WorldWideScience

Sample records for height body mass

  1. Shoulder height, body mass and shape of proboscideans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Larramendi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been a growing interest in proboscideans’ body size, given that mass is highly correlated with biological functions. Different allometric equations have been proposed in the recent decades to estimate their body masses, based on a large number of living examples. However, the results obtained by these formulae are not accurate because extinct animals often had different body proportions and some were outside the size range of extant samples. Here the body mass of a large number of extinct proboscideans has been calculated by the Graphic Double Integration volumetric method which is based on technical restorations from graphical reconstructions of fossils employing photos, measurements and comparative anatomy of extant forms. The method has been tested on extant elephants with highly accurate results. The reconstructions necessary to apply this method give important information such as body proportions. On the other hand, equations to calculate the skeletal shoulder height have been developed, with a large number of published shoulder heights being recalculated. From the shoulder heights, several equations were created to find out the body mass of a series of extant and extinct species. A few of the largest proboscideans, namely Mammut borsoni and Palaeoloxodon namadicus, were found out to have reached and surpassed the body size of the largest indricotheres. Bearing this in mind, the largest land mammal that ever existed seems to be within the order of Proboscidea, contrary to previous understanding.

  2. Sitting height as a better predictor of body mass than total height and (body mass)/(sitting height)(3) as an index of build.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    The Rohrer Index and the ratio of sitting height (SH) to height fall similarly with growth in early childhood, then level off and rise slightly towards adulthood. In adults the BMI correlates with SH/height. The mean cross-sectional areas of the legs of adults are correlated positively with upper body masses and negatively with leg lengths. To find an index of body build that is less dependent on relative leg length and age in children and adults than are the BMI and the Rohrer Index. Published data are analysed to establish the relative importance of SH and leg length as predictors of body mass and to investigate the age dependence of the ratio (body mass)/SH(3). SH is a much better predictor of body mass than height, with leg length being barely relevant. Average values of (body mass)/SH(3) vary very little over the age range of 1-25 years, despite small non-random fluctuations. The ratio (body mass)/SH(3) is proposed as a useful "sitting-height index of build" that is superior to the Rohrer Index and could prove better than the BMI as a predictor of adiposity. Further studies are needed, notably using individual data and fat-free masses.

  3. Scaling of human body mass with height: the body mass index revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, N J

    2010-03-03

    We adapt a biomechanical argument of Rashevsky, which places limits on the stress experienced by a torso supported by the legs, to deduce that body mass m of growing children should scale as the p th power of height h with 7/3 < p < 8/3. Further arguments based on stability and heat loss suggest that p should be close to 8/3. The arguments are extended to suggest that waist circumference w should scale as hq with q near the lower end of 2/3 < or = q < or = 1. Data from Hong Kong and British children are consistent with these hypotheses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Histologically Measured Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Correlates with Body Height as Strongly as with Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac myocytes are presumed to enlarge with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. This study correlates histologically measured myocytes with lean and fat body mass. Cases of LVH without coronary heart disease and normal controls came from forensic autopsies. The cross-sectional widths of myocytes in H&E-stained paraffin sections followed log normal distributions almost to perfection in all 104 specimens, with constant coefficient of variation across the full range of ventricular weight, as expected if myocytes of all sizes contribute proportionately to hypertrophy. Myocyte sizes increased with height. By regression analysis, height2.7 as a proxy for lean body mass and body mass index (BMI as a proxy for fat body mass, exerted equal effects in the multiple correlation with myocyte volume, and the equation rejected race and sex. In summary, myocyte sizes, as indexes of LVH, suggest that lean and fat body mass may contribute equally.

  5. Body mass index continues to accurately predict percent body fat as women age despite changes in muscle mass and height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablove, Tova; Binkley, Neil; Leadley, Sarah; Shelton, James; Ablove, Robert

    2015-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to predict obesity in clinical practice because it is suggested to closely correlate with percent body fat (%BF). With aging, women lose both lean mass and height. Because of this, many clinicians question whether BMI is an accurate predictor of obesity in aging women. In evaluating the equation for BMI (weight/height(2)), it is clear that both variables can have a dramatic effect on BMI calculation. We evaluated the relationship between BMI and %BF, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, in the setting of age-related changes in height loss and body composition in women. Our objective is to determine whether BMI continues to correlate with %BF as women age. Study participants were identified using data from five osteoporosis clinical trials, where healthy participants had full-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Deidentified data from 274 women aged between 35 and 95 years were evaluated. %BF, weight, age, tallest height, actual height, and appendicular lean mass were collected from all participants. BMI was calculated using the actual height and the tallest height of each study participant. %BF was compared with BMI and stratified for age. BMI calculated using the tallest height and BMI calculated using actual height both had strong correlations with %BF. Surprisingly, the effects of changes in height and lean body mass balance each other out in BMI calculation. There continues to be a strong correlation between BMI and %BF in adult women as they age.

  6. Socioeconomic differentials in misclassification of height, weight and body mass index based on questionnaire data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, G; Diderichsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse misclassification of height, weight and body mass index (BMI), derived from mail questionnaires, and its dependency on socioeconomic factors.......The purpose of this study was to analyse misclassification of height, weight and body mass index (BMI), derived from mail questionnaires, and its dependency on socioeconomic factors....

  7. Height, age at menarche, body weight and body mass index in life-long vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Magdalena; Appleby, Paul; Key, Tim

    2005-10-01

    We investigated whether life-long adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with adult height, age at menarche, adult body weight and body mass index (BMI), used as indicators of growth, development and obesity, in a large sample of adults. This was a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data and information on age, ethnicity, education, age at menarche and age at becoming a vegetarian were obtained through a questionnaire. Self-reported height and weight were calibrated using predictive equations derived from a previous validation study. United Kingdom. The study includes 45 962 British men and women aged > or = 20 years of whom 16,083 were vegetarians (not eating fish or meat). In men and women, there were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between life-long vegetarians (n = 125 (men) and n = 265 (women)) and people who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years (n = 3122 (men) and n = 8137 (women)). Nor was there a significant difference in age at menarche between life-long vegetarian women and women who became vegetarian at age > or = 20 years. This study suggests that, compared with people who become vegetarian when adult, life-long vegetarians do not differ in adult height, weight, BMI or age at menarche in women.

  8. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years ...

  9. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins...

  10. Application of Body Mass Index According to Height-Age in Short and Tall Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonthuis, Marjolein; Jager, Kitty J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Verrina, Enrico; Schaefer, Franz; van Stralen, Karlijn J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In children with either delayed or accelerated growth, expressing the body mass index (BMI) to chronological age might lead to invalid body composition estimates. Reference to height-age has been suggested for such populations; however its validity has not been demonstrated. Methods Anthropometric data of healthy children were obtained from the German KiGGS survey. We selected three samples with different height distributions representing short stature (mean height SDS: -1.6), normal stature (height SDS: 0), and tall stature (height SDS: +1.6), and compared BMI-for-age and BMI-for-height-age between these samples across the paediatric age range. Differences between samples were tested using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and permutation tests. Results At a given age, BMI was distributed towards lower values in short, and towards higher values in tall subjects as compared to a population with average height distribution. Expressing BMI to height-age eliminated these differences in boys with a short stature from 4 years to 14 years of age, in tall boys from 4 to 16 years, in short girls aged 2-10 years or tall girls aged 2-17 years. Conclusion From late infancy to adolescent age, BMI distribution co-varies with height distribution and referencing to height-age appears appropriate within this age period. However, caution is needed when data about pubertal status are absent. PMID:23951283

  11. Associations among height, body mass index and intelligence from age 11 to age 78?years

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, MA; Brett, CE; Deary, IJ; Starr, JM

    2016-01-01

    Background Intelligence is related to both height and body mass index (BMI) at various stages of life. Several?studies have demonstrated longitudinal relationships between these measures, but none has established whether height and intelligence, or BMI and intelligence are linked from childhood through to older age. Methods We assessed the relations between these measures over an interval of up to 67?years using data from the 36-Day Sample, an initially-representative sample of Scottish peopl...

  12. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer....... METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, 155 505 girls born 1930-1989 with measured weights and heights from 7 to 13 years were linked to health registers. BMI and height were transformed to age-specific z-scores. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Cox...

  13. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index as Indicators of Cardiovascular Risk in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Daniel J.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Tseh, Wayland

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this investigation was to determine if waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) or body mass index (BMI) is the better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk in children and adolescents of varying ages. Methods: Data from children and adolescents (N?=?2300) who were part of the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination…

  15. Population genetic differentiation of height and body mass index across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Matthew R.; Hemani, Gibran; Medina-Gomez, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Across-nation differences in the mean values for complex traits are common(1-8), but the reasons for these differences are unknown. Here we find that many independent loci contribute to population genetic differences in height and body mass index (BMI) in 9,416 individuals across 14 European coun...

  16. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Ferdy, Jean Baptiste; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Claude, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g., pictures) or manipulated stimuli (e.g., drawings). These two classes of stimuli have important drawbacks that limit result interpretations. Realistic stimuli vary in terms of traits that are correlated, which makes it impossible to assess the effect of a single trait independently. In addition, manipulated stimuli usually do not represent realistic morphologies. We describe and examine a method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to automatically predict and represent body outlines for a given set of predicted variables (e.g., sex, height, and body mass). We first estimate whether these predictive variables are significantly related to human outlines. We find that height and body mass significantly influence body shape. Unlike height, the effect of body mass on shape differs between sexes. Then, we show that we can easily build a regression model that creates hypothetical outlines for an arbitrary set of covariates. These statistically computed outlines are quite realistic and may be used as stimuli in future studies.

  17. Relationships of 35 lower limb muscles to height and body mass quantified using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, Geoffrey G; Meyer, Craig H; Hart, Joseph M; Abel, Mark F; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-02-07

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and serves various physiological functions including the generation of movement and support. Whole body motor function requires adequate quantity, geometry, and distribution of muscle. This raises the question: how do muscles scale with subject size in order to achieve similar function across humans? While much of the current knowledge of human muscle architecture is based on cadaver dissection, modern medical imaging avoids limitations of old age, poor health, and limited subject pool, allowing for muscle architecture data to be obtained in vivo from healthy subjects ranging in size. The purpose of this study was to use novel fast-acquisition MRI to quantify volumes and lengths of 35 major lower limb muscles in 24 young, healthy subjects and to determine if muscle size correlates with bone geometry and subject parameters of mass and height. It was found that total lower limb muscle volume scales with mass (R(2)=0.85) and with the height-mass product (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, individual muscle volumes scale with total muscle volume (median R(2)=0.66), with the height-mass product (median R(2)=0.61), and with mass (median R(2)=0.52). Muscle volume scales with bone volume (R(2)=0.75), and muscle length relative to bone length is conserved (median s.d.=2.1% of limb length). These relationships allow for an arbitrary subject's individual muscle volumes to be estimated from mass or mass and height while muscle lengths may be estimated from limb length. The dataset presented here can further be used as a normative standard to compare populations with musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Apparent height and body mass index influence perceived leadership ability in three-dimensional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Dzhelyova, Milena; Holzleitner, Iris J; Tigue, Cara C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2012-01-01

    Facial appearance has a well-documented effect on perceived leadership ability. Face judgments of leadership ability predict political election outcomes across the world, and similar judgments of business CEOs predict company profits. Body height is also associated with leadership ability, with taller people attaining positions of leadership more than their shorter counterparts in both politics and in the corporate world. Previous studies have found some face characteristics that are associated with leadership judgments, however there have been no studies with three-dimensional faces. We assessed which facial characteristics drive leadership judgments in three-dimensional faces. We found a perceptual relationship between height and leadership ability. We also found that facial maturity correlated with leadership judgments, and that faces of people with an unhealthily high body mass index received lower leadership ratings. We conclude that face attributes associated with body size and maturity alter leadership perception, and may influence real-world democratic leadership selection.

  19. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found...

  20. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found....... No significant differences between cases and controls were observed with respect to adult height. CONCLUSION: Independent of several possible confounders, an inverse relationship between young adult BMI and risk of later development of schizophrenia was demonstrated in this all-male sample....

  1. Body mass index and height over three generations: evidence from the Lifeways cross-generational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Murrin, Celine M; Kelly, Gabrielle E; Tremblay, Richard E; Kelleher, Cecily C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity and its measure of body mass index are strongly determined by parental body size. Debate continues as to whether both parents contribute equally to offspring body mass which is key to understanding the aetiology of the disease. The aim of this study was to use cohort data from three generations of one family to examine the relative maternal and paternal associations with offspring body mass index and how these associations compare with family height to demonstrate ...

  2. Height, weight, and body mass index associations with gastric cancer subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, M Constanza; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Abnet, Christian C; Rabkin, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    Although excess body weight has been associated with cancers of the gastric cardia, relationships with gastric cancer at other anatomic subsites are not well defined. Furthermore, subsite-specific associations with attained height have not been fully assessed. In 1995-1996, 483,700 Whites enrolling in the multi-state NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study self-reported height and weight. Gastric cancers occurring through 31 December 2006 were ascertained from regional population-based registries. We used Cox regression models to estimate cancer hazard ratios (HRs) for sex-specific tertiles of height and weight and for body mass index (BMI) categories of the World Health Organization. One thousand incident cancers (48 % localized to the cardia, 4 % fundus, 6 % corpus, 3 % greater curvature, 6 % lesser curvature, 10 % antrum, 2 % pylorus, 5 % overlapping lesion, and 16 % unspecified) occurred an average of 5.4 years after enrollment. After controlling for effects of age, sex, education, and smoking, we found an inverse association between height and total noncardia cancers (i.e., fundus, corpus, greater and lesser curvatures, antrum, and pylorus), with HRs vs. tertile 1 of 0.65 and 0.71 for tertiles 2 and 3, respectively (p trend = 0.016). Trends were consistent for individual noncardia subsites. In contrast, although weight and BMI were each associated with risk of cardia cancer, neither was associated with total noncardia cancer nor individual subsites. Noncardia gastric cancer is associated with short stature but not with high body weight or obesity. The excess risk for shorter adults would be consistent with the known association of chronic H. pylori infection with growth retardation during childhood.

  3. Secular Changes in Height, Weight, Body Mass Index and Daily Nutrition Preferences in Children During Soccer Recruitment Camps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jessenia Hernández-Elizondo; José Moncada-Jiménez

    2012-01-01

      This study was conducted to compare secular changes in height, weight, and body mass index and to survey children's daily nutrition, hydration preferences and preferred beverages while exercising...

  4. New Danish reference values for height, weight and body mass index of children aged 0-5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A M; Olsen, E M; Juul, A

    2010-01-01

    To derive new reference values for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children aged 0-5 years in Denmark and to compare them with the national reference from the 1970s and the 2006 WHO standard.......To derive new reference values for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children aged 0-5 years in Denmark and to compare them with the national reference from the 1970s and the 2006 WHO standard....

  5. Genome-wide genetic homogeneity between sexes and populations for human height and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Bakshi, Andrew; Zhu, Zhihong; Hemani, Gibran; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Nolte, Ilja M; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Snieder, Harold; Esko, Tonu; Milani, Lili; Mägi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ingelsson, Erik; Visscher, Peter M

    2015-12-20

    Sex-specific genetic effects have been proposed to be an important source of variation for human complex traits. Here we use two distinct genome-wide methods to estimate the autosomal genetic correlation (rg) between men and women for human height and body mass index (BMI), using individual-level (n = ∼44 000) and summary-level (n = ∼133 000) data from genome-wide association studies. Results are consistent and show that the between-sex genetic correlation is not significantly different from unity for both traits. In contrast, we find evidence of genetic heterogeneity between sexes for waist-hip ratio (rg = ∼0.7) and between populations for BMI (rg = ∼0.9 between Europe and the USA) but not for height. The lack of evidence for substantial genetic heterogeneity for body size is consistent with empirical findings across traits and species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2016-03-08

    To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. UK Biobank. 119,669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6 × 10(-3)) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6 × 10(-15)) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6 × 10(-7)), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4 × 10(-8)). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m(2)) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1 × 10(-5)) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. These data support evidence that height and BMI play an important partial role in determining several aspects of a person

  7. Developing differential height, weight and body mass index references for girls that reflect the impact of the menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, R; Scheffler, C; Hermanussen, M

    2014-07-01

    Growth is both a matter of amplitude and tempo. We aimed to develop references for body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) with respect to tempo of maturity. Data obtained from the German KiGGS study (2003-2006) on body height, body weight and presence or absence of the menarche were re-analysed in 3776 girls, aged 10-17 years. We developed smoothed centiles for BMI-, body-height- and body-weight-for-age using the LMS method for premenarcheal and postmenarcheal girls. Body height, body weight and BMI differed significantly between premenarcheal and postmenarcheal girls. On average, postmenarcheal girls aged 11-17 years were 5.3 cm taller and 9.7 kg heavier, and their BMI was 2.9 kg/m² higher than in premenarcheal girls of the same calendar age. Adolescent BMI rises with calendar age and biological age. New reference charts for adolescent girls aged 10-18 years were generated to be inserted into the currently used references to avoid misclassifying underweight and overweight pubertal girls. © 2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Body mass index, height and risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, A.H.H.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the last decades, the incidence of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has increased rapidly in the Western world. We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI), height and risk of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort

  9. Self-reported and measured weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in Italy, the Netherlands and North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, A.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Choi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Self-reported values of height and weight are used increasingly despite warnings that these data - and derived body mass index (BMI) values - might be biased. The present study investigates whether differences between self-reported and measured values are the same for populations from

  10. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38...

  11. Relationship of body mass index, weight and height to plasma lipid levels in people with different diets in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, M; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1989-08-01

    Blood samples and self-reported heights and weights have been collected from 114 vegans, 1550 vegetarians, 415 fish eaters who did not eat meat, and 1198 meat eaters. We have previously reported that mean total and LDL cholesterol were lower in the vegetarians and fish eaters than in the meat eaters, while the mean levels in vegans were lower still. We have examined the possibility that this relationship could be explained by differences in the mean body mass index of the four groups. While there was a small positive relationship between body mass index and plasma lipid levels this did not explain the previously reported difference between diet groups. After adjusting for the effect of body mass index there remained a small negative association between height and plasma lipid levels, which has not previously been reported. Height is known to be influenced by childhood ill health and has also been shown to be related to social class, and it may be that the relationship between plasma lipid levels and height can be explained by these factors.

  12. Childhood body mass index and height in relation to site-specific risks of colorectal cancers in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W; Gamborg, Michael; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    As colorectal cancers have a long latency period, their origins may lie early in life. Therefore childhood body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and height may be associated with adult colorectal cancer. Using a cohort design, 257,623 children from The Copenhagen School Health Records Register born from...... 1930 to 1972 with measured heights and weights at ages 7 to 13 years were followed for adult colon and rectal adenocarcinomas by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regressions. During follow-up, 2676...... colon and 1681 rectal adenocarcinomas were diagnosed. No sex differences were observed in the associations between child BMI or height and adult colon or rectal cancers. Childhood BMI and height were positively associated with colon cancer; at age 13 years the HRs were 1.09 (95% CI 1.04-1.14) and 1...

  13. Historical trends in height, weight, and body mass: data from U.S. Major League Baseball players, 1869-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Krueger, Patrick M; Rogers, Richard G

    2008-12-01

    We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players - a select, healthy population - to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later.

  14. Historical trends in height, weight, and body mass: Data from U.S. Major League Baseball players, 1869–1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Krueger, Patrick M.; Rogers, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique dataset of Major League Baseball (MLB) players – a select, healthy population – to examine trends in height, weight, and body mass in birth cohorts from 1869 to 1983. Over that 115-year time period, U.S. born MLB players have gained, on average, approximately 3 in. (7.6 cm) in height and 27.0 lb (12.2 kg) in weight, which has contributed a 1.6-unit increase in the body mass index. Where comparable data are available, U.S. born MLB players are about 2.0 in. (5.1 cm) taller and 20.0 lb (9.1 kg) heavier but substantially less obese than males in the general U.S. population. But both groups exhibit similar height and weight trends; the majority of height and weight gains take place in cohorts that were born prior to World War II, followed by slower gains and occasional declines in height and weight for cohorts born in 1939 and later. PMID:18753017

  15. [Height, weight and body mass index measured among men born 1967-80].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, T; Beckstrøm, J R; Brevik, J I; Skåden, K

    2001-02-28

    Statistics Norway has published data on the average height of conscripts since 1910. Average height of men was 171.4 cm in 1920 and increased by 7.3 cm to 178.7 cm in 1970. Over the last 30 years, average height has increased only 1 cm, to 179.7 cm in 2000. The concern now is the fact that the average body weight of conscripts has been increasing. To monitor this development, statistics, based on BMI would be warranted. The basis for such a statistics is explored in a study including all men born 1967-1980 known to the Norwegian central population registry as of December 1997; a total of 475,076 men. Data from the medical examinations for military service were obtained from the National Service Administration for 413,051 (86.9%). Of these men 400,297 (96.9%) were born in Norway, 12,754 abroad. The proportion of men born in Norway who were not examined averaged 6.4%. This percentage was much the same for each cohort. The reasons for being exempted from examination were the same, this indicates that there was no difference in selection bias between cohorts. No data were available for the assessment of the reliability and validity of the measurements. Nevertheless, trends in average height, weight and BMI give a clear picture of changes that have occurred. Provided that validity of the measurements can be secured, it is concluded that examinations for military service can offer useful data for a health index on the growth and development of young men.

  16. Associations among height, body mass index and intelligence from age 11 to age 78 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2016-09-29

    Intelligence is related to both height and body mass index (BMI) at various stages of life. Several studies have demonstrated longitudinal relationships between these measures, but none has established whether height and intelligence, or BMI and intelligence are linked from childhood through to older age. We assessed the relations between these measures over an interval of up to 67 years using data from the 36-Day Sample, an initially-representative sample of Scottish people born in 1936, assessed at age 11 years (N = 6,291) and again at 77-78 years (N = 722). This paper focuses on the 423 participants (6.7 % of the original sample) who provided relevant data in late adulthood. Height and intelligence were significantly positively associated in childhood (β = .23) and late adulthood (β = .21-.29). Longitudinal correlations also showed that childhood intelligence predicted late-adulthood height (β = .20), and childhood height predicted late-adulthood cognitive ability (β = .12-.14). We observed no significant relationship between BMI and intelligence either in childhood or in late adulthood, nor any longitudinal association between the two in this sample. Our results on height and intelligence are the first to demonstrate that their relationship spans almost seven decades, from childhood through to late adulthood, and they call for further investigation into the mechanisms underlying this lifelong association.

  17. The U-shaped association of body mass index with mortality: Influence of the traits height, intelligence, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Osler, Merete; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Zimmermann, Esther; Christensen, Gunhild Tidemann; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2016-10-01

    The U-shaped association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may depend on other traits with permanent health effects. Whether the association between BMI and mortality depends on levels of health-related traits known to be inversely associated with mortality throughout adult life such as height, intelligence, and education was investigated. The study was based on a cohort of young men with data on weight, height, intelligence test score, and education from the Danish Conscription Database. In total, 346,500 men born 1939 to 1959 were followed until December 2013. The association between BMI and mortality was analyzed using Cox-regression models including interactions between BMI and height, intelligence, and education, respectively. BMI and mortality showed the U-shaped association from the start of the follow-up period, and it persisted through the subsequent 56 years. As expected, the mortality was inversely associated with height, intelligence, and education, but the U shape of the association between BMI and mortality was unaffected by the levels of these traits except at higher BMI values, where the slopes were steeper for men with higher levels of height, intelligence, and education. High and low BMI was associated with higher mortality throughout life regardless of the levels of height, intelligence, and education. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Study of weight, height, body mass index, energy and nutrients intake of 11-14 years old girls, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeqipoor H

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive, analytical cross-sectional syudy was conducted in 1996 on 350 female students 11-14 years old in the center of Tehran, Iran. The general objective was determining energy and nutrient intakes and weight, height and BMI (Body Mass Index of the girls, using anthropometric measurements, interviews (24-hour dietary recall and food consumption frequency, and the NCHS standards. The results were as follows: 1 Based on weight for age and the Z-score, 20% of the girls suffered from mild past and present malnutrition. 2 Based on height for age and BMI, 16.6%, 12.5%, and 1.3% suffered from mild past malnutrition, severe present malnutrition and overweight, respectively. 3 The height curves were normal, as compared to the respective standards. 4 The BMI curves were quite different from the respective standards. 5 On the whole, 53.7%, 49.7%, 86.0%, 59.0%, 67.7%, 76.5% and 88.0% of the girls had low intakes of energy, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folic acid, calcium, and iron, respectively. 6 A positive linear correlation was observed between energy intake and height, vitamin A intake and weight, zinc intake and height, and carbohydrate intake and height.

  19. Validity of proxy-reported height and weight to derive body mass index in adults participating in Special Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobranowski, Kristin; Lloyd, Meghann; Côté, Pierre; Balogh, Robert

    2017-02-16

    Overweight and obesity are common in adults with intellectual disabilities, which complicates their health. To meet their health needs, individuals with intellectual disability frequently rely on proxies to answer questions on their behalf. In the general population, the use of proxy-reported height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI) has been validated, but not among adults with intellectual disability. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of proxy-reported height, weight and derived BMI among adults with intellectual disability. Proxies were asked to report height and weight on behalf of adults with intellectual disability who participate in Special Olympics Ontario; their answers were compared to measured height and weight. Proxies reported height and weight accurately; the sensitivity of proxy reports for classifying individuals with intellectual disability as overweight and/or obese was 84.6%. Proxy reports may be useful when direct measurements of individuals with intellectual disability are not available. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Childhood height and body mass index were associated with risk of adult thyroid cancer in a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7 to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38.6 years), 171 women and 64 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Both height and BMI were positively associated with thyroid cancer risk, and these associations were similar by age at measurement. Using age 10 as an example, HRs per 1 unit increase in SDS for height (~6-7 cm) and BMI (~1.5-2 kg/m(2)) were 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07-1.40) and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.00-1.34), respectively. These results, together with the relatively young ages at which thyroid cancers are diagnosed compared with other malignancies, suggest a potential link between early-life factors related to growth and body weight and thyroid carcinogenesis.

  1. Evaluation of the genetic overlap between osteoarthritis with body mass index and height using genome-wide association scan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katherine S; Chapman, Kay; Day-Williams, Aaron; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Southam, Lorraine; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Arden, Nigel; Aslam, Nadim; Birrell, Fraser; Carluke, Ian; Carr, Andrew; Deloukas, Panos; Doherty, Michael; Loughlin, John; McCaskie, Andrew; Ollier, William E R; Rai, Ashok; Ralston, Stuart; Reed, Mike R; Spector, Timothy D; Valdes, Ana M; Wallis, Gillian A; Wilkinson, Mark; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) is one of the major risk factors for osteoarthritis. In addition, genetic overlap has been reported between osteoarthritis and normal adult height variation. We investigated whether this relationship is due to a shared genetic aetiology on a genome-wide scale. Methods We compared genetic association summary statistics (effect size, p value) for BMI and height from the GIANT consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS) with genetic association summary statistics from the arcOGEN consortium osteoarthritis GWAS. Significance was evaluated by permutation. Replication of osteoarthritis association of the highlighted signals was investigated in an independent dataset. Phenotypic information of height and BMI was accounted for in a separate analysis using osteoarthritis-free controls. Results We found significant overlap between osteoarthritis and height (p=3.3×10−5 for signals with p≤0.05) when the GIANT and arcOGEN GWAS were compared. For signals with p≤0.001 we found 17 shared signals between osteoarthritis and height and four between osteoarthritis and BMI. However, only one of the height or BMI signals that had shown evidence of association with osteoarthritis in the arcOGEN GWAS was also associated with osteoarthritis in the independent dataset: rs12149832, within the FTO gene (combined p=2.3×10−5). As expected, this signal was attenuated when we adjusted for BMI. Conclusions We found a significant excess of shared signals between both osteoarthritis and height and osteoarthritis and BMI, suggestive of a common genetic aetiology. However, only one signal showed association with osteoarthritis when followed up in a new dataset. PMID:22956599

  2. Body mass index and height over three generations: evidence from the Lifeways cross-generational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murrin Celine M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and its measure of body mass index are strongly determined by parental body size. Debate continues as to whether both parents contribute equally to offspring body mass which is key to understanding the aetiology of the disease. The aim of this study was to use cohort data from three generations of one family to examine the relative maternal and paternal associations with offspring body mass index and how these associations compare with family height to demonstrate evidence of genetic or environmental cross-generational transmission. Methods 669 of 1082 families were followed up in 2007/8 as part of the Lifeways study, a prospective observational cross-generation linkage cohort. Height and weight were measured in 529 Irish children aged 5 to 7 years and were self-reported by parents and grandparents. All adults provided information on self-rated health, education status, and indicators of income, diet and physical activity. Associations between the weight, height, and body mass index of family members were examined with mixed models and heritability estimates computed using linear regression analysis. Results Self-rated health was associated with lower BMI for all family members, as was age for children. When these effects were accounted for evidence of familial associations of BMI from one generation to the next was more apparent in the maternal line. Heritability estimates were higher (h2 = 0.40 for mother-offspring pairs compared to father-offspring pairs (h2 = 0.22. In the previous generation, estimates were higher between mothers-parents (h2 = 0.54-0.60 but not between fathers-parents (h2 = -0.04-0.17. Correlations between mother and offspring across two generations remained significant when modelled with fixed variables of socioeconomic status, health, and lifestyle. A similar analysis of height showed strong familial associations from maternal and paternal lines across each generation. Conclusions This is the

  3. Adult height and glucose tolerance: a re-appraisal of the importance of body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehunen, S K J; Kautiainen, H; Eriksson, J G; Korhonen, P E

    2017-08-01

    To study both the association between adult height and glucose regulation based on findings from a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and the combined effect of height and adiposity on glucose values. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among apparently healthy people with high cardiovascular risk living in south-western Finland. The study included 2659 participants aged 45-70 years, who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor but no previously diagnosed diabetes or manifested cardiovascular disease. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all participants. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. The participants were divided into five height groups based on normal distribution. For further analysis of the association between height and glucose concentrations the participants were divided into four BMI groups (Height was inversely associated with 2-h plasma glucose, but not with fasting plasma glucose concentration. No gender difference was observed. The 2-h plasma glucose values increased with an increase in BMI, so that height was inversely associated with 2-h plasma glucose in the three lowest BMI groups, but not in the highest BMI group (P=0.33). Taller people had lower 2-h plasma glucose concentrations than shorter people, up to a BMI of 35 kg/m2 . Adjustment for height and BMI is needed for accurate interpretation of oral glucose tolerance tests. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  4. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth...

  5. Height, weight, Body Mass Index, and age in beach volleyball players in relation to level and position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palao, J M; Gutiérrez, D; Frideres, J E

    2008-12-01

    This study tried to find out the height, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), and age of peak performance beach volleyball players with regard to their level of play and their role. The men's and women's pairs that classified in the World Tour and in the Olympic Games during seasons 2000-2006 were analyzed (625 males and 617 females). A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: height, weight, age, BMI, level (World Tour ranking), and player role (blocker, defense specialist, or no specialization). The data were obtained from the webpage of the International Federation of Volleyball. The average characteristics for males were 1.93 m, 88-89 kg, a BMI of 23.8-24.1, and an age range of 29-31 years, and for females, they were 1.77-1.79 m, 66-68 kg, a BMI of 19.2-21.1, and an age range of 27-29 years. Beach volleyball players are older and have smaller anthropometric characteristics when compared to indoor volleyball players. Male players present similar values for age and height across rankings. For both genders, with regard to weight and BMI, the higher the level, the larger the value. For women, the players at a higher level presented higher values of age, height, weight, and BMI. With regard to role, the blocking specialists were taller than the defense specialists. The pairs that share the blocking and defense responsibilities have intermediate values.

  6. Weight, height, body mass index and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdaninia Mariam

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Iran have a relatively high body mass index. To investigate whether the condition contributes to excess breast cancer cases, a case-control study was conducted to assess the relationships between anthropometric variables and breast cancer risk in Tehran, Iran. Methods All incident cases of breast cancer in the Iranian Centre for Breast Cancer (ICBC were identified through the case records. Eligible cases were all postmenopausal women with histological confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during 1996 to year 2000. Controls were randomly selected postmenopausal women attending the ICBC for clinical breast examination during the same period. The body mass index (BMI was calculated based on weights and heights as measured by the ICBC nursing staff. Both tests for trend and logistic regression analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals as measures of relative risk. Results In all, 116 breast cancer cases and 116 controls were studied. There were no significant differences between cases and control with regard to most independent variables studied. However, a significant difference was observed between cases and controls indicating that the mean BMI was higher in cases as compared to controls (P = 0.004. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for age, age at menopause, family history of breast cancer and parity, the results showed that women with a BMI in the obese range had a three fold increased risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR = 3.21, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–8.47]. Conclusion The results suggest that obesity in postmenopausal women could increase risk of breast cancer and it merits further investigation in populations such as Iran where it seems that many women are short in height, and have a relatively high body mass index.

  7. Secular changes in height, weight and body mass index in Hong Kong Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Youfa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large population growth surveys of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y were undertaken in Hong Kong in 1963 and 1993. The global epidemic of obesity is a major public health concern. To monitor the impact of this epidemic in Hong Kong children and to identify secular changes in growth, a further growth survey was undertaken in 2005/6. Methods Cross-sectional height and weight measurements of 14,842 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 y from Hong Kong's 18 districts were obtained during the 2005/6 school year. Percentile curves were constructed using LMS method and sex-specific percentile values of weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age were compared with those data from 1963 and 1993. Results Secular changes in height, weight and BMI were noted between 1963 and 1993 and between 1993 and 2005/6. In the latter period, greater changes were observed at younger ages, and particularly in boys. On an annual basis, the 1993–2005/6 changes were less than those during 1963–1993. Using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs, 16.7% of children were overweight or obese in 2005/6, which was a 5.1% increase since 1993. Conclusion These data provide policy-makers with further evidence of the secular changes in child growth and the increasing obesity epidemic among Hong Kong children.

  8. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    A major component of variation in body height is due to genetic differences, but environmental factors have a substantial contributory effect. In this study we aimed to analyse whether the genetic architecture of body height varies between affluent western societies. We analysed twin data from ei...

  9. Interactive effect of genetic susceptibility with height, body mass index, and hormone replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlid Sophia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer today has many established risk factors, both genetic and environmental, but these risk factors by themselves explain only part of the total cancer incidence. We have investigated potential interactions between certain known genetic and phenotypic risk factors, specifically nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and height, body mass index (BMI and hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Methods We analyzed samples from three different study populations: two prospectively followed Swedish cohorts and one Icelandic case–control study. Totally 2884 invasive breast cancer cases and 4508 controls were analysed in the study. Genotypes were determined using Mass spectrometry-Maldi-TOF and phenotypic variables were derived from measurements and/or questionnaires. Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression with the inclusion of an interaction term in the logistic regression model. Results One SNP (rs851987 in ESR1 tended to interact with height, with an increasingly protective effect of the major allele in taller women (p = 0.007 and rs13281615 (on 8q24 tended to confer risk only in non users of HRT (p-for interaction = 0.03. There were no significant interactions after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions We conclude that much larger sample sets would be necessary to demonstrate interactions between low-risk genetic polymorphisms and the phenotypic variables height, BMI and HRT on the risk for breast cancer. However the present hypothesis-generating study has identified tendencies that would be of interest to evaluate for gene-environment interactions in independent materials.

  10. Height, weight and body mass index in adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Camilla; Rinnström, Daniel; Dellborg, Mikael; Thilén, Ulf; Sörensson, Peder; Nielsen, Niels-Erik; Christersson, Christina; Wadell, Karin; Johansson, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    High BMI is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and, in contrast, low BMI is associated with worse prognosis in heart failure. The knowledge on BMI and the distribution in different BMI-classes in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are limited. Data on 2424 adult patients was extracted from the Swedish Registry on Congenital Heart Disease and compared to a reference population (n=4605). The prevalence of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25) was lower in men with variants of the Fontan procedure, pulmonary atresia (PA)/double outlet right ventricle (DORV) and aortic valve disease (AVD) (Fontan 22.0% and PA/DORV 15.1% vs. 43.0%, p=0.048 and p<0.001) (AVD 37.5% vs. 49.3%, p<0.001). Overt obesity (BMI ≥ 30) was only more common in women with AVD (12.8% vs. 9.0%, p=0.005). Underweight (BMI<18.5) was generally more common in men with CHD (complex lesions 4.9% vs. 0.9%, p<0.001 and simple lesions 3.2% vs. 0.6%, <0.001). Men with complex lesions were shorter than controls in contrast to females that in general did not differ from controls. Higher prevalence of underweight in men with CHD combined with a lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in men with some complex lesions indicates that men with CHD in general has lower BMI compared to controls. In women, only limited differences between those with CHD and the controls were found. The complexity of the CHD had larger impact on height in men. The cause of these gender differences as well as possible significance for prognosis is unknown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Comparison in weight, height, degree of obesity and body mass index among different methods for body shape classification in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-mee; Sohn, Min; Choi, Sun-Ha

    2010-12-01

    The study was conducted to describe body shapes of school age children using the degree of obesity index (DOI) and body mass index obesity index classified by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (M-BOI) and Seoul Metropolitan Office of Education (S-BOI). In this cross sectional descriptive study health screening data for school children collected in 2007 was used. Data were analyzed for 2,193 4th-6th grade boys (52%) and girls who attended 4 schools in rural areas. DOI determined that only 44.3% of students had average weight. This proportion was much lower than the results of other methods (74.3-77.6%). All three methods defined girls (51.3-61.8%) as skinnier than boys. Skinny and average body shaped children classified by DOI and obese children classified by S-BOI were heavier and taller and presented higher degrees of obesity (DO) and BMI scores than by other methods. M-BOI and S-BOI presented statistically significant positive correlations with weight, height, DO and BMI, while DOI was not correlated with height. BMI based body shape classifications provide a more rigorous classification of body shape which are favorable for school health professionals with limited resources and policy makers for internationally comparable references.

  12. Body mass index, height and risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Audrey H H; Schouten, Leo J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2007-11-01

    In the last decades, the incidence of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has increased rapidly in the Western world. We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI), height and risk of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. The Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated in 1986. All participants (n = 120,852), aged 55-69 years, completed a self administered questionnaire. Cases were identified through annual record linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry. After 13.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first follow-up year, complete data from 4552 subcohort members, 133 oesophageal and 163 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas were available for case-cohort analyses. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. The RRs (95% CI) of oesophageal adenocarcinoma were 1.40 (0.95 to 2.04) and 3.96 (2.27 to 6.88) for overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese subjects (BMI >or=30.0 kg/m(2)), respectively, compared to subjects with normal weight (BMI 20.0-24.9 kg/m(2)). For gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, these RRs were 1.32 (0.94 to 1.85) and 2.73 (1.56 to 4.79). Also change in BMI during adulthood was positively associated with the risk of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (p trend 0.001 and 0.02, respectively), while no association was found with BMI in early adulthood (p trend 0.17 and 0.17, respectively). None of the tumour types investigated was significantly associated with height. These results confirm higher risks of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma with increasing BMI. This implies that the increasing prevalence of obesity may be one of the explanations for the rising incidence of oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in the Western world.

  13. Assortive mating for personaltiy traits, educational level, religious affiliation, height, weight, adn body mass index in parents of Korean twin sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2003-12-01

    The degree of assortative mating for psychological and physical traits in Asian societies in relatively unknown. The present study examined assortative mating for educational level, personality traits, religious affiliation, height, weight, and body mass index in a korean sample. Age-adjusted spouse correlations were high for educational level (r = .63) and religious affiliation (r = .67), modest for most personality traits (rs = -.01 to .26), and trivial for height (r = .04), weight (r = .05)m and body mass index (r = .11). These results were remarkably similar to those found from the western samples. Implications of the present findings in behavior genetic studies and human mating patterns were briefly discussed.

  14. Height, weight and body mass index of girls and boys in a rural school in Punjab India

    Science.gov (United States)

    All the students at this Bhagat Puran Singh Memorial School in Punjab, India were educated about the importance of caloric intake and physical activity. Body weight and height were recorded once a month for 12 consecutive months for 632 students, age 8-23 years (7584 observations). For US and Euro...

  15. Marker Genotypes and Population Admixture and Their Association With Body Weight, Height and Relative Body Mass in United States Federal Bison Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, Solomon K.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Redden, David T.; Allison, David B.; Derr, James N.

    2006-01-01

    Elucidating genetic influences on bison growth and body composition is of interest, not only because bison are important for historical, cultural, and agricultural reasons, but also because their unusual population history makes them valuable models for finding influential loci in both domestic cattle and humans. We tested for trait loci associated with body weight, height, and bison mass index (BMI) while controlling for estimated ancestry to reduce potential confounding effects due to population admixture in 1316 bison sampled from four U.S. herds. We used 60 microsatellite markers to model each phenotype as a function of herd, sex, age, marker genotypes, and individual ancestry estimates. Statistical significance for genotype and its interaction with ancestry was evaluated using the adaptive false discovery rate. Of the four herds, two appeared to be admixed and two were nonadmixed. Although none of the main effects of the loci were significant, estimated ancestry and its interaction with marker loci were significantly associated with the phenotypes, illustrating the importance of including ancestry in the models and the dependence of genotype–phenotype associations on background ancestry. Individual loci contributed ∼2.0% of variation in weight, height, and BMI, which confirms the utility and potential importance of adjusting for population stratification. PMID:16888339

  16. One hundred years of growth: the evolution of height, mass, and body composition in Australian children, 1899-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, T S; Harten, N R

    2001-10-01

    This paper summarizes 41 reports on the height and mass of Australian children aged between 5.00 and 16.99 years between 1899 and 1999. In all, data on 644,613 children were collated, including individual data on 68,196 children. After primary data treatment to correct for methodological and statistical artifacts, regressions were calculated to quantify the rate of change of height and mass over time. Distributional analysis was used to probe for changes in skewness of mass values, indicative of differentially greater increases at higher percentiles. In addition, studies reporting skin fold measurements were analyzed to assess changes in subcutaneous adiposity since 1976. The results show that height has been increasing at a rate of about 1.02 cm.decade(-1), and mass at a rate of about 0.99 kg.decade(-1). The height and mass of children continue to increase, after a slowing down in the rate of increase between 1950 and 1980. Increases in mass at the higher percentiles have been much greater than at lower percentiles, particularly since the mid-1980s, suggesting that the incidence of obesity is increasing in Australian children. Furthermore, a steady linear increase in subcutaneous skin fold thicknesses since 1976 suggests that the overall level of fatness is increasing in Australian children. These findings indicate that Australian children are following trends becoming evident elsewhere in the developed world, and that we may see an increasingly large subset of increasingly obese children in the early years of the 21st century.

  17. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabol...

  18. Obesity Index That Better Predict Metabolic Syndrome: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist Hip Ratio, or Waist Height Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to compare body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR, and waist height ratio (WHtR to identify the best predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS among Qatari adult population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey from April 2011 to December 2012. Data was collected from 1552 participants followed by blood sampling. MetS was defined according to Third Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis was performed. Results. Among men, WC followed by WHR and WHtR yielded the highest area under the curve (AUC (0.78; 95% CI 0.74–0.82 and 0.75; 95% CI 0.71–0.79, resp.. Among women, WC followed by WHtR yielded the highest AUC (0.81; 95% CI 0.78–0.85 & 0.79; 95% CI 0.76–0.83, resp.. Among men, WC at a cut-off 99.5 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with sensitivity 81.6% and 63.9% specificity. Among women, WC at a cut-off 91 cm resulted in the highest Youden index with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity of 86.5% and 64.7%, respectively. BMI had the lowest sensitivity and specificity in both genders. Conclusion. WC at cut-off 99.5 cm in men and 91 cm in women was the best predictor of MetS in Qatar.

  19. Joint associations of body mass index and waist-to-height ratio with sleep duration among Saudi adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown significant associations between short sleep duration and overall or abdominal obesity. However, no study has reported on the joint association of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with sleep duration in adolescents. To examine the joint associations of BMI and WHtR with sleep duration among Saudi adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving 2852 secondary-school students (51.7% females) aged 15-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling. Self-reported sleep duration was assessed and BMI was classified into high and low categories according to the IOTF classification, whereas WHtR categories were based on above and below 0.5. The low BMI-low WHtR category had the longest mean sleep duration (7.27 hours/day), whereas the high BMI-high WHtR group had the shortest sleep duration (7.02 hours/day; p = 0.003) (aOR = 0.832, 95% CI = 0.698-0.992, p = 0.040). In addition, high BMI-low WHtR or low BMI-high WHtR groups didn't significantly associate with reduced sleep duration among adolescents. The joint association of high BMI-high WHtR increases adolescent's risk of having reduced sleep duration. Future research should seek to confirm such findings and provide an explanation for this association.

  20. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  1. Final height and body mass index in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated without cranial radiotherapy: a retrospective longitudinal multicenter Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzi, Patrizia; Predieri, Barbara; Corrias, Andrea; Marsciani, Alberto; Street, Maria Elisabeth; Rossidivita, Aurora; Paolucci, Paolo; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2014-09-22

    Young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with protocols including cranial radiotherapy demonstrate a persistent weight gain and reduced final height. Published reports on the effects on growth of different oncologic therapies are conflicting and difficult to interpret because they combined children treated with both cranial irradiation and multi-agent chemotherapy. Our study investigated the effect of chemotherapy alone on body mass index (BMI) and on growth at the achievement of final height in a homogeneous cohort of Italian childhood ALL survivors. We retrospectively studied 162 Caucasian patients treated on the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology protocols without radiotherapy between 1989 and 2000 at five Italian centers with 107 inclusions (58 males). Height- and BMI-standard deviation score (SDS) were collected at diagnosis of ALL, at the end of treatment and at the achievement of final height. Changes in height SDS and BMI SDS with time were analyzed using dependent sample Student's t-test. A significant reduction of height-SDS was documented during treatment in both genders. This reduction of height-SDS was not followed by an appropriate catch-up growth, despite the achievement of a mean final height within the normal range. At diagnosis females showed a lower mean BMI-SDS than males. During treatment, in the whole population, BMI-SDS increased significantly. After it, while males lost BMI-SDS, females showed its persistent increase. Survivors of childhood ALL generally seemed to achieve a normal final height with a BMI within the normal range. These parameters appeared to be only minimally affected by chemotherapy. Nevertheless, height catch-up growth was not completed after chemotherapy in both genders and all patients experienced an increase of BMI-SDS during chemotherapy that only females seemed to conserve until the achievement of final height.

  2. Quantitative body mass characterization before and after head and neck cancer radiotherapy: A challenge of height-weight formulae using computed tomography measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamchod, Sasikarn; Fuller, Clifton D; Mohamed, Abdallah S R; Grossberg, Aaron; Messer, Jay A; Heukelom, Jolien; Gunn, G Brandon; Kantor, Micheal E; Eichelberger, Hillary; Garden, Adam S; Rosenthal, David I

    2016-10-01

    We undertook a challenge to determine if one or more height-weight formula(e) can be clinically used as a surrogate for direct CT-based imaging assessment of body composition before and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, who are at risk for cancer- and therapy-associated cachexia/sarcopenia. This retrospective single-institution study included 215 HNC patients, treated with curative radiotherapy between 2003 and 2013. Height/weight measures were tabulated. Skeletal muscle mass was contoured on pre- and post-treatment CT at the L3 vertebral level. Three common lean body mass (LBM) formulae (Hume, Boer, and James) were calculated, and compared to CT assessment at each time point. 156 patients (73%) had tumors arising in the oropharynx and 130 (61%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Mean pretreatment body mass index (BMI) was 28.5±4.9kg/m(2) in men and 27.8±8kg/m(2) in women. Mean post-treatment BMI were 26.2±4.4kg/m(2) in men, 26±7.5kg/m(2) in women. Mean CT-derived LBM decreased from 55.2±11.8kg pre-therapy to 49.27±9.84kg post-radiation. Methods comparison revealed 95% limit of agreement of ±12.5-13.2kg between CT and height-weight formulae. Post-treatment LBM with the three formulae was significantly different from CT (p<0.0001). In all instances, no height-weight formula was practically equivalent to CT within±5kg. Formulae cannot accurately substitute for direct quantitative imaging LBM measurements. We therefore recommend CT-based LBM assessment as a routine practice of head and neck cancer patient body composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.

