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Sample records for heel contact velocity

  1. Analysis of medial deviation of center of pressure after initial heel contact in forefoot varus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Hsi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The most medial CoP of the row and CoP% detected increased medial CoP deviation in FV ≥ 8°, and may be applied to other clinical conditions where rearfoot angle and CoP of the array after initial heel contact cannot detect significant differences.

  2. Analgesia with breastfeeding in addition to skin-to-skin contact during heel prick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Gabriel, Miguel Ángel; del Rey Hurtado de Mendoza, Beatriz; Jiménez Figueroa, Lourdes; Medina, Virginia; Iglesias Fernández, Beatriz; Vázquez Rodríguez, María; Escudero Huedo, Virginia; Medina Malagón, Lorena

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the analgesic effect (measured with Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS)) of breastfeeding (BF) in addition to skin-to-skin contact (SSC) versus other methods of non-pharmacological analgesia during blood sampling through heel lance in healthy term neonates. Randomised controlled trial. Tertiary level maternity ward. One hundred thirty-six healthy term newborns. healthy term neonates, wish to breastfeed and absence of feeding during the previous 60 min. Neonates were randomly assigned to four groups: Group breastfed with SSC (BF+SSC Group) (n=35); Group sucrose with SSC (Sucrose+SSC Group) (n=35); SSC Group (n=33); or Sucrose Group (n=33). Babies were recorded with a video camera. Three observers watched the videos and measured NIPS score at three time points (t0: 2 min before heel prick; t1: During heel prick; and t2: 2 min after the heel prick). The influences of non-pharmacological methods on crying time, percentage of crying while sampling, heart rate, number of attempts and duration of sampling were also studied. BF+SSC Group achieved a significant lower median NIPS score (value=1) compared with other groups (value=2, 4 and 4, respectively). The percentage of neonates with moderate-to-severe pain was also lower in the BF+SSC Group. Both groups BF+SSC and Sucrose+SSC achieved a significant lower percentage of crying compared with SSC Group. This study suggests that BF in addition to SSC provides superior analgesia to other kinds of non-pharmacological analgesia in healthy term neonates during heel prick.

  3. The effect of gait velocity on calcaneal balance at heel strike; Implications for orthotic prescription in injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthikumar, Shivanthan; Low, Zi; Falvey, Eanna; McCrory, Paul; Franklyn-Miller, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Exercise related lower limb injuries (ERLLI), are common in the recreational and competitive sporting population. Although ERLLI are thought to be multi-factorial in aetiology, one of the critical predisposing factors is known to gait abnormality. There is little published evidence comparing walking and running gait in the same subjects, and no evidence on the effect of gait velocity on calcaneal pronation, even though this may have implications for orthotic prescription and injury prevention. In this study, the walking and running gait of 50 physically active subjects was assessed using pressure plate analysis. The results show that rearfoot pronation occurs on foot contact in both running and walking gait, and that there is significantly more rearfoot pronation in walking gait (prunning vs. walking gait. The findings of this study suggest that in the athletic population orthoses prescription should be based on dynamic assessment of running gait. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heel Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the foot, by stretching of the long band of tissue that connects the heel and the ... associated with plantar fasciitis, an inflammation of the band of fibrous connective tissue (fascia) running along the ...

  5. The dynamic contact area of elastomers at different velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khafidh, Muhammad; Rodriguez, N.V.; Masen, Marc Arthur; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    The friction in tribo-systems that contain viscoelastic materials, such as elastomers, is relevant for a large number of applications. Examples include tyres, hoses, transmission and conveyor belts. To quantify the friction in these applications, one must first understand the contact behaviour of

  6. Carrier velocity effect on carbon nanotube Schottky contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, Amir, E-mail: fathi.amir@hotmail.com [Urmia University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Microelectronic Research Laboratory (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, M. T., E-mail: mt.ahmadi@urmia.ac.ir; Ismail, Razali, E-mail: Razali@fke.utm.my [University Technology Malaysia, Department of Electronic Engineering (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    One of the most important drawbacks which caused the silicon based technologies to their technical limitations is the instability of their products at nano-level. On the other side, carbon based materials such as carbon nanotube (CNT) as alternative materials have been involved in scientific efforts. Some of the important advantages of CNTs over silicon components are high mechanical strength, high sensing capability and large surface-to-volume ratio. In this article, the model of CNT Schottky transistor current which is under exterior applied voltage is employed. This model shows that its current has a weak dependence on thermal velocity corresponding to the small applied voltage. The conditions are quite different for high bias voltages which are independent of temperature. Our results indicate that the current is increased by Fermi velocity, but the I–V curves will not have considerable changes with the variations in number of carriers. It means that the current doesn’t increase sharply by voltage variations over different number of carriers.

  7. Development and validity of methods for the estimation of temporal gait parameters from heel-attached inertial sensors in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misu, Shogo; Asai, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Rei; Sawa, Ryuichi; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Ando, Hiroshi; Doi, Takehiko

    2017-09-01

    The heel is likely a suitable location to which inertial sensors are attached for the detection of gait events. However, there are few studies to detect gait events and determine temporal gait parameters using sensors attached to the heels. We developed two methods to determine temporal gait parameters: detecting heel-contact using acceleration and detecting toe-off using angular velocity data (acceleration-angular velocity method; A-V method), and detecting both heel-contact and toe-off using angular velocity data (angular velocity-angular velocity method; V-V method). The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity of the A-V and V-V methods against the standard method, and to compare their accuracy. Temporal gait parameters were measured in 10 younger and 10 older adults. The intra-class correlation coefficients were excellent in both methods compared with the standard method (0.80 to 1.00). The root mean square errors of stance and swing time in the A-V method were smaller than the V-V method in older adults, although there were no significant discrepancies in the other comparisons. Our study suggests that inertial sensors attached to the heels, using the A-V method in particular, provide a valid measurement of temporal gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility on Ultrasonic Velocity using Contact and Non-Contact Nondestructive Techniques for Carbon/Carbon Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, K. H.; Chang, M.; Hsu, D. K.; Song, S. J.; Cho, H.; Park, J. W.; Kweon, Y. S.; Sim, J. K.; Yang, I. Y.

    2007-03-01

    Advanced materials are to be required to have specific functions associated with extremely environments. One of them is carbon/carbon(C/C) composite material, which has obvious advantages over conventional materials. The C/Cs have become to be utilized as parts of aerospace applications and its low density, high thermal conductivity and excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures make it an ideal material for aircraft brake disks. Because of permeation of coupling medium such as water, it is desirable to perform contact-less nondestructive evaluation to assess material properties and part homogeneity. In this work, a C/C composite material was characterized with non-contact and contact ultrasonic methods using a scanner with automatic-data acquisition function. Also through transmission mode was performed because of the main limitation for air-coupled transducers, which is the acoustic impedance mismatch between most materials and air. Especially ultrasonic images and velocities for C/C composite disk brake were compared and found to be consistent to some degree with the non-contact and contact ultrasonic measurement methods. Low frequency through-transmission scans based on both amplitude of the ultrasonic pulse was used for mapping out the material property inhomogeneity. Measured results were compared with those obtained by the dry-coupling ultrasonic UT system and through transmission method in immersion. Finally, feasibility has been found to measure and compare ultrasonic velocities of C/C composites with using the contact/noncontact peak-delay measurement method based on the pulse overlap method.

  9. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojacz, H., E-mail: rojacz@ac2t.at [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Mozdzen, G. [Aerospace & Advanced Composites GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2F, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Weigel, F.; Varga, M. [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  10. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojacz, H.; Mozdzen, G.; Weigel, F.; Varga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  11. CRITICAL VELOCITY OF CONTROLLABILITY OF SLIDING FRICTION BY NORMAL OSCILLATIONS IN VISCOELASTIC CONTACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Popov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding friction can be reduced substantially by applying ultrasonic vibration in the sliding plane or in the normal direction. This effect is well known and used in many applications ranging from press forming to ultrasonic actuators. One of the characteristics of the phenomenon is that, at a given frequency and amplitude of oscillation, the observed friction reduction diminishes with increasing sliding velocity. Beyond a certain critical sliding velocity, there is no longer any difference between the coefficients of friction with or without vibration. This critical velocity depends on material and kinematic parameters and is a key characteristic that must be accounted for by any theory of influence of vibration on friction. Recently, the critical sliding velocity has been interpreted as the transition point from periodic stick-slip to pure sliding and was calculated for purely elastic contacts under uniform sliding with periodic normal loading. Here we perform a similar analysis of the critical velocity in viscoelastic contacts using a Kelvin material to describe viscoelasticity. A closed-form solution is presented, which contains previously reported results as special cases. This paves the way for more detailed studies of active control of friction in viscoelastic systems, a previously neglected topic with possible applications in elastomer technology and in medicine.

  12. HEEL BONE RECONSTRUCTIVE OSTEOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Svetashov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect the most appropriate to heel bone injury severity variants of reconstructive osteosynthesis it was analyzed treatment results of 56 patients. In 15 (26.8% patients classic methods of surgical service were applied, in 41 (73.2% cases to restore the defect porous implants were used. Osteosynthesis without heel bone plastic restoration accomplishment was ineffective in 60% patients from control group. Reconstructive osteosynthesis method ensures long-term good functional effect of rehabilitation in 96.4% patients from the basic group.

  13. Test data on electrical contacts at high surface velocities and high current densities for homopolar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.; Tolk, K.M.; Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    Test data is presented for one grade of copper graphite brush material, Morganite CMlS, over a wide range of surface velocities, atmospheres, and current densities that are expected for fast discharge (<100 ms) homopolar generators. The brushes were run on a copper coated 7075-T6 aluminum disk at surface speeds up to 277 m/sec. One electroplated copper and three flame sprayed copper coatings were used during the tests. Significant differences in contact voltage drops and surface mechanical properties of the copper coatings were observed

  14. Heeling Moment Acting on a River Cruiser in Manoeuvring Motion

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    Tabaczek Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using fully theoretical method the heeling moment due to centrifugal forces has been determined for a small river cruiser in turning manoeuvre. The authors applied CFD software for determination of hull hydrodynamic forces, and open water characteristics of ducted propeller for estimation of thrust of rudder-propellers. Numerical integration of equations of 3DOF motion was used for prediction of ship trajectory and time histories of velocities, forces and heeling moment.

  15. Study on lumbar kinematics and the risk of low back disorder in female university students by using shoes of different heel heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Rauf; De, Amitabha; Mishra, Wricha; Maulik, Shreya; Chandra, A M

    2012-01-01

    The study was taken up to investigate the effects of heel heights on lumbar kinematics and the risk of Low Back Disorder (LBD) in females. Nineteen female university students (24.5 ± 3.36 yrs) volunteered in the study. Lumbar kinematics was measured by using Industrial Lumbar Motion Monitor (iLMM). The volunteers were asked to walk for a distance of 50 meters in 3 different given conditions i.e bare foot (Heel 0), with flat heels (Heel 1) and with high heels (Heel 2). Heights of Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 1.5 ± 0.84 cm and 5.5 ± 1.70 cm respectively. The Lumbar kinematic parameters studied were- Average Twisting Velocity (ATV), Maximum Sagital Flexion (MSF) and Maximum Lateral Velocity (MLV). It was observed that all the above mentioned Lumbar kinematics - ATV, MSF and MLV increases with increase of heel heights, which in turn increases the risk of LBD. As a result of increase in Lumbar kinematic values with increase in heel heights, LBD risk has also increased. Mean and SD of the LBD risk with Heel 0, Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 16.79 ± 6.04%, 19.00 ± 7.38% and 22.11 ± 6.98% respectively. Lower stature with high heels showed higher risk of LBD than the higher stature with high heels.

  16. EFFECT OF HEEL LIFTS ON PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT STRESS DURING RUNNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestelle, Zachary; Kernozek, Thomas; Adkins, Kelly S; Miller, Jessica; Gheidi, Naghmeh

    2017-10-01

    Patellofemoral pain is a debilitating injury for many recreational runners. Excessive patellofemoral joint stress may be the underlying source of pain and interventions often focus on ways to reduce patellofemoral joint stress. Heel lifts have been used as an intervention within Achilles tendon rehabilitation programs and to address leg length discrepancies. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of running with heel lifts on patellofemoral joint stress, patellofemoral stress impulse, quadriceps force, step length, cadence, and other related kinematic and spatiotemporal variables. A repeated-measures research design. Sixteen healthy female runners completed five running trials in a controlled laboratory setting with and without 11mm heel lifts inserted in a standard running shoe. Kinetic and kinematic data were used in combination with a static optimization technique to estimate individual muscle forces. These data were inserted into a patellofemoral joint model which was used to estimate patellofemoral joint stress and other variables during running. When running with heel lifts, peak patellofemoral joint stress and patellofemoral stress impulse were reduced by a 4.2% (p=0.049) and 9.3% (p=0.002). Initial center of pressure was shifted anteriorly 9.1% when running with heel lifts (p0.05) were shown between conditions. Heel lift use resulted in decreased patellofemoral joint stress and impulse without associated changes in step length or frequency, or other variables shown to influence patellofemoral joint stress. The center of pressure at initial contact was also more anterior using heel lifts. The use of heel lifts may have therapeutic benefits for runners with patellofemoral pain if the primary goal is to reduce patellofemoral joint stress. 3b.

  17. Biomechanical evaluation of heel elevation on load transfer — experimental measurement and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luximon, Yan; Luximon, Ameersing; Yu, Jia; Zhang, Ming

    2012-02-01

    In spite of ill-effects of high heel shoes, they are widely used for women. Hence, it is essential to understand the load transfer biomechanics in order to design better fit and comfortable shoes. In this study, both experimental measurement and finite element analysis were used to evaluate the biomechanical effects of heel height on foot load transfer. A controlled experiment was conducted using custom-designed platforms. Under different weight-bearing conditions, peak plantar pressure, contact area and center of pressure were analyzed. A three-dimensional finite element foot model was used to simulate the high-heel support and to predict the internal stress distributions and deformations for different heel heights. Results from both experiment and model indicated that heel elevations had significant effects on all variables. When heel elevation increased, the center of pressure shifted from the midfoot region to the forefoot region, the contact area was reduced by 26% from 0 to 10.2 cm heel and the internal stress of foot bones increased. Prediction results also showed that the strain and total tension force of plantar fascia was minimum at 5.1 cm heel condition. This study helps to better understand the biomechanical behavior of foot, and to provide better suggestions for design parameters of high heeled shoes.

  18. Strategic Airlift: Our Achilles' Heel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burns, John

    2001-01-01

    ...) deliberate planning and service programmatic processes. The acknowledged shortage of strategic airlift remains the "Achilles' heel" of our nation's power projection capability and is a classic example of a strategy to resource mismatch...

  19. High Heels Increase Women's Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Research has found that the appearance of women's apparel helps increase their attractiveness as rated by men and that men care more about physical features in potential opposite-sex mates. However, the effect of sartorial appearance has received little interest from scientists. In a series of studies, the length of women's shoe heels was examined. A woman confederate wearing black shoes with 0, 5, or 9 cm heels asked men for help in various circumstances. In Study 1, she asked men to respond to a short survey on gender equality. In Study 2, the confederate asked men and women to participate in a survey on local food habit consumption. In Study 3, men and women in the street were observed while walking in back of the female confederate who dropped a glove apparently unaware of her loss. It was found that men's helping behavior increased as soon as heel length increased. However, heel length had no effect on women's helping behavior. It was also found that men spontaneously approached women more quickly when they wore high-heeled shoes (Study 4). Change in gait, foot-size judgment, and misattribution of sexiness and sexual intent were used as possible explanations.

  20. Surface Tension Flows inside Surfactant-Added Poly(dimethylsiloxane Microstructures with Velocity-Dependent Contact Angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh Jian Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Filling of liquid samples is realized in a microfluidic device with applications including analytical systems, biomedical devices, and systems for fundamental research. The filling of a disk-shaped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchamber by liquid is analyzed with reference to microstructures with inlets and outlets. The microstructures are fabricated using a PDMS molding process with an SU-8 mold. During the filling, the motion of the gas-liquid interface is determined by the competition among inertia, adhesion, and surface tension. A single ramp model with velocity-dependent contact angles is implemented for the accurate calculation of surface tension forces in a three-dimensional volume-of-fluid based model. The effects of the parameters of this functional form are investigated. The influences of non-dimensional parameters, such as the Reynolds number and the Weber number, both determined by the inlet velocity, on the flow characteristics are also examined. An oxygen-plasma-treated PDMS substrate is utilized, and the microstructure is modified to be hydrophilic. Flow experiments are conducted into both hydrophilic and hydrophobic PDMS microstructures. Under a hydrophobic wall condition, numerical simulations with imposed boundary conditions of static and dynamic contact angles can successfully predict the moving of the meniscus compared with experimental measurements. However, for a hydrophilic wall, accurate agreement between numerical and experimental results is obvious as the dynamic contact angles were implemented.

  1. Diagnosis of heel pad injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara

    The biomechanics of in vivo heel pads has been investigated for more than 30 years, but unfortunately numerical results from the many individual investigators cannot be compared due to the different methodologies used, and the sometimes modest number of subjects investigated. The overall aim...... of the present thesis is to obtain a thorough understanding of the mechanical properties of in vivo human heel pad by studying the anatomical and physiological structure of healthy and diseased tissue, and to develop quantitative methods for diagnosing injuries. A compression device was built in order to record...... load-displacement curves from in vivo heel pads. To ensure applicability also for pathological feet, the device uses force levels lower than those needed to reproduce the physiological conditions of walking. One hundred twenty seven healthy volunteers were enrolled for compression tests and ultrasound...

  2. De hele geschiedenis van de gemeente Heel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.ed Hugo Luijten

    2006-01-01

    Op 1 januari 2007 hield de gemeente Heel (L) op te bestaan. In de laatste gemeentegids uit 2006, wordt in een korte schets de geschiedenis van de drie kernen Heel, Wessem en Beegden uit de doeken gedaan.

  3. How I Manage Heel Spur Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seder, Joseph I.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses plantar fascitis and heel spurs, the two contributing causes of heel spur syndrome. Treatment methods, which include rest, anti-inflammatory medication, shoe padding, and, as a last resort, surgery are described. (Author/MT)

  4. Low-Velocity Impact Wear Behavior of Ball-to-Flat Contact Under Constant Kinetic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang; Cai, Zhen-bing; Chen, Zhi-qiang; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Min-hao

    2017-11-01

    The impact tests were conducted on metallic materials with different bulk hardness and Young's moduli. Analysis of the dynamics response during the tribological process showed that the tested materials had similar energy absorption, where the peak contact force increased as the tests continued. Moreover, wear volume decreased with the increase in Young's modulus of metals, except for Cr with a relatively low hardness. Wear rate was gradually reduced to a steady stage with increasing cycles, which was attributed to the decrease in contact stress and work-hardening effect. The main wear mechanism of impact was characterized by delamination, and the specific surface degradation mechanisms were depending on the mechanical properties of materials. The absorbed energy was used to the propagation of micro-cracks in the subsurface instead of plastic deformation, when resistance of friction wear and plastic behavior was improved. Hence, both the hardness and Young's modulus played important roles in the impact wear of metallic materials.

  5. Effect of Gender on Mechanical Properties of the Plantar Fascia and Heel Fat Pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, Serkan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the plantar fascia and heel fat pad stiffness and thickness parameters in females and compare these values with those of males. This study was carried out in 60 healthy sedentary participants (30 female, 30 male) between the ages of 19 and 50 years. Shear wave velocity (SWV) and thickness of the plantar fascia and heel fat pad were measured with an ultrasonography device. Males had a higher plantar fascia ( P = .037) and heel fat pad ( P = .001) thickness compared with females, but SWV of the plantar fascia ( P = .673), heel fat pad microchamber layer ( P = .240), and heel fat pad macrochamber layer ( P = .636) were similar in both groups. Body mass had a strong correlation with the plantar fascia ( r = 0.64, P plantar fascia ( r = 0.44, P Plantar fascia and heel fat pad stiffness were similar in both genders; however, females had a lower plantar fascia and heel fat pad thickness compared with males. Correlation analysis results suggest that higher plantar fascia and heel fat pad thickness in males may be related to higher body mass and height. Level III, Retrospective comparative study.

  6. Low velocity impact on polymer composite plates in contact with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kwon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, composite materials were tested in two different environments to determine the role of Fluid Structure Interaction with composites under a low velocity impact. This was done using a low velocity impact machine and polymer composite plates. The composite is made of laminated symmetrical plain weave E-glass fabrics. The test area of the composite plates is 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm with clamped boundary conditions. The testing was done using a drop weight system to impact the center of the test area. One testing was performed with composite plates in air, called dry impact. The other testing was conducted while composite plates were submerged in water, called wet impact. A Plexiglas box in conjunction with the impact machine was used to keep the top of the composite sample dry while it was submerged in an anechoic water tank, so called water-backed air impact. Output from the tests was recorded using strain gauges and a force impact sensor. The results show that an added mass effect from the water plays a large role in the Fluid Structure Interaction with composites due to the similar densities of water and the composites. The wet impact results in a larger impact force and damage than the dry impact under the same impact condition, i.e., the same impact mass and drop height.

  7. Imaging study of the painful heel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.L.; Smibert, J.G.; Cox, R.; Mitchell, R.; Klenerman, L.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 45 patients with the painful heel syndrome without evidence of an associated inflammatory arthritis, seven of whom had pain in both heels, were studied using technetium-99 isotope bone scans and lateral and 45 degrees medial oblique radiographs of both feet. Of the 52 painful heels 31 (59.6%) showed increased uptake of tracer at the calcaneum. Patients with scans showing increased uptake tended to have more severe heel pain and responded more frequently to a local hydrocortisone injection. On plain x-ray, 39 of 52 painful heels (75%) and 24 of the 38 opposite nonpainful heels (63%) showed plantar spurs, compared with five of 63 (7.9%) heels in 59 age- and sex-matched controls. No evidence of stress fractures was seen

  8. The influence of heel height on utilized coefficient of friction during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Mark G; Brault, John R; Powers, Christopher M

    2011-05-01

    Wearing high heel shoes has been associated with an increased potential for slips and falls. The association between wearing high heels and the increased potential for slipping suggests that the friction demand while wearing high heels may be greater when compared to wearing low heel shoes. The purpose of this study was to determine if heel height affects utilized friction (uCOF) during walking. A secondary purpose of this study was to compare kinematics at the ankle, knee, and hip that may explain uCOF differences among shoes with varied heel heights. Fifteen healthy women (mean age 24.5±2.5yrs) participated. Subjects walked at self-selected velocity under 3 different shoe conditions that varied in heel height (low: 1.27cm, medium: 6.35cm, and high: 9.53cm). Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were recorded using a force platform (1560Hz). Kinematic data were obtained using an 8 camera motion analysis system (120Hz). Utilized friction was calculated as the ratio of resultant shear force to vertical force. One-way repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to test for differences in peak uCOF, GRFs at peak uCOF and lower extremity joint angles at peak uCOF. On average, peak uCOF was found to increase with heel height. The increased uCOF observed in high heel shoes was related to an increase in the resultant shear force and decrease in the vertical force. Our results signify the need for proper public education and increased footwear industry awareness of how high heel shoes affect slip risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A friction test between steel and a brittle material at high contact pressures and high sliding velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picart D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to characterize the interface behaviour between an aggregate material and steel. This work focuses on contact pressures and sliding velocities reaching 100 MPa and 10 m/s. The set-up consists in a cylindrical sample of the aggregate material which slips into a steel tube. The tube is both a confinement vessel and a sliding surface. Thanks to confinement, the material can be tested under high stresses without failure. The interface pressure is generated by an axial compression. The sample is pressed on a spring, so it can be simultaneously compressed and rubbed on the tube. The set-up has been tested in the case of a quasi-static loading and the 100 MPa pressure has been reached. Then the set-up was mounted on a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar device in order to reach higher velocities. Numerical simulations have been realized to check the feasibility and the relevance of this dynamic test. These results are analysed and compared to the experimental ones.

  10. Significance of heel pad confinement for the shock absorption at heel strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, U; Ekstrand, J

    1988-12-01

    Shock absorption (SA) is a simple way to reduce the body load and can be used in the prevention and treatment of injuries. The heel pad is the most important shock absorber in the shoe heel complex. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the SA at heel strike can be increased by heel support in people and shoes with high or low SA. The impact forces at heel strike were measured on an AMTI (R) force platform. Fourteen legs were tested in seven persons (nine with normal and five with low heel pad SA) in gait analysis and in human drop tests. The tests were performed barefooted, and in a soccer and a running shoe (selected by shoe drop test), with and without the distal 2 cm of the heel counter. The heel pad confinement produced by the heel counter (the heel counter effect) increased the SA in both shoe types significantly in both impact situations. The mean increase in SA was 8.8% (range 5.8%-15.5%). The heel counter effect was in all situations significantly higher in persons with low heel pad shock absorbency (LHPSA) than in those with normal heel pads. The barefoot impact peak force per kg body weight was significantly higher (6% mean) on the side with LHPSA. The running shoe provided the significantly greatest SA compared with the soccer shoe. It is concluded that the shock absorbency at heel strike can be increased significantly by heel support, with highest effect in persons with LHPSA, both in shoes with high and low SA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The Achilles heel of adults and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the imaging and treatment of the Achilles heel of adults and children. The figurative and literal Achilles heel consists of a number of pathologies: ankle impingement, Achilles tendinopathy, retrocalcaneal bursitis and calcaneal apophysitis. Research as well as diagnosis and

  12. Shoe heel abrasion and its possible biomechanical cause: a transversal study with infantry recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumfeld, Daniel; Raduan, Fernando C; Macedo, Benjamim; Silva, Thiago Alexandre Alves; Baumfeld, Tiago; Favato, Danilo Fabrino; de Andrade, Marco Antonio Percope; Nery, Caio

    2015-11-19

    Excessive shoe heel abrasion is of concern to patients and shoe manufacturers, but little scientific information is available about this feature and its possible causes. The purpose of this study was to relate this phenomenon with biomechanical factors that could predispose to shoe heel abrasion. Ninety-seven recruits (median age 25) were enrolled in this study. Shoe abrasion was assessed manually with a metric plastic tape on the posterior part of the heel that comes in contact with the ground. The number of sprains, foot alignment, and calf muscle shortening (Silfverskiold test) was also assessed in order to relate it with shoe heel abrasion. After using our exclusion criteria, 86 recruits and 172 were considered for this study. The most common abrasion site was the lateral portion of the heel surface (50 %). Forty-four percent of the participants had neutral hind-foot alignment and 39 % had valgus alignment. Twenty-six (30 %) patients have had previous ankle or foot sprains. Neutral foot was related with less calf muscle shortening. On the other hand, valgus hind-foot alignment was more associated with Achilles shortening (p study was able to correlate shoe heel abrasion with biomechanical causes (neutral alignment-uniform abrasion/varus alignment-central and lateral abrasion). More effort has to be done to continue evaluating outsole abrasion with its possible biomechanical cause in order to predict and treat possible associated injuries.

  13. Manual therapy for plantar heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Yosefa; Shashua, Anat; Kalichman, Leonid

    2018-03-01

    Manual therapy employed in the treatment of plantar heel pain includes joint or soft tissue mobilizations. Efficacy of these methods is still under debate. To determine whether manual therapy, consisting of deep massage, myofascial release or joint mobilization is effective in treating plantar heel pain. A critical review of all available studies with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed. PubMed, PEDro, and Google Scholar databases were searched for keywords relating to plantar heel pain, joint, and soft tissue mobilizations. There were no search limitations or language restrictions. The reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched. The PEDro score was used to assess the quality of the reviewed papers. A total of six relevant RCTs were found: two examined the effectiveness of joint mobilization on plantar heel pain and four the effectiveness of soft tissue techniques. Five studies showed a positive short-term effect after manual therapy treatment, mostly soft tissue mobilizations, with or without stretching exercises for patients with plantar heel pain, compared to other treatments. One study observed that adding joint mobilization to the treatment of plantar heel pain was not effective. The quality of all studies was moderate to high. According to reviewed moderate and high-quality RCTs, soft tissue mobilization is an effective modality for treating plantar heel pain. Outcomes of joint mobilizations are controversial. Further studies are needed to evaluate the short and long-term effect of different soft tissue mobilization techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An unusual cause of intractable heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Samuel; Fazal, Muhammad Ali

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of severe heel pain that did not respond to noninvasive measures. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a soft tissue mass that after complete surgical excision was found to be an epidermal cyst. The patient experienced full resolution of the symptoms after excision of the epidermal cyst. To our knowledge, intractable heel pain due to an epidermal cyst is rare. We were unable to identify a previous publication describing the presence of an epidermal cyst localized to the heel without a history of previous trauma. From our experience with the present case, we believe that clinicians should consider the possibility of an epidermal inclusion cyst and should have a low threshold for obtaining magnetic resonance imaging scans, in particular, before the initiation of invasive treatment, in the case of intractable heel pain. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Shock absorbency of factors in the shoe/heel interaction--with special focus on role of the heel pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, U; Bojsen-Møller, F

    1989-06-01

    The heel pad acts as a shock absorber in walking and in heel-strike running. In some patients, a reduction of its shock-absorbing capacity has been connected to the development of overuse injuries. In this article, the shock absorption of the heel pad as well as external shock absorbers are studied. Individual variation and the effect of trauma and confinement on the heel pad were specifically investigated. Drop tests, imitating heel impacts, were performed on a force plate. The test specimens were cadaver heel pads (n = 10); the shoe sole component consisted of ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) foam and Sorbothane inserts. The shock absorption was significantly greater in the heel pad than in the external shock absorbers. The mean heel pad shock absorption was 1.1 times for EVA foam and 2.1 times for Sorbothane. The shock absorption varied by as much as 100% between heel pads. Trauma caused a decrease in the heel pad shock absorbency (24%), whereas heel pad confinement increased the shock absorbency (49% in traumatized heel pads and 29.5% in nontraumatized heel pads). These findings provide a biomechanical rationale for the clinical observations of a correlation between heel pad shock absorbency loss and heel strike-dependent overuse injuries. To increase shock absorbency, confinement of the heel pad should be attempted in vivo.

  16. Influence of approach velocity and mesh size on the entrainment and contact of a lowland river fish assemblage at a screened irrigation pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Boys

    Full Text Available Fish screens can help prevent the entrainment or injury of fish at irrigation diversions, but only when designed appropriately. Design criteria cannot simply be transferred between sites or pump systems and need to be developed using an evidence-based approach with the needs of local species in mind. Laboratory testing is typically used to quantify fish responses at intake screens, but often limits the number of species that can studied and creates artificial conditions not directly applicable to screens in the wild. In this study a field-based approach was used to assess the appropriateness of different screen design attributes for the protection of a lowland river fish assemblage at an experimental irrigation pump. Direct netting of entrained fish was used along with sonar technology to quantify the probability of screen contact for a Murray-Darling Basin (Australia fish species. Two approach velocities (0.1 and 0.5 m.sec(-1 and different sizes of woven mesh (5, 10 and 20 mm were evaluated. Smaller fish (<150 mm in the assemblage were significantly more susceptible to entrainment and screen contact, especially at higher approach velocities. Mesh size appeared to have little impact on screen contact and entrainment, suggesting that approach velocity rather than mesh size is likely to be the primary consideration when developing screens. Until the effects of screen contacts on injury and survival of these species are better understood, it is recommended that approach velocities not exceed 0.1 m.sec(-1 when the desire is to protect the largest range of species and size classes for lowland river fish assemblages in the Murray-Darling Basin. The field method tested proved to be a useful approach that could compliment laboratory studies to refine fish screen design and facilitate field validation.

  17. Body load in heel-strike running: the effect of a firm heel counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, U

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a firm heel counter in the shoe was studied in 11 athletes during submaximal heel-strike running on a treadmill under standardized conditions. The runners were tested in identical shoes with and without the distal 2 cm of the firm heel counter. Body load was expressed by absolute and relative VO2, surface EMG on the right leg, and g-force registration from an accelerometer below the right tibial tuberosity. The heel counter caused a 2.4% significant decrease in VO2, a reduction in musculoskeletal transients, and a decrease in the activity of the triceps surae and quadriceps muscles at heel strike. The changes found are expressions of kinematic adaptations in the body to increased or decreased load and provide functional evidence for the loading factor in the pathophysiology of overuse injuries.

  18. Local Void Fractions and Bubble Velocity in Vertical Air-Water Two-Phase Flows Measured by Needle-Contact Capacitance Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanfang Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiphase flow measurements have become increasingly important in a wide range of industrial fields. In the present study, a dual needle-contact capacitance probe was newly designed to measure local void fractions and bubble velocity in a vertical channel, which was verified by digital high-speed camera system. The theoretical analyses and experiments show that the needle-contact capacitance probe can reliably measure void fractions with the readings almost independent of temperature and salinity for the experimental conditions. In addition, the trigger-level method was chosen as the signal processing method for the void fraction measurement, with a minimum relative error of −4.59%. The bubble velocity was accurately measured within a relative error of 10%. Meanwhile, dynamic response of the dual needle-contact capacitance probe was analyzed in detail. The probe was then used to obtain raw signals for vertical pipe flow regimes, including plug flow, slug flow, churn flow, and bubbly flow. Further experiments indicate that the time series of the output signals vary as the different flow regimes and are consistent with each flow structure.

  19. Walking velocity and step length adjustments affect knee joint contact forces in healthy weight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Clare E; Meardon, Stacey A; Hawkins, Jillian L; Willson, John D

    2018-04-28

    Knee osteoarthritis is a major public health problem and adults with obesity are particularly at risk. One approach to alleviating this problem is to reduce the mechanical load at the joint during daily activity. Adjusting temporospatial parameters of walking could mitigate cumulative knee joint mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to determine how adjustments to velocity and step length affects knee joint loading in healthy weight adults and adults with obesity. We collected three-dimensional gait analysis data on 10 adults with a normal body mass index and 10 adults with obesity during over ground walking in nine different conditions. In addition to preferred velocity and step length, we also conducted combinations of 15% increased and decreased velocity and step length. Peak tibiofemoral joint impulse and knee adduction angular impulse were reduced in the decreased step length conditions in both healthy weight adults (main effect) and those with obesity (interaction effect). Peak knee joint adduction moment was also reduced with decreased step length, and with decreased velocity in both groups. We conclude from these results that adopting shorter step lengths during daily activity and when walking for exercise can reduce mechanical stimuli associated with articular cartilage degenerative processes in adults with and without obesity. Thus, walking with reduced step length may benefit adults at risk for disability due to knee osteoarthritis. Adopting a shorter step length during daily walking activity may reduce knee joint loading and thus benefit those at risk for knee cartilage degeneration. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 9999:XX-XX, 2018. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Heel pressure ulcers. Comparative study between heel protective bandage and hydrocellular dressing with special form for the heel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torra i Bou, Joan-Enric; Rueda López, Justo; Camañes, Gemma; Herrero Narváez, Elias; Blanco Blanco, Joan; Martínez-Esparza, Elvira Hernández; Aneas Alcántara, Jesús; Verdú Soriano, José

    2002-05-01

    The heels, together with the sacra area, are one of the most frequent spots where pressure sores appear here in Spain. Any preventive measure against pressure sores on heels needs be oriented towards two main objectives: effective relief of pressure and its compatibility with localized care and skin inspection in order to detect lesions early on at least once a day. The authors planned a comparative, multi-centered, open, labeled and controlled study in which patients were assigned to two groups receiving these treatments: one received traditional preventive pressure sore treatment and a protective bandage on their heels while the other used a special Allevyn Heel hydrocellular dressing to protect their heels. The patients took part in this study over an eight week period. The response variable used to determine the effectiveness of the preventive measure in this study was the appearance of pressure sores. At the beginning, 130 patients were included in this study, 65 in each one of the treatment groups. In the bandage group, 50 patients finished this study while 61 in the dressing group finished this study. The appearance of pressure sores in the protective bandage group occurred in 44% of the patients, 22 out of 50, while in the dressing group, the occurrence rate was 3.3%, 2 out of 61 patients with a value of "ji" squared p pressure sore brought us a value of relative risk of 13.42 (IC 95%: 3.31-54.3) in the group wearing the protective bandage compared to the group wearing the dressing. The results of this study allow us to accept as valid the alternate hypothesis that there exist significant statistical differences between both treatment methods in favor of the Allevyn Heel dressing instead of the protective heel bandage. The use of this dressing, even though it is more expensive a priori than the protective bandage, in terms of unit cost for the product, has proven to be more effective in preventing pressure sores, and cheaper than the protective bandage if

  1. Preventing pressure ulcers on the heel: a Canadian cost study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torra I Bou, Joan-Enric; Rueda López, Justo; Camañes, Gemma; Herrero Narváez, Elias; Blanco Blanco, Joan; Ballesté Torralba, Jordi; Martinez-Esparza, Elvira Hernández; García, Lorena San Miguel; Soriano, José Verdú

    2009-01-01

    An adaptation of a clinical study of 130 patients at risk of developing a pressure ulcer on the heels was performed using Canadian costs. The aim of the study was to compare the cost effectiveness of a specially shaped hydrocellular dressing (Allevyn Heel) versus that of a protective heel bandage (Soffban and gauze) in pressure ulcer prevention over an 8-week period.

