has been traditional to declare the superiority of man over the machine. The notion of man's fragility in confrontation with his machine only emerged slowly, and indeed as a result of a succession of catastrophes. The first of these date back to the railway age (signal errors), while more recent instances are to be found in the fields of aviation (pilot errors) and nuclear power. Increasing attention and in-depth studies have been devoted to the relationship between man and the machine. The following topics are discussed: the ergonomic era, emergence of the group situation, the institutional aspect, and the weight of society

  5. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT IN EDUCATION SYSTEM: MODERN STUDIES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Ovcharuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of international and Ukrainian experience on the development of information and communication competency of secondary education process participants, based on research and scientific achievements of academic staff of the Comparative Studies Department for Information and Education Innovations of the Institute of Information Technologies and Learning Tools of NAES of Ukraine. The main obstacles for school teachers towards the formation of computer-based learning process are underlined. The article justifies actuality, significance and necessity for creation, development and evaluation of the ICT competency in education, as well as it further investigation in order to make substantial recommendations on the improvement of education system.

  6. Performance Study of Objective Speech Quality Measurement for Modern Wireless-VoIP Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai-Yip

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless-VoIP communications introduce perceptual degradations that are not present with traditional VoIP communications. This paper investigates the effects of such degradations on the performance of three state-of-the-art standard objective quality measurement algorithms—PESQ, P.563, and an "extended" E-model. The comparative study suggests that measurement performance is significantly affected by acoustic background noise type and level as well as speech codec and packet loss concealment strategy. On our data, PESQ attains superior overall performance and P.563 and E-model attain comparable performance figures.

  7. A comprehensive study of worldwide selfie-related accidental mortality: a growing problem of the modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mohit J; Mavani, Kinjal J

    2017-12-01

    Since Oxford dictionary has described 'Selfie', selfie deaths have received a fair amount of coverage but the extent of the problem and the data behind it have not been appropriately explored. The aim of our study is to obtain epidemiological characteristics of selfie-related mortality worldwide with the objective of providing an insight to 'Why selfie', 'Why risky', 'Psychological basis' and 'measures of control.' Despite thousands of web pages, very few scientific articles are available in medical journals. So, we went online via Google search engine compiling every reported instance after confirming it and verifying the information in Wikipedia. Non-fatal injuries and non-selfie type of photography-related deaths were excluded from the study. From 2014 to mid-2016, 75 people have died while attempting selfie in 52 incidents worldwide. Mean age of the victims was 23.3 and 82% were male. India is the most affected country and Russia and US being second. Fall from height, drowning and rail accidents are the top three modes of death. Large-scale use of cell phone worldwide and underlying risk in selfie behaviour seems the culprit. Inability to compare selfie with non-selfie photography due to lack of data is definitely a limitation. Worldwide initiatives are being taken like 'NO SELFIE ZONES' but still a multifactorial approach is required before it gets too late.

  8. Chinese herbal dose in ancient and modern times: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shimin

    2013-04-01

    Appropriate dose guarantees Chinese herb's safety and effectiveness. There are adult dose criteria for Chinese herbs in decoction in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition) at present. But Chinese herbs have been frequently used in much higher doses than the dose criteria. This study has been conducted to test the dependability of the dose criteria. Twenty Chinese herbs were selected as representatives and their adult doses in decoction in Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang, a famous ancient literature, have been reviewed and compared with those in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition). The adult dose criteria for all these 20 Chinese herbs in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition) haven't covered those in Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang. Furthermore, maximal adult doses in the dose criteria are much lower than those in Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang. The dose criteria in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition) are not comprehensive enough. Studying ancient literatures is an effective method to gain precious Chinese herbs' dose data and helps for new dose criteria's establishment in the future.

  9. Lonely young adults in modern Britain: findings from an epidemiological cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Caspi, Avshalom; Fisher, Helen L; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Kepa, Agnieszka; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Arseneault, Louise

    2018-04-24

    The aim of this study was to build a detailed, integrative profile of the correlates of young adults' feelings of loneliness, in terms of their current health and functioning and their childhood experiences and circumstances. Data were drawn from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2232 individuals born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. Loneliness was measured when participants were aged 18. Regression analyses were used to test concurrent associations between loneliness and health and functioning in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses were conducted to examine childhood factors associated with young adult loneliness. Lonelier young adults were more likely to experience mental health problems, to engage in physical health risk behaviours, and to use more negative strategies to cope with stress. They were less confident in their employment prospects and were more likely to be out of work. Lonelier young adults were, as children, more likely to have had mental health difficulties and to have experienced bullying and social isolation. Loneliness was evenly distributed across genders and socioeconomic backgrounds. Young adults' experience of loneliness co-occurs with a diverse range of problems, with potential implications for health in later life. The findings underscore the importance of early intervention to prevent lonely young adults from being trapped in loneliness as they age.

  10. A curated database of cyanobacterial strains relevant for modern taxonomy and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vitor; Morais, João; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2017-04-25

    The dataset herein described lays the groundwork for an online database of relevant cyanobacterial strains, named CyanoType (http://lege.ciimar.up.pt/cyanotype). It is a database that includes categorized cyanobacterial strains useful for taxonomic, phylogenetic or genomic purposes, with associated information obtained by means of a literature-based curation. The dataset lists 371 strains and represents the first version of the database (CyanoType v.1). Information for each strain includes strain synonymy and/or co-identity, strain categorization, habitat, accession numbers for molecular data, taxonomy and nomenclature notes according to three different classification schemes, hierarchical automatic classification, phylogenetic placement according to a selection of relevant studies (including this), and important bibliographic references. The database will be updated periodically, namely by adding new strains meeting the criteria for inclusion and by revising and adding up-to-date metadata for strains already listed. A global 16S rDNA-based phylogeny is provided in order to assist users when choosing the appropriate strains for their studies.

  11. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  12. Meeting “Belinda” : Researching Late-Modern Musicality and Musical Late-Modernity through Studying the Shared and Contested Social in the Idiosyncratic Individual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop Boele, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Paper presented at the 31st European Seminar in Ethnomusicology ESEM, Limerick (Ireland), 18/9/2015. This paper presents a case study of ‘Belinda’, a Dutch woman in her early sixties who considers herself at the same time as ‘un-musical’ and musically hyper-sensitive. She is neither an ‘outstanding

  13. Feasibility study on energy conservation and modernization of Darkhan Cement Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For Darkhan Cement Co. in Mongolia, an investigational survey was made of possibilities of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission. The Darkhan Cement plant, the two production lines of which are of a wet long kiln system, has a production capacity of approximately 0.2 million t/y. In the project, one of the two kilns is to be converted to dry NSP kiln, and the following were to be adopted: covered-in storage space for raw materials, reclaimer, blending silo, automatic control system by computer, vertical mill, new air beam type grate cooler, etc. As a result of the study, after carrying out this technology improvement, the amount of energy conservation is 30,973 toe/y, and the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction is 95,836 t-CO2/y. The total fund required for the project is approximately 3.082 billion yen, and the period of fund payback is 11 years after the start of the project. However, the necessary condition for realizing the project is the application of the preferential system such as the environment special yen credit, etc. (NEDO)

  14. Why Should We Study Experience More Systematically: Neurophenomenology and Modern Cognitive Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Strle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article I will defend the view that cognitive science needs to use first- and second-person methods more systematically, as part of everyday research practice, if it wants to understand the human mind in its full scope. Neurophenomenological programme proposed by Varela as a remedy for the hard problem of consciousness (i.e. the problem of experience does not solve it on the ontological level. Nevertheless, it represents a good starting point of how to tackle the phenomenon of experience in a more systematic, methodologically sound way. On the other hand, Varela’s criterion of phenomenological reduction as a necessary condition for systematic investigation of experience is too strong. Regardless of that and some other problems that research of experience faces (e.g. the problem of training, the question of what kind of participants we want to study, it is becoming clear that investigating experience seriously – from first- and second-person perspective – is a necessary step cognitive science must take. This holds especially when researching phenomena that involve consciousness and/or where differentiation between conscious and unconscious processing is crucial. Furthermore, gathering experiential data is essential for interpreting experimental results gained purely by quantitative methods – especially when we are implicitly or explicitly referring to experience in our conclusions and interpretations. To support these claims some examples from the broader area of decision making will be given (the effect of deliberation-without-attention, cognitive reflection test.

  15. Study on modernization processes in the coating metal surfaces (plain bearings by thermal spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IRIMIE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge accumulated within the metal coating through thermal spraying allows the understanding of aspects related to the coat structure phenomena, in this case of the routs that need to be followed in order to create strong and stabile connections between the coats subsided through thermal spraying, between the particles that compose those coats, respectively. However, all this knowledge does not ensure the understanding of some practical situations that are apparently paradoxes, as for instance the absence of tin bronze adherence to ignobly steel holders, the perfect adherence of bronze to the aluminum on the same types of holders, in the context in which both elements, tin and aluminum, respectively are found in equal quantity in the two type of bonze that maintain them in solid solutions (below 10%.The parallel study in the sinter antifriction domain has offered information regarding the optimal correlation between the composition of antifriction material and the required type of application, the optimal pinches level and the way that this morphological characteristic may be influenced. By experimental research it is necessary to determine the conditions under which such coverage can be obtained by thermal spraying of the metal coatings.

  16. The Commercialisation of Modern Islamic Insurance Providers: A Study of Takaful Business Frameworks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaruzaman Noordin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A commercial insurance contract is deemed invalid by many Muslim scholars due to the fact that it is a mu`awada (financial exchange contract, which is overwhelmed by prohibited elements such as gharar (uncertainty, riba (interest, and maysir (gambling. As an alternative, a Shari`acompliant insurance scheme (also known as takaful that supposedly run on the principles of mutual co-operation was proposed by the scholars and subsequently institutionalized in the late 1970s. Nevertheless, after more than 30 years, it appears that the majority of takaful operators currently exist worldwide were established as joint-stock or public limited companies (PLCs. As a result, it could be argued that the original concept of takaful was later overshadowed by the element of profit-making as observed in commercial insurance entities. This paper therefore sets out to examine those issues, which directly relate to this form of commercialisation. It argues that since the establishment of insurance companies based on commercial framework is impermissible, it could possibly affect the validity of present takaful arrangement. This study is mainly qualitative and relies greatly upon the documentation method. It is also based on afieldwork method, since the business models adopted by several takaful operators in Malaysia are carefully examined. In general, it is found that the characteristics of a commercial takaful entity may not necessarily be similar to that of its conventional counterpart.