  4. Zygosity differences in height and body mass index of twins from infancy to old age: A study of the CODATwins project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Haworth, Claire MA; Plomin, Robert; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L; Maia, José Antonio; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkilä, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-01-01

    A trend towards greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the CODATwins project and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from age 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Likewise, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes. PMID:26337138

  5. Body mass index and height from infancy to adulthood and carotid intima-media thickness at 60 to 64 years in the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William; Kuh, Diana; Tikhonoff, Valerie; Charakida, Marietta; Woodside, John; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D; Deanfield, John E; Hardy, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis begins early in life and obesity is a key determinant. We investigated the role of body mass index (BMI) and height from infancy to adulthood in presenting with high adulthood carotid intima-media thickness. Odds ratios of BMI, and height Z scores at 2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 15, and 20 years, and changes between 2 and 4, 4 and 7, 7 and 15, and 15 and 20 years, for carotid intima-media thickness at 60 to 64 years in the upper quartile were estimated for 604 men and 669 women. Confounding by early-life environments, mediating by body size and cardiometabolic measures at 60 to 64 years, and effect modification were investigated. In men, there was positive association of BMI at 4 years (odds ratio, 1.256; 95% confidence interval, 1.026-1.538) and 20 years (1.282; 1.022-1.609), negative association of height at 4 years (0.780; 0.631-0.964), and negative association of height growth between 2 and 4 years (0.698; 0.534-0.913) with high carotid intima-media thickness. The childhood estimates were robust, but the estimate for BMI at 20 years was attenuated by adjustment for BMI at 60 to 64 years. The protective influence of greater early childhood height was strongest in those with the lowest systolic blood pressure at 60 to 64 years. In women, there was no pattern of association and all confidence intervals crossed 1. Early childhood in men might be a sensitive developmental period for atherosclerosis, in which changes in BMI and height represent 2 distinct biological mechanisms. The maintenance of healthy weight in men from adolescence onward may be a useful strategy to avoid the atherosclerotic complications of adiposity tracking.

  6. Relations between BMI, body mass and height, and sports competence among participants of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games: does sport metabolic demand differentiate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanula, Arkadiusz; Roczniok, Robert; Gabryś, Tomasz; Szmatlan-Gabryś, Urszula; Maszczyk, Adam; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2013-12-01

    This study characterizes the athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in terms of body height, body mass and BMI. The studied sample consisted of athletes in the top 20 places of each of 14 sports disciplines (1460 cases). Data on the athletes' age, height, body mass, and sports specialization were obtained from the Olympic Games' official website and from the International Ski Federation. The sampled athletes were grouped according to the predominant type of energy metabolism during competition. The anaerobic-glycolytic disciplines, such as cross-country sprint, figure skating, short track, and speed skating (500, 1000 and 1500 m), were found to have the youngest female athletes: 25.0 yr. (SD = 4.7). In the endurance sports (aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic), the female athletes were the oldest, being respectively 28.6 yr. (SD = 4.9) and 28.1 yr. (SD = 4.5) old. In the speed disciplines (anaerobic-alactic), the female athletes were the tallest (M = 172 cm; SD = 8.3). The male athletes in the anaerobic-alactic sports were the tallest (M = 181.8 cm, SD = 6.7) and those in the anaerobic-glycolytic sports were the shortest (M = 179.2 cm, SD = 6.7). The large differences in body mass among the groups of athletes, which appear to be related to the predominant type of metabolism during competition, show that this parameter is partly correlated with the level of sports competence, but only in disciplines where the athletes need larger muscle mass. The largest average values of BMI were found for males and females in the anaerobic-alactic group.

  7. Development of Height and Body Mass Index After Pediatric Kidney Transplantation: Experience of the Nephrology Pediatric Service at HCFMRP- USP, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesheim, Elaine; Ambrósio, Valéria Laguna Salomão; Facincani, Inalda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease in children often determines poor nutritional status. Although renal transplantation (RTx) resolves endocrine and metabolic disorders, growth continues to be suboptimal and excessive weight gain may result in obesity. Evaluating the development of height and body mass index in renal transplanted children and adolescents and identifying associated factors with final nutritional status. We reviewed the medical records of 17 patients with regular follow-ups up to 24 months after RTx. Nutritional status was assessed by height-for-age (H/A) and body mass index-for-age (BMI/A). It was considered catch-up growth the increase in z-score H/A ≥ 0.5 standard deviation. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the influence of factors clinical and demographic variables on anthropometric indicators at 24 months after RTx. Mean age was 9.1 ± 4.1 years old. Twenty-four months after RTx the mean z-score H/A increased from -2.66 ± 1.66 to -1.93 ± 1.08 (p ≤ 0.05), 47.0% of the patients showed catch-up growth and the same proportion showed z-score H/A ponderal excessivo. O TxR promoveu maior crescimento nos pacientes mais jovens e com maior déficit estatural no TxR.

  8. Impact of social mobility and geographical migration on variation in male height, weight and body mass index in a British cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2012-03-01

    Using a sample of 2090 British father and son pairs the relationships between social and geographical intra- and inter-generational mobility were examined in relation to height, weight and body mass index (BMI). There was much more social mobility than geographical (regional) migration. Social mobility and geographical migration were not independent: socially non-mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be geographical non-migrants, and upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were more likely to be regional migrants. Upwardly socially mobile fathers and sons were, on average, taller and had a lower BMI than non-mobile and downwardly mobile fathers and sons. In general, no significant associations were found between geographical migration and height or weight. Migrating fathers had a lower BMI than sedentes, as did their sons who migrated between 1965 and 1991. There was no significant interaction that indicated that social mobility and geographical migration were acting in a simple additive way on height, weight and BMI.

  9. Gestational age-dependency of height and body mass index trajectories during the first 3 years in Japanese small-for-gestational age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyama, Kaori; Morioka, Ichiro; Iwatani, Sota; Fukushima, Sachiyo; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Nishida, Kosuke; Ohyama, Shohei; Fujioka, Kazumichi; Awano, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Nozu, Kandai; Nagase, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Shirai, Chika; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-12-09

    Gestational age (GA) is thought to affect height growth in small-for-gestational age (SGA) children. However, the GA-specific trajectories in body mass index (BMI) and early appearances of adiposity rebound (AR) have not been fully investigated in a cohort of Japanese SGA children. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 1063 SGA children born in Kobe, Japan, with sufficient records from birth to 3 years of age. Subjects were divided into subgroups based on GA: 39-41 weeks GA (n = 723), 37-38 weeks GA (n = 256), 34-36 weeks GA (n = 62), and <34 weeks GA (n = 22). Height and BMI were assessed at 4 months, 9 months, 1.5 years, and 3 years of age. The catch-up rate for height was GA-dependent. Most children with 39-41 weeks GA (91%) caught up by 4 months of age; however, lower GA was associated with a slower elevation in the catch-up rate. The BMI trajectory during the first 3 years was also GA-dependent, with a change in GA dependency at a boundary of 37 weeks GA. Approximately 7% of SGA children had already developed AR before 3 years of age. In conclusion, growth patterns during infancy and early childhood in SGA children differ depending on GA.

  10. Sleep duration is associated with body fat and muscle mass and waist-to-height ratio beyond conventional obesity parameters in Korean adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jee Hyun; Seo, Won Hee

    2017-08-01

    While evidence has supported a strong association between sleep duration and obesity globally, results from studies of children and adolescents have been conflicting, and information about a sex-specific association has been limited. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep duration with various parameters of obesity among South Korean adolescents. This population-based, cross-sectional study analysed the data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2009 and 2010. Data of 990 adolescents were analysed. Sleep duration was based on a self-reported questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP) and skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight) were assessed as parameters of obesity. Mean sleep duration in boys was associated inversely with BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and positively with SMI. Proportions of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI increased significantly with increased sleep duration only in boys. Also, in boys, decreased sleep duration was associated significantly with the increased risk of the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHtR and BFP and the lowest quartile of SMI, even after adjusting for confounding factors. However, in girls, there was no significant association between sleep duration and obesity parameters except WC. Periodic assessment of sleep duration in relation to body fat or muscle mass in male adolescents may be considered, especially in those who are at risk for obesity or related disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Baker, Jennifer L; Bihrmann, Kristine; Vejborg, Ilse; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-20

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, childhood body mass index (BMI), and height with the risk of breast cancer. 13,572 women (50 to 69 years) in the Copenhagen mammography screening program (1991 through 2001) with childhood anthropometric measurements in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register were followed for breast cancer until 2010. With logistic and Cox regression models, we investigated associations among birth weight, height, and BMI at ages 7 to 13 years with MD (mixed/dense or fatty) and breast cancer, respectively. 8,194 (60.4%) women had mixed/dense breasts, and 716 (5.3%) developed breast cancer. Childhood BMI was significantly inversely related to having mixed/dense breasts at all ages, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72) at age 7 to 0.56 (0.53 to 0.58) at age 13, per one-unit increase in z-score. No statistically significant associations were detected between birth weight and MD, height and MD, or birth weight and breast cancer risk. BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer, with hazard ratios of 0.91 (0.83 to 0.99) at age 7 and 0.92 (0.84 to 1.00) at age 13, whereas height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (age 7, 1.06 (0.98 to 1.14) and age 13, 1.08 (1.00 to 1.16)). After additional adjustment for MD, associations of BMI with breast cancer diminished (age 7, 0.97 (0.88 to 1.06) and age 13, 1.01 (0.93 to 1.11)), but remained with height (age 7, 1.06 (0.99 to 1.15) and age 13, 1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)). Among women 50 years and older, childhood body fatness was inversely associated with the breast cancer risk, possibly via a mechanism mediated by MD, at least partially. Childhood tallness was positively associated with breast cancer

  12. Relationship of weight, height, and body mass index with fracture risk at different sites in postmenopausal women: the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E; Flahive, Julie; Hosmer, David W; Watts, Nelson B; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Saag, Kenneth G; Roux, Christian; Rossini, Maurizio; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Nieves, Jeri W; Netelenbos, J Coen; March, Lyn; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Hooven, Frederick H; Greenspan, Susan L; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Cooper, Cyrus; Chapurlat, Roland D; Boonen, Steven; Anderson, Frederick A; Adami, Silvano; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2014-02-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for fracture in postmenopausal women. Height and obesity have also been associated with increased fracture risk at some sites. We investigated the relationships of weight, BMI, and height with incident clinical fracture in a practice-based cohort of postmenopausal women participating in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Data were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. For hip, spine, wrist, pelvis, rib, upper arm/shoulder, clavicle, ankle, lower leg, and upper leg fractures, we modeled the time to incident self-reported fracture over a 3-year period using the Cox proportional hazards model and fitted the best linear or nonlinear models containing height, weight, and BMI. Of 52,939 women, 3628 (6.9%) reported an incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up period. Linear BMI showed a significant inverse association with hip, clinical spine, and wrist fractures: adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) per increase of 5 kg/m(2) were 0.80 (0.71-0.90), 0.83 (0.76-0.92), and 0.88 (0.83-0.94), respectively (all p fractures, linear weight showed a significant positive association: adjusted HR per 5-kg increase 1.05 (1.02-1.07) (p fractures, only linear height was significantly associated: adjusted HRs per 10-cm increase were 0.85 (0.75-0.97) (p = 0.02) and 0.73 (0.57-0.92) (p = 0.009), respectively. For pelvic and rib fractures, the best models were for nonlinear BMI or weight (p = 0.05 and 0.03, respectively), with inverse associations at low BMI/body weight and positive associations at high values. These data demonstrate that the relationships between fracture and weight, BMI, and height are site-specific. The different associations may be mediated, at least in part, by effects on bone mineral density, bone structure and geometry, and patterns of falling. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based on height ...

  14. Weight, height and body mass index nomograms; early adiposity rebound in a sample of children in tehran, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Navidi, Iman; Hesamifard, Bahare; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Jafari, Nasim; Poorchaloo, Sakine Ranji; Ataei, Neamatollah

    2013-12-01

    Assessing growth is a useful tool for defining health and nutritional status of children. The objective of this study was to construct growth reference curves of Iranian infants and children (0-6 years old) and compare them with previous and international references. Weight, height or length of 2107 Iranian infants and children aged 0-6 years old were measured using a cross-sectional survey in Tehran in 2010. Standard smooth reference curves for Iranian population were constructed and compared to multinational World Health Organization 2006 reference standards as well as a previous study from two decades ago. Growth index references for Iranian girls are increased in compare to data from two decades ago and are approximately close to the international references. In boys; however, the increment was considerably large as it passed the international references. Not only the values for indexes was changed during two decades, but also the age at adiposity rebound came near the age of 3, which is an important risk factor for later obesity. During two decades, growth indexes of Iranian children raised noticeable. Risk factors for later obesity are now apparent and demand immediate policy formulations. In addition, reference curves presented in this paper can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring growth of Iranian children.

  15. Weight, height and body mass index nomograms; early adiposity rebound in a sample of children in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessing growth is a useful tool for defining health and nutritional status of children. The objective of this study was to construct growth reference curves of Iranian infants and children (0-6 years old and compare them with previous and international references. Methods: Weight, height or length of 2107 Iranian infants and children aged 0-6 years old were measured using a cross-sectional survey in Tehran in 2010. Standard smooth reference curves for Iranian population were constructed and compared to multinational World Health Organization 2006 reference standards as well as a previous study from two decades ago. Results: Growth index references for Iranian girls are increased in compare to data from two decades ago and are approximately close to the international references. In boys; however, the increment was considerably large as it passed the international references. Not only the values for indexes was changed during two decades, but also the age at adiposity rebound came near the age of 3, which is an important risk factor for later obesity. Conclusions: During two decades, growth indexes of Iranian children raised noticeable. Risk factors for later obesity are now apparent and demand immediate policy formulations. In addition, reference curves presented in this paper can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring growth of Iranian children.

  16. Waist circumference, body mass index and waist-height ratio: Are two indices better than one for identifying hypertension risk in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Rafaela Haeger; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-01

    To investigate if the combination of Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) or Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR) and BMI measures is superior to the separate indicators in identifying hypertension risk in older adults from southern Brazil. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave (2013/14) of a population- and household-based survey carried out with 1197 older adults (778 women). Hypertension (i.e., outcome) was identified by self-report. The independent variables were body mass index (BMI≥27kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC≥88cm for women and WC≥102cm for men), waist/height ratio (WHtR≥0.5), and the combined indexes BMI+WC (BMI≥27kg/m(2)+WC≥88cm for women and WC≥102cm for men) and BMI+WHtR (BMI≥27kg/m(2)+WHtR≥0.5). The associations were explored using binary logistic regression. The results showed sex differences in all study characteristics. In women, all indicators were associated with the outcome, after adjustments (age, race/color, marital status, schooling, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diabetes). WHtR was the indicator most strongly associated with hypertension (OR=2.97; 95% CI 1.58 to 5.59). For men, only BMI and the combined indicators were associated with hypertension. Combined measures of BMI+WHtR showed a stronger association with the outcome (OR=2.68; IC95% 1.62 to 4.44). The associated indicators differed between the sexes. The combination of BMI+WC and BMI+WHtR using current cut-off points may provide an improved measure of hypertension risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2008: weight, height and body mass index in 6-9-year-old children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, T M A

    2012-09-21

    What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. Presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. What this study adds Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6-9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions. BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. OBJECTIVE: To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007\\/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes. METHODS: Weight and height were measured in 6-9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 168 832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including

  18. Obesity in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the Minnesota cohort: importance of adjusting body mass index for height-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafoglou, Kyriakie; Forlenza, Gregory P; Yaw Addo, O; Kyllo, Jennifer; Lteif, Aida; Hindmarsh, P C; Petryk, Anna; Gonzalez-Bolanos, Maria Teresa; Miller, Bradley S; Thomas, William

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate obesity and overweight in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and associations with glucocorticoids, fludrocortisone and disease control. Adjusting body mass index-for-height-age (BMI HA ) percentile is proposed to correct misclassification of obese/overweight status in CAH children with advanced bone age and tall-for-age stature. Longitudinal. One hundred and ninety-four children with CAH seen from 1970 to 2013: 124 salt wasting (SW); 70 simple virilizing (SV); 102 females. Body mass index (BMI) end-points were overweight (85-94 percentile) and obese (≥95 percentile). Approximately 50% of the children had at least one BMI measurement ≥95 percentile and about 70% had at least one ≥85 percentile. Using BMI HA percentiles, obesity incidence decreased slightly in SW children (47-43%) and markedly in SV children (50-33%); however, overweight status was not reduced. Only 6% of SW and 1% of SV children were persistently obese (≥3 clinic visits) when BMI HA was applied, whereas overweight status persisted in 35% of SW and 33% of SV children. Most obesity or overweight when using BMI HA occurred before age 10 and there was no association with hydrocortisone (HC) or fludrocortisone dosing. Adiposity rebound for SW children occurred by 3·3 years and in SV females by age 3·8 years, over a year earlier than the adiposity rebound for healthy children. Children with CAH are at higher risk for early onset obesity and overweight with or without using BMI HA but rates of persistent obesity were lower than previously reported. Careful HC dosing during early childhood is needed to prevent increased weight gain and an early adiposity rebound. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Profiles of body mass index and the nutritional status among children and adolescents categorized by waist-to-height ratio cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Chu, Zun-Hua; Zhao, Jin-Shan

    2016-11-15

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is proposed as a simple, valid and convenient measure of abdominal obesity and health risks in practice. The present study examined the distribution of nutritional status among children and adolescents categorized by WHtR cut-offs. A total of 30,459 students (15,249 boys and 15,210 girls) aged 7-18years participated in the study. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) of all subjects were measured, body mass index (BMI) and WHtR were calculated. The grades of nutritional status (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) was defined by the international BMI cut-offs. All subjects were divided into three groups (low, moderate and high) according to their WHtR, BMI level and the distribution of nutritional status among the three groups were compared. In both boys and girls, significant differences in BMI level and the nutritional status were observed among the three groups. Children and adolescents aged 7-18years in the 'high WHtR group' (≥0.5) had higher BMI than those in the 'low WHtR group' (nutritional status is found in the 'moderate WHtR group' (between 0.4 and 0.5) with the highest proportion of normal weight and low prevalence of thinness and obesity. WHtR is associated with nutritional status, which could be an indicator of nutritional status and early health risk. It is necessary to develop optimal boundary values in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ(2) tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For members of the juice cluster, mean BMI was lower than for members of the milk cluster (by 2.4 units), water/sugar-free beverage cluster (3.5 units), neutral cluster (2.2 units), and SSB cluster (3.2 units) (all

  1. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  2. Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in childhood obesity depending on pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Susann; Molz, Esther; Wiegand, Susanna; Otto, Klaus-Peter; Sergeyev, Elena; Tuschy, Sabine; L'Allemand-Jander, Dagmar; Kiess, Wieland; Holl, Reinhard W

    2013-08-01

    The predictive value of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) to define cardiometabolic risk is unclear in childhood obesity. [corrected] The associations between BMI, WtHR, or WC and cardiometabolic risk markers were analyzed in a multicenter data collection of obese youth. BMI, WtHR, and WC were retrospectively evaluated in 1278 patients (11-18 years, 53% boys) from the German/Austrian/Swiss Adiposity Patients Registry. Parameters were correlated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure, transaminases, lipids and uric acid, applying adjusted regression models, with age group, pubertal stage and gender as covariates. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and fasting insulin were most strongly correlated with BMI, independent of age group or gender. Lipids, transaminases, and uric acid were most strongly correlated with WC with stronger associations for boys. Correlations between BMI and WC as well as metabolic markers and systolic blood pressure showed only minor differences. The pattern of relationship changed during the course of pubertal development with the strongest associations for pubertal children. None of the parameters showed a dependency on WtHR that was superior to BMI or WC. There is only small additional benefit in using WC measurements for routine pediatric care in addition to BMI for predicting metabolic risk. For all parameters, the relationship is strongest during midpuberty, emphasizing that among obese pubertal adolescents, anthropometric measures (BMI and WC) best predict cardiometabolic comorbidities. WtHR does not seem to be superior to BMI or WC in predicting metabolic or cardiovascular risk related to childhood obesity.

  3. Discrepant body mass index: behaviors associated with height and weight misreporting among US adolescents from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Wasantha; Lohrmann, David; YoussefAgha, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy and reliability of self-reported height and weight among adolescents in the process of calculating BMI is usually subject to bias. The aim of this study was to determine whether over- and under-reporting of self-reported height and weight existed among US high school students by weight category; if so, to examine anthropometric, behavioral, and demographic factors associated with over- and under-reporting. Data were retrieved from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, 2010, a nationally representative sample (7160 students, grades 9-12). Analysis of variance was performed to determine any significant difference between weight categories in misreporting. Discriminant function analysis and sequential logistic regression were executed to detect behavioral and demographic predictors of reporting accuracy, respectively. The mean over-reporting of height and under-reporting of weight were 1.1 cm and 1.020 kg, respectively, which underestimated BMI and BMI percentile by 0.671 and 2.734, respectively. Use of self-reported height and weight for BMI calculation overestimated prevalence of healthy weight by 3.8% and underestimated prevalence of obesity by 4.1%. Underweight students under-reported height and over-reported weight, whereas overweight and obese students over-reported height and under-reported weight. Reporting accuracy of females was significantly higher. Weight loss behaviors, both healthy and unhealthy, were associated with BMI underestimation, whereas fast foods and screen time were associated with overestimation. Whenever possible, measuring height and weight is essential. However, because many studies must rely on self-reported values alone, additional research should examine the relationships between misreport of anthropometric data and lifestyle features in diverse adolescent samples to better interpret self-reported anthropometric data.

  4. Revised Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2015 growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5-18-year-old Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaman V Khadilkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart committee of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP has revised growth charts for 5-18-year-old Indian children in Jan 2015. The last IAP growth charts (2007 were based on data collected in 1989-92 which is now >2 decades old. India is in an economic and nutrition transition and hence growth pattern of Indian children has changed over last few years. Thus, it was necessary to produce contemporary, updated growth references for Indian children. The new IAP charts were prepared by collating data from nine groups who had published studies in indexed journals on growth from India in the last decade. Growth charts were constructed from a total of 87022 middle and upper socioeconomic class children (m 54086, f 32936 from all five zones of India. Data from middle and upper socioeconomic class children are likely to have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and hence growth charts produced on such populations are likely to "normalize" obesity. To remove such unhealthy weights form the data, method suggested by World Health Organization was used to produce weight charts. Thus, the new IAP weight charts are much lower than the recently published studies on affluent Indian children. Since Indian′s are at a higher risk of obesity-related cardiometabolic complications at lower body mass index (BMI, BMI charts adjusted for 23, and 27 adult equivalent cut-offs as per International obesity task force guidelines were constructed. IAP now recommends use of these new charts to replace the 2007 IAP charts.

  5. Difference of Height, Body Mass Index and Self-Assessment Among High-School Students in Constanta County- A Comparison between Rural and Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chirilâ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of obesity among high-school students is a public health problem, as more and more children are facing it.[5] Education has a great impact on the way young people deal with this problem. A significant effect on the behaviour of the pupils is the background they have, differences between children from rural areas compared to children from urban areas in terms of BMI being documented. A number of 185 high-school students from two schools in Constanta, from urban and rural areas were interviewed and data about height and weight was collected.

  6. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern; Parametros antropmetricos: peso, talla, indice de masa corporal y volumen mamario, en relacion con el patron mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Maternoinfantil de Canarias. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml)). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat

  7. Prevalence of overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland: results from the North South Survey of Children's Height, Weight and Body Mass Index, 2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem in developed and developing countries worldwide. The aim of this survey was to establish baseline data on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI). METHODS: The heights and weights of 19,617 school-going children and adolescents aged between 4 and 16 years in NI and RoI were measured using standardised and calibrated scales and measures. The participants were a representative cross-sectional sample of children randomly selected on the basis of age, gender and geographical location of the school attended. Overweight and obesity were classified according to standard IOTF criteria. RESULTS: Males were taller than females, children in RoI were taller than those in NI and the more affluent were taller than the less well off. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among females than males in both jurisdictions. Overall, almost one in four boys (23% RoI and NI) and over one in four girls (28% RoI, 25% NI) were either overweight or obese. In RoI, the highest prevalence of overweight was among 13 year old girls (32%) and obesity among 7 year old girls (11%). In NI the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were found among 11 and 8 year old girls respectively (33% and 13%). CONCLUSION: These figures confirm the emergence of the obesity epidemic among children in Ireland, a wealthy country with the European Union. The results serve to underpin the urgency of implementing broad intersectoral measures to reduce calorie intake and increase levels of physical activity, particularly among children.

  8. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Tatiane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9-17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1-5 were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear regression. The propulsive force of the arm was correlated with body height (r = 0.34; p =0.013, arm span (r = 0.29; p =0.042, sitting height (r = 0.36; p =0.009, % body fat (r = 0.33; p =0.016, lean body mass (r = 0.34; p =0.015 and arm muscle area (r = 0.31; p =0.026. Using multiple linear regression models, the percent body fat and height were identified as significant predictors of the propulsive force of the arm after controlling for the maturation stage. This model explained 22% (R2 = 0.22 of associations. In conclusion, the propulsive force of swimmers was related to body height and percent body fat

  9. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat...... at 2 years of age was -1.2±1.2, with 25.8% classified as stunted (HAZindependent of length at birth. When adjusted for potential confounders, HAZ at 2 years was 0.73 higher for each additional kg FFM at birth (β=0.73, 95%CI (0.08, 1.......38). FM was not associated with HAZ at 2 years in any model. CONCLUSION: The FFM component of birth weight, independent of length, explains variability in HAZ at 2 years. Further studies are required to explore how changes in early infant BC are associated with linear growth.Pediatric Research accepted...

  10. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R.; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J.; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  11. Body height, immunity, facial and vocal attractiveness in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrinda, Ilona; Krama, Tatjana; Kecko, Sanita; Moore, Fhionna R; Kaasik, Ants; Meija, Laila; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Rantala, Markus J; Krams, Indrikis

    2014-12-01

    Health, facial and vocal attributes and body height of men may affect a diverse range of social outcomes such as attractiveness to potential mates and competition for resources. Despite evidence that each parameter plays a role in mate choice, the relative role of each and inter-relationships between them, is still poorly understood. In this study, we tested relationships both between these parameters and with testosterone and immune function. We report positive relationships between testosterone with facial masculinity and attractiveness, and we found that facial masculinity predicted facial attractiveness and antibody response to a vaccine. Moreover, the relationship between antibody response to a hepatitis B vaccine and body height was found to be non-linear, with a positive relationship up to a height of 188 cm, but an inverse relationship in taller men. We found that vocal attractiveness was dependent upon vocal masculinity. The relationship between vocal attractiveness and body height was also non-linear, with a positive relationship of up to 178 cm, which then decreased in taller men. We did not find a significant relationship between body height and the fundamental frequency of vowel sounds provided by young men, while body height negatively correlated with the frequency of second formant. However, formant frequency was not associated with the strength of immune response. Our results demonstrate the potential of vaccination research to reveal costly traits that govern evolution of mate choice in humans and the importance of trade-offs among these traits.

  12. Body mass in comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J; Jungers, W L

    1997-06-01

    Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.

  13. Are adult body circumferences associated with height? Relevance to normative ranges and circumferential indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Heo, Moonseong; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2011-02-01

    Weight scales as height squared, which is an observation that forms the basis of body mass index (weight/height(2)). If, and how, circumferences, including waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC), scale to height remains unclear, but this is an important consideration when developing normative ranges or applying WC/height and HC/height as risk indexes. The study aim was to examine the scaling of weight, WC, and HC to height in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) III participants. Subjects were adult non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American men (n = 7422) and nonpregnant women (n = 7999) who had complete demographic and anthropometric data. In addition to height, allometric models were developed for each measure that controlled for age, race, and self-reported health status. After adjustment for age and race, weight scaled to height in men and women with mean (±SEE) powers of 2.29 ± 0.11 and 1.80 ± 0.07, respectively (both P height models were weak or nonsignificant, when adjusted for age and race WC and HC scaled to height with powers of 0.76 ± 0.08 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively, in men and 0.80 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.04, respectively, in women (all P increases in circumferences ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 cm per centimeter increase in height. Both WC/height and HC/height scaled negatively to height in men and women, and WC/HC scaled negatively to height in women only (all P height, notably after adjustment for age and race, across subjects who are representative of the US population. These observations have implications for the clinical and epidemiologic use of these anthropometric measures and indexes.

  14. Peak height velocity in anthropometry and body composition of students

    OpenAIRE

    Hobold, Edilson; Flores,Lucinar Jupir Forner; Brandt,Ricardo; Mazzardo Junior, Oldemar; Arruda, Miguel de

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the age of Peak Height Velocity (PHV), anthropometric variables and body composition of students from the western state of Paraná. he study included 1,011 male students aged 12-15 years from 11 municipalities located around the Itaipu lake. Anthropometric and body composition variables were obtained according to international criteria. Biological maturation was determined by age of PHV and for the purpose of analysis, it was categorized into devel...

  15. Childhood body mass index and risk of adult pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gamborg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excess weight in adulthood is one of the few modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and height has associations as well. This leads to question whether body weight and height in childhood are associated with adult pancreatic cancer. Objective: To examine if childhood body mass...

  16. Body height, estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure and open-angle glaucoma. The Beijing Eye Study 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine potential associations between body height, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP, trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG in a population-based setting. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6 ± 9.8 years (range:50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP[mmHg] = 0.44 × Body Mass Index[kg/m(2] + 0.16 × Diastolic Blood Pressure[mmHg]-0.18 × Age[Years]-1.91. RESULTS: Data of IOP and CSFP were available for 3353 (96.7% subjects. Taller body height was associated with higher CSFP (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta:0.13; regression coefficient B:0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI:0.25,0.33 after adjusting for male gender, urban region of habitation, higher educational level, and pulse rate. If TLCPD instead of CSFP was added, taller body height was associated with lower TLCPD (P<0.001;beta:-0.10;B:-0.20;95%CI:-0.25,-0.15. Correspondingly, higher CSFP was associated with taller body height (P = 0.003;beta:0.02;B:0.01;95%CI:0.00,0.02, after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and blood concentration of cholesterol. If IOP was added to the model, higher CSFP was associated with higher IOP (P<0.001;beta:0.02;B:0.02;95%CI:0.01,0.03. TLCPD was associated with lower body height (P = 0.003;beta:-0.04;B -0.02,95%CI:-0.04,-0.01 after adjusting for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse, blood concentrations of triglycerides, axial length, central corneal thickness, corneal curvature radius, and anterior chamber depth. Adding the prevalence of OAG to the multivariate analysis revealed, that taller body height was associated with a lower OAG prevalence (P = 0.03;beta:-0.03;B:-1.20;95%CI:-2.28,-0.12 after adjusting for

  17. Adult phantoms as function of body mass, height and posture by using caucasian anthropomorphic statistics; Fantomas adultos em funcao da massa corporal, da altura e da postura usando estatisticas antropometricas caucasianas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.b, E-mail: vagner.cassola@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Milian, Felix Mas, E-mail: felix_mas_milian@yahoo.co [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia

    2011-10-26

    The CALLDose{sub X} 4.0 computer program uses conversion coefficients for the MASH and FASH adult phantoms on the vertical and supine postures, representing the standard man and woman according to ICRP 90 and are called 'basic phantoms'. For improving the representation of real patients in the CALLDose{sub X}, this paper developed adults phantoms as function of mass and height by using anthropometric data from nine of them prevailing caucasian countries

  18. Local Geographical Differences in Adult Body Height in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popovic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to examine body height in both Montenegrin sexes and map local geographical differences within both groups. A total of 2088 individuals (981 boys and 1107 girls participated in this research study, and anthropometrical data were collected from 23 municipalities throughout the country. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the ISAK protocol. Means and standard deviations were calculated for ages and anthropometric variable (body heights as well as frequencies for the calculation of density of very short and very tall subjects. The results revealed that Montenegrin boys are 183.36±6.89 cm tall, while Montenegrin girls are 169.38±6.37 cm tall. The results of this study confirmed our assumption that both men and women in Montenegro are among the tallest people on the planet. However, the regional variation is considerable: from 181.25 cm in the municipality of Cetinje to 185.51 cm in the municipalities of Kolasin and Savnik for males and from 162.53 cm in the municipalities of Plav and Andrijevica to 170.86 cm in the municipality of Niksic for females. The measured values of body heights in Montenegro are currently one of the highest in the world, while the secular trend might increase it in the upcoming decades.

  19. Body height and occupational success for actors and actresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Burger, Christoph

    2010-08-01

    The association of body height with occupational success has been frequently studied, with previous research mainly finding a positive effect among men and positive or null effects among women. Occupational success has almost exclusively been measured so far by short-term success variables (e.g., annual income). In the present study, the relationship of success and height was examined in a group of actors and actresses using a large online database about movies (Internet Movie Database) where heights of actors and actresses are stated. The number of roles played in movies and television series during each actor's lifetime was used as a measure of long-term occupational success. No height effect was found for male actors but a significant negative effect was found for actresses, even after controlling for possible confounding influences (age and birth year). Compared to the general population, actors and actresses were significantly taller; however, actresses who were shorter than average were more likely to achieve greater occupational success, in terms of being featured in more movies.

  20. Relationship Between Glycated Haemoglobin and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and body mass index in an apparently healthy population in Egor local government area, Benin City. Methods: This is a cross sectional study involving healthy adults. Blood pressure, Height, Weight were all measured and body mass index (BMI) ...

  1. [Body mass index and the reasoning of an astronomer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, Rodolfo C

    2005-01-01

    This article traces the story of the Body Mass Index, also called Quetelet's Index or the ratio between weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared. The Index is used extensively in clinical practice to characterize overweight. Based on literature reports, probable answers are furnished for the following questions: Which were Quetelet's objectives at associating weight with height? Why did he choose to select Weight/(Height)2? When did the index begin to be applied in modern clinical medicine? Which were the experimental studies which associated the ratio Weight/ (Height)2 with the body fat content? Which are the limitations of the ratio?

  2. Developmental charts for children with osteogenesis imperfecta, type I (body height, body weight and BMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Krzysztof; Syczewska, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of type I collagen. Type I is the most common, which is called a non-deforming type of OI, as in this condition, there are no major bone deformities. This type is characterised by blue sclera and vertebral fractures, leading to mild scoliosis. The body height of these patients is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but there are no data proving this in the literature. The aim of this study is the preparation of the developmental charts of children with OI type I. The anthropometric data of 117 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta were used in this study (61 boys and 56 girls). All measurements were pooled together into one database (823 measurements in total). To overcome the problem of the limited number of data being available in certain age classes and gender groups, the method called reverse transformation was used. The body height of the youngest children, aged 2 and 3 years, is less than that of their healthy peers. Children between 4 and 7 years old catch up slightly, but at later ages, development slows down, and in adults, the median body height shows an SDS of -2.7. These results show that children with type I OI are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old, and, ultimately, their body height is impaired. What is Known: • The body height of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I is regarded as normal, or only slightly reduced, but in the known literature, there is no measurement data supporting this opinion. What is New: • Children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are smaller from the beginning than their healthy counterparts, their development slows down from 8 years old and, ultimately, their final body height is impaired. • The developmental charts for the body height, body weight and BMI of children with type I osteogenesis imperfecta are shown.

  3. Body mass index and annual increase of body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors; relationship to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Cornelia A J; Gietema, Jourik A; Vonk, Judith M; Tissing, W J E; Boezen, Hendrika M; Zwart, Nynke; Postma, Aleida

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of body mass index (BMI) at final height (FH) and annual BMI increase in adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) after treatment with anthracyclines, platinum, and/or radiotherapy. METHODS: BMI (weight/height²) was calculated retrospectively from diagnosis until FH. The prevalence

  4. Relationship between body mass indices and measures of body adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, D A; Israel, R G

    1986-01-01

    We examined the relationship between various body mass indices (BMIs), skinfold measures, and laboratory measures of body fat in 474 males aged 20-70 years. Evaluations included height, weight, skinfold thickness, and hydrostatic measurements of adiposity. The weight-height ratio (W/H), Quetelet index (W/H2), Khosla-Lowe index (W/H3), and Benn index (W/HP) were calculated. The correlations among the various BMIs were high, ranging from 0.91 to 0.99, and all were strongly correlated with weight (rs = 0.81 - 0.98), while only W/H2 (r = -.03) and W/HP (r = -.01) were not correlated with height. The W/H2 and W/HP had the strongest correlation with hydrostatic and skinfold measurements, although all the BMIs were significantly correlated with these measurements. Results suggest that the Benn index and the Quetelet index are equally valid estimates of body fat in respect to their relationship with hydrostatic measures. PMID:3728773

  5. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of ≈2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P = 0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P = 0.002). Conclusions These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

  6. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with height in women. AT scaled weakly to height with powers of approximately 2, and adiposity was independent of height. Brain mass scaled to height with a power of 0.83 (P=0.04) in men and nonsignificantly in women; the fraction of weight as brain was inversely related to height in women (P=0.002). These observations suggest that short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  7. Body fat mass in normal weight subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Stokić Edita J.; Srdić Biljana; Peter Andrea; Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by excessive body fat accumulation which may lead to serious health problems and complications. Body mass index is the most optimal parameter to evaluate the level of nutritional status and diagnose obesity. However, modern techniques studying body composition can more accurately determine whether the gain of body weight was on the account of body fat, lean body mass or total body water. If one's body mass index is in the range of normal values but the amount of body ...

  8. Effect of vitamin D receptor gene (VDR polymorphism on body height in children – own experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Jakubowska-Pietkiewicz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors have an influence on the process of growth and development of the body. One of numerous genetic factors can be the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR. The study aimed at evaluating the relationship between VDR polymorphism and somatic parameters in children.Patients and methods: The study group consisted of 395 children, aged 6–18 years. All the patients underwent gene typing using the PCR-RFLP method within polymorphic loci BsmI (rs1544410, FokI (rs2228570, ApaI (rs7975232 and TaqI (rs731236 of the VDR receptor gene. 294 children made up the control group in the study on the incidence of particular genotypes; in 161 patients somatic measurements of body weight and height were made with standard methods and skeletal densitometry (total body and spine programmes examination was performed. Statistica 10.0 PL was used for statistical analysis.Results: In patients with low bone mass a relationship between body height and FokI VDR polymorphism was noted. The p-value was statistically significantly different in group I (p=0.002 and borderline significant in group III (p=0.09. None of the polymorphisms of the VDR receptor gene demonstrated any statistically significant differences in anthropometric values in the control group and in children with osteoporosis.Summary: The presence of the F allele of FokI polymorphism of the VDR receptor gene results in increased height, which is best observed in children with low bone mass. The FF genotype favours increased height in the study group of children from Łódź.

  9. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  10. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR) as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Benjamin Chih Chiang; Koh, Gerald Choon Huat; Chen, Cynthia; Wong, Michael Tack Keong; Fallows, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI) was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR), Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR), Body Adiposity Index (BAI) and CVD risk factors in the local adult population. This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%), aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012) undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol). When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC. BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  11. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pFM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pFM increase, body image decreases, particularly in women.

  12. Body Mass Index and spontaneous miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.

  13. Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Bosnian and Herzegovinian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Stevo Popovic; Dusko Bjelica; Gabriela Doina Tanase; Rajko Milašinović

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago. As the modern Bosnian and Herzegovinian fall more into the Dinaric racial classification, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Bosnian and Herzegovinian adults as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height and body height, which vary in different ethnic and racial groups. The nature and scope of this study analyzes 212 students (178 men, a...

  14. body mass index variations among adolescents from kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    maturation. It also provides indicators of nutritional status and health risk and may be diagnostic of obesity (WHO, 1976). Adolescent anthropometry varies significantly worldwide (Eveleth and Tanner,. 1990). Body mass index (BMI) is a numerical index which is calculated by dividing weight (Kg) by the square of height (m).

  15. Premorbid body mass index and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Reilly, Eilis J.; Wang, Hao; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Thun, Michael; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ascherio, Alberto

    Our objective was to determine if amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk varies according to body mass index (BMI) captured up to three decades earlier. At baseline 537,968 females and 562,942 males in five ongoing cohorts reported height, current weight and weight at age 18/21 years. During 14-28

  16. Maternal Employment, Work Schedules, and Children's Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Dunifon, Rachel E.; Kalil, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that mothers' employment is associated with increases in children's body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight for height. Nonstandard work (working evenings or nights, weekends, or an irregular shift) may also be associated with children's BMI. This article examines the association between maternal work and children's BMI…

  17. Body height and weight of children in Novi Sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozić-Krstić, V S; Pavlica, T M; Rakić, R S

    2004-01-01

    Height and weight are the most important measures of growth and development and indirect indicators of living conditions. The socio-economic conditions in Serbia have varied drastically. In 1990, a political and economic crisis started causing a rapid fall of standards of living. The study aimed to determine the height and weight of children aged 3-11 in the periods between 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001 in Novi Sad, Serbia. This investigation was carried out in the same primary schools and pre-school institutions. The data included children of Serbian nationality born in Novi Sad whose parents were also born there and had the same socio-economic background. Positive changes in height and weight were recorded in the decades 1971-1981 and 1981-1991, except for the height of 8-year-old children. In the period 1991-2001, an increase in height was observed only at the age of 8 in boys and until the age of 9 in girls. As for weight, an increase was recorded in 9-year-old boys, while in girls it was present at all ages except for the ages of 7 and 10. Considering the period 1971-2001, positive changes in height were recorded from the age of 6 in boys and 5 in girls. The changes in weight were positive at all ages except the age of 5 in boys and after the age of 6 in girls. Lower values of height and weight recorded in 2001 are probably due to the changes in living conditions or they indicate that the acceleration reached its peak. Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd.

  18. Human bipedalism and body-mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Su Do; Noh, Jae Dong; Minnhagen, Petter; Song, Mi-Young; Chon, Tae-Soo; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-06-16

    Body-mass index, abbreviated as BMI and given by M/H (2) with the mass M and the height H, has been widely used as a useful proxy to measure a general health status of a human individual. We generalise BMI in the form of M/H (p) and pursue to answer the question of the value of p for populations of animal species including human. We compare values of p for several different datasets for human populations with the ones obtained for other animal populations of fish, whales, and land mammals. All animal populations but humans analyzed in our work are shown to have p ≈ 3 unanimously. In contrast, human populations are different: As young infants grow to become toddlers and keep growing, the sudden change of p is observed at about one year after birth. Infants younger than one year old exhibit significantly larger value of p than two, while children between one and five years old show p ≈ 2, sharply different from other animal species. The observation implies the importance of the upright posture of human individuals. We also propose a simple mechanical model for a human body and suggest that standing and walking upright should put a clear division between bipedal human (p ≈ 2) and other animals (p ≈ 3).

  19. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  20. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-To-Hip Ratio (WHR and Waist-To-Height Ratio (WHtR as predictors of cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Chih Chiang Lam

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Amongst the various measures of adiposity, the best one to help predict these risk factors remains contentious. A novel index of adiposity, the Body Adiposity Index (BAI was proposed in 2011, and has not been extensively studied in all populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Circumference (WC, Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR, Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR, Body Adiposity Index (BAI and CVD risk factors in the local adult population.This is a cross sectional study involving 1,891 subjects (Chinese 59.1% Malay 22.2%, Indian 18.7%, aged 21-74 years, based on an employee health screening (2012 undertaken at a hospital in Singapore. Anthropometric indices and CVD risk factor variables were measured, and Spearman correlation, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves and multiple logistic regressions were used. BAI consistently had the lower correlation, area under ROC and odd ratio values when compared with BMI, WC and WHtR, although differences were often small with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. After adjusting for BMI, BAI did not further increase the odds of CVD risk factors, unlike WC and WHtR (for all except hypertension and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. When subjects with the various CVD risk factors were grouped according to established cut-offs, a BMI of ≥23.0 kg/m2 and/or WHtR ≥0.5 identified the highest proportion for all the CVD risk factors in both genders, even higher than a combination of BMI and WC.BAI may function as a measure of overall adiposity but it is unlikely to be better than BMI. A combination of BMI and WHtR could have the best clinical utility in identifying patients with CVD risk factors in an adult population in Singapore.

  1. Relationship between body height and spatiotemporal parameters during a 100-m sprint in able-bodied and unilateral transtibial sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobara, Hiroaki; Potthast, Wolfgang; Müller, Ralf; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Hashizume, Satoru; Herdoorn, Thijs A; Mochimaru, Masaaki

    2017-10-01

    Although anthropometric factors could influence sprint performance in able-bodied sprinters, little is known about the relationships between these anthropometric factors and sprint performance in amputee sprinters. To investigate the relationships between body height and spatiotemporal parameters of 100-m sprints in unilateral transtibial amputee and able-bodied sprinters. This is a cross-sectional study. We analyzed elite-level 100-m races of 14 male unilateral transtibial amputee sprinters and 22 male able-bodied sprinters from publicly available Internet broadcasts. For each sprinter's run, the mean step length and frequency were determined using the number of steps in conjunction with the official race time. Furthermore, body height data for sprinters in both groups were obtained from publicly available resources. Linear relationships were found between body height and mean step length and frequency in able-bodied sprinters, respectively. However, there were no significant relationships between body height and spatiotemporal parameters in transtibial amputee sprinters. The results of this study suggest that the relationship between body height and spatiotemporal parameters during a 100-m sprint is not the same between unilateral transtibial amputees and able-bodied sprinters. Clinical relevance Understanding of the relationship between body height and spatiotemporal parameters during a 100-m sprint would provide important information that could be utilized for evaluating prosthetic sprint performance and coaching.

  2. Body height in relation to rural-urban migration in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, M; Borysławski, K

    2008-11-01

    A survey was conducted among 2800 students studying in Wrocław, Poland. The questionnaire included questions on the body height of the students and their parents, and place of residence and migration patterns of the students themselves, their parents and their grandparents. Body height in both students and their parents was positively correlated with the size of their place of residence. This was particularly true for male students and their fathers. Body height in students and parents from mobile families was not significantly different from that of their peers from non-mobile families. Body height in mobile individuals was generally between that of non-mobile individuals from rural areas and that of non-mobile individuals from large urban centres. Students from families that had migrated from smaller urban centres to larger ones were taller than students from families that had migrated from rural areas to urban centres. Body height in students was also correlated with the kind of migration that took place. In the students' mothers, body height was higher if the maternal grandparents moved from smaller urban centres to larger urban centres than if the maternal grandparents moved from rural areas to urban centres. In female students, body height depended on whether their mothers had migrated from smaller places of residence to larger places of residence, but was not affected by the degree of migration. Intra-generational migration during the generation of the students' grandparents was associated with increased body height in the students' mothers. On the other hand, intergenerational migration during the generations of the students' grandparents and parents was associated with increased body height in the students' fathers and in female students. Body height was not a reliable indicator of whether an individual migrated from rural areas to Wrocław. Far more reliable indicators were the size of the place the student lived their whole life and whether the family

  3. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Celbis, Osman; Harma, Ahmet; Alicioglu, Banu

    2011-05-01

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 ± 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 ± 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 ± 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 ± 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research.