  2. Role of the calcaneal heel pad and polymeric shock absorbers in attenuation of heel strike impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, D A; Voto, S J; Hoffmann, M S; Askew, M J; Gradisar, I A

    1993-01-01

    The capacity of the calcaneal heel pad, with and without augmentation by a polymeric shock absorbing material (Sorbothane 0050), to attenuate heel strike impulses has been studied using five fresh human cadaveric lower leg specimens. The specimens, instrumented with an accelerometer, were suspended and impacted with a hammer; a steel rod was similarly suspended and impacted. The calcaneal heel pad attenuated the peak accelerations by 80%. Attenuations of up to 93% were achieved by the shock absorbing material when tested against the steel rod; however, when tested in series with the calcaneal heel pad, the reduction in peak acceleration due to the shock absorbing material dropped to 18%. Any evaluation of the effectiveness of shock absorbing shoe materials must take into account their mechanical interaction with the body.

  3. Novelty in Treatment of Heel Spur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Kasinets

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with data on prevalence, etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations and principles of heel spur treatment, there had been described clinical case, and also there were given guidelines on Chondrocerin (Mili Healthcare Ltd, Great Britain use in treatment of this pathology.

  4. A methodology to accurately quantify patellofemoral cartilage contact kinematics by combining 3D image shape registration and cine-PC MRI velocity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borotikar, Bhushan S; Sipprell, William H; Wible, Emily E; Sheehan, Frances T

    2012-04-05

    Patellofemoral osteoarthritis and its potential precursor patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) are common, costly, and debilitating diseases. PFPS has been shown to be associated with altered patellofemoral joint mechanics; however, an actual variation in joint contact stresses has not been established due to challenges in accurately quantifying in vivo contact kinematics (area and location). This study developed and validated a method for tracking dynamic, in vivo cartilage contact kinematics by combining three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, cine-phase contrast (CPC), multi-plane cine (MPC), and 3D high-resolution static imaging. CPC and MPC data were acquired from 12 healthy volunteers while they actively extended/flexed their knee within the MRI scanner. Since no gold standard exists for the quantification of in vivo dynamic cartilage contact kinematics, the accuracy of tracking a single point (patellar origin relative to the femur) represented the accuracy of tracking the kinematics of an entire surface. The accuracy was determined by the average absolute error between the PF kinematics derived through registration of MPC images to a static model and those derived through integration of the CPC velocity data. The accuracy ranged from 0.47 mm to 0.77 mm for the patella and femur and from 0.68 mm to 0.86 mm for the patellofemoral joint. For purely quantifying joint kinematics, CPC remains an analytically simpler and more accurate (accuracy <0.33 mm) technique. However, for application requiring the tracking of an entire surface, such as quantifying cartilage contact kinematics, this combined imaging approach produces accurate results with minimal operator intervention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Movement Behavior of High-Heeled Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter Christian; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar

    2012-01-01

    The human locomotor system is flexible and enables humans to move without falling even under less than optimal conditions. Walking with high-heeled shoes constitutes an unstable condition and here we ask how the nervous system controls the ankle joint in this situation? We investigated the movement...... behavior of high-heeled and barefooted walking in eleven female subjects. The movement variability was quantified by calculation of approximate entropy (ApEn) in the ankle joint angle and the standard deviation (SD) of the stride time intervals. Electromyography (EMG) of the soleus (SO) and tibialis...... anterior (TA) muscles and the soleus Hoffmann (H-) reflex were measured at 4.0 km/h on a motor driven treadmill to reveal the underlying motor strategies in each walking condition. The ApEn of the ankle joint angle was significantly higher (p...

  6. Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements at the Heel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugschies, M.; Brixen, K.; Hermann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound can be used to predict osteoporotic fracture risk, but its ability to monitor therapy is unclear possibly because of its limited precision. We developed a quantitative ultrasound device (foot ultrasound scanner) that measures the speed of sound at the heel...... with the foot ultrasound scanner reduced precision errors by half (p quantitative ultrasound measurements is feasible. (E-mail: m.daugschies@rad.uni-kiel.de) (C) 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology....

  7. Determinants of footwear difficulties in people with plantar heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Justin; Pappas, Evangelos; Adams, Roger; Crosbie, Jack; Burns, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Plantar heel pain is a common foot disorder aggravated by weight-bearing activity. Despite considerable focus on therapeutic interventions such as orthoses, there has been limited investigation of footwear-related issues in people with plantar heel pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether people with plantar heel pain experience footwear-related difficulties compared to asymptomatic individuals, as well as identifying factors associated with footwear comfort, fit and choice. The footwear domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) was assessed in 192 people with plantar heel pain and 69 asymptomatic controls. The plantar heel pain group was also assessed on a variety of measures including: foot posture, foot strength and flexibility, pedobarography and pain level. A univariate analysis of covariance, with age as the covariate, was used to compare the heel pain and control groups on the FHSQ footwear domain score. A multiple regression model was then constructed to investigate factors associated with footwear scores among participants with plantar heel pain. When compared to asymptomatic participants, people with plantar heel pain reported lower FHSQ footwear domain scores (mean difference -24.4; p footwear scores were associated with maximum force beneath the postero-lateral heel during barefoot walking, toe flexor strength and gender. People with plantar heel pain experience difficulty with footwear comfort, fit and choice. Reduced heel loading during barefoot walking, toe flexor weakness and female gender are all independently associated with reports of footwear difficulties in people with heel pain. Increased focus, in both clinical and research settings, is needed to address footwear-related issues in people with plantar heel pain.

  8. Impaired heel to toe progression during gait is related to reduced ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarakis, Michael; Greene, David; Moresi, Mark; Baker, Michael; Stubbs, Peter; Brodie, Matthew; Lord, Stephen; Hoang, Phu

    2017-11-01

    Gait impairment in people with Multiple Sclerosis results from neurological impairment, muscle weakness and reduced range of motion. Restrictions in passive ankle range of motion can result in abnormal heel-to-toe progression (weight transfer) and inefficient gait patterns in people with Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between gait impairment, heel-to-toe progression and ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Twelve participants with Multiple Sclerosis and twelve healthy age-matched participants were assessed. Spatiotemporal parameters of gait and individual footprint data were used to investigate group differences. A pressure sensitive walkway was used to divide each footprint into three phases (contact, mid-stance, propulsive) and calculate the heel-to-toe progression during the stance phase of gait. Compared to healthy controls, people with Multiple Sclerosis spent relatively less time in contact phase (7.8% vs 25.1%) and more time in the mid stance phase of gait (57.3% vs 33.7%). Inter-limb differences were observed in people with Multiple Sclerosis between the affected and non-affected sides for contact (7.8% vs 15.3%) and mid stance (57.3% and 47.1%) phases. Differences in heel-to-toe progression remained significant after adjusting for walking speed and were correlated with walking distance and ankle range of motion. Impaired heel-to-toe progression was related to poor ankle range of motion in people with Multiple Sclerosis. Heel-to-toe progression provided a sensitive measure for assessing gait impairments that were not detectable using standard spatiotemporal gait parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High Heels: A Study of Personality and Fashion Conscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Strehlau

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between the use of high heels, personality traits, and fashion consciousness of adult women. The theory of consumer behavior states that the personality of the consumer is a psychological factor that affects consumer decisions, as well as the attitude towards fashion. A survey with 83 women was conducted with two questionnaires. One questionnaire was about fashion consciousness and the use of high heels, and the other utilized the HumanGuide test. The analysis used univariate and multivariate techniques with the aid of SPSS software and Partial Least Squares. The results indicate that 60% of respondents feel pain when wearing high heels. Although designers indicate that a high heel height is above 8 cm, this research indicates that women consider a high heel from 5 cm. Only 27.3% of the responders over 50 years of age use high heels over 8.5 cm. The HumanGuide proved to be useful for Marketing in the sense that the respondents had no difficulty in answering the questions. The use of high heels is mostly explained by fashion consciousness. The most influential factor was the stability of personality, individuals described as conservative, traditional, economical, stable, cautious, steady, and serious. Thus, it appears that these respondents wear high heels because they are related to an elegant traditional dress.DOI: 10.5585/remark.v12i2.2563

  10. Recovery of plutonium from electrorefining anode heels at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.; Karraker, D.G.

    1987-03-01

    In a joint effort, the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have developed two processes to recover plutonium from electrorefining anode heel residues. Aqueous dissolution of anode heel metal was demonstrated at SRL on a laboratory scale and on a larger pilot scale using either sulfamic acid or nitric acid-hydrazine-fluoride solutions. This direct anode heel metal dissolution requires the use of a geometrically favorable dissolver. The second process developed involves first diluting the plutonium in the anode heel residues by alloying with aluminum. The alloyed anode heel plutonium can then be dissolved using a nitric acid-fluoride-mercury(II) solution in large non-geometrically favorable equipment where nuclear safety is ensured by concentration control

  11. Foot Skin Ischemic Necrosis following Heel Prick in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esad Koklu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are only a few reports on side effects after heel prick in neonates although heel prick has been performed all over the world for many years. The medicine staff had obtained only a drop of blood by pricking the baby’s heel using a lancet without compressing the heel or foot to measure his blood glucose level 3 hours after birth. However he developed a severe and hemorrhagic skin reaction on his entire left foot, beginning 30 minutes after obtaining the drop of blood by pricking the baby’s heel using a lancet. The lesion, which was treated with topical mupirocin and povidone-iodine solution daily, slowly decreased in size and had almost fully resolved within 3 weeks. He was healthy and 9 months old at the time of writing this paper. We herein report a case of foot skin ischemic necrosis following heel prick in a newborn. To our knowledge this patient is the first case of foot skin ischemic necrosis due to heel prick in newborns.

  12. Plantar Pressure Variation during Jogging with Different Heel Height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the key testing and analysis results of an investigation on the effect of heel height on the plantar pressure over different foot areas in jogging. It is important in improving the understanding of jogging with high heels and damage/injury prevention. It can also potentially guide the development of suitable/adaptive exercise schemes in between daily activities with high heels. In this work, plantar pressure data were collected from 10 habituated healthy female subjects (aged 21–25 years at their natural jogging speed with three different conditions: flat heeled shoes (0.8 cm, low heeled shoes (4.0 cm, and high heeled shoes (6.6 cm. Data analysis showed significantly differences in plantar pressure distribution associated with the heel heights with increased pressure in the first metatarsal region and decreased pressure in the lateral metatarsal and midfoot sections. However, there is no significant alteration of plantar pressure in the central area of the forefoot with jogging gait.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of heel pad palpation - A phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Matteoli, Sara; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2008-01-01

    Falanga torture involves repetitive blunt trauma to the soles of the feet and typically leaves few detectable changes. Reduced elasticity in the heel pads has been reported as characteristic sequelae and palpatory testing of heel pad elasticity is therefore part of medicolegal assessment of alleged...... torture victims. The goal was to test the accuracy of two experienced investigators in determining whether a heel pad model was soft, medium or hard. The skin-to-bone distance in the models varied within the human range....

  14. Heel erosion and other interdigital disorders in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiologic associations between variables obtainable from dairy cow records and the occurrence of heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia at claw trimmings were estimated with multivariable logistic regression analysis on data from 1170 and 542 cows in lactation 1...... and lactations 2 to 9, respectively. In the 17 herds, heel erosion, interdigital dermatitis, and hyperplasia occurred among 43.8, 4.5, and .9% of cows in lactation 1 and among 69.1, 7.6 and 5.9% of cows in lactations 2 to 9, respectively. Severity of heel erosion increased with parity, and risk increased...... with stage of lactation. Strong seasonal effects were present. Various combinations of veterinary treatments were associated with heel erosion and hyperplasia depending on parity, stage of lactation, and the presence of other claw disorders. In contrast, veterinary treatment had a protective effect...

  15. Does shoe heel design influence ground reaction forces and knee moments during maximum lunges in elite and intermediate badminton players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wing-Kai; Ryue, Jaejin; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Ryu, Jiseon

    2017-01-01

    Lunge is one frequently executed movement in badminton and involves a unique sagittal footstrike angle of more than 40 degrees at initial ground contact compared with other manoeuvres. This study examined if the shoe heel curvature design of a badminton shoe would influence shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments during lunge. Eleven elite and fifteen intermediate players performed five left-forward maximum lunge trials with Rounded Heel Shoe (RHS), Flattened Heel Shoe (FHS), and Standard Heel Shoes (SHS). Shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments were measured by using synchronized force platform and motion analysis system. A 2 (Group) x 3 (Shoe) ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to determine the effects of different shoes and different playing levels, as well as the interaction of two factors on all variables. Shoe effect indicated that players demonstrated lower maximum vertical loading rate in RHS than the other two shoes (P badminton lunge. The differences in impact loads and knee moments between elite and intermediate players may be useful in optimizing footwear design and training strategy to minimize the potential risks for impact related injuries in badminton.

  16. A pedestrian dead-reckoning system that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases when using a foot-mounted IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hojin; Lee, Min Su; Park, So Young; Song, Jin Woo; Park, Chan Gook

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithm that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases. Generally, PDR systems that use a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit are based on an inertial navigation system with an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce the influence of the bias and white noises in the gyroscope and accelerometer signals, a zero-velocity update is often adopted at the stance phase. However, transient and large acceleration, which cannot be measured by the accelerometer used in pedestrian navigation, occur momentarily in the heel-strike phase. The velocity information from integration of the acceleration is not reliable because the acceleration is not measured in the heel-strike phase. Therefore, the designed EKF does not correctly reflect the actual environment, because conventional algorithms do not take the non-measurable acceleration into consideration. In order to reflect the actual environment, we propose a PDR system that considers the non-measurable acceleration from the heel-strike impact. To improve the PDR system’s performance, the proposed algorithm uses a new velocity measurement obtained using the constraint between the surface and the foot during the toe-off phase. The experimental results show improved filter performance after comparison of the proposed algorithm and a conventional algorithm.

  17. A pedestrian dead-reckoning system that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases when using a foot-mounted IMU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Hojin; Lee, Min Su; Park, So Young; Park, Chan Gook; Song, Jin Woo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an advanced pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) algorithm that considers the heel-strike and toe-off phases. Generally, PDR systems that use a foot-mounted inertial measurement unit are based on an inertial navigation system with an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce the influence of the bias and white noises in the gyroscope and accelerometer signals, a zero-velocity update is often adopted at the stance phase. However, transient and large acceleration, which cannot be measured by the accelerometer used in pedestrian navigation, occur momentarily in the heel-strike phase. The velocity information from integration of the acceleration is not reliable because the acceleration is not measured in the heel-strike phase. Therefore, the designed EKF does not correctly reflect the actual environment, because conventional algorithms do not take the non-measurable acceleration into consideration. In order to reflect the actual environment, we propose a PDR system that considers the non-measurable acceleration from the heel-strike impact. To improve the PDR system’s performance, the proposed algorithm uses a new velocity measurement obtained using the constraint between the surface and the foot during the toe-off phase. The experimental results show improved filter performance after comparison of the proposed algorithm and a conventional algorithm. (paper)

  18. Does shoe heel design influence ground reaction forces and knee moments during maximum lunges in elite and intermediate badminton players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Kai Lam

    Full Text Available Lunge is one frequently executed movement in badminton and involves a unique sagittal footstrike angle of more than 40 degrees at initial ground contact compared with other manoeuvres. This study examined if the shoe heel curvature design of a badminton shoe would influence shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments during lunge.Eleven elite and fifteen intermediate players performed five left-forward maximum lunge trials with Rounded Heel Shoe (RHS, Flattened Heel Shoe (FHS, and Standard Heel Shoes (SHS. Shoe-ground kinematics, ground reaction forces, and knee moments were measured by using synchronized force platform and motion analysis system. A 2 (Group x 3 (Shoe ANOVA with repeated measures was performed to determine the effects of different shoes and different playing levels, as well as the interaction of two factors on all variables.Shoe effect indicated that players demonstrated lower maximum vertical loading rate in RHS than the other two shoes (P < 0.05. Group effect revealed that elite players exhibited larger footstrike angle, faster approaching speed, lower peak horizontal force and horizontal loading rates but higher vertical loading rates and larger peak knee flexion and extension moments (P < 0.05. Analysis of Interactions of Group x Shoe for maximum and mean vertical loading rates (P < 0.05 indicated that elite players exhibited lower left maximum and mean vertical loading rates in RHS compared to FHS (P < 0.01, while the intermediate group did not show any Shoe effect on vertical loading rates.These findings indicate that shoe heel curvature would play some role in altering ground reaction force impact during badminton lunge. The differences in impact loads and knee moments between elite and intermediate players may be useful in optimizing footwear design and training strategy to minimize the potential risks for impact related injuries in badminton.

  19. Velocity distribution of liquid in rotary cylinder when a rotary disc is disposed in contact with a liquid surface; Ekimen ni kaitenenban no arubaai no kaiten entonai ekitai no sokudo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karino, Fumimaru; Kawai, Kazuho; Domoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Toru [Kyoto University, Tokyoto (Japan)

    1999-02-05

    As a model of a flow in a crucible of Cz method, which is a crystal growth method, a system was formed by flowing water into a rotary cylindrical container and disposing a rotary disc in contact with a free surface of the liquid, and this system was used to determine the velocity distribution in the cylindrical container by a laser Doppler hydrometer. The effects of cylinder rotation Reynolds number, disc rotation Reynolds number, the distance between the disc and the cylinder bottom, and the radius ratio of the disc to the cylinder on the determined radial distribution of tangential time average velocity were examined. As a result, it was found that, in the cases where only the cylinder is rotated, where only the disc is rotated, and where an absolute value of the rotation angular velocity ratio of the disc to the cylinder is small when the cylinder and the disc are rotated in directions inverse to each other, the radial distribution of the time average tangential velocity shows a distribution substantially the same independent on vertical positions, thus Taylor-Proudman theorem is valid. It was further known that, when the disc and the cylinder are rotated in inverse directions and the absolute value of the angular velocity ratio is great, the effect of the disc rotation is remarkable, and particularly, this effect becomes greater in the lower flow than near the disc. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Reducing neonatal pain during routine heel lance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carla; Hidinger, Andrea; Wilkinson-Faulk, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    To measure the difference in pain scores for newborns who were held and swaddled while undergoing routine heel lance procedures compared to newborns who were lying on their backs and not swaddled during heel lance. Additionally, we sought to compare the total amount of time it took to collect the specimens in each group. A total of 42 neonates recruited from a large tertiary hospital were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Infants in the experimental group (n = 22) were swaddled and held in an upright position during routine heel lance procedures while neonates in the control group (n = 20) remained in a standard care position. Pain was measured with the Neonatal Inventory Pain Scale (NIPS) at two points in time for each group (just before the heel lance procedure and at the completion of the heel lance). Total collection time was measured using a stopwatch accurate to 1/100th of a second. Specimen quality was measured based on the number of rejected specimens for each group. Descriptive statistics and t tests were used to analyze the data. The mean NIPS score for neonates who were swaddled and held during the procedure (experimental group) was significantly lower (M = 1.3, SD = .9) than the score for infants in the standard position (control group) (M = 2.7, SD = 1.3), t (40) = -4.48, p lance procedures offers nurses a nonpharmacologic method of neonatal pain reduction for heel sticks. This technique can be easily implemented on any unit independent of facility protocols. Furthermore, the technique is not associated with any cost or policy development, making it more likely that nurses can use it in practice.

  1. Mechanical behaviour of the heel pad: experimental and numerical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, C. G.; Virga, A.

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the stress relaxation phenomena of the heel pad region under different loading conditions. A 31-year-old healthy female was enrolled in this study and her left foot underwent both MRI and experimental compression tests. Experimental results were...... compared with those obtained from finite element analysis performed on numerical 3D subject-specific heel pad model built on the basis of MRI. The calcaneal fat pad tissue was described with a visco-hyperelastic model, while a fiber-reinforced hyperelastic model was formulated for the skin. The reliability...

  2. Venepuncture versus heel lance for blood sampling in term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vibhuti S; Ohlsson, Arne

    2011-10-05

    Heel lance has been the conventional method of blood sampling in neonates for screening tests. Neonates undergoing heel lance experience pain which cannot be completely alleviated. To determine whether venepuncture or heel lance is less painful and more effective for blood sampling in term neonates. Randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Regsiter of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and clinical trials registries in May 2011. Trials comparing pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance with or with out the use of a sweet tasting solution as a co-intervention in term neonates. Outcomes included pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance with or without the use of a sweet tasting solution using validated pain measures, the need of repeat sampling and cry characteristics. Analyses included typical relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD), number needed to treat (NNT), weighted mean difference (WMD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Between study heterogeneity was reported including the I squared (I(2)) test. Six studies (n = 478) of variable quality were included. A composite outcome of Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), Neonatal Facial Action Coding System (NFCS) and/or Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score was reported in 288 infants, who did not receive a sweet tasting solution. Meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in the venepuncture versus the heel lance group (SMD -0.76, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.52; I(2) = 0%). When a sweet tasting solution was provided the SMD remained significant favouring the venepuncture group (SMD - 0.38, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.07). The typical RD for requiring more than one skin puncture for venepuncture versus heel lance (reported in 4 studies; n = 254) was -0.34 (95% CI -0.43 to -0.25; I(2) = 97%). The NNT to avoid one repeat skin

  3. Internal strain estimation for quantification of human heel pad elastic modulus: A phantom study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Karen; Liebgott, Hervé; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2013-01-01

    Shock absorption is the most important function of the human heel pad. However, changes in heel pad elasticity, as seen in e.g. long-distance runners, diabetes patients, and victims of Falanga torture are affecting this function, often in a painful manner. Assessment of heel pad elasticity...... is usually based on one or a few strain measurements obtained by an external load-deformation system. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for quantitative measurements of heel pad elastic modulus based on several internal strain measures from within the heel pad by use of ultrasound images. Nine...... heel phantoms were manufactured featuring a combination of three heel pad stiffnesses and three heel pad thicknesses to model the normal human variation. Each phantom was tested in an indentation system comprising a 7MHz linear array ultrasound transducer, working as the indentor, and a connected load...

  4. Re-irradiation for painful heel spur syndrome. Retrospective analysis of 101 heels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautmann, M.G.; Koelbl, O. [University of Regensburg, Department of Radiotherapy, Regensburg (Germany); Neumaier, U. [MVZ Neumaier and Kollegen, Private Clinic for Radiotherapy, Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Painful heel spur syndrome is a common disease with a lifetime prevalence of approximately 10 %. One of the most effective treatment options is radiotherapy. Many authors recommend a second or third series of radiation for recurrent pain and partial or no response to the initial treatment. As the results of re-irradiation have not been systematically analyzed the aim of this study was to document the results of repeated radiation treatment and to identify patients who could benefit from this treatment. The analysis was performed on patients from 2 German radiotherapy institutions and included 101 re-irradiated heels. Pain was documented with the numeric rating scale (NRS) and carried out before and directly after each radiation therapy as well as for the follow-up period of 24 months. The median age of the patients was 56 years with 30.1 % male and 69.9 % female patients. Pain was caused by plantar fasciitis in 72.3 %, Haglund's exostosis in 15.8 % and Achilles tendinitis in 11.9 %. Repeated radiation was indicated because the initial radiotherapy resulted in no response in 35.6 % of patients, partial response in 39.6 % and recurrent pain in 24.8 %. A significant response to re-irradiation could be found. For the whole sample the median NRS pain score was 6 before re-irradiation, 2 after 6 weeks and 0 after 12 and 24 months. Of the patients 73.6 % were free of pain 24 months after re-irradiation. All subgroups, notably those with no response, partial response and recurrent pain had a significant reduction of pain. Re-irradiation of painful heel spur syndrome is an effective and safe treatment. All subgroups showed a good response to re-irradiation for at least 24 months. (orig.) [German] Der schmerzhafte Fersensporn ist eine der haeufigsten Erkrankungen unter den Fusssyndromen. Die Lebenszeitpraevalenz liegt bei etwa 10 %. Eine der wirkungsvollsten Therapieoptionen stellt die Strahlentherapie dar. Dabei beschreiben viele Autoren die Durchfuehrung einer

  5. Sonographic measurements of the achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad are reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Finn E; Jensen, Signe; Stallknecht, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine intra- and interobserver reliability and precision of sonographic (US) scanning in measuring thickness of the Achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad in patients with heel pain. METHODS: Seventeen consecutive patients referred with heel pain were included. Two...

  6. Physiological Achilles' heels of Enteropathogenic bacteria in livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    An elaborate feeding regimen of animals, which takes advantage of the Achilles' heels of enteropathogenic bacteria, can possibly enable prophylaxis in the intestinal tract, attenuate actual disease symptoms, accelerate recovery from a bacterial gastroenteritis or ensure food safety. There is a wide

  7. When fertility is an Achilles´ heel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    of irresponsibility and violence, their worth as citizens of the modern Brazilian society. Making ends meet economically was only the immediate concern – what was at stake was something more fundamental: Being fertile was an Achilles’ heel, a weakness that under certain conditions was directly associated with death...

  8. Ultrasound diagnosis and evaluation of plantar heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argerakis, Nicholas G; Positano, Rock G; Positano, Rock C J; Boccio, Ashley K; Adler, Ronald S; Saboeiro, Gregory R; Dines, Joshua S

    2015-03-01

    One of the most common causes of heel pain is plantar fasciitis; however, there are other pathologic disorders that can mimic the symptoms and clinical presentation of this disorder. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the prevalence of various pathologic disorders on ultrasound in patients with proximal plantar heel pain. The medical records and diagnostic ultrasound reports of patients presenting with plantar heel pain between March 1, 2006, and March 31, 2007, were reviewed retrospectively, and the prevalence of various etiologies was collected. The inclusion criteria were based on their clinical presentation of plantar fasciitis or previous diagnosis of plantar fasciitis from an unknown source. Ultrasound evaluation was then performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis. We examined 175 feet of 143 patients (62 males and 81 females; age range, 16-79 years). Plantar fibromas were present in 90 feet (51%). Plantar fasciitis was diagnosed in 128 feet (73%). Coexistent plantar fibroma and plantar fascial thickening was found in 63 feet (36%). Of the 47 feet that were negative for plantar fasciitis on ultrasound, 27 (57%) revealed the presence of plantar fibroma. Diagnostic ultrasound can effectively and safely identify the prevalence of various etiologies of heel pain. The high prevalence of plantar fibromas and plantar fascial tears cannot be determined by clinical examination alone, and, therefore, ultrasound evaluation should be performed for confirmation of diagnosis.

  9. The influence of heel height on sagittal plane knee kinematics during landing tasks in recreationally active and athletic collegiate females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Kelly M; Carcia, Christopher R; Phelps, Amy L; Martin, Robroy L; Burrows, Anne M

    2011-09-01

    To determine if heel height alters sagittal plane knee kinematics when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Knee angles close to extension during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Fifty collegiate females performed two single-limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a sneaker. Using an electrogoniometer, sagittal plane kinematics (initial contact [KA(IC)], peak flexion [KA(Peak)], and rate of excursion [RE]) were examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Forward hop task- KA(IC) with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 8.88±6.5, 9.38±5.8 and 11.28±7.0, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (psneaker significantly alters sagittal plane knee kinematics upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a drop jump.

  10. The oscillatory behavior of the CoM facilitates mechanical energy balance between push-off and heel strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung; Park, Sukyung

    2012-01-10

    Humans use equal push-off and heel strike work during the double support phase to minimize the mechanical work done on the center of mass (CoM) during the gait. Recently, a step-to-step transition was reported to occur over a period of time greater than that of the double support phase, which brings into question whether the energetic optimality is sensitive to the definition of the step-to-step transition. To answer this question, the ground reaction forces (GRFs) of seven normal human subjects walking at four different speeds (1.1-2.4 m/s) were measured, and the push-off and heel strike work for three differently defined step-to-step transitions were computed based on the force, work, and velocity. To examine the optimality of the work and the impulse data, a hybrid theoretical-empirical analysis is presented using a dynamic walking model that allows finite time for step-to-step transitions and incorporates the effects of gravity within this period. The changes in the work and impulse were examined parametrically across a range of speeds. The results showed that the push-off work on the CoM was well balanced by the heel strike work for all three definitions of the step-to-step transition. The impulse data were well matched by the optimal impulse predictions (R(2)>0.7) that minimized the mechanical work done on the CoM during the gait. The results suggest that the balance of push-off and heel strike energy is a consistent property arising from the overall gait dynamics, which implies an inherited oscillatory behavior of the CoM, possibly by spring-like leg mechanics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pain Threshold Tests in Patients With Heel Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Bernice; Masharawi, Youssef

    2016-07-01

    Pressure pain threshold (PPT) is a useful tool for evaluating mechanical sensitivity in patients suffering from various musculoskeletal disorders. However, no previous study has investigated PPT in the heel of patients experiencing plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS). The aim of this study was to compare PPT levels and topographic presentation of sensitivity in the heel of patients with PHPS and in healthy controls. The reliability of PPT testing in patients with PHPS was assessed for intra- and interrater recordings. The PPT levels of 40 feet in each group were then assessed on 5 predetermined sites in the heel using a standardized measurement protocol. Patient functional status (FS) as measured by the Foot & Ankle Computerized Adaptive Test was employed as an external reference. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed no group differences for PPTs at all sites (P = .406). Age (P = .099) or BMI (P = .510) did not affect PPT values, although there was an effect on gender (P = .006). The analysis revealed significant differences between sites (P < .001) demonstrating a diverse topographic distribution. In the PHPS group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial, posterior/medial and central sites were significantly lower than at the posterior/lateral and anterior/lateral sites (P < .05). For the control group, PPT levels at the anterior/medial site were significantly lower than all other sites (P < .001). No significant differences were found between PPT of the PHPS patients and controls, therefore, PPT cannot be recommended as an assessment tool for these patients. The topographic distribution indicated low PPT levels at the anterior/medial area of the heel in patients with PHPS and controls. Level II, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. [SOUND CONTACTS] Aspects of touch and timbre in piano performance. The effects of key velocity, articulation and temporal duration on sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Kojucharov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of touch in piano pedagogy is generally described by using abstract adjectives often linked to imagination, leading to a blurred and controversial definition of the term touch, often confused with timbre. In the last decades, new data-collection technologies and MIDI-based analysis allowed researchers to measure key-control specific features in timbre nuances modeling [Goebl-Bresin-Galembo 2004; Bernays-Traube 2011; 2013]. Within the field of piano performance, the present study attempts to objectively describe piano touch and the means with which it can be controlled, by: (1 providing elements for an adequate scientific understanding of touch; (2 clarifying the relationship between touch and timbre; (3 defining the extent to which the parameters of key-velocity, tempo and articulation vary as a function of different types of touch.

  13. Development of inexpensive prosthetic feet for high-heeled shoes using simple shoe insole model

    OpenAIRE

    Margrit R. Meier, PhD; Kerice A. Tucker, BSc; Andrew H. Hansen, PhD

    2014-01-01

    The large majority of prosthetic feet are aimed at low-heeled shoes, with a few models allowing a heel height of up to 5 cm. However, a survey by the American Podiatric Medical Association indicates that most women wear heels over 5 cm; thus, current prosthetic feet limit most female prosthesis users in their choice. Some prosthetic foot components are heel-height adjustable; however, their plantar surface shapes do not change to match the insole shapes of the shoes with different heel height...

  14. On the comparison between MRI and US imaging for human heel pad thickness measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Corbin, Nadège Corbin; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2011-01-01

    The human heel pad thickness, defined as the shortest distance between the calcaneus and heel skin, is one of the intrinsic factor which must be taken into account when investigating the biomechanics of the heel pad. US and MRI are the preferable imaging modalities used to measure the heel pad...... thickness as they are both ionizing-free radiations. The aim of this paper is to measure the bone to skin distance of nine heel pad phantoms from MRI and US images, and to compare the results with a true value (TV) in order to find the errors. Paired sample t-test was used to compare the measurements......1530 (P-value=0.402). Results confirm the necessity to investigate on the real speed of sound for the heel pad tissues, in order to have realistic measurements when dealing with human heel pads. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________...

  15. Determinations of its Absolute Dimensions and Distance by the Analyses of Light and Radial-Velocity Curves of the Contact Binary -I. V417 Aquilae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available New photometric and spectroscopic solutions of W-type overcontact binary V417 Aql were obtained by solving the UBV light curves of Samec et al. (1997 and radial-velocity ones of Lu & Rucinski (1999 with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney binary code. In the light curve synthesis the light of a third-body, which Qian (2003 proposed, was considered and obtained about 2.7%, 2.2%, and 0.4% for U, B, and V bandpasses, respectively. The model with third-light is better fitted to eclipse parts than that with no third-light. Absolute dimensions of V417 Aql are determined from our solution as M1=0.53 M⊙, M2=1.45 M⊙, R1=0.84 R⊙ and R2=1.31 M⊙, and the distance to it is deduced as about 216pc. Our distance is well consistent with that (204pc derived from Rucinski & Duerbeck's (1997 relation, MV=MV(log P, B-V, but is more distant than that (131±40pc determined by the Hipparcos trigonometric parallax. The difference may result from the relatively large error of Hipparcos parallax for V417 Aql.

  16. Heel and toe driving on fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tayoung; Chen, Dongmei

    2012-12-11

    A system and method for providing nearly instantaneous power in a fuel cell vehicle. The method includes monitoring the brake pedal angle and the accelerator pedal angle of the vehicle, and if the vehicle driver is pressing both the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal at the same time and the vehicle is in a drive gear, activating a heel and toe mode. When the heel and toe mode is activated, the speed of a cathode compressor is increased to a predetermined speed set-point, which is higher than the normal compressor speed for the pedal position. Thus, when the vehicle brake is removed, the compressor speed is high enough to provide enough air to the cathode, so that the stack can generate nearly immediate power.

  17. Getting to the heel of the problem: plantar fascia lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeswani, T.; Morlese, J.; McNally, E.G.

    2009-01-01

    Heel pain is a frequent disabling symptom. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult with a large range of possible diagnoses. Lesions of the plantar fascia form an important group. We present a review describing the common lesions of the plantar fascia, including plantar fasciitis, plantar fascia rupture, plantar fibromatosis, and plantar xanthoma, and illustrate them with appropriate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging. We also address foreign-body reactions, enthesopathy, and diabetic fascial disease.

  18. Getting to the heel of the problem: plantar fascia lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeswani, T. [Department of Radiology, Worthing and Southlands Hospitals, West Sussex (United Kingdom); Morlese, J. [Department of Radiology, Royal Free Hospital, Pond street, London, NW3 2QG (United Kingdom); McNally, E.G. [Department of Radiology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: eugene.mcnally@gmail.com

    2009-09-15

    Heel pain is a frequent disabling symptom. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult with a large range of possible diagnoses. Lesions of the plantar fascia form an important group. We present a review describing the common lesions of the plantar fascia, including plantar fasciitis, plantar fascia rupture, plantar fibromatosis, and plantar xanthoma, and illustrate them with appropriate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging. We also address foreign-body reactions, enthesopathy, and diabetic fascial disease.

  19. Getting to the heel of the problem: plantar fascia lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, T; Morlese, J; McNally, E G

    2009-09-01

    Heel pain is a frequent disabling symptom. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult with a large range of possible diagnoses. Lesions of the plantar fascia form an important group. We present a review describing the common lesions of the plantar fascia, including plantar fasciitis, plantar fascia rupture, plantar fibromatosis, and plantar xanthoma, and illustrate them with appropriate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound imaging. We also address foreign-body reactions, enthesopathy, and diabetic fascial disease.