  17. NORM - Radionuclide transfer studies - A modern approach according Directive 2013/59/EURATOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, Ivica; Hajdinjak, Mladen

    2014-01-01

    Regarding NORM, Directive applies in particular to human activities which involve the presence of natural radiation sources that lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers or members of the public, in particular the processing of materials with naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) and the exposure of workers or members of the public to indoor radon, the external exposure from building materials and cases of lasting exposure resulting from the after-effects of an emergency or a past human activity. For areas with long-lasting residual contamination in which the Member State has decided to allow habitation and the resumption of social and economic activities, Member States shall ensure, in consultation with stakeholders, that arrangements are in place, as necessary, for the ongoing control of exposure with the aim of establishing living conditions that can be considered as normal. For building materials which are identified by the Member State as being of concern from a radiation protection point of view, Member State shall ensure that, before such materials are placed on the market the activity concentration index I is determined. The index relates to the gamma radiation dose derived throughout the radionuclide transfer studies, in excess of typical outdoor exposure, in a building constructed from a specified building material. The index applies to the building material, not to its constituents except when those constituents are building materials themselves and are separately assessed as such. The calculation of dose needs to take into account other factors such as density, thickness of the material as well as factors relating to the type of building and the intended use of the material (bulk or superficial). (authors)

  18. The "Profiles" document: a modern revision of the objectives of undergraduate medical studies in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Pierre-André; Jucker-Kupper, Patrick; The Profiles Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Commission of the Swiss Medical Schools (SMIFK/CIMS) decided in 2000 to establish a Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives (SCLO) for undergraduate medical training, which was adapted from a similar Dutch blueprint. A second version of the SCLO was developed and launched in 2008. The catalogue is a prerequisite for the accreditation of the curricula of the six Swiss medical faculties and defines the contents of the Federal Licensing Examination (FLE). Given the evolution of the field of medicine and of medical education, the SMIFK/CIMS has decided to embark on a total revision of the SCLO. This article presents the proposed structure and content of Profiles, a new document which, in the future, will direct the format of undergraduate studies and of the FLE. Profiles stands for the Principal Relevant Objectives for Integrative Learning and Education in Switzerland. It is currently being developed by a group of experts from the six Swiss faculties as well as representatives of other institutions involved in these developments. The foundations of Profiles are grounded in the evolution of medical practice and of public health and are based on up-to-date teaching concepts, such as EPAs (entrustable professional activities). An introduction will cover the concepts and a tutorial will be displayed. Three main chapters will provide a description of the seven 2015 CanMEDS roles, a list of core EPAs and a series of ≈250 situations embracing the most frequent and current conditions affecting health. As Profiles is still a work in progress, it is hoped that this paper will attract the interest of all individuals involved in the training of medical students.

  19. Organic sedimentation in modern lacustrine systems: A case study from Lake Malawi, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Barry J. Katz,; Christopher A. Scholz,; Peter K. Swart,

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between depositional environment and sedimentary organic geochemistry in Lake Malawi, East Africa, and evaluates the relative significance of the various processes that control sedimentary organic matter (OM) in lacustrine systems. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in recent sediments from Lake Malawi range from 0.01 to 8.80 wt% and average 2.83 wt% for surface sediments and 2.35 wt% for shallow core sediments. Hydrogen index (HI) values as determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis range from 0 to 756 mg HC g−1 TOC and average 205 mg HC g−1 TOC for surface sediments and 228 mg HC g−1 TOC for shallow core samples. On average, variations in primary productivity throughout the lake may account for ~33% of the TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (as much as 1 wt% TOC), and have little or no impact on sedimentary HI values. Similarly, ~33% to 66% of the variation in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments appears to be controlled by anoxic preservation of OM (~1–2 wt% TOC), although some component of the water depth–TOC relationship may be due to physical sediment transport processes. Furthermore, anoxic preservation has a minimal effect on HI values in Lake Malawi sediments. Dilution of OM by inorganic sediment may account for ~16% of variability in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (~0.5 wt% TOC). The effect of inputs of terrestrial sediment on the organic character of surface sediments in these lakes is highly variable, and appears to be more closely related to the local depositional environment than the regional flux of terrestrial OM. Total nitrogen and TOC content in surface sediments collected throughout the lake are found to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95), indicating a well-homogenized source of OM to the lake bottom. The recurring suspension and deposition of terrestrial sediment may account for significant amounts of OM deposited in offshore regions of the lake. This process effectively separates denser

  20. Revision 1 size and position of the healthy meniscus, and its correlation with sex, height, weight, and bone area- a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloecker, Katja; Englund, Martin; Wirth, Wolfgang; Hudelmaier, Martin; Burgkart, Rainer; Frobell, Richard B; Eckstein, Felix

    2011-10-28

    Meniscus extrusion or hypertrophy may occur in knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, currently no data are available on the position and size of the meniscus in asymptomatic men and women with normal meniscus integrity. Three-dimensional coronal DESSwe MRIs were used to segment and quantitatively measure the size and position of the medial and lateral menisci, and their correlation with sex, height, weight, and tibial plateau area. 102 knees (40 male and 62 female) were drawn from the Osteoarthritis Initiative "non-exposed" reference cohort, including subjects without symptoms, radiographic signs, or risk factors for knee OA. Knees with MRI signs of meniscus lesions were excluded. The tibial plateau area was significantly larger (p sexes, and that tibial coverage by the meniscus is similar between men and women.

  1. Feasibility study on the modernization and expansion of the Tema Oil Refinery. Executive Summary. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-04-01

    The Tema Oil Refinery (TOR), which was commissioned in 1963, is a simple hydro-skimming plant which processes crude oil into LPG, gasoline, kerosene, gasoil, and fuel oil. It is the only petroleum refinery in Ghana. Over the years some of the equipment in the refinery has deteriorated or become obsolete necessitating major rehabilitation. A study of the refinery expansion project takes into consideration earlier studies and, equally important, recognizes the extensive work done by TOR in rehabilitating the refinery. The program, carried out in phases because of funding limitations, has addressed the critical repairs and replacements in the process units and utilities necessary to prolong the life of the refinery and assure reliability and safe operation. It undertook the task of investigating the feasibility of modernizing and expanding the refinery at Tema, Ghana to meet projected market demands until the year 2005. A process planning study was conducted to select the optimal process and utility configuration which would result in economic benefits to Ghana

  2. Simulation of ICESat-2 canopy height retrievals for different ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Slated for launch in late 2017 (or early 2018), the ICESat-2 satellite will provide a global distribution of geodetic measurements from a space-based laser altimeter of both the terrain surface and relative canopy heights which will provide a significant benefit to society through a variety of applications ranging from improved global digital terrain models to producing distribution of above ground vegetation structure. The ATLAS instrument designed for ICESat-2, will utilize a different technology than what is found on most laser mapping systems. The photon counting technology of the ATLAS instrument onboard ICESat-2 will record the arrival time associated with a single photon detection. That detection can occur anywhere within the vertical distribution of the reflected signal, that is, anywhere within the vertical distribution of the canopy. This uncertainty of where the photon will be returned from within the vegetation layer is referred to as the vertical sampling error. Preliminary simulation studies to estimate vertical sampling error have been conducted for several ecosystems including woodland savanna, montane conifers, temperate hardwoods, tropical forest, and boreal forest. The results from these simulations indicate that the canopy heights reported on the ATL08 data product will underestimate the top canopy height in the range of 1 - 4 m. Although simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 will underestimate top canopy height, there is, however, a strong correlation between ICESat-2 heights and relative canopy height metrics (e.g. RH75, RH90). In tropical forest, simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 height correlates strongly with RH90. Similarly, in temperate broadleaf forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights were also strongly correlated with RH90. In boreal forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights are strongly correlated with RH75 heights. It is hypothesized that the correlations between simulated ICESat-2 heights and canopy height metrics are a

  3. Multiple modernities, modern subjectivities and social order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Sinclair, Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    to modern subjectivity formation. In combining conceptual tools from these strands of social theory, we argue that the emergence of multiple modernities should be understood as a historical result of idiosyncratic social constructions combining global social imaginaries with religious and other cultural......Taking its point of departure in the conceptual debate about modernities in the plural, this article presents a heuristic framework based on an interpretative approach to modernity. The article draws on theories of multiple modernities, successive modernities and poststructuralist approaches...... traditions. In the second part of the article we illustrate this argument with three short excursions into the history of Islamic reform in the 19th and 20th centuries. In this way we interpret the modern history of Muslim societies as based on cultural conflicts between different forms of social order...

  4. Ayurveda-modern medicine interface: A critical appraisal of studies of Ayurvedic medicines to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish

    2010-07-01

    The potential of Ayurvedic philosophy and medicines needs to be recognized and converted into real life treatment paradigm. This article describes a comprehensive therapeutic approach used in Ayurveda and modern medicine to treat arthritis. We present concise summary of various controlled drug trials carried out by us to validate standardized Ayurvedic drugs using modern medicine protocol to treat Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis knees. Several of the latter are published. The trials consistently demonstrate excellent safety of Ayurvedic medicines but often fail to unequivocally show superior efficacy. Some key findings of a recently unpublished trial in OA knees are also presented to show equivalence between Ayurvedic medicine and celecoxib and glucosamine, and we speculate that equivalence trials may be a way forward. The data from the trials also supports the Ayurvedic 'Rasayana' concept of immune-modulation and healing. We need to interpret logic of Ayurveda when, adopting modern science tools in drug development and validation and much research is required. Validation of Ayurvedic medicines using the latter approach may lead to an evidence based Ayurveda - Modern Medicine interface. Also, in pursuit of finding better treatment solutions, we ought to step beyond the realm of only drugs and attempt validation of comprehensive specific treatment package as per classical Ayurveda. Finally, validation of a combined (Ayurveda and modern medicine) therapeutic approach with superior efficacy and safety is likely to be a major leap in overcoming some of the current frustrations to treat difficult disorders like arthritis using only modern medicines.

  5. Ayurveda–modern medicine interface: A critical appraisal of studies of Ayurvedic medicines to treat osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish

    2010-01-01

    The potential of Ayurvedic philosophy and medicines needs to be recognized and converted into real life treatment paradigm. This article describes a comprehensive therapeutic approach used in Ayurveda and modern medicine to treat arthritis. We present concise summary of various controlled drug trials carried out by us to validate standardized Ayurvedic drugs using modern medicine protocol to treat Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis knees. Several of the latter are published. The trials consistently demonstrate excellent safety of Ayurvedic medicines but often fail to unequivocally show superior efficacy. Some key findings of a recently unpublished trial in OA knees are also presented to show equivalence between Ayurvedic medicine and celecoxib and glucosamine, and we speculate that equivalence trials may be a way forward. The data from the trials also supports the Ayurvedic ‘Rasayana’ concept of immune-modulation and healing. We need to interpret logic of Ayurveda when, adopting modern science tools in drug development and validation and much research is required. Validation of Ayurvedic medicines using the latter approach may lead to an evidence based Ayurveda – Modern Medicine interface. Also, in pursuit of finding better treatment solutions, we ought to step beyond the realm of only drugs and attempt validation of comprehensive specific treatment package as per classical Ayurveda. Finally, validation of a combined (Ayurveda and modern medicine) therapeutic approach with superior efficacy and safety is likely to be a major leap in overcoming some of the current frustrations to treat difficult disorders like arthritis using only modern medicines. PMID:21547047

  6. Patchwork-Religiosität: a study on the features of this phenomena in the modern German context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. OREHANOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the phenomenon of «Patchwork-Religiosität» in today’s youth, which is popular in the Western religious studies. The author believes that the «Patchwork-Religiosität» is one of the essential features of the current religious situation. There are three main aspects of the analysis: substantial, functional and discursive. In the first part of the article the author examines the comprehension of the content of the phenomenon of «Patchwork-Religiosität» in modern German theology, sociology and psychology of religion. In the second part different approaches, in which this phenomenon becomes a matter of analysis, are discussed as sociological incident, as a problem of church organizations and as a challenge to theology. As a result, the author shows that the «Patchwork-Religiosität» has become one of the most eff ective forms of resistance to the charms of the world based on material of German research. At the same time, this phenomenon is a real challenge to traditional religious communities in Germany for the past 25 years. Not only sociological approaches play a significant role in learning but also psychological approaches. The focus of this article is a review of some religious trends among young people in the context of modern German experience. It can be noted that the actual scientific topic is one of the most important tendency in the religious life of today’s young people: the presence of secularization and appearance of a particular kind of religiosity. This kind of religiosity needs unique religious experience characterized by the following three common features: a subcultural context i.e. religious self-determination within a certain subculture; b the singular gap i.e. a total departure from traditional notions of religion itself and Christianity in particular, and as a result, the rejection of «the faith of the fathers»; c Lastly, «Patchwork-identity» or