  4. Body height and ocular dimensions in the adult population in rural Central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B; Matin, Arshia; Kulkarni, Maithili; Sinha, Ajit; Gupta, Rajesh

    2010-11-01

    To investigate associations between anthropomorphic parameters and ocular dimensions in a typical rural society untouched by the effects of urbanization. The Central India Eye and Medical Study performed in rural Central India included 4,711 participants aged 30 or more years. The participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic and medical examination. After controlling for age, gender, level of education, and body mass index (BMI), taller subjects were more likely to have larger eyes with a longer axial length (+0.23 mm for each 10 cm increase in height), lower corneal refractive power (-0.50 diopters for each 10 cm increase in height), deeper anterior chambers (+0.03 mm for each 10 cm increase in height), and longer vitreous cavity (+0.20 mm for each 10 cm increase in height). Central corneal thickness (P = 0.97) and lens thickness (P = 0.08) were not significantly associated with body height. After controlling for age, gender, level of education and height, subjects with a higher BMI had shorter globes (-0.02 mm for each unit increase in BMI), flatter corneas (-0.03 diopters for each unit increase in BMI) and thicker corneas (+0.49 μm for each unit increase in BMI), thicker lenses and longer vitreous cavities. Body height as compared with the BMI had a stronger influence on the ocular biometric data. After correcting for age, gender, level of education and axial length, for each increase in body height by 10 cm or for each increase in BMI by one unit, the refractive error significantly increased by 0.23 diopters (P height and size of the eye were associated with each other: taller subjects had larger eyes with a flatter cornea. An increase in body height per 10 cm was associated with an increase in anterior chamber depth by 1% and an increase in vitreous cavity length by 1%. Subjects with a higher body mass index had shorter eyes, flatter and thicker corneas, and thicker lenses. Taller subjects and subjects with a higher BMI were more hyperopic. Since

  5. Fission barrier heights in the A ∼ 200 mass region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    not only to understand the heavy-ion-induced fusion–fission dynamics and prediction of superheavy elements, but also other areas, such as stellar nucleosynthesis and nuclear energy applications. In the actinide region, the fission barrier heights are comparable to the neutron separation energies and could be determined ...

  6. Adult body height is a good predictor of different dimensions of cognitive function in aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Hugo Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adult height, weight and adiposity measures have been suggested by some studies to be predictors of depression, cognitive impairment and dementia. However, the presence of confounding factors and the lack of a thorough neuropsychological evaluation in many of these studies have precluded a definitive conclusion about the influence of anthropometric measures in cognition and depression. In this study we aim to assess the value of adult height and weight to predict cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms in aged individuals.Methods and Findings: Cross-sectional study performed between 2010 and 2012 in the Portuguese general community. A total of 1050 participants were included in the study and randomly selected from local area health authority registries. The cohort was representative of the general Portuguese population with respect to age (above 50 years of age and gender. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of tests grouped in two dimensions: general executive function and memory. Two-step hierarchical multiple linear regression models were conducted to determine the predictive value of anthropometric measures in cognitive performance and mood before and after correction for possible confounding factors (gender, age, school years, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits. We found single associations of weight, height, body mass index, abdominal perimeter and age with executive function, memory and depressive symptoms. However, when included in a predictive model adjusted for gender, age, school years and lifestyle factors only height prevailed as a significant predictor of general executive function (β=0,139; p<0,001 and memory (β=0,099; p<0,05. No relation was found between mood and any of the anthropometric measures studied.Conclusions and Relevance: Height is an independent predictor of cognitive function in late-life and its effects on the general and executive function and memory are

  7. Effects of body height, notebook computer size, and workstation height on recommended adjustments for proper work posture when operating a notebook computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Jalil, Sakib; Ammarapala, Veeris

    2008-12-01

    Factors which are likely to affect recommended workstation and notebook computer (NBC) adjustments to obtain ergonomic work posture during NBC operation are investigated. They are: (1) body height, (2) NBC size, and (3) workstation height (i.e., seat and work surface heights). Six recommended adjustments which are evaluated include: (1) footrest height, (2) seat support height, (3) NBC base support height, (4) distance between the user's body and NBC (or user-NBC distance), (5) tilt angle of NBC base, and (6) screen angle. It is found that body height has a significant effect on footrest height and user-NBC distance while NBC size has a significant effect on user-NBC distance, tilt angle of NBC base, and screen angle. Workstation height, on the other hand, does not show any effect on the six recommended adjustments. However, the results suggest that there are interactions between body height and NBC size, and between body height and workstation height when evaluating their effects on footrest height, tilt angle of NBC base, and screen angle.

  8. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  9. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; De Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Milian, F M, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Department of Exact Science and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazare de Andrade, Km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, CEP 45662-000, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  10. Total body height estimation using sacrum height in Anatolian Caucasians: multidetector computed tomography-based virtual anthropometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Inonu University Medical Faculty, Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Malatya (Turkey); Celbis, Osman [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Malatya (Turkey); Harma, Ahmet [Inonu University Medical Faculty Turgut Ozal Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Malatya (Turkey); Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya University Health Sciences Institute, Department of Anatomy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Estimation of total body height is a major step when a subject has to be identified from his/her skeletal structures. In the presence of decomposed skeletons and missing bones, estimation is usually based on regression equation for intact long bones. If these bones are fragmented or missing, alternative structures must be used. In this study, the value of sacrum height (SH) in total body height (TBH) estimation was investigated in a contemporary population of adult Anatolian Caucasians. Sixty-six men (41.6 {+-} 14.9 years) and 43 women (41.1 {+-} 14.2 years) were scanned with 64-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to obtain high-resolution anthropometric data. SH of midsagittal sections was electronically measured. The technique and methodology were validated on a standard skeletal model. Sacrum height was 111.2 {+-} 12.6 mm (77-138 mm) in men and 104.7 {+-} 8.2 (89-125 mm) in women. The difference between the two sexes regarding SH was significant (p < 0.0001). SH did not significantly correlate with age in men, whereas the correlation was significant in women (p < 0.03). The correlation between SH and the stature was significant in men (r = 0.427, p < 0.0001) and was insignificant in women. For men the regression equation was [Stature = (0.306 x SH)+137.9] (r = 0.54, SEE = 56.9, p < 0.0001). Sacrum height is not susceptible to sex, or to age in men. In the presence of incomplete male skeletons, SH helps to determine the stature. This study is also one of the initial applications of MDCT in virtual anthropometric research. (orig.)

  11. Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA. One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%, dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs and vigorous PA (>6 METs. BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01 and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction as age increased (P<0.01. After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05. In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01. When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.

  12. Body Height of Children with Bronchial Asthma of Various Severities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Eliseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of bronchial asthma (BA severity on physical development in children patients was evaluated in comparison with healthy population. Materials and Methods. 1042 children and adolescents (768 boys with atopic BA were evaluated. All children underwent standard examination in a clinical setting, including anthropometry. The control group included 875 healthy children of a comparable age (423 boys. Results. The fraction of patients with the normal, lower, and increased height among the whole group of patients with BA is close to the corresponding values in the healthy population (χ2=3.32, p=0.65. The fraction of BA patients with the reduced physical development is increased monotonically and significantly when the BA severity increases: healthy group, 8.2% (72/875, BA intermittent, 4.2% (6/144, BA mild persistent 9% (47/520, BA moderate persistent, 11.7% (36/308, and BA severe persistent, 24.3% (17/70 (χ2=45.6, p=0,0009. Conclusion. The fraction of the children with the reduced height is increased monotonically and significantly in the groups of increasing BA severities. At the same time, the fraction of such children in groups of intermittent and mild persistent BA practically does not differ from the conditionally healthy peers.

  13. Exposure to heights in a theme park: fear, dizziness, and body sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Georg W; Adolph, Dirk

    2008-05-01

    Fear of heights results in the experience of dizziness and measurable body sway. We investigated the relationship between fear, dizziness, and body sway during height exposure 16 m above ground. Thirty five healthy participants stood on a force-plate to measure sway before, during, and after exposure and an ECG was recorded. Self-report measures were anticipated fear and dizziness before exposure, as well as actual fear and dizziness during the three situations. For all participants, fear, dizziness, and body sway were increased during exposure. Anticipated fear most reliably predicted body sway during exposure. In addition, persons scoring high on trait fear of heights anticipated and experienced more fear during exposure, but this relationship was not found for any objective measure. There was no evidence that vestibular function moderates the relationship between sub-clinical fear and body sway. The results underline the importance of cognitive factors, like anticipatory anxiety and overestimation of bodily symptoms, in fear of heights.

  14. Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Bosnian and Herzegovinian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Popovic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologists recognized the tallness of nations in the Dinaric Alps long time ago. As the modern Bosnian and Herzegovinian fall more into the Dinaric racial classification, the purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Bosnian and Herzegovinian adults as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height and body height, which vary in different ethnic and racial groups. The nature and scope of this study analyzes 212 students (178 men, aged 22.42±2.79 and 34 women, aged 21.56±2.06 from the University of Banjaluka to be subjects. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the ISAK. Means and standard deviations were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within each gender group and between genders were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results have shown that male Bosnian and Herzegovinians are 183.87±7.11 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.50±8.28 cm, while female Bosnian and Herzegovinians are 171.82±6.56 cm tall and have an arm span of 169.85±8.01 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this one have shown that both genders make Bosnian and Herzegovinian population one of the tallest nations on the earth, maybe the tallest one. Moreover, the arm span reliably predicts body height in both genders. However, the estimation equations, which were obtained in Bosnian and Herzegovinians, are substantially different alike in other populations, since arm span was close to body heights: in men 0.73±1.17 cm more than the body height and in women 1.97±1.45 centimeters less than the body height. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each

  15. Body height estimation based on tibia length in different stature groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyar, Izzet; Pelin, Can

    2003-09-01

    Long bone length is one of the best-known indicators of human stature. Although the long bone length/height ratio differs in tall and short individuals, no detailed study has investigated whether specific formulae should be used to calculate height in different stature groups. This study proposes a new height estimation method. Body height and tibia length were measured in 121 male subjects aged 18.0-34.3 years. Three subgroups were established according to body height (short, medium, or tall), using the 15th and 85th percentiles as cutoff levels. The general formula and a group-specific regression formula were used to estimate height in each subgroup. A control group with the same properties as the study group was analyzed in the same manner. Particularly with "short" and "tall" subjects, the difference between true height and the height predicted by the group-specific formulae was smaller than the difference observed when the general formula was used. These discrepancies were statistically significant. When estimating height based on tibia length, the individual's general stature category should be taken into consideration, and group-specific formulae should be used for short and tall subjects. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in previously sedentary adults. Abstract. Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting health- related physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was ...

  17. Fission barrier heights in the A∼ 200 mass region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-19

    Jul 19, 2015 ... Statistical model analysis is carried out for - and -induced fission reactions using a consistent description for fission barrier and level density in A ∼ 200 mass region. A continuous damping of shell correction with excitation energy is considered. Extracted fission barriers agree well with the recent ...

  18. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Body Mass Index and Sexual Maturation in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body Mass Index and Sexual Maturation inAdolescent. Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrim- 2003;30:39. Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with delayed sexual maturation. The. Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelets Index is closely linked to events of puberty in normal children ...

  20. Body mass index and adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, Søren; Foldspang, Anders

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible role of obesity in the etiology of adult female urinary incontinence (UI). A random population sample of 3,114 women aged 30–59 years were mailed a questionnaire concerning UI and, among other things, body weight and height. The overall...... rate of response was 85%, and the present analysis comprises 2,589 women who supplied information about their body weight and height. The period prevalence of all UI, stress UI, urge UI, and mixed stress and urge UI was 17%, 15%, 9%, and 7%, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.7 kg/m2....... Irrespective of other risk indicators, BMI was positively associated with UI prevalence (OR, 1.07/BMI unit; Pstress UI prevalence, with cystitis in predicting urge UI, and with both in predicting mixed UI. Stress UI proved to be the UI type most closely...

  1. Accuracy of self-reported body weight, height and waist circumference in a Dutch overweight working population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriksen Ingrid JM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In population studies, body mass index (BMI is generally calculated from self-reported body weight and height. The self-report of these anthropometrics is known to be biased, resulting in a misclassification of BMI status. The aim of our study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported weight, height and waist circumference among a Dutch overweight (Body Mass Index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2 working population, and to determine to what extent the accuracy was moderated by sex, age, BMI, socio-economic status (SES and health-related factors. Methods Both measured and self-reported body weight and body height were collected in 1298 healthy overweight employees (66.6% male; mean age 43.9 ± 8.6 years; mean BMI 29.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2, taking part in the ALIFE@Work project. Measured and self-reported waist circumferences (WC were available for a sub-group of 250 overweight subjects (70.4% male; mean age 44.1 ± 9.2 years; mean BMI 29.6 ± 3.0 kg/m2. Intra Class Correlation (ICC, Cohen's kappa and Bland Altman plots were used for reliability analyses, while linear regression analyses were performed to assess the factors that were (independently associated with the reliability. Results Body weight was significantly (p 2. WC was significantly (p Conclusion Results suggest that self-reported BMI and WC are satisfactorily accurate for the assessment of the prevalence of overweight/obesity and increased WC in a middle-aged overweight working population. As the accuracy of self-reported anthropometrics is affected by measured weight, height, WC, smoking status and/or SES, results for these subgroups should be interpreted with caution. Due to the large power of our study, the clinical significance of our statistical significant findings may be limited. Trial Registration ISRCTN04265725

  2. Body Fat, Body Fat Distribution, Lean Body Mass and Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter. A Danish Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Lars; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Pedersen, Asger; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is recognized that higher height and weight are associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF) but it is unclear whether risk of AF is related to body fat, body fat location, or lean body mass. Design and Methods We studied the Danish population-based prospective cohort Diet, Cancer and Health conducted among 55 273 men and women 50-64 years of age at recruitment. We investigated the associations between bioelectrical impedance derived measures of body composition and combinations of anthropometric measures of body fat distribution and risk of an incident record of AF in the Danish Registry of Patients. Results During follow-up (median 13.5 years) AF developed in 1 669 men and 912 women. Higher body fat at any measured location was associated with higher risk of AF. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per 1 sex-specific standard deviation (SD) increment in body fat mass was 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.33). Higher lean body mass was also associated with a higher risk of AF. The adjusted HR for 1 sex-specific SD increment was 1.40 (95% CI, 1.35-1.45). Conclusion Higher body fat and higher lean body mass were both associated with higher risk of AF. PMID:24436019

  3. Height and Body image- a study of young women’s handball

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Synnøve Endal

    2015-01-01

    English abstract: Purpose: the purpose of this study is to look into how the participants of the study feel about their body image in relation to their height, and if handball can prove tall girls with an enclave or social network. Going through literature on body-image, sport, health and public health it became apparent that many studies have been done based on weight and BMI. Height on the other hand, is a factor which is hardly examined at all in the literature on body-image, especially re...

  4. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  5. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI), plasma lipid profile and gait assessment score (GAS) in dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty client-owned dogs of both sexes to determine the BMI. In addition, body condition score (BCS) and GAS were ...

  6. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while, body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained ...

  7. Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Body Height of Adult Dyspeptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Maria P; Pes, Giovanni M; Sferlazzo, Giovanni; Marras, Giuseppina; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of H. pylori infection is high in underdeveloped countries and is associated with growth retardation. In the first half of the 20th century, Sardinia was an underdeveloped region; however, more recent development resulted in a decline in H. pylori infection. Because body height is correlated with health and nutritional status in childhood, the association among H. pylori infection and height was explored. A retrospective observational study was conducted involving patients undergoing endoscopy for dyspepsia from 2002 to 2012. H. pylori status was assessed by histology plus the rapid urease test or 13Carbon-urea breath test. Body height and H. pylori status were assessed in 5045 adult patients: 3257 (64.6%) were women. Patients born after 1950 showed a significant increase in height (average 3.22 cm) compared to patients born before 1950 (163.93 vs 160 cm; 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.74-3.70 cm) (p height, while the weak effect of H. pylori infection disappeared. Our results demonstrate a strong secular trend related to body height in Sardinia with a minimal influence of H. pylori infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [The secular trend in body height and weight in the adult population in the Czech republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Miroslav; Kikalová, Kateřina; Charamza, Jiří

    Secular changes in anthropometric parameters reflect the effect of socio-economic conditions in interaction with other factors on individuals in the course of 100-200 years. The main aim of the research was to determine the average body height and weight for the current adult population of men 19 to 94 years old and women 19 to 86 years old in the Czech Republic, and to compare the average values ​​of body height and weight of the monitored group with the reference values ​​for the adult population observed in our country from 1895 to 2001.Body height and weight were measured with standard anthropometry in 973 men aged 19-94 years and 2,606 women aged 19-86 years. The research was carried out from 2013 to 2015. Statistical tests: t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The average body weight and height of the current adult male is 178.58 cm and 80.86 kg, and of adult female 165.99 cm and 65.67 kg. When compared to men, women show significantly lower average height by 12.59 cm and lower weight by 15.19 kg. The results show that men today are about 10.61 cm higher and weigh 9.01 kilograms more than men in 1895. Todays women are about 9.43 centimeters taller, but weigh 0,58 kg less than women of the same age in 1895.Comparison of results from 1895 to 2015 shows that at present there is likely stagnation or decline in the positive secular trend in body height among men and women. The weight of men is increasing while there is stagnation in the body weight of women.

  9. The relationship of height and body fat to gender-assortative weight gain in children. A longitudinal cohort study (EarlyBird 44).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, Olubukola; Fr Meaux, Alissa E; Hosking, Joanne; Metcalf, Brad S; Jeffery, Alison N; Voss, Linda D; Wilkin, Terence J

    2011-08-01

    Height, body fat and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in children, so we hypothesized that the gender-assortative associations in BMI recently reported in contemporary children might extend to their height and body fat. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. A total of 226 healthy trios (mother, father and child) from a 1995?1996 birth cohort randomly recruited in the city of Plymouth, UK. Height, weight, and BMI (kg/m(2)) were measured in each of the parents and, in addition, sum of five skin-folds (SF) in their children at 5, 6, 7 and 8 y. BMI and SF were strongly height-dependent in the children by 8 y (r = 0.41-0.56). SF was gender-assortative insofar as the mean SF was significantly greater in the daughters (but not the sons) of obese mothers (obese vs. normal weight: +2.5 cm p obese fathers (obese vs. normal: +1.3 cm p obese children were systematically taller than normal weight children (boys: +1.02 SDS, girls: +1.14 SDS, p obese children largely by the same-sex parent, but the extra height associated with more fat in the child is unrelated to the height or weight of either parent. The secular trend in height among contemporary children may simply reflect their rising body fat. Excess fat is unhealthy, so the trend in height may not be healthy either.

  10. Longitudinal patterns in BMI and percent total body fat from peak height velocity through emerging adulthood into young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour-Tuck, Erin; Erlandson, Marta; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Foulds, Heather; Baxter-Jones, Adam

    2017-09-13

    Emerging adulthood, a potential critical period, is an understudied period of fat mass accrual. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of fat mass accrual, and weight status, from adolescence, through emerging adulthood, into young adulthood. One-hundred-eighteen participants (59 male) were measured repeatedly for 20 years. Annual measures of height, weight, and body composition (DXA) were taken. Calculated measures included: peak height velocity (PHV), biological age (BA; years from PHV), body mass index (BMI), and percent total body fat (%TBF). Weight status groupings (normal NW, and overweight/obese OWO) were created using age and sex specific BMI and %TBF cut-offs. Analysis included t-tests and logistic regression. BMI and %TBF increased significantly until 8 years post PHV (P  .05), and then began increasing again (P adulthood (P > .05). During emerging adulthood, the prevalence of OWO increased. Being NW at PHV was not protective against being overweight in young adulthood. Emerging adulthood appears to be a potential critical period for fat accrual and warrants further attention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Excess body fat negatively affects bone mass in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Luciana Nunes; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Valéria Nóbrega; da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Kurokawa, Cilmery Suemi; Bisi Rizzo, Anapaula C; Corrente, José Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of excess body fat on bone mass in overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents. This study included 377 adolescents of both sexes, ages 10 to 19 y. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone age, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD) were obtained by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The results were adjusted for chronological age and bone age. Comparisons according to nutritional classification were performed by analysis of variance, followed by Tukey test. Linear regression models were used to explain the variation in BMD and BMC in the L1-L4 lumbar spinal region, proximal femur, and whole body in relation to BMI, lean mass, fat mass (FM), and body fat percentage (BF%), considering P bone age was higher than chronological age. In both sexes, weight and BMI values increased from eutrophic to extremely obese groups, except for BMD and BMC, which did not differ among male adolescents, and were smaller in extremely obese than in obese female adolescents (P bone sites analyzed in males and between BF% and spine and femur BMD, in females. The results reveal a negative effect of BF% on bone mass in males and indicate that the higher the BF% among overweight adolescents, the lower the BMD and BMC values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Should body mass index be adjusted for relative sitting height in cross-sectional studies of chronic diseases in Japanese-Brazilians? Deve-se corrigir o valor do Índice de Massa Corporal pelo comprimento relativo do tronco em estudos de prevalência de doenças crônicas em nipo-brasileiros?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bouças Ribeiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The current article aimed to verify the degree of agreement in classification of nutritional status according to body mass index (BMI and corrected body mass index (BMIc. Data were used from a cross-sectional study of Japanese-Brazilians. Statistical analysis provided prevalence rates for chronic diseases, kappa statistic, and Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Some 5.9% of Japanese-Brazilians were discordant according to the BMI and BMIc classifications. The weighted kappa statistic (0.94; p = 0.000 indicated good agreement between the classifications. Similar prevalence rates for chronic diseases were obtained for individuals with excess weight classified by these two indices. Similar Pearson's linear correlation coefficients were obtained for these indices and waist circumference and body fat measurements. The results suggest that BMI correction for relative sitting height is probably unnecessary for these individuals.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o grau de concordância entre as classificações do estado nutricional segundo os valores do índice de massa corporal (IMC e o IMC corrigido (IMCc. Utilizou-se dados de estudo transversal realizado entre nipo-brasileiros. Na análise estatística dos dados foram obtidas as prevalências de doenças crônicas, a estatística kappa e o coeficiente de correlação linear de Pearson. Observou-se que 5,9% dos nipo-brasileiros foram discordantes quanto às classificações pelo IMC e IMCc. O valor da estatística kappa ponderado (0,94; p = 0,000 indicou boa concordância entre as classificações. Prevalências semelhantes de doenças crônicas foram obtidas para os indivíduos com excesso de peso classificados segundo estes dois índices. Valores semelhantes para os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson foram obtidos entre esses índices e as medidas de circunferência de cintura e as medidas de gordura corporal. Estes resultados sugerem que, provavelmente, a corre

  13. Hip fracture and anthropometric variations: dominance among trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight during sideways fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Roychowdhury, Amit; Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture depends on various anthropometric parameters such as trochanteric soft tissue thickness, body height and body weight. The objective was to evaluate the responses to the variations in anthropometric parameters during sideways fall, and to identify the most dominant parameter among them. Seven finite element models were developed having anthropometric variations in trochanteric soft tissue thickness (5-26 mm), body height (1.70-1.88 m), and body weight (63-93.37 kg). These were simulated for sideways fall with ANSYS-LS-DYNA® code. Significant effect of trochanteric soft tissue thickness variation was found on 'normalized peak impact force with respect to the body weight' (p=0.004, r²=0.808) and strain ratio (p=0.083, r²=0.829). But, variation in body height was found to be less significant on normalized peak impact force (p=0.478, r²=0.105) and strain ratio (p=0.292, r²=0.217). Same was true for the variation in body weight on normalized peak impact force (p=0.075, r²=0.456) and strain ratio (p=0.857, r²=0.007). The risk factor for fracture was also well correlated to the strain ratio for the inter-trochanteric zone (pbody height and body weight, signifying that a slimmer elderly person, taller or shorter, with less trochanteric soft tissue thickness should be advised to take preventive measures against hip fracture under sideways fall. © 2013.

  14. Active numerical model of human body for reconstruction of falls from height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowicz, Marcin; Kędzior, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Falls from height constitute the largest group of incidents out of approximately 90,000 occupational accidents occurring each year in Poland. Reconstruction of the exact course of a fall from height is generally difficult due to lack of sufficient information from the accident scene. This usually results in several contradictory versions of an incident and impedes, for example, determination of the liability in a judicial process. In similar situations, in many areas of human activity, researchers apply numerical simulation. They use it to model physical phenomena to reconstruct their real course over time; e.g. numerical human body models are frequently used for investigation and reconstruction of road accidents. However, they are validated in terms of specific road traffic accidents and are considerably limited when applied to the reconstruction of other types of accidents. The objective of the study was to develop an active numerical human body model to be used for reconstruction of accidents associated with falling from height. Development of the model involved extension and adaptation of the existing Pedestrian human body model (available in the MADYMO package database) for the purposes of reconstruction of falls from height by taking into account the human reaction to the loss of balance. The model was developed by using the results of experimental tests of the initial phase of the fall from height. The active numerical human body model covering 28 sets of initial conditions related to various human reactions to the loss of balance was developed. The application of the model was illustrated by using it to reconstruct a real fall from height. From among the 28 sets of initial conditions, those whose application made it possible to reconstruct the most probable version of the incident was selected. The selection was based on comparison of the results of the reconstruction with information contained in the accident report. Results in the form of estimated

  15. Upper body segment to lower body segment and arm span to height ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-01-17

    Jan 17, 2013 ... body measurements.3 Upper body segment/lower body segment ratio (US/LS ratio) is among the most fre- ... Studies of body proportions of African children with sickle cell anaemia are few.2 - 6 Extensive ... representation of ages, the subjects stratified as follows: 2 to 5 years, 5 to 10 years and ...

  16. Effect of gender and lean body mass on kidney size in healthy 10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, I M; Mølgaard, C; Main, K M

    2001-01-01

    , but not to body composition. As part of a prospective cohort study we have examined 102 healthy 10-year-old children measuring kidney volume by ultrasonography, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body height and weight. Boys had significantly larger kidneys than girls. The strongest...... predictor of kidney volume was lean body mass, overruling height, weight, and surface area. When total kidney volume was related to lean body mass as a ratio, the gender difference in kidney size was no longer significant. A strong negative correlation was found between fat body mass and kidney volume...

  17. Effect of Body Mass Index on Left Ventricular Mass in Career Male Firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korre, Maria; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Farioli, Andrea; Yang, Justin; Christiani, David C; Christophi, Costas A; Lombardi, David A; Kovacs, Richard J; Mastouri, Ronald; Abbasi, Siddique; Steigner, Michael; Moffatt, Steven; Smith, Denise; Kales, Stefanos N

    2016-12-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events; increased LV mass is common among US firefighters and plays a major role in firefighter sudden cardiac death. We aim to identify significant predictors of LV mass among firefighters. Cross-sectional study of 400 career male firefighters selected by an enriched randomization strategy. Weighted analyses were performed based on the total number of risk factors per subject with inverse probability weighting. LV mass was assessed by echocardiography (ECHO) and cardiac magnetic resonance, and normalized (indexed) for height. CVD risk parameters included vital signs at rest, body mass index (BMI)-defined obesity, obstructive sleep apnea risk, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and physical activity. Linear regression models were performed. In multivariate analyses, BMI was the only consistent significant independent predictor of LV mass indexes (all, p fitness. In conclusion, after height-indexing ECHO-measured and cardiac magnetic resonance-measured LV mass, BMI was found to be a major driver of LV mass among firefighters. Our findings taken together with previous research suggest that reducing obesity will improve CVD risk profiles and decrease on-duty CVD and sudden cardiac death events in the fire service. Our results may also support targeted noninvasive screening for LV hypertrophy with ECHO among obese firefighters. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishing the optimal body mass index - body esteem relationship in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan M

    2013-07-17

    This study sought to compare the utility of either inverted body mass index or body mass index to optimise the relationship with body esteem in young adolescents Design: The study was cross sectional in design and assessed body esteem and weight status in 756 young adolescents (394 boys, 362 girls, mean age ± S.D. 11.4 ± 1.6 years). Body esteem was determined using the body esteem scale for children. Height and body mass were measured directly. Body mass index was determined as kg/m2 and iBMI as cm2/kg. Results indicated that the association between iBMI and body esteem was curvilinear in nature and iBMI was the better predictor of body esteem (P=.001) predicting 21.3% of the variance in body esteem scores compared to 20.5% using BMI (P=.001). When split by gender, the curvilinear relationship was still evident but significantly different between boys and girls although iBMI remained a better predictor of body esteem compared to BMI in both boys and girls. The peak differed between gender groups with the association between iBMI and body esteem peaking at 642 cm2/kg for boys and 800.64 cm2/kg for girls. This study suggests that iBMI is a better predictor of body esteem in young adolescents, and that the association between body esteem and iBMI is curvilinear in nature. However, the peak of body esteem scores occured at a lower degree of leanness for boys compared to girls and indicated that the point at which body esteem scores are highest for girls is at a point of extreme leanness whereas the peak for boys was within the values considered as 'normal' on the leanness to obesity continuum. iBMI may therefore be a useful measure of leanness for future studies examining the association between overweight/obesity and body esteem in young adolescents.

  19. Body mass index in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi M.; Schou, Morten; Goetze, Jens P

    2013-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is associated with a poor outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF). An inverse association between BMI and adiponectin and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether novel markers...

  20. Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Overweight and Obesity Growth Charts What Is a Growth Disorder? Your Child's Weight What Is a BMI Report Card? Your Child's ... the Right Weight for Me? Be a Fit Kid Body Mass Index (BMI) I'm Not Fat. ...

  1. Change in Counter movement Jump Strategy by Varying Jump Height Based on Simplified Framework for Center of Mass Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyoung [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials(KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, we investigated how a jumping strategy changes with an increase in the vertical jump height for a resultant ground reaction force (GRF) vector. We expected that the resultant force vector between two sequential motion phases (i.e., countermovement and push-off) of the counter movement jump would significantly change with the vertical jump height to take advantage of the resulting supportive force (i.e., an initial push-off force larger than the body weight) through the counter movement phase. Nine healthy young subjects were instructed to jump straight up to five different height levels ranging from 191 cm to 221 cm, and the kinematic and kinetic data were obtained in regular trials. The results showed that a lower center of mass position and larger resultant force vector were clearly observed in a higher jump, implying that the counter movement strategy changed with the vertical jump height to prepare for sufficient joint deviation and obtain a force advantage for larger push-off work.

  2. [Relationship between Body Height and Craniofacial Lines Measured by CT in Southwest Han Males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meng; Luo, Ying-zhen; Fan, Fei; Yun, Li-bing; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2016-04-01

    To establish regression model between craniofacial lines and body height by measuring craniofacial lines in Southwest Han males using CT and to accumulate data for the study of forensic anthropology. Head CT data of 273 Han males in Southwest were collected and 7 craniofacial lines were determined. Multiplanar reconstruction and volume rendering were performed by image post-processing software and the selected lines were measured. The relationship between each measuring indicator and body height was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. The regression equation of body height estimation was established and 50 samples were selected again and put into the mathematics models to verify its accuracy. The linear regression equations of 7 lines were established (P estimate (SEE) were 4.597-5.023 cm. The correlation coefficients of the multiple linear regression equation were 0.494-0.524 and the SEE were 4.418-4.458 cm. The return tests showed that the highest ± 1SEE accuracy of the multiple regression equation: y = 83.959+3.589 x6+2.573 x2, were 30%; and the highest ± 2SEE accuracy of the multiple regression equation: y = 72.646+3.316 x6+1.586 x2+1.553 x4+2.211 x3, were 92%. There is significant linear correlation between 7 selected lines and the stature in this study, and the plural linear regression equation established could be applied for estimating the stature of Southwest Han males.

  3. Identification of distinct body mass index trajectories in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, C A; Caputi, P; Iverson, D C

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have identified distinct trajectories of obesity development in children, but more research is required to further explore these trajectories. Several socio-demographic variables such as parental education and obesity are associated with these trajectories. This study further demonstrates that there are distinct trajectories of body mass index in children. The use of raw body mass index values is more sensitive to changes in body composition compared with body mass index categories (e.g. lean vs. overweight). Hence the present results provide a more detailed insight into development patterns of obesity. The socio-demographic predictors of the trajectories offer potential avenues for future obesity interventions. A limited number of studies have demonstrated that there may be distinct developmental trajectories of obesity during childhood. To identify distinct trajectories of body mass index (BMI) in a large sample of Australian children. Participants included 4601 children aged 4-5 years at baseline, who were followed up at ages 6-7 years, 8-9 years and 10-11 years. Height and weight were measured at each of these time points, and used to calculate BMI. Growth Mixture Modelling was used to identify the presence of distinct BMI trajectories. Four distinct trajectories were identified (i) High Risk Overweight; (ii) Early Onset Overweight; (iii) Later Onset Overweight and (iv) Healthy Weight. Further analyses indicated that factors such as parental overweight, parent education, parent smoking and child birth weight were significant predictors of these trajectories. These findings indicate that different patterns of BMI development exist in children, which may require tailored interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys and girls: the effects of body mass, peer appearance culture and internalization of appearance ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and internalization of appearance ideals to body dissatisfaction among adolescents. The sample was comprised of 239 (54% female) adolescents, with a mean age of 16 years. Self-report questionnaires were completed on body dissatisfaction, peer appearance conversations and criticism, internalization of appearance ideals, height and weight. For girls and boys, body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and internalized appearance ideals emerged as significant predictors of body dissatisfaction. Gender moderated the effect of body mass on body dissatisfaction. Internalization mediated the relationship between peer appearance conversations and criticism, and body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that while body mass exerts a differential risk for body dissatisfaction among boys and girls, internalisation may represent a key psychological process that underpins body dissatisfaction among both boys and girls.

  5. Body mass estimation from the skeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Santos, Frédéric; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    -at-death estimation from the skeleton. Several methods are regularly used by both archaeologists and forensic practitioners to estimate individual BM. The most commonly used methods are based on femoral head breadth, or stature and bi-iliac breadth. However, those methods have been created from mean population BMs......Estimating an individual body mass (BM) from the skeleton is a challenge for forensic anthropology. However, identifying someone's BMI (Body Mass Index) category, i.e. underweight, normal, overweight or obese, could contribute to identification. Individual BM is also known to influence the age...... and are therefore meant to estimate the average BM of a population. Being that they are based on individual BM data and estimated femoral cortical areas, the newest published methods are supposed to be more accurate. We evaluated the accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used and most recent BM estimation...

  6. Waist circumference, body mass index, and employment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinge, Jonas Minet

    2017-07-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an imperfect measure of body fat. Recent studies provide evidence in favor of replacing BMI with waist circumference (WC). Hence, I investigated whether or not the association between fat mass and employment status vary by anthropometric measures. I used 15 rounds of the Health Survey for England (1998-2013), which has measures of employment status in addition to measured height, weight, and WC. WC and BMI were entered as continuous variables and obesity as binary variables defined using both WC and BMI. I used multivariate models controlling for a set of covariates. The association of WC with employment was of greater magnitude than the association between BMI and employment. I reran the analysis using conventional instrumental variables methods. The IV models showed significant impacts of obesity on employment; however, they were not more pronounced when WC was used to measure obesity, compared to BMI. This means that, in the IV models, the impact of fat mass on employment did not depend on the measure of fat mass.

  7. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  8. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fernandez dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  9. Mandibular growth as related to cervical vertebral maturation and body height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity of 6 stages of cervical vertebral maturation (Cvs1 through Cvs6) as a biologic indicator for skeletal maturity in 24 subjects (15 females, 9 males). The method was able to detect the greatest increment in mandibular and craniofacial growth during the interval from vertebral stage 3 to vertebral stage 4 (Cvs3 to Cvs4), when the peak in statural height also occurred. The prevalence rate of examined subjects who presented with the peak in body height at this interval was 100% for boys and 87% for girls. Statural height and total mandibular length (Co-Gn) showed significant increments during the growth interval Cvs3 to Cvs4 when compared with the growth interval Cvs2 to Cvs3, and significant growth deceleration occurred during the interval Cvs4 to Cvs5 when compared with Cvs3 to Cvs4. Ramus height (Co-Goi) and S-Gn also showed significant deceleration of growth during the interval Cvs4 to Cvs5 when compared with Cvs3 to Cvs4. Cervical vertebral maturation appears to be an appropriate method for the appraisal of mandibular skeletal maturity in individual patients on the basis of a single cephalometric observation and without additional x-ray exposure. The accuracy of the cervical vertebral method in the detection of the onset of the pubertal spurt in mandibular growth provides helpful indications concerning treatment timing of mandibular deficiencies.

  10. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  11. Growth pattern and growth prediction of body height in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozdzynska, Agnieszka; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Jurecka, Agnieszka; Cieslik, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the level, degree and direction of deviation in the ontogenesis of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) in comparison with the healthy population. The anthropometric data of a longitudinal study on 28 patients with MPS II, aged from 0.5 to 21 years, were used to analyse the general growth patterns in terms of height, weight and head circumference. The growth trend was assessed with the straight-line regression model. The mathematical structural growth model was used to evaluate the structure of body height growth. A statistically significant negative growth trend for all features was found. Analysis of development structure revealed an earlier onset of the adolescent growth spurt among healthy boys and a lower current velocity of growth than expected values. During the first 3 years of life, all observed anthropometric features grew faster than normal. They slowed down by the end of the third year and, in subsequent years, reached lower values when compared with the reference charts. The values obtained from the BTT model showed the structure of body height growth, with particular emphasis on the pubertal spurt, was significantly different from the reference charts. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  12. Body mass index, body dissatisfaction and adolescent smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laurence J; Trela-Larsen, Lea; Taylor, Michelle; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus R; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-09-01

    Smoking influences body weight, but there is little evidence as to whether body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction increase smoking initiation in adolescents. We evaluated the association between measured BMI, body dissatisfaction and latent classes of smoking initiation (never smokers, experimenters, late onset regular smokers, early onset regular smokers) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. In observational analyses we used BMI (N=3754) and body dissatisfaction at age 10.5 years (N=3349). In Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis, we used a BMI genetic risk score of 76 single nucleotide polymorphisms (N=4017). In females, higher BMI was associated with increased odds of early onset regular smoking (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) compared to being a never smoker, but not clearly associated with experimenting with smoking (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.10) or late onset regular smoking (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.09). No clear evidence was found for associations between BMI and smoking initiation classes in males (p-value for sex interaction≤0.001). Body dissatisfaction was associated with increased odds of late-onset regular smoking (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.99) in males and females combined (P-value for sex interaction=0.32). There was no clear evidence for an association between the BMI genetic risk score and smoking latent classes in males or females but estimates were imprecise. BMI in females and body dissatisfaction in males and females are associated with increased odds of smoking initiation, highlighting these as potentially important factors for consideration in smoking prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EFFECTS OF BODY MASS-BASED SQUAT TRAINING IN ADOLESCENT BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Takai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body mass-based squat training on body composition, muscular strength and motor fitness in adolescent boys. Ninety-four boys (13.7 ± 0.6 yrs, 1.60 ± 0.09 m, 50.2 ± 9.6 kg participated in this study and were randomly assigned to training (n = 36 or control (n = 58 groups. The training group completed body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions for 8 weeks. Body composition and muscle thickness at the thigh anterior were determined by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer and ultrasound apparatus, respectively. Maximal voluntary knee extension strength and sprint velocity were measured using static myometer and non-motorized treadmill, respectively. Jump height was calculated using flight time during jumping, which was measured by a matswitch system. The 8-wk body mass-based squat training significantly decreased percent body fat (4.2% and significantly increased the lean body mass (2.7%, muscle thickness (3.2% and strength of the knee extensors (16.0%, compared to control group. The vertical jump height was also significantly improved by 3.4% through the intervention. The current results indicate that body mass-based squat training for 8 weeks is a feasible and effective method for improving body composition and muscular strength of the knee extensors, and jump performance in adolescent boys.

  14. Resistin levels are related to fat mass, but not to body mass index in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lorena; Riestra, Pía; Navarro, Pilar; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Soriano-Guillén, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The relationship of resistin levels with obesity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents and evaluate their association with anthropometric parameters and body composition. The study population included 420 randomly selected 6-8-year-old children and 712 children aged 12-16 years. Anthropometric data were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratios were calculated. Body composition was assessed using an impedance body composition analyzer. Serum resistin levels were determined using a multiplexed bead immunoassay. Resistin levels were not significantly different between sexes. No significant differences in serum resistin concentrations were found between obese, overweight, and normal weight children at any age, and no significant correlations were observed between resistin concentrations and weight or BMI. However, resistin levels showed a significant positive correlation with fat mass in 12-16-year-old children, particularly in girls. In addition to describing serum resistin levels in prepubertal children and adolescents, our study suggests that resistin is related to body fat rather than to BMI in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Body mass index as discriminator of the lean mass deficit and excess body fat in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria Helena; Bolina, Alisson F; Luiz, Raíssa B; de Oliveira, Karoline F; Virtuoso, Jair S; Rodrigues, Rosalina A P; Silva, Larissa C; da Cunha, Daniel F; De Mattia, Ana Lúcia; Barichello, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the discriminating criterion for body mass index (BMI) in the prediction of low fat free mass and high body fat percentage according to sex among older people. Observational analytical study with cross-sectional design was used for this study. All institutionalized older people from the city of Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil) who fit within the inclusion and exclusion criteria were approached. Sixty-five institutionalized older people were evaluated after signing a Free and Informed Consent Form. Descriptive and inferential statistical procedures were employed for the analysis, using Student's t-test and multiple linear regression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the BMI (kg/m(2)) cut-off points. The study complied with all the ethical norms for research involving human beings. In comparing the anthropometric measurements obtained via bioimpedance, elder male had higher mean height and body water volume than females. However, women had higher mean triceps skinfold and fat free mass than men. The BMI cut-off points, as discriminators of low fat free mass percentage and high body fat percentage in women, were ≤22.4 kg/m(2) and >26.6 kg/m(2), respectively; while for men they were ≤19.2 kg/m(2) and >23.8 kg/m(2). The results of this study indicate the need for multicenter studies aimed at suggesting BMI cut-off points for institutionalized older people, taking into account specific sex characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Body mass index and poststroke mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Petersen, Hans Gregers

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an established cardiovascular risk factor. We studied the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality after stroke. Methods: A registry started in 2001 with the aim to register all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark now includes 21,884 patients....... Survival was followed up to 5 years after stroke (median 1.5 years). Independent predictors of death were identified by means of a survival model based on 13,242 individuals with a complete data set. Results: Compared to normal- weight patients, mortality was lower in overweight [hazard rate (HR) 0.73, 95...

  17. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...

  18. Blood metabolic signatures of body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carayol, Marion; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ferrari, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Metabolomic is now widely used to characterize metabolic phenotypes associated with lifestyle risk factors such as obesity. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of body mass index (BMI) with 145 metabolites measured in blood samples in the European...... Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: Metabolites were measured in blood from 392 men from the Oxford (UK) cohort (EPIC-Oxford) and in 327 control subjects who were part of a nested case-control study on hepatobiliary carcinomas (EPIC-Hepatobiliary). Measured metabolites...

  19. Heights of Coronal Mass Ejections and Shocks Inferred from Metric and DH Type II Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Bendict Lawrance, M.; Moon, Y. J.; Lee, Jae-Ok; Suresh, K.

    2017-09-01

    A set of 27 continuous events that showed extension of metric Type-II radio bursts (m-Type IIs) into the deca-hectometric (DH) domain is considered. The coronal mass ejections (CMEs) associated with this type of continuous event supply more energy to produce space-weather effects than the CMEs that produce Type-II bursts in any one region. Since the heights of shock formation at the start of m-Type IIs were not available from observations, they were estimated using kinematic modeling in previous studies. In the present study, the heights of shock formation during metric and DH Type-II bursts are determined using two methods: i) the CME leading-edge method and ii) a method employing known electron-density models and start/end frequencies. In the first method, assuming that the shocks are generated by the associated CMEs at the leading edge, the height of the CME leading edge (LE) is calculated at the onset and end of m-Type IIs using the kinematic equation with constant acceleration or constant speed. The LE heights of CMEs that are assumed to be the heights of shock formation/end of nearly 79% of m-Type IIs are found to be within the acceptable range of 1 - 3 R_{⊙}. For other events, the heights are beyond this range, for which the shocks might either have been generated at the CME flanks/flare-blast waves, or the initial CME height might have been different. The CME/shock height at the onset and end of 17 DH Type IIs are found to be in the range of 2 - 6 R_{⊙} and within 30 R_{⊙}, respectively. In addition, the CME LE heights from observations at the onset and end of metric/DH Type IIs are compared with the heights corresponding to the observed frequency that is determined using the known electron-density models, and they are in agreement with the model results. The heights are also estimated using the space speed available for 15 halo CMEs, and it is found that the difference is smaller at the m-Type II start/end (0.02 to 0.66 R_{⊙}) and slightly greater

  20. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautz, Brian S; Wong, Bob B M; Peters, Richard A; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-04-23

    Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male's relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. Here we show, based upon female assessment of digitally projected life-size, computer-generated images, that penis size interacts with body shape and height to determine male sexual attractiveness. Positive linear selection was detected for penis size, but the marginal increase in attractiveness eventually declined with greater penis size (i.e., quadratic selection). Penis size had a stronger effect on attractiveness in taller men than in shorter men. There was a similar increase in the positive effect of penis size on attractiveness with a more masculine body shape (i.e., greater shoulder-to-hip ratio). Surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that female mate choice could have driven the evolution of larger penises in humans. More broadly, our results show that precopulatory sexual selection can play a role in the evolution of genital traits.

  1. Body mass index in young Dutch adults : its development and the etiology of its development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookus, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Follow-up studies of long duration have shown a U-shaped relationship between mortality/morbidity and the body mass index (BMI, weight/height 2). The risk to health posed by obesity appears to be larger in younger subjects than in older

  2. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights.

  3. Association between Enuresis and Body Mass Index in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAutomatic release of urine at any time of a day during sleep beyond the age of five years defined enuresis as a health disorders in children. The etiology of enuresis is still not clearly understood. Body Mass Index (BMI is an indicator to evaluate the growth trend of individuals in a population for any specific age group. Evaluation of obesity in children is important and provides an opportunity to identify the problem and prevent disease progression. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enuresis and the association with BMI.Materials and MethodsThe study was a cross-sectional survey based on specific age group population to determine the prevalence of enuresis conducted on the schoolchildren in Zahedan, Iran during December 2015 and February 2016. A random, multistage sample of 2,000 students was taken from fifty schools in five districts of Zahedan city and filled out some easy questions such as age and gender along with measuring weight and height. Body Mass Index categorized after calculation accordance with the formulae of BMI= Height (kg / Weight (m 2. The classification of BMI was accordance with  percentiles  of  underweight in less than the 5th percentile, healthy level from the 5th to less than 85th percentile, overweight from the 85th to less than the 97th percentile and obese equal to or greater than the 97th percentile.ResultsThe prevalence of enuresis was 17.18% for boys and 11.82% for girls, and the overall prevalence was 140 in 1000. Enuresis and non- enuresis population were different in mean of BMI (15.51±3.92 versus 17.69±5.11, so that this differential were statistically significant (P

  4. [Correlation between the lengths of the long bones of the forearm and the fibula with body height in our population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Nadica; Vilić, Jasenka Vasić

    2012-05-01

    The task of a forensic examiner during exhumation of skeletal remains is to calculate antemortem height of a person whose skeletal remains were found. Anthropological investigations which provided formulae for calculating ante-mortem body height date back from XIX or from the first half of XX centuries. The most commonly used formulae are those of Trotter-Gleser, which were used to investigate skeletal remains from the World War II. Those investigations were conducted on skeletal remains of various ages and degrees of decay. Our experience with exhumation have shown that the present formulae do not deliver reliable values of antemortem height. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation of the length of long bones of leg and forearm with body height within our population and to establish the formulae for calculating ante-mortem body height within our population based on the obtained values. The lengths of ulna, radius, fibula and tibia were determined precisely by measuring bones on living individuals using a digital X-ray system. The height of individuals whose bones were measured was determined using an anthropometer. The highest degree of correlation between bone length and body height was found for tibia in males (r = 0.859, p population the length of long bones of the forearm and the leg are characterized by various degree of correlation with body height. The formulae that we set, make less distinction between the measured and the calculated body height as compared with the Trotter-Gleser formulae. We do hope that their implementation will facilitate identification of sceletal remains in our population.