  20. Prototype heel effect compensation filter for cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Endo, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Kanae; Ohno, Mari; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Tsujita, Kazuhiko; Saito, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    The prototype cone-beam CT (CBCT) has a larger beam width than the conventional multi-detector row CT (MDCT). This causes a non-uniform angular distribution of the x-ray beam intensity known as the heel effect. Scan conditions for CBCT tube current are adjusted on the anode side to obtain an acceptable clinical image quality. However, as the dose is greater on the cathode side than on the anode side, the signal-to-noise ratio on the cathode side is excessively high, resulting in an unnecessary dose amount. To compensate for the heel effect, we developed a heel effect compensation (HEC) filter. The HEC filter rendered the dose distribution uniform and reduced the dose by an average of 25% for free air and by 20% for CTDI phantoms compared to doses with the conventional filter. In addition, its effect in rendering the effective energy uniform resulted in an improvement in image quality. This new HEC filter may be useful in cone-beam CT studies. (note)

  1. Is There a Role for MRI in Plantar Heel Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Ali; Tsekes, Demetris; Baloch, Irshad

    2018-06-01

    There is an increasing trend to investigate plantar heel pain with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan though plantar fasciitis is the most common cause. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of MRI in patients presenting with plantar heel pain. Case notes and MRI scans of 141 patients with a clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were reviewed retrospectively. There were 98 females and 43 males patients. Fourteen patients had bilateral symptoms. Average age for male patients was 51 years (range = 26-78 years), and for female patients the average age was 52 years (range = 29-76 years). A total of 121 feet had MRI features suggestive of plantar fasciitis. MRI was normal in 32 feet. There was one case of stress fracture of calcaneus and another of a heel fibroma diagnosed on MRI scan. In our study, MRI scan was normal in 20.7% of the cases; 1.3% had a diagnosis other than plantar fasciitis but no sinister pathology. We therefore conclude that MRI scan is not routinely indicated and key is careful clinical assessment. Therapeutic, Level IV: Retrospective, Case series.

  2. Investigation on the load-deformation curves of a human healthy heel pad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontanella, C. G.; Matteoli, Sara; Carniel, E.L.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present work were to build a 3D subject-specific heel pad model based on the anatomy revealed by MR imaging of a subject's heel pad, and to compare the load–displacement responses obtained from this model with those obtained from a compression device used on the subject's heel pad....... A 30 year-old European healthy female (mass=54kg, height=165cm) was enrolled in this study. Her left foot underwent both MRI and compression tests. A numerical model of the heel region was developed based on a 3D CAD solid model obtained by MR images. The calcaneal fat pad tissue was described...... with a visco-hyperelastic model, while a fiber-reinforced hyperelastic model was formulated for the skin. Numerical analyses were performed to interpret the mechanical response of heel tissues. Different loading conditions were assumed according to experimental tests. The heel tissues showed a non-linear visco...

  3. Some of the factors influencing the Heel Pad Compressibility Index (HPCI): a literature search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Torp-Pedersen, Soren T.

    2009-01-01

    The human heel pad is a complex structure that features non-linear visco-elastic characteristics as the majority of the human soft tissues. The biomechanical aspects of the heel pad are still under investigation and the influence of subject factors such as age, weight, gender, height, race......, and body activity have been reported. The aim of this paper is to study the literature in order to identify the influence of subject factors and diseases on the heel pad compressibility index....

  4. Heel ulcers - Pressure ulcers or symptoms of peripheral arterial disease? An exploratory matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twilley, Heidi; Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and determine the feasibility of conducting a statistically powered matched case control study. Evidence indicates a relationship between chronic leg ulcers and vascular disease. The relationship between pressure ulcers of the heel and vascular disease is less well established. A matched case control study. Data were collected between March 2014 and January 2015. 15 patients identified as having a grade 2, 3 or 4 pressure ulcer of the heel were compared with 15 matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel. The primary clinical outcome measure was the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI), where an ABPI 1.3 was considered clinically indicative of PAD. The primary feasibility outcome measure was the rate of recruitment. Eighty seven patients were reported as having foot and heel ulcers; 36 of whom were identified as having pressure ulcers of the heel, 15 (42%) of whom were recruited to the study. Patients presenting with pressure ulcers of the heel were significantly more likely to simultaneously have previously undiagnosed PAD compared with age, gender and ethnicity matched controls without pressure ulcers of the heel (odds ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval 1.99-60.57). The formation of pressure ulcers of the heel could, in some patients, be related to the presence of PAD rather than a consequence of poor quality care. Healthcare professionals should assess the patient to exclude or confirm PAD. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EM-31 Alternative And Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program For Sludge Heel Removal - 11220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.; Hay, M.; Wiersma, B.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of oxalic acid with nitric acid have been shown to be superior to oxalic acid alone for the dissolution of iron-rich High Level Waste sludge heels. Optimized conditions resulting in minimal oxalate usage and stoichiometric iron dissolution (based on added oxalate ion) have been determined for hematite (a primary sludge iron phase) in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures. The acid mixtures performed better than expected based on the solubility of hematite in the individual acids through a synergistic effect in which the preferred 1:1 Fe:oxalate complex is formed. This allows for the minimization of oxalate additions to the waste stream. Carbon steel corrosion rates were measured in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures to evaluate the impacts of chemical cleaning with these solutions on waste tank integrity. Manageable corrosion rates were observed in the concentration ranges of interest for an acid contact timescale of 1 month. Kinetics tests involving hematite and gibbsite (a primary sludge aluminum phase) have confirmed that (ge)90% solids dissolution occurs within 3 weeks. Based on these results, the chemical cleaning conditions recommended to promote minimal oxalate usage and manageable corrosion include: 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid/0.175 M nitric acid mixture, 50 C, 2-3 week contact time with agitation.

  6. The effect of different depths of medial heel skive on plantar pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonanno Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot orthoses are often used to treat lower limb injuries associated with excessive pronation. There are many orthotic modifications available for this purpose, with one being the medial heel skive. However, empirical evidence for the mechanical effects of the medial heel skive modification is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect that different depths of medial heel skive have on plantar pressures. Methods Thirty healthy adults (mean age 24 years, range 18–46 with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture and no current foot pain or deformity participated in this study. Using the in-shoe pedar-X® system, plantar pressure data were collected for the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot while participants walked along an 8 metre walkway wearing a standardised shoe. Experimental conditions included a customised foot orthosis with the following 4 orthotic modifications: (i no medial heel skive, (ii a 2 mm medial heel skive, (iii a 4 mm medial heel skive and (iv a 6 mm medial heel skive. Results Compared to the foot orthosis with no medial heel skive, statistically significant increases in peak pressure were observed at the medial rearfoot – there was a 15% increase (p = 0.001 with the 4 mm skive and a 29% increase (p  Conclusions This study found that a medial heel skive of 4 mm or 6 mm increases peak pressure under the medial rearfoot in asymptomatic adults with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture. Plantar pressures at the midfoot and forefoot were not altered by a medial heel skive of 2, 4 or 6 mm. These findings provide some evidence for the effects of the medial heel skive orthotic modification.

  7. Altered Tibiofemoral Joint Contact Mechanics and Kinematics in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis and Episodic Complaints of Joint Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Klatt, Brian A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Tashman, Scott; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate knee joint contact mechanics and kinematics during the loading response phase of downhill gait in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. Methods Forty-three subjects, 11 with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and self-reported instability (unstable), 7 with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis but no reports of instability (stable), and 25 without knee osteoarthritis or instability (control) underwent Dynamic Stereo X-ray analysis during a downhill gait task on a treadmill. Findings The medial compartment contact point excursions were longer in the unstable group compared to the stable (p=0.046) and the control groups (p=0.016). The peak medial compartment contact point velocity was also greater for the unstable group compared to the stable (p=0.047) and control groups (p=0.022). Additionally, the unstable group demonstrated a coupled movement pattern of knee extension and external rotation after heel contact which was different than the coupled motion of knee flexion and internal rotation demonstrated by stable and control groups. Interpretation Our findings suggest that knee joint contact mechanics and kinematics are altered during the loading response phase of downhill gait in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. The observed longer medial compartment contact point excursions and higher velocities represent objective signs of mechanical instability that may place the arthritic knee joint at increased risk for disease progression. Further research is indicated to explore the clinical relevance of altered contact mechanics and kinematics during other common daily activities and to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation programs to improve altered joint biomechanics in knee osteoarthritis patients with self-reported instability. PMID:24856791

  8. Investigation of Concrete Floor Vibration Using Heel-Drop Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaman, N. A. Mohd; Ghafar, N. H. Abd; Azhar, A. F.; Fauzi, A. A.; Ismail, H. A.; Syed Idrus, S. S.; Mokhjar, S. S.; Hamid, F. F. Abd

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there is an increased in floor vibration problems of structures like residential and commercial building. Vibration is defined as a serviceability issue related to the comfort of the occupant or damage equipment. Human activities are the main source of vibration in the building and it could affect the human comfort and annoyance of residents in the building when the vibration exceed the recommend level. A new building, Madrasah Tahfiz located at Yong Peng have vibration problem when load subjected on the first floor of the building. However, the limitation of vibration occurs on building is unknown. Therefore, testing is needed to determine the vibration behaviour (frequency, damping ratio and mode shape) of the building. Heel-drop with pace 2Hz was used in field measurement to obtain the vibration response. Since, the heel-drop test results would vary in light of person performance, test are carried out three time to reduce uncertainty. Natural frequency from Frequency Response Function analysis (FRF) is 17.4Hz, 16.8, 17.4Hz respectively for each test.

  9. Successful heel pressure ulcer prevention program in a long-term care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Vicky

    2009-01-01

    Heel pressure ulcers (PUs) are common in long-term healthcare settings. Early identification of risk and the use of preventive measures are central to reducing the morbidity, mortality, and high medical costs associated with heel PUs. A Quality Improvement Process was initated based on a tailored protocol, in-service education program, and a heel protective device was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The Braden Scale was used to evaluate PU risk in 550 patients in a long-term healthcare facility. Patients with a Braden Scale score of 18 or less and with 1 of 7 high-risk comorbidities were considered at high risk for PUs, and this prompted a more aggressive prevention program that included a protocol for reducing the risk of heel ulceration. The number of hospital-acquired heel PUs during the 6-month preintervention period was 39. Following the intervention, there were 2 occurrences, representing a 95% reduction in heel ulcers between the 2 periods. After the cost of 2 heel protectors for 550 at-risk patients was subtracted from the estimated cost of treating the 37 heel ulcers prevented, the estimated cost savings was calculated to be between $12,400 and $1,048,400.

  10. Creative prosthetic foot selection enables successful ambulation in stiletto high heels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Lipe, Delbert H; Rábago, Christopher A

    2017-11-01

    Walking in high heels presents biomechanical challenges, yet they remain part of many women's attire. However, women with a lower limb amputation are limited in available footwear options. Case description and methods: This case study is in response to one patient's assertion that she walked better and more symmetrically in heels than flat shoes with her below-knee prosthesis. She underwent gait analysis in athletic shoes and 10-cm stiletto high heels worn with a pediatric running foot to determine if these claims could be substantiated through biomechanical measures. Global gait asymmetry indices were calculated. Findings and outcomes: Asymmetry indices were nearly identical between athletic shoes and heels but joint-level findings differed substantially. Ankle mechanics were more symmetrical in heels but hip mechanics were less. The maintenance of symmetry in stiletto high heels does not imply maintenance of gait quality, as high heels are known to adversely affect some components walking mechanics. Clinical relevance Returning to high-heel wear is achievable for prosthesis users. Accommodations can be made using creativity in prosthetic foot selection to enable successful ambulation; however, attention to gait mechanics may be important for patient safety.

  11. Effect of hoof angle on joint contact area in the equine metacarpophalangeal joint following simulated impact loading ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, C A; Thomason, J J; Gordon, K; Hurtig, M; Bignell, W

    2015-11-01

    To add to the existing data on impact loading of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint as a precursor to assessing the potential role of impact in joint disease. To examine the effect of impact loading on contact areas of the first phalanx (P1) and proximal sesamoids (PS) with the third metacarpal (McIII) under 3 hoof-strike conditions (toe-first, flat, heel-first). Randomised, repeated controlled experiment using cadaver material. Eight cadaver limbs were subjected to randomised, repeated controlled trials where the hoof was struck by a pendulum impact machine (impact velocity 3.55 m/s) under 3 strike conditions. Data from pressure sensitive film placed over medial and lateral McIII condyles and lateromedially across the dorsal aspect of McIII were quantified: total areas of P1 and PS contact (cm(2) ) at maximum recorded pressure; centroid locations of contact areas relative to the sagittal ridge (cm) and transverse ridge (cm) and dispersion of pixels (cm(4) ) for each McIII condyle (medial/lateral). The effect of the strike conditions on each variable were statistically tested using repeated-measures ANOVA (α = 0.05). Contact area between P1 and McIII condyles fell in well-defined areas bounded by the sagittal and transverse ridge, contact areas from PS were smaller and widely dispersed across McIII palmar border. Ratio of contact area of P1 to PS was 2.83 (Pcontact area (P>0.54) CONCLUSIONS: Contact at impact (primarily from P1 and distally situated on McIII), contrasts with contact areas at midstance from both P1 and PS, symmetrically placed. Under impact, the greatest contact area was on the dorsal aspect of the medial condyle and coincides with the area subjected to the greatest increase in subchondral bone stiffening in joint disease. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nørreslet, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of net joint moments in the lower extremities during walking on high-heeled shoes compared with barefooted walking at identical speed. Fourteen female subjects walked at 4 km/h across three force platforms while they were filmed by five...... digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...... phase was doubled when walking on high heels. The knee joint angle showed that high-heeled walking caused the subjects to flex the knee joint significantly more in the first half of the stance phase. In the frontal plane a significant increase was observed in the knee joint abductor moment and the hip...

  13. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress in People With and Without Plantar Heel Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotchett, Matthew; Munteanu, Shannon E; Landorf, Karl B

    2016-08-01

    Depression, anxiety, and stress are prevalent in patients with musculoskeletal pain, but the impact of these emotional states has not been evaluated in people with plantar heel pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between depression, anxiety, and stress with plantar heel pain. Forty-five participants with plantar heel pain were matched by sex and age (±2 years) to 45 participants without plantar heel pain. Levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (short version) in participants with and without plantar heel pain. Logistic regression was conducted to determine if levels of depression, anxiety, or stress were associated with having plantar heel pain. Univariate analysis indicated that participants with plantar heel pain had greater levels of depression (mean difference = 4.4, 95% CI 2.3 to 6.5), anxiety (mean difference = 2.6, 95% CI 0.9 to 4.3), and stress (mean difference = 4.8, 95% CI 1.9 to 7.8). After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and education, for every 1 unit increase in depression, anxiety, or stress (in the DASS subscales), the odds ratios for having plantar heel pain were increased by 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.6), 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5), and 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3), respectively. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were independently associated with plantar heel pain. Larger prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the temporal association between these emotional states and plantar heel pain. Level III, cross sectional, observational. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Epidemiology of High-Heel Shoe Injuries in U.S. Women: 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin Xavier; Lambert, Brice; Jenkins, Gabrielle P; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of high-heel-related injuries among a nationally representative population of women in the United States and to analyze the demographic differences within this group. The data used in the present study were collected from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. A total of 3294 injuries, representing an estimated 123,355 high-heel-related injuries, were treated in emergency departments within the United States from 2002 to 2012. The overall rate of high-heel-related injuries for the study was 7.32 per 100,000 females (95% confidence interval 7.08 to 7.56). The injury rate was greatest for young adult females, with the greatest rates observed for those aged 20 to 29 years (18.38 per 100,000 females) and those aged 30 to 39 years (11.07 per 100,000 females). The results from the present study suggest that high-heel-related injuries have nearly doubled during the 11-year period from 2002 to 2012. Injuries from high heels are differential by body region, with most injuries occurring as sprains and strains to the foot and ankle. Although high heels might be stylish, from a health standpoint, it could be worthwhile for females and those interested in wearing high heels to understand the risks of wearing high-heeled shoes and the potential harm that precarious activities in high-heeled shoes can cause. The results of the present study can be used in the development of a prospective cohort study to investigate the risk of injury from high-heeled shoes, accounting for the exposure time and studying differences in demographics (e.g., age and race). Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic determinants of heel bone properties: genome-wide association meta-analysis and replication in the GEFOS/GENOMOS consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Karasik, David; Estrada, Karol; Xiao, Su-Mei; Nielson, Carrie; Srikanth, Priya; Giroux, Sylvie; Wilson, Scott G.; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Smith, Albert V.; Pye, Stephen R.; Leo, Paul J.; Teumer, Alexander; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ohlsson, Claes; McGuigan, Fiona; Minster, Ryan L.; Hayward, Caroline; Olmos, José M.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lewis, Joshua R.; Swart, Karin M.A.; Masi, Laura; Oldmeadow, Chris; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Cheng, Sulin; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Kruk, Marcin; del Greco M, Fabiola; Igl, Wilmar; Trummer, Olivia; Grigoriou, Efi; Luben, Robert; Liu, Ching-Ti; Zhou, Yanhua; Oei, Ling; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Zmuda, Joseph; Tranah, Greg; Brown, Suzanne J.; Williams, Frances M.; Soranzo, Nicole; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Holliday, Kate L.; Hannemann, Anke; Go, Min Jin; Garcia, Melissa; Polasek, Ozren; Laaksonen, Marika; Zhu, Kun; Enneman, Anke W.; McEvoy, Mark; Peel, Roseanne; Sham, Pak Chung; Jaworski, Maciej; Johansson, Åsa; Hicks, Andrew A.; Pludowski, Pawel; Scott, Rodney; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S.; Sievänen, Harri; Raitakari, Olli T.; González-Macías, Jesús; Hernández, Jose L.; Mellström, Dan; Ljunggren, Östen; Cho, Yoon Shin; Völker, Uwe; Nauck, Matthias; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Haring, Robin; Brown, Matthew A.; McCloskey, Eugene; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A.; Jones, Graeme; Reid, Ian R.; Dennison, Elaine M.; Wark, John; Boonen, Steven; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C.W.; Aspelund, Thor; Richards, J. Brent; Bauer, Doug; Hofman, Albert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Dedoussis, George; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Gyllensten, Ulf; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Lorenc, Roman S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Lips, Paul; Alen, Markku; Attia, John; Brandi, Maria Luisa; de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Riancho, José A.; Campbell, Harry; Liu, Yongmei; Harris, Tamara B.; Akesson, Kristina; Karlsson, Magnus; Lee, Jong-Young; Wallaschofski, Henri; Duncan, Emma L.; O'Neill, Terence W.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Spector, Timothy D.; Rousseau, François; Orwoll, Eric; Cummings, Steven R.; Wareham, Nick J.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Prince, Richard L.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Reeve, Jonathan; Kaptoge, Stephen K.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative ultrasound of the heel captures heel bone properties that independently predict fracture risk and, with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by X-ray (DXA), may be convenient alternatives for evaluating osteoporosis and fracture risk. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to assess the genetic determinants of heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; n = 14 260), velocity of sound (VOS; n = 15 514) and BMD (n = 4566) in 13 discovery cohorts. Independent replication involved seven cohorts with GWA data (in silico n = 11 452) and new genotyping in 15 cohorts (de novo n = 24 902). In combined random effects, meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10−8) associations with heel bone properties. Alongside SNPs within or near previously identified osteoporosis susceptibility genes including ESR1 (6q25.1: rs4869739, rs3020331, rs2982552), SPTBN1 (2p16.2: rs11898505), RSPO3 (6q22.33: rs7741021), WNT16 (7q31.31: rs2908007), DKK1 (10q21.1: rs7902708) and GPATCH1 (19q13.11: rs10416265), we identified a new locus on chromosome 11q14.2 (rs597319 close to TMEM135, a gene recently linked to osteoblastogenesis and longevity) significantly associated with both BUA and VOS (P < 8.23 × 10−14). In meta-analyses involving 25 cohorts with up to 14 985 fracture cases, six of 10 SNPs associated with heel bone properties at P < 5 × 10−6 also had the expected direction of association with any fracture (P < 0.05), including three SNPs with P < 0.005: 6q22.33 (rs7741021), 7q31.31 (rs2908007) and 10q21.1 (rs7902708). In conclusion, this GWA study reveals the effect of several genes common to central DXA-derived BMD and heel ultrasound/DXA measures and points to a new genetic locus with potential implications for better understanding of osteoporosis pathophysiology. PMID:24430505

  16. Can an off-the-rack orthotic stiletto alter pressure and comfort scores in the forefoot, arch and heel?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Speedtsberg, Merete Brink; Kallemose, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    MTH2+3 pressure (p rack orthotic stilettos can notably reduce...... plantar pressures and improve forefoot and heel comfort during everyday use. Practitioner Summary: Off-the-rack orthotic stilettos with built-in metatarsal pad, arch support and heel caps can lower the pressure under the heel and forefoot in comparison with a standard stiletto and can improve comfort...

  17. Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockley, C.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

  18. Contact Line Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  19. [Hidradenocarcinoma of the heel associated with inguinal metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbardi, W; Hali, F; Marnissi, F; Cribier, B; Chiheb, S

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumour involving the sweat glands. It classically arises de novo, only rarely resulting from pre-existing hidradenoma. The literature contains few reports of lymph node metastasis in this tumour. We report a case of a patient with hidradenocarcinoma of the heel associated with inguinal node metastases. We report the case of a 64-year-old patient with a history of chronic smoking, who in the last two years developed a painless nodule in his right heel, with no prior injury, and which gradually increased in size to become an ulcerated tumour. Physical examination revealed a rounded tumour mass, ulcerated in the centre, and associated with multiple inguinal adenopathies. Histological and immunohistochemical examination was suggestive of hidradenocarcinoma. The patient had undergone extensive local excision with inguinal lymphadenectomy. Histological examination showed infiltration of lymph nodes by the tumour with capsular rupture. Radiotherapy was subsequently given. The outcome was good without recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumour. Diagnosis is based on histological and immunohistochemical examination. However, hidradenocarcinoma may on occasion be difficult to differentiate from hidradenoma, a benign tumour, hence the interest of complete surgical resection with safety margins even in the absence of cytological malignancy. Local recurrences are common. The occurrence of lymph node metastasis during hidradenocarcinoma has been described only rarely in the literature. Such metastases usually occur after tumour resection. The specific features of our case are the rarity of lymph node metastases in hidradenocarcinoma coupled with the fact that these metastases were discovered upon diagnosis of the primary tumour. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Internal strain estimation for quantification of human heel pad elastic modulus: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Karen; Liebgott, Hervé; Wilhjelm, Jens E; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Torp-Pedersen, Søren T; Delachartre, Philippe; Jensen, Jørgen A

    2013-02-01

    Shock absorption is the most important function of the human heel pad. However, changes in heel pad elasticity, as seen in e.g. long-distance runners, diabetes patients, and victims of Falanga torture are affecting this function, often in a painful manner. Assessment of heel pad elasticity is usually based on one or a few strain measurements obtained by an external load-deformation system. The aim of this study was to develop a technique for quantitative measurements of heel pad elastic modulus based on several internal strain measures from within the heel pad by use of ultrasound images. Nine heel phantoms were manufactured featuring a combination of three heel pad stiffnesses and three heel pad thicknesses to model the normal human variation. Each phantom was tested in an indentation system comprising a 7MHz linear array ultrasound transducer, working as the indentor, and a connected load cell. Load-compression data and ultrasound B-mode images were simultaneously acquired in 19 compression steps of 0.1mm each. The internal tissue displacement was for each step calculated by a phase-based cross-correlation technique and internal strain maps were derived from these displacement maps. Elastic moduli were found from the resulting stress-strain curves. The elastic moduli made it possible to distinguish eight of nine phantoms from each other according to the manufactured stiffness and showed very little dependence of the thickness. Mean elastic moduli for the three soft, the three medium, and the three hard phantoms were 89kPa, 153kPa, and 168kPa, respectively. The combination of ultrasound images and force measurements provided an effective way of assessing the elastic properties of the heel pad due to the internal strain estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness and prognostic factors of radiotherapy for painful plantar heel spurs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, O.; Bosch, E.; Gott, C.; Adamietz, I.A.; Stueckle, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness (pain relief rate and long-term results) and prognostic factors of RT for plantar heel pain have been investigated. Patients and methods: From January 2000 to October 2000, 62 patients (73 heels) with painful plantar heel spurs and a minimum pain history of 3 months were treated and evaluated in a prospective study. Mean age was 54 years (range 28-84 years). All patients were treated with a total dose of 5 Gy in seven fractions (= one series), given twice a week at a single-dose sequence of 0.25-0.25-0.5-1.0-1.0-1.0-1-0. Gy (10-MV photons, source-skin distance [SSD] 100 cm, direct portal, field size 12 x 17 cm). The mean duration of heel pain before RT was 26 weeks (= 6.5 months; range 3-120 months). By means of a visual analog scale (VAS) the patients had to self-assess the quantity of their heel pain once before, three times during and four times after RT at a long-term median follow-up of 28 and 40 months. Additionally, the patients had to assess their mechanical heel stress extent during RT. Effectiveness was estimated according to the patients' judgment of pain reduction. The results confirm the high efficacy of RT in painful plantar spur and add new aspects to formerly published data concerning the time course of changes in heel pain reduction. Pain relief can be expected during and shortly after RT. In addition, the initial success can be transformed into effective long-term results >2 years after RT; however, further improvement is not to be expected. As a new prognostic factor, the reduction of mechanical heel stress during RT may ameliorate the short-term results, whereas short heel pain history improves the long-term results. Especially for older patients, RT should be taken into consideration as primary treatment. (orig.)

  2. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  3. Calcaneal Insufficiency Fracture Secondary to Celiac Disease-Induced Osteomalacia: A Rare Cause of Heel Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, Ozkan; Kilicaslan, Omer Faruk; Ozyurek, Selahattin; Ince, Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of plantar heel pain; however, a broad spectrum of disorders may also present with plantar heel pain. A detailed history, physical examination, laboratory testing, and imaging studies may be necessary to reach an accurate diagnosis. Herein, the clinical presentation of a 33-year-old woman with calcaneal insufficiency fracture secondary to celiac disease-induced osteomalacia is presented, and its diagnosis and treatment are discussed. Calcaneal insufficiency fractures should be kept in mind in a patient with celiac disease that presents with heel pain. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case study. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. [Comparison of efficacy of heel ulcer prevention between classic padded bandage and polyurethane heel in a medium-stay hospital: randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Solà, Marta; Espaulella Panicot, Joan; Altimires Roset, Jacint; Ylla-Català Borè, Elisenda; Moreno Susi, María

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the incidence of heel pressure ulcers (UPPT) and to compare the two systems for UPPT prevention: classic padded bandage and polyurethane heel. Prospective intervention study in a medium-long hospital stay of all people admitted that had no UPPT but had a risk of UPPT according to the Braden Scale or clinical judgment. The patients were randomized to prevention with classic padded bandage or polyurethane heel. The outcome variable was the incidence of UPPT for each study group, which was recorded every 15 days or when there were clinical changes. Of the 940 patients evaluated, 409 with a mean age of 80.5 years and 59.1% women,were included in the study. Of these, 78% had Barthel score ≤30; 28.6% dementia; delirium 37.6%; 27.6% diabetes; and 19.6% other UPP. The overall incidence was 2.9% UPPT; 2.49% in the classic padded bandage and 3.37% in the polyurethane heel group (p=0.82). No statistically significant differences were observed between the group with the classical dressing and the group with the polyurethane heel dressing. The use of multiple measures to prevent UPPT achieved a low incidence of these. Copyright © 2011 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. On Heels and Toes: How Ants Climb with Adhesive Pads and Tarsal Friction Hair Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlein, Thomas; Federle, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Ants are able to climb effortlessly on vertical and inverted smooth surfaces. When climbing, their feet touch the substrate not only with their pretarsal adhesive pads but also with dense arrays of fine hairs on the ventral side of the 3rd and 4th tarsal segments. To understand what role these different attachment structures play during locomotion, we analysed leg kinematics and recorded single-leg ground reaction forces in Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina) climbing vertically on a smooth glass substrate. We found that the ants engaged different attachment structures depending on whether their feet were above or below their Centre of Mass (CoM). Legs above the CoM pulled and engaged the arolia ('toes'), whereas legs below the CoM pushed with the 3rd and 4th tarsomeres ('heels') in surface contact. Legs above the CoM carried a significantly larger proportion of the body weight than legs below the CoM. Force measurements on individual ant tarsi showed that friction increased with normal load as a result of the bending and increasing side contact of the tarsal hairs. On a rough sandpaper substrate, the tarsal hairs generated higher friction forces in the pushing than in the pulling direction, whereas the reverse effect was found on the smooth substrate. When the tarsal hairs were pushed, buckling was observed for forces exceeding the shear forces found in climbing ants. Adhesion forces were small but not negligible, and higher on the smooth substrate. Our results indicate that the dense tarsal hair arrays produce friction forces when pressed against the substrate, and help the ants to push outwards during horizontal and vertical walking.

  6. On Heels and Toes: How Ants Climb with Adhesive Pads and Tarsal Friction Hair Arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Endlein

    Full Text Available Ants are able to climb effortlessly on vertical and inverted smooth surfaces. When climbing, their feet touch the substrate not only with their pretarsal adhesive pads but also with dense arrays of fine hairs on the ventral side of the 3rd and 4th tarsal segments. To understand what role these different attachment structures play during locomotion, we analysed leg kinematics and recorded single-leg ground reaction forces in Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina climbing vertically on a smooth glass substrate. We found that the ants engaged different attachment structures depending on whether their feet were above or below their Centre of Mass (CoM. Legs above the CoM pulled and engaged the arolia ('toes', whereas legs below the CoM pushed with the 3rd and 4th tarsomeres ('heels' in surface contact. Legs above the CoM carried a significantly larger proportion of the body weight than legs below the CoM. Force measurements on individual ant tarsi showed that friction increased with normal load as a result of the bending and increasing side contact of the tarsal hairs. On a rough sandpaper substrate, the tarsal hairs generated higher friction forces in the pushing than in the pulling direction, whereas the reverse effect was found on the smooth substrate. When the tarsal hairs were pushed, buckling was observed for forces exceeding the shear forces found in climbing ants. Adhesion forces were small but not negligible, and higher on the smooth substrate. Our results indicate that the dense tarsal hair arrays produce friction forces when pressed against the substrate, and help the ants to push outwards during horizontal and vertical walking.

  7. Heel blood sampling in European neonatal intensive care units: compliance with pain management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Losacco, Valentina; Cuttini, Marina; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of heel blood sampling and non-pharmacological analgesia in a large representative sample of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in eight European countries, and compare their self-reported practices with evidence-based recommendations. Methods Information on use...... of heel blood sampling and associated procedures (oral sweet solutions, non-nutritive sucking, swaddling or positioning, topical anaesthetics and heel warming) were collected through a structured mail questionnaire. 284 NICUs (78% response rate) participated, but only 175 with >/=50 very low birth weight...... admissions per year were included in this analysis. Results Use of heel blood sampling appeared widespread. Most units in the Netherlands, UK, Denmark, Sweden and France predominantly adopted mechanical devices, while manual lance was still in use in the other countries. The two Scandinavian countries...

  8. Heel pain due to retrocalcaneal bursitis-radiographic diagnosis (with an historical footnote on Sever's disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heneghan, M.A.; Wallace, T.

    1985-01-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis is a distinct condition causing posterior heel pain in active, healthy children. It appears to result from post-traumatic inflammation of the soft tissues of the posterior heel, and is unrelated to avascular necrosis of the calcaneal apophysis. The diagnosis may be confirmed radiographically by the loss of the lucent retrocalcaneal recess, with a normal Achilles tendon and superficial soft tissue contour, and intact cortex of the underling os calcis. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Vibration on Pain Response to Heel Lance: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Kate; Murray, Eileen; Cherven, Brooke; McCracken, Courtney; Travers, Curtis

    2016-12-01

    Applied mechanical vibration in pediatric and adult populations has been shown to be an effective analgesic for acute and chronic pain, including needle pain. Studies among the neonatal population are lacking. According to the Gate Control Theory, it is expected that applied mechanical vibration will have a summative effect with standard nonpharmacologic pain control strategies, reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses to heel lancing. To determine the safety and efficacy of mechanical vibration for relief of heel lance pain among neonates. In this parallel design randomized controlled trial, eligible enrolled term or term-corrected neonates (n = 56) in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit were randomized to receive either sucrose and swaddling or sucrose, swaddling, and vibration for heel lance analgesia. Vibration was applied using a handheld battery-powered vibrator (Norco MiniVibrator, Hz = 92) to the lateral aspect of the lower leg along the sural dermatome throughout the heel lance procedure. Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) scores, heart rate, and oxygen saturations were collected at defined intervals surrounding heel lancing. Infants in the vibration group (n = 30) had significantly lower N-PASS scores and more stable heart rates during heel stick (P = .006, P = .037) and 2 minutes after heel lance (P = .002, P = .016) than those in the nonvibration group. There were no adverse behavioral or physiologic responses to applied vibration in the sample. Applied mechanical vibration is a safe and effective method for managing heel lance pain. This pilot study suggests that mechanical vibration warrants further exploration as a nonpharmacologic pain management tool among the neonatal population.

  10. Comparison Of Medial Arch-Supporting Insoles And Heel Pads In The Treatment Of Plantar Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkoc Melih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantar fasciitis is a disorder caused by inflammation of the insertion point of the plantar fascia over the medial tubercle of the calcaneus. Foot orthotics are used to treat plantar fasciitis. Heel pads medialise the centre of force, whereas medial arch supporting insoles lateralise the force. We assessed the clinical results of the treatment of plantar fasciitis with silicone heel pads and medial arch-supported silicone insoles.

  11. Heel pain due to retrocalcaneal bursitis-radiographic diagnosis (with an historical footnote on Sever's disease)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneghan, M A; Wallace, T

    1985-02-01

    Retrocalcaneal bursitis is a distinct condition causing posterior heel pain in active, healthy children. It appears to result from post-traumatic inflammation of the soft tissues of the posterior heel, and is unrelated to avascular necrosis of the calcaneal apophysis. The diagnosis may be confirmed radiographically by the loss of the lucent retrocalcaneal recess, with a normal Achilles tendon and superficial soft tissue contour, and intact cortex of the underling os calcis.

  12. Development of inexpensive prosthetic feet for high-heeled shoes using simple shoe insole model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Margrit R; Tucker, Kerice A; Hansen, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    The large majority of prosthetic feet are aimed at low-heeled shoes, with a few models allowing a heel height of up to 5 cm. However, a survey by the American Podiatric Medical Association indicates that most women wear heels over 5 cm; thus, current prosthetic feet limit most female prosthesis users in their choice. Some prosthetic foot components are heel-height adjustable; however, their plantar surface shapes do not change to match the insole shapes of the shoes with different heel heights. The aims of the study were therefore (1) to develop a model that allows prediction of insole shape for various heel height shoes in combination with different shoe sizes and (2) to develop and field-test low-cost prototypes of prosthetic feet whose insole shapes were based on the new model. An equation was developed to calculate insole shapes independent of shoe size. Field testing of prototype prosthetic feet fabricated based on the equation was successful and demonstrated the utility of the equation.