  7. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. Arab-Levantine personality structure: A psycholexical study of modern standard Arabic in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinoun, Pia; Daouk-Öyry, Lina; Choueiri, Lina; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2018-06-01

    The debate of whether personality traits are universal or culture-specific has been informed by psycholexical (or lexical) studies conducted in tens of languages and cultures. We contribute to this debate through a series of studies in which we investigated personality descriptors in Modern Standard Arabic, the variety of Arabic that is presumably common to about 26 countries and native to more than 200 million people. We identified an appropriate source of personality descriptors, extracted them, and systematically reduced them to 167 personality traits that are common, are not redundant with each other, and are familiar and commonly understood in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and the West Bank (Palestinian territories). We then analyzed self- and peer ratings (N = 806) and identified a six-factor solution comprising Morality (I), Conscientiousness (II), Positive Emotionality (III), Dominance (IV), Agreeableness/Righteousness (V), and Emotional Stability (VI) without replicating an Openness factor. The factors were narrower or broader variants of factors found in the Big Five and HEXACO models. Conceptual and methodological considerations may have impacted the factor structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of modern and traditional methods of soilsorption complex measurement : the basis of long -term studies and modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Aleš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the correlations between two different analytical methods of assessing soil nutrient contents. Soil nutrient content measurements measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method, which uses barium chloride extraction, were compared with those of the now-unused Gedroiz method, which uses ammonium chloride extraction (calcium by titration, magnesium, potassium and sodium by weighing. Natural forest soils from the Ukrainian Carpathians at the localities of Javorník and Pop Ivan were used. Despite the risk of analysis errors during the complicated analytical procedure, the results showed a high level of correlation between different nutrient content measurements across the whole soil profile. This allows concentration values given in different studies to be linearly recalculated on results of modern method. In this way, results can be used to study soil’s chemical changes over time from the soil samples that were analysed in the past using labour-intensive and time-consuming methods with a higher risk of analytic error.

  10. Study of radial distribution of 239,240Pu and 90Sr in annual tree rings and trunk bark of a 103 years old Norway spruce at four different heights above ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgye, Z.; Schlesingerova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Radial distribution of 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr originating from atmospheric nuclear tests in tree rings and trunk bark at heights of 1.3, 10, 18 and 22 m above ground was studied. 239,240 Pu activity concentrations in air dried tree ring samples (each containing 10 annual rings) at all heights were under detection limit of the used method. 90 Sr activity concentrations in tree ring samples ranged from 0.54 to 2.81 Bq kg -1 . 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr were present in the trunk bark. The paper presents data for 239,240 Pu and 90 Sr aggregated transfer factors to tree trunk. (author)

  11. Level of modern health care seeking behaviors among mothers having under five children in Dangila town, north West Ethiopia, 2016: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnew, Amare Belachew; Tewabe, Tilahun; Murugan, Rajalakshmi

    2018-05-29

    Health seeking behavior is an action taken by an individual who perceive to have a health problem. In most developing countries including Ethiopia the health of the children is strongly dependant on maternal health care behavior. Most childhood morbidities and mortalities are associated with low level of mothers health care seeking behavior. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess level of modern health care seeking behavior among mothers having under five children in Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Community based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15 to May 15, 2016. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. A total of273 mothers with children less than five years were included in this study. The data was collected from all five Kebeles using interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with level of modern health care seeking behavior. Prevalence of modern health care seeking behavior was 82.1%. Age of mothers (AOR = 2.4(1.1, 5.3), age of the child (AOR = 6.7(2.8, 22.2), severity of illness (AOR = 5.2(1.2, 22.6) and family number (AOR = 6.4(2.1, 20.2) were predictors of modern health care seeking behavior among mothers. Majority of the mothers preferred to take their children to modern health care when they got illness. Age of children, age of mother, number of family and severity of illness were the determinant factors for modern health care seeking behavior. Therefore, health care services should be strengthened at community level through community integrated management of childhood illness, information, education communication / behavioral change communication strategies to improve mothers health care seeking behaviors.

  12. human pelvis height is associated with other pelvis measurements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guyton2

    no study seeking to relate pelvis height to the other pelvis measurements of obstetric importance in Ugandans. In this paper we set out to answer the research question what are the associations between the various pelvis anthropometric measurements of obstetric importance with pelvis height in a sample of bones from the ...

  13. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. (Johan); Sung, Y.-T. (Yn-Tz); J. Sunyer (Jordi); Suriyawongpaisal, P. (Paibul); Swinburn, B.A. (Boyd A.); Sy, R.G. (Rody G.); Szponar, L. (Lucjan); E. Shyong Tai; M.L. Tammesoo; A. Tamosiunas (Abdonas); Tang, L. (Line); Tang, X. (Xun); F. Tanser (Frank); Tao, Y. (Yong); Tarawneh, M.R. (Mohammed Rasoul); Tarp, J. (Jakob); Tarqui-Mamani, C.B. (Carolina B.); Taylor, A. (Anne); Tchibindat, F. (Félicité); Theobald, H. (Holger); L. Thijs (Lutgarde); L. Thuesen (Leif); A. Tjønneland (Anne); Tolonen, H.K. (Hanna K.); Tolstrup, J.S. (Janne S.); Topbas, M. (Murat); Topór-Madry, R. (Roman); M. Torrent (Maties); Toselli, S. (Stefania); Traissac, P. (Pierre); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); Trichopoulos, D. (Dimitrios); Trinh, O.T.H. (Oanh T. H.); Trivedi, A. (Atul); Tshepo, L. (Lechaba); Tulloch-Reid, M.K. (Marshall K.); Tuomainen, T.-P. (Tomi-Pekka); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Turley, M.L. (Maria L.); Tynelius, P. (Per); Tzotzas, T. (Themistoklis); C. Tzourio (Christophe); Ueda, P. (Peter); Ukoli, F.A.M. (Flora A. M.); Ulmer, H. (Hanno); Unal, B. (Belgin); Uusitalo, H.M.T. (Hannu M. T.); Valdivia, G. (Gonzalo); Vale, S. (Susana); D. Valvi (Damaskini); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); Van Herck, K. (Koen); Van Minh, H. (Hoang); L. van Rossem (Lenie); I. van Valkengoed (Irene); D. Vanderschueren (Dirk); D. Vanuzzo (Diego); L. Vatten (Lars); Vega, T. (Tomas); Velasquez-Melendez, G. (Gustavo); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); Monique Verschuren, W.M.; Verstraeten, R. (Roosmarijn); Victora, C.G. (Cesar G.); G. Viegi; L. Viet (Lucie); E. Viikari-Juntura (Eira); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. Vioque (Jesus); Virtanen, J.K. (Jyrki K.); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); B. Viswanathan (Bharathi); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Voutilainen, S. (Sari); Vrdoljak, A. (Ana); M. Vrijheid (Martine); Wade, A.N. (Alisha N.); Wagner, A. (Aline); Walton, J. (Janette); Mohamud, W.N.W. (Wan Nazaimoon Wan); Wang, M.-D. (Ming-Dong); Wang, Q. (Qian); Y. Wang (Ying); Goya Wannamethee, S.; N.J. Wareham (Nick); Weerasekera, D. (Deepa); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Widhalm, K. (Kurt); Widyahening, I.S. (Indah S.); Wiecek, A. (Andrzej); A.H. Wijga (Alet); Wilks, R.J. (Rainford J.); J. Willeit (Johann); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); Wong, J.E. (Jyh Eiin); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Woo, J. (Jean); M. Woodward (Mark); F.C.W. Wu (Frederick C.); Wu, J. (Jianfeng); Wu, S.L. (Shou Ling); Xu, H. (Haiquan); Xu, L. (Liang); Yamborisut, U. (Uruwan); Yan, W. (Weili); Yang, X. (Xiaoguang); Yardim, N. (Nazan); X. Ye (Xingwang); P.K. Yiallouros (P.); Yoshihara, A. (Akihiro); You, Q.S. (Qi Sheng); Younger-Coleman, N.O. (Novie O.); Yusoff, A.F. (Ahmad F.); Zainuddin, A.A. (Ahmad A.); Zambon, S. (Sabina); T. Zdrojewski (T.); Zeng, Y. (Yi); Zhao, D. (Dong); Zhao, W. (Wenhua); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); M. Zhou (Ming); Zhu, D. (Dan); E. Zimmermann; Cisneros, J.Z. (Julio Zuñiga)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The

  14. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Cowan, Melanie; Fortunato, Léa; Bennett, James E.; Danaei, Goodarz; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M.; Laxmaiah, Avula; Kontis, Vasilis; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Riboli, Elio; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Hamid, Zargar Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Othman, Amani Rashed; Raddadi, Rajaa Al; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Aly, Eman; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Wit, Tobias F. Rinke de; Schultsz, Constance; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien; Valkengoed, Irene Gm van

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in

  15. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...

  16. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  17. Plume Dispersion over Idealized Urban-liked Roughness with Height Variation: an LES Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colman Ching Chi; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Human activities (e.g. vehicular emission) are the primary pollutant sources affecting the health and living quality of stakeholders in modern compact cities. Gaussian plume dispersion model is commonly used for pollutant distribution estimate that works well over rural areas with flat terrain. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, exclude the effect of surface roughness that unavoidably prone to error handling the pollutant transport in the urban boundary layer (UBL) over building roughness. Our recent large-eddy simulation (LES) has shown that urban surfaces affect significantly the pollutant dispersion over idealized, identical two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of uniform height. As an extension to our on-going effort, this study is conceived to investigate how rough urban surfaces, which are constructed by 2D street canyons of non-uniform height, modify the UBL pollutant dispersion . A series of LESs with idealized roughness elements of non-uniform heights were performed in neutral stratification. Building models with two different heights were placed alternatively in the computational domain to construct 2D street canyons in cross flows. The plume dispersion from a ground-level passive pollutant source over more realistic urban areas was then examined. Along with the existing building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio (AR), a new parameter, building-height variability (BHV), is used to measure the building height unevenness. Four ARs (1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125) and three BHVs (20%, 40% and 60%) were considered in this study. Preliminary results show that BHV greatly increases the aerodynamic roughness of the hypothetical urban surfaces for narrow street canyons. Analogous to our previous findings, the air exchange rate (ACH) of street canyons increases with increasing friction factor, implying that street-level ventilation could be improved by increasing building roughness via BHV. In addition, the parameters used in dispersion coefficient

  18. An analysis of the relationship between bodily injury severity and fall height in victims of fatal falls from height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Teresiński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : One of the basic issues discussed in forensic literature regarding falls from a height is determination of fall heights and differentiation between suicidal and accidental falls. The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of the available methods for the purposes of forensic expertises. Material and methods : The study encompassed fatalities of falls from a height whose autopsies were performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin. Results : Similarly to other authors, the severity of injuries was assessed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and injury severity score (ISS. The study findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the fall height and the severity of injuries according to ISS and a statistically significant difference in fall heights between the groups of accidents and suicides.