  5. Body height estimation from post-mortem CT femoral F1 measurements in a contemporary Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Näf, Maya; Siegmund, Frank; Jackowski, Christian; Lösch, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed at the comparison of body height estimations from cadaver length with body height estimations according to Trotter and Gleser (1952) and Penning and Riepert (2003) on the basis of femoral F1 section measurements in post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) images. In a post-mortem study in a contemporary Swiss population (226 corpses: 143 males (mean age: 53 ± 17 years) and 83 females (mean age: 61 ± 20 years)) femoral F1 measurements (403 femora: 199 right and 204 left; 177 pairs) were conducted in PMCT images and F1 was used for body height estimation using the equations after Trotter and Gleser (1952, "American Whites"), and Penning and Riepert (2003). The mean observed cadaver length was 176.6 cm in males and 163.6 cm in females. Mean measured femoral length F1 was 47.5 cm (males) and 44.1cm (females) respectively. Comparison of body height estimated from PMCT F1 measurements with body height calculated from cadaver length showed a close congruence (mean difference less than 0.95 cm in males and less than 1.99 cm in females) for equations both applied after Penning and Riepert and Trotter and Gleser. Femoral F1 measurements in PMCT images are very accurate, reproducible and feasible for body height estimation of a contemporary Swiss population when using the equations after Penning and Riepert (2003) or Trotter and Gleser (1952). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The adult body: how age, gender, and body mass index are related to body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algars, Monica; Santtila, Pekka; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. Body image and perceived attractiveness were examined, and the impact of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) was analyzed and discussed from an evolutionary and a sociocultural perspective. METHOD. The population-based sample consisted of 11,468 Finnish men and women aged 18 to 49 years. RESULTS. Both age-related decrease and increase in body satisfaction was detected as well as interactions between age and gender. Some effects were nonlinear. Women were generally less satisfied with their bodies than men. BMI had a stronger influence on women's body image than men's. DISCUSSION. It was proposed that it is insufficient to merely study how age affects general body image because adults might become more satisfied with some aspects of their bodies as a function of age and less satisfied with other aspects. Body satisfaction might also fluctuate during different phases of the adult life, and the patterns possibly differ between men and women.

  7. COPD, Body Mass, Fat Free Body Mass and prognosis in Patients from a Random Population Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, E; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)). OBJECTIVES: We explored...... 10th percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest 10th percentile of the general population for FFMI was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.8) for overall...

  8. Body Height and its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Female Adolescents from Southern Region in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin female adolescents from southern region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Our investigation analyses 139 female adolescents from the southern region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. A comparison of means of body heights and arm spans within this gender group were carried out using a t-test. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results displayed that female Southern-Montenegrins are 168.73±6.79 cm tall and have an arm span of 167.23±7.79 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Southern- Montenegrins the tall population, taller than female population across the Europe and the rest of World. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Southern-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was shorter than the body heights (1.50±1.00 centimetres, much more than in general population. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  9. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI......, independently and adjusted for height, is positively associated with adult prostate cancer. METHODS: Subjects were a cohort of 125208 boys formed from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at 7-13 years. Cases were identified through linkage...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  10. Relationship of total body fat mass to bone area in New Zealand five-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Ailsa; Taylor, Rachael W; Grant, Andrea M; Murdoch, Linda; Williams, Sheila M; Taylor, Barry J

    2008-04-01

    Fat mass was recently shown to be a positive determinant of bone mass and size independently of lean mass in a birth cohort of British 9-year-olds. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether similar relationships are evident in younger, preschool children. Height and weight were measured, and a total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric scan was performed on 194 preschool New Zealand children (81 girls, 113 boys) participating in the Dunedin birth cohort Family, Lifestyle, Activity, Movement, and Eating (FLAME) study close to their fifth birthday. Relationships of total-body fat mass and lean mass to total-body-less-head (TBLH) bone area and TBLH bone mineral content (BMC) were evaluated using linear regression. Girls had higher mean fat mass (3.9 vs. 3.2 kg) and lower lean mass (14.5 vs. 15.2 kg) than boys (P bone area were similar. Although a given weight of lean tissue was associated with greater increases in TBLH area than a given weight of fat tissue, our results show that fat mass was an independent predictor of TBLH bone area (R (2 )= 0.79, P fat mass is associated with outward expansion of the TBLH skeletal envelope (wider bones) independently of height and lean mass in very young children.

  11. Determinants of body mass index in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukara-Radujković Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Body Mass Index (BMI in boys and girls is predicted by parental BMI, age and occupation. OBJECTIVE Correlation of BMI among children and adolescents in Banjaluka region (Bosnia and Herzegovina and parental age, BMI, parents’ educational level and occupation, as well as the number of family members were investigated as the possible determinants of overweight and obesity in childhood. METHOD The study included 1204 children and adolescents (578 males, 626 females, 6-17 years old from primary and secondary schools in the Banjaluka region. BMI was calculated from height and weight using the standard formula. Each subject along with his parents answered the questionnaire that contained information about parents’ height and weight, educational level and occupation, as well as the number of family members. RESULTS In all studied children, the prevalence of overweight was 12.2% and of obesity 6.1%. Strong positive correlation was found between parental BMI and age (older than 40 years in males and females (p<0.001, while parental higher BMI and higher educational level had positive correlation only in males (p<0.001. The number of family members showed negative correlation with overweight/obesity only in females. CONCLUSION The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children’s population in the Banjaluka region is 12.2% and 6.1%, respectively. There is a positive correlation of overweight and obesity in children with parental overweight and obesity, as well as older age, and parental higher educational level.

  12. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    alleles was associated with a 3 % higher BMI (P cancer. In instrumental variable analysis for a 10 kg/m(2) higher genetically determined BMI the odds ratio for any non-skin cancer was 1.16 (0.64-2.09), with a corresponding observational estimate of 0.94 (0.88-1.01). Using......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...... of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...

  13. Compulsive buying: relationship with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Marion, Brandee E

    2013-01-01

    Compulsive buying has historically been associated with various self-regulatory disturbances, including eating pathology (e.g., binge eating). Therefore, a relationship between scores on a measure of compulsive buying, the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood was hypothesized. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of convenience of 373 obstetrics/gynecology patients, correlations between CBS scores and BMI, both generally and with regard to race were examined. A modest general correlation between CBS scores and BMI (r = 0.17, P compulsive buying is associated with increasing BMI in adulthood, particularly among Caucasian women. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. Assessing Child Body Mass Index Perceptions Among African American Caregivers in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua; Hansen, Andrew R

    2017-04-28

    In the USA, African American children residing in rural areas are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. One strategy for preventing childhood obesity is helping caregivers to recognize their child is overweight or obese. The purpose of this study is to assess African American caregivers' perceived level of their child's obesity status and concordance between caregiver's reported height and weight of their children compared to the objective measure of their child's height and weight. Caregivers completed a paper-based survey about perceptions of their child's weight status including body silhouettes (n = 119) and self-reported their child's body mass index status (n = 68). Children's (n = 71) height and weight were objectively measured. Spearman rho and independent sample t tests were calculated to assess the relationship between caregiver's self-reported and objective BMI status. Caregiver's visually perceived their child's weight status to be underweight; yet, self-reported that their child's body mass index status was obese. The Spearman's rho correlation indicated a significant relationship between caregiver's self-reported and objective body mass index (r = .39, p child's body mass index.

  15. Effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassaïne, M; Hamaoui, A; Zanone, P-G

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of table top slope and height on body posture and muscular activity pattern. Twelve asymptomatic participants performed a 5-min reading task while sitting, in six experimental conditions manipulating the table top slope (20° backward slope, no slope) and its height (low, medium, up). EMGs recordings were taken on 9 superficial muscles located at the trunk and shoulder level, and the angular positions of the head, trunk and pelvis were assessed using an inertial orientation system. Results revealed that the sloping table top was associated with a higher activity of deltoideus pars clavicularis (P<0.05) and a smaller flexion angle of the head (P<0.05). A tentative conclusion is that a sloping table top induces a more erect posture of the head and the neck, but entails an overload of the shoulder, which might be harmful on the long run. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Image and its Relation with Body Mass Index among Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Vaishali R; Kulkarni, Aditi A

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate association of body mass index with perception and attitude towards bodyweight, shape and body image among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was done on 1811 adolescents. Attitude towards body image was assessed by using a self-administered Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Perceived body shape was measured using the Stunkard scale. Adolescents showed significant difference (P<0.005) in perceptions and behaviors related to appearance, fitness, health, body areas and weight across various body mass index and socioeconomic categories. Girls articulated significantly higher (P<0.005) body dissatisfaction than boys. Attitudes and perceptions towards body image differ with sex, body mass index and socioeconomic class.

  17. Body height estimation from head and face dimensions: a different method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelin, Can; Zağyapan, Ragiba; Yazici, Canan; Kürkçüoğlu, Ayla

    2010-09-01

    As there are cases brought for forensic examination where only the craniofacial region is available, estimation of stature from craniofacial dimensions is without doubt important in forensic cases. The study presented here attempts to estimate stature from craniofacial dimensions in the Turkish population. In the second phase of the study, the correlations between craniofacial dimensions and stature were also evaluated according to different head and face types. All measurements were taken from 286 healthy males with a mean age of 22.71 ± 4.86 years. The sample was then reclassified according to different head and face indexes. For the whole sample, correlation coefficients were low, changing only between 0.012 and 0.229. Thus, no significant increase in correlation coefficients was observed after the samples had been reevaluated according to different head and face types. As a conclusion, craniofacial dimensions are not good predictors for body height for the Turkish population. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, Sine K.; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger

    2015-01-01

    It is known that arterial pressure correlates positively with body height in males and it has been suggested that this is due to the increasing vertical hydrostatic gradient from the heart to the carotid baroreceptors. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that a higher gravitoinertial stress induced...... by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41yr), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G...... centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, P 

  19. Body image in the mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Iris Bazán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern about weight that characterizes most modern women stemmed from the medical research that showed the relationship between obesity and diseases such as hypertension or cardiovascular disease. As shown by the American filmmaker Michael Moore in his documentary film “Sicko” in 2007, large US health companies financially rewarded those with a thinner body and sanctioned overweight people because they had higher risks of disease and thus generate losses to their companies. From there, the emphasis on weight control and low-calorie dieting -and its association with health- reached unexpected limits. Mass Media had and have a leading role on this growing concern about weight. This article analyzes the effects of media on the aesthetic / healthy ideal, which contribute to the construction of a woman captured by endless demands. These social requirements are associated with perfection, the predominance of the aesthetic, healthy body and eternal youth, which would guarantee success. What relationship have television, women’s magazines, Internet, advertising and even children’s toys with the expansion of “the culture of light”, the ideal body and healthy behavior are some of the questions that will be addressed in this Article. To contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon, we will make a bibliographic and Media exploration. Finally, as a possible solution to the problem, a strategy of state intervention on the current market model for promoting good use of information and prevention of Eating Disorders and other diseases related to poor diet is proposed. 

  20. Homogamy and imprinting-like effect on mate choice preference for body height in the current Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Motohide; Ihara, Yasuo; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Homogamy for body height has been repeatedly documented in Western societies. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism is unclear and the reasons for its apparent absence in non-Western societies remain unexplained. This study investigates spousal correlation and mate preference for height in the Japanese population. This study analyses self-reported data on the height of individuals, their parents and their ideal marriage partners, collected by a series of questionnaires on university students. In contrast to a previous study, this study found a significant positive correlation between the heights of Japanese spouses, after controlling for age. It also found a positive correlation between the heights of subjects and of their ideal partners, suggesting that an individual's self-referent preference may contribute to the observed homogamy for height. However, a subject's preference is also influenced by the height of his/her opposite-sex--but not same-sex--parent, where this effect is more prominent in male subjects. This study shows that homogamy for body height is present in the current Japanese population and that it may in part result from an individual's preference. It also indicates a possible role of a sexual imprinting-like mechanism in human mate choice.

  1. Food cravings mediate the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana; Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between chronic stress, food cravings, and body mass index. A community-based sample of adults (N = 619) completed a comprehensive assessment battery and heights and weights were measured. Chronic stress had a significant direct effect on food cravings, and food cravings had a significant direct effect on body mass index. The total effect of chronic stress on body mass index was significant. Food cravings partially mediated the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index. These findings are consistent with research that chronic stress may potentiate motivation for rewarding substances and behaviors and indicate that high food cravings may contribute to stress-related weight gain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded

  3. Relationship of body mass status with running and jumping performances in young basketball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Asadi, Abbas; Santos, Eduardo J.A.M.; Calleja-González, Julio; Padulo, Johnny; Chtourou, Hamdi; Zemkova, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose the main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of body mass (BM) status with running and jumping performances in young male basketball players. Methods basketball players (n=72, age 12.9±2.8 yrs), who were grouped into U-12 (9–12 yrs), U-15 (12–15 yrs) and U-18 (15–18 yrs), performed a battery of anthropometric, running and jumping tests. We examined differences among age groups, and between normal weight and overweight players. Results the results indicated significant and large differences among age groups in BM, height, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass, speed, endurance, standing long jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), mean power in 30 s jumping test (Pmean) (pbasketball players, where the excess of body mass seemed to have the most detrimental effect on running and jumping performances. PMID:26605193

  4. Relationship between severe early childhood caries and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoomika, W; Ramakrishna, Y; Munshi, A K

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the absence of any underlying medical condition for the school going (3 to 6 years old) children of Mathura city, India. One hundred caries free children (50 boys and 50 girls) and one hundred children (50 boys and 50 girls) affected with S-ECC in the age range of 3-6 years without any contributing medical history were included in the study. Measurements of the weight (kg) and height (m) were done using a standard balanced beam scale and stadiometer. The BMI (kg/m2) was determined and the body weight status was evaluated using CDC based classification for each child. Independent t-test was used to evaluate whether the weight, height and BMI of S-ECC children is significantly different from caries free children. Although the weight of the S-ECC children is more when compared to the normal children, the difference is not statistically significant. However, the mean BMI of S-ECC children is more when compared to the caries free children which was found to be statistically significant at p children based on the CDC classification revealed that 48% have been classified in underweight category and 43% in normal weight category and very few children are found to be at risk of overweight and overweight. A positive correlation between the BMI and S-ECC was observed in this study. 51% of caries free children and 45% of S-ECC children were classified in underweight category based on CDC classification.

  5. Body Height and its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Male Adolescents from Southern Region in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the body height in Montenegrin male adolescents from southern region as well as the relationship between arm span as an alternative to estimating the body height, which would vary from region to region in Montenegro. Our investigation analyses 87 male adolescents from the southern region in Montenegro. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Means and standard deviations regarding the anthropometric measurements were obtained. The relationships between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence interval. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which the arm span can reliably predict body height. The results displayed that male Southern-Montenegrins are 182.53±7.53 cm tall and have an arm span of 184.55±9.03 cm. Compared to other studies, the results of this study have shown that this gender made Southern- Montenegrins the tall population, taller than most of nation around the Europe. On the other hand, expectably, the arm span reliably predicts body height in this gender. However, the estimation equations which have been obtained in Southern-Montenegrins are, different alike in general population, since arm span was closer to body heights (2.03±1.50 cm, more than in general population. Hence, this study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Montenegro.

  6. Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements of both Gender Adolescents from Central Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Arifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on measurements of Central region Kosovar adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the Body Height of adolescents from Central region as well relationship between arm span and Body Height in both Kosovar genders. A total measured subject participated in this research was 193 out of which (93 girls and 100 boys, females average of age is 18.15±0.35 years old (range 18-20 years and for male 18.26±0.44 years old (range 18-20 years. The anthropometric measurements were done by trained people and were taken according to the ISAK manual. Relationship between Body Height and arm span has been analyzed by the simple correlation coefficient at a 95% confidence interval. The linear regression analysis was carried out to examine extent to which arm span can reliably predict of Body Height. Statistical importance was placed at level p<0.05. As a result anthropometric measurements for both sexes showed that the average of Body Height for boys adolescents from Central region are 180.62±5.88 centimeters and have the arm span average of 181.36±7.08 centimeters, while girls from Central 166.77±4.71 centimeters tall, and have the arm span average of 167.08±5.03 centimeters. The results have shown that the arm span was estimated as a reliable indicator of Body Height assessment to the both genders adolescents from Central region of Kosovo population. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo.

  7. Kinect Who’s Coming - Applying Kinect to Human Body Height Measurement to Improve Character Recognition Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hau-Wei Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of relevant research on character recognition has been carried out, but a certain amount of time is needed to compare faces from a large database. The Kinect is able to obtain three-dimensional coordinates for an object (x & y axes and depth, and in recent years research on its applications has expanded from use in gaming to that of image measurement. This study uses Kinect skeleton information to conduct body height measurements with the aim of improving character recognition performance. Time spent searching and comparing characters is reduced by creating height categories. The margin of error for height used in this investigation was ± 5 cm; therefore, face comparisons were only executed for people in the database within ±5 cm of the body height measured, reducing the search time needed. In addition, using height and facial features simultaneously to conduct character recognition can also reduce the frequency of mistaken recognition. The Kinect was placed on a rotary stage and the position of the head on the body frame was used to conduct body tracking. Body tracking can be used to reduce image distortion caused by the lens of the Kinect. EmguCV was used for image processing and character recognition. The methods proposed in this study can be used in public safety, student attendance registration, commercial VIP recognition and many others.

  8. Body mass index and binocular vision skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni-Moghaddam, Hamed; Kundart, James; Ehsani, Marzieh; Abdeh-Kykha, Atena

    2012-07-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is of increasing interest to eye care practitioners. Associations have recently been proven between high BMI and several diseases affecting the eyes, including AMD, intracranial hypertension, optic disc cupping, and glaucoma. The symptoms of dizziness and vertigo have also been associated with high BMI. However, to these authors' knowledge, there has been no study performed comparing BMI to binocular function. In this analytical-descriptive study, 119 randomly selected young subjects had their BMI measured, along with refractive error, dissociated phoria, near point of convergence, vergence ranges and facility, and stereopsis. In most situations, the subjects classified as normal and overweight, based on their BMI had better performance than those classified as underweight or obese. The worst binocular performance was found in underweight subjects. The one-way ANOVA showed only statistically significant differences between mean of near point of convergence and vergence facility, in different states of BMI. Unlike most ocular diseases that are adversely affected by higher BMI values, most binocular vision skills are adversely affected by lower BMI values. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

  9. Body mass index and serum lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Javier Navarrete Mejía

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the association between the body mass index (BMI and serum lipid levels in adult people. Material and Methods: Observational, transversal and retrospective study. Non experimental investigation design. The population was conformed for people treated in private health centers in Metropolitan Lima. The evaluations of the BMI and the laboratorial tests to know the seric concentration of lipids were taken between October 2014 and October 2015. It was determined the association between the BMI and the seric lipid levels using the Chi2 test. People with comorbidity that could modify the seric levels of lipids were excluded. Results: 39.7% of people studied were male and 60.3% were female. The average age was 34.2 years old. 40.7% (1227/3016 of population were obese and overweight. The results show a higher level of obesity or overweight in male people over female (54.6% and 33% respectively. 19.7% (594/3016 of the tested people presented high triglycerides seric levels. 27.9% (841/3016 presented high cholesterol levels and 38.8% (1146/3016 presented low cHDL levels. The cLDL levels and cVLDL levels were similar in both groups (male and female. Conclusions: The investigation determined the significant statistical association between the BMI and triglycerides (p < 0.05, cholesterol (p < 0.05 and cHDL (p < 0.05.

  10. Genome-wide Analysis of Body Proportion Classifies Height-Associated Variants by Mechanism of Action and Implicates Genes Important for Skeletal Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Yingleong; Salem, Rany M.; Hsu, Yu-Han H.; McMahon, George; Pers, Tune H.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tonu; Guo, Michael H.; Lim, Elaine T.; Franke, Lude; Smith, George Davey; Strachan, David P.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2015-01-01

    Human height is a composite measurement, reflecting the sum of leg, spine, and head lengths. Many common variants influence total height, but the effects of these or other variants on the components of height (body proportion) remain largely unknown. We studied sitting height ratio (SHR), the ratio

  11. Comparision between body mass index and abdominal obesity for the screening for diabetes in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the usefulness of Waist-Height Ratio as a clinical marker in patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based study of patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic and correlation of their Anthropometry data like waist circumference, height to other parameters namely body mass index (BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio, Blood pressure, Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, and Duration of Diabetes. Inclusion Criteria: Randomly selected 10 000 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic. Exclusion Criteria: Type 1 DM, Gestational Diabetes. Result: Waist-Height Ratio is a better parameter than Waist-Hip Ratio and it is significant in applying for people with different Stature with Normal BMI. Conclusion: Waist-Height Ratio is a better and easier tool when compared with BMI or Waist-Hip Ratio and can be used for assessment of Cardio-metabolic parameter for public health.

  12. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, pobesity were found to be more prevalent among firefighters personnel of older age, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of reference for planning health related program for MF personnel to prevent non-communicable disease among firefighters population.

  13. Bone mass of Spanish school children: impact of anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Calderon-Garcia, Julian F; Moran, Jose M; Canal-Macias, Maria Luz; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Trinidad; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) determine the relationship between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) results and anthropometric, dietary and body composition factors and establish reference ranges for amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) in the phalanges and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the calcaneus of children from Extremadura, Spain, and (b) to present reference curves for this population. Healthy children (n = 245), aged 4-16 years, were included (124 girls and 121 boys). Phalangeal and calcaneal QUS measurements were performed using DBM Sonic Bone Profiler and McCue CUBA Clinical ultrasound devices, respectively. Weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated by anthropometric methods. Fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass (FFM) and total body water (TBWater) were evaluated by bioelectrical impedance measurements using a Holtain body composition analyzer. Food intake was evaluated by a 7-day food record. A gender analysis revealed that Ad-SoS and BUA parameters increased significantly with age and that both positively correlated with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM and TBWater. For both genders, Ad-SoS showed significant and positive correlations with age, weight, height, BMI, FFM, BUA and TBWater.

  14. Measurement of kyphosis and vertebral body height loss in traumatic spine fractures: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit-Jan; Lehr, A Mechteld; Chapman, Jens R; Dvorak, Marcel F; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S; Schnake, Klaus J; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Oner, F Cumhur

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether wide variations are seen in the measurement techniques preferred by spine surgeons around the world to assess traumatic fracture kyphosis and vertebral body height loss (VBHL). An online survey was conducted at two time points among an international community of spine trauma experts from all world regions. The first survey (TL-survey) focused on the thoracic, thoracolumbar and lumbar spine, the second survey (C-survey) on the subaxial cervical spine. Participants were asked to indicate which measurement technique(s) they used for measuring kyphosis and VBHL. Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis and the Fisher exact test were used to analyze the responses. Of the 279 invited experts, 107 (38.4 %) participated in the TL-survey, and 108 (38.7 %) in the C-survey. The Cobb angle was the most frequently used for all spine regions to assess kyphosis (55.6-75.7 %), followed by the wedge angle and adjacent endplates method. Concerning VBHL, the majority of the experts used the vertebral body compression ratio in all spine regions (51.4-54.6 %). The most frequently used combination for kyphosis was the Cobb and wedge angles. Considerable differences were observed between the world regions, while fewer differences were seen between surgeons with different degrees of experience. This study identified worldwide variations in measurement techniques preferred by treating spine surgeons to assess fracture kyphosis and VBHL in spine trauma patients. These results establish the importance of standardizing assessment parameters in spine trauma care, and can be taken into account to further investigate these radiographic parameters.

  15. The Relations among Body Image, Physical Attractiveness, and Body Mass in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gianine D.; Lewis, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examined body dissatisfaction, physical attractiveness, and body mass index in adolescents at 13, 15, and 18 years of age. Found that sex differences in body dissatisfaction emerged between 13 and 15 years and were maintained. Girls' body dissatisfaction increased, whereas boys' decreased. Body dissatisfaction was weakly related to others' rating…

  16. Study of growth in rural school children from Buenos Aires, Argentina using upper arm muscle area by height and other anthropometric dimensions of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, A; Guimarey, L; Frisancho, A R

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective was to compare growth and body composition in an infantile rural population by means of the upper arm muscle area by height and other antropometric measurements. Research was carried out by way of a cross sectional study, including 80% (321 6-13 year olds) of the schoolchildren living in General Lavalle, a rural community of about 3000 inhabitants. The methods and procedures included the evaluation of mother's educational levels and anthropometric measurements. Height (H), weight, mid upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold (TS) were measured. The body mass index (BMI), the upper arm muscle area (UAMA), the upper arm fat area (UAFA) and the upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) were calculated. Variables were grouped by gender and age and transformed into z-scores, using the US anthropometric standards as reference. The results showed that: (1) the mother educational status was, in relation to z-scores, as in an urban population, and (2) the z-scores for BMI, UAFA and TS were above the reference, while the ones for H, UAMA and UAMAH were below the reference. The differences between z-scores in relation to mother's educational levels were statistically significant (p body composition and nutritional status.

  17. Relationship between body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and limb bone cross-sectional geometry: Implications for estimating body mass and physique from the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Macintosh, Alison; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2018-01-18

    Estimating body mass from skeletal dimensions is widely practiced, but methods for estimating its components (lean and fat mass) are poorly developed. The ability to estimate these characteristics would offer new insights into the evolution of body composition and its variation relative to past and present health. This study investigates the potential of long bone cross-sectional properties as predictors of body, lean, and fat mass. Humerus, femur and tibia midshaft cross-sectional properties were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography in sample of young adult women (n = 105) characterized by a range of activity levels. Body composition was estimated from bioimpedance analysis. Lean mass correlated most strongly with both upper and lower limb bone properties (r values up to 0.74), while fat mass showed weak correlations (r ≤ 0.29). Estimation equations generated from tibial midshaft properties indicated that lean mass could be estimated relatively reliably, with some improvement using logged data and including bone length in the models (minimum standard error of estimate = 8.9%). Body mass prediction was less reliable and fat mass only poorly predicted (standard errors of estimate ≥11.9% and >33%, respectively). Lean mass can be predicted more reliably than body mass from limb bone cross-sectional properties. The results highlight the potential for studying evolutionary trends in lean mass from skeletal remains, and have implications for understanding the relationship between bone morphology and body mass or composition. © 2018 The Authors. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Geographical distribution of adolescent body height with respect to effective day length in Japan: an ecological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masana Yokoya

    Full Text Available The height of Japanese youth raised in the northern region tends to be greater than that of youth raised in the southern region; therefore, a geographical gradient in youth body height exists. Although this gradient has existed for about 100 years, the reasons for it remain unclear. Consideration of the nutritional improvement, economic growth, and intense migration that has occurred in this period indicates that it is probably the result of environmental rather than nutritional or genetic factors. To identify possible environmental factors, ecological analysis of prefecture-level data on the body size of 8- to 17-year-old youth averaged over a 13-year period (1996 to 2008 and Japanese mesh climatic data on the climatic variables of temperature, solar radiation, and effective day length (duration of photoperiod exceeding the threshold of light intensity was performed. The geographical distribution of the standardized height of Japanese adolescents was found to be inversely correlated to a great extent with the distribution of effective day length at a light intensity greater than 4000 lx. The results of multiple regression analysis of effective day length, temperature, and weight (as an index of food intake indicated that a combination of effective day length and weight was statistically significant as predictors of height in early adolescence; however, only effective day length was statistically significant as a predictor of height in late adolescence. Day length may affect height by affecting the secretion of melatonin, a hormone that inhibits sexual and skeletal maturation, which in turn induces increases in height. By affecting melatonin production, regional differences in the duration of the photoperiod may lead to regional differences in height. Exposure to light intensity greater than 4000 lx appears to be the threshold at which light intensity begins to affect the melatonin secretion of humans who spend much of their time indoors.

  19. Body Mass Index (BMI) in women booking for antenatal care: comparison between selfreported and digital measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare measurement of Body Mass Index (BMI) with selfreporting in women early in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 100 women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester with a normal ongoing pregnancy. Selfreported maternal weight and height were recorded and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Afterwards maternal weight and height were digitally measured and actual BMI was calculated. RESULTS: If selfreporting is used for BMI classification, we found that 22% of women were classified incorrectly when BMI was measured. 12% of the women who were classified as having a normal selfreported BMI were overweight and 5% classified as overweight were obese. Similar findings have been reported outside pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for clinical practice, and for research studies exploring the relationship between maternal adiposity and pregnancy complications.

  20. Factors associated with school-aged children's body mass index in Korean American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret; Sadler, Lois; Jeon, Sangchoon; Nam, Soohyun; Song, Hee-Jung; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-08-01

    To examine factors associated with children's body mass index and obesity-risk behaviours in Korean American families. Limited data are available about family factors related to overweight and obesity in Korean American children. A cross-sectional study. Convenient sampling was employed to recruit Korean American families in the Northeast of the United States between August 2014 and January 2015. Child, family and societal/demographic/community factors were measured with self-report questionnaires completed by mothers and children. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index. Data were analyzed using mixed effects models incorporating within-group correlation in siblings. The sample included 170 Korean American children and 137 mothers. In bivariate analyses, more child screen time, number of children in the household, greater parental underestimation of child's weight and children's participation in the school lunch program were significantly associated with higher child body mass index. In multivariate analyses that included variables showing significant bivariate relationship, no variable was associated with child body mass index. There were no child, family and societal/demographic/community factors related to child body mass index in Korean American families in the multivariate analysis, which is contrary to research in other racial/ethnic groups. In bivariate analyses, there is evidence that some factors were significantly related to child body mass index. Further research is needed to understand the unique behavioural, social and cultural features that contribute to childhood obesity in Korean American families. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related fitness benefits; not only those associated with obesity, but also the reduction ... The use of whole body vibration (WBV) as an exercise intervention for health ..... muscular strength, muscular endurance and aerobic capacity. In addition ...

  2. Effects of photoperiod on body mass, thermogenesis and body composition in Eothenomys miletus during cold exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-long Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D. During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. miletus decreased body mass. After the next 4 weeks of exposure to LD, which the average difference between body masses of LD and SD voles was 4.76 g. This 14.74% increase in body mass reflected significant increases in absolute amounts of body components, including wet carcass mass, dry carcass mass and body fat mass. After correcting body composition and organ morphology data for the differences in body mass, only livers, kidney, and small intestine were enlarged due to photoperiod treatment during cold exposure. E. miletus increased RMR and energy intake exposure to LD, but maintained a stable level to SD after 28 days. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass, body fat mass, RMR as well as energy intake. All of the results indicated that E. miletus may provide an attractive novel animal model for investigation of the regulation of body mass and energy balance at organism levels. Leptin is potentially involved in the photoperiod induced body mass regulation and thermogenesis in E. miletus during cold exposure.

  3. The effects of human height and mass on the calculated induced electric fields at 50 Hz for comparison with the EMF Directive 2013/35/EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, R P

    2017-03-20

    A worker's height and mass can significantly affect the way in which incident low frequency electric and magnetic fields are absorbed in the body. To investigate this, several anatomically realistic human models were produced for heights between 1.56 and 1.96 m and masses between 33 and 113 kg. The human models were derived from the MAXWEL surface-based phantom, the model previously used in the EMF Directive 2013/35/EU Practical Guide to demonstrate how induced electric fields in the body are calculated. Computer simulations were carried out to calculate the low frequency EMF directive exposure limit value (ELV) quantities, i.e. the induced electric fields, in these human model variations from exposure to external 50 Hz magnetic and electric fields. The computational work showed that simple relationships relating the human model's height/weight with the induced electric fields in tissue types such as bone, fat, muscle, brain, spinal cord and retina could be developed. Calculations of parameters that affected absorption and fields required to produce the EMF Directive ELVs were carried out and compared with the action levels (ALs). It was found that the ALs generally provided a conservative estimate of the ELVs for the various human models and exposure situations studied.

  4. Comparison of Body Image and its Relationship with Body Mass Index (BMI in High School Students of Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Behdarvandi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is not clearly specified that which of the components of body mass index (BMI affect body image and which of them do not. Given that having information in this regard is of special importance as a basis for future planning for adolescents, the present research aimed to compare body image in female and male adolescents and study its relationship with body mass index in high school students of Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province in the academic year 2015-2016.Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive-analytic study, 200 high school students were selected as the sample using the random cluster sampling method. The required data were collected using demographic questionnaire, anthropometric data checklist (height and weight, and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. All descriptive and inferential statistics tests were performed using SPSS-17 at a confidence level of 95%.Results: The students ranged from 15 to 18 years old. Equal distribution was employed among all four grades of high school. Body mass index (BMI in male students showed a significant inverse relationship only with appearance orientation (P

  5. Hostility and Trajectories of Body Mass Index Over 19 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimaki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine; Dugravot, Aline; Lajnef, Mohamed; Marmot, Michael G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the associations of hostility measured in adulthood with subsequent body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) assessed at 4 time points over a 19-year period (1985–2004) in a United Kingdom cohort study. A total of 6,484 participants (4,494 men and 1,990 women) aged 35–55 years at baseline (1985–1988) completed the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. BMI was assessed upon medical examination in phases 1 (1985–1988), 3 (1991–1993), 5 (1997–1999), and 7 (2002–2004). Mixed-models analyses of repeated measures showed clear evidence of increasing BMI over follow-up in both sexes. In women, higher levels of hostility were associated with higher BMI at baseline, and this effect remained constant throughout the follow-up period. In men, hostility levels were also strongly associated with BMI at baseline, but results for the interaction between time and hostility also suggested that this association increased over time, with persons in the highest quartile of hostility gaining an excess of 0.016 units (P = 0.023) annually over the follow-up period as compared with persons in the lowest quartile. The authors conclude that the difference in BMI as a function of hostility levels in men is not stable over time. PMID:19022830

  6. Personality traits and body mass index: Modifiers and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To identify how demographic factors (sex, age, ethnicity) modify the association between personality traits and body mass index (BMI) and to test the extent that diet and physical activity account for the personality-BMI relations. Cross-sectional study with a diverse sample (N = 5150, 50% female, 19% African American, 15% Hispanic). Participants completed a measure of the five major dimensions of personality and reported on their physical activity, diet and food intake behaviour, and height and weight. BMI and obesity (BMI ≥ 30). High Neuroticism was associated with higher BMI and risk for obesity, whereas Conscientiousness and, to a lesser extent, Extraversion and Openness were protective. These associations were generally stronger among women and older participants; there was less evidence for ethnicity as a moderator. Personality had similar relations with the behavioural factors, and physical activity, diet and regular meal rhythms accounted for approximately 50% of the association between Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and BMI. This study supports the links between personality traits and BMI and suggests that physical activity, more than diet, is a key factor in these associations.

  7. Body mass index and employment status: A new look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinge, Jonas Minet

    2016-09-01

    Earlier literature has usually modelled the impact of obesity on employment status as a binary choice (employed, yes/no). I provide new evidence on the impact of obesity on employment status by treating the dependent variable as a as a multinomial choice variable. Using data from a representative English survey, with measured height and weight on parents and children, I define employment status as one of four: working; looking for paid work; permanently not working due to disability; and, looking after home or family. I use a multinomial logit model controlling for a set of covariates. I also run instrumental variable models, instrumenting for Body Mass Index (BMI) based on genetic variation in weight. I find that BMI and obesity significantly increase the probability of "not working due to disability". The results for the other employment outcomes are less clear. My findings also indicate that BMI affects employment through its effect on health. Factors other than health may be less important in explaining the impact of BMI/obesity on employment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Depression among High School Girls in Ahvaz

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Tashakori; Forough Riahi; Amin Mohammadpour

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Today, obesity and depression are two major illnesses that are on the rise all over the world and threaten human health. This research was done to determine the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and depression among Ahvaz high school female students. Method. In a descriptive-analytical study using stratified random sampling, 400 female high school students in academic year of 2013-2014 were picked and their height and weight were measured. BMI was classified based on World...

  9. Association between Body Mass Index and Dietary Awareness in Adolescent Women

    OpenAIRE

    木下, 友理子; 河本, 真由美; 城野, 由加里; 山崎, 圭世子; 坂番, 和; 松本, 楓子; 竹村, 理子; 米浪, 直子

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the promotion of healthy lifestyle and improvement of low body mass index (BMI) in adolescent women. In this cross-sectional study, we conducted a questionnaire survey to assess the relationship between BMI and healthy lifestyle awareness among 421 female college students in 2015. The questionnaire asked basic questions on age, university department, grade, height, weight, sports activity, parttime employment, type of residence, rise time, bedtime, and sleepi...

  10. Effects of body weight, height, and rib cage area moment of inertia on blunt chest impact response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of body weight, height, and rib cage area moment of inertia on human chest impact responses in frontal pendulum impacts. A series of parametric studies was conducted with 11 cases of finite element (FE) analysis using a commercially available three-dimensional (3-D) FE model of the whole human body, Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Selected parameters in this study were body weight, height, and area moment of inertia of the rib cage and of the ribs alone. Three body sizes assumed were those of a large male (AM95), a mid-sized male (AM50), and a small female (AF05). The initial impact response, maximum chest force, maximum deflection, maximum compression ratio, and the number of rib fractures and fractured ribs were examined for statistical analysis. Body weight and height of the human body do not show any correlation with any injury variable considered in this study. However, area moment of inertia of the rib cage correlated (r = -0.86 and p = 0.001) with maximum chest compression ratio, which is the best predictor of the number of rib fractures. The area moment of inertia of the rib cage or ribs alone would affect the response and injury variables in frontal pendulum impacts.

  11. The relationship of body mass index and hirsutism in adult females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul-Aziz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hirsutism is a common clinical condition that usually has a benign course but extremely distressing symptom for women. Hirsutism is a perplexing issue, having variable presentations including different severity of hirsutism, with menstrual history regular or irregular, body mass index (BMI within normal range or obese or overweight and yet some have a family history of hirsutism. Hirsutism may be associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, hypertension, infertility, and menstrual irregularities. Studies suggested that it affects between 5 percent and 15 percent of women, varying according to characteristics and at least 5 percent of women of reproductive age suffer from this problem. Body mass index (BMI classifications were developed based on associations between BMI and chronic disease and mortality risk in healthy populations. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and hirsutism. Material and methods: All patients were examined clinically, then interviewed and detailed questionnaires were completed for each of them. The study involved 300 individuals; 150 hirsute patients and 150 healthy people as control group. Hirsutism was determined by the Ferriman-Gallwey scoring system. Height and weight were measured by a physician mechanical scale. Body mass index was calculated weight/height² (kg/m², and collected data were analyzed by Microsoft excel-chi-square statistical test. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding age and height. However, BMI and weight were significantly higher in the cases group than the control group (P < 0.05. The chi square test revealed significantly higher differences between the case and control groups regarding BMI (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Our study clearly establishes that hirsute women had higher body mass index and moderate hirsutism was more prevalent among hirsute

  12. Relationship between blood pressure, body mass index and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Globally, studies have shown that the trend of overweight and obesity has increased astronomically and there is a close link between body mass index and blood pressure. This study determined the link between the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health promoting practices of women in rural and ...

  13. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-14

    Oct 14, 2012 ... 5Philani Child Health and Nutrition Centre, Khayelitsha. Correspondence to: Hilary Davies, e-mail: h.davies.12@ucl.ac.uk. Keywords: maternal nutritional status, birth outcomes, gestational body mass index, maternal morbidities. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a screening tool ...

  14. Eating behaviour, eating attitude and body mass index of dietetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating behaviour, eating attitude and body mass index of dietetic students versus non-dietetic majors: a South African perspective. ... South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... Keywords: dietetic students, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test 26, body mass index, eating behaviour, eating disorders ...

  15. Body mass index is associated with fat mass in normal, overweight/obese, and stunted preschool children in central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Judprasong, Kunchit; Jitngarmkusol, Siwaporn; Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used as a surrogate measure of adiposity. The relationship between BMI and body fatness varies by race, sex, and age and more variations have been found among children. This study investigated the relationship between BMI and fat mass among 3-5 year old children having different nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 daycare centers in central Thailand. 137 healthy preschool children were recruited according to their nutritional status: thin [BMI for age Z scores, (BAZ) +2 SD), and stunted [height for age Z scores FM) in kilograms (TFM) and in percentage (FM%), and fat mass index (FMI, FM/height2) were calculated. FM and FMI were the highest in the overweight/obese groups. In the thin group, girls had higher FMI compared to boys (3.2 vs 2.8 kg/m2, pFM differed by nutritional status. BMI was more strongly associated with FMI, TFM, and FM% in the overweight/ obese (r=0.97, 0.95, 0.80, p<0.05) and the normal (r=0.88, 0.84, 0.68, p<0.05) groups but not in the stunted group, and inconsistent in the thin group. The inconsistency in the relationship between BMI and body fatness suggests that BMI is appropriate for reflecting adiposity in normal and overweight/obese children, but not undernourished preschool children.

  16. Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Tortuosity and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundExtracranial internal carotid artery (eICA tortuosity may trigger cerebral ischemia, and body mass index (BMI is a measure of body mass based on height and weight. The main purpose of this study is to determine the influence of BMI on the tortuosity of eICA.MethodsA total of 926 carotid artery angiograms were performed in 513 patients, of which 116 cases and matched controls were selected. Arterial tortuosity was defined as simple tortuosity, kinking, or coiling. The severity of tortuosity was measured by tortuosity index, formula: [(actual length/straight-line length − 1 × 100].ResultsBMIs were different between the two groups [tortuosity: 27.06 kg/m2 (SD 2.81 kg/m2 versus none: 23.3 kg/m2 (SD 2.78 kg/m2; p < 0.001]. BMI was independently and significantly associated with eICA tortuosity (odds ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.35–1.86; p < 0.001. eICA tortuosity index is linearly associated with BMI (exponential coefficient β = 1.067, p < 0.001. The optimal predictive threshold of BMI for eICA tortuosity was 25.04 kg/m2. The physiological mechanism underlying the reasons why higher BMI has negative influence on extracranial carotid artery tortuosity may be an intra-abdominal hypertension caused by a much higher amount of body fat stored in visceral adipose tissue.ConclusionOur result reveals a novel role for greater BMI on the presence of eICA tortuosity. For each increase in BMI of 1 kg/m2, there is a corresponding 1.59-fold increase in the risk of developing eICA tortuosity. The severity of eICA tortuosity increases linearly with increased BMI.

  17. Effects of a 6-week circuit training intervention on body esteem and body mass index in British primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan M

    2009-06-01

    Research examining the impact of physical activity on children's body image has been limited and equivocal. The current researchers examined the effect of 6-week circuit-based training on body esteem and body mass index (BMI) in 68 British children (34 boys and 34 girls, aged 10-11 years, 16% overweight, 7% obese). The Body Esteem Scale for Children (BES-C) was administered to both the intervention group and control group, pre, post and 6 weeks post the intervention. BMI was directly assessed from height and body mass pre- and post-intervention. The results of this study revealed that, as compared to the control group, participation in 6-week circuit training significantly improved body esteem scores post-intervention. However, these scores were not sustained 6 weeks post-intervention. The improvement in body esteem scores from pre- to post-intervention was greater for girls as compared to boys. Additionally, BMI decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group.

  18. Beneficial effect of cyproheptadine on body mass index in undernourished children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadijehsadat; Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Fallahzadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-12-01

    Cyproheptadine hydrochloride (CH) is a first-generation antihistamine which is used as an appetite stimulant. This study was designed to identify the role of CH therapy on weight gain, linear growth and body mass index in children with mild to moderate undernutrition. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled. The present randomized, double-blinded controlled trial included 77 evaluable patients, aged 24-64 months with undernutrition. The patients were randomized to receive cyproheptadine with multivitamin, or multivitamin over a period of four weeks. The weight, height and body mass index were measured at the baseline, four weeks after intervention and four weeks after discontinuation. A significant higher body mass index was observed among CH-treated patients after 8 weeks intervention with cyproheptadine compared with the control group (P<0.041). Mean weight gain after eight weeks was 0.11 kg in the control group and 0.60 kg in the CH group. There were no significant differences in changes of weight and height velocity across the study between CH-treated and control group at the end of study. In our study, cyproheptadine promotes increase in body mass index in children with mild to moderate undernutrition after four weeks treatment.

  19. Whole body vibration improves body mass, flexibility and strength in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) training for promoting healthrelated physical fitness in sedentary adults. Design. A non-randomised sampling technique was used with an equivalent match-pair comparison group, pre- and posttest design. Volunteers were gathered ...

  20. Boom, bust, and the human body: further evidence on the relationship between height and business cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder, Marco; Woitek, Ulrich

    2005-12-01

    Historical time series for average human height exhibit short- and medium-term cycles that can be associated with business cycles in the 19th and 20th century. Using spectral analysis, we calculate the proportion of cyclical fluctuations in height series attributable to economic cycles. We also analyze the extent to which these cyclical phenomena change over time. In the U.S., the association between height cycles and business cycles was weaker among richer segments of the society, and weaker among men than among women. Additionally, the relationship diminished over time, probably with the rich preceding the population at large.

  1. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Influence of the war events on body weight and height in children enrolling the first grade of elementary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakić, Marijana; Jakić, Marko

    2005-01-01

    Physical growth is usually estimated by body weight and height measurements. Both parameters are strongly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The study investigated the effect of war related psychological stress and socioeconomic deterioration on growth of children who were born and grew during the war-years. We compared body weight and height in 2 groups of preschool children at time of admission to the first grade of elementary school. In the first group of children, school entry medical examination was performed in spring 1990 and 1991 (pre-war group), while the second group of children had school entry medical examination in spring 1998, 1999 and 2000 (war group). The mean body weight of children in pre-war group (n = 200; 98 girls) was M = 24.52, SD = 4.16 kg, height M = 122.50, SD = 4.71 cm, and the average age was M = 6.67, SD = 0.33 years. The war-group (n = 214; 100 girls) were of the same mean age (M = 6.67, SD = 0.34 years), but they were 500 g lighter and 5 mm lower in average. However, the differences in body weight and height were not statistically significant (t(weight) = 1.21, p > 0.05; t(height) = 1.13, p > 0.05). The two groups matched in gender (chi2-test = 0.13, p > 0.05). More educated parent of every child in pre-war group was employed, while 4 more educated parents (1.87%) in war-group were unemployed, but the difference was not statistically significant (chi2-test = 2.07, p > 0.05). We conclude that growth of preschool children in our region was not statistically significantly affected by stressful war events and war related socioeconomic situation. One could expect that these influences might be significant if we could examine the secular growth trend if there had been no war.

  3. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable.

  4. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  5. [Maternal body mass index and breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driul, L; Forzano, L; Londero, A P; Fachechi, G; Liva, S; Marchesoni, D

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine whether maternal BMI influences breast-feeding practice in quality and duration A retrospective case-control study were included Fifty women with Body Max Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 considered overweigh and obese and fifty controls with BMIlactation integration. Obese women presented an elevated Body Max Index one year apart from childbirth and are correlated to maternal complications during breastfeeding. Maternal overweight and obesity is negatively correlated to duration and quality of lactation.

  6. Integrated total body composition versus Body Mass Index in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Cristian; Mascherini, Gabriele; Bini, Vittorio; Anania, Giuseppe; CALà, Piergiuseppe; Toncelli, Loira; Galanti, Giorgio

    2016-04-08

    The aim of this study is to assess if the evaluation of Body Mass Index is sufficient to define an overweight index in young athletes, or if a more effective evaluation is preferable in order to examine body fat mass, free-fat mass and hydration status in young athletes. 299 young athletes between the ages of 8 to 18 have been analyzed in this study. Data from evaluation in body composition of young athletes were studied and subdivided by age, sex and method used. In order to measure body composition in young people, the participants who attend our Department for sport eligibility examination, were evaluated through anthropometric measurements as far as, fat mass, fat-free mass and hydration status are concerned. The statistical differences showed with Body Mass Index and body fat assessment reflect that more accurate evaluation is preferable: the normal-weight with Body Mass Index are 78.0 %, overweight 18.7% and obese 3.3 % respect to a 75.0%, 14.0% and 11.0% detected with a body fat evaluation (pathletes. The results obtained show clearly that the analysis of the Body Mass Index is not sufficient in young athletes. Therefore for young athletes a full assessment of body composition would be appropriate to reduce classification errors.