  13. Heel effect adaptive flat field correction of digital x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yongjian [X-ray Products, Varian Medical Systems Inc., Liverpool, New York 13088 (United States); Wang, Jue [Department of Mathematics, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Anode heel effect renders large-scale background nonuniformities in digital radiographs. Conventional offset/gain calibration is performed at mono source-to-image distance (SID), and disregards the SID-dependent characteristic of heel effect. It results in a residual nonuniform background in the corrected radiographs when the SID settings for calibration and correction differ. In this work, the authors develop a robust and efficient computational method for digital x-ray detector gain correction adapted to SID-variant heel effect, without resorting to physical filters, phantoms, complicated heel effect models, or multiple-SID calibration and interpolation.Methods: The authors present the Duo-SID projection correction method. In our approach, conventional offset/gain calibrations are performed only twice, at the minimum and maximum SIDs of the system in typical clinical use. A fast iterative separation algorithm is devised to extract the detector gain and basis heel patterns from the min/max SID calibrations. The resultant detector gain is independent of SID, while the basis heel patterns are parameterized by the min- and max-SID. The heel pattern at any SID is obtained from the min-SID basis heel pattern via projection imaging principles. The system gain desired at a specific acquisition SID is then constructed using the projected heel pattern and detector gain map.Results: The method was evaluated for flat field and anatomical phantom image corrections. It demonstrated promising improvements over interpolation and conventional gain calibration/correction methods, lowering their correction errors by approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. The separation algorithm was able to extract the detector gain and heel patterns with less than 2% error, and the Duo-SID corrected images showed perceptually appealing uniform background across the detector.Conclusions: The Duo-SID correction method has substantially improved on conventional offset/gain corrections for

  14. Heel effect adaptive flat field correction of digital x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yongjian; Wang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Anode heel effect renders large-scale background nonuniformities in digital radiographs. Conventional offset/gain calibration is performed at mono source-to-image distance (SID), and disregards the SID-dependent characteristic of heel effect. It results in a residual nonuniform background in the corrected radiographs when the SID settings for calibration and correction differ. In this work, the authors develop a robust and efficient computational method for digital x-ray detector gain correction adapted to SID-variant heel effect, without resorting to physical filters, phantoms, complicated heel effect models, or multiple-SID calibration and interpolation.Methods: The authors present the Duo-SID projection correction method. In our approach, conventional offset/gain calibrations are performed only twice, at the minimum and maximum SIDs of the system in typical clinical use. A fast iterative separation algorithm is devised to extract the detector gain and basis heel patterns from the min/max SID calibrations. The resultant detector gain is independent of SID, while the basis heel patterns are parameterized by the min- and max-SID. The heel pattern at any SID is obtained from the min-SID basis heel pattern via projection imaging principles. The system gain desired at a specific acquisition SID is then constructed using the projected heel pattern and detector gain map.Results: The method was evaluated for flat field and anatomical phantom image corrections. It demonstrated promising improvements over interpolation and conventional gain calibration/correction methods, lowering their correction errors by approximately 70% and 80%, respectively. The separation algorithm was able to extract the detector gain and heel patterns with less than 2% error, and the Duo-SID corrected images showed perceptually appealing uniform background across the detector.Conclusions: The Duo-SID correction method has substantially improved on conventional offset/gain corrections for

  15. Non-contact evaluation of mechanical properties of electroplated wear resistant Ni-P layer from the velocity dispersion of laser SAW; Laser reiki Rayleigh ha no sokudo bunsan wo mochiita taimamo Ni-P mekkiso tokusei no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Y.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    We developed a new laser surface acoustic wave (SAW) system and applied this to estimate the mechanical properties of the wear-resistant Ni-P layer electroplated on a stainless steel. The velocity dispersions of Rayleigh wave of the as -plated and heat-treated Ni-P layer were obtained by the one point time domain signal processing. The Ni-P layers with excellent wear resistance produced by the heated treatment higher than 725K were found to show higher Rayleigh velocities than that of the substrate steel, while the Ni-P layer with poor wear resistance showed lower velocities. Young`s moduli of the Ni-P layer, estimated so as the computed velocity dispersion agreed with the measured one, increased with the increase of wear resistance. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Investigations on the visco-elastic behaviour of a human healthy heel pad: in vivo compression tests and numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, Chiara G.; Carniel, Emanuele L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic behaviour of the human heel pad by comparing the stress–relaxation curves obtained from a compression device used on an in vivo heel pad with those obtained from a threedimensional computer-based subject-specific heel pad model subjected...... numerical analyses were performed to interpret the mechanical response of heel tissues, with loading conditions and displacement rate in agreement with experimental tests. The heel tissues showed a non-linear, viscoelastic behaviour described by characteristic hysteretic curves, stress......–relaxation and viscous recovery phenomena. The reliability of the investigations was validated by the interpretation of the mechanical response of heel tissues under the application of three pistons with diameter of 15, 20 and 40 mm, at the same displacement rate of about 1.7 mm/s. The maximum and minimum relative...

  17. Heel-toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, John A; Horsch, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    It is important to understand the factors that influence the impact force observed during running, since the impact force is likely to be related to overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact force during running when participants were instructed to use different foot strike patterns: obvious heel strike (Obvious-HS), subtle heel strike (Subtle-HS), midfoot strike (Mid-FS), and fore foot strike (Fore-FS) patterns. Participants ( n  = 10, 25 ± 5.7 years, 70.2 ± 12.1 kg, 174.6 ± 7.2 cm) completed four foot strike patterns while running over ground: Obvious-HS, Subtle-HS, Mid-FS, and Fore-FS. Speed was controlled between conditions (random order). Vertical ground reaction forces were recorded (1000 Hz) along with the impact force, peak force, and stance time for analysis. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare each variable across foot strike instructions, with post hoc comparisons contrasting Obvious-HS to each of the other conditions. Impact force was influenced by foot strike instructions, with Obvious-HS being greater than Subtle-HS and Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The peak force was not influenced by foot strike instructions ( p  > 0.05); stance time was longer during Obvious-HS than during Mid-FS or Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.

  18. ENGINEERING DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HEEL TESTING EQUIPMENT IN THE EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF SAFE WALKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental test methods for the evaluation of the resistance of heels of ladies' shoes in the case of impact loads are fully defined by International Organization for Standardization (ISO procedures that indicate all the conditions of experiment. A first Standard (ISO 19553 specifies the test method for determining the strength of the heels in the case of single impact. The result offers a valuation of the liability to fail under the sporadic heavy blows. A second Standard (ISO 19556 details a method for testing the capability of heels of women' shoes to survive to the repetition of small impacts provoked by normal walking. These Standards strictly define the features for two different testing devices (with specific materials, geometries, weights, etc. and all the experimental procedures to be followed during tests. On the contrary, this paper describes the technical solutions adopted to design one single experimental device able to perform impact testing of heels in both conditions. Joining the accuracy of mechanic movements with the speed of an electronic control system, a new and flexible equipment for the complete characterization of heels respect to (single or fatigue impacts was developed. Moreover a new level of performances in experimental validation of heel resistance was introduced by the versatility of the user-defined software control programs, able to encode every complex time-depending cycle of impact loads. Dynamic simulations permitted to investigate the impacts on heel in different conditions of testing, optimizing the machine design. The complexity of real stresses on shoes during an ordinary walk and in other common situations (as going up and downstairs was considered for a proper dimensioning.

  19. Quantification of tritium ''heels'' and isotope exchange mechanisms in La-Ni-Al tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Formation of tritium heels in LANA (LaNi 5-x Al x ) 0.30 (x=0.30) and 0.75 tritides was quantified; size of the heel is dependent on storage and processing conditions. Absorption-desorption cycling of the tritide beds mitigates formation of the tritium heel and can reduce its size. The higher pressure material LANA 0.30 showed slower heel formation than LANA 0.75; this allows more tritium to be removed at the maximum processing temperature. In plant application, LANA 0.30 beds are used as compressors; except during compressor operation, their aging will be very slow. Tritium heel removal by D exchange was demonstrated. Absorption-desorption cycling during an exchange cycle does not improve the exchange efficiency. Residual tritium can be removed to very low levels. For a tritide bed scheduled for removal from the process, a final tritium level can be estimated based on the number of D exchange cycles. 13 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs

  20. The influence of a yacht's heeling stability on optimum sail design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneyd, A. D.; Sugimoto, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents fundamental results concerning the optimum design of yacht sails and masts. The aerodynamics of a high aspect ratio sail in uniform flow is analysed using lifting line theory to maximise thrust for a given sail area. The novel feature of this work is that thrust is optimised subject to the constraint that the aerodynamic heeling moment generated by the sail is balanced by the righting moment due to hull buoyancy (and the weight of the keel). Initially, the heel angle is therefore unknown, and determined as part of the solution process. Under the assumption of small heel angle, the problem reduces to minimising a quadratic form in the Fourier coefficients for the circulation distribution along the mast, and a simple analytic solution can be derived. It is found that if the mast is too high, the upper section is unused, and as a consequence there is a theoretically ideal mast height for a yacht of given heeling stability. Under the constraints of given sail area and heeling equilibrium it is found that no advantage is to be gained by allowing reverse circulation near the top of the mast. Various implications for yacht performance are discussed.

  1. Oral sucrose for heel lance enhances adenosine triphosphate use in preterm neonates with respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Danilyn M; Asmerom, Yayesh; Boskovic, Danilo S; Slater, Laurel; Bacot-Carter, Sharon; Bahjri, Khaled; Mukasa, Joseph; Holden, Megan; Fayard, Elba

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of oral sucrose on procedural pain, and on biochemical markers of adenosine triphosphate utilization and oxidative stress in preterm neonates with mild to moderate respiratory distress. Preterm neonates with a clinically required heel lance that met study criteria (n = 49) were randomized into three groups: (1) control (n = 24), (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking (n = 15) and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and non-nutritive sucking (n = 10). Plasma markers of adenosine triphosphate degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured using the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance, chi-square and one-way analysis of variance. We found that in preterm neonates who were intubated and/or were receiving ⩾30% FiO2, a single dose of oral sucrose given before a heel lance significantly increased markers of adenosine triphosphate use. We found that oral sucrose enhanced adenosine triphosphate use in neonates who were intubated and/or were receiving ⩾30% FiO2. Although oral sucrose decreased pain scores, our data suggest that it also increased energy use as evidenced by increased plasma markers of adenosine triphosphate utilization. These effects of sucrose, specifically the fructose component, on adenosine triphosphate metabolism warrant further investigation.

  2. Oral sucrose for heel lance increases adenosine triphosphate use and oxidative stress in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Yayesh; Slater, Laurel; Boskovic, Danilo S; Bahjri, Khaled; Holden, Megan S; Phillips, Raylene; Deming, Douglas; Ashwal, Stephen; Fayard, Elba; Angeles, Danilyn M

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effects of sucrose on pain and biochemical markers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation and oxidative stress in preterm neonates experiencing a clinically required heel lance. Preterm neonates that met study criteria (n = 131) were randomized into 3 groups: (1) control; (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking; and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and non-nutritive sucking. Plasma markers of ATP degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured with the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Data were analyzed by the use of repeated-measures ANOVA and Spearman rho. We found significant increases in plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid over time in neonates who received sucrose. We also found a significant negative correlation between pain scores and plasma allantoin concentration in a subgroup of neonates who received sucrose. A single dose of oral sucrose, given before heel lance, significantly increased ATP use and oxidative stress in premature neonates. Because neonates are given multiple doses of sucrose per day, randomized trials are needed to examine the effects of repeated sucrose administration on ATP degradation, oxidative stress, and cell injury. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of valgus heel position on foot loading in a child's gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Martinásková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flat foot is a typical clinical sign in childhood, expressed as valgus positioning of the heel during vertical foot loading. This may lead to medial deviation of the foot axis and cause overloading of some foot areas. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of valgus position of the heel (both bilateral and unilateral on foot loading during gait. METHODS: An experimental group consisting of children with bilateral heel valgus deformity (16 children, age 5.3 ± 1.3 years and children with unilateral heel valgus deformity (14 children, age 5.6 ± 1.6 years. The control group comprised of 14 children (age 4.5 ± 1.2 years. For measuring foot loading during gait, the Footscan (RSScan International, Olen, Belgium pressure plate was used. Each subject went through 8 trials of gait measurement. From each trial, 8 foot areas were evaluated. Data processing with mean values for each subject was performed by non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, Spearman correlation in the STATISTICA programme (StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, USA. RESULTS: Pressure peak and pressure impulse in the first metatarsal was greater for the bilateral valgus group (p CONCLUSION: The results show that valgus positioning of the heel influences foot loading in children during gait. The findings of this study suggest the necessity of a complex solution to the problem of preventing further progression of pathological changes.

  4. Solid Phase Characterization Of Heel Samples From Tank 241-C-110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, J.S.; Cooke, G.A.; Pestovich, J.A.; Huber, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    During sluicing operations of tank 241-C-110, a significant amount of solids were unable to be retrieved. These solids (often referred to as the tank 'heel') were sampled in 2010 and chemically and mineralogically analyzed in the 222-S Laboratory. Additionally, dissolution tests were performed to identify the amount of undissolvable material after using multiple water contacts. This report covers the solid phase characterization of six samples from these tests using scanning electron microscopy, polarized light microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The chemical analyses, particle size distribution analysis, and dissolution test results are reported separately. Two of the samples were from composites created from as-received material - Composite A and Composite B. The main phase in these samples was sodium-fluoride-phosphate hydrate (natrophosphate) - in the X-ray diffraction spectra, this phase was the only phase identifiable. Polarized light microscopy showed the presence of minor amounts of gibbsite and other phases. These phases were identified by scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as sodium aluminosilicates, sodium diuranate, and sodium strontium phosphate hydrate (nastrophite) crystals. The natrophosphate crystals in the scanning electron microscopy analysis showed a variety of erosive and dissolution features from perfectly shaped octahedral to well-rounded appearance. Two samples were from water-washed Composites A and B, with no change in mineralogy compared to the as-received samples. This is not surprising, since the water wash had only a short period of water contact with the material as opposed to the water dissolution tests. The last two samples were residual solids from the water dissolution tests. These tests included multiple additions of water at 15 C and 45 C. The samples were sieved to separate a coarser fraction of > 710 μm and a finer fraction of < 710 μm. These two fractions were analyzed separately. The coarser

  5. Gait training reduces ankle joint stiffness and facilitates heel strike in children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    and facilitate heel strike in children with CP? METHODS: Seventeen children with CP (4-14 years) were recruited. Muscle stiffness and gait ability were measured twice before and twice after training with an interval of one month. Passive and reflex-mediated stiffness were measured by a dynamometer which applied...... in stiffness following training (P = 0.01). Toe lift in the swing phase (P = 0.014) and heel impact (P = 0.003) increased significantly following the training during both treadmill and over-ground walking. CONCLUSIONS: Daily intensive gait training may influence the elastic properties of ankle joint muscles...... and facilitate toe lift and heel strike in children with CP. Intensive gait training may be beneficial in preventing contractures and maintain gait ability in children with CP....

  6. Analysis of foot kinematics wearing high heels using the Oxford foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizi; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien Steven

    2018-04-29

    Wearing high heels is thought to lead to various foot disorders and injuries such as metatarsal pain, Achilles tendon tension, plantar fasciitis and Haglund malformation. However, there is little available information explaining the specific mechanisms and reasons why wearing high heels causes foot deformity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the foot kinematics of high heel wearers and compare any differences with barefoot individuals using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Fifteen healthy women aged 20-25 years were measured while walking barefoot and when wearing high heels. The peak value of angular motion for the hallux with respect to the forefoot, the forefoot with respect to the hind foot, and the hind foot with respect to the tibia were all analyzed. Compared to the barefoot, participants wearing high heels demonstrated larger hallux dorsiflexion (22.55∘± 1.62∘ VS 26.6∘± 2.33∘ for the barefoot; P= 0.001), and less hallux plantarflexion during the initial stance phase (-4.86∘± 2.32∘ VS -8.68∘± 1.13∘; Pfoot demonstrated a larger dorsiflexion in the horizontal plane (16.59∘± 1.69∘ VS 12.08∘± 0.9∘; Pfoot extension rotation (-5.49∘± 0.69∘ VS -10.73∘± 0.42∘; P= 0.001). These findings complement existing kinematic evidence that wearing high heels can lead to foot deformities and injuries.

  7. The role of bone scintigraphy in determining the etiology of heel pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, H.; Soyuncu, Y.; Urguden, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the role of bone scintigraphy as an objective diagnostic method in patients with heel pain. Sixty-seven heels of 50 of 182 patients with defined features who attended the orthopedics outpatient clinic with heel pain over a 3-year period, were treated with combined methods such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and contrast baths, stretching exercises and changing of footwear habits. A one year follow-up was established. The criteria identified by Wolgin et al. were used in assessing the results of the treatment. Subcalcaneal spur was demonstrated by radiography in 44 of the 67 heels. There were two different imaging patterns observed on three phase bone scintigraphy. Type I imaging pattern: Focal increased activity in the heel region or normal activity on dynamic and the blood pool phases and focal increased activity at the inferior calcaneal surface in the late static phase. Type II imaging pattern: Diffuse increased activity along the plantar fascia in the dynamic and the blood pool phase, and focal increased activity at the inferior calcaneal surface in the late static phase. There were 34 (50.7%) type I and 18 (26.8%) type II imaging patterns on the scans. Type I and type II imaging patterns were described as osseous and fascial respectively. At the final examination, the results for pattern type I were good in 16 patients (66.7%), fair in 6 patients (25%) and poor in 2 patients (8.3%), whereas in pattern type II results were good in 12 patients (80%) and fair in 3 patients (20%). The recurrence frequency was 4.1% and 6.6%, respectively. Subcalcaneal spur was determined in 70.5% of the patients with osseous pathology and 55.5% of the patients with fascial pathology. Based on this result, it can be ascertained that calcaneal spurs develop during the pathological process causing heel pain. Other findings supporting this claim were the differences in symptom periods of the patients with type I and type II imaging

  8. The role of bone scintigraphy in determining the etiology of heel pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, H.; Soyuncu, Y.; Urguden, M. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Medical School; Ozdemir, A. [General State Hospital, Antalya (Turkey)

    2002-09-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the role of bone scintigraphy as an objective diagnostic method in patients with heel pain. Sixty-seven heels of 50 of 182 patients with defined features who attended the orthopedics outpatient clinic with heel pain over a 3-year period, were treated with combined methods such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and contrast baths, stretching exercises and changing of footwear habits. A one year follow-up was established. The criteria identified by Wolgin et al. were used in assessing the results of the treatment. Subcalcaneal spur was demonstrated by radiography in 44 of the 67 heels. There were two different imaging patterns observed on three phase bone scintigraphy. Type I imaging pattern: Focal increased activity in the heel region or normal activity on dynamic and the blood pool phases and focal increased activity at the inferior calcaneal surface in the late static phase. Type II imaging pattern: Diffuse increased activity along the plantar fascia in the dynamic and the blood pool phase, and focal increased activity at the inferior calcaneal surface in the late static phase. There were 34 (50.7%) type I and 18 (26.8%) type II imaging patterns on the scans. Type I and type II imaging patterns were described as osseous and fascial respectively. At the final examination, the results for pattern type I were good in 16 patients (66.7%), fair in 6 patients (25%) and poor in 2 patients (8.3%), whereas in pattern type II results were good in 12 patients (80%) and fair in 3 patients (20%). The recurrence frequency was 4.1% and 6.6%, respectively. Subcalcaneal spur was determined in 70.5% of the patients with osseous pathology and 55.5% of the patients with fascial pathology. Based on this result, it can be ascertained that calcaneal spurs develop during the pathological process causing heel pain. Other findings supporting this claim were the differences in symptom periods of the patients with type I and type II imaging

  9. Initial studies on the variations of load-displacement curves of in vivo human healthy heel pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Virga, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify on the measurement variation of in vivo load-displacement curves by using a group of human healthy heel pads. The recordings were done with a compression device measuring force and displacement. Twenty three heel pads, one from each of 23 subjects aged 20...

  10. Solar Cels With Reduced Contact Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.; Kachare, A. H.; Lewis, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells increased about 20 percent using smaller metal-contact area on silicon at front and back of each cell. Reduction in contact area reduces surface recombination velocity under contact and thus reduces reverse saturation current and increases opencircuit voltage..

  11. The effect of local heat on term neonates pain intensity during heel-blood sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GHobadi Mohebi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Newborns are more sensitive to pain than adults and are more susceptible to the long-term complications of pain. So, it is necessary to use procedures for reducing pain in newborns. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of local heat on the pain intensity of heel-blood sampling in the term newborns. Material & Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study, in 2012, 63 healthy 3 to 5-day newborns who were referred to Shahid Delkhah Health Center in Ferdows were selected by random sampling method and randomly divided into 3 groups (21 people in each group: test (heat, placebo (sound and control. The pain intensity of newborns before, during and after heel-blood sampling was evaluated. The data collection tools were demographic questionnaire and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14.5 software and chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test, and ANOVA with repeated observations. Finding: The mean pain intensity in the three groups was not significantly different before intervention (p=0.86, but the mean pain intensity was lower in the test group than in the other two groups (p=0.006. After heel-blood sampling, the mean pain intensity was the least in the test group and was the most in the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Local heat during and after heel blood sampling decreases pain intensity in the term newborns.

  12. Efficacy of foot orthoses for the treatment of plantar heel pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasenberg, Nadine; Riel, Henrik; Rathleff, Michael S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plantar heel pain (PHP) is common. Foot orthoses are often applied as treatment for PHP, even though there is little evidence to support this. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different orthoses on pain, function and self-reported recovery in patients with PHP and compare them...

  13. Rare nodular malignant melanoma of the heel in the Caribbean: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Sookdeo, Vandana Devika; Umakanthan, Srikanth; Sarran, Kevin; Pran, Lemuel; Fortuné, Maurice; Greaves, Wesley; Narinesingh, Sharda; Harnanan, Dave; Maharaj, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the heel is a rare melanoma subtype with incidence rates that reflect the complex relationship between sun exposure at certain geographic locations, individual melanin levels and overall melanoma risk. It is oftentimes characterized by poor prognosis because of delays in presentation resulting in longitudinal tumor invasion, lymph node involvement and metastasis. A 59-year-old woman was admitted to the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Trinidad and Tobago with a 5mm pruritic lesion on her left heel. At presentation, the lesion was asymmetric with border irregularities, color heterogeneity, with dynamics in elevation and overall size. She was subsequently diagnosed with malignant melanoma with left inguinal lymphadenopathy. A single stage wide local excision (WLE) of the left heel lesion with a split-thickness skin graft (STSG) and a left inguinal lymphadenectomy were performed. Dacarbazine (Bayer) was administered post operatively. Globally, the incidence of malignant melanoma is rapidly increasing, particularly, in countries like Trinidad and Tobago with a significant population of non-fair skinned individuals. There is need for strategic initiatives to increase patient adherence in these populations. The rarity of malignant heel melanomas heightens the need for increased patient awareness and greater clinical surveillance to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanics of toe and heel landing in stepping down in ongoing gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Spanjaard, M.; Konemann, R.; Bron, L.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    When stepping down from a height difference in ongoing gait, subjects are known to use a heel landing at small height differences and switch to toe landing for larger height differences. We hypothesized that in toe landing, the leading leg can perform more negative work, to control the momentum

  15. Mechanical analysis of the landing phase in heel-toe running

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; Yeadon, Maurice R.; Nigg, Benno M.

    1992-01-01

    Results of mechanical analyses of running may be helpful in the search for the etiology of running injuries. In this study a mechanical analysis was made of the landing phase of three trained heel-toe runners, running at their preferred speed and style. The body was modeled as a system of seven

  16. Laminitis and interdigital dermatitis and heel horn erosion. A European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterse, D J

    1985-03-01

    Laminitis is one of the most important claw disorders in dairy herds. Nutrition, calving, burdening of the lateral claw of the rear feet, and hereditary susceptibility are all contributing factors. Interdigital dermatitis in cattle may be a result of infection by Bacteroides nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. If this infection becomes chronic, heel horn erosion is its consequence.

  17. Feasibility of Quantitative Ultrasound Measurement of the Heel Bone in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, S.; Lobker, B.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2010-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures are common in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Reduced mobility in case of motor impairment and the use of anti-epileptic drugs contribute to the development of low BMD. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement of the heel bone is a non-invasive and radiation-free method for measuring bone…

  18. Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 Heel Slurry Samples PSD Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of INTEC Tank Farm WM-182 and WM-183 heel slurry samples were performed using a modified Horiba LA-300 PSD analyzer at the RAL facility. There were two types of testing performed: typical PSD analysis, and setting rate testing. Although the heel slurry samples were obtained from two separate vessels, the particle size distribution results were quite similar. The slurry solids were from approximately a minimum particle size of 0.5 mm to a maximum of 230 mm with about 90% of the material between 2-to-133 mm, and the cumulative 50% value at approximately 20 mm. This testing also revealed that high frequency sonication with an ultrasonic element may break-up larger particles in the WM-182 and WM-183 tank from heel slurries. This finding represents useful information regarding ultimate tank heel waste processing. Settling rate testing results were also fairly consistent with material from both vessels in that it appears that most of the mass of solids settle to an agglomerated, yet easily redispersed layer at the bottom. A dispersed and suspended material remained in the ''clear'' layer above the settled layer after about one-half an hour of settling time. This material had a statistical mode of approximately 5 mm and a maximum particle size of 30 mm

  19. Implementation guide for Hanford Tanks Initiative C-106 heel retrieval contract management HNF-2511

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, L.B.

    1998-01-01

    This report is an Implementation Guide for Hanford Tanks Initiative C-106 heel retrieval contract management HNF-2511 to provide a set of uniform instructions for managing the two contractors selected. The primary objective is to produce the necessary deliverables and services for the HTI project within schedule and budget

  20. TARDEC FIXED HEEL POINT (FHP): DRIVER CAD ACCOMMODATION MODEL VERIFICATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-09

    Public Release Disclaimer: Reference herein to any specific commercial company, product , process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer , or...not actively engaged HSI until MSB or the Engineering Manufacturing and Development (EMD) Phase, resulting in significant design and cost changes...and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. TARDEC Fixed Heel Point (FHP): Driver CAD Accommodation Model Verification

  1. A prospective cohort study of prognostic factors for the healing of heel pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Elizabeth; Greenwood, Darren C; Nelson, E Andrea; Nixon, Jane

    2014-03-01

    pressure ulcers, 25-30% of which are on the heels are a major burden to patients and healthcare systems. A better understanding of factors associated with healing is required to inform treatment and research priorities. to identify patient and pressure ulcer characteristics associated with the healing of heel pressure ulcers. patients with heel pressure ulcers were recruited to a prospective cohort study in a large teaching hospital in the UK, with a maximum 18-month follow-up. Cox proportional hazards model regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors for healing. one hundred and forty of 148 patients recruited were analysed. They had 183 pressure ulcers: 77 ulcers healed, 5 were on limbs amputated prior to ulcer healing, 88 were on patients who died prior to healing, 11 were present at the end of the study and 2 were lost to follow-up. The median time to healing was 121 (range 8-440) days. Of 12 variables associated with healing (P ≤ 0.2), multi-variable analysis identified two factors which were independently predictive of healing including the presence of a severe (versus superficial) ulcer (hazard ratio = 0.48, P ulcer severity and the presence of peripheral arterial disease significantly reduced the probability of healing. Treatments for heel pressure ulcers should consider the severity of the ulcer and the presence of peripheral arterial disease.

  2. Moving characteristics of single file passengers considering the effect of ship trim and heeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinlu; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Ma, Jian; Xie, Qimiao

    2018-01-01

    Ship listing and motion affects the movement pattern of passengers on board, thus pedestrian traffic and evacuation dynamics would be significantly different from those on level ground. To quantify the influence of ship listing and motion on passenger evacuation, we designed a ship corridor simulator, with which we performed single-file pedestrian movement experiments considering the effect of trim and heeling. Results indicated that density is not the only factor that affects pedestrian speed under ship trim or heeling conditions, for that both individual walking speed and group walking speed would be greatly attenuated due to the influence of the trim angles. However, heeling angles show less impact on speed when compared with trim angles. In addition, the speed correlation coefficient between the adjacent experimental subjects would be higher with larger angles and lower speed. Moreover, both female and male experimental subjects need similar distance headway for walking in different trim or heeling conditions. Furthermore, experimental subjects with lower individual walking speed need longer time headway to keep enough distance headway. This work will provide fundamental guidance to the development of evacuation models and the design of evacuation facilities on board.

  3. Effect of medial arch-heel support in inserts on reducing ankle eversion: a biomechanics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Patrick SH

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive pronation (or eversion at ankle joint in heel-toe running correlated with lower extremity overuse injuries. Orthotics and inserts are often prescribed to limit the pronation range to tackle the problem. Previous studies revealed that the effect is product-specific. This study investigated the effect of medial arch-heel support in inserts on reducing ankle eversion in standing, walking and running. Methods Thirteen pronators and 13 normal subjects participated in standing, walking and running trials in each of the following conditions: (1 barefoot, and shod condition with insert with (2 no, (3 low, (4 medium, and (5 high medial arch-heel support. Motions were captured and processed by an eight-camera motion capture system. Maximum ankle eversion was calculated by incorporating the raw coordinates of 15 anatomical positions to a self-compiled Matlab program with kinematics equations. Analysis of variance with repeated measures with post-hoc Tukey pairwise comparisons was performed on the data among the five walking conditions and the five running conditions separately. Results Results showed that the inserts with medial arch-heel support were effective in dynamics trials but not static trials. In walking, they successfully reduced the maximum eversion by 2.1 degrees in normal subjects and by 2.5–3.0 degrees in pronators. In running, the insert with low medial arch support significantly reduced maximum eversion angle by 3.6 and 3.1 degrees in normal subjects and pronators respectively. Conclusion Medial arch-heel support in inserts is effective in reducing ankle eversion in walking and running, but not in standing. In walking, there is a trend to bring the over-pronated feet of the pronators back to the normal eversion range. In running, it shows an effect to restore normal eversion range in 84% of the pronators.

  4. Trial of Music, Sucrose, and Combination Therapy for Pain Relief during Heel Prick Procedures in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Swapnil R; Kadage, Shahajahan; Sinn, John

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of music, oral sucrose, and combination therapy for pain relief in neonates undergoing a heel prick procedure. This randomized, controlled, blinded crossover clinical trial included stable neonates >32 weeks of postmenstrual age. Each neonate crossed over to all 3 interventions in random order during consecutive heel pricks. A video camera on mute mode recorded facial expressions, starting 2 minutes before until 7 minutes after the heel prick. The videos were later analyzed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R) scale once per minute by 2 independent assessors, blinded to the intervention. The PIPP-R scores were compared between treatment groups using Friedman test. For the 35 participants, the postmenstrual age was 35 weeks (SD, 2.3) with an average weight of 2210 g (SD, 710). The overall median PIPP-R scores following heel prick over 6 minutes were 4 (IQR 0-6), 3 (IQR 0-6), and 1 (IQR 0-3) for the music, sucrose, and combination therapy interventions, respectively. The PIPP-R scores were significantly lower at all time points after combination therapy compared with the groups given music or sucrose alone. There was no difference in PIPP-R scores between the music and sucrose groups. In relatively stable and mature neonates, the combination of music therapy with sucrose provided better pain relief during heel prick than when sucrose or music was used alone. Recorded music in isolation had a similar effect to the current gold standard of oral sucrose. www.anzctr.org.au ACTRN12615000271505. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziak Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  6. Effect of shoe heel height on vastus medialis and vastus lateralis electromyographic activity during sit to stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgson David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that high-heeled shoes may contribute to the development and progression of knee pain. However, surprisingly little research has been carried out on how shoe heel height affects muscle activity around the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of differing heel height on the electromyographic (EMG activity in vastus medialis (VM and vastus lateralis (VL during a sit to stand activity. This was an exploratory study to inform future research. Methods A repeated measures design was used. Twenty five healthy females carried out a standardised sit to stand activity under 4 conditions; barefoot, and with heel wedges of 1, 3, and 5 cm in height. EMG activity was recorded from VM and VL during the activity. Data were analysed using 1 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA. Results Average rectified EMG activity differed with heel height in both VM (F2.2, 51.7 = 5.24, p 3, 72 = 5.32, p 3, 72 = 0.61, p = 0.609. Conclusion We found that as heel height increased, there was an increase in EMG activity in both VM and VL, but no change in the relative EMG intensity of VM and VL as measured by the VM: VL ratio. This showed that no VM: VL imbalance was elicited. This study provides information that will inform future research on how heel height affects muscle activity around the knee joint.

  7. Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gu Hwa; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Joon Po; Jeong, Hee Tae; Lee, Eui Wan

    2002-01-01

    A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.

  8. LANL Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    : (505) 665-3664 ethics@lanl.gov Journalist queries Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Media contacts programs and employee resources. General Employee directory Emergency communication Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Ethics & Audits Internal Audit: (505) 665-3104 Ethics Office: (505) 667-7506 Fax

  9. EM-31 Retrieval Knowledge Center Meeting Report: Mobilize And Dislodge Tank Waste Heels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Retrieval Knowledge Center sponsored a meeting in June 2009 to review challenges and gaps to retrieval of tank waste heels. The facilitated meeting was held at the Savannah River Research Campus with personnel broadly representing tank waste retrieval knowledge at Hanford, Savannah River, Idaho, and Oak Ridge. This document captures the results of this meeting. In summary, it was agreed that the challenges to retrieval of tank waste heels fell into two broad categories: (1) mechanical heel waste retrieval methodologies and equipment and (2) understanding and manipulating the heel waste (physical, radiological, and chemical characteristics) to support retrieval options and subsequent processing. Recent successes and lessons from deployments of the Sand and Salt Mantis vehicles as well as retrieval of C-Area tanks at Hanford were reviewed. Suggestions to address existing retrieval approaches that utilize a limited set of tools and techniques are included in this report. The meeting found that there had been very little effort to improve or integrate the multiple proven or new techniques and tools available into a menu of available methods for rapid insertion into baselines. It is recommended that focused developmental efforts continue in the two areas underway (low-level mixing evaluation and pumping slurries with large solid materials) and that projects to demonstrate new/improved tools be launched to outfit tank farm operators with the needed tools to complete tank heel retrievals effectively and efficiently. This document describes the results of a meeting held on June 3, 2009 at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina to identify technology gaps and potential technology solutions to retrieving high-level waste (HLW) heels from waste tanks within the complex of sites run by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The meeting brought together personnel with extensive tank waste retrieval knowledge from DOE's four major waste sites - Hanford, Savannah River

  10. [Reconstruction of the heel in a two-year-old boy after lawn mower injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, R; Albrecht, J; Schnettler, R; von Pichler, M

    2012-04-01

    Lawn mower injuries in children usually involve the lower extremities and can lead to serious amputation injuries. Treatment should look not only at the acute reconstruction, but also on maintaining the ability to grow. We report the case of a two-year-old boy with amputation of the heel. The boy was run over by a lawn mower. He suffered a complete loss of heel soft tissue, 30 % of the os calcis and the Achilles tendon. The one-stage reconstruction was performed by transplantation of an iliac crest graft, fascia lata to reconstruct the Achilles tendon and a microvascular latissimus dorsi flap. After one year, the functional and cosmetic result is excellent, the bone graft is healed completely and shows growth trends. The successful treatment of such a severe amputation injury requires the interdisciplinary cooperation between paediatric traumatologists, plastic surgeons, physical therapists and orthopaedic shoemaker. The result justifies the great effort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Interdigital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and digital dermatitis in 14 Norwegian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, M.; Gilhuus, M.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess infectious foot diseases, including identification and characterization of Dichelobacter nodosus and Treponema spp., in herds having problems with interdigital dermatitis (ID) and heel horn erosion (E) and in control herds expected to have few problems. We also......, with a prevalence of 50.4% in problem herds compared with 26.8% in control herds. Heel horn erosion was recorded in 34.8% of the cows in problem herds compared with 22.1% in control herds. Dichelobacter nodosus was detected in 97.1% of the cows with ID, in 36.4% with E, in all cows with both ID and E, in all cows...

  12. Sciatic nerve block causing heel ulcer after total knee replacement in 36 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todkar, Manoj

    2005-12-01

    Femoral and sciatic nerve blocks are often used for postoperative analgesia following total knee replacement surgery. In this report, we focus on cases of heel ulcers which occurred following the implementation of peripheral nerve block in concert with knee replacement surgery. In some instances, heel ulcers have resulted in delayed rehabilitation and prolonged hospital stays in this group of patients, which makes this phenomenon a potential burden on the healthcare system. Pressure points in the foot should be protected after the implementation of nerve blocks to prevent pressure sores. An awareness of this unusual complication related to knee replacement surgery is necessary to prevent its occurrence and avoid delays in patient rehabilitation and recovery.