  19. Basic survey project for Joint Implementation, etc. Feasibility study on the modernization of cement plant in Republic of Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a project was studied for the modernization of a cement plant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In the Semipalatinsk cement plant, an old wet type kiln is being used which is much consuming in energy and low in productivity. By replacing this kiln with the NSP dry type kiln, expected were the enhancement of efficiency, energy conservation, and reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Further, it was planned that four lines for raw material production and four lines for clinker combustion are tied together to make it one, and the ball mill is replaced with the low power-consuming type roller mill. By this project, the energy consumption will decrease by 96,000 t/y in coal and 2,095,500 kWh/y in electric power, which is a decrease of approximately 39% from the energy consumption before the project being worked out. Moreover, as to greenhouse effect gases, there are no changes in CO2 gas emissions from limestone, but CO2 gas emissions from coal decrease by 216.960 t/y, which is a decrease of 28.5% from that before the project being worked out. (NEDO)

  20. A Parametric Study of Actuator Requirements for Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control of a Modern High Bypass Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jonathan L.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of aircraft gas turbine engines is sensitive to the distance between the tips of its turbine blades and its shroud, which serves as its containment structure. Maintaining tighter clearance between these components has been shown to increase turbine efficiency, increase fuel efficiency, and reduce the turbine inlet temperature, and this correlates to a longer time-on-wing for the engine. Therefore, there is a desire to maintain a tight clearance in the turbine, which requires fast response active clearance control. Fast response active tip clearance control will require an actuator to modify the physical or effective tip clearance in the turbine. This paper evaluates the requirements of a generic active turbine tip clearance actuator for a modern commercial aircraft engine using the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) software that has previously been integrated with a dynamic tip clearance model. A parametric study was performed in an attempt to evaluate requirements for control actuators in terms of bandwidth, rate limits, saturation limits, and deadband. Constraints on the weight of the actuation system and some considerations as to the force which the actuator must be capable of exerting and maintaining are also investigated. From the results, the relevant range of the evaluated actuator parameters can be extracted. Some additional discussion is provided on the challenges posed by the tip clearance control problem and the implications for future small core aircraft engines.

  1. Height among Women is Curvilinearly Related to Life History Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that women of medium height would show a more secure, long-term mating pattern characterized by less jealousy, less intrasexual competition and a “slower” life history strategy. In three samples of female undergraduate students clear support was found for these hypotheses. In Study 1, among 120 participants, height was curvilinearly related to well-established measures of possessive and reactive jealousy, with women of medium height being less jealous than tall as well as short women. In Study 2, among 40 participants, height was curvilinearly related to intrasexual competition, with women of medium height being less competitive towards other women than tall as well as short women. In Study 3, among 299 participants, height was curvilinearly related to the Mini-K, a well-validated measure of “slower” life history strategy, with women of medium height having a slower life history strategy than tall as well as short women. The results suggest that women of medium height tend to follow a different mating strategy than either tall or short women. Various explanations and implications of these results are discussed.

  2. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  3. Use of Micro-Computed Tomography for Dental Studies in Modern and Fossil Odontocetes: Potential Applications and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Loch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teeth are important elements in studies of modern and fossil Cetacea (whales, dolphins, providing information on feeding habits, estimations of age and phylogenetic relationships. The growth layer groups (GLGs recorded in dentine have demonstrated application for aging studies, but also have the potential to elucidate life history phenomena such as metabolic or physiologic events. Micro-Computed Tomography (Micro-CT is a non-invasive and non-destructive technique that allows 3-dimensional study of mineralized tissues, such as human teeth, and their physical properties. Teeth from extant dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti and some fossil odontocetes were scanned in a Skyscan 1172 Micro-CT desktop system. X-rays were generated at 100 kV and 100 µA for extant samples, and at 80kV and 124 µA for fossils. 0.5 mm thick aluminum and copper filters were used in the beam. Reconstructed images were informative for most extant species, showing a good resolution of the enamel layer, dentine and pulp cavity. Greyscale changes in the dentinal layers were not resolved enough to show GLGs. Visualization of the internal structure in fossil cetacean teeth depended on the degree of diagenetic alteration in the specimen; undifferentiated enamel and dentine regions probably reflect secondary mineralization. However, internal details were finely resolved for one fossil specimen, showing the enamel, internal layers of dentine and the pulp cavity. Micro-CT has been proven to be a useful tool for resolving the internal morphology of fossil and extant teeth of cetaceans before they are sectioned for other morphological analyses; however some methodological refinements are still necessary to allow better resolution of dentine for potential application in non-destructive age determination studies.

  4. Modern algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lutfiyya, Lutfi A

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Modern Algebra includes set theory, operations, relations, basic properties of the integers, group theory, and ring theory.

  5. Study on the natural air cooling design of electronic equipment casings: Effects of the height and size of outlet vent on the flow resistances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M; Hatakeyama, T; Kibushi, R; Inoue, M

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of the outlet vent size and the distance between the outlet vent location and the power heater position on the flow resistance in natural-air-cooled electronic equipment casings. An experiment was carried out using a simple model casing simulated for the practical natural-air-cooled casing which is composed of 4 side walls, a top plate and bottom plate which has an inlet opening. A power heater to served as a power dissipation unit was placed at its open bottom. An outlet opening was set on one of the side walls. The opening area, the height of the outlet and the heater location were varied. The experimental results were analyzed using the flow resistance coefficient K which was related to the distance between the outlet vent and the power heater position and the heat removal from the outlet vent, and K values were plotted against a pair of Reynolds numbers Re and the outlet vent porosity β which is defined as the ratio of outlet vent open area to the top surface area of the casing.

  6. Footprint parameters as a measure of arch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Nachbauer, W; Sovak, D; Nigg, B M

    1992-01-01

    The human foot has frequently been categorized into arch height groups based upon analysis of footprint parameters. This study investigates the relationship between directly measured arch height and many of the footprint parameters that have been assumed to represent arch height. A total of 115 male subjects were measured and footprint parameters were calculated from digitized outlines. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between footprint measures and arch height. It may be concluded from the results that footprint parameters proposed in the literature (arch angle, footprint index, and arch index) and two further parameters suggested in this study (arch length index and truncated arch index) are invalid as a basis for prediction or categorization of arch height. The categorization of the human foot according to the footprint measures evaluated in this paper represent no more than indices and angles of the plantar surface of the foot itself.

  7. Season of birth is different in Inuit suicide victims born into Traditional than into Modern Lifestyle: a register study from Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstén, Karin S; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2015-07-04

    There is growing evidence that living conditions at birth play a role in medical conditions later in life. Population-based studies from the Northern Hemisphere have shown that persons born in the spring or summer are at greater risk of committing suicide. A statistical correlation with light availability at birth has been observed in past research, but the cause remains unknown. Greenland is one of the most extreme of natural human habitats with regard to seasonal changes in light. The combination of rapid social changes and reliable population statistics offers a unique opportunity to make comparisons between persons born into a Traditional Lifestyle and those born into a Modern Lifestyle. The aim of this work was to assess whether season of birth differed between suicide victims born into an old or into a modern lifestyle. Official population and mortality registers were used. Suicide victims born (1903-1950) into the Traditional Lifestyle were compared with those born into the Modern Lifestyle (1961-1980). Rayleigh's test for circular distributions was used to assess the season of birth in suicide victims. Data regarding season of birth in the general population were collected. Persons born in March-June in the Traditional Lifestyle were much less likely to commit suicide than those born during other periods of the year. This is contrary to the findings of other studies. The seasonal differences had disappeared for those born into the Modern Lifestyle. The suicide rate increased from very low rates to about 140 suicides/100 000 person-years in the 1980s. The reason behind a variation in season of birth in suicide victims born into the old lifestyle is unknown. It is also unknown why the seasonal difference had disappeared with modern lifestyle. Possible influence of artificial light, nutrition, microbiota and seasonal infections are discussed. The underlying causes behind suicides may be different in traditional and modern Greenland.

  8. The association between height and birth order: evidence from 652 518 Swedish men

    OpenAIRE

    Myrskyla, Mikko; Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth order is associated with outcomes such as birth weight and adult socioeconomic position (SEP), but little is known about the association with adult height. This potential birth order-height association is important because height predicts health, and because the association may help explain population-level height trends. We studied the birth order-height association and whether it varies by family characteristics or birth cohort. Methods We used the Swedish Military Conscrip...

  9. Long-range transport and multimedia partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds: a case study on two modern agrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammel, G.; Feichter, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Leip, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    2001-08-01

    The global environmental fate of two modern pesticides was studied using a multimedia model based on a three-dimensional atmosphere general circulation model. The emissions are predicted dynamically based on agricultural application inventories. The insecticide methyl parathion, when assuming properties at the high mobility end of the respective data uncertainties, was found to be distributed on continental and even global scales. This finding implies that based on present knowledge one cannot exclude that methyl parathion reaches regions as far from the sources as e.g. the Arctic. Two scenarios of the environmental cycling of the herbicide atrazine were studied which reflect a lower and an upper estimate of the substance' mobility. Atrazine largely remains in the source (application) regions and the neighbouring seas. But also atrazine seems to have an albeit limited potential for long-range transport. The findings on substance mobilities are quantified by indicators which address spatial range in the zonal direction in individual media. The seasonal variability of the total environmental burden of both pesticides is governed by the degradation in soil and vegetation which together host 73% of methyl parathion and 90-99% of atrazine. Also, the cycling between compartments was studied. Methyl parathion undergoes more deposition and re-emission cycles than atrazine, a characteristics of the environmental fate of semivolatile substances. Persistence is addressed by determination of global total environmental decay times during periods without introduction of new substance into the environment. These are in the range 4-7 months. It is found that the seasonal variability of persistence is pronounced. (orig.)

  10. The value of radiometry in sex assessment of bone fragments: A study on the radius in a modern Greek population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranioti EF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper highlights the different applications of Digital Radiology in forensic sciences and proposes an alternative sex estimation method based on digital radiographs of the proximal and distal epiphysis of the radius. Methods: A total of 101 (53 males and 48 females adult left radii was used in this study. A digital portable X-ray machine (Technix TCA 4R PLUS was used for taking the radiographs of the radii. Eight landmarks are selected on the radiograph of the proximal and six on the radiographs of the distal epiphysis generating in total 28 linear distances for the proximal and 15 for the distal epiphysis. Data acquisition was carried out using TpsUtil and TpsDig2 software and SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: ANOVA detected 24 variables that differed significantly between males and females (p < 0.05. The best single discriminatory variable yielded 85% correct classification of the original sample. The best multivariate formula gave 88% correct classification of the original sample. More than half of the cases were correctly classified with 95% probability of correct classification. Conclusions: The study proposes the use of a rapid easy and inexpensive method for sex screening of forearm fragments based on digital radiographs of the radius. Results indicate that the proposed method can be used in addition to osteometric methods for sex estimation. This can be particularly advantageous in cases of mass disasters with numerous mutilated and/or burnt bodies where time is of crucial importance in forensic identification and maceration is not an option. It must be stressed here that the data derive from a documented sample of a modern Greek population thus it should not be considered applicable to other populations without previous validation studies.

  11. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  12. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  13. The Religion of the Muslims of Medieval and Early Modern Castile : Interdisciplinary Research and Recent Studies on Mudejar Islam (2000-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colominas Aparicio, M.; Wiegers, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    The present article examines recent contributions to the study of Islam and Muslim communities in Medieval and Early Modern Castile (2000-2014). Our aim is to identify the main areas of focus, the topics and the key issues addressed by scholars in the field; and to consider the significance of the

  14. Teaching about Modern Germany: Instructional Materials for the Social Studies Classroom. Correlation Charts Indicating Content and Skills Addressed by Each Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4)…

  15. Modern real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, William P

    2017-01-01

    This first year graduate text is a comprehensive resource in real analysis based on a modern treatment of measure and integration. Presented in a definitive and self-contained manner, it features a natural progression of concepts from simple to difficult. Several innovative topics are featured, including differentiation of measures, elements of Functional Analysis, the Riesz Representation Theorem, Schwartz distributions, the area formula, Sobolev functions and applications to harmonic functions. Together, the selection of topics forms a sound foundation in real analysis that is particularly suited to students going on to further study in partial differential equations. This second edition of Modern Real Analysis contains many substantial improvements, including the addition of problems for practicing techniques, and an entirely new section devoted to the relationship between Lebesgue and improper integrals. Aimed at graduate students with an understanding of advanced calculus, the text will also appeal to mo...