  7. [Body mass, self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents aged 13-15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationships between objective body mass index and subjective body image, life satisfaction and self-esteem of adolescents. the study was carried in 5 regions in Poland, on the sample of over 8,000 pupils aged 13-15 yrs, from randomly chosen 112 lower secondary schools. School nurses measured the height and weight of pupils, calculated the BMI and qualified overweight pupils (BMI> or =85 percentile) to the obese group (n = 953). Matching gender and age, from the rest of pupils, they found the non-obese group with BMI between 15 and 75 percentile (n = 953). Pupils from both groups participated in a questionnaire study containing the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Cantril ladder and Stunkard Body Figure Perception Questionnaire. Hierarchic regression analyses and structural equation models were calculated. in the obese group the percentage of pupils satisfied with their life was lower (76% vs 82%, pesteem higher than in the non-obese (37% vs 23%, pesteem was subjective body image, and not the objective body mass index. Objective body mass (BMI) determined the body image and relationship between BMI and life satisfaction or self-esteem of adolescents was only indirect. change of subjective body image in obese adolescents is a chance for improving their quality of life and in consequence undertaking effective struggle with obesity.

  8. Impact of Body Mass Index on Complications and Survival after Surgery for Esophageal and Gastro-Esophageal-Junction Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruhlikava, Iryna; Kirkegård, Jakob; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The impact of body mass index on complications and survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy has been extensively studied with conflicting results. In this study, we assess the impact of body mass index on complications and survival following surgery for esophageal...... patients included in the study. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. We grouped patients according to their body mass index, using the World Health Organization definition, as underweight (body mass index body mass index......: 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (body mass index: 25–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (body mass index ⩽ 30 kg/m2). Results: Median age at surgery was 65 years (range: 27–84 years), of which 207 (72.6%) were males. Patients with the lowest body mass index and the obese patients seemed to have a higher frequency...

  9. Height of Shock Formation in the Solar Corona Inferred from Observations of Type II Radio Bursts and Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Uddin, W.; Srivastava, A. K.; Joshi, N. C.; Chandra, R.; Manoharan, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Employing coronagraphic and EUV observations close to the solar surface made by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission, we determined the heliocentric distance of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the starting time of associated metric type II bursts. We used the wave diameter and leading edge methods and measured the CME heights for a set of 32 metric type II bursts from solar cycle 24. We minimized the projection effects by making the measurements from a view that is roughly orthogonal to the direction of the ejection. We also chose image frames close to the onset times of the type II bursts, so no extrapolation was necessary. We found that the CMEs were located in the heliocentric distance range from 1.20 to 1.93 solar radii (Rs), with mean and median values of 1.43 and 1.38 Rs, respectively. We conclusively find that the shock formation can occur at heights substantially below 1.5 Rs. In a few cases, the CME height at type II onset was close to 2 Rs. In these cases, the starting frequency of the type II bursts was very low, in the range 25-40 MHz, which confirms that the shock can also form at larger heights. The starting frequencies of metric type II bursts have a weak correlation with the measured CME/shock heights and are consistent with the rapid decline of density with height in the inner corona.

  10. [Body mass, population density, and offspring number in mammals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, L V; Tseĭtlin, V B

    2001-01-01

    The negative relationship between population density and body mass with the body mass exponent of -0.75 implies that the energy flow through populations of small- and large-bodied species is the same, for individual metabolism scales to body mass raised to the power of +0.75. This relationship called the energetic equivalence rule, has often been observed for mammal species assemblages studied at regional scales. Here we suggest a demography-based mechanism that may generate it. Having analyzed about 130 literature sources, mostly in Russian, we collected demography and body-mass data for 88 mammalian species from the territory and coastal waters of the former Soviet Union. The data were used to construct a number of interspecific relationships. It is shown that (1) the number of offspring per lifetime is approximately inversely proportional to the relative mass at birth (the exponent is not significantly different from -1), (2) the average lifespan is proportional to body mass to the 0.25 power, (3) body mass at birth is proportional to the adult body mass. We develop a simple theory to demonstrate that relations (1) to (3) entail the energetic equivalence rule. The theory also allows us to explain violation of this rule (in non-flying birds, for example), namely, to predict the exponent of relation (1) for any given exponent of the relation between population density and body mass. This is possible because relations (2) and (3) are likely to more universally hold than relation (1). Finally, since natural selection acts on individual traits rather than on population-level ones such as population density, the theory opens up the way to an evolutionary explanation for the energetic equivalence rule.

  11. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  12. A Twin Study of Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Noonan, Carolyn; Goldberg, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the relative importance of genetic and environmental contributions to the association between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Twins from the University of Washington Twin Registry, a community-based sample of U.S. twins, provided self-reported height and weight for BMI calculation and habitual sleep duration. A generalized estimating equation model evaluated the overall and within twin pair effects of sleep duration on BMI with and without stratification by twin zygosity. A structural equation model was used to assess genetic and non-genetic contributions to BMI and sleep duration. Results: The study sample included 1,224 twins comprised of 423 monozygotic, 143 dizygotic, and 46 indeterminate pairs. The mean age was 36.9 years; 69% were female. A multivariate adjusted analysis of all twins revealed an elevated mean BMI (26.0 kg/m2) in short sleeping twins (sleeping 7–8.9 h/night (BMI 24.8 kg/m2; p sleeping twins having a mean BMI of 25.8 kg/m2 compared to 24.9 kg/m2 for the 7–8.9 h/night sleep duration group (p = 0.02). When restricted to monozygotic twins, the within-twin pair analysis continued to reveal an elevated BMI in the short sleeping twins (25.7 kg/m2) compared to the 7–8.9 h/night reference group (24.7 kg/m2; p = 0.02). No differences in mean BMI were observed between the 7–8.9 h/night reference group twins and longer sleeping twins (≥ 9 h/night) in the analysis of all twins, the overall within-twin pair analysis, or the within-twin pair analysis stratified by zygosity. The heritability of sleep duration was 0.31 (p = 0.08) and BMI 0.76 (p sleep duration and BMI (p = 0.28). Conclusions: Short sleep was associated with elevated BMI following careful adjustment for genetics and shared environment. These findings point toward an environmental cause of the relationship between sleep duration and BMI. Citation: Watson NF; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Noonan C; Goldberg J. A twin study of sleep duration

  13. Associations between adiposity, hormones, and gains in height, whole-body height-adjusted bone size, and size-adjusted bone mineral content in 8- to 11-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    We examined fat-independent associations of hormones with height and whole-body bone size and mineral content in 633 school children. IGF-1 and osteocalcin predict growth in height, while fat, osteocalcin, and in girls also, IGF-1 predict growth in bone size. Leptin and ghrelin are inversely asso...

  14. Delay discounting and response disinhibition moderate associations between actigraphically measured sleep parameters and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Sze

    2017-02-01

    Previous research suggests that the sleep-obesity association varies significantly across individuals. This study examined the associations between actigraphically measured sleep parameters and body mass index and hypothesized that the associations would be stronger in individuals with greater delay discounting, the devaluation of future rewards and response disinhibition and the difficulty in withholding previously rewarded responses. Seventy-eight college students carried a wrist-worn actigraph and completed diaries reporting bedtime, wake time and covariates including physical activity, alcohol and caffeine consumption, daytime nap duration and perceived stress for 7 days and completed the delay discounting and go/no-go response disinhibition tasks. Their height and weight were measured. Only bedtime variability was significantly associated with body mass index in the main effect model controlling for all covariates (B = 0.03, P = 0.001). Delay discounting moderated associations of bedtime (B = 0.03, P moderated the association between bedtime variability and body mass index in a similar pattern (B = 0.01, P = 0.004). The findings suggest that, using actigraphy measures of sleep, circadian desynchrony rather than sleep duration is a risk factor for higher body mass index. The findings support the hypothesis that delay discounting and response disinhibition moderate the associations between sleep and body mass index. Delay discounting and response disinhibition might characterize individuals who are vulnerable to the influence of circadian desynchrony on weight. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Procedure to Measure Effect of Excess Body Mass on Musculoskeleture: I. Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2008-03-01

    Increasing levels of obesity are having an increasingly adverse impact on individual and societal health. While much effort is directed to the harmful consequences of excess body mass on the cardiovascular system, there is relatively little research on how obesity compromises the response of the musculoskeletal system across the complete range of body types. This shortfall is addressed here by a comprehensive physics-based approach to produce a wide spectrum of representative adults, who are carefully chosen to cover both sexes, a full spread of percentiles for stature, and multiple weight levels. The latter encompass healthy, overweight and obese conditions defined by the standard parameter, body mass index (BMI). The distribution of body mass is computed for female and male subjects at all height percentiles and values of BMI to generate a detailed description of a diverse population. This cohort can then be examined for more advanced aspects of musculoskeleture, an important precursor for which is included here by calculating the extent of excess body mass at each body part as a function of BMI.

  16. INFLUENCE OF BODY HEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND THE AGE ON THE RESULTS ACHIEVED BY MAN-MARATHONERS IN A MARATHON RACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Rašiti Naser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted on a sample of 100 successful man marathoners who has taken part in ten of the most popular marathon races. The sample of entities includes ten of the best placed marathoners in each race held during the year 2008. The aim of the research is to assess the influence of the body height, weight and the age of the marathoners on the final result in the race. The collected data is processed by the basic descriptive parameters. The entities have the average weight of 56.94 kg, with the average height of 168.98 cm, at the average age of 29.75, with the achieved average result of 2:13.23 hours in the race. In the intercorrelation matrix only one significant coefficient of correlation is obtained (p<0.001 between the body height and body weight. By the regressive analysis the influence of the predictory variables (height, weight and age on the criteria variable – sig. =0, 21 (the result of the marathon is not confirmed, which provides only 15% (RO²=.302 of analysis in the common ground of variability. The rest of 91% in analysing the total variability of the criteria variable can be ascribed to some other anthropologic characteristics, and mainly to the functional characteristics of anaerobic type.

  17. Hattori chart based evaluation of body composition and its relation to body mass index in a group of Sri Lankan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, V P

    2012-05-01

    To assess the relationship between fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), body mass index (BMI) and percentage fat mass (%FM) using Hattori chart in a group of Sri Lankan children. In this cross sectional descriptive study involving 5-15 y old children, data from 4 different school surveys were pooled together. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Total body water (TBW) was assessed using a height and weight based equation. Thus FFM and FM were assessed based on 2 C body composition model. Fat mass index (FMI) and Fat free mass index (FFMI) were calculated and plotted on Hattori chart. 4278 individuals (1297 boys and 2981 girls) were studied. Individual values clearly showed that Sri Lankan children had a low FFMI and a high FMI. Individuals with similar BMI had their %FM distributed in a wide range. Even children categorized as wasted had high levels of %FM in their body. Mean FMI and FFMI for each age was plotted, and it showed that most of the weight gain is due to accumulation of fat in the body. This study shows that Sri Lankan children have a higher %FM from a younger age even when they are classified as wasted. As they grow older, the changes that occur in FM are more than FFM. This chart analysis clearly shows that BMI is not a good index to measure %FM in individuals of this population.

  18. Association between Body Mass Index and Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Mojaver Borabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body mass index (BMI can affect cardiac morphology; however, the relationship between BMI and valvular heart diseases has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study aimed to determine the relationship between BMI and mitral valve prolapse (MVP as one of the most common valve diseases worldwide. It can help us to better understand pathophysiology of this common disease. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study we enrolled 200 patients with isolated MVP. This patient was referred from 2014 to 2015 to our cardiology clinic in Mashhad, Iran, with chief complaint of chest pain, dyspnea, and palpitation. patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. We document the patients’ height, weight, and demographics data. BMI distribution was categorized as higher and lower than 18.5 kg/m2. Chi- square and independent samples t-test were performed using SPSS version 19 to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that 92 (46% and 108 (54% of the samples were male and female, respectively, and their mean age was 24.29±3.75 years. Most of the patients(n=110 had low BMI (55% of the patients had BMI lower than 18.5 kg/m2. Left atrial and ventricular diameters had a significant relationship with BMI of all the underweight patients(n=110 (P=0.026 and 0.032, respectively. The main complaints were chest pain (n=55,50% and dyspnea (n=58,64.44% in the patients with low and normal BMI, respectively. Conclusion: Symptoms and echocardiographic features in MVP patients vary with BMI. While mitral valve annulus diameter was the same in both BMI groups, the results showed that left atrial and ventricular diameters in the underweight patients were less than those with normal BMI.

  19. Childhood body mass index growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate; Ulrich, Lian G; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-01-15

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer; however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6-14 years and born 1930-1989 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z scores. Using linear spline multilevel models, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1,020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain in BMI during childhood was positively associated with endometrial cancer but no differences between the different growth periods were detected in models adjusted for baseline BMI. The hazard ratios for the associations with overall growth during childhood per 0.1 z score increase were 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.24) for all endometrial cancers, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.21) for estrogen-dependent cancers, 1.16 (95% CI: 1.06-1.26) for endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.84) for non-estrogen-dependent cancers. Growth in BMI in early life is positively linked to later endometrial cancer risk. We did not identify any sensitive childhood growth period, which suggests that excess gain in BMI during the entire childhood period should be avoided. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  20. The association between body mass index and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswat, Khaled A; Al-Shehri, Abdullah D; Aljuaid, Tariq A; Alzaidi, Bassam A; Alasmari, Hassan D

    2017-02-01

    To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the academic performance of students from Taif city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using the grade point average (GPA). Method: A cross-sectional study that includes students from intermediate and high schools located in Taif city, KSA between April 2014 and June 2015. Height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Related risk factors including dietary habits, activity, parent's education, sleeping pattern, and smoking were recorded.  Result: A total of 14 schools included 424 students. 24.5% were either overweight or obese. The mean age was 15.44 year, 74.8% of the students were male, 53.8% were high school students, and 83.7% attended public schools. The mean overall GPA was 82.44% and the mean GPA for science subjects was 70.91%. No statically significant difference in the BMI was found between those who achieved greater than 90% of the overall grade compared with those who achieved less than 90%. Post hoc 1-way-analysis of variance showed that obese students were performing worse in physics than normal weight peers (p=0.049). Students who achieved greater than 90% overall grade are more likely to attend private school (p less than 0.05), live with their parents (p=0.013), having educated parents (p=0.037), getting optimal sleep (p less than 0.05), and they rarely eat their food outside their home (p less than 0.05).  Conclusion: There was no correlation between the BMI and school performance, except in physics results where obese students perform worse than normal-weight students.

  1. Body Mass Index and Employment-Based Health Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franks Peter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese workers incur greater health care costs than normal weight workers. Possibly viewed by employers as an increased financial risk, they may be at a disadvantage in procuring employment that provides health insurance. This study aims to evaluate the association between body mass index [BMI, weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters] of employees and their likelihood of holding jobs that include employment-based health insurance [EBHI]. Methods We used the 2004 Household Components of the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We utilized logistic regression models with provision of EBHI as the dependent variable in this descriptive analysis. The key independent variable was BMI, with adjustments for the domains of demographics, social-economic status, workplace/job characteristics, and health behavior/status. BMI was classified as normal weight (18.5–24.9, overweight (25.0–29.9, or obese (≥ 30.0. There were 11,833 eligible respondents in the analysis. Results Among employed adults, obese workers [adjusted probability (AP = 0.62, (0.60, 0.65] (P = 0.005 were more likely to be employed in jobs with EBHI than their normal weight counterparts [AP = 0.57, (0.55, 0.60]. Overweight workers were also more likely to hold jobs with EBHI than normal weight workers, but the difference did not reach statistical significance [AP = 0.61 (0.58, 0.63] (P = 0.052. There were no interaction effects between BMI and gender or age. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample, we detected an association between workers' increasing BMI and their likelihood of being employed in positions that include EBHI. These findings suggest that obese workers are more likely to have EBHI than other workers.

  2. The Body Mass Index of Adolescents Attending Seventh-Day Adventist Schools in Australia: 2001-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Bevan A.; Morton, Darren P.; Kent, Lillian M.; Butler, Terry L.; Rankin, Paul M.; Price, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined the body mass index (BMI) of students attending Seventh-day Adventist (Adventist) schools in Australia in 2001 and 2012. Methods: A total of 3069 students attending Adventist schools in Australia responded to a health and lifestyle survey in 2001 (N = 1335) and 2012 (N = 1734). The survey captured self-reported height and…

  3. Use of Data Mining to Reveal Body Mass Index (BMI): Patterns among Pennsylvania Schoolchildren, Pre-K to Grade 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    YoussefAgha, Ahmed H.; Lohrmann, David K.; Jayawardene, Wasantha P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health eTools for Schools was developed to assist school nurses with routine entries, including height and weight, on student health records, thus providing a readily accessible data base. Data-mining techniques were applied to this database to determine if clinically signi?cant results could be generated. Methods: Body mass index…

  4. Higher Weight, Lower Education: A Longitudinal Association between Adolescents' Body Mass Index and Their Subsequent Educational Achievement Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hermans, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescents' body mass index (BMI) z-scores and their subsequent level of schooling, extending previous longitudinal research by using objectively measured weight and height data. Methods: A longitudinal study with 3 study waves (1-year intervals) involving 1248 Dutch…

  5. THE HEIGHT EVOLUTION OF THE ''TRUE'' CORONAL MASS EJECTION MASS DERIVED FROM STEREO COR1 AND COR2 OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bein, B. M.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Utz, D. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vourlidas, A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Using combined STEREO-A and STEREO-B EUVI, COR1, and COR2 data, we derive deprojected coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics and CME ''true'' mass evolutions for a sample of 25 events that occurred during 2007 December to 2011 April. We develop a fitting function to describe the CME mass evolution with height. The function considers both the effect of the coronagraph occulter, at the beginning of the CME evolution, and an actual mass increase. The latter becomes important at about 10-15 R{sub Sun} and is assumed to mostly contribute up to 20 R{sub Sun }. The mass increase ranges from 2% to 6% per R{sub Sun} and is positively correlated to the total CME mass. Due to the combination of COR1 and COR2 mass measurements, we are able to estimate the ''true'' mass value for very low coronal heights (<3 R{sub Sun }). Based on the deprojected CME kinematics and initial ejected masses, we derive the kinetic energies and propelling forces acting on the CME in the low corona (<3 R{sub Sun }). The derived CME kinetic energies range between 1.0-66 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} J, and the forces range between 2.2-510 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} N.

  6. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Body height and its estimation utilizing arm span measurements in population of Birgunj Area of Nepal: An Anthropometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RP Sah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Arm span is the most reliable anthropometric measurement to predict the stature of an individual. Age and sex have to be taken into account to the best to predict height from arm span. It is useful in predicting age related loss in stature and in identifying individuals with disproportionate growth abnormalities and skeletal dysplasia. Objective The present study was under taken to measure the stature as well as arm span and to determine whether there is any correlation between the stature and the arm span Method This cross sectional type of descriptive study was carried out with a total number of 400 Nepalese adult population consisting of 225 Nepalese male adults and 175 female adults aged between 25 to 45 years. Stature and arm span were measured directly from the subjects by using anthropometric technique by a measuring tape. The data taken were statistically analyzed by computation to find out its normative value. The relationship between body height and arm span were determined using simple correlation coefficients. Then a linear regression analysis was performed to examine the extent to which arm span can readily predict body height Results The results have shown male of Birgunj are 167.39± 6.170 cm tall and have arm span of 168.01±7.659 cm, while female of Birgunj are 155.61±6.894 cm and have arm span of 159.25±6..362cm. The results obtained are substantially alike in other populations, since arm span was too close to body heights in male and greater in female. Conclusion The body height and arm span correlates well in males but not in females. This confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each population and different sex. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-4, 9-13 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i4.10231

  8. Adjusting powerlifting performances for differences in body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleather, Daniel John

    2006-05-01

    It has been established that, in the sports of Olympic weightlifting (OL) and powerlifting (PL), the relationship between lifting performance and body mass is not linear. This relationship has been frequently studied in OL, but the literature on PL is less extensive. In this study, PL performance and body mass, for both men and women, was examined by using data from the International Powerlifting Federation World Championships during 1995-2004. Nonlinear regression was used to apply 7 models (including allometric, polynomial, and power models) to the data. The results of this study indicate that the relationship between PL performance and body mass can be best modeled by the equation y = a - bx(-c), where y is the weight lifted (in kg) in the squat, bench press, or deadlift, x is the body mass of the lifter (in kg), and a, b, and c are constants. The constants a, b, and c are determined by the type of lift (squat, bench press, or deadlift) and the gender of the lifter and were obtained from the regression analysis. Inspection of the plots of raw residuals (actual performance minus predicted performance) vs. body mass revealed no body mass bias to this formula in contrast to research into other handicapping formulas. This study supports previous research that found a bias toward lifters in the intermediate weight categories in allometric fits to PL data.

  9. Allometric scaling of mortality rates with body mass in abalones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Marisa; De Leo, Giulio A; Bevacqua, Daniele; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2012-04-01

    The existence of an allometric relationship between mortality rates and body mass has been theorized and extensively documented across taxa. Within species, however, the allometry between mortality rates and body mass has received substantially less attention and the consistency of such scaling patterns at the intra-specific level is controversial. We reviewed 73 experimental studies to examine the relationship between mortality rates and body size among seven species of abalone (Haliotis spp.), a marine herbivorous mollusk. Both in the field and in the laboratory, log-transformed mortality rates were negatively correlated with log-transformed individual body mass for all species considered, with allometric exponents remarkably similar among species. This regular pattern confirms previous findings that juvenile abalones suffer higher mortality rates than adult individuals. Field mortality rates were higher overall than those measured in the laboratory, and the relationship between mortality and body mass tended to be steeper in field than in laboratory conditions for all species considered. These results suggest that in the natural environment, additional mortality factors, especially linked to predation, could significantly contribute to mortality, particularly at small body sizes. On the other hand, the consistent allometry of mortality rates versus body mass in laboratory conditions suggests that other sources of mortality, beside predation, are size-dependent in abalone.

  10. Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Karl T; Falkingham, Peter L; Macaulay, Sophie; Brassey, Charlotte; Maidment, Susannah C R

    2015-06-01

    Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanical and macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scaling equation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur (Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal. Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this mass estimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus is highly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg require high body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeleton several times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similar results from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end mass estimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus, based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Although volumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, there remains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive data from living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictions between volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate a need to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomic range to better inform studies of dinosaur body size.

  11. Brief communication: Body mass index, body adiposity index, and percent body fat in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dapeng; Li, Yonglan; Zheng, Lianbin; Yu, Keli

    2013-10-01

    Human obesity is a growing epidemic throughout the world. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used as a good indicator of obesity. Body adiposity index (BAI = hip circumference (cm)/stature (m)(1.5) - 18), as a new surrogate measure, has been proposed recently as an alternative to BMI. This study, for the first time, compares BMI and BAI for predicting percent body fat (PBF; estimated from skinfolds) in a sample of 302 Buryat adults (148 men and 154 women) living in China. The BMI and BAI were strongly correlated with PBF in both men and women. The correlation coefficient between BMI and PBF was higher than that between BAI and PBF for both sexes. For the linear regression analysis, BMI better predicted PBF in both men and women; the variation around the regression lines for each sex was greater for BAI comparisons. For the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BMI was higher than that for BAI for each sex, which suggests that the discriminatory capacity of the BMI is higher than the one of BAI. Taken together, we conclude that BMI is a more reliable indicator of PBF derived from skinfold thickness in adult Buryats. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assessment of the physical activity, body mass index and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Declining levels of physical activity at workplaces, during leisure time and when travelling, accompanied by increasing exposure to the mass media, are major determinants of the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to assess physical activity, the body mass index (BMI) and energy intake of human ...

  13. [Relationship among prop phenotype, body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and food intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, Nina Del Rocío; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge Alfonso; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The PROP phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil) has been proposed as indicator of body mass index, adiposity and food intake. This relationship among variables is contradictory. No correlation has been found among the PROP phenotype, body indicators and energy consumption in some studies. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship among PROP taster status, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), total body fat (TBF) and food intake. The PROP taster status was established using two scales: the nine-point scale and the general labeled magnitude scale. Dietary habits of participants were recorded online during 35 days. The classification by PROP phenotype varied according to the scale. No significant differences were observed between PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters, with both scales, in body mass index, waist circumference, total body fat and energy and macronutrient intake. The PROP phenotype was not an indicator factor of body weight, adiposity and energy and macronutrients consumption in young adults.

  14. Size matters: relationships between body size and body mass of common coastal, aquatic invertebrates in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Eklöf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Organism biomass is one of the most important variables in ecological studies, making biomass estimations one of the most common laboratory tasks. Biomass of small macroinvertebrates is usually estimated as dry mass or ash-free dry mass (hereafter ‘DM’ vs. ‘AFDM’ per sample; a laborious and time consuming process, that often can be speeded up using easily measured and reliable proxy variables like body size or wet (fresh mass. Another common way of estimating AFDM (one of the most accurate but also time-consuming estimates of biologically active tissue mass is the use of AFDM/DM ratios as conversion factors. So far, however, these ratios typically ignore the possibility that the relative mass of biologically active vs. non-active support tissue (e.g., protective exoskeleton or shell—and therefore, also AFDM/DM ratios—may change with body size, as previously shown for taxa like spiders, vertebrates and trees. Methods We collected aquatic, epibenthic macroinvertebrates (>1 mm in 32 shallow bays along a 360 km stretch of the Swedish coast along the Baltic Sea; one of the largest brackish water bodies on Earth. We then estimated statistical relationships between the body size (length or height in mm, body dry mass and ash-free dry mass for 14 of the most common taxa; five gastropods, three bivalves, three crustaceans and three insect larvae. Finally, we statistically estimated the potential influence of body size on the AFDM/DM ratio per taxon. Results For most taxa, non-linear regression models describing the power relationship between body size and (i DM and (ii AFDM fit the data well (as indicated by low SE and high R2. Moreover, for more than half of the taxa studied (including the vast majority of the shelled molluscs, body size had a negative influence on organism AFDM/DM ratios. Discussion The good fit of the modelled power relationships suggests that the constants reported here can be used to quickly estimate

  15. A Solvable Model of Species Body Mass Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    We present a quantitative model for the biological evolution of species body masses within large groups of related species, e.g., terrestrial mammals, in which body mass M evolves according to branching (speciating) multiplicative diffusion and an extinction probability that increases logarithmically with mass. We describe this evolution in terms of a convection-diffusion-reaction equation for ln M. The steady-state behavior is in good agreement with empirical data on recent terrestrial mammals, and the time-dependent behavior also agrees with data on extinct mammal species between 95 - 50 million years ago.

  16. Body size and human energy requirements: reduced mass-specific resting energy expenditure in tall adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Childers, Douglas; Beetsch, Joel; Allison, David B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-11-01

    Two observations favor the presence of a lower mass-specific resting energy expenditure (REE/weight) in taller adult humans: an earlier report of height (H)-related differences in relative body composition; and a combined model based on Quetelet and Kleiber's classic equations suggesting that REE/weight proportional, variantH(-0.5). This study tested the hypothesis stating that mass-specific REE scales negatively to height with a secondary aim exploration of related associations between height, weight (W), surface area (SA), and REE. Two independent data sets (n = 344 and 884) were evaluated, both with REE measured by indirect calorimetry and the smaller of the two including fat estimates by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results support Quetelet's equation (W proportional, variantH(2)), but Kleiber's equation approached the interspecific mammal form (REE proportional, variantW(0.75)) only after adding adiposity measures to weight and age as REE predictors. REE/weight scaled as H( approximately (-0.5)) in support of the hypothesis with P values ranging from 0.17 to <0.001. REE and SA both scaled as H( approximately 1.5), and REE/SA was nonsignificantly correlated with height in all groups. These observations suggest that adiposity needs to be considered when evaluating the intraspecific scaling of REE to weight; that relative to their weight, taller subjects require a lower energy intake for replacing resting heat losses than shorter subjects; that fasting endurance, approximated as fat mass/REE, increases as H(0.5); and that thermal balance is maintained independent of stature by evident stable associations between resting heat production and capacity of external heat release. These observations have implications for the modeling of adult human energy requirements and associate with anthropological concepts founded on body size.

  17. Correlation and discrepancies between obesity by body mass index and body fat in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Alban; Lavie, Carl J; Arce, Karla; Menendez, Sylvia Gra; Milani, Richard V

    2013-01-01

    Despite its many shortcomings, body mass index (BMI) is the most widely used screening tool for obesity, in part, because of its practicality. Other more physiologic measurements of obesity are based on body fat (BF). However, the correlation between BMI and BF has not been well-characterized, especially in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We retrospectively studied 581 patients with CHD following major CHD events, who were divided according to BMI (calculated as weight divided by height squared), based on the World Health Organization standard cutoff points (underweight [obese [≥30 kg/m]). Second, the population was divided according to BF, on the basis of the age- and gender-adjusted Gallagher BF classification into underweight, normal, overweight, and obese categories. Body mass index and percent BF correlated significantly (r = 0.60; P obesity, care must be taken when using a crude screening tool such as BMI. While it is not expected for all clinicians to add BF assessments within routine patient assessments, the results of this study may be helpful to guide clinicians and researchers who are considering different aspects of body composition.

  18. [The relationship between physical activity, body mass index, body composition and grip strength in an Icelandic population.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guðmundsdóttir, Sigríður Lára; Oskarsdóttir, Díana; Franzson, Leifur; Indriðason, Olafur Skúli; Sigurðsson, Gunnar

    2004-06-01

    To study physical activity among Icelandic adults and the relationship with anthropometric factors and grip strength. Randomly selected participants, 30-85 years of age, answered questions regarding exercise and diet. Body composition was measured with DXA, which detects the proportions of different body tissues. Height, weight and grip strength were measured and the body mass index (kg/m(2)) was calculated. The prevalence of regular physical activity was studied for men and women in the age groups of 30-45 years, 50-65 years and 70-85 years and the relationship to body mass index, body composition and grip strength examined. The possible preventive effect of exercise on overweight and obesity was also studied. Of 2310 invited, 1630 subjects (70.6%) participated. Mean participation in regular physical activity was 3-4 times a week but 19% of the women and 24% of the men did no exercise at all. In general, swimming, walking and calisthenics of various types and intensities were the most common forms of exercise and in the age group 30-45 year old 16% of the women and 8% of the men did strength training. 50.4% of women 30-45 years of age and 68.2% of 50-65 year old men were overweight or obese. Mean fat mass was highest in 70-85 year old women (38%) and men (27%). Occupational activity was not related to body mass index, body composition or grip strength. Significant negative relationship was found between frequency of exercise and fat mass. The relationship between grip strength and lean mass or exercise was non-significant. The odds ratio of being overweight or obesity was 0.5 (CI was 0.37-0.77 for women and 0.37-0.94 for men) for those who exercised five or more days per week compared to those who exercised less frequently. One of four Icelandic men and one of five women do not participate in regular physical activity despite of strong scientific indications of various positive health effects of exercise. More than half of adult Icelanders are overweight or obese

  19. Rapid weight loss and the body fluid balance and hemoglobin mass of elite amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, Dejan; Hässler, Eike; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Dehydration is assumed to be a major adverse effect associated with rapid loss of body mass for competing in a lower weight class in combat sports. However, the effects of such weight cutting on body fluid balance in a real-life setting are unknown. To examine the effects of 5% or greater loss of body mass within a few days before competition on body water, blood volume, and plasma volume in elite amateur boxers. Case-control study. Sports medicine laboratory. Seventeen male boxers (age = 19.2 ± 2.9 years, height = 175.1 ± 7.0 cm, mass = 65.6 ± 9.2 kg) were assigned to the weight-loss group (WLG; n = 10) or the control group (CON; n = 7). The WLG reduced body mass by restricting fluid and food and inducing excessive sweat loss by adhering to individual methods. The CON participated in their usual precompetition training. During an ordinary training period (t-1), 2 days before competition (t-2), and 1 week after competition (t-3), we performed bioelectrical impedance measurements; calculated total body water, intracellular water, and extracellular water; and estimated total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass), blood volume, and plasma volume by the CO-rebreathing method. In the WLG, the loss of body mass (5.6% ± 1.7%) led to decreases in total body water (6.0% ± 0.9%), extracellular water (12.4% ± 7.6%), tHbmass (5.3% ± 3.8%), blood volume (7.6% ± 2.1%; P .05). At t-3, total body water, extracellular water, and plasma volume had returned to near baseline values, but tHbmass and blood volume still were less than baseline values (P .05). In a real-life setting, the loss of approximately 6% body mass within 5 days induced hypohydration, which became evident by the decreases in body water and plasma volume. The reduction in tHbmass was a surprising observation that needs further investigation.

  20. Separating Mass and Height Contributions in Gravity Variations at Medicina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, S.; Bruni, S.; Errico, M.; Santi, E.; Wziontek, H.

    2016-12-01

    During 1996, at the Medicina station, a GPS and a superconducting gravimeter (SG) were installed in the framework of an experiment focused on the comparison between height and gravity variations. Absolute gravity observations are also performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are recorded continuously. The station is also equipped with a second GPS system, the two antennas are very close to each other, and both are located in close proximity to the VLBI dish. Two decades of continuous height and gravity observations are now available which allow investigating both long and short period signals and the relevant correlations between the two measured quantities. Long period signatures are observed, a principal component is due to subsidence which is well known to occur in the area; however, also non-linear long-period behaviors are observed. Seasonal effects are also clearly recognizable in the time series and are mainly associated with the water table seasonal behavior. The station is characterized by clayey soil which is subject to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during the summer period. This effect is particularly recognizable in the SG data since the instrument is installed on a shallow foundation pillar which may suffer for height decreases in the order of 2,5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m.

  1. Comparison of two canine registry databases on the prevalence of hip dysplasia by breed and the relationship of dysplasia with body weight and height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comhaire, Frank H; Snaps, Frédéric

    2008-03-01

    To compare the results of 2 canine registries for classification of the hip joints for dysplasia by breed, and to relate the percentage of dysplastic dogs with body metric characteristics. Data on the ranking order of hip dysplasia by breed from 2 registries for 156 dog breeds. The prevalence of hip dysplasia listed by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) and the breed mean score according to the list of the British Veterinary Association (BVA) Kennel Club Hip Dysplasia scheme were related to weight and height as well as the body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) by breed. The OFA ranking order and the percentage of dysplastic dogs were highly correlated with the BVA mean score (rho = 0.74). A significant correlation was found between the prevalence of hip dysplasia and the BMI (r = 0.63). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the highest area under the curve, corresponding to the best discrimination, was at a BMI of 110 kg/m(2) with a criterion value of 15% dysplastic dogs (area under the curve, 0.89). Because the ratio of dogs in the positive and negative groups reflected the prevalence of the condition among breeds in the OFA database, the positive likelihood ratio was 9.32 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.24. The OFA statistics and the BVA mean scores reflected the prevalence of hip dysplasia among dog breeds. Body mass index accurately discriminated between breeds with high or low prevalence of hip dysplasia.

  2. Secular trends in body height in Balkan populations from 1945 to 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajlić, Nermin; Resić, Emina; Gradaščević, Anisa; Salihbegović, Adis; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž

    2014-11-14

    The aim of this study was to look for any secular trend in the stature of Balkan populations from the time of World War II (1939-1945) to the Balkans War (1991-1995). The research was based on the examination of exhumed skeletons of 202 men killed in World War II in the area of the Republic of Slovenia, and 243 men killed in the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The length measurements of the right and left humerus, femur, tibia and fibula were taken. Since the results revealed no significant differences and the left-sided bones were more complete and recurrent in the sample, the bones of the left side were used in the analysis. Since the increase in height depends mostly on the increase in length of the long bones, with an average absolute change of about 0.28 cm for humerus, 0.55 cm for femur, 0.49 cm for tibia and 0.20 cm for fibula per decade in our case, these results suggest a significant increase of the height of the Balkans population. The difference of the sum of the average femur and tibia length for the study period was 4.13 cm. Recalculated average length increase of the sum length of femur and tibia per decade was 0.88 cm for the left side. Our study revealed that there was a trend towards increased long bone lengths, at least in the male population analyzed.

  3. Evaluation of body fat estimated from body mass index and impedance in Belgian male military candidates: comparing two methods for estimating body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullie, Patrick; Vansant, Greet; Hulens, Mieke; Clarys, Peter; Degrave, Etienne

    2008-03-01

    The study objective was to evaluate whether a classification based on body mass index (BMI) agrees with a classification based on body fat mass, estimated by bioelectrical impedance. A random sample of 448 male candidates between 18 and 20 years was selected during their medical visit in a military recruitment center. BMI was determined as weight/height2 and was considered normal between 20.0 and 25.0 kg/m2 (cfr. WHO classification). Percentage of body fat was estimated with bioelectrical impedance, using the Omron Body Fat Analyzer HBF-306. Subjects with a body fat percentage measured by bipolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BF%(IMP)) or = 21.0% were considered overweight. We used the following classification: true positives were normal scores for BMI and impedance; false positives were normal scores for BMI but not for impedance; true negatives were overweight scores for BMI and for impedance; and false negatives were overweight scores for BMI but not for impedance. Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical program. BMI ranged from 17.0 to 29.4 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass varied between 5.3 and 31.4% of body weight. Of the total sample, 328 (73.2%) candidates were classified as true positive, 29 (6.5%) as false negative, 47 (10.5%) as false positive, and finally 44 (9.8%) as true negative. The difference in classification in normal weight versus overweight between the BMI method and the bipolar bioelectrical impedance method was statistically significant (chi2 with one df = 86.04; p < 0.001). To limit false-negative classifications, additional impedance measurements in the BMI category between 25.0 and 27.0 kg/m2 is mandatory to determine whether there is really an excess fat mass.

  4. Body mass and cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vernessa R; Hill, Oliver W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of body mass on cardiovascular reactivity to racism in African American college students. Cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate and blood pressure were measured as participants viewed a racially noxious scene on videotape. Body mass was measured using body mass index calculated using height and weight. We hypothesized that obese individuals would have greater cardiovascular reactivity to the scene than overweight individuals or individuals with normal weight. We also hypothesized that obese women would have the greatest cardiovascular reactivity to the scenes compared to overweight and normal weight women, and obese, overweight, and normal weight men. Lastly, we hypothesized that women would have greater cardiovascular reactivity than their male counterparts. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that obese participants had significantly greater stroke volume and cardiac output than participants of normal weight, indicating that obese participants were less emotionally aroused by the stressor. There was also a significant interaction between sex and body mass for heart rate reactivity between the stressor and recovery periods. Obese women had the largest drop in heart rate, while obese men had the smallest drop from the stressor period to the recovery period. The findings revealed that obese participants were less aroused by the stressors and recovered from them more quickly than overweight participants and participants of normal weight. The frequent experiences of weight prejudices by the obese group may have desensitized them to other prejudices such as the racial intolerance shown in the stressor.

  5. Can Handgrip Strength Improve Following Body Mass-Based Lower Body Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yaginuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knee extension strength (KES improves following body mass-based lower body exercise training; however, it is unknown whether this type of exercise increases handgrip strength (HGS as a result of a cross-education effect in older individuals. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a body mass-based exercise intervention on HGS and KES in older adults. At baseline, 166 subjects started a 12-week intervention program, and 160 (108 women and 52 men subjects completed the study. A self-selected group of 37 older adults (21 women and 16 men served as a control group. HGS, KES, and ultrasound-derived anterior thigh muscle thickness (anterior thigh MT were measured at baseline and post-testing, and relative strength of the knee extensor (KES/anterior thigh MT was calculated. A linear regression model controlling for baseline values of body–mass index, % body fat, fat-free mass, HGS, chair stand time, anterior thigh MT, and KES/body mass ratio found a significant difference between control and training groups for KES post-testing values (p = 0.001 and anterior thigh MT post-testing values (p = 0.012, but not for HGS post-testing values (p = 0.287. Our results suggest that increases in lower body strength and muscle size following a 12-week lower body mass-based exercise intervention fail to translate into improvements in HGS.

  6. Can Handgrip Strength Improve Following Body Mass-Based Lower Body Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaginuma, Yu; Abe, Takashi; Thiebaud, Robert S.; Kitamura, Takahiro; Kawanishi, Masashi; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Knee extension strength (KES) improves following body mass-based lower body exercise training; however, it is unknown whether this type of exercise increases handgrip strength (HGS) as a result of a cross-education effect in older individuals. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a body mass-based exercise intervention on HGS and KES in older adults. At baseline, 166 subjects started a 12-week intervention program, and 160 (108 women and 52 men) subjects completed the study. A self-selected group of 37 older adults (21 women and 16 men) served as a control group. HGS, KES, and ultrasound-derived anterior thigh muscle thickness (anterior thigh MT) were measured at baseline and post-testing, and relative strength of the knee extensor (KES/anterior thigh MT) was calculated. A linear regression model controlling for baseline values of body–mass index, % body fat, fat-free mass, HGS, chair stand time, anterior thigh MT, and KES/body mass ratio found a significant difference between control and training groups for KES post-testing values (p = 0.001) and anterior thigh MT post-testing values (p = 0.012), but not for HGS post-testing values (p = 0.287). Our results suggest that increases in lower body strength and muscle size following a 12-week lower body mass-based exercise intervention fail to translate into improvements in HGS. PMID:28451471

  7. Association of parental body mass index before pregnancy on infant growth and body composition: Evidence from a pregnancy cohort study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalbahar, Nurzalinda; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Loy, See Ling; Najman, Jake; McIntyre, Harold David; Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    Parental body mass index (BMI) is strongly linked with the development of offspring overweight and obesity. However, there are a limited number of studies focusing on the association of parental body mass index before pregnancy on offspring growth and body composition in early life, particularly in developing countries. Data from the University Sains Malaysia (USM) Pregnancy Cohort which consists of 153 mother-offspring pairs were used. Data were collected using interview-administered questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and generalised equation estimation (GEE) were used to examine the direction and impact of the association between parental BMI and child growth and body composition (weight for age, height for age, body mass index for age, weight for height and fat mass at age 2m, 6m, and 12m). Potential confounders, including validated measures of maternal diets and physical activity during pregnancy, were considered. Of 153 parents, one-quarter of the mothers and 42.2% of the fathers, respectively, were overweight or obese before pregnancy. A significant association was found between maternal BMI and child's weight for height z-score (WHZ) and body mass index for age z-score (BAZ). Having high pre-pregnancy BMI may increase BMI and WAZ of offspring in early life. Findings from this study emphasise the importance of monitoring maternal weight status, particularly before and during pregnancy and early life of offspring among Malaysians. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, and leptin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shah, Nirav R; Braverman, Eric R

    2012-01-01

    ...%. Currently, the body mass index (BMI) is most commonly used to determine adiposity. However, BMI presents as an inaccurate obesity classification method that underestimates the epidemic and contributes to failed treatment...

  9. Considering body mass differences, who are the world's strongest women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, P M; Dooman, C

    2000-01-01

    Allometric modeling (AM) has been used to determine the world's strongest body mass-adjusted man. Recently, however, AM was shown to demonstrate body mass bias in elite Olympic weightlifting performance. A second order polynomial (2OP) provided a better fit than AM with no body mass bias for men and women. The purpose of this study was to apply both AM and 2OP models to women's world powerlifting records (more a function of pure strength and less power than Olympic lifts) to determine the optimal model approach as well as the strongest body mass-adjusted woman in each event. Subjects were the 36 (9 per event) current women world record holders (as of Nov., 1997) for bench press (BP), deadlift (DL), squat (SQ), and total (TOT) lift (BP + DL + SQ) according to the International Powerlifting Federation (IPF). The 2OP model demonstrated the superior fit and no body mass bias as indicated by the coefficient of variation and residuals scatterplot inspection, respectively, for DL, SQ, and TOT. The AM for these three lifts, however, showed favorable bias toward the middle weight classes. The 2OP and AM yielded an essentially identical fit for BP. Although body mass-adjusted world records were dependent on the model used, Carrie Boudreau (U.S., 56-kg weight class), who received top scores in TOT and DL with both models, is arguably the world's strongest woman overall. Furthermore, although the 2OP model provides a better fit than AM for this elite population, a case can still be made for AM use, particularly in light of theoretical superiority.

  10. Higher body mass index associated with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katherine; Schroth, Robert J; Levi, Jeremy A; Yaffe, Aaron B; Mittermuller, Betty-Anne; Sellers, Elizabeth A C

    2016-08-20

    Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay in preschool children affecting quality of life and nutritional status. The purpose was to determine whether there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and S-ECC. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their slated dental surgery under general anesthesia. Age-matched, caries-free controls were recruited from the community. All children were participating in a larger study on nutrition and S-ECC. Analysis was restricted to children ≥ 24 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire and heights and weights were recorded. BMI scores and age and gender adjusted BMI z-scores and percentiles were calculated. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was significant. Two hundred thirty-five children were included (141 with S-ECC and 94 caries-free). The mean age was 43.3 ± 12.8 months and 50.2 % were male. Overall, 34.4 % of participants were overweight or obese. Significantly more children with S-ECC were classified as overweight or obese when compared to caries-free children (p = 0.038) and had significantly higher mean BMI z-scores than caries-free children (0.78 ± 1.26 vs. 0.22 ± 1.36, p = 0.002). Those with S-ECC also had significantly higher BMI percentiles (69.0 % ± 29.2 vs. 56.8 % ± 31.7, p = 0.003). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were significantly and independently associated with S-ECC and annual household income as were BMI percentiles. Children with S-ECC in our sample had significantly higher BMI z-scores than caries-free peers.

  11. Childhood body mass index in relation to future risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, M B; Freedman, N D; Gamborg, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Middle-aged obese adults are at substantially elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear whether this risk originates earlier in life. METHODS: We assessed associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and height-measured annually between ages 7 and 13-with adult...... the mechanisms require further investigation, our findings provide additional evidence for the long-term health risks of childhood obesity....... oesophageal adenocarcinoma in a cohort from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Analyses included 255 053 children born during 1930-1971. Danish Cancer Registry linkage provided outcomes. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression...

  12. Hostility and Trajectories of Body Mass Index Over 19 Years: The Whitehall II Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimaki, Mika; Sabia, Séverine; Dugravot, Aline; Lajnef, Mohamed; Marmot, Michael,; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The authors examined the associations of hostility measured in adulthood with subsequent body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) assessed at 4 time points over a 19-year period (1985-2004) in a United Kingdom cohort study. A total of 6,484 participants (4,494 men and 1,990 women) aged 35-55 years at baseline (1985-1988) completed the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. BMI was assessed upon medical examination in phases 1 (1985-1988), 3 (1991-1993), 5 (1997-1999), an...

  13. Body Mass Index and Risk of Infections Among Women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Nielsen, Nete M; Friis-Møller, Nina

    2016-01-01

    baseline BMI and later hospitalization for 1) any infectious disease and 2) infections of the respiratory tract, whereas a dose-response relationship was seen for skin infections. The most pronounced associations were seen for acute upper respiratory infections at multiple and unspecified sites......We investigated the possible association between body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and hospitalization or treatment for acute infection in a prospective cohort study. We linked 75,001 women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1996 to 2002, who had information on BMI...... was observed among overweight (BMI 25-infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin....

  14. Body mass index and overweight in adolescents in 13 European countries, Israel, and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge; Overpeck, Mary D; Ruan, W June

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and the prevalence of BMI at or above the 85th centile and 95th centile (overweight) in adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, nationally representative school-based surveys...... in 1997-1998 by means of identical data collection methods. SETTING: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Flemish Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Ireland, Israel, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 29 242 boys and girls, aged 13 and 15 years...