  13. An exploration of emergency department presentations related to high heel footwear in Victoria, Australia, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cylie M; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-23

    Many women are warned against the dangers of wearing high heel footwear however there is limited empirical evidence demonstrating an association between wearing high heel with injury. Gait laboratory testing has found a higher heel height placed the foot in a position that increases the risk of ankle sprain. Women have also been surveyed about wearing high heels and approximately half of those reported inconvenience and pain after wearing a high heel shoe. This study aims to explore emergency department presentations of injuries and the estimated costs that have been directly attributed to wearing high heeled footwear within Victoria, Australia during 2006-2010. The Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD) was searched for all injuries attributed to wearing high heel footwear presenting to emergency departments in Victoria Australia, between the years of 2006-2010. The VEMD produced a report detailing sex, age at presentation, month of presentation, time of day of presentation, day of presentation, location that injury occurred and type of injury for presentation. Monash Health in Victoria Australia, provided emergency department estimates for injury types to calculate an estimated cost of an acute injury related to wearing high heel footwear. There were 240 injuries presenting to Victorian emergency departments directly attributed to wearing high heeled footwear. The majority of people injured were women (n = 236) and all were less than 55 years of age. More injuries presented on a Sunday (n = 83) and more in the 8 am-12 pm time bracket (n = 64). There were also more injuries presenting in the months of November, December and January (n = 80). The most commonly injured body part was the ankle (n = 123). The emergency department estimate of the cost of these injuries over this time-frame was almost $72,000 (mean of $316.72 per presentation). People who wear high heel footwear on weekends appear to be at higher risk for injury that leads to

  14. The Effect of Swaddling on Pain, Vital Signs, and Crying Duration during Heel Lance in Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkut, Zeynep; Yildiz, Suzan

    2017-10-01

    To determine the effect of swaddling on pain, vital signs, and crying duration during heel lance in the newborn. This was a randomized controlled study of 74 (control: 37, experiment: 37) newborns born between December 2013 and February 2014 at the Ministry of Health Bagcılar Training and Research Hospital. An information form, observation form, and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale were used as data collection tools. Data from the pain scores, peak heart rates, oxygen saturation, total crying time, and duration of the procedure were collected using a video camera. Newborns in the control group underwent routine heel lance, whereas newborns in the experimental group underwent routine heel lance while being swaddled by the researcher. The newborns' pain scores, peak heart rates, oxygen saturation values, and crying durations were evaluated using video recordings made before, during, and 1, 2, and 3 minutes after the procedure. Pain was assessed by a nurse and the researcher. No statistically significant difference was found in the characteristics of the two groups (p > .05). The mean pain scores of swaddled newborns during and after the procedure were lower than the nonswaddled newborns (p  .05). Although there was no significant difference in oxygen saturation values before and during the procedure (p > .05), oxygen saturation values of swaddled newborns were higher afterward (p < .05). For this study sample, swaddling was an effective nonpharmacologic method to help reduce pain and crying in an effort to soothe newborns. Although pharmacologic pain management is the gold standard, swaddling can be recommended as a complementary therapy for newborns during painful procedures. Swaddling is a quick and simple nonpharmacologic method that can be used by nurses to help reduce heel stick pain in newborns. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LIPOMA OF THE HEEL: A COMMON BENIGN TUMOR OVER UNCOMMON SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoma is a universal benign tumour which is uncommon in foot and especially in sole region. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of foot lesions. A case of lipoma of heel of five years duration in a 48 year s old housewife is described in which FNAC was inconclusive. However findings of imaging studies suggested diagnosis of lipoma w hich was confirmed on histopathological examination of the excised mass. Literature has been reviewed emphasising rarity of site lesion.

  16. [Ulceration of the heel in a woman from Djibouti: squamous cell carcinoma with carcinomatous lymphangitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, A; Massoure, P L; Menguy, P; Lamblin, G; Eve, O; Morand, J J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a case in which a heel ulcer with atypical features, i.e., large size and rapid progression, led to diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. Patient management was based on specialist advice obtained by "tele-dermatology" based on pictures and comments transmitted over the Internet. However, due to the risk of spreading and impossibility of providing other medical treatment (radiotherapy-chemotherapy), the lower limb was amputated at the top of the thigh.

  17. Effect of Mozart music on heel prick pain in preterm infants: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cavaiuolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of music by Mozart on heel prick procedural pain in premature infants.Background: Painful procedures are routinely performed in the setting of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Pain may exert short- and long-term deleterious effects on premature babies. Many non-pharmacological interventions have been proven efficacious for blunting neonatal pain.Study design: Randomized, controlled trial.Methods: The study was carried out in the NICU of the “G. Rummo” Hospital in Benevento, Italy. The sample consisted of 42 preterm infants, with no hearing loss or significant cerebral lesions on cranial ultrasound. They were randomized to receive heel lance during a music condition or a no-music control condition. We set strict criteria for selecting and delivering the music. Baseline and postprocedural heart rate and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were manually recorded. The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP score was used to measure the behavioral response to prick. An unpaired t-test was performed for the intergroup comparisons.Results: There were significant differences between groups on heart rate increase, oxygen saturation reduction and PIPP score following the procedure.Conclusions: Listening to Mozart music during heel prick is a simple and inexpensive tool for pain alleviating in preterm stable neonates.

  18. Subepidermal moisture detection of heel pressure injury: The pressure ulcer detection study outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates-Jensen, Barbara M; McCreath, Heather E; Nakagami, Gojiro; Patlan, Anabel

    2018-04-01

    We examined subepidermal moisture (SEM) and visual skin assessment of heel pressure injury (PrI) among 417 nursing home residents in 19 facilities over 16 weeks. Participants were older (mean age 77 years), 58% were female, over half were ethnic minorities (29% African American, 12% Asian American, 21% Hispanic), and at risk for PrI (mean Braden Scale Risk score = 15.6). Blinded concurrent visual assessments and SEM measurements were obtained at heels weekly. Visual skin damage was categorised as normal, erythema, stage 1 PrI, deep tissue injury (DTI) or stage 2 or greater PrI. PrI incidence was 76%. Off-loading occurred with pillows (76% of residents) rather than heel boots (21%) and often for those with DTI (91%). Subepidermal moisture was measured with a device where higher readings indicate greater moisture (range: 0-70 tissue dielectric constant), with normal skin values significantly different from values in the presence of skin damage. Subepidermal moisture was associated with concurrent damage and damage 1 week later in generalised multinomial logistic models adjusting for age, diabetes and function. Subepidermal moisture detected DTI and differentiated those that resolved, remained and deteriorated over 16 weeks. Subepidermal moisture may be an objective method for detecting PrI. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The effect of nesting positions on pain, stress and comfort during heel lance in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Ayşe; Başbakkal, Zümrüt; Yalaz, Mehmet; Sözmen, Eser Y

    2017-11-13

    Nesting positions are commonly used in procedural analgesic administration in premature neonates. The effectiveness of nesting positions is questioned. The aim of the this study was to assess the pain, stress, comfort and salivary cortisol and melatonin values in nesting positions during the heel lance procedure in premature infants at the NICU. Experimental research; repeated measurement design. The sample comprised 33 premature neonates with gestational age of 31-35 weeks who had been hospitalized in the NICU. Nesting positions were given using linen or towels. The procedure of heel lance was recorded on camera. The camera recordings were evaluated according to the NIPS and the COMFORTneo scale. Saliva samples were obtained five minutes prior to and 30 min after the heel lance procedure. Salivary Cortisol and Melatonin were measured using the Salimetrics Cortisol Elisa Kit and the Salimetrics Melatonin Elisa Kit. The crying time, the mean NIPS score, the COMFORTneo score, the COMFORTneo NRS-pain scores and the COMFORTneo NRS-distress scores for premature neonates who were in the prone position during the procedure were significantly lower than the scores in the supine position (p lance procedure had significantly decreased in the prone position; however, there were insignificant differences in the mean levels of salivary melatonin between the positions. Nesting in the prone position has a pain reducing effect, enhancing comfort and reducing stress in premature infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Analgesic effect of breast milk versus sucrose for analgesia during heel lance in late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonse, Eva; Mulder, Paul G H; van Beek, Ron H T

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this trial was to investigate whether breast milk (either breastfed or bottle-fed) has a better analgesic effect than sucrose in newborns born at a postmenstrual age between 32 and 37 weeks. We conducted a randomized controlled trial at a secondary care neonatal unit in the Netherlands on 71 preterm neonates (postmenstrual age at birth 32-37 weeks), undergoing heel lance with an automated piercing device. Newborns were randomly assigned to breast milk (either breastfed or bottle-fed) administered during heel lance or oral sucrose administered before heel lance. We assessed the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score (range, 0-21) to investigate whether there was a difference in pain score between neonates receiving breast milk and those receiving sucrose solution. There was no significant difference in mean PIPP score between neonates receiving breast milk (6.1) and those receiving sucrose (5.5), with a mean difference of 0.6 (95% confidence interval -1.6 to 2.8; P = .58). From this study, it cannot be concluded that breast milk has a better analgesic effect than sucrose in late preterm infants. From the results, it follows with 95% confidence that the analgesic effect of breast milk is not >1.6 points better and not > 2.8 points worse on the PIPP scale (SD 3.7) than the analgesic effect of sucrose in late preterm infants.

  1. Gait training reduces ankle joint stiffness and facilitates heel strike in children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    Foot drop and toe walking are frequent concerns in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Increased stiffness of the ankle joint muscles may contribute to these problems. Does four weeks of daily home based treadmill training with incline reduce ankle joint stiffness and facilitate heel strike in children with CP? Seventeen children with CP (4-14 years) were recruited. Muscle stiffness and gait ability were measured twice before and twice after training with an interval of one month. Passive and reflex-mediated stiffness were measured by a dynamometer which applied stretches below and above reflex threshold. Gait kinematics were recorded by 3-D video-analysis during treadmill walking. Foot pressure was measured by force-sensitive foot soles during treadmill and over-ground walking. Children with increased passive stiffness showed a significant reduction in stiffness following training (P = 0.01). Toe lift in the swing phase (P = 0.014) and heel impact (P = 0.003) increased significantly following the training during both treadmill and over-ground walking. Daily intensive gait training may influence the elastic properties of ankle joint muscles and facilitate toe lift and heel strike in children with CP. Intensive gait training may be beneficial in preventing contractures and maintain gait ability in children with CP.

  2. Clinical Conformity Between Heel Ultrasound and Densitometry in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Elżbieta; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech; Tabor, Kamil

    2018-02-01

    To assess the conformity between heel ultrasound and densitometry, and the clinical application of densitometry T-score "gold standard" in quantitative ultrasound as a method of osteoporosis diagnosis in postmenopausal women. The study is a systematic review of studies published in the last 17 years in PubMed, NLM Gateway, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound sensitivity and specificity were analyzed with regard to densitometry measurements in postmenopausal women. In addition, we summarized the values of ultrasound T-scores, for which their accuracy in osteoporosis diagnosis is the highest. The inclusion criteria met 15 research studies conducted on postmenopausal women. In 11 of them, the authors concluded that clinical conformity between heel ultrasound and densitometry is good. The recommended quantitative ultrasound T-score for osteoporosis diagnosis ranged between -1 and -3.65. Heel ultrasound should be considered to be as accurate as densitometry in diagnosing osteoporosis. Nevertheless, it needs to have separate T-score ranges determined, because those used in densitometry are not adequate. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. The Double Contact Nature of TT Herculis

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Dirk; Nelson, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    We present new radial velocities and photometry of the short-period Algol TT Herculis. Previous attempts to model the light curves of the system have met with limited success, primarily because of the lack of a reliable mass ratio. Our spectroscopic observations are the first to result in radial velocities for the secondary star, and thus provide a spectroscopic mass ratio. Simultaneous analysis of the radial velocities and new photometry shows that the system is a double contact binary, with...

  4. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for sit-to-stand-to-sit tests, the six-minute walk test, the one-leg heel-rise test, and handgrip strength in people undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, Eva; Martínez-Olmos, Francisco José

    2011-08-01

    Determining the relative and absolute reliability of outcomes of physical performance tests for people undergoing hemodialysis is necessary to discriminate between the true effects of exercise interventions and the inherent variability of this cohort. The aims of this study were to assess the relative reliability of sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (the STS-10, which measures the time [in seconds] required to complete 10 full stands from a sitting position, and the STS-60, which measures the number of repetitions achieved in 60 seconds), the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the one-leg heel-rise test, and the handgrip strength test and to calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) scores in people undergoing hemodialysis. This study was a prospective, nonexperimental investigation. Thirty-nine people undergoing hemodialysis at 2 clinics in Spain were contacted. Study participants performed the STS-10 (n=37), the STS-60 (n=37), and the 6MWT (n=36). At one of the settings, the participants also performed the one-leg heel-rise test (n=21) and the handgrip strength test (n=12) on both the right and the left sides. Participants attended 2 testing sessions 1 to 2 weeks apart. High intraclass correlation coefficients (≥.88) were found for all tests, suggesting good relative reliability. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals were as follows: 8.4 seconds for the STS-10, 4 repetitions for the STS-60, 66.3 m for the 6MWT, 3.4 kg for handgrip strength (force-generating capacity), 3.7 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the right leg, and 5.2 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the left leg. Limitations A limited sample of patients was used in this study. The STS-16, STS-60, 6MWT, one-leg heel rise test, and handgrip strength test are reliable outcome measures. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals for these tests will help to determine whether a change is due to error or to an intervention.

  5. Utilization of the MPI Process for in-tank solidification of heel material in large-diameter cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauschinger, J.L.; Lewis, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    A major problem faced by the US Department of Energy is remediation of sludge and supernatant waste in underground storage tanks. Exhumation of the waste is currently the preferred remediation method. However, exhumation cannot completely remove all of the contaminated materials from the tanks. For large-diameter tanks, amounts of highly contaminated ``heel'' material approaching 20,000 gal can remain. Often sludge containing zeolite particles leaves ``sand bars'' of locally contaminated material across the floor of the tank. The best management practices for in-tank treatment (stabilization and immobilization) of wastes require an integrated approach to develop appropriate treatment agents that can be safely delivered and mixed uniformly with sludge. Ground Environmental Services has developed and demonstrated a remotely controlled, high-velocity jet delivery system termed, Multi-Point-Injection (MPI). This robust jet delivery system has been field-deployed to create homogeneous monoliths containing shallow buried miscellaneous waste in trenches [fiscal year (FY) 1995] and surrogate sludge in cylindrical (FY 1998) and long, horizontal tanks (FY 1999). During the FY 1998 demonstration, the MPI process successfully formed a 32-ton uniform monolith of grout and waste surrogates in about 8 min. Analytical data indicated that 10 tons of zeolite-type physical surrogate were uniformly mixed within a 40-in.-thick monolith without lifting the MPI jetting tools off the tank floor. Over 1,000 lb of cohesive surrogates, with consistencies similar to Gunite and Associated Tank (GAAT) TH-4 and Hanford tank sludges, were easily intermixed into the monolith without exceeding a core temperature of 100 F during curing.

  6. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  7. Functionally different pads on the same foot allow control of attachment: stick insects have load-sensitive "heel" pads for friction and shear-sensitive "toe" pads for adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Labonte

    Full Text Available Stick insects (Carausius morosus have two distinct types of attachment pad per leg, tarsal "heel" pads (euplantulae and a pre-tarsal "toe" pad (arolium. Here we show that these two pad types are specialised for fundamentally different functions. When standing upright, stick insects rested on their proximal euplantulae, while arolia were the only pads in surface contact when hanging upside down. Single-pad force measurements showed that the adhesion of euplantulae was extremely small, but friction forces strongly increased with normal load and coefficients of friction were [Formula: see text] 1. The pre-tarsal arolium, in contrast, generated adhesion that strongly increased with pulling forces, allowing adhesion to be activated and deactivated by shear forces, which can be produced actively, or passively as a result of the insects' sprawled posture. The shear-sensitivity of the arolium was present even when corrected for contact area, and was independent of normal preloads covering nearly an order of magnitude. Attachment of both heel and toe pads is thus activated partly by the forces that arise passively in the situations in which they are used by the insects, ensuring safe attachment. Our results suggest that stick insect euplantulae are specialised "friction pads" that produce traction when pressed against the substrate, while arolia are "true" adhesive pads that stick to the substrate when activated by pulling forces.

  8. Methods for Heel Retrieval for Tanks C-101, C-102, and C-111 at the Hanford Site - 13064

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sams, T.L.; Kirch, N.W.; Reynolds, J.H. [Washington River protection Solutions, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prospects of using bulk waste characteristics to determine the most appropriate heel retrieval technology. If the properties of hard to remove heels can be determined before bulk retrieval, then a heel retrieval technology can be selected before bulk retrieval is complete. This would save substantially on sampling costs and would allow the deployment of the heel retrieval technology immediately after bulk retrieval. The latter would also accelerate the heel removal schedule. A number of C-farm retrievals have been fully or partially completed at the time of this writing. Thus, there is already substantial information on the success of different technologies and the composition of the heels. There is also substantial information on the waste types in each tank based on historical records. Therefore, this study will correlate the performance of technologies used so far and compare them to the known waste types in the tanks. This will be used to estimate the performance of future C Farm heel retrievals. An initial decision tree is developed and employed on tanks C-101, C-102, and C 111. An assumption of this study is that no additional characterization information would be available, before or after retrieval. Note that collecting additional information would substantially increase the probability of success. Deploying some in-situ testing technologies, such as a water lance or an in-situ Raman probe, might substantially increase the probability of successfully selecting the process conditions without having to take samples from the tanks for laboratory analysis. (authors)

  9. Methods for Heel Retrieval for Tanks C-101, C-102, and C-111 at the Hanford Site - 13064

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.L.; Kirch, N.W.; Reynolds, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prospects of using bulk waste characteristics to determine the most appropriate heel retrieval technology. If the properties of hard to remove heels can be determined before bulk retrieval, then a heel retrieval technology can be selected before bulk retrieval is complete. This would save substantially on sampling costs and would allow the deployment of the heel retrieval technology immediately after bulk retrieval. The latter would also accelerate the heel removal schedule. A number of C-farm retrievals have been fully or partially completed at the time of this writing. Thus, there is already substantial information on the success of different technologies and the composition of the heels. There is also substantial information on the waste types in each tank based on historical records. Therefore, this study will correlate the performance of technologies used so far and compare them to the known waste types in the tanks. This will be used to estimate the performance of future C Farm heel retrievals. An initial decision tree is developed and employed on tanks C-101, C-102, and C 111. An assumption of this study is that no additional characterization information would be available, before or after retrieval. Note that collecting additional information would substantially increase the probability of success. Deploying some in-situ testing technologies, such as a water lance or an in-situ Raman probe, might substantially increase the probability of successfully selecting the process conditions without having to take samples from the tanks for laboratory analysis. (authors)

  10. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of sucrose analgesia on neonatal skin blood flow and pain response during heel lance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutag Lehr, Victoria; Cortez, Josef; Grever, William; Cepeda, Eugene; Thomas, Ron; Aranda, Jacob V

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral sucrose on skin blood flow (SBF; perfusion units; PU) measured by Laser Doppler Imager (LDI) in term newborns and pain response (Neonatal Infant Pain Scale score; NIPS score) during heel lance; (2) determine SBF changes during heel lance; and (3) the relationship between SBF and NIPS. Term infants ≤7 days old (n=56) undergoing routine heel lance were randomized to pretreatment with 2.0 mL oral 24% sucrose (n=29) or sterile water (n=27) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SBF was assessed by LDI scans and NIPS scores at 10 minutes before lance, immediately after lancing, and 5 minutes after blood extraction. Mean SBF and median NIPS scores were compared between groups using General Linear Model or Kruskal-Wallis. Regressions examined the relationship between SBF immediately after heel lance and NIPS score. Mean SBF and median NIPS scores immediately after heel lance were lower in sucrose-treated infants (167.9±15.5 vs. 205.4±16.0 PU, P=0.09; NIPS 1 [interquartile range 0 to 4] vs. NIPS 3 [interquartile range 0 to 6], P=0.02), although no significant difference in mean SBF. During heel lance NIPS score was predictive of SBF. An increase of 1 in NIPS score was associated with 11 PU increase in SBF (R=0.21; P=0.09) for sucrose, and 16 PU increase for placebo-treated infants (R=0.20; P=0.014). Increased SBF assessed by LDI is a pain response among term neonates after routine heel lance, which was not completely attenuated by oral sucrose administration. Increased SBF is associated with NIPS scores. Sucrose analgesic efficacy evidenced by decreased NIPS scores for the sucrose group. Association of SBF with NIPS scores suggests that LDI is potentially useful for assessing newborn procedural pain.

  11. Methods for heel retrieval for tanks C-101, C-102, and C-111 at the Hanford Site-13064

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, Terry L.; Kirch, N. W.; Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prospects of using bulk waste characteristics to determine the most appropriate heel retrieval technology. If the properties of hard to remove heels can be determined before bulk retrieval, then a heel retrieval technology can be selected before bulk retrieval is complete. This would save substantially on sampling costs and would allow the deployment of the heel retrieval technology immediately after bulk retrieval. The latter would also accelerate the heel removal schedule. A number of C-farm retrievals have been fully or partially completed at the time of this writing. Thus, there is already substantial information on the success of different technologies and the composition of the heels. There is also substantial information on the waste types in each tank based on historical records. Therefore, this study will correlate the performance of technologies used so far and compare them to the known waste types in the tanks. This will be used to estimate the performance of future C Farm heel retrievals. An initial decision tree is developed and employed on tanks C-101, C-102, and C 111. An assumption of this study is that no additional characterization information would be available, before or after retrieval. Note that collecting additional information would substantially increase the probability of success. Deploying some in-situ testing technologies, such as a water lance or an in-situ Raman probe, might substantially increase the probability of successfully selecting the process conditions without having to take samples from the tanks for laboratory analysis

  12. Hardness and posting of foot orthoses modify plantar contact area, plantar pressure, and perceived comfort when cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousie, Jaquelin A; Blanch, Peter; McPoil, Thomas G; Vicenzino, Bill

    2018-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of hardness and posting of orthoses on plantar profile and perceived comfort and support during cycling. A repeated measures study with randomised order of orthoses, hardness, and posting conditions. Twenty-three cyclists cycled at a cadence of 90rpm and a perceived exertion rating of twelve. Contoured soft and hard orthoses with or without a medial forefoot or lateral forefoot post were evaluated. Plantar contact area, mean pressure and peak pressure were measured for nine plantar regions using the pedar ® -X system and represented as a percentage of the total (CA%, MP%, and PP% respectively). Perceived comfort and support was rated on a visual analogue scale. The softer orthosis significantly increased CA% (p=0.014) across the midfoot and heel with a decrease in the toe region and forefoot. MP% (p=0.034) and PP% (p=0.012) were significantly increased at the mid and lateral forefoot with reductions in MP% at the midfoot and in PP% at the hallux and toes. Forefoot posting significantly increased CA% (p=0.018) at the toes and forefoot and decreased it at the heel. PP% was significantly altered (p=0.013) based on posting position. Lateral forefoot posting significantly decreased heel comfort (p=0.036). When cycling, a soft, contoured orthosis increased contact across the midfoot and heel, modulating forefoot and midfoot plantar pressures but not altering comfort or support. Forefoot postings significantly modified contact areas and plantar pressures and reduced comfort at the heel. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landorf Karl B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis is a common and disabling condition, which has a detrimental impact on health-related quality of life. Despite the high prevalence of plantar heel pain, the optimal treatment for this disorder remains unclear. Consequently, an alternative therapy such as dry needling is increasingly being used as an adjunctive treatment by health practitioners. Only two trials have investigated the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain, however both trials were of a low methodological quality. This manuscript describes the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain. Methods Eighty community-dwelling men and woman aged over 18 years with plantar heel pain (who satisfy the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be recruited. Eligible participants with plantar heel pain will be randomised to receive either one of two interventions, (i real dry needling or (ii sham dry needling. The protocol (including needling details and treatment regimen was formulated by general consensus (using the Delphi research method using 30 experts worldwide that commonly use dry needling for plantar heel pain. Primary outcome measures will be the pain subscale of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire and "first step" pain as measured on a visual analogue scale. The secondary outcome measures will be health related quality of life (assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire - Version Two and depression, anxiety and stress (assessed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - short version. Primary outcome measures will be performed at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks and secondary outcome measures will be performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. Conclusion This study is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain. The trial will

  14. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  15. The comparison of manual lymph drainage and ultrasound therapy on the leg swelling caused by wearing high heels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeop; Han, Ji-Su; Jang, Eun-Ji; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Hong, Ji-Heon; Lee, Sang-Sook; Lee, Dong-Geol; Yu Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    One of the major symptoms when women are wearing high heels for a long time is leg swelling. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of manual lymph drainage with ultrasound therapy. The forty-five healthy women of twenties were participated in this study and divided randomly into three groups; manual lymph drainage group (n=15), ultrasound therapy group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Swelling was measured before wearing the high heels (10 cm-height), after one-hour of wearing the high heels, wearing the high heels of one-hour after the intervention of 15 minutes. Also swelling was calculated by using a tape measure, volumeter and body composition analyzer. Statistical analysis of the comparison between the three groups was performed by one-way ANOVA. Also comparison to the mean value in swelling according to the time was performed by repeated measure ANOVA. As the result of this study, a significant changes have emerged within each of manual lymph drainage, ultrasound therapy and control group (p 0.05). But the mean value of manual lymph drainage group showed the tendency of fast recovering before causing swelling. Therefore, we consider that the clinical treatment of manual lymph drainage and ongoing studies will be made since manual lymph drainage is very effective in releasing the leg swelling caused by wearing high heels and standing for a long time at work.

  16. Comparative Effect of the Smells of Amniotic Fluid, Breast Milk, and Lavender on Newborns' Pain During Heel Lance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcan, Esma; Polat, Sevinç

    2016-06-17

    The aim of this randomized controlled experimental study was to evaluate the effect of the smells of amniotic fluid, breast milk, and lavender on the pain of newborns during heel lance. The sample of the study consisted of 102 newborn infants who complied with the sampling criteria between August and November, 2011. The newborns smelled the samples (lavender, breast milk, amniotic fluid, and distilled water) for 5 minutes before the heel lance until 5 minutes afterward. The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), heart rate, and oxygen saturation were evaluated 1 minute before, during, and 1 minute after the heel lance. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistics, chi-square, intraclass correlation analysis, Spearman's rho correlation, Bonferroni's advanced analysis, Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman, and Dunnett's tests. The newborns in the control group had severe pain and the newborns in the breast milk, amniotic fluid, and lavender groups had moderate pain during the heel lance (p lance, it was lower in the breast milk and amniotic fluid groups than the lavender group afterward. The lowest falls in oxygen saturation and increased in heart rate were in the breast milk and lavender groups during heel the lance. The smells of lavender and breast milk prevent the increased heart rates, NIPS, falling oxygen saturation, and reduced pain during the invasive procedures in newborns more than amniotic fluid or control group.

  17. Designing and Constructing Blood Flow Monitoring System to Predict Pressure Ulcers on Heel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pressure ulcer is a complication related to the need for the care and treatment of primarily disabled and elderly people. With the decrease of the blood flow caused by the pressure loaded, ulcers are formed and the tissue will be wasted with the passage of time. Objective: The aim of this study was to construct blood flow monitoring system on the heel tissue which was under external pressure in order to evaluate the tissue treatment in the ulcer. Methods: To measure the blood flow changes, three infrared optical transmitters were used at the distances of 5, 10, and 15 mm to the receiver. Blood flow changes in heels were assessed in pressures 0, 30, and 60 mmHg. The time features were extracted for analysis from the recorded signal by MATLAB software. Changes of the time features under different pressures were evaluated at the three distances by ANOVA in SPSS software. The level of significance was considered at 0.05. Results: In this study, 15 subjects, including both male and female, with the mean age of 54±7 participated. The results showed that the signal amplitude, power and absolute signal decreased significantly when pressure on the tissue increased in different layers (p<0.05. Heart rate only decreased significantly in pressures more than 30 mmHg (p=0.02. In pressures more than 30 mmHg, in addition to a decrease in the time features, the pattern of blood flow signal changed and it wasn’t the same as noload signal. Conclusion: By detecting the time features, we can reach an early diagnosis to prognosticate the degeneration of the tissue under pressure and it can be recommended as a method to predict bedsores in the heel.

  18. Rearfoot Transcutaneous Oximetry is a Useful Tool to Highlight Ischemia of the Heel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, Valentina, E-mail: valentina-izzo@virgilio.it; Meloni, Marco, E-mail: meloni.marco@libero.it [University of Tor Vergata, Department of Systems Medicine (Italy); Fabiano, Sebastiano, E-mail: sebas575@yahoo.it; Morosetti, Daniele, E-mail: danielemorosetti@hotmail.com [University of Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Giurato, Laura, E-mail: lauragiurato@yahoo.it [University of Tor Vergata, Department of Systems Medicine (Italy); Chiaravalloti, Antonio, E-mail: antoniochiaravalloti@hotmail.it [University of Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Ruotolo, Valeria, E-mail: valeriaruotolo@virgilio.it [University of Tor Vergata, Department of Systems Medicine (Italy); Gandini, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.gandini@fastwebnet.it [University of Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Uccioli, Luigi, E-mail: luccioli@yahoo.com [University of Tor Vergata, Department of Systems Medicine (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeTo demonstrate the usefulness of rearfoot transcutaneous oximetry to assess the peripheral arterial disease in diabetic patients with heel ulcer.MethodsFrom our database of 550 critical limb ischemia diabetic patients followed after a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, we have selected patients with below the knee arterial disease. Patients were grouped according to the dorsal transcutaneous oximetry value (Group A < 30 mmHg; Group B ≥ 30 mmHg). Patients of Group B had a second oximetry performed at the rearfoot, close to the lesion localized in all cases at the heel. Finally, the analysis of the arterial pattern disease has been done.ResultsWe selected 191 patients: Group A (151 patients), dorsal transcutaneous oximetry of 11.8 ± 0.7 mmHg; Group B (40 patients), dorsal transcutaneous oximetry of 44.2 ± 10.1 mmHg. In Group B, rearfoot oximetry was 20.5 ± 5 mmHg, significantly lower than dorsal oximetry (p = 0.0179). The anterior tibial artery was involved in all patients of Group A. In Group B, the anterior tibial artery was involved in 15 subjects and never alone; the posterior tibial artery was involved in 20 subjects and in 11 cases alone. The peroneal artery was affected in 20 subjects and in 14 patients alone.ConclusionWhen a heel lesion is present and the transcutaneous oximetry recorded on the dorsum of the foot does not confirm the presence of critical limb ischemia (not ≤30 mmHg), a second oximetry recorded on the rearfoot is useful to point out ischemia of the peroneal artery and/or of the posterior tibial artery.

  19. Sludge Heel Removal By Aluminum Dissolution At Savannah River Site 12390

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, M.

    2012-01-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. Operations are underway to remove and disposition the waste, clean the tanks and fill with grout for permanent closure. Heel removal is the intermediate phase of the waste retrieval and tank cleaning process at SRS, which is intended to reduce the volume of waste prior to treatment with oxalic acid. The goal of heel removal is to reduce the residual amount of radioactive sludge wastes to less than 37,900 liters (10,000 gallons) of wet solids. Reducing the quantity of residual waste solids in the tank prior to acid cleaning reduces the amount of acid required and reduces the amount of excess acid that could impact ongoing waste management processes. Mechanical heel removal campaigns in Tank 12 have relied solely on the use of mixing pumps that have not been effective at reducing the volume of remaining solids. The remaining waste in Tank 12 is known to have a high aluminum concentration. Aluminum dissolution by caustic leaching was identified as a treatment step to reduce the volume of remaining solids and prepare the tank for acid cleaning. Dissolution was performed in Tank 12 over a two month period in July and August, 2011. Sample results indicated that 16,440 kg of aluminum oxide (boehmite) had been dissolved representing 60% of the starting inventory. The evolution resulted in reducing the sludge solids volume by 22,300 liters (5900 gallons), preparing the tank for chemical cleaning with oxalic acid.

  20. Rearfoot Transcutaneous Oximetry is a Useful Tool to Highlight Ischemia of the Heel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Fabiano, Sebastiano; Morosetti, Daniele; Giurato, Laura; Chiaravalloti, Antonio; Ruotolo, Valeria; Gandini, Roberto; Uccioli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeTo demonstrate the usefulness of rearfoot transcutaneous oximetry to assess the peripheral arterial disease in diabetic patients with heel ulcer.MethodsFrom our database of 550 critical limb ischemia diabetic patients followed after a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, we have selected patients with below the knee arterial disease. Patients were grouped according to the dorsal transcutaneous oximetry value (Group A < 30 mmHg; Group B ≥ 30 mmHg). Patients of Group B had a second oximetry performed at the rearfoot, close to the lesion localized in all cases at the heel. Finally, the analysis of the arterial pattern disease has been done.ResultsWe selected 191 patients: Group A (151 patients), dorsal transcutaneous oximetry of 11.8 ± 0.7 mmHg; Group B (40 patients), dorsal transcutaneous oximetry of 44.2 ± 10.1 mmHg. In Group B, rearfoot oximetry was 20.5 ± 5 mmHg, significantly lower than dorsal oximetry (p = 0.0179). The anterior tibial artery was involved in all patients of Group A. In Group B, the anterior tibial artery was involved in 15 subjects and never alone; the posterior tibial artery was involved in 20 subjects and in 11 cases alone. The peroneal artery was affected in 20 subjects and in 14 patients alone.ConclusionWhen a heel lesion is present and the transcutaneous oximetry recorded on the dorsum of the foot does not confirm the presence of critical limb ischemia (not ≤30 mmHg), a second oximetry recorded on the rearfoot is useful to point out ischemia of the peroneal artery and/or of the posterior tibial artery.

  1. SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL BY ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 12390

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefer, M.

    2012-01-12

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. Operations are underway to remove and disposition the waste, clean the tanks and fill with grout for permanent closure. Heel removal is the intermediate phase of the waste retrieval and tank cleaning process at SRS, which is intended to reduce the volume of waste prior to treatment with oxalic acid. The goal of heel removal is to reduce the residual amount of radioactive sludge wastes to less than 37,900 liters (10,000 gallons) of wet solids. Reducing the quantity of residual waste solids in the tank prior to acid cleaning reduces the amount of acid required and reduces the amount of excess acid that could impact ongoing waste management processes. Mechanical heel removal campaigns in Tank 12 have relied solely on the use of mixing pumps that have not been effective at reducing the volume of remaining solids. The remaining waste in Tank 12 is known to have a high aluminum concentration. Aluminum dissolution by caustic leaching was identified as a treatment step to reduce the volume of remaining solids and prepare the tank for acid cleaning. Dissolution was performed in Tank 12 over a two month period in July and August, 2011. Sample results indicated that 16,440 kg of aluminum oxide (boehmite) had been dissolved representing 60% of the starting inventory. The evolution resulted in reducing the sludge solids volume by 22,300 liters (5900 gallons), preparing the tank for chemical cleaning with oxalic acid.

  2. Liquid holdup in turbulent contact absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.; Zaman, M.; Inayat, M.H.; Chughtai, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic liquid holdup in a turbulent contact absorber was obtained through quick shut off valves technique. Experiments were carried out in a Perspex column. Effects of liquid velocity, gas velocity, packing diameter packing density and packing height on dynamic liquid holdup were studied. Hollow spherical high density polyethylene (HDPE) balls were used as inert fluidized packing. Experiments were performed at practical range of liquid and gas velocities. Holdup was calculated on the basis of static bed height. Liquid holdup increases with increasing both liquid and gas velocities both for type 1 and type 2 modes of fluidization. Liquid holdup increases with packing density. No effect of dia was observed on liquid holdup. (author)

  3. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  4. Novel Surgical Treatment for Refractory Heel Ulcers in Werner’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Oe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Werner’s syndrome frequently develop chronic leg ulcers that heal poorly. We present a patient who suffered from this rare syndrome and developed typical heel ulcers. Treatment of the ulcer is challenging, as flap options are limited over the lower third of the leg and skin grafting is not easy as there is a lack of healthy granulations. We successfully treated the ulcer with osteomyelitis by drilling the bone and applying an ultrathin split thickness skin graft with the thigh skin as the donor site.

  5. Heel quantitative ultrasound in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Castronuovo, Daniela; Di Gregorio, Adriana; Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Gussio, Maria; Borderi, Marco; Maggi, Paolo; Santoro, Carmen Rita; Madeddu, Giordano; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    HIV infection has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard to assess bone mineral density (BMD); however, it is not easily accessible in several settings. Heel Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is a radiation-free, easy-to-perform technique, which may help reducing the need for DXA. In this cross-sectional study, we used heel QUS (Hologic Sahara(®)) to assess bone status in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. A QUS stiffness index (QUI) threshold >83 was used to identify patients with a low likelihood of osteoporosis. Moreover, we compared QUS results with those of 36 sex- and age-matched HIV-negative controls. 244 HIV-positive patients were enrolled. Median heel QUI value was 83 (73-96) vs. 93 (IQR 84-104) in the control group (p = 0.04). 110 patients (45 %) had a QUI value ≤83. Risk factors for low QUI values were age (OR 1.04 per year, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07, p = 0.004), current use of protease inhibitors (OR 1.85, CI 1.03-3.35, p = 0.039), current use of tenofovir (OR 2.28, CI 1.22-4.27, p = 0.009) and the number of risk factors for secondary osteoporosis (OR 1.46, CI 1.09-1.95, p = 0.01). Of note, QUI values were significantly correlated with FRAX score (r = -0.22, p = 0.004). According to EACS guidelines, 45 % of patients had risk factors for osteoporosis which make them eligible for DXA. By using QUS, we may avoid DXA in around half of them. As HIV-positive patients are living longer, the prevalence of osteoporosis is expected to increase over time. Appropriate screening, prevention and treatment are crucial to preserve bone health in this population. The use of screening techniques, such as heel QUS, may help reducing the need for DXA. Further studies are needed to define the diagnostic accuracy of this promising technique in the setting of HIV.

  6. Results of Characterization and Retrieval Testing on Tank 241-C-109 Heel Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, William S.