  16. Relativity in modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deruelle, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook on relativity integrates Newtonian physics, special relativity and general relativity into a single book that emphasizes the deep underlying principles common to them all, yet explains how they are applied in different ways in these three contexts. Newton's ideas about how to represent space and time, his laws of dynamics, and his theory of gravitation established the conceptual foundation from which modern physics developed. Book I in this volume offers undergraduates a modern view of Newtonian theory, emphasizing those aspects needed for understanding quantum and relativistic contemporary physics. In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed a novel representation of space and time, special relativity. Book II presents relativistic dynamics in inertial and accelerated frames, as well as a detailed overview of Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism. This provides undergraduate and graduate students with the background necessary for studying particle and accelerator physics, astrophysics and ...

  17. Modern particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079874

    2013-01-01

    Unique in its coverage of all aspects of modern particle physics, this textbook provides a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a straightforward manner with full mathematical derivations throughout. Fully-worked examples enable students to link the mathematical theory to results from modern particle physics experiments. End-of-chapter exercises, graded by difficulty, provide students with a deeper understanding of the subject. Online resources available at www.cambridge.org/MPP feature password-protected fully-worked solutions to problems for instructors, numerical solutions and hints to the problems for students and PowerPoint slides and JPEGs of figures from the book

  18. Modern water resources engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chih

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed...

  19. Wide Area Measurement Based Security Assessment & Monitoring of Modern Power System: A Danish Power System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Power System security has become a major concern across the global power system community. This paper presents wide area measurement system (WAMS) based security assessment and monitoring of modern power system. A new three dimensional security index (TDSI) has been proposed for online security...... monitoring of modern power system with large scale renewable energy penetration. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) based WAMS has been implemented in western Danish Power System to realize online security monitoring and assessment in power system control center. The proposed security monitoring system has been...

  20. Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.

  1. Study of Modern Approach to Build the Functional Models of Managerial and Engineering Systems in Training Specialists for Space Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Arhipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SM8 Chair at Bauman Moscow State Technological University (BMSTU trains specialists majoring not only in design and manufacture, but also in operation and maintenance of space ground-based infrastructure.The learning courses in design, production, and operation of components of the missile and space technology, give much prominence to modeling. The same attention should be given to the modeling of managerial and engineering systems, with which deal both an expert and a leadman. It is important to choose the modeling tools for managerial and engineering systems with which they are to work and to learn how to apply these tools.The study of modern approach to functional modeling of managerial and engineering systems is held in the format of business game in laboratory class. A structural analysis and design technique (IDEFØ is considered as the means of modeling.The article stresses the IDEFØ approach advantages, namely: comprehensible graphical language, applicability to all-types and all-levels-of-hierarchy managerial and engineering systems modeling, popularity, version control means, teamwork tools. Moreover, the IDEFØ allows us to illustrate such notions, as point of view, system bounders, structure, control, feedback as applied to the managerial and engineering systems.The article offers a modified procedure to create an IDEFØ model in the context of training session. It also suggests a step-by-step procedure of the instruction session to be held, as well as of student self-training to have study credits, and a procedure of the work defense (final test.The approach under consideration can be applied to other training courses. The article proves it giving information about positive experience of its application.

  2. Use of modern tomato breeding germplasm for deciphering the genetic control of agronomical traits by Genome Wide Association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchet, Guillaume; Grenier, Stéphane; Samson, Nicolas; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Causse, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    A panel of 300 tomato accessions including breeding materials was built and characterized with >11,000 SNP. A population structure in six subgroups was identified. Strong heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium and recombination landscape among groups and chromosomes was shown. GWAS identified several associations for fruit weight, earliness and plant growth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become a method of choice in quantitative trait dissection. First limited to highly polymorphic and outcrossing species, it is now applied in horticultural crops, notably in tomato. Until now GWAS in tomato has been performed on panels of heirloom and wild accessions. Using modern breeding materials would be of direct interest for breeding purpose. To implement GWAS on a large panel of 300 tomato accessions including 168 breeding lines, this study assessed the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium decay and revealed the population structure and performed GWA experiment. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses were based on molecular markers (>11,000 SNP) covering the whole genome. Six genetic subgroups were revealed and associated to traits of agronomical interest, such as fruit weight and disease resistance. Estimates of linkage disequilibrium highlighted the heterogeneity of its decay among genetic subgroups. Haplotype definition allowed a fine characterization of the groups and their recombination landscape revealing the patterns of admixture along the genome. Selection footprints showed results in congruence with introgressions. Taken together, all these elements refined our knowledge of the genetic material included in this panel and allowed the identification of several associations for fruit weight, plant growth and earliness, deciphering the genetic architecture of these complex traits and identifying several new loci useful for tomato breeding.

  3. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Hirt, Christian; Pitoňák, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be defined with respect to the equipotential surface. Taking the analogy with terrestrial height systems, the realization of height systems for telluric planets and moons could be done by means of defining the orthometric and geoidal heights. In this case, however, the definition of the orthometric heights in principle differs. Whereas the terrestrial geoid is described as an equipotential surface that best approximates the mean sea level, such a definition for planets/moons is irrelevant in the absence of (liquid) global oceans. A more natural choice for planets and moons is to adopt the geoidal equipotential surface that closely approximates the geometric reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid). In this study, we address these aspects by proposing a more accurate approach for defining the orthometric heights for telluric planets and moons from available topographic and gravity models, while adopting the average crustal density in the absence of reliable crustal density models. In particular, we discuss a proper treatment of topographic masses in the context of gravimetric geoid determination. In numerical studies, we investigate differences between the geodetic and orthometric heights, represented by the geoidal heights, on Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Moon. Our results reveal that these differences are significant. The geoidal heights on Mercury vary from - 132 to 166 m. On Venus, the geoidal heights are between - 51 and 137 m with maxima on this planet at Atla Regio and Beta

  4. Fast-food outlets and walkability in school neighbourhoods predict fatness in boys and height in girls: a Taiwanese population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Huang; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chen, Hui-Hsin; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying

    2011-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that the school food environment contributes to childhood obesity and health in various locations. We investigated the influence of fast-food stores and convenience food stores (FS and CS, respectively) on growth and body composition in a range of residential densities for North-east Asian food culture. Anthropometrics and birth weight of schoolchildren were obtained. Geocoded mapping of schools and food outlets was conducted. Multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for father's ethnicity and education, as well as for household income, pocket money, birth weight, physical activity, television watching, food quality and region, were used to predict body composition from school food environments. Elementary schools and school neighbourhoods in 359 townships/districts of Taiwan. A total of 2283 schoolchildren aged 6-13 years from the Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan conducted in 2001-2002. Remote and socially disadvantaged locations had the highest prevalence of lower weight, BMI, waist circumference and triceps skinfold thickness. Food store densities, FS and CS, were highest in urban Taiwan and lowest in remote Taiwan. In the fully adjusted models, FS densities predicted weight and BMI in boys; there was a similar association for waist circumference, except when adjusted for region. FS densities also predicted height for girls. Except for weight and BMI in boys, CS did not have effects evident with FS for either boys or girls. A high FS density, more than CS density, in Taiwan increased the risk of general (BMI) and abdominal (waist circumference) obesity in boys and stature in girls. These findings have long-term implications for chronic disease in adulthood.

  5. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  6. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases...... and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.Results:The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height >180 cm...... are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer...

  7. Using City Branding as the Part of the Intersection Point of Modernization and Tradition. Case Study: Surakarta City (Solo, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursanty Eko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To recognize a city is part of a city branding effort. By recognizing the dwelling, the city's inhabitants are able to create a spatial space in accordance with their easily recognizable cultural identity. In city branding, the memory of a city space is often the main ingredient in strengthening the identity. The efforts to use place making forces at this time are often used to solve the failures in multi-cultural spaces. Evolution in history is part of dynamic space planning as part of the identity of a city.The purpose of this research is to reveal the relationship between the formation of tradition spaces that are able to function in a modern way. The pattern of this relationship will produce spatial planning patterns with special characters as well. Humans as space users play a very big role as a space builder, where the decisions they make are often based on the tradition they have used for generations.The methods used in this study are qualitative, deductive using the theories that have been there before. Field research is used as empirical data in the form of interviews, photographs and field observations was conducted in various existing city spaces in Solo with the purpose to discover the existence of distinctive spatial patterns based on the typical behavior that has been passed down continuously as a result of the cultural process. The resulting discovery is a significant pattern of relationships between humans and their decision-making abilities in city space. This decision is based on self-awareness as part of the space they occupy. In a group, this awareness is part of the tradition's heritage that continues to develop in accordance with the human intellectual development.

  8. Classical Concepts of Social Solidarity as the Basis of Theoretical Studies on the Institutions of Modern Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naletova, Irina Vladimirovna; Okatov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Zhulikova, Olga Valentinovna

    2016-01-01

    Current importance of this investigation has been stipulated by the modern trends in the development of civil society. Differentiated processes of its development, increased significance of certain institutions of the civil society often require not just empirical description of the principal trends of the functions of civil society, but also need…

  9. Stakeholder Positioning and Cultural Diversity in the Creative Sector: A Case Study of the London Modern Architecture Scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, H.L.; Kamp, A.; Erbe, N.; Normore, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the antecedents of stakeholder positioning in the creative sector, a sector well known for its diversity in organizational cultures. Drawing from empirical data collected at the heart of London's modern architecture scene we analyze the interactive process of commissioned

  10. Sensitivity of the urban airshed model to mixing height profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.T.; Sistla, G.; Ku, J.Y.; Zhou, N.; Hao, W. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended the use of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM), a grid-based photochemical model, for regulatory applications. One of the important parameters in applications of the UAM is the height of the mixed layer or the diffusion break. In this study, we examine the sensitivity of the UAM-predicted ozone concentrations to (a) a spatially invariant diurnal mixing height profile, and (b) a spatially varying diurnal mixing height profile for a high ozone episode of July 1988 for the New York Airshed. The 1985/88 emissions inventory used in the EPA`s Regional Oxidant Modeling simulations has been regridded for this study. Preliminary results suggest that the spatially varying case yields a higher peak ozone concentrations compared to the spatially invariant mixing height simulation, with differences in the peak ozone ranging from a few ppb to about 40 ppb for the days simulated. These differences are attributed to the differences in the shape of the mixing height profiles and its rate of growth during the morning hours when peak emissions are injected into the atmosphere. Examination of the impact of emissions reductions associated with these two mixing height profiles indicates that NO{sub x}-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted ozone peak under spatially invariant mixing heights than under the spatially varying mixing height profile. On the other hand, VOC-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted peak ozone levels under spatially varying mixing heights than under the spatially invariant mixing height profile.