  15. Abnormal body composition and reduced bone mass in growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshyah, S A; Freemantle, C; Thomas, E; Rutherford, O; Page, B; Murphy, M; Johnston, D G

    1995-02-01

    The role of growth hormone in maintaining normal body composition and bone strength in adults has attracted much interest recently. We have assessed body composition and bone mass in GH deficient hypopituitary adults on conventional replacement therapy and compared them with matched controls. A cross-sectional study of 64 growth hormone deficient hypopituitary adults (29 males and 35 females) on conventional replacement therapy and a large number of healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Skinfold thicknesses at two sites (triceps and subscapular), waist and hip girth circumferences were assessed by standard methods. Body composition was assessed using total body potassium (TBK), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone mineral mass was assessed at the lumbar spine and the total body by DEXA. Not every patient and control participated in every measurement. Obesity was common in the hypopituitary patients; BMI (mean +/- SD) was 27.5 +/- 4.6 kg/m2 and body weight was 111.8 +/- 18.5% of the maximal ideal for height (P body weight was significantly lower in hypopituitary patients (n = 44) than in controls (n = 31) (men 43.5 +/- 5.6 vs 50.1 +/- 5.9 mmol/kg, P body water content (corrected for body weight) was significantly lower in hypopituitary patients (n = 56) than in controls (n = 57) (0.492 +/- 0.064 vs 0.545 +/- 0.067 l/kg, P body fat derived from all the three methods was significantly higher in hypopituitary patients than in normal controls in both sexes (from TBK: men 34.7 +/- 9.4 vs 28.8 +/- 7.0%, P fat in both sexes and in TBK-derived percentage fat in females only. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine in the L2-L4 region was lower in hypopituitary patients than in controls (men 1.116 +/- 0.129 vs 1.311 +/- 0.131 g/cm2, P body BMD was significantly lower in patients than in controls (men 1.186 +/- 0.102 vs 1.250 +/- 0.080 g/cm2, P body composition with increased fat

  16. Evaluating the predictive ability of childhood body mass index classification systems for overweight and obesity at 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Ebba; Sjöberg, Agneta; Chaplin, John E; Leu, Monica; Mehlig, Kirsten; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Lissner, Lauren

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of three childhood body mass index classification systems defining weight status at age 10, for predicting overweight and obesity at 18 years, according to the World Health Organization adult body mass index classification. Weight and height of 4235 Swedish girls and boys were measured both at around ages 10 and 18 years. Predictive ability of the extended International Obesity Task Force body mass index cut-offs (2012), the World Health Organization body mass index-for-age (2007) and a Swedish body mass index reference (2001) were assessed for sensitivity and specificity. For predicting overweight including obesity at 18 years, the World Health Organization 2007 and the Swedish body mass index reference 2001 had similar sensitivity, 68% and 71%. The International Obesity Task Force 2012 had a significantly lower sensitivity, 53%. Specificity was 82-91% and highest for International Obesity Task Force 2012. For predicting obesity, the sensitivity for International Obesity Task Force 2012 was 29%, significantly lower than for the other two, 63% and 70%. Specificity was 94-100%, and highest for International Obesity Task Force 2012. In situations when optimal screening sensitivity is required for identifying as many high-risk children as possible, the World Health Organization 2007 and the Swedish body mass index reference 2001 performed better than the International Obesity Task Force 2012. However, it is important to keep in mind that the International Obesity Task Force 2012 will identify the fewest false positives. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Associations between body mass index and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    326. Associations between body mass index and serum levels of. C-reactive protein. Tung-Wei Kao, I-Shu Lu, Kuo-Chen Liao, Hsiu-Yun Lai, Ching-Hui Loh, Hsu-Ko .... Weight was measured with a Toledo digital scale and recorded to the nearest 0.01 kg. BMI was calculated as mass in kilograms divided by the square of ...

  18. Body composition in coronary heart disease: how does body mass index correlate with body fatness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Alban; Lavie, Carl J; Gonzalez, Jose; Milani, Richard V

    2011-01-01

    Despite its many known shortcomings, body mass index (BMI) is the most widely used measure of obesity, in part because of its practicality. Other more physiologic measurements of obesity have been proposed, including percent body fat (BF). Few studies have compared BMI and BF, especially in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We studied 581 patients with CHD following major CHD events. We divided patients into low (≤ 25% in men and ≤ 35% in women) and high BF (> 25% in men and > 35% in women) as determined by the sum of the skin-fold method and compared these findings with standard BMI determinations. BMI and BF were highly correlated (r  =  0.60; P obese vs nonobese) in 68% of cases. The agreement was optimal in the underweight (BMI obese class II category (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m(2)), in which 100% of patients were classified as nonobese and obese, respectively, by both BMI and BF categories. The performance was worst in patients with BMIs in the overweight or preobese range (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), in which 58% of patients would be classified as obese according to BF criteria. Although some CHD patients are classified differently by BMI and BF, especially within the overweight BMI group, in general BMI and BF are highly correlated, especially in the underweight and obese BMI groups. Prospective studies are needed to determine which index of obesity best predicts risk in primary and secondary prevention.

  19. [Body height, body weight and the Quetelet-Kaup Index in students 13 to 16 years of age in a rural district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, V

    1989-01-01

    The influence of excessive body weight on cardiovascular disorders and mortality has been demonstrated for adults. The prognosis for extreme obesity is also unfavourable for young people. However, there is still a considerable lack of clarity about the predictions to be based on slight or moderate obesity in childhood and adolescence. The results of the measurement of the height and body weight of 1,252 pupils of between 13 and 16 years in an rural district, together with the calculations of the Quetelet Kaup index, are set out here. Over this age rang the Quetelet Kaup index increased from 18.8 kg/m2 to 20.6 kg/m2 for the boys and from 19.5 kg/m2 to 21.3 kg/m2 for the girls. There is a discussion of the connections between relative body weight and sexual maturity.

  20. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  1. Effects of independently altering body weight and body mass on the metabolic cost of running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Grabowski, A.; Kram, R.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic cost of running is substantial, despite the savings from elastic energy storage and return. Previous studies suggest that generating vertical force to support body weight and horizontal forces to brake and propel body mass are the major determinants of the metabolic cost of running. In

  2. Height and Body Size in Childhood, Adolescence and Young Adulthood and Breast Cancer Risk According to Molecular Subtype in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Erica T.; Hu, Rong; Collins, Laura C.; Beck, Andrew H.; Schnitt, Stuart; Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A. Heather; Michels, Karin B.; Willett, Walter C.; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2016-01-01

    Height and body size in childhood and young adulthood have been consistently associated with breast cancer risk; whether associations differ across molecular subtypes is unclear. In a pooled analysis of the Nurses’ Health Studies we prospectively examined the association of four exposures: height, body mass index (BMI) at age 18, childhood and adolescent somatotypes, with breast cancer risk according to molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical markers. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).We identified 2983 luminal A, 1281 luminal B, 318 HER2-enriched, 408 basal-like and 128 unclassified tumors. Height was positively associated with all subtypes (p-heterogeneity=0.78). BMI at age 18 (p-heterogeneity=0.001), childhood (p-heterogeneity=0.51) and adolescent somatotype (p-heterogeneity=0.046) were inversely associated, but with differences in magnitude of association. BMI at age 18 of ≥25 kg/m2 (compared to 20-21.9 kg/m2) was associated with a 52% decreased risk of HER2-enriched (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.26-0.91; p-trend <0.0001) and 39% reduced risk of basal-like tumors (HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.36-1.02; p-trend=0.008). Compared to the lowest category, women in the highest adolescent body size category were 71% less likely to develop HER2-enriched (HR: 0.29, 95%CI: 0.10-0.85; p-trend=0.0005) and 60% less likely to develop basal-like (HR: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.95; p-trend=0.0008). Height was positively associated with risk of all breast cancer molecular subtypes. BMI at age 18 and childhood and adolescent were inversely associated with risk of most breast cancer molecular subtypes with somewhat stronger associations with HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes. PMID:27590596

  3. Body Mass and Circumference of Upper Arm Are Associated with Race Performance in Ultraendurance Runners in a Multistage Race--The Isarrun 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Welzel, Ulrich; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association of anthropometric parameters with race performance in ultraendurance runners in a multistage ultraendurance run, in which athletes had to run 338 km within 5 consecutive days. In 17 male successful finishers, calculations of body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, extremity circumference,…

  4. Relationship of body composition with bone mineral density in northern Chinese men by body mass index levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D; Liu, Z; Wang, Y; Zhang, H; Feng, X; Cao, W; Wang, P

    2014-04-01

    Osteoporosis and obesity are severe public health problems in an aging society, and as we all know, bone mineral density (BMD) is closely related to fat mass (FM) and fat distribution. However, studies have long focused on pre- or post-menopausal women, and its presence in men has been underestimated. To investigate the differential impact of fat on BMD, we characterized body composition of northern Chinese men and examined the relationship with BMD according to body mass index (BMI) levels. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 502 healthy northern Chinese men aged 20-89 screened from the participants in a community-based osteoporosis prevention study conducted by the Research Center of Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong University from 2009 to 2010. The qualified subjects were stratified according to BMI levels as normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI obesity (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2), n = 140). Total body, left femur, lumbar spine BMD and lean mass (LM), FM, percent body fat (%BF) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pearson correlation and age-adjusted partial correlation analyses between body composition-related parameters and BMD were performed. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship of BMD with LM, FM and %BF. Height and weight had positive associations with BMD at all sites, although age had negative associations. Of all subjects, LM and FM were positively correlated with BMD at almost sites (P obesity, no relations were reflected between FM and BMD. %BF showed negative correlations with BMD at arm and leg (P BMD at total body, arm, leg, hip (P obesity. In regression models, both FM and LM showed statistically positively significant relations with total body and regional BMD in all subjects (all P BMD at almost site (all P BMD at total body, arm, leg and total femur in overweight and obesity. The relationship between LM and BMD was certain in northern Chinese men while fat-bone relationship was complicated. %BF had a

  5. Association of Childhood Body Mass Index and Change in Body Mass Index With First Adult Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line K; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars; Truelsen, Thomas C; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-08-21

    The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic stroke and to assess whether the associations are age dependent or influenced by birth weight. This investigation was a population-based cohort study of schoolchildren born from 1930 to 1987, with follow-up through national health registers from 1977 to 2012 in Denmark. Participants were 307 677 individuals (8899 ischemic stroke cases) with measured weight and height at ages 7 to 13 years. The dates of the analysis were September 1, 2015, to May 27, 2016. Childhood BMI, change in BMI, and birth weight. Ischemic stroke events were divided into early (≤55 years) or late (>55 years) age at diagnosis. The study cohort comprised 307 677 participants (approximately 49% female and 51% male). During the study period, 3529 women and 5370 men experienced an ischemic stroke. At all ages from 7 to 13 years, an above-average BMI z score was positively associated with early ischemic stroke. At age 13 years, a BMI z score of 1 was associated with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.11-1.43) in women and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10-1.33) in men. No significant associations were found for below-average BMI z scores. Among children with above-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20) and in men (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). Similarly, among children with below-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and in men (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Adjusting for birth weight minimally affected the associations. Independent of birth weight, above

  6. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  7. Neonatal Body Composition: Measuring Lean Mass as a Tool to Guide Nutrition Management in the Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Melissa S; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal nutrition adequacy is often determined by infant weight gain. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about neonatal body composition and the use of body composition as a measure for adequate neonatal nutrition. Unlike traditional anthropometric measures of height and weight, body composition measurements account for fat vs nonfat mass gains. This provides a more accurate picture of neonatal composition of weight gain. Providing adequate neonatal nutrition in the form of quantity and composition can be a challenge, especially when considering the delicate balance of providing adequate nutrition to preterm infants for catch-up growth. Monitoring weight gain as fat mass and nonfat mass while documenting dietary intake of fat, protein, and carbohydrate in formulas may help provide the medical community the tools to provide optimal nutrition for catch-up growth and for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. Tracking body composition in term and preterm infants may also provide critical future information concerning the nutritional state of infants who go on to develop future disease such as obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia as adolescents or adults. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. A test of the resource security and the body mass index reference point hypotheses of body dissatisfaction amongst adolescents in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Skouteris, Helen; Mussap, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify cultural-level variables that may influence the extent to which adolescents from different cultural groups are dissatisfied with their bodies. A sample of 1730 male and 2000 female adolescents from Australia, Fiji, Malaysia, Tonga, Tongans in New Zealand, China, Chile, and Greece completed measures of body satisfaction, and the sociocultural influences on body image and body change questionnaire, and self-reported height and weight. Country gross domestic product and national obesity were recorded using global databases. Prevalence of obesity/overweight and cultural endorsement of appearance standards explained variance in individual-level body dissatisfaction (BD) scores, even after controlling for the influence of individual differences in body mass index and internalization of appearance standards. Cultural-level variables may account for the development of adolescent BD.

  9. Parental education and family income affect birthweight, early longitudinal growth and body mass index development differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsved, Rebecka; Regber, Susann; Novak, Daniel; Mehlig, Kirsten; Lissner, Lauren; Mårild, Staffan

    2018-01-07

    This study investigated the effects of two parental socio-economic characteristics, education and income, on growth and risk of obesity in children from birth to 8 years of age. Longitudinal growth data and national register-based information on socio-economic characteristics were available for 3,030 Swedish children. The development of body mass index (BMI) and height was compared in groups dichotomised by parental education and income. Low parental education was associated with a higher BMI from 4 years of age, independent of income, immigrant background, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy. Low family income was associated with a lower birthweight, but did not independently predict BMI development. At 8 years of age, children from less educated families had a three times higher risk of obesity, independent of parental income. Children whose parents had fewer years of education but high income had significantly higher height than all other children. Parental education protected against childhood obesity, even after adjusting for income and other important parental characteristics. Income-related differences in height, despite similar BMIs, raise questions about body composition and metabolic risk profiles. The dominant role of education underscores the value of health literacy initiatives for the parents of young children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prediction of whole-body fat percentage and visceral adipose tissue mass from five anthropometric variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G Swainson

    Full Text Available The conventional measurement of obesity utilises the body mass index (BMI criterion. Although there are benefits to this method, there is concern that not all individuals at risk of obesity-associated medical conditions are being identified. Whole-body fat percentage (%FM, and specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT mass, are correlated with and potentially implicated in disease trajectories, but are not fully accounted for through BMI evaluation. The aims of this study were (a to compare five anthropometric predictors of %FM and VAT mass, and (b to explore new cut-points for the best of these predictors to improve the characterisation of obesity.BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR and waist/height0.5 (WHT.5R were measured and calculated for 81 adults (40 women, 41 men; mean (SD age: 38.4 (17.5 years; 94% Caucasian. Total body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry with Corescan (GE Lunar iDXA, Encore version 15.0 was also performed to quantify %FM and VAT mass. Linear regression analysis, stratified by sex, was applied to predict both %FM and VAT mass for each anthropometric variable. Within each sex, we used information theoretic methods (Akaike Information Criterion; AIC to compare models. For the best anthropometric predictor, we derived tentative cut-points for classifying individuals as obese (>25% FM for men or >35% FM for women, or > highest tertile for VAT mass.The best predictor of both %FM and VAT mass in men and women was WHtR. Derived cut-points for predicting whole body obesity were 0.53 in men and 0.54 in women. The cut-point for predicting visceral obesity was 0.59 in both sexes.In the absence of more objective measures of central obesity and adiposity, WHtR is a suitable proxy measure in both women and men. The proposed DXA-%FM and VAT mass cut-offs require validation in larger studies, but offer potential for improvement of obesity characterisation and the identification of individuals

  11. Body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and obstetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to ...

  12. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  13. Body mass index and its effect on serum cortisol level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... Subjects, Materials and Methods: Seventy healthy participants agreed to take part in the study. The anthropometric .... administered, the blood sample was drawn for cortisol level at 30 min. The samples were ... BMI=Body mass index, WC=Waist circumference, SBP=Systolic blood pressure, DBP=Diastolic ...

  14. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed ...

  15. Association of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with atherogenic lipid profile in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. ... All patients were cholesterol‑lowering oral medication naïve. Demographic and clinical data and anthropometric measurements were documented. Fasting lipid profiles were ...

  16. Quantile regression analysis of body mass and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Meliyanni; Katayama, Hajime

    2012-05-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the relationship between body mass and wages. We use quantile regression to provide a broad description of the relationship across the wage distribution. We also allow the relationship to vary by the degree of social skills involved in different jobs. Our results find that for female workers body mass and wages are negatively correlated at all points in their wage distribution. The strength of the relationship is larger at higher-wage levels. For male workers, the relationship is relatively constant across wage distribution but heterogeneous across ethnic groups. When controlling for the endogeneity of body mass, we find that additional body mass has a negative causal impact on the wages of white females earning more than the median wages and of white males around the median wages. Among these workers, the wage penalties are larger for those employed in jobs that require extensive social skills. These findings may suggest that labor markets reward white workers for good physical shape differently, depending on the level of wages and the type of job a worker has. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Assessment of Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been described as a significant predictor of Blood Pressure (B.P) but few studies have demonstrated this association in our environment. The study aims to determine the pattern of relationship between BMI and blood pressure in our environment Two thousand and ninety six (2096) students in ...

  18. No association between body mass index and sperm DNA integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandel, I; Bungum, Mona; Richtoff, J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is overweight associated with impaired sperm DNA integrity? SUMMARY ANSWER: High body mass index (BMI) is not associated with impaired sperm DNA integrity as assessed by the DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies, based on fewer subjects and including...

  19. The relationship between body mass index, semen and sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Progesterone, Estradiol and testosterone by classical ELISA method. Semen samples obtained by masturbation after 72 hours of abstinence were analyzed for sperm count and motility. The results showed statistically significant correlations at 99% confidence level between body mass index and serum concentrations of ...

  20. Association between birthweight and later body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that birthweight is positively associated with body mass index (BMI) in later life, but it remains unclear whether this is explained by genetic factors or the intrauterine environment. We analysed the association between birthweight and BMI from infancy to adulthood ...

  1. Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....

  2. Nig. J. Physiol. Sci. The relationship between body mass index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    (FSH), Prolactin (PRL), Progesterone, Estradiol and testosterone by classical ELISA method. .... Testosterone (ng/ml). 6.00±0.24. Sperm count (millions/ml). 59.09±3.24. Sperm motility (%). 64.67±1.3. Table 2. Pearson's correlation coefficient between body mass index, .... that altered metabolism or an excess of fat-derived.

  3. Body Mass Index in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation ... excessive weight newborns exposed to maternal obesity ... weeks of gestation, and weight, considering an energy intake .... differences in relation to the first trimester (cholesterol in the ..... Exercise prevents maternal high‑fat.

  4. Relationship between body mass index and mortality among Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.; Pitkaniemi, J.; Heine, R.J.; Pyorala, K.; Soderberg, S.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality from various causes. Subjects/Methods: Data of 72¿947 European men and 62¿798 women aged 24–99 years at baseline were collaboratively analyzed. Both absolute and relative mortality risks were estimated

  5. LEAN BODY MASS AS A PREDICTOR OF PERFORMANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    siahkohian

    Society of Biomechanics and 15th Biennial Conference of the Canadian Society for. Biomechanics/Société Canadienne de Bioméchanique, 5-8 August 2008, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. CLEATHER, D.J. (2006). Adjusting powerlifting performances for differences in body mass. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ...

  6. Association of Body Mass Index and Serum Adipocytokines with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... histologically-confirmed breast cancer patients before surgery and 30 age- and menstrual status-matched healthy controls. Standardized questionnaires concerning age at presentation, age at menarche, parity, body mass index (BMI), electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure, lactation and oral contraceptive intake were ...

  7. Mass-imbalanced Three-Body Systems in Two Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.

    2013-01-01

    We consider three-body systems in two dimensions with zero-range interactions for general masses and interaction strengths. The momentum-space Schr\\"odinger equation is solved numerically and in the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation. The BO expression is derived using separable potentials and y...

  8. Body mass index and participation in organized mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women, and early diagnosis is essential for future prognosis. Evidence from mainly cross-sectional US studies with self-reported exposure and outcome found positive association of body mass index (BMI) with non-participation in mammographic...

  9. Parental Body Mass Index and Behavioral Problems in Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Susanne Hvolgaard; Hohwü, Lena; Olsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity has been associated with increased risk of offspring behavioral problems. We examined whether this association could be explained by familial factors by comparing associations for maternal body mass index (BMI) with associations for paternal BMI. We studied 38,314 children born...

  10. Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a long tradition of observational studies from developed societies linking overweight and obesity to low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between SES and obesity and determine whether variations in the body mass index (BMI) of adult Nigerians is influenced by their ...

  11. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils attending private ...

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY MASS AND OF DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They concluded that the greater the loss in body mass over this period, the lower the subsequent calving rate. The hypothesis, as formulated by t-amond. (1970), is supported by the findings of Ward (1968). Trail, Sacker & Fisher ( l97l ), Meaker ( 1975),. Steenkamp. van der Horst & Andrew (1975)and Buck,. Light, Rutherford ...

  13. Body mass index, pain and function in individuals with knee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), and high body mass index (BMI) may interfere with treatment effectiveness on pain and function in individuals with knee OA. This study investigated the effects of BMI on pain and function during a four‑week exercise programme in patients with ...

  14. Pattern of body mass index (BMI) among adult hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times Asaba – the capital of Delta State, Nigeria – is witnessing a rapid growth in urbanization and fast food eateries. Several studies have shown that Blood Pressure (BP) is directly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in populations worldwide. However, some variations exist in the pattern of the association ...

  15. Body Mass Index in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity in pregnancy can contribute to epigenetic changes. Aim: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation of the peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPAR) promoter region (−359 to − 260) in maternal and neonatal leukocytes. Subjects and ...

  16. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils ...

  17. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... time to fatigue to evaluate endurance time. The results: A significant distinction in muscle strength and endurance time among the obese, overweight groups comparing to the normal weight groups was identified. Additionally there was a positive correlation between muscle strength and body mass index ...

  18. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  19. Effects of adherence to antiretroviral therapy on body mass index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study determined the effect of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on body mass index (BMI) and immunological and virological parameters of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) attending University College Hospital, Ibadan. Methodology: Prospective cohort of consenting PLWHA ...

  20. An investigation into utilising gestational body mass index as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that its ease and effectiveness as a screening tool is evaluated. Appropriate medical and nutritional advice can then be given to pregnant women to improve both their own and their infants' birth-related outcomes and maternal morbidities. Keywords: maternal nutritional status, birth outcomes, gestational body mass index, ...

  1. Body Mass Index and Sexual Maturation in Adolescent Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with delayed sexual maturation. The Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelets Index is closely linked to events of puberty in normal children. We have so far, found no reports on studies on the relationship between BMI and puberty in patients with SCA. Objectives: To evaluate ...

  2. Relationship between body mass index and timing of maturation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Menarche is the first menstrual period. The increasing incidence of overweight/obesity and decline in the median age at menarche had led investigators to hypothesize potential associations of age at menarche with body mass index (BMI). We assess these associations between reproductive and ...

  3. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkinen Mauno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. Aims To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. Methods School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. Results The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD: 30.6 (SD 12.2 vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5; p  Conclusions Body mass, self-esteem and eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  4. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  5. INFLUENCE OF BODY HEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT AND THE AGE ON THE RESULTS ACHIEVED BY MAN-MARATHONERS IN A MARATHON RACE

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Rašiti Naser; Vlora Ajvazi; Adem Nura; Halim Hajredini

    2011-01-01

    The research is conducted on a sample of 100 successful man marathoners who has taken part in ten of the most popular marathon races. The sample of entities includes ten of the best placed marathoners in each race held during the year 2008. The aim of the research is to assess the influence of the body height, weight and the age of the marathoners on the final result in the race. The collected data is processed by the basic descriptive parameters. The entities have the average weight of 56.94...

  6. Relationship between body fat mass and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecki, Michał; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The protective effect of obesity on bone tissue has not been unequivocally demonstrated. On one hand, it is known that obese people have a lower risk of osteoporotic fractures compared with normal-weight individuals. On the other hand, obese patients are characterized by disorders of calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone metabolism. Moreover, it is not known whether it is fat or lean body mass that determines the development of bone mass. It can be assumed that adipose tissue exerts independent effects on bone remodeling by releasing a number of biologically active substances. Moreover, it seems that the main mechanism of action of these substances is closely related to the type and location of adipose tissue in the body. The present article describes the relationship between fat and bones, including the effect of body weight on bone tissue, the local mechanisms of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation, and the hormonal activity of adipose tissue.

  7. Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomoo; Kishi, Mikiya; Fushimi, Takashi; Ugajin, Shinobu; Kaga, Takayuki

    2009-08-01

    Acetic acid (AcOH), a main component of vinegar, recently was found to suppress body fat accumulation in animal studies. Hence we investigated the effects of vinegar intake on the reduction of body fat mass in obese Japanese in a double-blind trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups of similar body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. During the 12-week treatment period, the subjects in each group ingested 500 ml daily of a beverage containing either 15 ml of vinegar (750 mg AcOH), 30 ml of vinegar (1,500 mg AcOH), or 0 ml of vinegar (0 mg AcOH, placebo). Body weight, BMI, visceral fat area, waist circumference, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in both vinegar intake groups than in the placebo group. In conclusion, daily intake of vinegar might be useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome by reducing obesity.

  8. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  9. Body mass, spleen mass and level of thyroid hormones in juvenile hypothyroid rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksandić Dragutin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of hypothyroidism on body mass and spleen mass of rats was examined during the prenatal and early juvenile periods. Hypothyroidism was induced by the application of propylthiouracil (PTU in drinking water to the mothers from the first day of gravidity and during lactation, and the offspring were sacrificed on the 14th and 21st days after birth. The body mass of the juvenile rats was measured just before they were sacrificed. The concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in blood serum were determined in control and treated juvenile rats. The results indicate that PTU leads to a reduction in T3 and T4 serum concentrations in treated juvenile rats. Treated juvenile rats had a bigger body mass and spleen mass in comparison with control animals. These data indicate that hypothyroidism induced in the prenatal and early juvenile period leads to an increase in the body mass and spleen mass and disrupts the normal development of the spleen in the course of the examined period. .

  10. Greater body mass index is related to greater self-identified cold tolerance and greater insensible body mass loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dahee; Kim, Dami; Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo Young

    2016-08-22

    Insensible body mass loss (IBL) from the human body continuously occurs, which is an important component in body heat exchange. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of IBL to anthropometric characteristics and self-identified thermal tolerance. A total of 289 healthy young Korean males were chosen and sorted into the following three groups: heat tolerable only (HTO, N = 79), cold tolerable only (CTO, N = 104), neither heat nor cold tolerable (NHC, N = 106). They weighed before and after a 30-min rest under lightly clothed condition at an air temperature of 23 ± 1 °C with a relative humidity 55 ± 5 %RH. (1) The IBL of 289 males had a mean of 90 ± 75 g h(-1) (48 ± 40 g h(-1) m(-2)); (2) No significant difference in IBL among the three groups were found; (3) Significant differences in body weight and body mass index (BMI) among three groups were found (P body surface area (P = 0.059); (4) CTO was approximately 4.1 kg heavier in body weight (P body surface area. For healthy young males within normal anthropometric ranges in Korea, IBL was positively related to BMI, and individuals with greater BMI showed greater self-identified cold tolerance, but no direct relationship was found between IBL and self-identified cold tolerance. This suggests that body physique (e.g., BMI) could be an explanatory factor between insensible body heat loss and subjective cognition on cold tolerance.

  11. Ferritin and body mass index predict cardiac dysfunction in female adolescents with anorexia of the restrictive type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docx, Martine K F; Weyler, Joost; Simons, Annik; Ramet, José; Mertens, Luc

    2015-08-01

    Decreased left ventricular mass index in anorexia nervosa is amply reported. The aim of this study is to identify non-burdensome predictors of reduced left yentricular mass/height (cLVM) in a cohort of adolescent restrictive anorexic girls. This is a retrospective study of all anorexic girls of the restrictive type referred to our tertiary eating disorder unit between September 2002 and December 2012, for somatic assessment of weig ht loss. All subjects fulfilled DMS-IV criteria, without a family history of cardiac or cardiovascular diseases. In all, 283 restrictive anorexic girls (age: 14.63 +/- 1.65 y; body mass index: 15.72 +/- 1.81 kg/m2) were included. Ferritin and body mass index were independent, statistically significant predictors of the corrected left ventricular mass (P anorexia nervosa of the restrictive type. Two factors predicted decreased cLVM in our population: ferritin and BMI.

  12. Procedure to Measure Effect of Excess Body Mass on Musculoskeleture: II. Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2008-03-01

    There are a number of ways in which the musculoskeletal system can be affected by excess body mass. One representative quantity for these is the torque exerted on the spinal column about a horizontal lateral axis; hence, its use as an illustrative mechanical indicator in the research reported here. Values of the torque are determined for all subjects in an exceptionally broad adult population that was developed during a companion study. Increases in body mass index caused nearly uniform increases in torque for all height percentiles in both sexes. Overweight individuals had torques that were 35 and 30 percent greater (females and males, respectively) than those for healthy individuals of the same height. Corresponding increases for obese individuals occurred at the much higher levels of 75 and 66 percent. Any resulting musculosketal damage from this is in addition to other problems arising from obesity, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure. However, whereas the latter can be treated or managed with medication, some facets of the former might be irreversible and/or irremediable.

  13. Use of upper arm anthropometry, upper arm muscle area-by-height (UAMAH and midupper- arm-circumference (MUAC-for-height as indicators of body composition and nutritional status among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debnath Sampriti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Upper arm anthropometry has a potential role to provide useful estimations of body composition and nutritional status. Aims of the present cross-sectional study were to assess body composition and nutritional status of rural school-going children using upper arm anthropometric measures such as upper arm muscle area-by-height (UAMAH and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC for-height. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 1281 children of West Bengal, India (boys 619, girls 662 aged 5-12 years and selected using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements of height, weight, MUAC and triceps skinfold (TSF were recorded. Body composition and nutritional status were assessed using upper arm muscle area (UMA, upper arm fat area (UFA, UAMAH and MUAC-forheight. Age-sex-specific overall adiposity in TSF, UFA, arm fat index and upper-arm fat area estimates were higher among girls than boys (p0.05. Upper arm anthropometric measures, UAMAH and MUAC-for-height are useful for assessment of body composition and nutritional status among children.

  14. Relationship between Height-Weight Difference Index and Body-Fat Percentage Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokkarn Juntaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The height-weight difference index (HWDI is a new indicator for evaluating obesity status. While body-fat percentage (BF% is considered to be the most accurate obesity evaluation tool, it is a more expensive method and more difficult to measure than the others. Objective. Our objectives were to find the relationship between HWDI and BF% and to find a BF% prediction model from HWDI in relation to age and gender. Method. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure BF% in 2,771 healthy adult Thais. HWDI was calculated as the difference between height and weight. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship between HWDI and BF%. Multiple linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to construct the BF% prediction model. Results. HWDI and BF% were found to be inverse which related to a tendency toward a linear relationship. Results of a multivariate linear regression analysis, which included HWDI and age as variables in the model, predicted BF% to be 34.508 − 0.159 (HWDI + 0.161 (age for men and 53.35 − 0.265 (HWDI + 0.132 (age for women. Conclusions. The prediction model provides an easy-to-use obesity evaluation tool that should help awareness of underweight and obesity conditions.

  15. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden.Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI.Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV.Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  16. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  18. Body temperature stability achieved by the large body mass of sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsufumi

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the thermal characteristics of large reptiles living in water, temperature data were continuously recorded from 16 free-ranging loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, during internesting periods using data loggers. Core body temperatures were 0.7-1.7°C higher than ambient water temperatures and were kept relatively constant. Unsteady numerical simulations using a spherical thermodynamic model provided mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and the body temperature responses to fluctuating water temperature can be simply explained by a large body mass with a constant thermal diffusivity and a heat production rate rather than physiological thermoregulation. By contrast, body temperatures increased 2.6-5.1°C in 107-152 min during their emergences to nest on land. The estimated heat production rates on land were 7.4-10.5 times the calculated values in the sea. The theoretical prediction that temperature difference between body and water temperatures would increase according to the body size was confirmed by empirical data recorded from several species of sea turtles. Comparing previously reported data, the internesting intervals of leatherback, green and loggerhead turtles were shorter when the body temperatures were higher. Sea turtles seem to benefit from a passive thermoregulatory strategy, which depends primarily on the physical attributes of their large body masses. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index in Twins: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Weigle, David S.; Goldberg, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on body mass index (BMI). Design: Genotype-environment interaction twin study. Setting: University of Washington Twin Registry. Patients or Participants: A population-based sample of US twins (1,088 pairs, 604 monozygotic, 484 dizygotic; 66% female; mean age = 36.6 yr, standard deviation (SD) = 15.9 yr). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants self-reported information on height, weight, and sleep. Mean BMI was calculated as 25.3 kg/m2 (SD = 5.4) and mean habitual sleep duration was 7.2 hr/night (SD = 1.2). Data were analyzed using biometric genetic interaction models. Overall the heritability of sleep duration was 34%. Longer sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI (P sleep duration was sleep duration was ≥ 9 hr (h2 = 32%); this interaction was significant (P sleep duration is associated with increased BMI and increased genetic influences on BMI, suggesting that shorter sleep duration increases expression of genetic risks for high body weight. At the same time, longer sleep duration may suppress genetic influences on body weight. Future research aiming to identify specific genotypes for BMI may benefit by considering the moderating role of sleep duration. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Weigle DS; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and body mass index in twins: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2012;35(5):597-603. PMID:22547885

  20. Gender differences in coronary artery diameter are not related to body habitus or left ventricular mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiteshi, Amit K; Li, Dong; Gao, Yanlin; Chen, Andy; Flores, Ferdinand; Mao, Song Shou; Budoff, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    Smaller coronary artery diameter portends worse outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The suggestion that women have smaller coronary artery diameters than men has not been validated by a large-scale study. We sought to confirm a gender difference with respect to coronary artery diameter, even after accounting for body habitus and left ventricular mass (LVM). From 4200 subjects evaluated for cardiovascular disease by computed tomography angiography, we selected 710 subjects (383 males, 327 females) with coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores habitus and LVM. After adjusting for age, race, weight, height, body mass index, body surface index, LVM, and CAC, women have smaller diameters in the LM (males 4.35 mm, females 3.91 mm), LAD (males 3.54 mm, females 3.24 mm), CX (males 3.18, females 2.75 mm), and RCA (males 3.70 mm, females 3.26 mm) (P habitus or LVM. Gender significantly influences artery diameter of the LM, LAD, CX, and RCA. This may warrant gender specific approaches during PCI and CABG. As neither body habitus nor LVM relate to the difference in coronary artery diameter, our study encourages a search for inherent differences between genders that can account for this difference. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The variations of body mass index and body fat in adult Thai people across the age spectrum measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Kongsawasdi, Siriphan; Chuatrakoon, Busaba; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2011-01-01

    The measurements of body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat are used in many clinical situations. However, special tools are required to measure body fat. Many formulas are proposed for estimation but these use constant coefficients of age. Age spectrum might affect the predicted value of the body composition due to body component alterations, and the coefficient of age for body fat prediction might produce inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to identify variations of BMI and body fat across the age spectrum as well as compare results between BMI predicted body fat and bioelectrical impedance results on age. Healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Body fat was measured by bioelectrical impedance. The age spectrum was divided into three groups (younger: 18-39.9; middle: 40-59.9; and older: ≥60 years). Comparison of body composition covariates including fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), percentage FM (PFM), percentage FFM (PFFM), FM index (FMI) and FFM index (FFMI) in each weight status and age spectrum were analyzed. Multivariable linear regression coefficients were calculated. Coefficient alterations among age groups were tested to confirm the effect of the age spectrum on body composition covariates. Measured PFM and calculated PFM from previous formulas were compared in each quarter of the age spectrum. A total of 2324 volunteers were included in this study. The overall body composition and weight status, average body weight, height, BMI, FM, FFM, and its derivatives were significantly different among age groups. The coefficient of age altered the PFM differently between younger, middle, and older groups (0.07; P = 0.02 vs 0.13; P FM- and FFM-derived variables between each age spectrum were tested, demonstrating a significant difference between the younger (FM and BMI varies on the age spectrum. A calculated formula in older people might be distorted with the utilization of constant coefficients.

  2. Dairy Consumption and Body Mass Index Among Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations between dairy intake and body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies, and the causal relationship remains ill defined. METHODS: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using an established dairy intake-associated genetic p.......0 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides strong evidence to support a causal effect of higher dairy intake on increased BMI among adults.......BACKGROUND: Associations between dairy intake and body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies, and the causal relationship remains ill defined. METHODS: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using an established dairy intake-associated genetic...... polymorphism located upstream of the lactase gene (LCT-13910 C/T, rs4988235) as an instrumental variable (IV). Linear regression models were fitted to analyze associations between (a) dairy intake and BMI, (b) rs4988235 and dairy intake, and (c) rs4988235 and BMI in each study. The causal effect of dairy...

  3. Self-reported body weight and height on admission to hospital: a reliable method in multi-professional evidence-based nutritional care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Bart; Franck, Erik; Van Looy, Luc; Weyler, Joost; Ysebaert, Dirk

    2012-10-01

    Screening patients' nutritional status on admission to hospital is recommended by evidence-based guidelines on malnutrition. In practice, self-reported values for body weight and height are often used by nurses and dieticians. This study assessed the accuracy of self-reported body weight and height and whether these self-reported values might be influenced by the nature of the health-care worker involved. Patients (n = 611) on admission reported their body weight and height to a nurse and a dietician. Reported values were analysed and compared with the measured values. Self-reported values for body weight and height on admission are not always accurate. Patients do report different values to different health-care workers. Self-reported values for body weight to nurses were more accurate as compared with dieticians. Self-reported values for body weight and height are subject to observer bias and should be used with caution in nutritional screening and multi-professional nutritional care. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  5. The reliability of body mass index in the diagnosis of obesity and metabolic risk in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković-Jovanović, Snežana R; Stolić, Radojica V; Jovanović, Aleksandar N

    2015-05-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is the most widespread and the simplest method for the evaluation of body mass; it is often used as a sole technique in the diagnosis of obesity in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between anthropometric and biochemical parameters and the incidence of the metabolic syndrome in obese children. A total of 110 children, aged 2-17 years, participated in the study. No overweight children (BMI 85-95 percentiles) were included. BMI was interpreted using the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Charts. The skinfold measurements were performed using an John Bull British Indicators Ltd. calipers, and interpreted using an the reference table values. In addition to lower sensitivity (mentioned in several earlier studies), BMI also shows a lower specificity in the diagnosis of obesity in children: BMI showed at least 10% of non-concomitance with skinfold thickness and waist circumferences and 8% with waist-to-height ratio. In addition, subscapular skinfold thickness, waist circumference, and waist/height ratio showed stronger correlations with serum insulin levels, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and family history than BMI itself. The unreliability of BMI as the sole parameter for diagnosing obesity in children was found in our study. Even when overweight children were excluded from the study, the lack of specificity of BMI was demonstrated. We propose utilization of waist circumference and waist/height ratio along with the BMI for definitive diagnosis instead of relying on BMI only. In addition, waist circumference and subscapular fold thickness may be even better in estimation of metabolic risk than BMI.

  6. Body dissatisfaction and body mass in girls and boys transitioning from early to mid-adolescence: additional role of self-esteem and eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Lindberg, Nina; Siimes, Martti A; Aalberg, Veikko

    2012-06-08

    In the transition from early to mid-adolescence, gender differences in pubertal development become significant. Body dissatisfaction is often associated with body mass, low self-esteem and abnormal eating habits. The majority of studies investigating body dissatisfaction and its associations have been conducted on female populations. However, some evidence suggests that males also suffer from these problems and that gender differences might already be observed in adolescence. To examine body dissatisfaction and its relationship with body mass, as well as self-esteem and eating habits, in girls and boys in transition from early to mid-adolescence. School nurses recorded the heights and weights of 659 girls and 711 boys with a mean age of 14.5 years. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Body Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were used as self-appraisal scales. Eating data were self-reported. The girls were less satisfied with their bodies than boys were with theirs (mean score (SD): 30.6 (SD 12.2) vs. 18.9 (SD 9.5); p eating habits were less satisfied with their bodies than those describing normal eating habits (mean (SD): 33.0 (12.9) vs. 21.2 (10.2); p eating habits revealed a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction in the transitional phase from early to mid-adolescence in girls and boys, but significant gender differences were also found.

  7. Prediction of renal function (GFR) from cystatin C and creatinine in children: Body cell mass increases accuracy of the estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Bøgsted, Martin

    AIM: To derive an accurate prediction model for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children based primarily on the endogenous renal function marker cystatin C (CysC) and body cell mass (BCM). THEORY: Cystatin C is produced at a constant rate in all cells of the body and is excreted......) aged 2-14 years. GFR was 14-147 mL/min/1.73m2. BCM was estimated using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Log-transformed data on BCM/CysC, serum creatinine (SCr), body-surface-area (BSA), height×BSA/SCr, CysC, weight, sex, age, height, serum urea and albumin were considered possible explanatory variables...

  8. ESTATURA Y PESO CORPORAL. ¿QUÉ INFLUYE MÁS SOBRE LAS CIFRAS DE TENSIÓN ARTERIAL? / Body height and weight. Which one has more influence on blood pressure figures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alberto Pérez Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: There are many risk factors for the development of high figures of blood pressure and there is no doubt that obesity, and overweight, its precursor, is among of themost studied ones. The most common formula for determining the ponderal status of an individual is the body mass index. It is formed by two components: weight and height. The present study isaimed at determining the level of influence of body weight and height on blood pressure figures when acting independently. Methods: A longitudinal and descriptive study on a sample of 705 nonhypertensivestudents was carried out. The students were part of the Research Project PESESCAD-HTA and were between 12 and 15 years of age. They underwent three blood pressure measurements as well as ponderal measurements. Results: The body/weight correlation index,(r = 0.60, p < 0.05 in the study and (r = 0.70, p<0.001 in the control, was very adequate. There was a very close and independent relation between weight and height concerning the blood pressure figures (p<0,001. Conclusions: Both weight and height show strong and similar influences on blood pressure figures acting in an independent way.

  9. Use of knee height as a surrogate measure of height in older South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine whether knee height would be a more appropriate surrogate measurement than armspan in determining height and body mass index (BMI) in a group of South African older people ( 60 years). A random sample of adults (older than 18 years) who attended selected clinics or who lived in ...

  10. Predicting chick body mass by artificial intelligence-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Ponciano Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop, validate, and compare 190 artificial intelligence-based models for predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age subjected to different duration and intensities of thermal challenge. The experiment was conducted inside four climate-controlled wind tunnels using 210 chicks. A database containing 840 datasets (from 2 to 21-day-old chicks - with the variables dry-bulb air temperature, duration of thermal stress (days, chick age (days, and the daily body mass of chicks - was used for network training, validation, and tests of models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and neuro-fuzzy networks (NFNs. The ANNs were most accurate in predicting the body mass of chicks from 2 to 21 days of age after they were subjected to the input variables, and they showed an R² of 0.9993 and a standard error of 4.62 g. The ANNs enable the simulation of different scenarios, which can assist in managerial decision-making, and they can be embedded in the heating control systems.

  11. Exercise improves body fat, lean mass and bone mass in breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Melinda L; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Cadmus, Lisa; Mierzejewski, Eileen; Mayne, Susan T.; Yu, Herbert; Chung, Gina G.; Jones, Beth; Knobf, M. Tish; DiPietro, Loretta

    2009-01-01

    Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Re...

  12. The role of lean body mass and physical activity in bone health in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Fátima; Barrigas, Carlos; Vieira, Filomena; Santa-Clara, Helena; Homens, Pedro Mil; Fragoso, Isabel; Teixeira, Pedro J; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-01-01

    In the context of physical education curricula, markers of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity, muscular strength, flexibility, and body mass index or body fat) are usually evaluated in reference to health standards. Despite their possible mediating role in the relationship between weight-bearing or muscle forces and features of bone tissue, these attributes of fitness may not be the most relevant to predict skeletal health. It is therefore important to analyze the relative contribution of these factors to the variability in bone tissue of different parts of the skeleton, and to analyze it by gender, as sensitivity to mechanical loading can diverge for boys and girls. We compared the effects of habitual physical activity (PA) and lean mass, as surrogates of weight-bearing and muscle forces, and of physical fitness (aerobic and muscle capacity of lower and upper limbs) on bone mineral content (BMC) and size of total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and 1/3 radius in 53 girls and 64 boys from 7.9 to 9.7 years of age. After controlling for bone age, body mass, body height, and calcium intake, lean mass was the most important predictor of bone size and/or mineral in both genders (p bone was not determined by PA and fitness score did not explain bone variability. Femoral neck was the bone site more closely associated with mechanical loading factors; boys with a PA > 608 counts/min/day (~105 min/day of moderate and vigorous intensity) showed 13-20% more BMC than those with less physical activity, and girls with a lean mass >19 kg showed 12-19% more BMC than those with less lean mass. These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of bone size and/or mineralization in both genders, while habitual weight-bearing PA appears to positively impact on bone mineral in prepubertal boys and that both lean mass and PA need to be considered in physical education curricula and other health-enhancing programs.

  13. Estimation of stature in Turkish adults using knee height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Başak Koca; Gültekin, Timur; Sağir, Mehmet

    2007-06-01

    Body height is an important clinical indicator to derive body mass index (BMI), which is a useful screening tool for both excess adiposity and malnutrition. Height measurement in the elderly may impose some difficulties and the reliability is doubtful. Stature estimation from knee height is one of the commonly used methods; nevertheless no study has been carried out so far on the Turkish population. A cross sectional anthropometric study was conducted to develop body height estimation equations by using knee height measurement for Turkish people. Measurements of height and knee height were taken according to the International Biological Programme procedures from 1422 adults (610 males, 812 females) aged 18-90 years from Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. Samples were randomly split into two sub-samples, training and validation (control group) sub-samples. Height estimation equations were developed from the knee height measurements by linear regression analysis according to age groups and sexes. Males were significantly taller and have higher knee height values than females in all age groups. Height and the knee height variables showed a gradual decrease (P 50) with aging in females and males. Evaluated knee height equations for stature estimation were tested through the validation sample and the results showed high accuracy. The study presents sex and age specific regression equations for height estimation by using the knee height measurement for Turkish adults and suggests facilitating the accurate usage of knee height.

  14. How culture shapes the body: cultural consonance and body mass in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Oths, Kathryn S; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a model of how culture shapes the body, based on two studies conducted in urban Brazil. Research was conducted in 1991 and 2001 in four socioeconomically distinct neighborhoods. First, cultural domain analyses were conducted with samples of key informants. The cultural domains investigated included lifestyle, social support, family life, national identity, and food. Cultural consensus analysis was used to confirm shared knowledge in each domain and to derive measures of cultural consonance. Cultural consonance assesses how closely an individual matches the cultural consensus model for each domain. Second, body composition, cultural consonance, and related variables were assessed in community surveys. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of cultural consonance and body composition, controlling for standard covariates and competing explanatory variables. In 1991, in a survey of 260 individuals, cultural consonance had a curvilinear association with the body mass index that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In 2001, in a survey of 267 individuals, cultural consonance had a linear association with abdominal circumference that differed for men and women, controlling for sociodemographic and dietary variables. In general, as cultural consonance increases, body mass index and abdominal circumference decline, more strongly for women than men. As individuals, in their own beliefs and behaviors, more closely approximate shared cultural models in socially salient domains, body composition also more closely approximates the cultural prototype of the body. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Estimation of body mass index based on brachial circumference in patients with permanent or temporary incapacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill-Ferreyra, E; Cameno-Carrillo, V; Saúl-Gordo, H; Camí-Lavado, M C

    2017-09-21

    Many patients are affected by various conditions, which make it impossible to calculate body mass index (BMI) by measuring weight and height. For this reason, the purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical tool that allows the approximate calculation of the brachial circumference for diagnosis and follow-up. The formula proposed for both sexes is: brachial circumference (cm)×30/32. Results≥28 must be added 2 points. Prospective, descriptive, observational study performed in a primary care clinic, including 224 men and 248 women. Weight, height, brachial circumference, and BMI were calculated using Quetelet's formula and the proposed formula. In men, BMI (CI 95%)=0.63, while BCF (CI 95%)=0.49 (P=.95), while in women BMI (CI 95%)=0.73 and BCF (CI 95%)=0.56 (P=.95). The numerical ratio showed r=0.82, R2=0.67, PQuetelet, being applicable in patients in special condition due to physical limitations for the measurement of weight and height for the calculation of BMI. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  17. The 2014 Danish references from birth to 20 years for height, weight and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To construct new Danish growth charts for 0- to 20-year-olds and to compare them with Danish references from 1982 and with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for children aged 0-5 years from 2006, by applying similar inclusion and exclusion criteria. METHODS: Anthropometric data from ...