    2013-09-26

    Eight samples of heel solids from tank 241-C-109 were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for characterization and dissolution testing. After being drained thoroughly, one-half to two-thirds of the solids were off-white to tan solids that, visually, were fairly evenly graded in size from coarse silt (30-60 μm) to medium pebbles (8-16 mm). The remaining solids were mostly strongly cemented aggregates ranging from coarse pebbles (16-32 mm) to fine cobbles (6-15 cm) in size. Solid phase characterization and chemical analysis indicated that the air-dry heel solids contained ≈58 wt% gibbsite [Al(OH){sub 3}] and ≈37 wt% natrophosphate [Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}·19H{sub 2}O]. The strongly cemented aggregates were mostly fine-grained gibbsite cemented with additional gibbsite. Dissolution testing was performed on two test samples. One set of tests was performed on large pieces of aggregate solids removed from the heel solids samples. The other set of dissolution tests was performed on a composite sample prepared from well-drained, air-dry heel solids that were crushed to pass a 1/4-in. sieve. The bulk density of the composite sample was 2.04 g/mL. The dissolution tests included water dissolution followed by caustic dissolution testing. In each step of the three-step water dissolution tests, a volume of water approximately equal to 3 times the initial volume of the test solids was added. In each step, the test samples were gently but thoroughly mixed for approximately 2 days at an average ambient temperature of 25 °C. The caustic dissolution tests began with the addition of sufficient 49.6 wt% NaOH to the water dissolution residues to provide ≈3.1 moles of OH for each mole of Al estimated to have been present in the starting composite sample and ≈2.6 moles of OH for each mole of Al potentially present in the starting aggregate sample. Metathesis of gibbsite to sodium aluminate was then allowed to proceed over 10 days of gentle mixing of the

  7. Results of Characterization and Retrieval Testing on Tank 241-C-110 Heel Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, William S.

    2013-09-30

    Nine samples of heel solids from tank 241-C-110 were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for characterization and dissolution testing. After being drained thoroughly, the sample solids were primarily white to light-brown with minor dark-colored inclusions. The maximum dimension of the majority of the solids was <2 mm; however, numerous pieces of aggregate, microcrystalline, and crystalline solids with maximum dimensions ranging from 5-70 mm were observed. In general, the larger pieces of aggregate solids were strongly cemented. Natrophosphate [Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}°19H{sub 2}O] was the dominant solid phase identified in the heel solids. Results of chemical analyses suggested that 85-87 wt% of the heel solids were the fluoridephosphate double salt. The average bulk density measured for the heel solids was 1.689 g/mL; the reference density of natrophosphate is 1.71 g/mL. Dissolution tests on composite samples indicate that 94 to 97 wt% of the tank 241-C-110 heel solids can be retrieved by dissolution in water. Dissolution and recovery of the soluble components in 1 kg (0.59 L) of the heel solids required the addition of ≈9.5 kg (9.5 L) of water at 15 °C and ≈4.4 kg (4.45 L) of water at 45 °C. Calculations performed using the Environmental Simulation Program indicate that dissolution of the ≈0.86 kg of natrophosphate in each kilogram of the tank 241-C-110 heel solids would require ≈9.45 kg of water at 15 °C and ≈4.25 kg of water at 45 °C. The slightly larger quantities of water determined to be required to retrieve the soluble components in 1 kg of the heel solids are consistent with that required for the dissolution of solids composed mainly of natrophosphate with a major portion of the balance consisting of highly soluble sodium salts. At least 98% of the structural water, soluble phosphate, sodium, fluoride, nitrate, carbonate, nitrite, sulfate, oxalate, and chloride in the test composites was dissolved and recovered in the

  8. Foot strike patterns and ground contact times during high-calibre middle-distance races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Phil; Caplan, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine ground contact characteristics, their relationship with race performance, and the time course of any changes in ground contact time during competitive 800 m and 1500 m races. Twenty-two seeded, single-sex middle-distance races totalling 181 runners were filmed at a competitive athletics meeting. Races were filmed at 100 Hz. Ground contact time was recorded one step for each athlete, on each lap of their race. Forefoot and midfoot strikers had significantly shorter ground contact times than heel strikers. Forefoot and midfoot strikers had significantly faster average race speed than heel strikers. There were strong large correlations between ground contact time and average race speed for the women's events and men's 1500 m (r = -0.521 to -0.623; P < 0.05), whereas the men's 800 m displayed only a moderate relationship (r = -0.361; P = 0.002). For each event, ground contact time for the first lap was significantly shorter than for the last lap, which might reflect runners becoming fatigued.

  9. Bone imaging of the heel in Reiter's syndrome. [/sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalkhali, I. (Univ. of California, Sacramento); Stadalnik, R.C.; Wiesner, K.B.; Shapiro, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Classic Reiter's syndrome, which affects young adult males, is characterized by arthritis, conjunctivitis, and nongonococcal urethritis. Other features of probably equal significance include circinate balanitis, shallow ulcerations of the buccal mucosa, and a dermatitis. Reiter's arthritis is usually asymmetrical and tends to involve lower extremity joints. Talalgia, or heel pain, is an often underrated characteristic feature of the arthritis. With an incidence of 50% talalgia can be localized to either the posterior aspect of the heel or to the plantar surface of the heel. Radiographic alterations in these regions are common in patients with recurrent or chronic disease, but are infrequent or minimal in patients with acute Reiter's syndrome. Recent observation of a young male with Reiter's syndrome suggests that bone imaging may help substantiate this clinical feature before radiography reveals calcaneal spurs.

  10. A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Computer-Aided Designed and Manufactured Orthoses on Chronic Plantar Heel Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Alfred; Grech, Mark; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Formosa, Cynthia

    2018-04-01

    Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) is a significant, painful condition referring to a range of undifferentiated foot conditions that affect the heel of the foot. Participants presenting with CPHP of more than 6 months' duration were recruited on a first through the door basis. Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufactured (CAD-CAM) orthoses were designed and constructed for each participant, then dispensed as per normal practice. Pre- and postintervention assessment of pain was performed at baseline and after 6 weeks of use, utilizing the pain subset of the Foot Function Index (FFI). There was a significant reduction in the mean pain scores for all participants in all constructs of the FFI. Total FFI score was also significant ( P = .003). CAD-CAM orthoses have the potential to become a treatment modality of choice in CPHP since they have resulted in a significant improvement in heel pain after only 6 weeks' use. Therapeutic, Level IV: Prospective, comparative trial.

  11. Contact Lens Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative Contact ...

  12. Altered stiffness of microchamber and macrochamber layers in the aged heel pad: Shear wave ultrasound elastography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh-Hung Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: To compare shear modulus of heel pad microchamber and macrochamber layers between young and elderly people using shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE, with the intent to clarify age-related changes. Methods: This single-center prospective cross-sectional study was conducted between March, 2014 and March, 2016. Shear modulus of entire heel pad (Gentire, macrochamber layer (Gmac, and microchamber layer (Gmic were measured with SWUE. Results: Elderly participants (15 men, 15 women; age = 66.9 ± 6.2 years had significantly higher Gmic (103.8 ± 20.7 vs. 60.1 ± 9.8 kPa; p < 0.001 and Gentire (39.4 ± 10.5 vs. 34.1 ± 5.4 kPa; p = 0.005, but a significantly lower Gmac (21.7 ± 7.5 vs. 27.9 ± 4.9 kPa; p < 0.001 compared with those of young participants (15 men, 15 women; age = 26.4 ± 2.9 years. Positive correlations were observed between age and Gmic (r = 0.79, p < 0.001 and between age and Gentire (r = 0.28, p = 0.03, and negative correlation between age and Gmac (r = −0.46, p = 0.001. Conclusion: SWUE revealed that the heel pad macrochamber layer was slightly softer but the microchamber layer was exaggeratedly stiffer, making the entire heel pad stiffer in the elderly group than in the younger group, implying age-related compensation in heel pad layers to retain foot function. Keywords: Age, Elastography, Heel pad, Ultrasound

  13. Effects of extracorporal shock wave therapy on symptomatic heel spurs: a correlation between clinical outcome and radiologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, E; Keskin Akca, A; Selcuk, B; Kurtaran, A; Akyuz, M

    2012-02-01

    Plantar heel pain, a chronic and disabling foot alignment, occurs in the adult population. Extracorporal shock wave therapy (ESWT) offers a nonsurgical option in addition to stretching exercises, heel cups, NSAI, and corticosteroid injections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ESWT on calcaneal bone spurs and the correlation between clinical outcomes and radiologic changes. The study involved 108 patients with heel pain and radiologically diagnosed heel spurs. All patients underwent ESWT once a week for 5 weeks at the clinic. Each patient received 2,000 impulses of shock waves, starting with 0.05 mJ/mm2 (1.8 bar) and increasing to 0.4 mJ/mm2 (4.0 bar). Standard radiographies of the affected heels were obtained before and after the therapy. Clinical results demonstrated excellent (no pain) in 66.7% of the cases, good (50% of pain reduced) in 15.7% of the cases, and unsatisfactory (no reduction in pain) in 17.6%. After five ESWT treatments, no patients who received shock wave applications had significant spur reductions, but 19 patients (17.6%) had a decrease in the angle of the spur, 23 patients (21.3%) had a decrease in the dimensions of the spur, and one patient had a broken spur. Therefore, results showed no correlation between clinical outcome and radiologic changes. The present study supports the finding that even with no radiologic change after ESWT therapy, the therapy produces significant effects in reducing patients' complaints about heel spurs.

  14. Effect of time derivative of contact area on dynamic friction

    OpenAIRE

    Arakawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated dynamic friction during oblique impact of a golf ball by evaluating the ball’s angular velocity, contact force, and the contact area between the ball and target. The effect of the contact area on the angular velocities was evaluated, and the results indicated that the contact area plays an important role in dynamic friction. In this study, the dynamic friction force F was given by F= μN+μη.dA/dt, where μ is the coefficient of friction, N is the contact force, dA/dt is ...

  15. Can We Measure the Heel Bump? Radiographic Evaluation of Haglund's Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulstra, Gythe H; van Rheenen, Thijs A; Scholtes, Vanessa A B

    2015-01-01

    Haglund's deformity is a symptomatic posterosuperior deformity of the heel. The lateral radiograph of the ankle will show a prominent, large, posterosuperior part of the calcaneus, which can be measured using the Fowler and Philips angle (FPA, the angle between the posterior and plantar surface of the calcaneus) and the calcaneal pitch angle (CPA, the angle between the sole of the foot and the plantar part of the calcaneus). Although these angles are commonly used, these radiographic angle measurements have never shown a relationship with Haglund's deformity. In 78 patients (51% male) with symptomatic Haglund's deformity and a control group of 100 patients (41% male) with no heel complaints, we measured the FPA and CPA on weightbearing lateral radiographs of the foot. Using an unpaired t tests, no significant difference was found between the 2 groups in the FPA (p = .40). We measured a significant difference in the CPA between the Haglund group and the control group (p = .014). Subgroup analysis showed that this difference was mainly found in females (p verticalization of the calcaneus. This change in position results in extra traction on the Achilles tendon and can eventually cause tendinitis and bursitis. Radiographic measurement should be used as an auxiliary tool. If the calcaneus tends to change position, it would be interesting to understand this process, which could eventually lead to improvement in the treatment of Haglund's deformity. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CHEMICAL SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT 8183

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaxton, D; Timothy Baughman, T

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Sludge Removal (CSR) is the final waste removal activity planned for some of the oldest nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC. In 2008, CSR will be used to empty two of these waste tanks in preparation for final closure. The two waste tanks chosen to undergo this process have previously leaked small amounts of nuclear waste from the primary tank into an underground secondary containment pan. CSR involves adding aqueous oxalic acid to the waste tank in order to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The resultant acidic waste solution is then pumped to another waste tank where it will be neutralized and then stored awaiting further processing. The waste tanks to be cleaned have a storage capacity of 2.84E+06 liters (750,000 gallons) and a target sludge heel volume of 1.89E+04 liters (5,000 gallons) or less for the initiation of CSR. The purpose of this paper is to describe the CSR process and to discuss the most significant technical issues associated with the development of CSR

  17. Heel Effect: Dose Mapping And Profiling For Mobile C-Arm Fluoroscopy Unit Toshiba SXT-1000A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini Salleh; Mohd Khalid Matori; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Mohd Ramli Arshad; Shahrul Azlan Azizan; Mohd Firdaus Abdul Rahman; Md Khairusalih Md Zin

    2014-01-01

    Heel Effect is the well known phenomena in x-ray production. It contributes the effect to image formation and as well as scattered radiation. But there is paucity in the study related to heel effect. This study is for mapping and profiling the dose on the surface of water phantom by using mobile C-arm unit Toshiba SXT-1000A. Based on the result the dose profile is increasing up to about 57 % from anode to cathode bound of the irradiated area. This result and information can be used as a guide to manipulate these phenomena for better image quality and radiation safety for this specific and dedicated fluoroscopy unit. (author)

  18. Control of the motion of the body's center of mass in relation to the center of pressure during high-heeled gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hui-Lien; Lu, Tung-Wu; Liu, Ming-Wei

    2013-07-01

    High-heeled shoes are associated with instability and falling, leading to injuries such as fracture and ankle sprain. Knowledge of the motion of the body's center of mass (COM) with respect to the center of pressure (COP) during high-heeled gait may offer insights into the balance control strategies and provide a basis for approaches that minimize the risk of falling and associated adverse effects. The study aimed to investigate the influence of the base and height of the heels on the COM motion in terms of COM-COP inclination angles (IA) and the rate of change of IA (RCIA). Fifteen females who regularly wear high heels walked barefoot and with narrow-heeled shoes with three heel heights (3.9cm, 6.3cm and 7.3cm) while kinematic and ground reaction force data were measured and used to calculate the COM and COP, as well as the temporal-distance parameters. The reduced base of the heels was found to be the primary factor for the reduced normalized walking speed and the reduced frontal IA throughout the gait cycle. This was achieved mainly through the control of the RCIA during double-leg stance (DLS). The heel heights affected mainly the peak RCIA during DLS, which were not big enough to affect the IA. These results suggest young adults adopt a conservative strategy for balance control during narrow-heeled gait. The results will serve as baseline data for future evaluation of patients and/or older adults during narrow-heeled gait with the aim of reducing the risk of falling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic imaging for chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Joanna T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP is a generalised term used to describe a range of undifferentiated conditions affecting the plantar heel. Plantar fasciitis is reported as the most common cause and the terms are frequently used interchangeably in the literature. Diagnostic imaging has been used by many researchers and practitioners to investigate the involvement of specific anatomical structures in CPHP. These observations help to explain the underlying pathology of the disorder, and are of benefit in forming an accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment plan. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic imaging features associated with CPHP, and evaluate study findings by meta-analysis where appropriate. Methods Bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically on March 25, 2009. Eligible articles were required to report imaging findings in participants with CPHP unrelated to inflammatory arthritis, and to compare these findings with a control group. Methodological quality was evaluated by use of the Quality Index as described by Downs and Black. Meta-analysis of study data was conducted where appropriate. Results Plantar fascia thickness as measured by ultrasonography was the most widely reported imaging feature. Meta-analysis revealed that the plantar fascia of CPHP participants was 2.16 mm thicker than control participants (95% CI = 1.60 to 2.71 mm, P P = 0.01. CPHP participants were also more likely to show radiographic evidence of subcalcaneal spur than control participants (OR = 8.52, 95% CI = 4.08 to 17.77, P Conclusion This systematic review has identified 23 studies investigating the diagnostic imaging appearance of the plantar fascia and inferior calcaneum in people with CPHP. Analysis of these studies found that people with CPHP are likely to have a thickened plantar fascia with associated fluid collection, and that

  20. Diagnostic imaging for chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic plantar heel pain (CPHP) is a generalised term used to describe a range of undifferentiated conditions affecting the plantar heel. Plantar fasciitis is reported as the most common cause and the terms are frequently used interchangeably in the literature. Diagnostic imaging has been used by many researchers and practitioners to investigate the involvement of specific anatomical structures in CPHP. These observations help to explain the underlying pathology of the disorder, and are of benefit in forming an accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment plan. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic imaging features associated with CPHP, and evaluate study findings by meta-analysis where appropriate. Methods Bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus and The Cochrane Library were searched electronically on March 25, 2009. Eligible articles were required to report imaging findings in participants with CPHP unrelated to inflammatory arthritis, and to compare these findings with a control group. Methodological quality was evaluated by use of the Quality Index as described by Downs and Black. Meta-analysis of study data was conducted where appropriate. Results Plantar fascia thickness as measured by ultrasonography was the most widely reported imaging feature. Meta-analysis revealed that the plantar fascia of CPHP participants was 2.16 mm thicker than control participants (95% CI = 1.60 to 2.71 mm, P plantar fascia thickness values greater than 4.0 mm (OR = 105.11, 95% CI = 3.09 to 3577.28, P = 0.01). CPHP participants were also more likely to show radiographic evidence of subcalcaneal spur than control participants (OR = 8.52, 95% CI = 4.08 to 17.77, P plantar fascia and inferior calcaneum in people with CPHP. Analysis of these studies found that people with CPHP are likely to have a thickened plantar fascia with associated fluid collection, and that thickness values >4.0 mm are diagnostic of

  1. Occupational contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutre, Marie-Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis and eczema are the most prevalent occupational skin diseases. Less common are immediate contact reactions such as contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. Occupational contact urticaria can be subdivided into two categories, immunological and non immunological. However, some agents can induce these two types of reactions. Contact urticaria to natural rubber latex is particularly frequent among health care personnel, but contact urticaria to a wide variety of other substances occurs in many other occupations. Among those at risk are cooks, bakers, butchers, restaurant personnel, veterinarians, hairdressers, florists, gardeners, and forestry workers. Protein contact dermatitis in some of these occupations is caused principally by proteins of animal or plant origin, especially among individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis requires careful interrogation, clinical examination and skin tests (open tests and prick tests with immediate lecture) to identify a particular contact allergen.

  2. Thigh-calf contact parameters for six high knee flexion postures: Onset, maximum angle, total force, contact area, and center of force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, David C; Acker, Stacey M

    2018-01-23

    In high knee flexion, contact between the posterior thigh and calf is expected to decrease forces on tibiofemoral contact surfaces, therefore, thigh-calf contact needs to be thoroughly characterized to model its effect. This study measured knee angles and intersegmental contact parameters in fifty-eight young healthy participants for six common high flexion postures using motion tracking and a pressure sensor attached to the right thigh. Additionally, we introduced and assessed the reliability of a method for reducing noise in pressure sensor output. Five repetitions of two squatting, two kneeling, and two unilateral kneeling movements were completed. Interactions of posture by sex occurred for thigh-calf and heel-gluteal center of force, and thigh-calf contact area. Center of force in thigh-calf regions was farther from the knee joint center in females, compared to males, during unilateral kneeling (82 and 67 mm respectively) with an inverted relationship in the heel-gluteal region (331 and 345 mm respectively), although caution is advised when generalizing these findings from a young, relatively fit sample to a population level. Contact area was larger in females when compared to males (mean of 155.61 and 137.33 cm 2 across postures). A posture main effect was observed in contact force and sex main effects were present in onset and max angle. Males had earlier onset (121.0°) and lower max angle (147.4°) with onset and max angles having a range between movements of 8° and 3° respectively. There was a substantial total force difference of 139 N between the largest and smallest activity means. Force parameters measured in this study suggest that knee joint contact models need to incorporate activity-specific parameters when estimating loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shewanella algae infection after surgical treatment of Haglund's heel and rupture of the Achilles tendon.] [Article in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Malene

    2014-01-01

    This is a case report of soft tissue infection with the marine bacterium Shewanella algae that is rare in Denmark. The patient was a 43-year-old male and he was treated surgically for Haglund's heel, a bony protrusion at the calcaneus. After clinical healing the patient suffered a rupture...

  4. Knowledge of parents regarding newborn screening test, after accessing the website “Babies’ Portal” - Heel prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Antonelli Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the knowledge of mothers about the heel prick test, develop contents on this test to make it available on the "Babies’ Portal" website, evaluate and validate the informative material developed. Methods: this study was conducted in three stages, that is, the first stage which is about a descriptive study involving 105 mothers of newborn children before performing the neonatal screening "Heel Prick Test", the second one consisting in the development of the website "Babies’ Portal", and the third stage, the evaluation and validation of this material carried out by 20 parents of children between zero and 36 months old, who underwent the neonatal screening Heel Prick Test by accessing the website “Babies’ Portal”. Results: although the interviewed mothers knew that their children had the right to be tested, they showed no knowledge of the diseases that can be prevented, time of diagnosis, nor the consequences arising from the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. The website creation and validation gathered basic information about the Heel Prick Test, and the participants regarded the content from satisfactory to excellent. Conclusion: it is necessary that families know not only about the procedures their children will undergo, but also the reason they are performed and the consequences of failing in doing so.

  5. Effects of Lateral Heel Wedges and Lateral Forefoot Wedge on the Knee Adduction Moment in Healthy Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shamsi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lateral wedged insoles have been designed to decrease the force applied on the medial knee compartment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of laterally wedged insoles regarding to the placement of the wedge under the sole (under the heel or under the forefoot on the knee adduction moment and the ground reaction forces. Material & Methods: In this pretest-posttest study, three-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 20 healthy men between 18-30 years old. Knee adduction moment and ground reaction forces were compared among following three types of insoles: a flat insole, a 6˚ laterally inclined heel wedged insole and a 6˚ laterally- inclined forefoot wedged insole. Results: there was no difference between three conditions (flat insole (9.72±1.501, lateral heel wedge (9.866±2.141 and lateral forefoot wedge (9.952±1.986 in peak knee adduction moment (P>0.05. Ground reaction forces and spatiotemporal parameters of gait were not affected by any types of these insoles (P>0.05. Conclusion: Based on the current finding, placement of the lateral wedge under the sole, that is, under the heel or under the forefoot has no effect on the efficacy of these insoles on the adduction moment of the knee and ground reaction forces.

  6. Water velocity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  7. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  8. The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Ben

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar heel pain is a commonly occurring foot complaint. Stretching is frequently utilised as a treatment, yet a systematic review focusing only on its effectiveness has not been published. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of stretching on pain and function in people with plantar heel pain. Methods Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and The Cochrane Library were searched from inception to July 2010. Studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were independently assessed, and their quality evaluated using the modified PEDro scale. Results Six studies including 365 symptomatic participants were included. Two compared stretching with a control, one study compared stretching to an alternative intervention, one study compared stretching to both alternative and control interventions, and two compared different stretching techniques and durations. Quality rating on the modified Pedro scale varied from two to eight out of a maximum of ten points. The methodologies and interventions varied significantly between studies, making meta-analysis inappropriate. Most participants improved over the course of the studies, but when stretching was compared to alternative or control interventions, the changes only reached statistical significance in one study that used a combination of calf muscle stretches and plantar fascia stretches in their stretching programme. Another study comparing different stretching techniques, showed a statistically significant reduction in some aspects of pain in favour of plantar fascia stretching over calf stretches in the short term. Conclusions There were too few studies to assess whether stretching is effective compared to control or other interventions, for either pain or function. However, there is some evidence that plantar fascia stretching may be more effective than Achilles tendon stretching alone in the short-term. Appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, utilizing validated outcome

  9. Knowledge of and attitudes toward heel prick screening for sickle cell disease in Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sonia; Belmar-George, Sharon; Eugene, Alisha; Elias, Vanessa

    2017-06-08

    In the Caribbean country of Saint Lucia, umbilical-cord-blood screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) was the testing method that health care workers (HCWs) on the maternity wards of the hospitals preferred until the new heel prick (HP) testing method was introduced in the country in 2014. This SCD study sought to assess HCWs' knowledge of and attitude toward HP screening and also determine new mothers' favorability toward HP screening. A total of 70 HCWs and 132 new mothers answered survey questionnaires in three hospitals. In addition, four focus group discussions were held, two with HCWs and two with the mothers. Among the HCWs interviewed, 85.7% of them had knowledge of the HP test. However, only 25.7% had attended training sessions on the procedure. Among the HCWs, 64.3% of them felt the HP test should be mandatory, 27.1% said it should not be mandatory, and 8.6% did not know if it should be mandatory. In their focus groups, the HCWs said they believed the mothers would accept the HP method. For their part, 22.0% of the mothers said they had heard about the HP test, and 63.6% reported knowing the reason why the baby would be tested. Further, 83.3% indicated that the test would be beneficial for the baby. In addition, 88.6% of the mothers said that more information on the HP test was needed. In their focus group discussions, the mothers said they were generally not concerned about the pain the heel prick method might cause the baby. The HCWs' knowledge of the HP screening method was high. The mothers trust HCWs, and the mothers would accept the HP procedure irrespective of their knowledge of the test and any discomfort associated with this screening method.

  10. Knowledge of and attitudes toward heel prick screening for sickle cell disease in Saint Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives In the Caribbean country of Saint Lucia, umbilical-cord-blood screening for sickle cell disease (SCD was the testing method that health care workers (HCWs on the maternity wards of the hospitals preferred until the new heel prick (HP testing method was introduced in the country in 2014. This SCD study sought to assess HCWs’ knowledge of and attitude toward HP screening and also determine new mothers’ favorability toward HP screening. Methods A total of 70 HCWs and 132 new mothers answered survey questionnaires in three hospitals. In addition, four focus group discussions were held, two with HCWs and two with the mothers. Results Among the HCWs interviewed, 85.7% of them had knowledge of the HP test. However, only 25.7% had attended training sessions on the procedure. Among the HCWs, 64.3% of them felt the HP test should be mandatory, 27.1% said it should not be mandatory, and 8.6% did not know if it should be mandatory. In their focus groups, the HCWs said they believed the mothers would accept the HP method. For their part, 22.0% of the mothers said they had heard about the HP test, and 63.6% reported knowing the reason why the baby would be tested. Further, 83.3% indicated that the test would be beneficial for the baby. In addition, 88.6% of the mothers said that more information on the HP test was needed. In their focus group discussions, the mothers said they were generally not concerned about the pain the heel prick method might cause the baby. Conclusions The HCWs’ knowledge of the HP screening method was high. The mothers trust HCWs, and the mothers would accept the HP procedure irrespective of their knowledge of the test and any discomfort associated with this screening method.

  11. The Double Contact Nature of TT Herculis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Dirk; Nelson, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    We present new radial velocities and photometry of the short-period Algol TT Herculis. Previous attempts to model the light curves of the system have met with limited success, primarily because of the lack of a reliable mass ratio. Our spectroscopic observations are the first to result in radial velocities for the secondary star, and thus provide a spectroscopic mass ratio. Simultaneous analysis of the radial velocities and new photometry shows that the system is a double contact binary, with a rapidly rotating primary that fills its limiting lobe.

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  14. Sonographic evaluation of the immediate effects of eccentric heel drop exercise on Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle stiffness using shear wave elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson K.C.; Chu, KL

    2017-01-01

    Background Mechanical loading is crucial for muscle and tendon tissue remodeling. Eccentric heel drop exercise has been proven to be effective in the management of Achilles tendinopathy, yet its induced change in the mechanical property (i.e., stiffness) of the Achilles tendon (AT), medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles (MG and LG) was unknown. Given that shear wave elastography has emerged as a powerful tool in assessing soft tissue stiffness with promising intra- and inter-operator reliability, the objective of this study was hence to characterize the stiffness of the AT, MG and LG in response to an acute bout of eccentric heel drop exercise. Methods Forty-five healthy young adults (36 males and nine females) performed 10 sets of 15-repetition heel drop exercise on their dominant leg with fully-extended knee, during which the AT and gastrocnemius muscles, but not soleus, were highly stretched. Before and immediately after the heel drop exercise, elastic moduli of the AT, MG and LG were measured by shear wave elastography. Results After the heel drop exercise, the stiffness of AT increased significantly by 41.8 + 33.5% (P eccentric heel drop exercise. The findings from this pilot study shed some light on how and to what extent the AT and gastrocnemius muscles mechanically responds to an isolated set of heel drop exercise. Taken together, appropriate eccentric load might potentially benefit mechanical adaptations of the AT and gastrocnemius muscles in the rehabilitation of patients with Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:28740756

  15. Velocity Feedback Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient response such as ringing in a control system can be reduced or removed by velocity feedback. It is a useful control technique that should be covered in the relevant engineering laboratory courses. We developed velocity feedback experiments using two different low cost technologies, viz., operational amplifiers and microcontrollers. These experiments can be easily integrated into laboratory courses on feedback control systems or microcontroller applications. The intent of developing these experiments was to illustrate the ringing problem and to offer effective, low cost solutions for removing such problem. In this paper the pedagogical approach for these velocity feedback experiments was described. The advantages and disadvantages of the two different implementation of velocity feedback were discussed also.

  16. The critical ionization velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)

  17. High Velocity Gas Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  18. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Deformation mechanism of the dam heel of Dagangshan high arch dam based on microseismic monitoring during initial impoundment%基于微震监测的大岗山高拱坝坝踵蓄水初期变形机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马克; 金峰; 唐春安; 吕鹏飞; 庄端阳

    2017-01-01

    混凝土高拱坝坝踵是蓄水初期阶段拱坝安全的重点关注部位.通过构建国内首套高拱坝坝踵微震监测系统,实现对蓄水初期阶段大岗山拱坝坝踵区微破裂的实时监测,探究坝踵蓄水初期变形机制及其与微震活动性的关系.采用人工敲击试验确定坝踵等效P波波速为4 300 rn/s,系统定位误差小于8m.对系统获取的事件波形进行噪声滤除,并在自动定位基础上进行人工二次校核,提高定位精度,验证了微震监测技术应用于大体积混凝土工程的可行性.分析认为:蓄水初期阶段,大岗山高拱坝坝踵区微震活动性与库水位密切相关,微震事件聚集区实现从坝踵向坝趾的转移,坝踵压缩变形减小,而坝趾区变形量增加.此外,通过拱坝坝踵区微震变形演化过程,揭示了导流洞下闸蓄水前940 m高程基础廊道拱顶裂缝产生的根本诱因.研究成果可为混凝土高拱坝微震监测和真实工作性态研究提供参考.%The safety of the heel of the concrete high arch dam is highly concemed during the initial impoundment.The microseismic monitoring system was installed for the first time in China at the high arch dam heel.The real-time monitoring of the micro-cracks was achieved in the heel zone of the Dagangshan arch dam during the initial impoundment.The deformation mechanism of the arch dam heel and its relationship with the microseismic activities were investigated.The P wave velocity was determined using the manual tapping test and was 4 300 m/s with the error of system positioning less than 8 m.The event waveforms were denoised.The automatic positioning results were manually verified for better accuracy.The results proved the feasibility of applying the microseismic monitoring technology in the large-scale concrete structures.During the initial impoundment period,the microseismic activities of the high arch dam heel were closely related to the water level of reservoir.The accumulation

  20. Evaluation of the anode heel effect on the testes dose during pelvic radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anode heel effect refers to reduction of radiation intensity in the anode side of X-ray tube. This variation in radiation intensity across the anode-cathode of X-ray tube can be benefited for decrease radiation exposure in some radiological examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of anode heel orientation on the radiation dose received by the testes in male patients undergoing pelvic radiography. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted at one of the teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Jundishapur University of Medical Science Ahvaz, Iran, from September 2015 to March 2016. In order to measure the profile of radiation intensity variation, 13 paired sets of high radiosensitive cylindrical lithium fluoride thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLD aligned on the cathode-anode central axis upon the table and then irradiated using routine exposure parameters. The anode of X-ray tube was positioned toward the feet for 40 patients and toward the head for 39 patients undergoing pelvic radiography. For measure the entrance skin dose (ESD, 8 TLD chips were located on the central point of the radiation field and 5 TLDs were located on the testes position to measure the dose received. Results: Radiation intensity profile showed that radiation intensity decrease from the cathode to the anode side. Discrepancy of radiation intensity on central axis of cathode-anode was calculated about 35%. The radiation dose received by the testes was 26.74% lower for patients the anode directed toward the feet, compared to the patients in which the anode directed toward the head (FTC: 1.260±0.296 mGy, FTA: 0.923±0.167 mGy, P<0.05. There was no meaningful difference for the measured ESD of pelvis between two groups of patients (FTC: 1.256±0.315 mGy, FTA: 1.195±0.205 mGy, P=0.788. Conclusion: In pelvic radiography, positioning of testes directed to the anode of X-ray tube can decrease the receive dose.

  1. [Effects of different types and concentration of oral sweet solution on reducing neonatal pain during heel lance procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hong-yao; Zheng, Xian-lan; Yan, Li; Zhang, Xian-hong; He, Hua-yun; Xiang, Ming

    2013-09-01

    To compare the effect of different types and concentrations of sweet solutions on neonatal pain during heel lance procedure. Totally 560 full term neonates (male 295, female 265) were randomized into 7 groups:placebo group (plain water), 10% glucose, 25% glucose, 50% glucose, 12% sucrose, 24% sucrose and 30% sucrose groups.In each group, 2 ml corresponding oral solutions were administered through a syringe by dripping into the neonate's mouth 2 minute before heel lance. The procedure process was recorded by videos, from which to collect heart rate, oxygen saturation and pain score 1 min before puncture, 3, 5 and 10 min after puncture. The average heart rate increase 3, 5 and 10 min after procedure in the 25% and 50% glucose groups, 12% and 24% and 30% sucrose groups was significantly lower than those in the placebo group (P lance (both P lance, but the best concentration of sucrose for pain relief needs further study.

  2. Mixing of process heels, process solutions, and recycle streams: Results of the small-scale radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Bramson, J.P.; Farmer III, O.T.; Greenwood, L.R.; Hoopes, F.V.; Mann, M.A.; Steele, M.J.; Steele, R.T.; Swoboda, R.G.; Urie, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Various recycle streams will be combined with the low-activity waste (LAW) or the high-level waste (HLW) feed solutions during the processing of the Hanford tank wastes by BNFL, Inc. In addition, the LAW and HLW feed solutions will also be mixed with heels present in the processing equipment. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of mixing specific process streams. Observations were made regarding adverse reactions (mainly precipitation) and effects on the Tc oxidation state (as indicated by K d measurements with SuperLigreg s ign 639). The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-023, Rev. 0, Small Scale Mixing of Process Heels, Solutions, and Recycle Streams. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section

  3. Modified circular velocity law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeghloul, Nazim

    2018-05-01

    A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.

  4. The influence of high-heeled shoes on strain and tension force of the anterior talofibular ligament and plantar fascia during balanced standing and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Zhang, Hongtao; Luo, Zong-Ping; Zhang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    High-heeled shoes have the capability to alter the strain and tension of ligamentous structures between the foot and ankle, which may result in ankle instability. However, high-heeled shoes can also reduce the strain on plantar fascia, which may be beneficial for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. In this study, the influence of heel height on strain and tension force applied to the anterior talofibular ligament (ATL) and plantar fascia were investigated. A three-dimensional finite element model of coupled foot-ankle-shoe complex was constructed. Four heel heights were studied in balanced standing: 0 in. (0cm), 1 in. (2.54cm), 2 in. (5.08cm), and 3 in. (7.62cm). A walking analysis was performed using 2-in. (5.08cm) high-heeled shoes. During balanced standing, the tension force on the ATL increased from 14.8N to 97.0N, with a six-fold increase in strain from 0 in. to 3 in. (0-7.62cm). The tension force and the average strain on the plantar fascia decreased from 151.0N (strain: 0.74%) to 59.6N (strain: 0.28%) when the heel height increased from 0 in. to 2 in. (0-5.08cm). When heel height reached 3 in. (7.62cm), the force and average strain increased to 278.3N (strain: 1.33%). The walking simulation showed that the fascia stretched out while the ATL loading decreased during push off. The simulation outcome demonstrated the influence of heel height on ATL alteration and plantar fascia strain, which implies risks for ankle injury and suggests guidance for the treatment of plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heel blood flow during loading and off-loading in bedridden older adults with low and normal ankle-brachial pressure index: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nami; Sugama, Junko; Okuwa, Mayumi; Inagaki, Misako; Matsuo, Junko; Nakatani, Tosio; Sanada, Hiromi

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in heel blood flow during loading and off-loading in bedridden adults older than 65 years. The patients were divided into three groups based on ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) and transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO₂): (1) patients with an ABI ≥ 0.8 (Group A); (2) patients with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ ≥ 10 mmHg (Group B); and (3) patients with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ < 10 mmHg (Group C). Heel blood flow was monitored using tcPO₂ sensors. Data were collected with the heel (1) suspended above the bed surface (preload), (2) on the bed surface for 30 min (loading), and (3) again suspended above the bed surface for 60 min (off-loading). Heel blood flow during off-loading was assessed using three parameters: oxygen recovery index (ORI), total tcPO₂ for the first 10 min, and change in tcPO₂ after 60 min of off-loading. ORI in Group C (n = 8) was significantly shorter than in Groups A (n = 22) and B (n = 15). Total tcPO₂ for the first 10 min of off-loading in Group C was significantly less than that in Groups A and B. Change in tcPO₂ after 60 min of off-loading in Group C was less than in Group A. Based on these findings, additional preventive care against heel blood flow decrease in older adults with an ABI < 0.8 and heel tcPO₂ < 10 mmHg might be necessary after loading.