  11. Technology Integration in Science Education: A Study of How Teachers Use Modern Learning Technologies in Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanakkan, Dionysius Joseph

    This multiple case-study investigated how high school biology teachers used modern learning technologies (probes, interactive simulations and animations, animated videos) in their classrooms and why they used the learning technologies. Another objective of the study was to assess whether the use of learning technologies alleviated misconceptions in Biology documented by American Association for the Advancement of Science. The sample consisted of eight teachers: four rural public school teachers, two public selective enrollment school teachers, and two private school teachers. Each teacher was followed for two Units of instruction. Data collected included classroom observations, field notes, student assignments and tests, teacher interviews, and pre-and post-misconception assessments. Paired t-tests were done to analyze the pre-post test data at a significance level of 0.05 and the qualitative data was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Each case study was characterized and then a cross-case analyses was done to find common themes across the different cases. Teachers were found to use the learning technologies as a tool to supplement instruction to visualize abstract processes, collect data, and explore abstract concepts and processes. Teachers were found to situate learning, use scaffolding and questioning and make students work in collaborative groups. The genetics, photosynthesis, and evolution misconceptions were better alleviated than cellular respiration. Student work that was collected demonstrated a superficial understanding of the concepts under discussion even when they had misconceptions. The teachers used the learning technologies in their classrooms for a variety of reasons: visual illustrations, time-saving measure to collect data, best way to collect data, engaging and fun for students and the interactive nature of the visualization tools and models. The study's findings had many implications for research, professional development

  12. Planetary boundary layer height over the Indian subcontinent: Variability and controls with respect to monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabhakaran, Thara; Patil, Chetana; Karipot, Anandakumar

    2017-10-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height characteristics over the Indian sub-continent at diurnal to seasonal scales and its controlling factors in relation to monsoon are investigated. The reanalysis (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, MERRA) PBL heights (PBLH) used for the study are validated against those derived from radiosonde observations and radio occultation air temperature and humidity profiles. The radiosonde observations include routine India Meteorological Department observations at two locations (coastal and an inland) for one full year and campaign based early afternoon radiosonde observations at six inland locations over the study region for selected days from May-September 2011. The temperature and humidity profiles from radio occultations spread over the sub-continent at irregular timings during the year 2011. The correlations and root mean square errors are in the range 0.74-0.83 and 407 m-643 m, respectively. Large pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon variations in PBL maximum height (1000 m-4000 m), time of occurrence of maximum height (11:00 LST-17:00 LST) and growth rate (100 to 400 m h- 1) are noted over the land, depending on geographical location and more significantly on the moisture availability which influences the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The PBLH variations associated with active-break intra-seasonal monsoon oscillations are up to 1000 m over central Indian locations. Inter relationship between the PBLH and the controlling factors, i.e. Evaporative Fraction, net radiation, friction velocity, surface Richardson number, and scalar diffusivity fraction, show significant variation between dry and wet PBL regimes, which also varies with geographical location. Evaporative fraction has dominant influence on the PBLH over the region. Enhanced entrainment during monsoon contributes to reduction in PBLH, whereas the opposite effect is noted during dry period. Linear regression, cross wavelet and

  13. Accordant summit heights, summit levels and the origin of the ``upper denudation level'' in the Serra do Mar (SE-Brazil, São Paulo): A study of hillslope forms and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Wolfgang

    2008-08-01

    relief are detached from the base level response. On granitoid rocks these areas are often characterized by the rocky hills and domal rock outcrops. However, differences in the elevation of interfluves and summits between rocks of differing resistance and in the elevation of lithologically distinct individual fault-blocks imply that long-term weathering and erosion has transformed and lowered these landscapes. Therefore, these areas cannot be interpreted as a remnant of a pre-uplift topography and it appears to be unlikely that the height of the summits correlates with formerly more widespread planation surfaces in the far hinterland. The studies indicate that concepts such as the parallel retreat of hillslopes cannot account for the observed differences in the landscape. It is suggested that the Serra do Mar is consumed from the Atlantic and the inland side by spatially non-uniform developmental states. These states are determined by local differences in the coupling and distance to the regional base level and sea-level or are due to lithological and structural controls between and within the block-faulted compartments.

  14. The taking of Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandilands, B.

    1993-01-01

    Plans for a new research reactor at Lucas Heights have sparked a 'civil war' in New South Wales. The author considers the arguments. The leading antagonists are the local government body - The Sutherland Shire Council, Greenpeace, and the Sutherland Shire Environment Centre. Many of the economic benefits claimed for the existing and proposed replacement reactor have been tagged with question marks. However, ANSTO is confident of refuting claims that the money could be better spent on alternative methods of producing medical isotopes and neutron streams for industry or research, such as particle accelerators. If ANSTO's critics have their way, non-reactor-dependent work like the laser enrichment project could continue without the alleged hazards of sustained nuclear fission. If ANSTO wins the day, a far more efficient reactor will be built which is capable of keeping pace with the emerging nuclear industries of Asia. ills

  15. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Christopher P.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C.; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Phillipe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Clarke, Robert J.; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W.; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R.; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas; Willer, Cristen J.; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Erdmann, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested

  16. Relationships of 35 lower limb muscles to height and body mass quantified using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, Geoffrey G; Meyer, Craig H; Hart, Joseph M; Abel, Mark F; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-02-07

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and serves various physiological functions including the generation of movement and support. Whole body motor function requires adequate quantity, geometry, and distribution of muscle. This raises the question: how do muscles scale with subject size in order to achieve similar function across humans? While much of the current knowledge of human muscle architecture is based on cadaver dissection, modern medical imaging avoids limitations of old age, poor health, and limited subject pool, allowing for muscle architecture data to be obtained in vivo from healthy subjects ranging in size. The purpose of this study was to use novel fast-acquisition MRI to quantify volumes and lengths of 35 major lower limb muscles in 24 young, healthy subjects and to determine if muscle size correlates with bone geometry and subject parameters of mass and height. It was found that total lower limb muscle volume scales with mass (R(2)=0.85) and with the height-mass product (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, individual muscle volumes scale with total muscle volume (median R(2)=0.66), with the height-mass product (median R(2)=0.61), and with mass (median R(2)=0.52). Muscle volume scales with bone volume (R(2)=0.75), and muscle length relative to bone length is conserved (median s.d.=2.1% of limb length). These relationships allow for an arbitrary subject's individual muscle volumes to be estimated from mass or mass and height while muscle lengths may be estimated from limb length. The dataset presented here can further be used as a normative standard to compare populations with musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. [Influence of disc height on outcome of posterolateral fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, O; Lenoir, T; Dauzac, C; Rillardon, L; Guigui, P

    2008-09-01

    Experimentally, posterolateral fusion only provides incomplete control of flexion-extension, rotation and lateral inclination forces. The stability deficit increases with increasing height of the anterior intervertebral space, which for some warrants the adjunction of an intersomatic arthrodesis in addition to the posterolateral graft. Few studies have been devoted to the impact of disc height on the outcome of posterolateral fusion. The purpose of this work was to investigate the spinal segment immobilized by the posterolateral fusion: height of the anterior intervertebral space, the clinical and radiographic impact of changes in disc height, and the short- and long-term impact of disc height measured preoperatively on clinical and radiographic outcome. In order to obtain a homogeneous group of patients, the series was limited to patients undergoing posterolateral arthrodesis for degenerative spondylolisthesis, in combination with radicular release. This was a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 66 patients with mean 52 months follow-up (range 3-63 months). A dedicated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on pre- and postoperative function, the SF-36 quality of life score, and patient satisfaction. Pre- and postoperative (early, one year, last follow-up) radiographic data were recorded: olisthesic level, disc height, intervertebral angle, intervertebral mobility (angular, anteroposterior), and global measures of sagittal balance (thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, T9 sagittal tilt, pelvic version, pelvic incidence, sacral slope). SpineView was used for all measures. Univariate analysis searched for correlations between variation in disc height and early postoperative function and quality of fusion at last follow-up. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following preoperative parameters: intervertebral angle, disc height, intervertebral mobility, sagittal balance parameters, use of osteosynthesis or not. At the olisthesic

  18. Structural studies of crystals of organic and organoelement compounds using modern quantum chemical calculations within the framework of the density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korlyukov, Alexander A; Antipin, Mikhail Yu

    2012-01-01

    The review generalizes the results of structural studies of crystals of organic and organometallic compounds by modern quantum chemical calculations within the framework of the density functional theory reported in the last decade. Features of the software for such calculations are discussed. Examples of the use of quantum chemical calculations for the studies of the electronic structure, spectroscopic and other physicochemical properties of molecular crystals are presented. The bibliography includes 223 references.

  19. Multiresolution wavelet-ANN model for significant wave height forecasting.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deka, P.C.; Mandal, S.; Prahlada, R.

    Hybrid wavelet artificial neural network (WLNN) has been applied in the present study to forecast significant wave heights (Hs). Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is used to preprocess the time series data (Hs) prior to Artificial Neural Network...

  20. No benefit to surgical fixation of flail chest injuries compared with modern comprehensive management: results of a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Jaclyn; Almarhabi, Yahya; Slobogean, Gerard; Slobogean, Bronwyn; Garraway, Naisan; Simons, Richard K; Hameed, S Morad

    2016-09-01

    Chest wall trauma is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Recent technological advances and scientific publications have created a renewed interest in surgical fixation of flail chest. However, definitive data supporting surgical fixation are lacking, and its virtues have not been evaluated against modern, comprehensive management protocols. Consecutive patients undergoing rib fracture fixation with rib-specific locking plates at 2 regional trauma centres between July 2010 and August 2012 were matched to historical controls with similar injury patterns and severity who were managed nonoperatively with modern, multidisciplinary protocols. We compared short- and long-term outcomes between these cohorts. Our patient cohorts were well matched for age, sex, injury severity scores and abbreviated injury scores. The nonoperatively managed group had significantly better outcomes than the surgical group in terms of ventilator days (3.1 v. 6.1, p = 0.012), length of stay in the intensive care unit (3.7 v. 7.4 d, p = 0.009), total hospital length of stay (16.0 v. 21.9 d, p = 0.044) and rates of pneumonia (22% v. 63%, p = 0.004). There were no significant differences in long-term outcomes, such as chest pain or dyspnea. Although considerable enthusiasm surrounds surgical fixation of flail chest injuries, our analysis does not immediately validate its universal implementation, but rather encourages the use of modern, multidisciplinary, nonoperative strategies. The role of rib fracture fixation in the modern era of chest wall trauma management should ultimately be defined by prospective, randomized trials.

  1. A survey of the modern auto- and cross-spectral analyses for the purpose of tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwama, N.

    1984-09-01

    The modern techniques of digital auto- and cross-spectral analyses are surveyed for the purpose of the CO 2 -laser scattering experiment on the microinstability and the associated anomalous diffusion in TFR tokamak. The outline of the practical procedures of spectral estimation and the underlying mathematical principles are described with emphasis on the comparison between the maximum entropy method and the conventional methods. The statistical properties of the spectral estimators are discussed and examined by experiments

  2. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Batnini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian and a modern (Spanish apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening.

  3. Comparative analysis of traditional and modern apricot breeding programs: A case of study with Spanish and Tunisian apricot breeding germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batnini, M.A.; Krichen, L.; Bourguiba, H.; Trifi-Farah, N.; Ruiz, D.; Martínez-Gómez, P.; Rubio, M.