  18. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight...

  19. Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern...... of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes....

  20. Linked genetic variants on chromosome 10 control ear morphology and body mass among dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Matthew T; Kamgari, Nona; Perloski, Michele; Hoeppner, Marc P; Axelsson, Erik; Hedhammar, Åke; Pielberg, Gerli; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-06-23

    The domestic dog is a rich resource for mapping the genetic components of phenotypic variation due to its unique population history involving strong artificial selection. Genome-wide association studies have revealed a number of chromosomal regions where genetic variation associates with morphological characters that typify dog breeds. A region on chromosome 10 is among those with the highest levels of genetic differentiation between dog breeds and is associated with body mass and ear morphology, a common motif of animal domestication. We characterised variation in this region to uncover haplotype structure and identify candidate functional variants. We first identified SNPs that strongly associate with body mass and ear type by comparing sequence variation in a 3 Mb region between 19 breeds with a variety of phenotypes. We next genotyped a subset of 123 candidate SNPs in 288 samples from 46 breeds to identify the variants most highly associated with phenotype and infer haplotype structure. A cluster of SNPs that associate strongly with the drop ear phenotype is located within a narrow interval downstream of the gene MSRB3, which is involved in human hearing. These SNPs are in strong genetic linkage with another set of variants that correlate with body mass within the gene HMGA2, which affects human height. In addition we find evidence that this region has been under selection during dog domestication, and identify a cluster of SNPs within MSRB3 that are highly differentiated between dogs and wolves. We characterise genetically linked variants that potentially influence ear type and body mass in dog breeds, both key traits that have been modified by selective breeding that may also be important for domestication. The finding that variants on long haplotypes have effects on more than one trait suggests that genetic linkage can be an important determinant of the phenotypic response to selection in domestic animals.

  1. The relationship between body mass index/body composition and survival in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Shelby; Davis, Leslie L; Carlson, Barbara Waag

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature on the relationship between obesity and survival in persons with heart failure (HF). In particular, the article examines the ways in which studies define body size/composition (body mass index [BMI], body composition, weight, cachexia, fluid retention, or albumin) and the relationship of BMI and survival after controlling for factors such as HF severity, etiology of the HF, gender, race, age, and/or time since HF diagnosis. The keywords heart failure and body mass index, heart failure and obesity, and heart failure and body composition were indexed in PubMed. Articles published from 1999 to 2006 that used multivariate analyses to examine the relationship between obesity and survival in persons with HF were included in the review. BMI is the standard most often used for measuring body weight in patients with HF. Yet, BMI does not address other major components of body weight (fat, lean body mass, and fluid) that may factor into the mortality of patients with HF. Four of the six studies reviewed reported a positive relationship between obesity and improved survival. However, the studies are limited by design, with the majority being cross-sectional. Furthermore, most of the data were collected through secondary data analysis from patient records in the 1990s, before contemporary HF treatment was used. Until further research solidifies a clear association between higher BMIs and improved survival in patients with HF, nurse practitioners and others should continue to counsel their patients with HF who are overweight to lose weight. Assessing BMI alone as a predictor of survival for patients with HF may be misleading and should be performed in the context of other factors. Moreover, care should be taken in managing patients with HF who are cachexic because these patients have a worrisome prognosis.

  2. Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Willer (Cristen); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); S. Li (Shengxu); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); I.M. Heid (Iris); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); A.L. Elliott (Amanda); A.U. Jackson (Anne); C. Lamina (Claudia); G. Lettre (Guillaume); N. Lim (Noha); H.N. Lyon (Helen); S.A. McCarroll (Steven); K. Papadakis (Konstantinos); L. Qi (Lu); J.C. Randall (Joshua); R.M. Roccasecca; S. Sanna (Serena); P. Scheet (Paul); M.N. Weedon (Michael); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); L.C. Jacobs (Leonie); I. Prokopenko (Inga); N. Soranzo (Nicole); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S. Bingham (Sheila); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); M.J. Brown (Morris); N.P. Burtt (Noël); P.S. Chines (Peter); L. Coin (Lachlan); F.S. Collins (Francis); J. Connell (John); C. Cooper (Charles); G.D. Smith; E.M. Dennison (Elaine); P. Deodhar (Parimal); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); D.M. Evans (David); L. Gianniny (Lauren); C. Gieger (Christian); C.J. Gillson (Christopher); C. Guiducci (Candace); R. Hackett (Rachel); D. Hadley (David); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); J. Hebebrand (Johannes); A. Hofman (Albert); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Johnson (Toby); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); Z. Jovanovic (Zorica); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuokkanen (Mikko); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); J. Laitinen (Jaana); E. Lakatta (Edward); J. Luan; R.N. Luben (Robert); M. Mangino (Massimo); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Narisu (Narisu); A.R. Ness (Andrew); K. Northstone (Kate); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); C. Purmann (Carolin); M.G. Rees (Matthew); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); S.M. Ring (Susan); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Ruokonen (Aimo); M.S. Sandhu (Manjinder); J. Saramies (Jouko); L.J. Scott (Laura); A. Scuteri (Angelo); K. Silander (Kaisa); M.A. Sims (Matthew); K. Song (Kijoung); J. Stephens (Jonathan); S. Stevens (Suzanne); H.M. Stringham (Heather); Y.C.L. Tung (Loraine); T.T. Valle (Timo); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); K.S. Vimaleswaran (Karani); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); C. Wallace (Chris); R.M. Watanabe (Richard); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Watkins (Nicholas); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G. Zhai (Guangju); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); D. Altshuler (David); M. Caulfield (Mark); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); I.S. Farooqi (Sadaf); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); F.B. Hu (Frank); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); M. Laakso (Markku); V. Mooser (Vincent); K.K. Ong (Ken); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); M. Uda (Manuela); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.J. Wareham (Nick); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); R.B. Hayes (Richard); D. Hunter (David); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractCommon variants at only two loci, FTO and MC4R, have been reproducibly associated with body mass index (BMI) in humans. To identify additional loci, we conducted meta-analysis of 15 genome-wide association studies for BMI (n > 32,000) and followed up top signals in 14 additional cohorts

  3. Relationship between body mass index, fat mass and lean mass with SF-36 quality of life scores in a group of fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Laura; Canela, Miguel Angel; Rafecas, Magda

    2012-11-01

    Patients suffering from fibromyalgia (FM) had widespread musculoskeletal pain and stiffness, fatigue, sleep disorders, cognitive impairment and other symptoms, which seriously affects their quality of life (QoL), making it difficult to perform normal activities. Moreover, FM has been associated with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than in the general population. Weight reduction has been beneficial in both FM and other rheumatic patients. Obesity and overweight have been pointed as playing a relevant role in FM symptoms; however, it is necessary to find out more about this relationship. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat mass (fM) and lean mass (lM) with quality of life in a group of FM patients. 103 women, with a mean age of 53.74 ± 7.81, and members of different FM patient associations from Spain participated in our study. Some anthropometric measures were taken like weight, height, BMI, body fat mass and lean mass. FM patients QoL was assessed by the Short-Form Health Survey, SF-36 questionnaire. Statistical reports were based on mean, standard deviation and correlation, but significance was tested by nonparametric methods. BMI, fM and lM correlated differently with the specific SF-36 scores. BMI had a high negative correlation with emotional role, fM with bodily pain and lM almost with all scores but specially with emotional role, vitality and physical role. The outcome of this study reveals some interesting relationships, which need to be further investigated to improve the management of FM patients.

  4. Body mass index, adipokines and insulin resistance in asthmatic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Rosinha; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Suano-Souza, Fabíola Isabel; Solé, Dirceu; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini; Strufaldi, Maria Wany Louzada

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the body mass index, insulin resistance, levels of adipokines and inflammatory markers in Brazilian asthmatic children and adolescents and to investigate their possible association with the severity and control of asthma. Cross-sectional study (n = 92; age: 3-18 years). Assessed data: Body weight and height, used to calculate the body mass index (BMIZ) and height-for-age (HAZ). Laboratory measurements: Lipid profile; glycemia and insulin for homeostasis model assessment (HOMA); adipokines; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1); total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE against aeroallergens. The median age was 9.6 years (3.0-16.6); most participants were male (n = 52, 56.5%), pre-pubertal (n = 54, 58.6%) and had atopic asthma (n = 85, 92.4%). Overweight/obesity (38%) showed an inverse correlation with age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.781; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.92) and a direct correlation with the leptin concentration (adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22). Insulin concentration was independently associated with moderated persistent asthma (adjusted OR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.09-1.52). HOMA showed a direct correlation with the leptin (β = 0.475; 95% CI 0.117-0.268) and total IgE (β = 0.197; 95% CI 0.002-0.096) levels and an inverse correlation with the TNF-α levels (β = -0.255; 95% CI;-0.366-0.055). Asthma was associated with insulin resistance and a systemic inflammatory response possibly mediated by adipokines, with leptin levels standing out among the participants with excess weight.

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone

    Full Text Available Total body mass (TBM is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils. This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs. Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  7. Neighborhood Walkability and Body Mass Index Trajectories: Longitudinal Study of Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Rania A; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Orpana, Heather; Ross, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    To assess the impact of neighborhood walkability on body mass index (BMI) trajectories of urban Canadians. Data are from Canada's National Population Health Survey (n = 2935; biannual assessments 1994-2006). We measured walkability with the Walk Score. We modeled body mass index (BMI, defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters [kg/m(2)]) trajectories as a function of Walk Score and sociodemographic and behavioral covariates with growth curve models and fixed-effects regression models. In men, BMI increased annually by an average of 0.13 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11, 0.14) over the 12 years of follow-up. Moving to a high-walkable neighborhood (2 or more Walk Score quartiles higher) decreased BMI trajectories for men by approximately 1 kg/m(2) (95% CI = -1.16, -0.17). Moving to a low-walkable neighborhood increased BMI for men by approximately 0.45 kg/m(2) (95% CI = 0.01, 0.89). There was no detectable influence of neighborhood walkability on body weight for women. Our study of a large sample of urban Canadians followed for 12 years confirms that neighborhood walkability influences BMI trajectories for men, and may be influential in curtailing male age-related weight gain.

  8. Mass and body composition particularities of rugby compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru OPREAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and underline the morphological particularities of Romanian professional rugby players. This aspect can contribute to the improvement of training contents. The hypothesis of this study is that body mass values of the two compartments are in conformity with the optimal standards for this sport. The study included the players of the team Stejarii București, which comprises the best players of the Romanian championship. Among the 32 tested players, 17 are forwards and 15 backs. Evaluations were done by positions, and we drafted tables with arithmetic means and standard deviations for each position. We took several anthropometric measurements for the rugby players, thus determining the qualitative level of the body mass between the two compartments. The findings indicate that players have a certain level of morphological adaptation to specific effort by the post they occupy within the team. The players feature a hypertrophy of the muscle tissue, a phenomenon specific to strength sports. However, some of the players also had a significant amount of fat mass, which contributes to less impressive performances.

  9. Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes among healthy Middle-Eastern females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Papazian

    Full Text Available Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East.The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined.This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon. Maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and GWG and neonatal outcomes such as weight, height, head circumference and Apgar score were the primary studied variables in this study. Total maternal weight gain were compared to the guidelines depicted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM.The negative outcomes of newborns such as lean body weight and macrosomia were significantly present in women who gained respectively below or above the IOM's cut-off points. Pregestational body mass index influenced significantly the infants' birth weight, in both the underweight and obese categories. Birth height, head circumference and Apgar score were not influenced by pregestational body mass index or gestational weight gain. No significant associations were found between maternal age and pregestational body mass index and gestational weight gain.Studies evaluating the impact of weight before and during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes and anthropometrics measurements are lacking in the Middle East. Our results highlight the importance of nutritional counseling in order to shed the extra weights before conceiving and monitor weight gain to avoid the negative impact on feto-maternal health.

  10. Sclerostin antibody treatment causes greater alveolar crest height and bone mass in an ovariectomized rat model of localized periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Xu, Xinchen; Liu, Min; Zhang, Wen; Ke, Hua-zhu; Qin, An; Tang, Tingting; Lu, Eryi

    2015-07-01

    Periodontitis and osteoporosis are bone destructive diseases with a high prevalence in the adult population. The concomitant presence of osteoporosis may be a risk factor of progression of periodontal destruction. We studied the effect of sclerostin-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Scl-Ab) on alveolar bone endpoints in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of induced experimental periodontitis. Sixty female, 4-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham operation or bilateral OVX and were left untreated for 2 months. Experimental periodontitis (ligature) was established by placing silk sutures subgingival to the right maxillary first and second molar teeth for 4 weeks, and feeding the rats food and high-sugar drinking water during this period. Thereafter, ligatures were removed and 25mg/kg vehicle or Scl-Ab was administered subcutaneously twice weekly for 6 weeks. Rats were randomized into four groups: (1) Control (Sham+Vehicle), (2) Sham+Ligature+Vehicle, (3) OVX+Ligature+Vehicle, and (4) OVX + Ligature + Scl-Ab. Terminal blood and right maxilla specimens were collected for analyses. Group 3 rats showed lower bone volume fraction (BVF) of alveolar bone with higher bone resorption and lower bone formation than Group 2 rats. Group 4 rats had higher alveolar crest height, as assessed by linear distance of cementoenamel junction to the alveolar bone crest and greater alveolar bone mass using Micro CT, than Group 3 rats. Significantly higher values of mineral apposition rate (MAR) and mineralizing surface/bone surface (MS/BS) were also observed in Group 4 rats by analyzing polychrome sequential labeling data. Increased serum osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin, and deceased serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and CTx-1 illustrate the ability of Scl-Ab to increase alveolar bone mass by enhancing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption in an animal model of estrogen deficiency osteopenia plus periodontitis. Scl-Ab could be a potential bone anabolic agent for

  11. Effects of residential summer camp on body mass index and body composition in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jon D; Franklin, Brian; Fernandez, Ernesto; Adhikari, Soumya; White, Perrin C

    2018-02-13

    Body mass index (BMI) and fat mass may be higher in children with diabetes compared to healthy peers. It is not certain how diabetic children respond to exercise and diet interventions. To investigate the effect of summer camp on BMI and body composition in children with type 1 diabetes. Five hundred eighty-six children (5-19 years, 518 with type 1 diabetes, 68 without diabetes) were followed while attending camp. BMI z-scores (BMIz) and body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured at the beginning and end of each 19-day session. Diet and activity were directly supervised, blood glucose closely monitored. A nested diabetic/non-diabetic sib pair analysis was also conducted. Changes in BMIz and percent fat mass (%FM) were the primary outcomes. Findings were confirmed by analysis of data from 612 campers (549 with diabetes) the following summer. At entry, campers with diabetes had higher BMIz and %FM. They tended to gain BMIz (0.04 ± 0.01) whereas non-diabetic campers lost (-0.16 ± 0.11, P FM. Similar results were obtained the following summer. Children with diabetes may, therefore, accrue more lean body tissue with increased exercise and a healthy diet than those without diabetes. This effect is greatest in those with initially poor metabolic control. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The association of gut microbiota with body weight and body mass index in preschool children of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Sepp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota has been shown to affect both fat storage and energy harvesting, suggesting that it plays a direct role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intestinal colonization by particular species/groups of the intestinal microbiota is related to body weight values in Estonian preschool children born in different years during the entire 1990s. Methods: Body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and quantitative composition of cultivable gut microbiota (staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, enterobacteria, lactobacilli, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, bifidobacteria, eubacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, and candida were studied in 51 healthy 5-year-old children (40 were born between 1993 and 94 and 11 were born between 1996 and 97. Results: At the age of 5 years, median weight was 19.5 kg and median BMI was 15.3 kg/m2. Significantly higher BMI (p=0.006 was found in 5-year-old children born in late versus early 1990s during the development of socioeconomic situation of Estonia (2% rise in gross domestic product. The counts of the different gut bacteria did not show any association with weight and BMI in the 5-year-old children. However, the BMI values were in positive correlation with a relative share of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, for example, bifidobacteria when adjusted for sex and year of birth (adj R2=0.459, p=0.026 and eubacteria (adj R2=0.484, p=0.014 in the community of cultured intestinal microbiota. The relative share of bacteroides showed a negative correlation with the childrens’ weight (adj R2=− 0.481, p=0.015. Conclusion: The body weight indices of preschool children of the general population are associated with the proportion of anaerobic intestinal microbiota and can be predicted by sex and particular socioeconomic situation from birth to 5 years of age.

  13. Body Mass Index Underestimates Adiposity in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilutti, Lara A; Motl, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    To examine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and adiposity assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and non-MS controls as well as to determine the accuracy of standard and alternate BMI thresholds for obesity. Cross-sectional. University research laboratory. The sample included persons with MS (n=235) and controls (n=53) (N=288). Not applicable. Main outcome measures included BMI, whole body soft tissue composition (ie, percent body fat [%BF], fat mass, and lean soft tissue mass), bone mineral content, and bone mineral density. We observed significant strong associations between BMI and sex-specific %BF in persons with MS and non-MS controls, and BMI explained ∼40% of the variance in %BF in both MS and control samples. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated that the standard BMI threshold for obesity (ie, 30kg/m(2)) had excellent specificity (93%-100%) but poor sensitivity (37%-44%) in persons with MS and non-MS controls. The BMI threshold that best identified %BF-defined obesity was 24.7kg/m(2) in the MS sample and 25.1kg/m(2) in the control sample. We determined a strong association between BMI and adiposity; however, the current BMI threshold for classifying obesity underestimates true adiposity in persons with MS. A similar relation was observed between BMI and obesity in non-MS controls. The non-MS sample included primarily middle-aged women, and similar BMI-%BF misclassifications have been reported in these samples. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of body mass index on serum leptin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rubina Faisal; Hassan, Mukhtiar; Nazar, Hassan Shehzad; Gillani, Saima; Afzal, Naeema; Qayyum, Iftikhar

    2011-01-01

    Leptin is product of ob gene, an adipose tissue derived hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of body fat mass by regulating appetite and metabolism while balancing energy intake and energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to evaluate possible association between serum Leptin levels and Body Mass Index (BMI) of gender in adult age group. Two-hundred-seventy subjects aged 20-50 years were randomly selected from general population of Abbottabad. After complete evaluation, demographic data was recorded and BMI calculated. The subjects were grouped on the basis on BMI. Non-fasting venous blood samples were drawn to measure serum Leptin and serum glucose levels. The data were analysed using SPSS-15. Serum Leptin levels and differences between genders were significant in all body mass indices. For normal BMI group the mean values for leptin were 2.6 +/- 1.5 etag/ml in men, and 17.3 +/- 10.2 etag/ml in women. For Group-2 mean leptin levels were 9.9 +/- 6.8 etag/ml in men, and 34.8 +/- 13.6 etag/ml in women. For Group-3 BMI comprising obese subjects mean values were 21.3 +/- 14.2 etag/ml in men, and 48.21 +/- 21.2 etag/ml in women (p<0.001). A progressive increase in serum leptin concentration was observed with an increase in BMI. Significant difference between leptin concentrations in either gender was found in normal, overweight and obese subjects.

  15. High Body Mass Index in Adolescent Girls Precedes Psoriasis Hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryld, L.E.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2010-01-01

    for being overweight in adulthood. The study cohort was based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, birth years 1930 to 1984 (309,152 schoolchildren). Cases were found through the Danish National Patient Register for the period 1977 to 2001. A total of 1074 (0.36%) of the schoolchildren were......Psoriasis is associated with being overweight, but the temporal relationship is not known. This historical cohort study tested whether severe psoriasis resulting in hospitalization in adulthood was preceded by excess increase in age-adjusted body mass index, a known risk factor in childhood...

  16. Adult body height of twins compared with that of singletons: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, we evaluated whether childhood differences in body height between singletons and twins persist into adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. This study used data on the 457,999 males who were born alive and without physical anomalies in single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years; 1985-2003). For sibling comparisons, the authors selected the 1,721 sibships of full brothers that included at least 1 male born in a single birth and at least 1 male born in a twin birth (4,520 persons, including 2,493 twins and 2,027 singletons). An analysis of the total study population using generalized estimating equations showed that the twins were 0.6 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 0.7) shorter than were the singletons after adjustment for a series of background factors. The fixed-effects regression analysis of the sibships that included both twins and singletons showed that the twins were 0.9 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.2) shorter than were their singleton brothers. The study suggests that male twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 were slightly shorter in early adulthood than were singletons.

  17. Exercise improves body fat, lean mass, and bone mass in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Melinda L; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Cadmus, Lisa; Mierzejewski, Eileen; Mayne, Susan T; Yu, Herbert; Chung, Gina G; Jones, Beth; Knobf, M Tish; DiPietro, Loretta

    2009-08-01

    Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Registry and randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 37) or usual care (n = 38) group. The exercise group participated in 150 min/week of supervised gym- and home-based moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. The usual care group was instructed to maintain their current physical activity level. Body composition was assessed at baseline and 6-months through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) by one radiologist blinded to the intervention group of the participants. On an average, exercisers increased moderate-intensity aerobic exercise by 129 min/week over and above baseline levels compared with 45 min/week among usual care participants (P Exercisers experienced decreases in percent body fat (P = 0.0022) and increases in lean mass (P = 0.047) compared with increases in body fat and decreases in lean mass in usual care participants. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also maintained among exercisers compared with a loss among usual care participants (P = 0.043). In summary, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, produces favorable changes in body composition that may improve breast cancer prognosis.

  18. Is infant body mass index associated with adulthood body composition trajectories? An exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W; Choh, A C; Lee, M; Towne, B; Czerwinski, S A; Demerath, E W

    2017-02-01

    Infant body mass index (BMI) is increasingly used as a marker of obesity risk based on its association with young-adulthood BMI. The aim of this study is to test the association of infant BMI with young-adulthood fat mass and fat-free mass, and how this association changes during advancing adulthood. Body mass index Z-score at age 9 months was measured in 350 White, non-Hispanic Fels Longitudinal Study participants. This exposure was entered into multilevel models to test its association with trajectories describing 2665 BMI observations and 1388 observations of fat mass index (FMI, kg m(-2) ) and fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg m(-2) ) between ages 20 and 60 years. Partitioning young-adulthood BMI into its fat and fat-free components, infant BMI Z-score was associated with FFMI (β = 0.745; 95% confidence interval = 0.367 to 1.124) but not FMI (0.528; -0.055 to 1.110) at age 20 years. Greater infant BMI Z-score was associated with slower age-related increases in all outcomes, such that (looking at 10-year intervals) only FFMI at age 30 years was related to infant BMI Z-score (0.338; 0.119, 0.557). Focus on infant BMI reduction for adulthood obesity prevention warrants caution as high infant BMI values are associated with greater lean mass, which is protective against ageing changes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four major regions in Bandung, Indonesia: Sukajadi, Cicadas, Buah Batu, and Cibaduyut. Results: The average appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI in females and males based on body mass index (BMI were identified. The average ASMI values for normal BMI in females was 5.982±0.462 kg/m2 while the average ASMI values normal BMI for males was 7.581±0.744 kg/m2 Conclusions: A correlation between BMI and ASMI that was considered statistically significant was found in females (0.7712; p<0.05 and a very significant correlation was seen in males (0.870; p<0.05. The cut off points were defined by the normal BMI, which were 5.059 for females and 6.093 for males.

  20. 24-weeks Pilates-aerobic and educative training to improve body fat mass in elderly Serbian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montero, Pedro Jesús; Castillo-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Mikalački, Milena; Nebojsa, Čokorilo; Korovljev, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in anthropometric measurements using an aerobic and Pilates exercise program which lasted 24 weeks. Method This was a clinical intervention study of 303 women over the age of 60 living in Novi Sad, Serbia. Changes in body mass index and skinfold thickness were estimated through height, weight, and anthropometric measurements. The program comprised Pilates exercises for upper- and lower-body strength, agility, and aerobic capacity. Results Fat mass (FM) improved significantly (pre-test, 32.89%, 8.65; post-test, 28.25%, 6.58; P0.05), but there was a higher correlation between FM (%) and waist–hip ratio (rho, 0.80; P<0.01). Conclusion A mixed program of aerobics and Pilates, controls and improves baseline muscle mass and decreases FM values, without causing deterioration during practice and follow-up exercises. PMID:24516331

  1. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight...... to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model...... (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese. INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high...

  2. Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    in all countries. METHODS: We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI......BACKGROUND: Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults...... probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue. FINDINGS: We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates...

  3. Association of Body Mass Index with Asthma Severity and Pulmonary Function among Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuol Nasiri Kalmarzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in respiratory system and obesity is another inflammatory disease which incidence rate is increasing. Although, many studies have been conducted on severity of asthma and its relationship with obesity, but different results have been obtained. This study aimed to determine a relationship between asthma severity, Body Mass Index (BMI and pulmonary function in Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 90 asthmatic patients referred to referral hospital in Kurdistan, North West of Iran, were selected by simple random method. BMI was calculated by dividing weight by height.Pulmonary Function Test (PFT and bronchial-stimulation-test were used for confirmation and investigation of asthma severity. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 and Chi-square and spearman correlation coefficient tests. Results: Relationship between BMI and severity of asthma (mild, medium and severe was evaluated, there was a relationship and positive relationship between them (P

  4. Relationship between serum cholesterol and body mass index in Nigeria schoolchildren aged 2-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaiwu, Obiyo; Ibe, Bede C

    2015-04-01

    Non-communicable disease is becoming a public health problem that it is already present in more affluent countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and total serum cholesterol with its lipoprotein fractions in children aged 2-15 years. Serum cholesterol was estimated using the enzymatic spectrophotometer cholesterol oxidase/peroxidase method. BMI was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m(2)). Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein were positively co-related with BMI (p cholesterol from known BMI values were developed. There is a positive correlation between BMI and serum cholesterol. BMI which is non-invasive is recommended as a screening tool for cardiovascular risk in settings where serum cholesterol cannot be routinely estimated. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Is There an Association between Socioeconomic Status and Body Mass Index among Adolescents in Mauritius?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqia Begum Fokeena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no documented studies on socioeconomic status (SES and body mass index (BMI among Mauritian adolescents. This study aimed to determine the relationships between SES and BMI among adolescents with focus on diet quality and physical activity (PA as mediating factors. Mauritian school adolescents (=200; 96 males, 104 females were recruited using multistage sampling. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate BMI (categorised into underweight, healthy-weight, overweight, obese. Chi-square test, Pearson correlation, and Independent samples -test were used for statistical analysis. A negative association was found between SES and BMI (2=8.15%, <0.05. Diet quality, time spent in PA at school (=0.000, but not total PA (=0.562, were significantly associated with high SES. Poor diet quality and less time spent in PA at school could explain BMI discrepancies between SES groups.

  6. Body mass index trajectories from 2 to 18 years - exploring differences between European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, L; Howe, L D; Sørensen, T I A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight in most high-income countries. Within northern Europe, prevalence tends to be higher in the UK compared with the Scandinavian countries. We aimed to study differences in body mass index (BMI......) trajectories between large cohorts of children from UK and Scandinavian populations. METHODS: We compared BMI trajectories in participants from the English Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children born in 1991-1993 (ALSPAC) (N = 6517), the Northern Finland Birth Cohorts born in 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 3321......) and 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4764), and the Danish Aarhus Birth Cohort born in 1990-1992 (ABC) (N = 1920). We used multilevel models to estimate BMI trajectories from 2 to 18 years. We explored whether cohort differences were explained by maternal BMI, height, education or smoking during pregnancy and whether...

  7. Lack of Impact of Body Mass Index at Young Age on Otitis Media Occurrence During Preschool Years: Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venekamp, Roderick P; Menger, Jan-Thijs; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Smit, Henriette A; Schilder, Anne G M; de Hoog, Marieke L A

    2016-01-01

    Using data on weight and height at 6 and 11 months of age and primary care electronic health records data from 1960 children participating in the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn birth cohort study, we found that body mass index at 6 and 11 months of age was not associated with otitis media occurrence during the first 4 years of life.

  8. Lack of Impact of Body Mass Index at Young Age on Otitis Media Occurrence During Preschool Years : Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, Roderick P; Menger, Jan-Thijs; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/136603947; van der Ent, Cornelis K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164028536; Smit, Henriette A; Schilder, Anne G M; de Hoog, Marieke L A

    Using data on weight and height at 6 and 11 months of age and primary care electronic health records data from 1960 children participating in the Wheezing Illnesses Study Leidsche Rijn birth cohort study, we found that body mass index at 6 and 11 months of age was not associated with otitis media

  9. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-07-01

    We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in "food deserts" in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity.

  10. Store Impulse Marketing Strategies and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca; Hunter, Gerald; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the use of placement and price reduction marketing strategies in different food retail outlets to identify associations between these strategies and the risk of overweight and obesity among customers. Methods. In 2011 we collected dietary and health information from 1372 residents in “food deserts” in Pittsburgh, PA. We audited neighborhood restaurants and food stores (n = 40) including 16 distant food venues at which residents reported shopping. We assessed end-aisle displays, special floor displays, cash register displays, and price reductions for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs); foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars; and nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, and products with at least 51% whole grains. Results. Supermarkets and superstores had the largest numbers of displays and price reductions for low-nutrient foods. Exposure to displays of SSBs and foods high in saturated oils, fats, and added sugars and price reduction of SSBs was associated with increased body mass index. Conclusions. In-store marketing strategies of low-nutrient foods appear to be risk factors for a higher body mass index among regular shoppers. Future research is needed to confirm the causal role of marketing strategies in obesity. PMID:25521881

  11. Influence of Body Mass Index on Hair Ethyl Glucuronide Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Neels, Hugo; Maudens, Kristof; De Doncker, Mireille; Cappelle, Delphine; Matthys, Frieda; Dom, Geert; Fransen, Erik; Michielsen, Peter; De Keukeleire, Steven; Covaci, Adrian; Yegles, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations in hair is increasingly used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Linear correlations between the amount of alcohol consumed and the concentration of EtG in hair have been reported, and several variables that may influence this correlation have been investigated: e.g. cosmetic hair treatments, gender influences or hair color. Here, we investigate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on this correlation. A post hoc analysis on the influence of BMI on the relation between amounts of alcohol consumed and the measured EtG concentrations in hair in 199 participants. Our data show higher EtG concentrations in participants with high BMI (≥25) compared to participants with low BMI (hair EtG concentrations. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair (hEtG) can be used to estimate the consumption of alcohol of the prior months. Body mass index (BMI) influences this relation and BMI should be taken into account when interpreting hEtG concentrations in participants with high BMI (≥25) compared to participants with low BMI (<25). © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available Aging, body composition, and body mass index (BMI are important factors in bone mineral density (BMD. Although several studies have investigated the various parameters and factors that differentially influence BMD, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to further characterize the relationships of aging, body composition parameters, and BMI with BMD in Chinese Han males older than 50 years.The present study was a retrospective analysis of the body composition, BMI, and BMD of 358 Chinese male outpatients between 50 and 89 years of age that were recruited from our hospital between 2009 and 2011. Qualified subjects were stratified according to age and BMI as follows: 50-59 (n = 35, 60-69 (n = 123, 70-79 (n = 93, and 80-89 (n = 107 years of age and low weight (BMI: < 20 kg/m2; n = 21, medium weight (20 ≤ BMI < 24 kg/m2; n = 118, overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28 kg/m2; n = 178, and obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2; n = 41. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC, lean mass (LM, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lumbar spine (L1-L4 BMD, femoral neck BMD, and total hip BMD. Additionally, the FM index (FMI; FM/height2, LM index (LMI; LM/height2, FFM index (FFMI; [BMC+LM]/height2, percentage of BMC (%BMC; BMC/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, percentage of FM (%FM; FM/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%, and percentage of LM (%LM; LM/(BMC+FM+LM × 100% were calculated. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was identified using the criteria and T-score of the World Health Organization.Although there were no significant differences in BMI among the age groups, there was a significant decline in height and weight according to age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0002, respectively. The LMI and FFMI also declined with age (both p < 0.0001 whereas the FMI exhibited a significant increase that peaked in the 80-89-years group (p = 0.0145. Although the absolute values of BMC and LM declined with age (p = 0.0031 and p < 0

  13. Does body mass index accurately reflect body fat? A comparison of anthropometric measures in the longitudinal assessment of fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thao-Ly T; Maresca, Michelle M; Hossain, Jobayer; Datto, George A

    2012-07-01

    To determine which anthropometric measure best correlates with change in fat mass (FM) over time. The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of 76 obese patients (mean body mass index [BMI] 38 kg/m(2) and mean age 13 years) presenting to an obesity clinic between 2005 and 2010. For each patient, during 2 visits, FM was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and the following measures obtained: BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and neck circumference. Correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses were calculated to examine the relationship between each measure and FM. Change in BMI correlated better with change in FM than any other measure and had the strongest effect on change in FM (P FM.

  14. Association of childhood body mass index and change in body mass index with first adult ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjærde, Line K.; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic...... of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and in men (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Adjusting for birth weight minimally affected the associations. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Independent of birth weight, above...

  15. [Social mobility, lifestyle and body mass index in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenhaar, Marisa Luzia; Sichieri, Rosely; Muraro, Ana Paula; da Silva, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the association between social mobility, lifestyle and body mass index in adolescents. A cohort study of 1,716 adolescents aged 10 to 17 years of both sexes. The adolescents were participants in a cohort study and were born between 1994 and 1999. The adolescents, from public and private schools, were assessed between 2009 and 2011. Lifestyle was assessed by interview and anthropometry was used to calculatebody mass index. For the economic classification, both at pre-school age and in adolescence, the criteria recommended by the Brazilian Association of Research Companies were used. Upward social mobility was categorized as an increase by at least one class in economic status within a 10-year-period. Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between upward social mobility and the outcomes assessed. Among all respondents (71.4% follow-up of the cohort), 60.6% had upward social mobility. Among these, 93.6% belonged to socioeconomic class D and 99.9% to economy class E. Higher prevalence of social mobility was observed for students with black skin (71.4%) and mulatto students (61.9%) enrolled in public schools (64.3%) whose mothers had less schooling in the first evaluation (67.2%) and revaluation (68.7%). After adjustment for confounding variables, upward social mobility was associated only with sedentary behavior (p = 0.02). The socioeconomic class in childhood was more associated with the outcomes assessed than was upward mobility. Upward social mobility was not associated with most of the outcomes evaluated, possibly as it is discreet and because the period considered in the study may not have been sufficient to reflect substantial changes in lifestyle and body mass index in adolescents.

  16. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm(2); centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m(2)). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  17. Pocket Money: Influence on Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, V C; Amudhan, A; Sivaprakasam, P; Rathnaprabhu, V

    2014-12-01

    To explore the influence of pocket money on Dental Caries and Body Mass Index. A cross-sectional study was conducted wherein urban adolescent schoolchildren of age 13-18(n=916) were selected by two stage random sampling technique. Dental caries was measured using the DMFT Index. The children's nutritional status was assessed by means of anthropometric measurements. Body Mass Index using weight and height of children was evaluated using the reference standard of the WHO 2007. RESULTS showed that 50% of children receive pocket money from parents. The average amount received was Rs. 360/month. There was a significant correlation between age and amount of money received (r=0.160, p=.001). The average amount received by male children was significantly higher (Rs. 400) when compared to female children (Rs. 303). It was observed that income of the family (>30,000 Rs./month) and socioeconomic status (Upper class) was significantly dependent on the amount of money received by children (pmoney or not. When BMI categories and pocket money were considered, statistically significant difference was seen among overweight and obese and normal weight children (pmoney from parents could influence their eating habits in turn affect general health. Parents and teachers should motivate children on healthy spending of their pocket money.

  18. Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A; Brown, Arleen F; Asch, Steven M

    2009-09-01

    Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Census data and information on locations of fast food and other restaurants with the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study database, which consists of 2,156 adults sampled from 63 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate associations between body mass index (BMI), fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership after adjustment for individual-level factors and socioeconomic characteristics of residential neighborhoods. A high concentration of local restaurants is associated with BMI. Car owners have higher BMIs than non-car owners; however, individuals who do not own cars and reside in areas with a high concentration of fast food outlets have higher BMIs than non-car owners who live in areas with no fast food outlets, approximately 12 lb more (p = 0.02) for an individual with a height of 5 ft. 5 in. Higher restaurant density is associated with higher BMI among local residents. The local fast food environment has a stronger association with BMI for local residents who do not have access to cars.

  19. The Relationship between dental status, body mass index and nutrient intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is one of the basic requirements for growth and development. In all the age groups, good oral health is necessary for masticatory efficacy, sense of taste, deglutition, articulation and aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tooth loss and food intake in a group of middle aged population. Materials and Methods: A total number of 200 participants with age range of 40-60 years were chosen and divided into four groups. The study population was classified into one of four groups by number of permanent teeth present. Required data for the study were gathered by interviews, oral and dental examinations, anthropometric measurements and 24-hour dietary recall. Data were analyzed statistically by descriptive methods, Variance test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: Statistical analysis proved that, by controlling important confounding factors, individuals with more teeth had higher mean body mass index, weight, height, energy and nutrient intake compared to those with fewer teeth. Conclusion: Food intake and nutritional status are associated with oral health status and number of teeth.   Key words: Body mass index; Food intake; Tooth loss

  20. Breakfast size is related to body mass index for men, but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian M; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, men's BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Body mass index, perceived health, and happiness: their determinants and structural relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Antonides, G.; Ophem, van J.A.C.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2006-01-01

    The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both

  2. Body Mass Index, perceived health, and hapiness: Their determinants and structural relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.; Antonides, G.; van Ophem, J.A.C.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2006-01-01

    The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both

  3. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Felix (Janine); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); C. Monnereau; R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); E. Stergiakouli (Evie); A. Chesi (Alessandra); R. Gaillard (Romy); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Niina Pitkänen; R. Joro (Raimo); A. Cavadino (Alana); V. Huikari (Ville); S. Franks (Steve); M. Groen-Blokhuis (Maria); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); J.A. Marsh (Julie); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); J.A. Curtin (John); J. Vioque (Jesus); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R. Myhre (Ronny); T.S. Price (Thomas); Natalia Vilor-Tejedor; L. Yengo (Loic); N. Grarup (Niels); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); W.Q. Ang (Wei); M. Atalay (Mustafa); H. Bisgaard (Hans); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Flexeder (Claudia); L. Franke (Lude); F. Geller (Frank); M. Geserick (Mandy); A.L. Hartikainen; C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); M. Kähönen (Mika); W. Kiess (Wieland); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T.A. Lakka (Timo); A. Lewin (Alex); L. Liang (Liming); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); B. Ma (Baoshan); P. Magnus (Per); S.E. McCormack (Shana E.); G. Mcmahon (George); F.D. Mentch (Frank); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); C.S. Murray (Clare S.); K. Pahkala (Katja); T.H. Pers (Tune); R. Pfäffle (Roland); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); C. Power (Christine); A. Simpson (Angela); V. Sengpiel (Verena); C. Tiesler (Carla); M. Torrent (Maties); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); R. Vinding (Rebecca); J. Waage (Johannes); J. Wardle (Jane); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); B.S. Zemel (Babette S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); O. Pedersen (Oluf); P. Froguel (Philippe); J. Sunyer (Jordi); R. Plomin (Robert); B. Jacobsson (Bo); T. Hansen (Torben); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); A. Custovic; O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); C.E. Pennell (Craig); Elisabeth Widén; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); S. Sebert (Sylvain); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Hypponen (Elina); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); V. Lindi (Virpi); N. Harri (Niinikoski); A. Körner (Antje); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); J. Heinrich (Joachim); M. Melbye (Mads); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.D. Smith; T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.J. Kalkwarf (Heidi J.); J.M. Lappe (Joan M.); V. Gilsanz (Vicente); S.E. Oberfield (Sharon E.); J.A. Shepherd (John A.); A. Kelly (Andrea)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation

  4. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, Janine F.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J. P.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkanen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Marsh, Julie A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Curtin, John A.; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S.; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loic; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Kahonen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A.; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Liang, Liming; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E.; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Murray, Clare S.; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H.; Pfaefle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S.; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pennell, Craig E.; Widen, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hypponen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Koerner, Antje; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, George Davey; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex-and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We

  5. Estimation of stature and body mass from the skeleton among coastal and mid-altitude Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Stock, Jay T

    2012-02-01

    Adult stature and body mass represent fundamental biological characteristics of individuals and populations, as they are relevant to a range of problems from assessing nutrition and health to longer term evolutionary processes. Stature and body mass estimation from skeletal dimensions are therefore key to addressing biological and social questions about past populations. Anatomical reconstruction provides the most direct proxy for living stature but is only suitable for well-preserved remains. Regression equations for estimating stature from bone lengths are therefore extremely useful, though it is well recognized that differences in body proportions limit the cross-application of equations between samples. Here, we assess the accuracy of published stature estimation equations from worldwide and New World groups applied to archaeological samples from the central Andean coast and highlands of South America. As no existing equations are clearly appropriate, new sample-specific regression equations are presented. Anatomical stature reconstruction is further complicated by artificial cranial modification (ACM) influencing cranial height in Andean samples, so this problem is investigated in the current sample. Although ACM has minimal impact here, the possibility should be explored in other samples before anatomical stature estimation is attempted. Recommendations are also made for estimating body mass from femoral head diameter. The mean of three previously published equations is shown to offer minimal bias and the most reliable estimate of body mass in the study samples. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Body mass, DRD4, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and family socioeconomic status: the add health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; North, Kari E; Gorden-Larsen, Penny; Bulik, Cynthia M; Choi, Seulki

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the joint role of the 48-base pair repeat polymorphism of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4) and environmental factors in body mass variation among an ethnically diverse sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults. Approximately 2600 adolescent and young adults in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) who provided DNA measures and measures of height and weight were included in the analysis. Mixed regression modeling was used to investigate the effects of the 7R/7R and any5R variants in the DRD4 gene simultaneously with the effects of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and family socioeconomic status (SES) on body mass variation. European Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans were modeled separately. Both the 7R/7R and any5R genotypes of the DRD4 gene were associated with age- and sex-specific BMI percentile score (BMI-P) based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics 2000 reference curves among African Americans and only among African Americans (N = 413) 20 years old or younger. Neither genetic variants are associated with the BMI measure among white (N = 1386) and Hispanic-American (N = 331) adolescents. The presence of the 7R/7R genotype was associated with a reduction of 15.1 in BMI percentile (p = 0.005), and the presence of any5R was associated with an increase of 15.5 in BMI percentile (p = 0.003), after adjusting for PA, SB, and family SES. Neither PA nor SB as measured in Add Health is importantly associated with BMI-P, suggesting a complex relationship between body mass and PA/SB among adolescents and young adults. Family SES is negatively related to BMI-P in the European-American sample.

  7. Stature, body mass, and brain size: a two-million-year odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Physical size has been critical in the evolutionary success of the genus Homo over the past 2.4 million-years. An acceleration in the expansion of savannah grasslands in Africa from 1.6Ma to 1.2Ma witnessed concomitant increases in physical stature (150-170cm), weight (50-70kg), and brain size (750-900cm(3)). With the onset of 100,000year Middle Pleistocene glacial cycles ("ice ages") some 780,000years ago, large-bodied Homo groups had reached modern size and had successfully dispersed from equatorial Africa, Central, and Southeast Asia to high-latitude localities in Atlantic Europe and North East Asia. While there is support for incursions of multiple Homo lineages to West Asia and Continental Europe at this time, data does not favour a persistence of Homo erectus beyond ∼400,000years ago in Africa, west and Central Asia, and Europe. Novel Middle Pleistocene Homo forms (780,000-400,000years) may not have been substantially taller (150-170cm) than earlier Homo (1.6Ma-800,000years), yet brain size exceeded 1000cm(3) and body mass approached 80kg in some males. Later Pleistocene Homo (400,000-138,000years) were 'massive' in their height (160-190cm) and mass (70-90kg) and consistently exceed recent humans. Relative brain size exceeds earlier Homo, yet is substantially lower than in final glacial H. sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. A final leap in absolute and relative brain size in Homo (300,000-138,000years) occurred independent of any observed increase in body mass and implies a different selective mediator to that operating on brain size increases observed in earlier Homo. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Biomechanical evaluation of the relationship between postural control and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, P X; Abu Osman, N A; Yusof, A; Wan Abas, W A B

    2012-06-01

    Postural stability is crucial in maintaining body balance during quiet standing, locomotion, and any activities that require a high degree of balance performance, such as participating in sports and dancing. Research has shown that there is a relationship between stability and body mass. The aims of this study were to examine the impact that two variables had on static postural control: body mass index (BMI) and gender. Eighty healthy young adults (age=21.7±1.8 yr; height=1.65±0.09 m; mass=67.5±19.0 kg) participated in the study and the static postural control was assessed using the Biodex Balance System, with a 20 Hz sampling rate in the bipedic stance (BLS) and unipedic stance (ULS) for 30s. Five test evaluations were performed for each balance test. Postural control was found to be negatively correlated with increased adiposity, as the obese BMI group performed significantly poorer than the underweight, normal weight and overweight groups during BLS and ULS tests. The underweight, normal weight and overweight groups exhibited greater anterior-posterior stability in postural control during quiet stance. In addition, female displayed a trend of having a greater postural sway than male young adults, although it was evidenced in only some BMI groups. This study revealed that BMI do have an impact on postural control during both BLS and ULS. As such, BMI and gender-specific effects should be taken into consideration when selecting individuals for different types of sporting activities, especially those that require quiet standing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body Fat Percentages by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry Corresponding to Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Overweight and Obesity in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Pandit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Indians are suspected to have higher body fat percent at a given body mass index (BMI than their western counterparts. Objective To estimate percent body fat in apparently healthy Indian children and adolescents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and explore linkages of BMI with body fat percent for better health risk assessment. Methods Age, weight, height of 316 boys and 250 girls (6–17 years were recorded. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. High adiposity was defined as body fat percent (BF% > McCarthy's 85th percentile of body fat reference data. Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC was carried out for CDC BMI Z score for it's ability to judge excess fatness. Results High BF% was seen in 38.5% boys and 54.0% girls (p < 0.05. Percentage of obese children as defined by the BMI cutoffs of International Obesity Task Force (IOTF (2.1% for boys and 6.9% for girls was lower than that using Indian (13.7% for boys and 20.9% for girls and CDC (14.1% for boys and 20.9% for girls cutoffs. The point closest to one on the ROC curves of CDC BMI Z-scores indicated high adiposity at BMI cutoff of 22 at the age of 17 yr in both the genders. Conclusions Higher body fat percentage is associated with lower BMI values in Indian children.

  10. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawaheer, D; Olsen, J; Lahiff, M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner.......To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner....

  11. Predicting body composition in college students using the womersley and durnin body mass index equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Hirt, Kathryn M; Wilson, Jacob M; Barnes, Jeremy T; Pujol, Thomas J

    2013-06-01

    When assessing fitness levels, body composition is usually measured. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall efficacy of a body mass index (BMI) equation for predicting body composition with respect to college aged participants. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and was estimated using the Womersley and Durnin BMI prediction equation. There was no significant (P=0.8) percent body fat (%BF) difference between the BMI prediction equation and DXA (BMI Predicted=25 (10) [min=6; max=52] %BF vs DXA=25 (6) [min=10; max=45] %BF). In addition, a significant correlation was found between the two approaches (r=0.791, P=0.001). However, both the standard error of estimate (6.32 %BF) and total error (6.63 %BF) were outside acceptable ranges for prediction equations. The Womersley and Durnin equation for estimating %BF was not found to be a good estimate. Therefore, although the BMI predicted %BF has been previously found to predict skinfold estimated %BF, it does not appear valid in estimating %BF from DXA.