  6. Comparative study of the results of heel ultrasound screening and DXA findings (lumbar spine and left hip of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Jaganjac

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent and invisible disease of bone, great presence and is considered to suffer from osteoporosis at least 200 million women worldwide. The goal of this paper is to show average ageof postmenopausal respondents, values of anthropometric parameters (weight, height, BMI, anamnestic data on clinical symptoms, fractures of women in menopause, analysis of heel ultrasound screening results,analysis of lumbar spine DXA results, analysis of left hip DXA results.Methods: In retrospective study 61 respondents were involved, 33 to 79 years old, treated in u Center for Physical Medicine and Acupuncture “AD” in Sarajevo during the period from 01.01.2008 till 31.12.2009. Alldate are shown numerically and percentage account with calculation of mean value, expressed in the form of tables and charts.Results: Finding of heel ultrosound screening compared to T values of postmenopausal respondents indicates on osteoporosis in case of 17 (27,87%, in case of 44 (72,13% respondents osteopenia, while normalvalues were not found. T value with lumbar spine DXA method in postmenopausal female respondents correspond to 43 (70,5% respondents, in 15 respondents (24,6% finding corresponded to osteopenia, while 3 respondents (4,9% had physiological finding. Left hip DXA finding shows 36 (59% respondents corresponded osteoporosis, 19 (31,2% respondents corresponded osteopenia, while physiological finding was found in 6 respondents (9,8%. T value of lumbar spine DXA finding was - 2,71 ± 1,16; DXA finding of left hip -2,35 ±1,36; heel ultrasound screening -2,19 ± 0,54.Conclusion: Research results indicate that DXA finding in relation to the heel ultrasound screening confirms gold standard in diagnosing osteoporosis.

  7. Co-bedding between preterm twins attenuates stress response after heel lance: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Yeo, Marsha L; Johnston, C Celeste; Joseph, K S; Feeley, Nancy; Chambers, Christine T; Barrington, Keith J; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2014-07-01

    To examine the effect of co-bedding between preterm twins on stress response after heel lance. Using a multisite randomized controlled trial design, stable preterm twins (67 sets, N=134 infants) between 28 and 36 completed weeks' gestational age, stratified by gestational age (≤ and >32 weeks) and site, were randomly assigned to a co-bedding group, cared for continuously in the same incubator or crib or a standard care group, cared for in a separate incubator or crib, and underwent a medically indicated heel lance after at least 24 hours and no greater than 10 days of group allocation. The reported outcome was cortisol from saliva samples from 89 twins (n=49 co-bedding, n=40 standard care) collected immediately before the heel lance (baseline levels) and 113 twins (n=58 co-bedding, n=55 standard care) collected 20 minutes after heel lance (stress levels) as an index of stress response. No group differences were noted in baseline salivary cortisol levels: 0.36 μg/dL (SD 0.25) in the co-bedding group and 0.43 μg/dL (SD 0.50) in the standard care group. Twenty minutes after lance, levels were significantly lower in the co-bedding group, 0.28 μg/dL (SD 0.25) versus 0.50 μg/dL (SD 0.73) in the standard group (P=0.04). Similarly, the mean of paired changes in salivary cortisol from baseline was lower in the co-bedding group (-0.06 μg/dL) compared with the standard care group (0.14 μg/dL, Plance. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT009176.

  8. Evaluation of Extended Wall OSB Sheathing Connection under Combined Uplift and Shear Loading for 24-inch Heel Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kochkin; Andrew DeRenzis; Xiping Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the extended wall structural panel connection in resisting combined uplift and shear forces at the roof-to-wall interface with a focus on a truss heel height of 24 in. to address the expected increases in the depth of attic insulation used in Climate Zones 5 and higher. Five full-size roof-wall assemblies were...

  9. Effect of medial and lateral heel wedge changes On mechanical parameters of diabetic foot ulcers during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abdi

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that heel wedges change effect was significantly different between the peak pressure and peak pressure time integral on the metatarsal head regions. A median slope of 6 degrees can also be suitable for reducing the peak pressure in the three, four, and five metatarsal head, as well as a 6 degree can also be suitable for reducing the peak pressure in the metatarsal head.

  10. The efficacy of mechanical vibration analgesia for relief of heel stick pain in neonates: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Lisa R; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Liu, Jiexin

    2010-01-01

    Hospitalized infants are often exposed to many painful procedures as a result of their illness or disease process. Untreated or poorly treated pain can have deleterious effects on normal nociceptive pain development as well as future development of pain pathways. Mechanical vibration has been found to be efficacious in adult and pediatric populations for the relief of mild-to-moderate acute and chronic pain. However, little is known about the efficacy of this intervention in the neonatal population. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mechanical vibration would be efficacious in the relief of pain associated with heel sticks in neonates. Heel sticks are one of the most common painful procedures during neonatal hospitalization. A random-sequencing crossover design was used with infants acting as their own controls. Newborn infants of 35 weeks' gestation or greater (N = 20) met the inclusion criteria for the study. Pain during heel stick was measured with the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale. The Neonatal Infant Pain Scale is a nonintrusive tool with extensive evidence of its reliability and validity in the neonatal population, when used by trained observers. Mechanical vibration produced an analgesic effect for infants who had previously experienced painful heel sticks that approached statistical significance. The apparent limitations of mechanical vibration as analgesia may be due to the concurrent use of sucrose and pacifier, the effects of order (ie, habituation), or type II error. Because vibration produced the predicted positive effect in some circumstances, further investigation in larger samples within a randomized clinical trial is warranted.

  11. Contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small contact to full contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. The numerical calculations mainly focus on the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For a small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For a high load the contact area approaches the nominal contact area (i.e. complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches zero. The numerical results have been compared with analytical theory and experimental results. They are in good agreement with each other. The present findings may be very important for soft solids, e.g. rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderately high loads without plastic deformation of the solids

  12. The use of hemoglobin saturation ratio as a means of measuring tissue perfusion in the development of heel pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliano, Kristen A; Stavrides, Steve; Davenport, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The heel is a common site of pressure ulcers. The amount of pressure and time needed to develop these wounds is dependent on various factors including pressure surface, the patient's anatomy, and co-morbidities. We studied the use of the hemoglobin saturation ratio as a means of assessing heel perfusion in various pressure settings. The mixed perfusion ratio in the heels of 5 volunteers was assessed on 3 pressure surfaces and at the time of off-load. The surfaces studied included: stretcher pad, plastic backboard without padding, and pressure reduction gel. Each surface was measured for 5 minutes with a real-time reading. On the stretcher, the average StO2% decrease for each pressure surface was 26.2 ± 10 (range 18-43). The average StO2% decrease on the backboard was 22.8 ± 12.3 (range 8-37), and 24.0 ± 4.8 (range 19-30) on the gel pad. The StO2% drop plateaued with the stretcher and gel pad, but with the backboard there was a continued slow drop at 5 minutes. This study demonstrates that hemoglobin oxygenation ratio may be effective in assessing a tissue's direct perfusion in the setting of tissue pressure and may also be beneficial to better assess the effects of pressure-reduction surfaces. Further studies will be needed to determine time to skin breakdown as it pertains to pressure and tissue oxygenation.

  13. The influence of heel height on vertical ground reaction force during landing tasks in recreationally active and athletic collegiate females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Kelly M; Carcia, Christopher R

    2013-02-01

    To determine if heel height alters vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF) when landing from a forward hop or drop landing. Increased vGRF during landing are theorized to increase ACL injury risk in female athletes. Fifty collegiate females performed two single-limb landing tasks while wearing heel lifts of three different sizes (0, 12 & 24 mm) attached to the bottom of a athletic shoe. Using a force plate, peak vGRF at landing was examined. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the influence of heel height on the dependent measures. Forward hop task- Peak vGRF (normalized for body mass) with 0 mm, 12 mm, and 24 mm lifts were 2.613±0.498, 2.616±0.497 and 2.495±0.518% BW, respectively. Significant differences were noted between 0 and 24 mm lift (psneaker significantly alters peak vGRF upon landing from a unilateral forward hop but not from a jumping maneuver.

  14. Oral glucose and breast milk as a strategy for pain reduction during the heel lance procedure in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Mur Villar, Norma; García García, Inmaculada; Rodríguez López, María Ascensión; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on pain reduction in newborns that undergo painful medical procedures. This research analyzed the reactions of babies before and after the heel lance procedure, a diagnostic test performed to detect phenylketonuria. This test involved the extraction of a capillary blood sample with a heel lance, a medical procedure that is painful for neonates. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 24% oral glucose solution and breastfeeding during heal lance. An experimental study was thus conducted on a sample of 93 newborns in the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada in 2010. The babies in the sample were divided into three groups, depending on what they ingested during the heal lance. The results obtained showed that there was an association between the difference in HR and the time before the newborn's HR returned to normal after the heel lance (r = 0.562; p = 0.000). Moreover, a positive relation was found between the absolute difference in HR and the difference in oxygen saturation (OS) (r = 0.538; p = 0.000). The OS was found to be greater in the group of newborns that received breast milk. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact reduction through long-term intervention in recreational runners: midfoot strike pattern versus low-drop/low-heel height footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlène; Horvais, Nicolas; Farges, Yohann; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2013-08-01

    Impact reduction has become a factor of interest in the prevention of running-related injuries such as stress fractures. Currently, the midfoot strike pattern (MFS) is thought as a potential way to decrease impact. The purpose was to test the effects of two long-term interventions aiming to reduce impact during running via a transition to an MFS: a foot strike retraining versus a low-drop/low-heel height footwear. Thirty rearfoot strikers were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (SHOES and TRAIN). SHOES progressively wore low-drop/low-heel height shoes and TRAIN progressively adopted an MFS, over a 3-month period with three 30-min running sessions per week. Measurement sessions (pre-training, 1, 2 and 3 months) were performed during which subjects were equipped with three accelerometers on the shin, heel and metatarsals, and ran for 15 min on an instrumented treadmill. Synchronized acceleration and vertical ground reaction force signals were recorded. Peak heel acceleration was significantly lower as compared to pre-training for SHOES (-33.5 ± 12.8 % at 2 months and -25.3 ± 18.8 % at 3 months, p heel height footwear seemed to be more effective than foot strike retraining to attenuate heel impact in the long term.

  16. The Achilles' heel of left ventricular assist device therapy: right ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, Neel K; Smith, Deane E; Moazami, Nader

    2018-06-01

    Many patients suffer from either persistent right ventricular failure (RVF) at the time of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) or have ongoing symptoms consistent with RVF during chronic mechanical circulatory support. The lack of long-term right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) has limited the impact that mechanical circulatory support can provide to patients with biventricular failure. We aim to review the entire spectrum of RVF in patients receiving LVADs and reflect on why this entity remains the Achilles' heel of LVAD therapy. In the early postoperative period, LVAD implantation reduces right ventricle (RV) afterload, but RV dysfunction may be exacerbated secondary to increased venous return. With prolonged therapy, the decreased RV afterload leads to improved RV contractile function. Bayesian statistical models outperform previously published preoperative risk scores by considering inter-relationships and conditional probabilities amongst independent variables. Various echocardiographic parameters and the pulmonary artery pulsatility index have shown promise in predicting post-LVAD RVF. Recent publications have delineated the emergence of 'delayed' RVF. Several devices are currently being investigated for use as RVADs. Post-LVAD RVF depends on the RV's ability to adapt to acute hemodynamic changes imposed by the LVAD. Management options are limited due to the lack of an easily implantable, chronic-use RVAD.

  17. A Case of Heel Reconstruction with a Reverse Sural Artery Flap in a Hemophilia B Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kwon Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia B is a rare blood coagulation disorder. Complications such as bleeding and hematoma can cause necrosis of flaps, wound disruption, and the disturbance of wound healing. In particular, guidelines for flap operations in hemophilia B patients have still not been defined, and case reports are rare. We reconstructed the heel of a 41-year-old male hemophilia B patient using a reverse sural artery flap operation. The patient presented with mild hemophilia, having 27% of the normal value of coagulation factor IX. Coagulation and the changing value of the coagulation factor were regularly measured, and 70% of the normal value of coagulation factor IX was maintained through the injection of recombinant coagulation factors and antihemorrhagics. Hematoma developed twice (postoperative day [POD] 5 and POD 7 and in each case the hematoma was removed. Injections of recombinant coagulation factors and antihemorrhagics were continuously administered until postoperative week 2. When the coagulation factors were within normal ranges. In this article, a hemophilia B patient underwent reverse sural artery flap surgery and the healing progress was analyzed. We conclude that higher than baseline levels of coagulation factors are needed for successful healing in reverse sural artery flap surgery.

  18. The validity and reliability of a dynamic neuromuscular stabilization-heel sliding test for core stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Jae Jin; Kim, Do Hyun; You, Joshua Sung H

    2017-10-23

    Core stabilization plays an important role in the regulation of postural stability. To overcome shortcomings associated with pain and severe core instability during conventional core stabilization tests, we recently developed the dynamic neuromuscular stabilization-based heel sliding (DNS-HS) test. The purpose of this study was to establish the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of the novel DNS-HS test. Twenty young adults with core instability completed both the bilateral straight leg lowering test (BSLLT) and DNS-HS test for the criterion validity study and repeated the DNS-HS test for the test-retest reliability study. Criterion validity was determined by comparing hip joint angle data that were obtained from BSLLT and DNS-HS measures. The test-retest reliability was determined by comparing hip joint angle data. Criterion validity was (ICC2,3) = 0.700 (preliability was (ICC3,3) = 0.953 (pvalidity data demonstrated a good relationship between the gold standard BSLLT and DNS-HS core stability measures. Test-retest reliability data suggests that DNS-HS core stability was a reliable test for core stability. Clinically, the DNS-HS test is useful to objectively quantify core instability and allow early detection and evaluation.

  19. Dendritic cells as Achilles' heel and Trojan horse during varicella zoster virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther eSchönrich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpesvirus, causes varicella and subsequently estab-lishes latency within sensory nerve ganglia. Later in life VZV can reactivate to cause herpes zoster. A reduced frequency of VZV-specific T cells is strongly associated with herpes zoster illustrating that these immune cells are central to control latency. Dendritic cells (DCs are required for the generation of VZV-specific T cells. However, DCs can also be infected in vitro and in vivo allowing VZV to evade the antiviral immune response. Thus, DCs represent the immune systems’ Achilles heel. Uniquely among the human herpesviruses, VZV infects both DCs and T cells, and exploits both as Trojan horses. During primary infection VZV-infected DCs traffic to the draining lymph nodes and tonsils, where the virus is transferred to T cells. VZV-infected T cells subsequently spread infection throughout the body to give the typical varicella skin rash. The delicate interplay between VZV and DCs and its consequences for viral immune evasion and viral dissemination will be discussed in this article.

  20. Narcissistic rage: The Achilles’ heel of the patient with chronic physical illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Almyroudi, Augustina; Paika, Vassiliki; Goulia, Panagiota; Arvanitakis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Based on the psychoanalytic reading of Homer’s Iliad whose principal theme is “Achilles’ rage” (the semi-mortal hero invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel, hence “Achilles’ heel” has come to mean a person’s principal weakness), we aimed to assess whether “narcissistic rage” has an impact on several psychosocial variables in patients with severe physical illness across time. In 878 patients with cancer, rheumatological diseases, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and glaucoma, we assessed psychological distress (SCL-90 and GHQ-28), quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), interpersonal difficulties (IIP-40), hostility (HDHQ), and defense styles (DSQ). Narcissistic rage comprised DSQ “omnipotence” and HDHQ “extraverted hostility”. Hierarchical multiple regressions analyses were performed. We showed that, in patients with disease duration less than one year, narcissistic rage had a minor impact on psychosocial variables studied, indicating that the rage was rather part of a “normal” mourning process. On the contrary, in patients with longer disease duration, increased rates of narcissistic rage had a great impact on all outcome variables, and the opposite was true for patients with low rates of narcissistic rage, indicating that narcissistic rage constitutes actually an “Achilles’ Heel” for patients with long-term physical illness. These findings may have important clinical implications. PMID:19936167

  1. EM-21 Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Program For Sludge Heel Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; King, W.; Martino, C.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary studies in the EM-21 Alternative Chemical Cleaning Program have focused on understanding the dissolution of Hematite (a primary sludge heel phase) in oxalic acid, with a focus on minimizing oxalic acid usage. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control, preferably using a supplemental proton source, is critical to oxalate minimization. With pH control, iron concentrations as high as 0.103 M have been obtained in 0.11 M oxalic acid. This is consistent with the formation of a 1:1 (iron:oxalate) complex. The solubility of Hematite in oxalic acid has been confirmed to increase by a factor of 3 when the final solution pH decreases from 5 to below 1. This is consistent with literature predictions of a shift in speciation from a 1:3 to 1:1 as the pH is lowered. Above a solution pH of 6, little Hematite dissolves. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing Hematite dissolution in oxalic acid.

  2. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...

  3. Multidisc neutron velocity selector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosta, L.; Zsigmond, Gy.; Farago, B.; Mezei, F.; Ban, K.; Perendi, J.

    1987-12-01

    The prototype of a velocity selector for neutron monochromatization in the 4-20 A wavelength range is presented. The theoretical background of the multidisc rotor system is given together with a description of the mechanical construction and electronic driving system. The first tests and neutron measurements prove easy handling and excellent parameters. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Skin hydration of the heel with fissure in patients with diabetes: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oe M

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Oe,1 Kimie Takehara,2 Hiroshi Noguchi,3 Yumiko Ohashi,4 Mayu Fukuda,1 Takashi Kadowaki,5 Hiromi Sanada1,6 1Global Nursing Research Center, 2Department of Advanced Nursing Technology, 3Department of Life Support Technology (Molten, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 4Department of Nursing, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 5Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, 6Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Foot fissure should be prevented in patients with diabetes due to the likelihood of subsequent diabetic ulcer. The purpose of this study was to investigate a cutoff point for skin hydration with fissure and the factors associated with low skin hydration in patients with diabetes. Subjects and methods: Subjects were patients with diabetes who visited the diabetic foot clinic and were evaluated for skin hydration on the heel between April 2008 and March 2015. Information about fissure, skin hydration, age, sex, autonomic neuropathy, angiopathy, and tinea pedis were collected from the medical charts. Skin hydration on the heel was measured using a moisture checker. Skin hydration was compared between heels with and without fissure, and a cutoff for skin hydration with fissure was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Based on the determined cutoff, factors associated with lower skin hydration were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results: Participants comprised 693 patients. Mean±SD age was 66.8±10.8 years, and 57.0% of subjects were male. The frequency of fissures on the heels was 10.4%. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for skin hydration in the presence of fissure was 0.717. Twenty percent was selected as the cutoff point, offering sensitivity of 0.478 and specificity of 0.819. Logistic regression analysis showed correlations between three factors (male sex, tinea

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over-the-Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can ... was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn't see well enough to ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  12. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glow-in-the-dark lizard lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. But ... consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  17. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  18. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Majhi, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  1. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is a risk of eye infection from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage case every 3 months or as directed by your eye care professional. Other Risks of Contact Lenses Other risks of contact lenses include pink eye ( ...

  2. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  3. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  4. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  5. Multidisk neutron velocity selectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, B.

    1992-01-01

    Helical multidisk velocity selectors used for neutron scattering applications have been analyzed and tested experimentally. Design and performance considerations are discussed along with simple explanation of the basic concept. A simple progression is used for the inter-disk spacing in the 'Rosta' design. Ray tracing computer investigations are presented in order to assess the 'coverage' (how many absorbing layers are stacked along the path of 'wrong' wavelength neutrons) and the relative number of neutrons absorbed in each disk (and therefore the relative amount of gamma radiation emitted from each disk). We discuss whether a multidisk velocity selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration (i.e. the selector is turned by 180 0 around a vertical axis with the rotor spun in the reverse direction). Experimental tests and calibration of a multidisk selector are reported together with evidence that a multidisk selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration. (orig.)

  6. Retrospective study on radiotherapy efficacy in case of painful heel spur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klossok-Niethammer, Ruth Giuliana

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The effect of radiotherapy in context of a plantar fasciitis in order to reduce pain was evaluated in this retrospective study. Patients and methods: The data of 188 patients who suffered of heel spur pain and who were irradiated in the period from 1994 to 2009 were evaluated in this study. All of them had at least one follow up examination after radiatiotherapy. The mean age amounted to 57 years. 76.5% of the patients were female. All patients described a local pain which was the basis for the indication. 74.4 % of the patients described pain especially under stress. The duration of anamnesis was averaged as follows: 15 % of the patients had pain for some weeks to 3 months, 43 % for 4 to 6 months, 28% even for 7 to 12 months. The period of medical history was longer than 12 months for 12 % of the patients in this study. 122 of 188 patients received orthopedic arch support (shoe inlays) as first therapy method. Most of the patients were irradiated using regular lateral opposing fields with photons of the energy 4 MV and 6 MV of a linear accelerator, applying a total dose of 6Gy in 6 fractions to 1,0Gy twice weekly. Only one patient was irradiated using a Co 60 machine. The acquisition of data regarding the effect was performed on the last day of the radiotherapy and in 3 to 6 monthly follow ups. Additionally the doctors who attended the patients beyond the radiotherapy received a special questionnaire about the pain reduction, so that the follow up data could be completed. Results: On the last day of radiotherapy 120/188 patients (63,8%)reported an improvement of pain reduction, 7/188 patients (3,7%) absence of pain. For 52/188 patients (27.6 %) pain remained constant. At the second follow up examination after in the median 100 days the effect of radiotherapy of 165 patients could be evaluated, 43/165 patients (26 %) were pain free, 79/165 patients (47,8 %) reported an obvious pain reduction, and for 33/165 patients there was no pain improvement. At the

  7. Pain relief effect of breast feeding and music therapy during heel lance for healthy-term neonates in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Hong-Gu, He; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Wei, Haixia; Gao, Yaru; Ye, Benlan; Liu, Zuguo; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2015-03-01

    to test the effectiveness of breast feeding (BF), music therapy (MT), and combined breast feeding and music therapy (BF+MT) on pain relief in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. randomised controlled trial. in the postpartum unit of one university-affiliated hospital in China from August 2013 to February 2014. among 288 healthy-term neonates recruited, 250 completed the trial. All neonates were undergoing heel lancing for metabolic screening, were breast fed, and had not been fed for the previous 30 minutes. all participants were randomly assigned into four groups - BF, MT, BF+MT, and no intervention - with 72 neonates in each group. Neonates in the control group received routine care. Neonates in the other three intervention groups received corresponding interventions five minutes before the heel lancing and throughout the whole procedure. Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), latency to first cry, and duration of first crying. mean changes in NIPS scores from baseline over time was dependent on the interventions given. Neonates in the BF and combined BF+MT groups had significantly longer latency to first cry, shorter duration of first crying, and lower pain mean score during and one minute after heel lance, compared to the other two groups. No significant difference in pain response was found between BF groups with or without music therapy. The MT group did not achieve a significantly reduced pain response in all outcome measures. BF could significantly reduce pain response in healthy-term neonates during heel lance. MT did not enhance the effect of pain relief of BF. healthy-term neonates should be breast fed to alleviate pain during heel lance. There is no need for the additional input of classical music on breast feeding in clinic to relieve procedural pain. Nurses should encourage breast feeding to relieve pain during heel lance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal mood and concordant maternal and infant salivary cortisol during heel lance while in kangaroo care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castral, T C; Warnock, F; Dos Santos, C B; Daré, M F; Moreira, A C; Antonini, S R R; Scochi, C G S

    2015-03-01

    Maternal kangaroo care (MKC) is a naturalistic intervention that alleviates neonatal pain, and mothers are assumed to play a stress regulatory role in MKC. Yet, no MKC infant pain study has examined relationship between maternal and infant stress reactivity concurrently, or whether post-partum depression and/or anxiety (PPDA) alters maternal and neonatal stress response and the regulatory effects of MKC. To examine the concordance of salivary cortisol reactivity between 42 mothers and their stable preterm infants during routine infant heel lance (HL) while in MKC and to compare salivary cortisol between groups of mothers with and without PPDA and their infants. Maternal and infant salivary cortisol samples were collected pre-HL and 20 min post-HL with two additional maternal samples at night and in the morning. Mothers and infants were allocated to with PPDA versus without PPDA study groups on the basis of maternal post-natal mental health assessment scores. Higher mothers' cortisol pre-HL was weakly associated with higher infants' salivary cortisol in response to the HL procedure. Maternal depression and/or anxiety were not associated with infants' cortisol. During HL, both groups of mothers and infants showed no change in salivary cortisol. Concordance between mother and infant salivary cortisol supports the maternal stress regulatory role in MKC. MKC may have stress regulatory benefits for mothers and their preterm infants during HL independent of PPDA. Future MKC studies that target mothers with altered mood will help to build on these findings. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  9. Low back pain and disability in individuals with plantar heel pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClinton, Shane; Weber, Carolyn F; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2018-03-01

    Lack of response to plantar heel pain (PHP) treatment may be related to unmanaged low back pain (LBP) and low back dysfunction, but a relationship between LBP and PHP has not been established. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the prevalence of LBP among individuals with and without PHP and to assess the association between low back disability and foot/ankle function. A cross-sectional study compared the prevalence and likelihood of LBP in individuals with (n=27) and without (n=27) PHP matched to age, sex, BMI, foot posture, and foot mobility. In individuals with PHP, correlations were examined between foot/ankle function using the foot and ankle ability measure (FAAM), low back disability using the Oswestry low back disability questionnaire (OSW), duration of PHP symptoms, body mass index (BMI), and age. A greater percentage of individuals with PHP had LBP (74% versus 37% of controls, odds ratio=5.2, P=0.009) and higher levels of low back disability (17% higher OSW score than controls, PPHP, FAAM scores were correlated with OSW scores (ρ=-0.463, P=0.015), but not with duration of PHP symptoms, BMI, or age (P>0.150). Individuals with PHP had a greater prevalence of LBP and higher low back disability that was correlated to reduced foot and ankle function. Treatment to address both local and proximal impairments, including impairments related to LBP, may be warranted to improve the management of PHP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Narcissistic rage: The Achilles’ heel of the patient with chronic physical illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hyphantis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hyphantis1, Augustina Almyroudi1, Vassiliki Paika1, Panagiota Goulia1, Konstantinos Arvanitakis2,31Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Canadian Institute of Psychoanalysis, Mcgill University, Montreal, Canada; 3Departments of Philosophy and Psychiatry, Mcgill University Health Centre, Montreal, CanadaAbstract: Based on the psychoanalytic reading of Homer’s Iliad whose principal theme is “Achilles’ rage” (the semi-mortal hero invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel, hence “Achilles’ heel” has come to mean a person’s principal weakness, we aimed to assess whether “narcissistic rage” has an impact on several psychosocial variables in patients with severe physical illness across time. In 878 patients with cancer, rheumatological diseases, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and glaucoma, we assessed psychological distress (SCL-90 and GHQ-28, quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF, interpersonal difficulties (IIP-40, hostility (HDHQ, and defense styles (DSQ. Narcissistic rage comprised DSQ “omnipotence” and HDHQ “extraverted hostility”. Hierarchical multiple regressions analyses were performed. We showed that, in patients with disease duration less than one year, narcissistic rage had a minor impact on psychosocial variables studied, indicating that the rage was rather part of a “normal” mourning process. On the contrary, in patients with longer disease duration, increased rates of narcissistic rage had a great impact on all outcome variables, and the opposite was true for patients with low rates of narcissistic rage, indicating that narcissistic rage constitutes actually an “Achilles’ Heel” for patients with long-term physical illness. These findings may have important clinical implications.Keywords: consultation-liaison psychiatry, psychosomatics, narcissism, physical illness, quality of life, psychological distress, personality

  11. Total contact cast for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Yaqoob, M.Y.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the outcome of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers treated with Total Contact Cast (TCC) in terms of percentage of ulcers healed and time to heal. The study included diabetic patients with non-ischemic neuropathic foot ulcers of upto grade 2 of Wagner's classification. Ulcers were debrided off necrotic tissues and Total Contact Cast (TCC) was applied. TCC was renewed every 2 weeks till healing. Cases were labeled as cast failure when there was no reduction in wound size in 4 consecutive weeks or worsening to a higher grade. Main outcome measures were the percentage of ulcers healed and time to heal in the cast. Thirty four (87.17%) patients were males and 5(12.82%) were females. The mean age was 62 +- 13.05 years. All patients had NIDDM. Out of the 52 ulcers, 41(78.84%) healed with TCC in an average 2 casts duration (mean 32 days). There were 11(21.15%) cast failure. Majority (63.63%) of cast failure ulcers were located on pressure bearing area of heel. Most (90%) of the ulcers on forefoot and midsole region healed with TCC (p<0.001). Longer ulcer duration (mean 57.45 +- 29.64 days) significantly reduced ulcer healing (p<0.001). Total contact cast was an effective treatment modality for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers of Wagner's grade 2, located on forefoot and midsole region. (author)

  12. CONTACT RESISTANCE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. LOSKUTOV

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the contribution of the real contact spots distribution in the total conductivity of the conductors contact. Methodology. The electrical contact resistance research was carried out on models. The experimental part of this work was done on paper with a graphite layer with membranes (the first type and conductive liquids with discrete partitions (the second type. Findings. It is shown that the contact electrical resistance is mainly determined by the real area of metal contact. The experimental dependence of the electrical resistance of the second type model on the distance between the electrodes and the potential distribution along the sample surface for the first type model were obtained. The theoretical model based on the principle of electric field superposition was considered. The dependences obtained experimentally and calculated by using the theoretical model are in good agreement. Originality. The regularity of the electrical contact resistance formation on a large number of membranes was researched for the first time. A new model of discrete electrical contact based on the liquid as the conducting environment with nuclear membrane partitions was developed. The conclusions of the additivity of contact and bulk electrical resistance were done. Practical value. Based on these researches, a new experimental method of kinetic macroidentation that as a parameter of the metal surface layer deformation uses the real contact area was developed. This method allows to determine the value of average contact stresses, yield point, change of the stress on the depth of deformation depending on the surface treatment.

  13. The 2016 HIGh Heels: Health effects And psychosexual BenefITS (HIGH HABITS study: systematic review of reviews and additional primary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Barnish

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-heeled shoes (high heels are frequently worn by many women and form an important part of female gender identity. Issues of explicit and implicit compulsion to wear high heels have been noted. Previous studies and reviews have provided evidence that high heels are detrimental to health. However, the evidence base remains fragmented and no review has covered both the epidemiological and biomechanical literature. In addition, no review has considered the psychosexual benefits that offer essential context in understanding the public health challenge of high heels. Methods We searched seven major bibliographic databases up to November 2016, in addition to supplementary searches. We initially identified all review articles of any design that assessed either the psychosexual benefits or negative musculoskeletal health effects of high heels, the latter looking at both the epidemiological and biomechanical perspectives. We additionally considered additional primary studies on areas that had not been reviewed before or in which a marked lack of evidence had been noted. Data were extracted onto standardised forms. Proportionate second review was conducted. Results A total of 506 unique records were identified, 27 full-text publications were screened and 20 publications (7 reviews and 13 additional studies were included in our evidence synthesis. The most up-to-date epidemiological review provides clear evidence of an association between high heel wear and hallux valgus, musculoskeletal pain and first-party injury. The body of biomechanical reviews provides clear evidence of changes indicative of increased risk of these outcomes, as well as osteoarthritis, which is not yet evidenced by epidemiological studies. There were no reviews on psychosexual benefits, but all five identified original studies provided evidence of increased attractiveness and/or an impact on men’s behaviour associated with high heel wear. With regard to second

  14. Contact and symplectic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Vincent; Stipsicz, András

    2014-01-01

    Symplectic and contact geometry naturally emerged from the mathematical description of classical physics. The discovery of new rigidity phenomena and properties satisfied by these geometric structures launched a new research field worldwide. The intense activity of many European research groups in this field is reflected by the ESF Research Networking Programme "Contact And Symplectic Topology" (CAST). The lectures of the Summer School in Nantes (June 2011) and of the CAST Summer School in Budapest (July 2012) provide a nice panorama of many aspects of the present status of contact and symplectic topology. The notes of the minicourses offer a gentle introduction to topics which have developed in an amazing speed in the recent past. These topics include 3-dimensional and higher dimensional contact topology, Fukaya categories, asymptotically holomorphic methods in contact topology, bordered Floer homology, embedded contact homology, and flexibility results for Stein manifolds.

  15. Heel-Rise Height Deficit 1 Year After Achilles Tendon Rupture Relates to Changes in Ankle Biomechanics 6 Years After Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorsson, Annelie; Willy, Richard W; Tranberg, Roy; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin

    2017-11-01

    It is unknown whether the height of a heel-rise performed in the single-leg standing heel-rise test 1 year after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) correlates with ankle biomechanics during walking, jogging, and jumping in the long-term. To explore the differences in ankle biomechanics, tendon length, calf muscle recovery, and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 6 years after ATR between 2 groups that, at 1-year follow-up, had less than 15% versus greater than 30% differences in heel-rise height. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Seventeen patients with less than 15% (30% group) side-to-side difference in heel-rise height at 1 year after ATR were evaluated at a mean (SD) 6.1 (2.0) years after their ATR. Ankle kinematics and kinetics were sampled via standard motion capture procedures during walking, jogging, and jumping. Patient-reported outcome was evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS), Physical Activity Scale (PAS), and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). Tendon length was evaluated by ultrasonography. The Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = [Injured Side ÷ Healthy Side] × 100) was calculated for side differences. The >30% group had significantly more deficits in ankle kinetics during all activities compared with patients in the 30% group, compared with the biomechanics. Minimizing tendon elongation and regaining heel-rise height may be important for the long-term recovery of ankle biomechanics, particularly during more demanding activities such as jumping.

  16. Pressure plate analysis of toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance at the walk and trot in sound sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, M; Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Veraa, S; van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D; Pille, F; Back, W

    2013-12-01

    Empirically, equine distal limb lameness is often linked to hoof imbalance. To objectively quantify dynamic toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance of the vertical ground reaction force in sound sport horses, seven Royal Dutch Sport Horses were led at the walk and trot over a dynamically calibrated pressure plate. Forelimb hoof prints were divided into a toe and heel region and a medial and lateral zone. Toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance of the vertical ground reaction force were calculated throughout the stance. Toe-heel balance was highly symmetrical between contralateral limbs at both gaits. At the walk, medio-lateral balance of both forelimbs presented higher loading in the lateral part of the hoof throughout the stance. However, at the trot, left medio-lateral balance presented higher loading of the medial part of the hoof at impact, whereas the right limb showed higher loading of the lateral part of the hoof in all horses, and both limbs presented increased lateral loading at the end of the stance. This study provides objective data for toe-heel and medio-lateral hoof balance in sound sport horses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Introduction to contact mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2000-01-01

    Contact mechanics deals with the elastic or plastic contact between two solid objects, and is thus intimately connected with such topics as fracture, hardness, and elasticity.This text, intended for advanced undergraduates, begins with an introduction to the mechanical properties of materials, general fracture mechanics, and fractures in brittle solids.This is followed by a detailed discussion of stresses and the nature of elastic and elastic-plastic contact.

  18. Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chunhui He,1,* Hua Ma2,* 1Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Medical Image Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Wulumuqi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs; however, whether MTrP needling is effective remains controversial. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of MTrP needling in patients with plantar heel pain. Materials and methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SinoMed (Chinese BioMedical Literature Service System, People’s Republic of China, and CNKI (National Knowledge Infrastructure, People’s Republic of China databases were systematically reviewed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs that assessed the effects of MTrP needling. Pooled weighted mean difference (WMD with 95% CIs were calculated for change in visual analog scale (VAS score, and pooled risk ratio (RR with 95% CIs were calculated for success rate for pain and incidence of adverse events. A fixed-effects model or random-effects model was used to pool the estimates, depending on the heterogeneity among the included studies. Results: Extensive literature search yielded 1,941 articles, of which only seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that MTrP needling significantly reduced the VAS score (WMD =–15.50, 95% CI: –19.48, –11.53; P<0.001 compared with control, but it had a similar success rate for pain with control (risk ratio [RR] =1.15, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.51; P=0.320. Moreover, MTrP needling was associated with a similar incidence of adverse events with control (RR =1.89, 95% CI: 0.38, 9.39; P=0.438. Conclusion: MTrP needling effectively reduced the heel pain due to plantar fasciitis. However, considering the potential limitations in this study, more large-scale, adequately powered, good

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial ...