    2016-11-01

    Traditional plant breeding is based on the observation of variation and the selection of the best phenotypes, whereas modern breeding is characterised by the use of controlled mating and the selection of descendants using molecular markers. In this work, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity in a traditional (Tunisian) and a modern (Spanish) apricot breeding programme was performed at the phenotypic and molecular level using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Seven phenotypic traits were evaluated in 42 Tunisian apricot accessions and 30 genotypes from the Spanish apricot programme. In addition, 20 SSR markers previously described as linked to specific phenotypic traits were assayed. Results showed that modern breeding using controlled crosses increases the size of the fruit. The fruit weight average observed in the Tunisian cultivars was of 20.15 g. In the case of traditional Spanish cultivars the average weight was 47.12 g, whereas the average weight of the other progenitors from France, USA and South Africa was 72.85 g. Finally, in the new releases from the CEBAS-CSIC breeding programme, the average weight was 72.82 g. In addition, modern bred cultivars incorporate desirable traits such as self-compatibility and firmness. Cluster and structural analysis based on SSR data clearly differentiates the genotypes according to their geographic origin and pedigree. Finally, results showed an association between some alleles of PaCITA7 and UDP96003 SSR markers with apricot fruit weight, one allele of UDAp407 marker with fruit firmness and one allele of UDP98406 marker with fruit ripening. (Author)

  4. Distribution curve of waist-to-height ratio and its association with blood pressure among children and adolescents: study in a large population in an eastern coastal province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-xiu; Zhang, Zhi-chuan; Xie, Li

    2014-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an accurate and easier index for evaluating abdominal obesity in both children and adults. The present study examined the distribution of WHtR and its association with blood pressure (BP) levels among children and adolescents in a large population in Shandong, China. A total of 38,810 students (19,453 boys and 19,357 girls) aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, waist circumference (WC), and BP of all subjects were measured, and WHtR was calculated. Abdominal obesity was defined as WHtR ≥0.5; high BP status was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥95th percentile for age and gender. Overall, 16.45% (95%CI: 15.93-16.97) and 7.80% (95%CI: 7.42-8.17) of boys and girls had a WHtR ≥0.5. WHtR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP in both boys and girls. The mean values of SBP and DBP for both boys and girls were all significantly higher in the WHtR ≥0.5 group than in the WHtRproblems such as hypertension in children and adolescents.

  5. Do family history of CHD, education, paternal social class, number of siblings and height explain the association between psychosocial factors at work and coronary heart disease? The Whitehall II study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, T; Shipley, M; Gimeno, D; Elovainio, M; Chandola, T; Jokela, M; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Vahtera, J; Marmot, MG; Kivimäki, M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between psychosocial factors at work and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) is explained by pre-employment factors such as family history of CHD, education, paternal social class, number of siblings and height. Methods A prospective cohort study of 6435 of British men aged 35–55 years at phase 1 (1985–1988) and free from prevalent CHD at phase 2 (1989–1990) was conducted. Psychosocial factors at work were assessed at phases 1 and 2 and mean scores across the two phases were used to determine long-term exposure. Selected pre-employment factors were assessed at phase 1. Follow-up for coronary death, first non-fatal myocardial infarction or definite angina between phase 2 and 1999 was based on clinical records (250 events, follow-up 8.7 years). Results Pre-employment factors were associated with risk for CHD: hazard ratio, HRs (95% CI) were 1.33 (1.03 to 1.73) for family history of CHD, 1.18 (1.05–1.32) for each quartile decrease in height, and marginally 1.16 (0.99–1.35) for each category increase in number of siblings. Psychosocial work factors predicted CHD: 1.72 (1.08–2.74) for low job control and 1.72 (1.10–2.67) for low organisational justice. Adjustment for pre-employment factors changed these associations by 4.1% or less. Conclusions In this well-characterised occupational cohort of British men, the association between psychosocial factors at work and CHD was largely independent of family history of CHD, education, paternal education and social class, number of siblings and height. PMID:19819857

  6. In defense of the classical height system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Vaníček, Petr; Sheng, Michael; Kingdon, Robert William; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2017-11-01

    In many European countries, normal heights referred to the quasi-geoid as introduced by Molodenskij in the mid-20th century are preferred to the classical height system that consists of orthometric heights and the geoid as a reference surface for these heights. The rationale for this choice is supposed to be that in the classical height system, neither the geoid, nor the orthometric height can be ever known with centimetre level accuracy because one would need to know the topographical mass density to a level that can never be achieved. The aim of this paper is to question the validity of this rationale. The common way of assessing the congruency of a local geoid model and the orthometric heights is to compare the geoid heights with the difference between orthometric heights provided by leveling and geodetic heights provided by GNSS. On the other hand, testing the congruency of a quasi-geoidal model with normal height a similar procedure is used, except that instead of orthometric heights, normal heights are employed. For the area of Auvergne, France, which is now a more or less standard choice for precise geoid or quasi-geoid testing, only the normal heights are supplied by the Institute Geographic National, the provider of the data. This is clearly the consequence of the European preference for the Molodenskij system. The quality of the height system is to be judged by the congruency of the difference of the geoid/quasi-geoid heights subtracted from the geodetic heights and orthometric/normal heights. To assess the congruency of the classical height system, the Helmert approximation of orthometric heights is typically used as the transformation between normal and Helmert's heights is easily done. However, the evaluation of the differences between Helmert's and the rigorous orthometric heights is somewhat more involved as will be seen from the review in this paper. For the area of interest, the differences between normal and Helmert's heights at the control

  7. Basics of modern mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Spokoiny, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified and self-contained presentation of the main approaches to and ideas of mathematical statistics. It collects the basic mathematical ideas and tools needed as a basis for more serious studies or even independent research in statistics. The majority of existing textbooks in mathematical statistics follow the classical asymptotic framework. Yet, as modern statistics has changed rapidly in recent years, new methods and approaches have appeared. The emphasis is on finite sample behavior, large parameter dimensions, and model misspecifications. The present book provides a fully self-contained introduction to the world of modern mathematical statistics, collecting the basic knowledge, concepts and findings needed for doing further research in the modern theoretical and applied statistics. This textbook is primarily intended for graduate and postdoc students and young researchers who are interested in modern statistical methods.

  8. Measuring Older Adults’ Individual Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that maintaining high individual modernity level can enable the shaping of positive self-image and boost life satisfaction for older people along with better adaptation to the process of societal modernization. This study examined the factorial structure and evaluated the psychometric properties of the adapted Multidimensional Scale of Chinese Individual Modernity (MS-CIM in a sample of 445 elders (the finalized version is named “MS-CIME” and added a self-constructed nine-item behavioral modernity domain. Principal component analysis suggested a conceptually meaningful seven-factor model, which was further supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The final 25-item MS-CIME indicated an acceptable level of reliability. The convergent validity was demonstrated by its associations with socio-economic status, participation in daily activities, self-image, and life satisfaction in expected directions.

  9. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  10. Health, Healthcare Access, and Use of Traditional Versus Modern Medicine in Remote Peruvian Amazon Communities: A Descriptive Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manat? and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this se...

  11. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  12. Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ghim Gooi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.

  13. Relation of height, body mass, energy intake, and physical activity to risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were used to investigate the association between anthropometry, energy intake, and physical activity and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years

  14. PIXE and PGAA - Complementary methods for studies on ancient glass artefacts (from Byzantine, late medieval to modern Murano glass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Bogdan; Cristea-Stan, Daniela; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Zoltán; Kovács, Imre; Harsányi, Ildikó; Kasztovszky, Zsolt

    2018-02-01

    Combined external milli-beam Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) analysis was applied to characterize the composition of paste and colorants from some fragments of Byzantine bracelets (10th-12th Centuries AD), late medieval (17th-18th Centuries AD) and modern Murano glass pieces. As fluxes, PGAA revealed the samples are soda-lime glass, except four samples - two medieval vessel white shards and two dark Byzantine fragments of bracelets - which have potash flux. Aluminium was detected in various proportions in all samples indicating different sources for the added sand. The presence of Magnesium is relevant only in one bracelet fragment suggesting the use of plant (wood?) ash and confirming that the Byzantine bracelet is manufactured from the mixture of both types of glass (natron and plant ash based). PGAA also indicated the presence of low quantities of Cadmium, high level of Arsenic and Lead (possibly lead arsenate) in one medieval sample and of ZnO in Murano glass, and of CoO traces (maximum 0.1%) in all blue-colored Byzantine, late medieval to modern Murano glass artefacts. PIXE confirmed the use of small quantities of CoO for blue color, indicated Manganese combined with Iron for dark glass, Copper for green, Lead, Tin and an Arsenic compound (orpiment?) for yellow and in the case of modern Murano glass Selenium and Cadmium to obtain a reddish color. Despite PIXE - PIGE combination is probably the best one for glass analysis, our external milli-PIXE - PGAA methods proved to be adequate complementary tools to determine many chemical elements from glass composition - Si, Na, K, Ca, Al, Mg, various metallic oxides.

  15. [Study of the impact of a MBA Administration in Health course on the organizational modernity of ophthalmologic clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Manuel; Scarpi, Marinho Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Investigations in the field of the learning competence that investigate the impact of the acquisition of new individual competence of those responsible for ophthalmologic clinics, by means of a MBA Administration in Health course, on the organizational modernity of ophthalmologic clinics. Survey using questionnaires applied to students and former students of the course and to managers of ophthalmologic clinics not linked to the course (n=30 each one). The analysis was made by means of statistical methods: r of Pearson and Q of Yule; Student's t test, sum of series test, median test and U test of Mann-Whitney. Linear and positive correlation was observed between excellency of MBA Administration in Health and the development of the veteran students' capacities (rho correlation of Spearman at the level of 0.01); there is a significant difference (0.0364, by the Mann-Whitney test), between veteran students and freshmen regarding the need to extend the individual capacities provided by the MBA Administration in Health course, to the other operational employees of the ophthalmologic clinics; and there is a significant difference (0.0057, for the Mann-Whitney test), among veteran students of the MBA Administration in Health course and freshmen regarding the importance of the organizational modernity for the ophthalmologic clinics. The obtained results are consistent, in a general way, with the proposed model: MBA Administration's excellence in Health contributes significantly to the organizational modernity, to the development of competence of the veteran students, and, also in substantial way to the perception of organizational hiatuses.

  16. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  17. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons

    OpenAIRE

    Tenzer, R.; Foroughi, I.; Sjöberg, L.E.; Bagherbandi, M.; Hirt, C.; Pitoňák, M.

    2018-01-01

    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be define...

  18. Stature estimation using the knee height measurement amongst Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Fogal, Aline; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Eloiza Priore, Silvia; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi M.; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Stature is an important variable in several indices of nutritional status that are applicable to elderly persons. However, stature is difficult or impossible to measure in elderly because they are often unable to maintain the standing position. A alternative is the use of estimated height from measurements of knee height measure. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the formula proposed by Chumlea et al. (1985) based on the knee of a Caucasian population to estimat...

  19. Rainfall and soil properties influence termite mound abundance and height: A case study with Odontotermes obesus (Macrotermitinae) mounds in the Indian Western Ghats forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kabbaj, Meyssoun; Sundararaj, Ramachandran; Jouquet, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Several fungus-growing termite species build mounds, or termitaria, that are conspicuous features of African and Asian landscapes. Studies of the genus Macrotermes in Africa have established that their mounds provide an environment buffered against extremes of temperature and humidity, as well as protection from predators, and are correspondingly modified in composition. However, no studies are available in the specific context of the Asian continent where termite mounds are also abundant. He...

  20. Rainfall and soil properties influence termite mound abundance and height : a case study with Odontotermes obesus (Macrotermitinae) mounds in the Indian Western Ghats forests

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, R. R.; Kabbaj, M.; Sundararaj, R.; Jouquet, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Several fungus-growing termite species build mounds, or termitaria, that are conspicuous features of African and Asian landscapes. Studies of the genus Macrotermes in Africa have established that their mounds provide an environment buffered against extremes of temperature and humidity, as well as protection from predators, and are correspondingly modified in composition. However, no studies are available in the specific context of the Asian continent where termite mounds are also abundant. He...