  12. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  13. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2)).......Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population, the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass/weight(2))....

  14. Organized physical activity in young school children and subsequent 4-year change in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve; McConnell, Rob; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Lam, Claudia; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether participation in organized outdoor team sports and structured indoor nonschool activity programs in kindergarten and first grade predicted subsequent 4-year change in body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) during the adiposity rebound period of childhood. Longitudinal cohort study. Forty-five schools in 13 communities across Southern California. Largely Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children (N = 4550) with a mean (SD) age at study entry of 6.60 (0.65) years. Parents completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, demographic characteristics, and other relevant covariates at baseline. Data on built and social environmental variables were linked to the neighborhood around children's homes using geographical information systems. Each child's height and weight were measured annually during 4 years of follow-up. After adjusting for several confounders, BMI increased at a rate 0.05 unit/year slower for children who participated in outdoor organized team sports at least twice per week compared with children who did not. For participation in each additional indoor nonschool structured activity class, lesson, and program, BMI increased at a rate 0.05 unit/year slower, and the attained BMI level at age 10 years was 0.48 units lower. Engagement in organized sports and activity programs as early as kindergarten and the first grade may result in smaller increases in BMI during the adiposity rebound period of childhood.

  15. Parental body mass index is associated with adolescent overweight and obesity in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghi, Khosro; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Jabbari, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children aged 12 to 14 years in the city of Mashhad, Iran and its association with parental body mass index. A total of 1189 secondary school children (579 males and 610 females) aged 12- 14 years old were selected through a stratified multistage random sampling. All adolescents were measured for weight and height. Household socio-demographic information and parental weight and height were self-reported by parents. Adolescents were classified as overweight or obese based on BMI-for age Z-score. Multivariable logistic Regression (MLR) determined the relationship between parental BMI and adolescent overweight and obesity. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among secondary school children in Mashhad was 17.2% and 11.9%, respectively. A higher proportion of male (30.7%) than female (27.4%) children were overweight or obese. BMI of the children was significantly related to parental BMI (pprevalence of overweight/obesity among the research population compared with previous studies in Iran could be related to the changing lifestyle of the population. The strong relationship with parental BMI was probably related to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors. Strategies to address childhood obesity should consider the interaction of these factors.

  16. Association between dental caries and body mass index among hamedan elementary school children in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarad, F; Maybodi, M Haeri

    2011-01-01

    Excessive weight in children is a major public health concern. The intake of refined carbohydrates, especially sugars and the prevalence of dental caries are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in elementary school children. The sampling technique used in the present study was a cluster random sampling. A total of 1000 pupils (500 girls, 500 boys) aged 6-11 years from 20 private and state elementary schools (10 boys, 10 girls). The weight status was measured in children by assessment of body mass index (BMI) (=body weight/body height(2) kg/m(2)) corresponding to gender and age-ranked percentages. To assess the caries frequency the decayed filled teeth (DFT) index for permanent dentition and the dft index for primary dentition were used since they give good perception about the situation of tooth caries in young patients. The highest mean total dft/DFT was seen in normal weight and lowest average in at risk of overweight children. There was not a statistically significant relationship found between high weight and caries frequency in the first (p=0.08) and permanent dentitions (p=0.06). The results of this preliminary study do not support an association between dental caries and obesity.

  17. Associations between Substance Use and Body Mass Index: Moderating Effects of Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Taiwanese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ling Liu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between substance use and body mass index (BMI among adolescents in Southern Taiwan. A total of 10,259 adolescent students aged 11–19 years were selected by stratified random sampling for proportional representation of districts, schools and grades in Southern Taiwan, and completed the questionnaires. The body weight, body height, experience of substance use and sociodemographic characteristics including sex, age, residential background and paternal/maternal educational levels were collected. The association between substance use and BMI, and the moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics were examined. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, BMI was higher for adolescents who smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol than for those who do not regularly smoke or drink. Chewing betel nuts and using illicit drugs were not significantly associated with BMI. Paternal education level had a moderating effect on the association between smoking and BMI. Smoking, alcohol drinking, and low paternal education level were associated with higher BMI among adolescents. Thus, healthcare professionals should pay more attention to the weight-related problems among these adolescents.

  18. Sleep duration and body mass index in twins: a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Pack, Allan I; Weigle, David S; Goldberg, Jack

    2012-05-01

    To examine whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on body mass index (BMI). Genotype-environment interaction twin study. University of Washington Twin Registry. A population-based sample of US twins (1,088 pairs, 604 monozygotic, 484 dizygotic; 66% female; mean age = 36.6 yr, standard deviation (SD) = 15.9 yr). N/A. Participants self-reported information on height, weight, and sleep. Mean BMI was calculated as 25.3 kg/m² (SD = 5.4) and mean habitual sleep duration was 7.2 hr/night (SD = 1.2). Data were analyzed using biometric genetic interaction models. Overall the heritability of sleep duration was 34%. Longer sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI (P BMI when sleep duration was BMI when sleep duration was ≥ 9 hr (h² = 32%); this interaction was significant (P sleep duration is associated with increased BMI and increased genetic influences on BMI, suggesting that shorter sleep duration increases expression of genetic risks for high body weight. At the same time, longer sleep duration may suppress genetic influences on body weight. Future research aiming to identify specific genotypes for BMI may benefit by considering the moderating role of sleep duration.

  19. Disturbance regimes, gap-demanding trees and seed mass related to tree height in warm temperate rain forests worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Peter J; Bellingham, Peter J; Kohyama, Takashi S; Piper, Frida I; Valido, Alfredo

    2013-08-01

    likely to have had a major determining influence during evolution. We also sought to determine whether the species that are at least 'short-term persistent' in the soil seed bank (lasting 2-4 years) are all species needing canopy gaps for establishment. The answer was negative; large numbers of seeds of some shade-tolerants accumulate in the soil, and these species are able to benefit from soil disturbance in deep shade. We found a significant and strong positive relationship in Japan between mean seed mass and mature tree height, a weak positive relationship in New Zealand and no relationship in any of the other four regions. When comparing the seed mass values of Group 1 and Group 3 species we obtained different answers depending on whether or not we confined ourselves to taxonomically controlled contrasts. In only two of the four regions with an appreciable number of species in Group 1 is the mean seed mass of such species significantly lower than that of Group 3 species when taxonomic relatedness is ignored. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...... challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour.......Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...

  1. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  2. Personality Traits and Body Mass Index in Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Stephan, Yannick; Wang, Lei; Gao, Shoumin; Wang, Ping; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Research on personality and adiposity has focused primarily on Western samples; less is known about the personality correlates of BMI in Asian populations. We examined the association between personality and Body Mass Index (BMI) among community-dwelling Japanese adults (N=380), Chinese adolescents (N=5,882), and a meta-analysis inclusive of a published Korean sample (total N=10,304). In the new samples and meta-analysis, Extraversion and Agreeableness were associated with higher BMI among men. In contrast to what is often found in Western samples, Conscientiousness was mostly unrelated to adiposity. These findings link pro-social tendencies to overweight among Asian men; Conscientiousness may be less relevant for BMI in Eastern societies with a low prevalence of obesity and strong social norms for eating but not thinness.

  3. Dapsone and body mass index in subjects with multibacillary leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fernanda M L; Dias, Rosa M; Araujo, Eliete C; Brasil, Laélia M B F; Ferreira, Michelle V D; Vieira, Jose L F

    2014-04-01

    The physiological changes in obese subjects can modify the pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs influencing the therapeutic efficacy. In this study, the authors compare plasma dapsone trough levels of multibacillary leprosy subjects stratified by body mass index (BMI) to evaluate if obesity plays a significant role on drug levels. The relationship between drug levels and BMI was also determined. Dapsone was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and BMI based on World Health Organization criteria. At steady state, the median plasma dapsone trough level was significantly lower in obesity class 2 group, when compared with other groups, but they were similar between normal weight and preobesity groups. A weak association between drug levels and BMI was observed. Obesity promotes a significant reduction in plasma dapsone trough levels of subjects with multibacillary leprosy with a weak association between drug levels and BMI.

  4. Body mass index and ghrelin levels after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Taner; Coskun, Ali Kagan; Harlak, Ali; Sinan, Huseyin; Unlu, Aytekin; Tapan, Serkan; Lapsekili, Emin; Kozak, Orhan

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to evaluate the changes between body mass index (BMI) and ghrelin levels after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF). Twenty-four consecutive patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who were scheduled for LNF consented to participate in the study. The participants' age, sex, preoperative (phase 0), postoperative 1st week (phase 1) and postoperative 4th week (phase 2) dysphagia scores, plasma ghrelin levels, and BMI were recorded. Compared to the preoperative level (phase 0), ghrelin was decreased in both phase 1 and phase 2. A strong correlation in the changes in the ghrelin values and BMI between phase 0 and phase 2 was detected. There was a strong, statistically significant difference in the changes in the BMI values between phase 1 and phase 2. Total plication of the fundus impairs its ghrelin-secreting functions for up to 4 weeks and is accompanied by weight loss.

  5. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    is inversely associated with the risk of both pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer. The reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with genetically predicted BMI observed in this study differs from the positive association reported from studies using measured adult BMI. Understanding the reasons......BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic...... or environmental factors. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated...

  6. Combined heat and mass transfer for drying ceramic (shell body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawati Harun

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a two-dimensional numerical model of heat and mass transfer for the convective drying of ceramic porous system was developed. The governing system of fully coupled non-linear partial differential equations describing the process was derived from a mechanistic approach. A formulation including hygrothermal and moisture transport in soil was adopted as the basis for further development in this work. The calculation results for drying of a ceramic brick showed that the model presented is in good agreement with other studies that have been reported previously in the drying of porous material. Further investigation on the shell drying agrees well with the most drying mechanism of ceramic porous body. The influence of material parameter on the drying profile is taken into consideration by carrying out some investigation on the material sensitivity study.

  7. Validity of Self-Reported Physical Fitness and Body Mass Index in a Military Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robyn C; Grier, Tyson; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; DeGroot, David W; Jones, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies rely on valid physical fitness data. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the validity of self-reported Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) data and determine whether men and women recall APFT performance differently. U.S. Army soldiers (N = 1,047) completed a survey, including questions on height, weight, and most recent APFT performance. Height, weight, and APFT performance were also obtained from unit records. The mean ± SDs for unit and self-reported push-up repetitions were 63.5 ± 13.1 and 66.3 ± 14.0 for men and 37.7 ± 12.8 and 40.2 ± 12.8 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD for unit- and self-reported sit-up repetitions were 66.3 ± 11.4 and 68.1 ± 12.1 for men and 64.2 ± 13.6 and 66.5 ± 12.9 for women, respectively. The mean ± SD unit- and self-reported 2-mile run times were 15.2 ± 1.8 and 14.9 ± 1.6 minutes for men, and 18.0 ± 2.9 and 17.4 ± 1.9 minutes for women, respectively. Unit- and self-reported body mass indices (BMIs) (calculated by height and weight) were 26.4 ± 3.4 and 26.3 ± 3.6 for men and 24.6 ± 2.8 and 24.2 ± 3.3 for women. Correlations between unit- and self-reported scores for push-ups, sit-ups, 2-mile run, height, weight, and BMI were 0.82, 0.78, 0.85, 0.87, 0.97, and 0.88 for men and 0.86, 0.84, 0.87, 0.78, 0.98, and 0.78 for women, respectively. On average, men and women slightly overreported performance on the APFT and overestimated height, resulting in underestimated BMI. There was no difference in recall ability between men and women (p > 0.05). The very good to excellent correlations (r = 0.78-0.98) between unit- and self-reported scores indicate that self-reported data are valid for capturing physical fitness performance in this population.

  8. Examining predator-prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A; Rogers, Tracey L

    2014-12-22

    Predator-prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator-prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator-prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator-prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining predator–prey body size, trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Marlee A.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships and trophic levels are indicators of community structure, and are important for monitoring ecosystem changes. Mammals colonized the marine environment on seven separate occasions, which resulted in differences in species' physiology, morphology and behaviour. It is likely that these changes have had a major effect upon predator–prey relationships and trophic position; however, the effect of environment is yet to be clarified. We compiled a dataset, based on the literature, to explore the relationship between body mass, trophic level and predator–prey ratio across terrestrial (n = 51) and marine (n = 56) mammals. We did not find the expected positive relationship between trophic level and body mass, but we did find that marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Also, marine mammals are largely carnivorous and have significantly larger predator–prey ratios compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We propose that primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size. Also, energy flow and community structure in the marine environment are influenced by differences in energy efficiency and increased food web stability. Enhancing our knowledge of feeding ecology in mammals has the potential to provide insights into the structure and functioning of marine and terrestrial communities. PMID:25377460

  10. Childhood body mass index in adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Staci A; Witt, Ashley A; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria; Wentz, Elisabet; Lowe, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Although weight history is relevant in predicting eating disorder symptom severity, little is known about its role in the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study aimed to determine whether BMI or BMI trajectory differed between individuals who later developed adolescent-onset AN and a comparison group of HCs between school grades 1 through 6. This study was based on longitudinal data that identified 51 adolescents with AN and 51 matched HCs. Cases were identified through community screening in Sweden and included individuals born in 1969 through 1977. Measured weights and heights were retrieved and BMIs and weight trajectories of the AN and HC groups were compared using growth curve analysis. Main outcome measures included measured BMI and BMI trajectories from grades 1-6. Secondary outcomes examined included ponderal index at birth and maternal body weight. Individuals who later developed AN had higher BMIs than HCs between grades 1 and 6, by an average of 1.42 BMI-units. There was no difference in rate of weight gain between groups. Ponderal index at birth was higher for the AN as compared with HC group. Maternal weight did not differ significantly between groups. These findings, combined with those previously reported on the premorbid BMIs of those with bulimia nervosa, suggest that a predisposition toward elevated premorbid BMIs during childhood characterizes those who later develop anorexia or bulimia nervosa. These findings are consistent with a transdiagnostic perspective and suggest shared risk factors for AN and obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1002-1009). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Estimating bias in derived body mass index in the Maternity Experiences Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dzakpasu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess bias in the body mass index (BMI measure in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (MES and possible implications of bias on the relationship between BMI and selected pregnancy outcomes. Methods: We assessed BMI classification based on self-reported versus measured values. We used a random sample of 6175 women from the MES, which derived BMI from self-reported height and weight, and a random sample of 259 women who had previously given birth from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, which derived BMI from self-reported and measured height and weight. Two correction equations were applied to self-reported based BMI, and the impact of these corrections on associations between BMI and caesarean section, small-for-gestational age (SGA and large-for-gestational age (LGA births was studied. Results: Overall, 86.9% of the CHMS subsample was classified into the same BMI category based on self-reported versus measured data. However, misclassification had a substantial effect on the proportion of women in underweight and obese BMI categories. For example, 14.5% versus 20.8% of women were classified as obese based on self-reported data versus measured data. Corrections improved estimates of obesity prevalence, but over- and underestimated other BMI categories. Corrections had nonsignificant effects on the associations between BMI and SGA, LGA, and caesarean section. Conclusion: While there was high concordance in BMI classification based on self-reported versus measured height and weight, bias in self-reported based measures may slightly over- or underestimate the risks associated with a particular BMI class. However, the general trend in associations is unaffected.

  12. Mass extinctions show selective patterns in crinoid body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, A.; Tang, C.; Pelagio, M.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    There have been five major extinctions on planet Earth: the end of the Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic and the late Cretaceous and through all of these, Crinoids have still managed to prosper. Our project attempts to find a correlation between these five mass extinctions and the body size of Crinoids. Past research has shown that bigger animals are more prone to extinction compared to smaller sized ones because of their complex environmental niches. We hypothesized that small-sized Crinoids would have a higher possibility of survival compared to the larger-sized Crinoids. We first graphed Crinoids' maximum body size and the five major extinctions throughout time for any visual correlation between them. We then used t-tests as our statistical analyses to find any differences between the size of survivors and. There was no mean difference between the mean size of victims and survivors with the exception of the end of the Triassic extinction. There are many possible explanations for this difference in the end of the Triassic such as 1) a rise in atmospheric CO2, 2) a combination was volcanic CO2 and catastrophic dissociation of gas hydrate, and/or 3) a cooling in temperature and oceanic changes occurred.

  13. Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. The powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and had large girths and bony breadths, both in absolute units and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974). These anthropometric characteristics were more pronounced in heavyweights, who were significantly heavier, had greater muscle and fat mass, were more endo-mesomorphic, and had larger girths and bony breadths than the lighter lifters. Although middleweight and heavyweight lifters typically had longer segment lengths than the lightweights, all three groups had similar Zp-scores for the segment lengths, indicating similar segment length proportions. While population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions that confer a competitive advantage to the expression of maximal strength, anthropometric profiling may prove useful for talent identification and for the assessment of training progression in powerlifting.

  14. The effect of body mass index on perioperative thermoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer AB

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayşe Belin Özer,1 Aysun Yildiz Altun,1 Ömer Lütfi Erhan,1 Tuba Çatak,2 Ümit Karatepe,1 İsmail Demirel,1 Gonca Çağlar Toprak3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Firat University Medical School, Elaziğ, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Bingol State Hospital, Bingöl, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Clinic, Elazig Training and Research Hospital, Elaziğ, Turkey Purpose: We evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI on thermoregulation in obese patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery with no premedication were included in the study. The patients were classified into 4 groups according to BMI <24.9, 25–39.9, 40–49.9, and >50. Anesthesia was provided with routine techniques. Tympanic and peripheral temperatures were recorded every 5 minutes starting with the induction of anesthesia. The mean skin temperature (MST, mean body temperature (MBT, vasoconstriction time, and vasoconstriction threshold that triggers core warming were calculated with the following formulas: MST = 0.3 (Tchest + Tarm + 0.2 (Tthigh + Tcalf. MBT was calculated using the equation 0.64Tcore+0.36Tskin, and vasoconstriction was determined by calculating Tforearm-Tfinger. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, duration of operation, and room temperature. Compared to those with BMI <24.9, the tympanic temperature was significantly higher in those with BMI =25–39.9 in the 10th, 15th, 20th, and 50th minutes. In addition, BMI =40–49.9 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 40th, 45th, 50th, and 55th minutes and BMI >50 in the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, 25th, 30th, 50th, and 55th minutes were less than those with BMI <24.9 (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in terms of MST and MBT. Vasoconstriction occurred later, and that vasoconstriction threshold was

  15. Body Mass Index Versus Body Fat Percentage in Prospective NFL Athletes: Overestimation of Obesity Rate in Athletes at the NFL Scouting Combine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Capt Matthew T; Chahla, Jorge; Sanchez, George; Cinque, Mark E; Kennedy, Nicholas I; Whalen, Jim; Price, Mark D; Moatshe, Gilbert; LaPrade, Robert F

    2018-01-17

    Obesity has been previously noted as a major issue in the National Football League (NFL), where it has been shown that 97% of all players demonstrate a body mass index (BMI) of ≥25.0 with a reported obesity rate of 56% (BMI ≥30.0). However, BMI does not take into account body composition by mass, and may overestimate prevalence of obesity. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the validity of BMI as a measure of body fat percentage and obesity in athletes at the NFL Combine, to define the obesity rate based on body fat percentage compared to BMI. (2) to determine the relationship between draft status and body composition. It was hypothesized that the rate of obesity, as measured by air displacement plethysmography (ADP), would be less than the rate of obesity as measured by BMI. Athletes who competed at the 2010 through 2016 NFL Combines were included in this study. Air displacement plethysmograph testing at the Combine was performed through BOD POD® Body Composition Tracking System with collection of the following metrics: body fat percentage (%), and compared to BMI based on weight and height. In addition, the metrics were evaluated for differences over the 7-year study period to determine temporal changes and to determine draft status based on position relative to BOD POD calculations. A total of 1958 NFL Combine participants completed air displacement plethysmography body composition testing. Based on BMI (≥30.0), the obesity rate was 53.4% versus an 8.9% obesity rate when using ADP. Drafted players demonstrated a significantly lower body fat percentage than undrafted players (p<0.05), with the exception of quarterbacks and running backs. All eight positions of play, with the exception of defensive linemen, demonstrated a decrease in body fat percentage between 2010 and 2017. However, total body mass by position of play remained relatively constant with no significant change noted in any position. In conclusion, the obesity rate in prospective

  16. [Formulation of an equation to predict fat mass using bioelectrical impedance in adults in a wide range of ages and body mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferli, Ingrid; Carrasco, Fernando; Inostroza, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) has a good correlation and agreement with reference techniques, such as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to assess body composition. To develop and assess the concordance of an equation to predict body fat mass derived from anthropometric data, gender, age and resistance obtained from bioelectrical impedance in adults, using DEXA as the reference method. Cross-sectional study of 62 women and 59 men aged 18 to 64 years with a body mass index ranging from 18.5 to 34.8 kg/ m². The equation was constructed using a predictive statistical model, considering sex, age, weight, resistance index (height²(cm)/ resistance (ohms)), as independent variables, and fat mass as the dependent variable. The R² of the regression model was 0.96, and the standard error of estimation was 2.58 kg (p equation developed in this work and that proposed by the manufacturer of the BIA equipment. However, the latter equation, underestimated FM by -2.5 ± 9.5% (p > 0.05) and - 4.5 ± 8,9% (p mass by the formula developed in this work and by DEXA was better than the estimation obtained using the formula proposed by the manufacturer of the BIA equipment.

  17. Relationship between body mass index of offspring and maternal smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, T; Shibuya, T; Saito, K; Inaba, Y

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the body composition of offspring. Grade 4 elementary school children (n=1366; boys/girls, 724/642; 9-10 years old) were enrolled in this study. All parents answered a lifestyle questionnaire, and children underwent passive smoking tests. Urinary cotinine measurement and lifestyle screening test parameters (that is, body weight, body length, body mass index (BMI), obesity index (OI), blood tests for liver function and lipid profile and questions regarding maternal smoking and lifestyle) were evaluated in terms of their relationship with maternal smoking. In addition, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration was measured in 80 randomly selected children to assess its relationship with oxidative stress. Both BMI and OI were significantly higher in children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy than in those whose mothers never smoked (BMI: 17.2±2.7 vs 16.9±2.5 kg m(-2), P=0.016; OI: 2.7±14.3% vs 0.4±14.0%, P=0.003). The degree of elevation was positively correlated with the duration of maternal smoking. The increases in BMI and OI resulted from increased body weight and reduced height. The confounding factors-'breakfast with family', 'watching television at dinner', 'eating and drinking before sleep', 'watching television for >2 h', 'sleep duration smoked during pregnancy in these six confounders. On the other hand, urinary 8-OHdG concentration was negatively correlated with BMI in children who had >1.3 ng ml(-1) urinary cotinine, suggesting that it may be related to basal metabolism due to oxidative stress. Maternal smoking is a risk factor for higher BMI and OI in 9- to 10-year-old children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy and may be independent of other confounding factors.

  18. Validity and reliability of total body volume and relative body fat mass from a 3-dimensional photonic body surface scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Carolin; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Jaeschke, Lina; Mähler, Anja; Boschmann, Michael; Jeran, Stephanie; Pischon, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic body surface scanners (3DPS) feature a tool to estimate total body volume (BV) from 3D images of the human body, from which the relative body fat mass (%BF) can be calculated. However, information on validity and reliability of these measurements for application in epidemiological studies is limited. Validity was assessed among 32 participants (men, 50%) aged 20-58 years. BV and %BF were assessed using a 3DPS (VitusSmart XXL) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) with a BOD POD® device using equations by Siri and Brozek. Three scans were obtained per participant (standard, relaxed, exhaled scan). Validity was evaluated based on the agreement of 3DPS with ADP using Bland Altman plots, correlation analysis and Wilcoxon signed ranks test for paired samples. Reliability was investigated in a separate sample of 18 participants (men, 67%) aged 25-66 years using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) based on two repeated 3DPS measurements four weeks apart. Mean BV and %BF were higher using 3DPS compared to ADP, (3DPS-ADP BV difference 1.1 ± 0.9 L, p<0.01; %BF difference 7.0 ± 5.6, p<0.01), yet the disagreement was not associated with gender, age or body mass index (BMI). Reliability was excellent for 3DPS BV (ICC, 0.998) and good for 3DPS %BF (ICC, 0.982). Results were similar for the standard scan and the relaxed scan but somewhat weaker for the exhaled scan. Although BV and %BF are higher than ADP measurements, our data indicate good validity and reliability for an application of 3DPS in epidemiological studies.

  19. Total body water and lean body mass estimated by ethanol dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J. A.; Myhre, L. G.; Venters, M. D.; Luft, U. C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for estimating total body water (TBW) using breath analyses of blood ethanol content is described. Regression analysis of ethanol concentration curves permits determination of a theoretical concentration that would have existed if complete equilibration had taken place immediately upon ingestion of the ethanol; the water fraction of normal blood may then be used to calculate TBW. The ethanol dilution method is applied to 35 subjects, and comparison with a tritium dilution method of determining TBW indicates that the correlation between the two procedures is highly significant. Lean body mass and fat fraction were determined by hydrostatic weighing, and these data also prove compatible with results obtained from the ethanol dilution method. In contrast to the radioactive tritium dilution method, the ethanol dilution method can be repeated daily with its applicability ranging from diseased individuals to individuals subjected to thermal stress, strenuous exercise, water immersion, or the weightless conditions of space flights.

  20. Combined oral contraceptives' influence on weight, body composition, height, and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warholm, Lina; Petersen, Kresten R; Ravn, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years.......Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years....

  1. Daily physical activity as determined by age, body mass and energy balance

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp, Klaas R

    2015-01-01

    Aim Insight into the determinants of physical activity, including age, body mass and energy balance, facilitates the design of intervention studies with body mass and energy balance as determinants of health and optimal performance. Methods An analysis of physical activity energy expenditure in relation to age and body mass and in relation to energy balance, where activity energy expenditure is derived from daily energy expenditure as measured with doubly labelled water and body movement is m...

  2. Aged-Related Changes in Body Composition and Association between Body Composition with Bone Mass Density by Body Mass Index in Chinese Han Men over 50-year-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Jin, Mengmeng; Gu, Zhaoyan; Pei, Yu; Meng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Aging, body composition, and body mass index (BMI) are important factors in bone mineral density (BMD). Although several studies have investigated the various parameters and factors that differentially influence BMD, the results have been inconsistent. Thus, the primary goal of the present study was to further characterize the relationships of aging, body composition parameters, and BMI with BMD in Chinese Han males older than 50 years. The present study was a retrospective analysis of the body composition, BMI, and BMD of 358 Chinese male outpatients between 50 and 89 years of age that were recruited from our hospital between 2009 and 2011. Qualified subjects were stratified according to age and BMI as follows: 50-59 (n = 35), 60-69 (n = 123), 70-79 (n = 93), and 80-89 (n = 107) years of age and low weight (BMI: FM), fat-free mass (FFM), lumbar spine (L1-L4) BMD, femoral neck BMD, and total hip BMD. Additionally, the FM index (FMI; FM/height2), LM index (LMI; LM/height2), FFM index (FFMI; [BMC+LM]/height2), percentage of BMC (%BMC; BMC/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%), percentage of FM (%FM; FM/[BMC+FM+LM] × 100%), and percentage of LM (%LM; LM/(BMC+FM+LM) × 100%) were calculated. Osteopenia or osteoporosis was identified using the criteria and T-score of the World Health Organization. Although there were no significant differences in BMI among the age groups, there was a significant decline in height and weight according to age (p FM. In terms of body composition, there were no significant differences in %BMC but there was an increase in %FM (p < 0.0001) and a decrease in %LM (p < 0.0001) with age. The femoral neck and total hip BMD significantly declined with age (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0027, respectively) but there were no differences in L1-L4. BMD increased at all sites (all p < 0.01) as BMI increased but there were declines in the detection rates of osteoporosis and osteopenia (both p < 0.001). A logistic regression revealed that when the medium weight group was given a

  3. Effect of Presymptomatic Body Mass Index and Consumption of Fat and Alcohol on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Mark H B; Seelen, Meinie; van Doormaal, Perry T C; de Jong, Sonja W; de Vries, Jeanne H M; van der Kooi, Anneke J; de Visser, Marianne; Schelhaas, H Jurgen; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H

    2015-10-01

    Because dietary intake may influence pathophysiologic mechanisms in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the association between premorbid dietary intake and the risk of sporadic ALS will provide insight into which mechanisms are possibly involved in ALS pathophogenesis. To systematically determine the association between premorbid dietary intake and the risk of sporadic ALS. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a general community setting in the Netherlands from January 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011. Analysis was conducted April 1, 2013, to November 15, 2014. All patients with a new diagnosis of possible, probable (laboratory supported), or definite ALS according to the revised El Escorial criteria were included and multiple sources were used to ensure complete case ascertainment. Of 986 eligible patients, 674 gave informed consent and returned a complete questionnaire; 2093 controls randomly selected from the general practitioners' registers and frequency matched to the patients for sex and age were included. We studied the premorbid intake of nutrients in association with the risk of ALS by using a 199-item food frequency questionnaire adjusted for confounding factors and corrected for multiple comparisons while minimizing recall bias. Presymptomatic total daily energy intake in patients, reported as mean (SD), was significantly higher compared with controls (2258 [730] vs 2119 [619] kcal/day; P body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) was significantly lower in patients (25.7 [4.0] vs 26.0 [3.7]; P = .02). With values reported as odds ratio (95% CI), higher premorbid intake of total fat (1.14; 1.07-1.23; P body mass index, educational level, smoking, and lifetime physical activity. No significant associations between dietary intake and survival were found. The combination of independent positive associations of a low premorbid body mass index and a high fat intake together with

  4. The accuracy of body mass prediction for elderly specimens: Implications for paleoanthropology and legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Tony; Lefèvre, Philippe; Clarys, Jan Pieter; Beauthier, Jean-Pol

    2016-10-01

    Different practices in paleoanthropology and legal medicine raise questions concerning the robustness of body mass (BM) prediction. Integrating personal identification from body mass estimation with skeleton is not a classic approach in legal medicine. The originality of our study is the use of an elderly sample in order to push prediction methods to their limits and to discuss about implications in paleoanthropology and legal medicine. The aim is to observe the accuracy of BM prediction in relation to the body mass index (BMI, index of classification) using five femoral head (FH) methods and one shaft (FSH) method. The sample is composed of 41 dry femurs obtained from dissection where age (c. 82 years) and gender are known, and weight (c. 59.5 kg) and height are measured upon admission to the body leg service. We show that the estimation of the mean BM of the elderly sample is not significantly different to the real mean BM when the appropriate formula is used for the femoral head diameter. In fact, the best prediction is obtained with the McHenry formula (1992), which was based on a sample with an equivalent average mass to that of our sample. In comparison, external shaft diameters, which are known to be more influenced by mechanical stimuli than femoral head diameters, yield less satisfactory results with the McHenry formula (1992) for shaft diameters. Based on all the methods used and the distinctive selected sample, overestimation (always observed with the different femoral head methods) can be restricted to 1.1%. The observed overestimation with the shaft method can be restricted to 7%. However, the estimation of individual BM is much less reliable. The BMI has a strong impact on the accuracy of individual BM prediction, and is unquestionably more reliable for individuals with normal BMI (9.6% vs 16.7% for the best prediction error). In this case, the FH method is also the better predictive method but not if we integrate the total sample (i.e., the FSH

  5. The Relationship of Age, Body Mass Index, and Individual Habit to Bone Mineral Density in Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock; Lee, In Ja; Shin, Gwi Soon [Dept. of Radiologic Techology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    We studied the change of bone mineral density (BMD) by age, body mass index (BMI), coffee, carbonated drink, alcohol, smoking, and exercise in adults who checked in health center. The number of study subjects was total 268 persons (women of 136 persons and men of 132 persons). The BMD was determined in lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. And we got some results as below : 1. In women, mean body height was , mean body weight was 155.8{+-}6.0 cm, and mean BMI was 56.8{+-}7.9 kg. In men, mean body height was 169.1{+-}6.0 cm, mean body weight was 69.0{+-}9.5 kg, and mean BMI was 24.1{+-}2.7 kg/m{sup 2}. 2. BMD decreased as age increased, and the age was the most determinant factor for BMD (p<0.01). Women's BMD decreased rapidly in the groups aged {>=}50s, while men's BMD decreased gradually with age. In addition, for both sex, lower BMD was measured in lumbar spine than in femoral neck. 3. BMD increased in high BMI, and BMD with BMI increased distinctly in the group aged 50s. But their relationship was not significant. 4. In view of the distribution by three BMD categories, women's BMD was mostly normal in the groups aged {>=}40s but the rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis was similar in the group aged 50s, and the rate of osteoporosis was the highest in the groups aged 60s and 70s. Men's BMD was mostly normal through all groups except the group aged 70s. 5. Coffee and carbonated drink were not influenced in BMD. But alcohol-drinking group showed higher BMD than non-drinking group, and alcohol was statistically significant determinant for BMD (p<0.05). Smoking and exercise were not statistically significant determinant of BMD.

  6. Ontogenetic body-mass scaling of nitrogen excretion relates to body surface area in diverse pelagic invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Lilley, M.K.S.; Glazier, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    . Among diverse pelagic invertebrates that change shape during ontogeny, recent analysis has demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the body-mass allometry of respiration rates (measured as the ontogenetic body mass-scaling exponent bR) and the allometry of body surface area (b......A, as predicted from body-shape changes using a Euclidean model). As many pelagic invertebrates use a large portion of their external body surface for both resource uptake and waste excretion, we predicted that body-mass scaling exponents for rates of excretion of soluble N (bN) should also then relate...... to the degree of body-shape change during growth. We tested this hypothesis using literature data on bN for 39 species of pelagic invertebrates across five different phyla, and find strong support: bN is significantly positively correlated with predicted bA, whilst also co-varying with bR. Intraspecific...

  7. Body Dissatisfaction among Adolescent Boys and Girls: The Effects of Body Mass, Peer Appearance Culture and Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a significant risk factor in the onset of eating pathology and depression. Therefore, understanding predictors of negative body image is an important focus of investigation. This research sought to examine the contributions of body mass, appearance conversations with friends, peer appearance criticism and…

  8. Body mass index is positively associated with bone mineral density in US older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer T; Alley, Dawn E; Hawkes, William G; Hochberg, Marc C; Waldstein, Shari R; Orwig, Denise L

    2014-01-01

    Literature has been conflicting as to whether obesity is protective against osteoporosis. Understanding the relationship is particularly important in light of the increasing prevalence of obesity among older adults. Study results confirm a protective association between obesity and osteoporosis in a recent, nationally representative sample of US older adults. Currently, the majority of US older adults are either overweight or obese. Evidence regarding the relationship between body composition measures and bone mass is conflicting, possibly because different measures of obesity reflect multiple mechanisms. Additionally, there are important age, gender, and racial differences in a risk of osteoporosis and fat mass composition. The objective of this study was to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) in a recent, nationally representative sample of US older adults as well as to see if this relationship differs by age, sex, and race. Data for this study were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) for adults ages 50 and older (n = 3,296). Linear regression models were used to predict BMD of the femoral neck (measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) as a function of BMI (measured height and weight) and a range of study covariates. Every unit increase in BMI was associated with an increase of 0.0082 g/cm(2) in BMD (p BMD, and this relationship does not differ by age, sex, or race. A 10-unit increase in BMI (e.g., from normal BMI to obese) would result in moving an individual from an osteoporotic BMD level to a normal BMD level. Results demonstrate a protective, cross-sectional association between obesity and osteoporosis in a recent sample of US older adults.

  9. Effects of body size and change in body size from infancy through childhood on body mass index in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2014-01-01

    Background:Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult body...... mass index (BMI) and also the extent to which these associations during infancy are mediated through childhood BMI.Methods:The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, in which participants were followed from birth through 42 years of age, provided information on weight at 12 months and BMI at 42 years for 1633...... individuals. Information on weight at birth, 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months was retrieved from health visitors' records and information on BMI at ages 7 and 13 years from school health records. The associations of infant weight and weight gain standard deviation scores (SDS) with adult BMI-SDS were analyzed...

  10. Obesity and psoriasis: body weight and body mass index influence the response to biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, L

    2011-09-01

    Patients with psoriasis, in particular those requiring systemic treatment, tend to be above normal weight. Obesity is associated with psoriasis and contributes significantly to the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Most biologics used to treat psoriasis in the European Union are fixed dosed treatments: etanercept, adalimumab and ustekinumab. Apart from infliximab, dosing regimens do not account for weight, with the exception of ustekinumab, the dose of which should be doubled in patients weighing more than 100 kg. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on the association of obesity and psoriasis, and the effect of body weight or obesity on the efficacy of biologics as well as their practical implications in daily practice. A review was performed of the literature relating to obesity and psoriasis and weight effect, including subgroup analyses, on the efficacy of the biologicals available for treatment of psoriasis in the European Union, namely adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab and ustekinumab. Optimal responses with fixed dose biological agents are less frequent in patients with increasing weight, especially above 100 kg, who account for approximately 25% to 30% of patients in clinical trials. Body weight effect on drug clearance might partly account for this fact. The data are limited to subgroup analyses, often with no statistical significance reported. Further studies, including weight-based subanalysis of clinical trials and pharmacoeconomic evaluations, are required to assess the issue of body weight and response to therapy of the biologics. Infliximab response appears to be independent of body mass index. Possible weight-based dose adjustments and the impact of treatment on body weight changes also require additional study. © 2011 The Author. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Olson, Sara H; Risch, Harvey A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10-5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk.

  12. Body fat mass, lean body mass and associated biomarkers as determinants of bone mineral density in children 6-8years of age - The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Sonja; Sidoroff, Virpi; Lindi, Virpi; Mahonen, Anitta; Kröger, Liisa; Kröger, Heikki; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Atalay, Mustafa; Laaksonen, David E; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2018-03-01

    Lean body mass (LM) has been positively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents, but the relationship between body fat mass (FM) and BMD remains controversial. Several biomarkers secreted by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, or bone may affect bone metabolism and BMD. We investigated the associations of LM, FM, and such biomarkers with BMD in children. We studied a population sample of 472 prepubertal Finnish children (227 girls, 245 boys) aged 6-8years. We assessed BMD, LM, and FM using whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and analysed several biomarkers from fasting blood samples. We studied the associations of LM, FM, and the biomarkers with BMD of the whole body excluding the head using linear regression analysis. LM (standardized regression coefficient β=0.708, pFM (β=0.358, pFM. The positive associations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, free leptin index, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the negative association of leptin receptor with BMD were explained by FM. The positive associations of DHEAS and HOMA-IR with BMD were also explained by LM. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was a positive correlate for BMD adjusted for age, sex, and height and after further adjustment for FM but not for LM. LM and FM were positive correlates for BMD also in girls and boys separately. In girls, insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin, and free leptin index were positively and leptin receptor was negatively associated with BMD adjusted for age, height, and LM. After adjustment for age, height, and FM, none of the biomarkers was associated with BMD. In boys, leptin and free leptin index were positively and leptin receptor was negatively associated with BMD adjusted for age, height, and LM. After adjustment for age, height and FM, 25(OH)D was positively and IGF-1 and leptin were negatively associated with BMD. FM strongly modified the association between leptin

  13. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Jensen, Signe Marie; Christensen, Line B

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99...... healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross......-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years...

  14. Relationship of body mass index with periodontal health status of green marble mine laborers in Kesariyaji, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Dagli, Rushabh J; Dhanni, Chandrakant; Duraiswamy, Prabu

    2009-01-01

    It is evident from literature that an increased body mass index (BMI) may be a potential risk factor for periodontitis. Association between BMI and periodontitis has been ascribed to unhealthy dietary patterns with insufficient micronutrients and excess sugar and fat content. The present study population has been plagued by unhealthy nutritional practices, hence the present study intended to assess the relation between BMI and periodontal status among green marble mine laborers of Kesariyaji, in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India. The study sample comprised of 513 subjects aged 18-54 years, drawn using the stratified cluster sampling procedure. BMI was calculated as the ratio of the subject's body weight (in kg) to the square of their height (in meters). Periodontal status was recorded using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Binary multiple logistic regression analysis was executed to assess the relation between body mass index and periodontitis. The dependent variable for logistic regression analysis was categorized into control group (scores 0 - 2 of the CPI) and periodontitis group (scores 3 and 4 of the CPI). The overall prevalence of periodontal disease was 98.2%. Caries status and mean number of teeth present deteriorated with the poor periodontal status. Subjects had an increased risk of periodontitis by 57% for each 1kg/m(2) increase in the body mass index, which means that a higher body mass index could be a potential risk factor for periodontitis among the adults aged 18 to 54 years. In conclusion, evaluation of the body mass index could be used in periodontal risk assessment.

  15. Is body weight dissatisfaction a predictor of depression independent of body mass index, sex and age? Results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Aline; Rohrmann, Sabine; Lohse, Tina; Eichholzer, Monika

    2016-08-24

    Little is known about the association of dissatisfaction with body weight - a component of body image - with depression in individuals of different sex, age, and with different body mass index (BMI). Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) with depression in different sub-groups. We analyzed data of 15,975 individuals from the cross-sectional 2012 Swiss Health Survey. Participants were asked about their body weight satisfaction. The validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to ascertain depression. Age was stratified into three groups (18-29, 30-59, and ≥60 years). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported body height and weight and categorized into underweight (BMI body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) and depression was assessed with logistic regression analyses and odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were computed. BWD was associated with depression in the overall group (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.66-2.50) as well as in men (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.34-2.56) and women (OR 2.25, 95 % CI 1.71-2.96) independent of BMI. The stratification by age groups showed significant associations of BWD with depression in young (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.16-2.74), middle-aged (OR 2.10, 95 % CI 1.61-2.74) and old individuals (OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.30-4.23) independent of BMI. Stratification by BMI categories resulted in statistically significant positive associations of BWD and depression in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese individuals. BWD was associated with depression independent of BMI, sex and age.

  16. Lack of influence of body mass index on the efficacy of the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Rana F; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L; Kossoff, Eric H

    2007-10-01

    The ketogenic diet is carefully calculated by dietitians in an effort to achieve the child's ideal body weight, theoretically to improve seizure control. This study researched whether achieving a stable body mass index or ideal body mass index-for-age correlates with efficacy with the traditional ketogenic diet. The outcomes of 123 children started on the ketogenic diet were analyzed at clinic visits 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after diet onset. Children who were at 40% to 59% body mass index-for-age did not have higher efficacy than those at a higher or lower body mass index-for-age, except at the 12-month clinic visit (81% versus 48%; P = .02). No clear link was demonstrated between either an ideal body mass index or changes in the body mass index and seizure control in the management of children receiving a ketogenic diet. Attributing changes in seizure control to a rapid weight gain or loss may be unjustified.

  17. Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Rasha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.

  18. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort...... (95% CI) of adult liver cancer was 1.20 (1.07-1.33) and 1.30 (1.16-1.46) per 1-unit BMI z-score at 7 years and 13 years of age, respectively. Similar associations were found in boys and girls, for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across years of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of viral...... of 285,884 boys and girls, born 1930 through 1980, who attended school in Copenhagen, were followed from 1977 to 31 December 2010. Their heights and weights were measured by school doctors or nurses at ages 7 through 13 years. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from an internal age- and sex...

  19. Polysomnographically determined sleep and body mass index in patients with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lili; Zhou, Junying; Sun, Yuanfeng; Li, Zhe; Lei, Fei; Zhou, Guangyao; Tang, Xiangdong

    2013-10-30

    We assessed associations between polysomnographically determined sleep, especially the amount of slow-wave sleep (SWS), and body mass index (BMI) in patients with insomnia. One hundred and forty-one insomniacs and 55 healthy volunteers completed overnight polysomnographic recordings, and we measured height and body weight. No significant correlations were obtained between total sleep time and BMI among insomniacs. Compared with normal volunteers, insomnia patients exhibited longer sleep latency and shorter total sleep duration. While the two groups had no significant differences in BMI, insomniacs presented with more N1 but less time spend in SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). Based on their SWS time, we divided insomnia patients into three groups: short (26.99±13.88), intermediate (59.24±8.12), and long (102.21±26.17) SWS groups. The short-SWS group had significantly greater BMI than the long-SWS group. Further analyses with multiple linear regression showed a significant negative correlation between the amount of SWS and BMI scores in insomniacs, whereas no such correlation was found in healthy volunteers after controlling for potential confounds (e.g., age, sex and AHI). Our study suggests that low amounts of SWS may be associated with higher BMI in patients with insomnia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association Between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index Among Hamedan Elementary School Children in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haeri Maybodi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Excessive weight in children is a major public health concern. The intake of refined carbohydrates, especially sugars and the prevalence of dental caries are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in elementary school children.Materials and Methods: The sampling technique used in the present study was a cluster random sampling. A total of 1000 pupils (500 girls, 500 boys aged 6-11 years from 20 private and state elementary schools (10 boys, 10 girls. The weight status was measured in children by assessment of body mass index (BMI (=bodyweight/body height2 kg/m2 corresponding to gender and age-ranked percentages.To assess the caries frequency the decayed filled teeth (DFT index for permanent dentition and the dft index for primary dentition were used since they give good perception about the situation of tooth caries in young patients.Results: The highest mean total dft/DFT was seen in normal weight and lowest average in at risk of overweight children. There was not a statistically significant relationship found between high weight and caries frequency in the first (p=0.08 and permanent dentitions (p=0.06.Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study do not support an association between dental caries and obesity.

  1. Personality and body mass index: a cross-sectional analysis from the Miyagi Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakizaki, Masako; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Sato, Yuki; Shimazu, Taichi; Matsuda-Ohmori, Kaori; Nakaya, Naoki; Fukao, Akira; Fukudo, Shin; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly prevalent public health problem worldwide, and is associated with a higher risk of developing various noncommunicable diseases. To further examine the association between personality and overweight, obesity, or underweight, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis in Japan. We hypothesized that extraversion and psychoticism would have a positive association with overweight, and that neuroticism and lie would have an inverse association with overweight, whereas the association between personality and underweight would be the reverse image of overweight. In 1990, 30,722 subjects (40-64 years of age) completed a self-administered questionnaire including body weight and height and the Japanese version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Form. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios for overweight [body mass index (BMI)> or =25.0 kg/m2] or underweight (BMIpersonality subscale. In men and women, extraversion and psychoticism had positive associations with overweight, whereas neuroticism had an inverse association. Lie had an inverse association with overweight in men. In men and women, only extraversion had an inverse association with underweight and neuroticism had a positive association with underweight. Our findings indicate that personality is associated with both overweight and underweight. These results may provide clues to devising more effective measures for preventing overweight, obesity, or underweight or for weight control intervention.

  2. Distribution of body weight and height: comparison of estimates based on self-reported and observed measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W J

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of weight in the adult population aged 20-69 years was examined by comparison of estimates obtained from the 1985 Health Promotion Survey and the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey. The Health Promotion Survey obtained information on self-reported weight and height, and the Canada Fitness Survey utilised measured weight and height. The classification of respondents into weight categories followed the recommendations of the 1973 Fogarty Conference on Obesity. Values of the Quetelet index defined as W/H2, where W = kilograms and H = metres, were used to define four weight categories: underweight, acceptable weight, overweight, and obese. The comparisons of prevalence estimates of the various weight categories indicate that self-reported weight and height leads to a systematic weight misclassification bias. The implications of this bias for epidemiological studies are discussed and suggestions are offered to handle the bias. PMID:3655624

  3. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80. Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001. Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93% and specificity (between 83% and 88% in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution.

  4. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; David Langer, Raquel; de Fátima Guimarães, Roseane; Contiero San Martini, Mariana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Moreira Gonçalves, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scor