  1. Exposure to family planning messages and modern contraceptive use among men in urban Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okigbo, Chinelo C; Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Gueye, Abdou

    2015-07-22

    Family planning (FP) researchers and policy makers have often overlooked the importance of involving men in couples' fertility choices and contraception, despite the fact that male involvement is a vital factor in sexual and reproductive health programming. This study aimed to assess whether men's exposure to FP demand-generation activities is associated with their reported use of modern contraceptive methods. We used evaluation data from the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation project for the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (URHI) in select cities of three African countries (Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal) collected in 2012/2013. A two-stage cluster sampling design was used to select a representative sample of men in the study sites. The sample for this study includes men aged 15-59 years who had no missing data on any of the key variables: 696 men in Kenya, 2311 in Nigeria, and 1613 in Senegal. We conducted descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the associations of interest. All analyses were weighted to account for the study design and non-response rates using Stata version 13. The proportion of men who reported use of modern contraceptive methods was 58 % in Kenya, 43 % in Nigeria, and 27 % in Senegal. About 80 % were exposed to at least one URHI demand-generation activity in each country. Certain URHI demand-generation activities were significantly associated with men's reported use of modern contraception. In Kenya, those who participated in URHI-led community events had four times higher odds of reporting use of modern methods (aOR: 3.70; p Senegal, exposure to URHI-television programs (aOR: 1.40; p < 0.05) and having heard a religious leader speak favorably about FP (aOR: 1.72; p < 0.05) were associated with modern contraceptive method use. No such associations were observed in Nigeria. Study findings are important for informing future FP program activities that seek to engage men. Program activities

  2. Ontogenetic study of the skull in modern humans and the common chimpanzees: neotenic hypothesis reconsidered with a tridimensional Procrustes analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, Xavier; Berge, Christine; Baylac, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Heterochronic studies compare ontogenetic trajectories of an organ in different species: here, the skulls of common chimpanzees and modern humans. A growth trajectory requires three parameters: size, shape, and ontogenetic age. One of the great advantages of the Procrustes method is the precise definition of size and shape for whole organs such as the skull. The estimated ontogenetic age (dental stages) is added to the plot to give a graphical representation to compare growth trajectories. We used the skulls of 41 Homo sapiens and 50 Pan troglodytes at various stages of growth. The Procrustes superimposition of all specimens was completed by statistical procedures (principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and discriminant function) to calculate separately size-related shape changes (allometry common to chimpanzees and humans), and interspecific shape differences (discriminant function). The results confirm the neotenic theory of the human skull (sensu Gould [1977] Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; Alberch et al. [1979] Paleobiology 5:296-317), but modify it slightly. Human growth is clearly retarded in terms of both the magnitude of changes (size-shape covariation) and shape alone (size-shape dissociation) with respect to the chimpanzees. At the end of growth, the adult skull in humans reaches an allometric shape (size-related shape) which is equivalent to that of juvenile chimpanzees with no permanent teeth, and a size which is equivalent to that of adult chimpanzees. Our results show that human neoteny involves not only shape retardation (paedomorphosis), but also changes in relative growth velocity. Before the eruption of the first molar, human growth is accelerated, and then strongly decelerated, relative to the growth of the chimpanzee as a reference. This entails a complex process, which explains why these species reach the same overall (i.e., brain + face) size in adult stage. The neotenic traits seem to concern

  3. "I Spent a Full Month Bleeding, I Thought I Was Going to Die…" A Qualitative Study of Experiences of Women Using Modern Contraception in Wakiso District, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P S Kibira

    Full Text Available There is high unmet need for family planning (FP in Uganda as well as high contraceptive discontinuation rates. These contribute to the high fertility rates that in part are due to unplanned pregnancies. There are gaps in knowledge about experiences that couples go through while using contraceptives in their lives. This study explored women's experiences during the course of their contraceptive use.We conducted a qualitative study involving 30 women who had used modern contraception for at least one year in Wakiso district, central Uganda. We used in-depth interviews to obtain their personal accounts. Index women were approached through health officers at four health centres in the district. All ethical approvals and informed consent were obtained. We used conventional content analysis; identifying codes through open coding, on which basis categories were developed and grouped into overarching themes.Women's accounts were summarised in the following themes: negative experiences with modern contraceptive use, motivation to continue using FP in spite of these negative experiences, the role of influential people, and discontinuation of use. Negative accounts dominated the experiences of most women but they expressed strong desire to continue using modern contraception even amidst all challenges. Health workers emerged as the most influential people that played a vital role in women's decisions.Varied negative experiences with modern contraception and misperceptions exist amidst a determination to continue use. Partner engagement, health service strengthening to improve side effects management and health worker skills, and engaging older women that have successfully used contraception as community champions, are potential strategies to support women's contraceptive decisions.

  4. Analysis on landscape pattern change and ecosystem services value of modern agriculture corridor: a case study of Jingcheng Highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao; Gu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Jing; Du, Chong; Di, Xingcui

    2009-10-01

    Based on SPOT images and other geoscience data, this paper gets the land use and land cover information of Modern Agriculture Corridor from 2006 to 2008 by RS and GIS technology and makes analysis of land use changes in landscape ecology view. Then we build a quantitative evaluation model which select vegetation coverage as adjustment coefficient to monitor the changes of ecological services value. The results show that: In the aspect of landscape pattern index, the landscape heterogeneity of the region is increasing, the land use types become various, degree of landscape fragmentation has increased; woodland, farmland and construction land play a leading role in the dynamic changes of landscape. In the view of ecosystem service value, the total value of ecosystem services of Modern Agriculture Corridor from 2006 to 2008 are respectively 186, 188, 193 million Yuan, and the annual average rate is 2%; ecosystem qualities are different in different seasons, and quality in summer is best which has 33% contribution to the full-year value of ecosystem services; the average contribution rates of forest and waters ecosystems are the highest, respectively 37% and 33%; increase of woodland, grassland and water area is the main reason that enhancing ecosystem services.

  5. Liquefaction induced by modern earthquakes as a key to paleoseismicity: A case study of the 1988 Saguenay event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Cowie, P.; Wolf, L.

    1992-01-01

    Liquefaction features, including sand dikes, sills, and sand-filled craters, that formed at different distances from the epicenter of the 1988 (Mw 5.9) Saguenay earthquake are compared with one another and with older features. Modern liquefaction features decrease in size with increasing distance from the Saguenay epicenter. This relationship suggests that the size of liquefaction features may be used to determine source zones of past earthquakes and to estimate attenuation of seismic energy. Pre-1988 liquefaction features are cross-cut by the 1988 features. Although similar in morphology to the modern features, the pre-1988 features are more weathered and considerably larger in size. The larger pre-1988 features are located in the Ferland area, whereas the smallest pre-1988 feature occurs more than 37 km to the southwest. This spatial distribution of different size features suggests that an unidentified earthquake source zone (in addition to the one that generated the Saguenay earthquake) may exist in the Laurentide-Saguenay region. Structural relationships of the liquefaction features indicate that one, possibly two, earthquakes induced liquefaction in the region prior to 1988. The age of only one pre-1988 feature is well-constrained at 340 ± 70 radiocarbon years BP. If the 1663 earthquake was responsible for the formation of this feature, this event may have been centered in the Laurentide-Saguenay region rather than in the Charlevoix seismic zone

  6. Plant Modernization Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, John

    2004-01-01

    Most nuclear plants were designed and built from the 1960's through the 1990's. These plants employ predominantly analog instrumentation and control (I and C) technology, and their control rooms are made up of primarily hardwired controls (e.g., switches, knobs and handles) and displays (e.g., gauges, linear scales and indicator lights). Over the past several years, these plants have been modernized with digital I and C and computer-based human-system interfaces (HSIs) such as software-based process controls, touch-screen interfaces and large-screen, overview displays. As these computer based HIS technologies are integrated into control rooms based on conventional technology, hybrid control rooms are created. The paper summarizes lessons learned from the study of plant modernization programs over the past ten years so that they can be used to help improve the modification process. While the research focused on the impact of technology change on human performance, a number of organizational and programmatic issues were observed as well. Eleven lessons learned are presented

  7. Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuping; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Witana, Channa P; Lee Au, Emily Yim

    2008-08-01

    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p > 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R(2) greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

  8. Weighting of field heights for sharpness and noisiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Brian W.; Jin, Elaine W.

    2009-01-01

    Weighting of field heights is important in cases when a single numerical value needs to be calculated that characterizes an attribute's overall impact on perceived image quality. In this paper we report an observer study to derive the weighting of field heights for sharpness and noisiness. One-hundred-forty images were selected to represent a typical consumer photo space distribution. Fifty-three sample points were sampled per image, representing field heights of 0, 14, 32, 42, 51, 58, 71, 76, 86% and 100%. Six observers participated in this study. The field weights derived in this report include both: the effect of area versus field height (which is a purely objective, geometric factor); and the effect of the spatial distribution of image content that draws attention to or masks each of these image structure attributes. The results show that relative to the geometrical area weights, sharpness weights were skewed to lower field heights, because sharpness-critical subject matter was often positioned relatively near the center of an image. Conversely, because noise can be masked by signal, noisiness-critical content (such as blue skies, skin tones, walls, etc.) tended to occur farther from the center of an image, causing the weights to be skewed to higher field heights.

  9. Do centimetres matter? Self-reported versus estimated height measurements in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, T; Flück, Ce; L'allemand, D; Dattani, M T; Hindmarsh, P C; Mullis, P E

    2010-04-01

    An impressive discrepancy between reported and measured parental height is often observed. The aims of this study were: (a) to assess whether there is a significant difference between the reported and measured parental height; (b) to focus on the reported and, thereafter, measured height of the partner; (c) to analyse its impact on the calculated target height range. A total of 1542 individual parents were enrolled. The parents were subdivided into three groups: normal height (3-97th Centile), short (97%) stature. Overall, compared with men, women were far better in estimating their own height (p Women of normal stature underestimated the short partner and overestimated the tall partner, whereas male partners of normal stature overestimated both their short as well as tall partners. Women of tall stature estimated the heights of their short partners correctly, whereas heights of normal statured men were underestimated. On the other hand, tall men overestimated the heights of their female partners who are of normal and short stature. Furthermore, women of short stature estimated the partners of normal stature adequately, and the heights of their tall partners were overestimated. Interestingly, the short men significantly underestimated the normal, but overestimated tall female partners. Only measured heights should be used to perform accurate evaluations of height, particularly when diagnostic tests or treatment interventions are contemplated. For clinical trails, we suggest that only quality measured parental heights are acceptable, as the errors incurred in estimates may enhance/conceal true treatment effects.

  10. Er Rousseau moderne?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Søren

    1985-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme.......Artiklen analyserer på hvilken måde Rousseau kan siges at være moderne, og den diskuterer på hvilken måde Rouseau har været medvirkende til at opbygge den moderne civilisation, og på hvilken måde han var kritisk i forhold til den gryende og moderne kapitalisme....

  11. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  12. Equations for predicting diameter, height, crown width, and leaf area of San Joaquin Valley street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Although the modeling of energy-use reduction, air pollution uptake, rainfall interception, and microclimate modification associated with urban trees depends on data relating diameter at breast height (dbh) , crown height, crown diameter, and leaf area to tree age or dbh, scant information is available for common municipal tree species . I n this study , tree height ,...

  13. Effects of stand density on top height estimation for ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Ritchie; Jianwei Zhang; Todd Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    Site index, estimated as a function of dominant-tree height and age, is often used as an expression of site quality. This expression is assumed to be effectively independent of stand density. Observation of dominant height at two different ponderosa pine levels-of-growing-stock studies revealed that top height stability with respect to stand density depends on the...

  14. Final height after gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist treatment for central precocious puberty : The Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, D; Oostdijk, W; Otten, BJ; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, HA; Waelkens, JJJ; Drop, SLS

    Final height (FH) data of 96 children (87 girls) treated with GnRH agonist for central precocious puberty were studied. In girls mean FH exceeded initial height prediction by 7.4 (5.7) cm (p <0.001); FH was significantly lower than target height, but still in the genetic target range. When treatment

  15. Trend in height of Turkish and