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  1. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  2. Comparison of the Otto Bock solid ankle cushion heel foot with wooden keel to the low-cost CR-Equipements™ solid ankle cushion heel foot with polypropylene keel: A randomized prospective double-blind crossover study assessing patient satisfaction and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacraz, Alain; Armand, Stéphane; Turcot, Katia; Carmona, Gorki; Stern, Richard; Borens, Olivier; Assal, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    The International Committee of the Red Cross supports a worldwide program of prosthetic fitting and rehabilitation. In this context, a prosthetic foot was developed and widely distributed in least developed countries. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study. To compare patient satisfaction and energy expenditure during ambulation between a low-cost prosthetic foot designed with a polypropylene keel (CR-Equipements ™ solid ankle cushion heel, International Committee of the Red Cross) to a well-recognized solid ankle cushion heel foot with a wooden keel (solid ankle cushion heel foot, Otto Bock). A total of 15 participants with unilateral transtibial amputation were evaluated using the two prosthetic feet in a randomized prospective double-blind crossover study. Main outcomes were patient satisfaction questionnaires (Satisfaction with Prosthesis Questionnaire and prosthetic foot satisfaction) and energy expenditure (oxygen consumption-mL/kg/min, oxygen cost-mL/kg/m, and heart rate-bpm). There were no significant differences between the two prosthetic feet for satisfaction and energy expenditure. The low-cost solid ankle cushion heel foot with polypropylene keel provides comparable satisfaction and similar energy expenditure as the solid ankle cushion heel foot with wooden keel. Clinical relevance The results of this study support the application and widespread use of the CR-Equipements ™ solid ankle cushion heel foot. From a cost-effectiveness standpoint, patients are well satisfied and exhibit similar outcomes at a substantially lower cost.

  3. Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.

    2011-01-01

    To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. "Many of the lenses found online or in beauty salons, novelty shops or in pop-up ... contact lenses from a retailer that does not ask for a prescription. ...

  5. Electric contact arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthrell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Electrical contacts must function properly in many types of components used in nuclear weapon systems. Design, application, and testing of these components require detailed knowledge of chemical and physical phenomena associated with stockpile storage, stockpile testing, and operation. In the past, investigation of these phenomena has led to significant discoveries on the effects of surface contaminants, friction and wear, and the mechanics of closure on contact performance. A recent investigation of contact arcing phenomena which revealed that, preceding contact closure, arcs may occur at voltages lower than had been previously known is described. This discovery is important, since arcing may damage contacts, and repetitive testing of contacts performed as part of a quality assurance program might produce cumulative damage that would yield misleading life-test data and could prevent proper operation of the contacts at some time in the future. This damage can be avoided by determining the conditions under which arcing occurs, and ensuring that these conditions are avoided in contact testing

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you notice redness, swelling, excessive discharge, pain or discomfort from wearing contact lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ...

  7. Sciences & Nature: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ehouan Etienne Ehile Professor University of Abobo-Adjamé 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02. Phone: (+225) 2030 4201. Fax: (+225) 2030 4203. Email: eh_ehile@yahoo.fr. Support Contact. Irie Zoro Bi Email: banhiakalou@yahoo.fr. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  8. Contact Us | DOepatents

    Science.gov (United States)

    advance. Your help is appreciated. Contact us by email Email doepatentscomments@osti.gov NOTE: Email us by phone Phone Phone (865) 241-5275 Contact us in writing Mail U.S. Department of Energy Office of non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site. Javascript Not Enabled Email Link

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  10. Contact dermatitis. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Benezra, C; Burrows, D

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in our understanding of contact dermatitis. This paper is a review of our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in contact dermatitis and related phenomena, the investigation of these events and the emergence of significant new allergens during...

  11. Contact Hamiltonian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.

  12. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a way...

  13. Nigerian Food Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal. ... Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Food Science and Technology University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  15. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  16. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  17. A Germanium Back Contact Type Thermophotovoltaic Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Tomonori; Okumura, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    A Ge back contact type photovoltaic cell has been proposed to reduce resistance loss for high current densities in thermophotovoltaic systems. The back contact structure requires less surface recombination velocities than conventional structures with front grid contacts. A SiO2/SiNx double anti-reflection coating including a high refractive index SiNx layer was studied. The SiNx layer has an enough passivation effect to obtain high efficiency. The quantum efficiency of the Ge cell was around 0.8 in the 800-1600 nm wavelength range. The conversion efficiency for infrared lights was estimated at 18% for a blackbody surface and 25% for a selective emitter by using the quantum efficiency and a simulation analysis

  18. Effects of Body Mass Index on Mechanical Properties of the Plantar Fascia and Heel Pad in Asymptomatic Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş, Serkan; Bek, Nilgün; Ruhi Onur, Mehmet; Korkusuz, Feza

    2017-07-01

    Musculoskeletal foot disorders have a high incidence among overweight and obese individuals. One of the important factors causing this high incidence may be plantar fascia and heel pad (HP)-related mechanical changes occurring in these individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the plantar fascia and HP stiffness and thickness parameters in overweight and obese individuals and compare these values with those of normal-weight individuals. This study was carried out in 87 (52 female, 35 male) healthy sedentary individuals between the ages of 19 and 58 years (34 ± 11 years). Participants were subsequently categorized according to body mass index (BMI) as normal weight (18.5 kg/m 2 Plantar fascia and HP thickness and stiffness were measured with an ultrasonography device using a linear ultrasonography probe. Overweight and obese individuals had higher HP thickness ( P plantar fascia thickness ( P = .001), heel pad microchamber layer (MIC) stiffness ( P plantar fascia stiffness ( P plantar fascia thickness ( P = .001, r = 0.536), MIC stiffness ( P plantar fascia stiffness ( P plantar fascia and an increase in the thickness of the plantar fascia as well as the thickness and stiffness of HP. Increased body mass could cause changes in the mechanical properties of HP and plantar fascia. Level 3, comparative study.

  19. Physiotherapeutic methods in the treatment of heel spurs and inflammation of plantar fasciitis - a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Monika Uczciwek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For aim of this paper and analysis of the treatment methods in question articles from Pumbed basis were used. Pumbed basis, which works under the auspices of US National Library of  Medicine and National Institute of  Health, helped to analyze the treatment methods for chronic condition of heel spur and plantar fascia. The analytical process was based on  bibliographical descript. Results of 1204 numbers were summarized because of specialist criterion.  Heel spurs are bony growths growing out of the plantar fascia and other soft tissues lining nearby which conduct to the plantar fascia ignition. The occurrence of these is connected with burdensome feeling of pain that can be felt when making first steps after getting up in the morning. It is a serious condition that applies to more and more people. Being overweight, training sports straining feet are the reasons contributing to this condition. Yet, it is not a general rule for the risk group. Treating methods in this sphere give many opportunities for physical therapist and doctors. The best sustainable method is physical therapy supported by medical aids. However, not every case gives intended results. If the sustainable methods are not enough, the surgical treatment should be introduced. There is no doubt that any method of treatment is individually reclaimed by every patient.

  20. Effect of footwear on minimum foot clearance, heel slippage and spatiotemporal measures of gait in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Annette M; Galna, Brook; Murphy, Anna T; Williams, Cylie M; Haines, Terry P

    2016-02-01

    Footwear has been implicated as a factor in falls, which is a major issue affecting the health of older adults. This study investigated the effect of footwear with dorsal fixation, slippers and bare feet on minimum foot clearance, heel slippage and spatiotemporal variables of gait in community dwelling older women. Thirty women participated (mean age (SD) 69.1 (5.1) years) in a gait assessment using the GaitRITE and Vicon 612 motion analysis system. Conditions included footwear with dorsal fixation, slippers or bare feet. Footwear with dorsal fixation resulted in improved minimum foot clearance compared to the slippers and bare feet conditions and less heel slippage than slippers and an increase in double support. These features lend weight to the argument that older women should be supported to make footwear choices with optimal fitting features including dorsal fixation. Recommendations of particular styles and features of footwear may assist during falls prevention education to reduce the incidence of foot trips and falls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of sound velocity on metal surfaces by impulsive stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yukihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Impulsive stimulated Brillouin Scattering (ISBS) experiment was performed in order to measure acoustic waves on metal surfaces. The ISBS technique offers robust method of obtaining acoustic velocities without physical contact. The generation and detection mechanism were discussed. (author)

  2. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  3. Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

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  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  8. SAM Technical Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  11. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from a licensed eye ... available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ... have given blind patients some functional vision, using human embryonic stem cells. Two blind patients regained enough ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & ...

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  9. Ergonomics SA: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za ...

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  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  15. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  16. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ...

  5. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Contact Dynamics method: A nonsmooth story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédéric; Acary, Vincent; Jean, Michel

    2018-03-01

    When velocity jumps are occurring, the dynamics is said to be nonsmooth. For instance, in collections of contacting rigid bodies, jumps are caused by shocks and dry friction. Without compliance at the interface, contact laws are not only non-differentiable in the usual sense but also multi-valued. Modeling contacting bodies is of interest in order to understand the behavior of numerous mechanical systems such as flexible multi-body systems, granular materials or masonry. These granular materials behave puzzlingly either like a solid or a fluid and a description in the frame of classical continuous mechanics would be welcome though far to be satisfactory nowadays. Jean-Jacques Moreau greatly contributed to convex analysis, functions of bounded variations, differential measure theory, sweeping process theory, definitive mathematical tools to deal with nonsmooth dynamics. He converted all these underlying theoretical ideas into an original nonsmooth implicit numerical method called Contact Dynamics (CD); a robust and efficient method to simulate large collections of bodies with frictional contacts and impacts. The CD method offers a very interesting complementary alternative to the family of smoothed explicit numerical methods, often called Distinct Elements Method (DEM). In this paper developments and improvements of the CD method are presented together with a critical comparative review of advantages and drawbacks of both approaches. xml:lang="fr"

  7. Control rod velocity limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cearley, J.E.; Carruth, J.C.; Dixon, R.C.; Spencer, S.S.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a velocity control arrangement for a reciprocable, vertically oriented control rod for use in a nuclear reactor in a fluid medium, the control rod including a drive hub secured to and extending from one end therefrom. The control device comprises: a toroidally shaped control member spaced from and coaxially positioned around the hub and secured thereto by a plurality of spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the toroidal member spaced therefrom in coaxial position. The side of the control member toward the control rod has a smooth generally conical surface. The side of the control member away from the control rod is formed with a concave surface constituting a single annular groove. The device also comprises inner and outer annular vanes radially spaced from one another and spaced from the side of the control member away from the control rod and positioned coaxially around and spaced from the hub and secured thereto by spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the vanes. The vanes are angled toward the control member, the outer edge of the inner vane being closer to the control member and the inner edge of the outer vane being closer to the control member. When the control rod moves in the fluid in the direction toward the drive hub the vanes direct a flow of fluid turbulence which provides greater resistance to movement of the control rod in the direction toward the drive hub than in the other direction

  8. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  9. Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Saglia, Roberto; Drory, Niv; Fisher, David

    2010-01-01

    We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (σ*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.

  10. On linear relationship between shock velocity and particle velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandache, H.

    1986-11-01

    We attempt to derive the linear relationship between shock velocity U s and particle velocity U p from thermodynamic considerations, taking into account an ideal gas equation of state and a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for solids. 23 refs

  11. Comparison of the Efficacy of Oral 25% Glucose with Oral 24% Sucrose for Pain Relief during Heel Lance in Preterm Neonates: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sweta; Datta, Vikram; Rehan, Harmeet

    2017-02-01

    To study the analgesic effect of oral 25% glucose as compared with oral 24% sucrose during heel lance in preterm neonates. Stable preterm neonates within first 48 hours of life were randomized to receive either 24% sucrose or 25% glucose before heel lance. Primary outcome assessed was painful response by the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score at 30 seconds after heel lance, and the secondary outcome was immediate adverse events associated with the administration of two solutions and duration of crying immediately following the procedure. A total of 94 neonates were randomly assigned into 24% sucrose and 25% glucose group. The baseline characteristics between the two groups were comparable. No significant difference was observed between the two study groups with respect to PIPP scores, duration of crying and rate of adverse events. When assessed by PIPP score, 25% glucose and 24% sucrose provided comparable analgesia during heel lance in preterm neonates. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Consideration of wear rates at high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Chad S.

    The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models

  13. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  14. Estimation of sand dune thickness using a vertical velocity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous field and mathematical studies have shown that sand dunes may have vertical velocity profiles (i.e. continuous increase of velocity with depth). Therefore, computing the dunes thickness using conventional seismic refraction methods that assume a vertically homogeneous layer will likely produce some errors. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of the vertical velocity profile in a sand dune on the process of thickness estimation using seismic refraction data. First, the time distance (T-X) data of the direct wave in the dune is calculated using a vertical velocity profile, V (z), derived from Hertz-Mindlin contact theory. Then the thickness is estimated from the calculated T-X data, intercept time and velocity of the refractor at the dune's base assuming a constant velocity in the dune. The error in the estimated thickness due to the constant-velocity assumption increases with increasing thickness and decreasing porosity of the dune. For sand dunes with porosities greater than 0.2 and thickness less than 200 meter, the error is less than 15%. (author)

  15. Velocity field measurements in an evaporating sessile droplet by means of micro-PIV technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagodnitsyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Velocity fields are measured in evaporating sessile droplets on two substrates with different contact angles and contact angle hysteresis using micro resolution particle image velocimetry technique. Different flow patterns are observed in different stages of droplet evaporation: a flow with vortices and a radial flow. Flow structure is found to be similar for droplets on different substrates.

  16. Sex hormones and quantitative ultrasound parameters at the heel in men and women from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätzug, Konrad; Friedrich, Nele; Kische, Hanna; Hannemann, Anke; Völzke, Henry; Nauck, Matthias; Keevil, Brian G; Haring, Robin

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigates potential associations between liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measured sex hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bone ultrasound parameters at the heel in men and women from the general population. Data from 502 women and 425 men from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND) were used. Cross-sectional associations of sex hormones including testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), androstenedione (ASD), estrone (E1) and SHBG with quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters at the heel, including broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (SI) were examined by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariable quantile regression models. Multivariable regression analysis showed a sex-specific inverse association of DHEAS with SI in men (Beta per SI unit = - 3.08, standard error (SE) = 0.88), but not in women (Beta = - 0.01, SE = 2.09). Furthermore, FT was positively associated with BUA in men (Beta per BUA unit = 29.0, SE = 10.1). None of the other sex hormones (ASD, E1) or SHBG was associated with QUS parameters after multivariable adjustment. This cross-sectional population-based study revealed independent associations of DHEAS and FT with QUS parameters in men, suggesting a potential influence on male bone metabolism. The predictive role of DHEAS and FT as a marker for osteoporosis in men warrants further investigation in clinical trials and large-scale observational studies.

  17. Evaluation of the peak bone mass by quantitative heel ultrasound in young women of the centre of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Puxeddu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure the reference young adult mean values in healthy women of the centre of Italy by Quantitative heel UltraSound (QUS. Methods: The study group was composed by 70 caucasian women: mean age was 25.4 years (Standard Deviation 4.7, mean weight was 58 Kg (SD 8.2, mean height was 166 cm (SD 5.8, mean BMI was 20.9 kg/m2 (SD 2.5. Every subject was evaluated firstly with an original questionnaire to discover risk factors (like for example steroids consumption, recent fractures of the lower limb, then was measured by quantitative heel ultrasonometry Hologic Sahara. Results: Mean extimated Bone Mineral Density (BMD 0.588 g/cm2 (SD 0.124 mean Quantitative Ultrasound Index (QUI 105.0 (SD 19.6, mean Speed of Sound (SOS 1564.2 m/s (SD 31.4, mean Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation (BUA 84.8 dB/MHz (SD 17.4. No significant correlation was found between QUS parameters and anthropometric data. A correlation was found between every QUS parameters. No significant differences were found about QUI and extimated BMD, between our results and Hologic normative data for European women. Conclusions: It is very important to develop specific reference values for any measurement device and site of skeleton especially in the age of reaching the peak bone mass because the T score is then measured referring to these data. Usually the normative data are supplied by manufacturer and are based on large multicentric study. In our opinion it could be helpful to verify if these data are compatible with the population examined in every region.

  18. Effects of high-heeled footwear on static and dynamic pelvis position and lumbar lordosis in experienced younger and middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jan; Hollander, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    There is still conflicting evidence about the effect of high-heeled footwear on posture, especially if methodological confounders are taken into account. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high-heeled footwear on lumbopelvic parameters in experienced younger and middle-aged women while standing and walking. Thirty-seven experienced younger (n=19:18-25 years) and middle-aged (n=18:26-56 years) women were included in this randomized crossover study. Using a non-invasive back shape reconstruction device (rasterstereography), static (pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis angle) and dynamic (pelvic rotation, median lumbar lordosis angle and range of motion) parameters representing pelvis position and lumbar curvature were measured. In order to analyse standing and walking on a treadmill (0.83m/s), the effects of high-heels (7-11cm) were compared to standard control shoes. There were no effects on the lumbar lordosis angle or range of motion under static or dynamic conditions (p>0.05, d≤0.06). But there was a small effect for a reduced pelvic tilt (p=0.003, d=0.24) and a moderate effect for an increased transversal pelvic rotation (p=0.001, d=0.63) due to high heel shoed standing or walking, respectively. There were no significant age-group or interaction effects (p>0.05). Altered pelvic parameters may be interpreted as compensatory adaptations to high-heeled footwear rather than lumbar lordosis adaptations in experienced wearers. The impact of these findings on back complaints should be revisited carefully, because muscular overuse as well as postural load relieving may contribute to chronic consequences. Further research is necessary to examine clinically relevant outcomes corresponding to postural alterations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical effectiveness of a silicone foam dressing for the prevention of heel pressure ulcers in critically ill patients: Border II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, N; Gerdtz, M; Liu, W; Rakis, S; Sage, S; Ng, A W; Tudor, H; McCann, J; Vassiliou, T; Morrow, F; Smith, K; Knott, J; Liew, D

    2015-08-01

    Critically ill patients are at high risk of developing pressure ulcers (PU), with the sacrum and heels being highly susceptible to pressure injuries. The objective of our study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a new multi-layer, self-adhesive soft silicone foam heel dressing to prevent PU development in trauma and critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A cohort of critically ill patients were enrolled at the Royal Melbourne Hospital. Each patient had the multi-layer soft silicone foam dressing applied to each heel on admission to the emergency department. The dressings were retained with a tubular bandage for the duration of the patients' stay in the ICU. The skin under the dressings was examined daily and the dressings were replaced every three days. The comparator for our cohort study was the control group from the recently completed Border Trial. Of the 191 patients in the initial cohort, excluding deaths, loss to follow-up and transfers to another ward, 150 patients were included in the final analysis. There was no difference in key demographic or physiological variables between the cohorts, apart from a longer ICU length of stay for our current cohort. No PUs developed in any of our intervention cohort patients compared with 14 patients in the control cohort (n=152; p<0.001) who developed a total of 19 heel PUs. We conclude, based on our results, that the multi-layer soft silicone foam dressing under investigation was clinically effective in reducing ICU-acquired heel PUs. The findings also support previous research on the clinical effectiveness of multi-layer soft silicone foam dressings for PU prevention in the ICU.

  20. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov

    Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making ...

  1. Rough Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  2. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  3. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  4. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Luke

    2014-08-05

    We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.

  6. In Vivo Patellar Tracking and Patellofemoral Cartilage Contacts during Dynamic Stair Ascending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Hosseini, Ali; Li, Jing-Sheng; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of normal patellar tracking is essential for understanding of the knee joint function and for diagnosis of patellar instabilities. This paper investigated the patellar tracking and patellofemoral joint contact locations during a stair ascending activity using a validated dual-fluoroscopic imaging system. The results showed that the patellar flexion angle decreased from 41.9° to 7.5° with the knee extension during stair ascending. During first 80% of the activity, the patella shifted medially about 3.9 mm and then slightly shifted laterally during the last 20% of the ascending activity. Anterior translation of 13 mm of the patella was measured at the early 80% of the activity and then slightly moved posteriorly by about 2 mm at the last 20% of the activity. The path of the cartilage contact points was slightly lateral on the cartilage surfaces of patella and femur. On the patellar cartilage surface, the cartilage contact locations were about 2 mm laterally from heel strike to 60% of the stair ascending activity and moved laterally and reached 5.3 mm at full extension. However, the cartilage contact locations were relatively constant on the femoral cartilage surface (~5 mm lateral). The patellar tracking pattern was consistent with the patellofemoral cartilage contact location pattern. These data could provide baseline knowledge for understanding of normal physiology of the patellofemoral joint and can be used as a reference for clinical evaluation of patellofemoral disorder symptoms. PMID:22840488

  7. Analysis of Tire Contact Parameters Using Visual Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the results of experimental estimation of the contact patch area depending on the normal wheel load and inflation pressure for different car tires. The data were obtained for test bench conditions on the basis of the visual processing of tread footprint. Further, the contact length in the cohesion area during wheel rolling for single points on the tire profile has been chosen as a benchmark criterion. This paper has analyzed the influence of the wheel normal load and tire inflation pressure on the contact length with small rolling velocities. The results of the investigations are given for winter and racing tires with different grades of wear.

  8. Radial velocity asymmetries from jets with variable velocity profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Velazquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.; De Colle, F.

    2006-01-01

    We have computed a set of 3-D numerical simulations of radiatively cooling jets including variabilities in both the ejection direction (precession) and the jet velocity (intermittence), using the Yguazu-a code. In order to investigate the effects of jet rotation on the shape of the line profiles, we also introduce an initial toroidal rotation velocity profile. Since the Yguazu-a code includes an atomic/ionic network, we are able to compute the emission coefficients for several emission lines, and we generate line profiles for the Hα, [O I]λ6300, [S II]λ6716 and [N II]λ6548 lines. Using initial parameters that are suitable for the DG Tau microjet, we show that the computed radial velocity shift for the medium-velocity component of the line profile as a function of distance from the jet axis is strikingly similar for rotating and non-rotating jet models

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if you have perfect vision, you need to get an eye exam and a prescription ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  13. Fermilab | Contact Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Related Links DOE FRA UChicago URA Newsroom -840-3000 Fax: 630-840-4343 Shipping address Fermilab Receiving Wilson Street and Kirk Road Batavia IL 60510-5011 Phone: 630-840-3000 Visiting address Fermilab entrance Kirk Road and Pine Street Batavia IL

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ...

  15. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22...

  16. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  17. Fermilab Education Office - Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Office of Education and Public Outreach: Contacts All telephone numbers require area code Presentations for Presenters 840-3094 Office of Education and Public Outreach Spencer Pasero spasero@fnal.gov Education Office 840-3076 Fermilab Friends for Science Education General Questions Susan Dahl sdahl@fnal.gov

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A medical degree and many more years of training, for starters. A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can help you look after ... Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  19. Mathematics Connection: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Kofi Mereku Executive Editor Department of Mathematics Education, UCE Mathematical Association of Ghana, C/o Department of Mathematics Education University College of Education of Winneba P. O. Box 25, Winneba, Ghana Phone: +233244961318. Email: dkmereku@uew.edu.gh ...

  20. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  2. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  4. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  5. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  6. Rigid Bodies in Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebe, Sarah Maria

    . A contact point determination method, based on boolean surface maps, is developed to handle collisions between tetrahedral meshes. The novel nonsmooth nonlinear conjugate gradient (NNCG) method is presented. The NNCG method is comparable in terms of accuracy to the state-of-the-art method, projected Gauss...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into ...

  8. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...

  9. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  10. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the i...

  11. Fractals control in particle's velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongping; Liu Shutang; Shen Shulan

    2009-01-01

    Julia set, a fractal set of the literature of nonlinear physics, has significance for the engineering applications. For example, the fractal structure characteristics of the generalized M-J set could visually reflect the change rule of particle's velocity. According to the real world requirement, the system need show various particle's velocity in some cases. Thus, the control of the nonlinear behavior, i.e., Julia set, has attracted broad attention. In this work, an auxiliary feedback control is introduced to effectively control the Julia set that visually reflects the change rule of particle's velocity. It satisfies the performance requirement of the real world problems.

  12. Southern high-velocity stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augensen, H.J.; Buscombe, W.

    1978-01-01

    Using the model of the Galaxy presented by Eggen, Lynden-Bell and Sandage (1962), plane galactic orbits have been calculated for 800 southern high-velocity stars which possess parallax, proper motion, and radial velocity data. The stars with trigonometric parallaxes were selected from Buscombe and Morris (1958), supplemented by more recent spectroscopic data. Photometric parallaxes from infrared color indices were used for bright red giants studied by Eggen (1970), and for red dwarfs for which Rodgers and Eggen (1974) determined radial velocities. A color-color diagram based on published values of (U-B) and (B-V) for most of these stars is shown. (Auth.)

  13. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their practices. Decorative contacts (also called “costume,” colored,” “fashion,” or “plano” contacts). The FDA has often warned ... Lenses Decorative Contact Lenses Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Related Consumer Updates 'Colored' and Decorative Contact Lenses: A Prescription ...

  14. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  15. [News on occupational contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda

    2014-03-01

    Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens.

  16. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  17. Settling velocities in batch sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, A.M.; Thompson, B.E.

    1982-10-01

    The sedimentation of mixtures containing one and two sizes of spherical particles (44 and 62 μm in diameter) was studied. Radioactive tracing with 57 Co was used to measure the settling velocities. The ratio of the settling velocity U of uniformly sized particles to the velocity predicted to Stokes' law U 0 was correlated to an expression of the form U/U 0 = epsilon/sup α/, where epsilon is the liquid volume fraction and α is an empirical constant, determined experimentally to be 4.85. No effect of viscosity on the ratio U/U 0 was observed as the viscosity of the liquid medium was varied from 1x10 -3 to 5x10 -3 Pa.s. The settling velocities of particles in a bimodal mixture were fit by the same correlation; the ratio U/U 0 was independent of the concentrations of different-sized particles

  18. Heel pressure ulcer, prevention and predictors during the care delivery chain - when and where to take action? A descriptive and explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Engström, Maria; Gunningberg, Lena; Bååth, Carina

    2016-11-14

    Hazardous healthcare settings, for example acute care, need to focus more on preventing adverse events and preventive actions across the care delivery chain (i.e pre-hospital and emergency care, and further at the hospital ward) should be more studied. Pressure ulcer prevalence is still at unreasonably high levels, causing increased healthcare costs and suffering for patients. Recent biomedical research reveals that the first signs of cell damage could arise within minutes. However, few studies have investigated optimal pressure ulcer prevention in the initial stage of the care process, e.g. in the ambulance care or at the emergency department. The aim of the study was to describe heel pressure ulcer prevalence and nursing actions in relation to pressure ulcer prevention during the care delivery chain, for older patients with neurological symptoms or reduced general condition. Another aim was to investigate early predictors for the development of heel pressure ulcer during the care delivery chain. Existing data collected from a multi-centre randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of using a heel prevention boot to reduce the incidence of heel pressure ulcer across the care delivery chain was used. Totally 183 patients participated. The settings for the study were five ambulance stations, two emergency departments and 16 wards at two hospitals in Sweden. A total of 39 individual patients (21 %) developed heel pressure ulcer at different stages across the care delivery chain. Findings revealed that 47-64 % of the patients were assessed as being at risk for developing heel pressure ulcer. Preventive action was taken. However, all patients who developed pressure ulcer during the care delivery chain did not receive adequate pressure ulcer prevention actions during their hospital stay. In the ambulance and at the emergency department, skin inspection seems to be appropriate for preventing pressure ulcer. However, carrying out risk assessment with a validated

  19. Visual method for detecting critical damage in railway contact strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judek, S.; Skibicki, J.

    2018-05-01

    Ensuring an uninterrupted supply of power in the electric traction is vital for the safety of this important transport system. For this purpose, monitoring and diagnostics of the technical condition of the vehicle’s power supply elements are becoming increasingly common. This paper presents a new visual method for detecting contact strip damage, based on measurement and analysis of the movement of the overhead contact line (OCL) wire. A measurement system configuration with a 2D camera was proposed. The experimental method has shown that contact strips damage can be detected by transverse displacement signal analysis. It has been proven that the velocity signal numerically established on that basis has a comparable level in the case of identical damage, regardless of its location on the surface of the contact strip. The proposed method belongs to the group of contact-less measurements, so it does not require interference with the structure of the catenary network nor the mounting of sensors in its vicinity. Measurement of displacements of the contact wire in 2D space makes it possible to combine the functions of existing diagnostic stands assessing the correctness of the mean contact force control adjustment of the current collector with the elements of the contact strip diagnostics, which involves detecting their damage which may result in overhead contact line rupture.

  20. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  1. Tyre contact length on dry and wet road surfaces measured by three-axial accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Mika; Tuononen, Ari

    2015-02-01

    We determined the tyre contact length on dry and wet roads by measuring the accelerations of the inner liner with a three-axial accelerometer. The influence of the tyre pressure, driving velocity, and tread depth on the contact length was studied in both types of road surface conditions. On dry asphalt the contact length was almost constant, regardless of the driving velocity. On wet asphalt the presence of water could be detected even at low driving velocities (e.g. 20 km/h for a worn tyre) as the contact length began to decrease from that found in the dry asphalt situation. In addition to improving the performance of active safety systems and driver warning systems, the contact length information could be beneficial for classifying and studying the aquaplaning behaviour of tyres.

  2. Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contact dynamics math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  4. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  5. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  6. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  7. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    . This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...... development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure....

  8. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hawkey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports’ material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication.

  9. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  10. Biomechanical Modeling of Split-leg Squat and Heel Raise on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.; Humphreys, Brad; Funk, Justin; Funk, Nathan; Dewitt, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. Computational models currently use OpenSim software, an open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, with biomechanical input data from subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. Subjects are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device. Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. This data is input into the OpenSim biomechanical model, which has been scaled to match the anthropometrics of the test subject, to calculate the loads on the body. Multiple exercises are performed and evaluated during a test session such as a full squat, single leg squat, heel raise and dead lift. Variables for these exercises include applied device load, narrow or wide foot stance, slow or fast cadence and the harness or long bar interface between the test subject and the device. Data from free weights are compared to the resistively loaded exercise

  11. Dynamics of the Molten Contact Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonin, Ain A.; Duthaler, Gregg; Liu, Michael; Torresola, Javier; Qiu, Taiqing

    1999-01-01

    materials- molten wax on solid wax, water on ice, and mercury on frozen mercury- which between them span a considerable range of the deposition/solidification similarity parameters. Correlations are obtained for the spreading velocity, spreading time scales, the spreading factor (i.e. ratio of deposited drop's final footprint radius and the drop's initial radius), post-spreading liquid oscillation amplitudes and time scales, and bulk solidification time scales. Duthaler carried out an experimental and theoretical investigation of the relationship between the liquid's apparent contact angle and the Capillary number Ca=mu U/sigma based on contact line speed, for molten materials spreading over subcooled solids. This relationship is required for modeling of melt spreading. We have adapted Voinov's methodology to the molten contact line and formulated a theoretical model for the Ca vs. contact angle relationship, based Schiaffino and Sonin#s (1997a,b) wedge-like solidification front model. With the solidification front angle taken from Schiaffino and Sonin, the model is in good agreement with the experimental results for Ca vs. contact angle. Duthaler also extended the experimental investigation of droplet deposition and contact line freezing to more materials, including solder on glass, solder on solder, water on ice, and molten microcrystalline wax on wax. The latter also included tests on inclined targets. Deposition tests have also been done with molten octacosane (C28H58) on various targets. An important objective of our program has been the development of micron-scale sensors for measuring the transient temperature at a point on the substrate surface as a molten contact line moves over it. The expectation is that this temperature history will yield a better understanding of the thermal process in the contact line region. The sensors are of the thermistor type, either 2.5 microns or 1.5 microns square, microfabricated with silicon-based technology on either pure silicon or

  12. [Sport injuries in full contact and semi-contact karate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K; Riechelmann, H; Ziemska, J

    2014-03-01

    Karate enjoys great popularity both in professional and recreational sports and can be classified into full, half and low contact styles. The aim of this study was the analysis of sports injuries in Kyokushinkai (full contact) and traditional Karate (semi-contact). In a retrospective study design, 215 active amateur karateka (114 full contact, 101 semi-contact) were interviewed by means of a standardised questionnaire regarding typical sport injuries during the last 36 months. Injuries were categorised into severity grade I (not requiring medical treatment), grade II (single medical treatment), grade III (several outpatient medical treatments) and grade IV (requiring hospitalisation). In total, 217 injuries were reported in detail. 125 injuries (58%) occurred in full contact and 92 (42%) in semi-contact karate. The time related injury rate of full contact karateka was 1.9/1000 h compared to 1.3/1000 h of semi-contact karateka (p injuries were musculoskeletal contusions (33% full contact, 20% semi-contact), followed by articular sprains with 19% and 16%. The lower extremity was affected twice as often in full contact (40%) as in semi-contact (20%) karate. Training injuries were reported by 80% of the full contact and 77% of the semi-contact karateka. Most injuries, both in training and competition, occurred in kumite. 75% of the reported injuries of full contact and 70% of semi-contact karateka were classified as low grade (I or II). The high rate of injuries during training and kumite (sparring) points to specific prevention goals. The emphasis should be put on proprioceptive training and consistent warm-up. In the actual competition the referees play a vital role regarding prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  14. An elastic-plastic contact model for line contact structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haibin; Zhao, Yingtao; He, Zhifeng; Zhang, Ruinan; Ma, Shaopeng

    2018-06-01

    Although numerical simulation tools are now very powerful, the development of analytical models is very important for the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of line contact structures for deeply understanding contact problems and engineering applications. For the line contact structures widely used in the engineering field, few analytical models are available for predicting the mechanical behaviour when the structures deform plastically, as the classic Hertz's theory would be invalid. Thus, the present study proposed an elastic-plastic model for line contact structures based on the understanding of the yield mechanism. A mathematical expression describing the global relationship between load history and contact width evolution of line contact structures was obtained. The proposed model was verified through an actual line contact test and a corresponding numerical simulation. The results confirmed that this model can be used to accurately predict the elastic-plastic mechanical behaviour of a line contact structure.

  15. Mid-Sole Release of the Plantar Fascia Combined With Percutaneous Drilling of the Calcaneus for Treatment of Resistant Heel Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Ahmed Shawkat; Kandel, Wael A; Tabl, Eslam Abd Elshafi; Kandil, Mahmoud I

    2017-11-01

    Heel pain with or without calcaneal spur is a challenging problem. Once conservative measures have failed, surgery may be indicated; there has been debate about the best surgical procedure. Two standard operative procedures have been either releasing the plantar fascia or removing the spur with drilling of the calcaneus. In this study, we evaluated the results of percutaneous drilling of the calcaneus combined with mid-sole release of the plantar fascia for treatment of resistant heel pain. This study included 20 cases with resistant heel pain after failure of conservative measures for 6 months. Clinical, radiological evaluation and scoring patients' conditions according to the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle-Hindfoot scale was done preoperatively and postoperatively. Percutaneous drilling of the calcaneus combined with mid-sole release of the plantar fascia was done in all cases, and the functional results were evaluated through the follow-up period that extended from 9 to 16 months with a mean duration of 12 ± 2.3 months. There was statistically significant improvement in the mean AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot scale score from 50.8 ± 7.5 preoperatively to 91.6 ± 7 postoperatively at the last follow-up. There were no surgery-related complications, and the mean time for full recovery was 8 ± 3.7 weeks with no recurrence of pain by the last follow-up. The results were very satisfactory with using this minimally invasive and simple technique for treatment for resistant heel pain. Level IV, retrospective case series.

  16. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Oral Sucrose and Emla Cream in Reduction of Acute Pain Due to Heel Sticks for Blood Sampling in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abyari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Certain painful, invasive procedures are necessary for care, and are commonly performed in both healthly and sick neonates. Current evidence shows that the newborn infant has both physiologic and anatomic capacity to experience pain. Recent research suggests that pain experienced in the neonatal period might have long-term effects later in life. Previous research has shown that orally administered sweet-tasting solutions reduce signs of pain during painful procedures. This effect is considered to be mediated both by the release of endorphins and by a preabsorptive mechanism related to the sweet taste. Methods: This study was a controlled , randomized and double – blind study on 210 neonates. These newborns were randomly divided into 3 groups; A, B and C. Group A received 2 ml of 25% sucrose orally as well as base cream was applied at the site for heel stick, group B received 2 ml of distilled water and application of EMLA cream, while group C received 2 ml of distilled water and base cream. The heart rates of the newborn were recorded by the cardiac monitor before and after heel stick blood sampling and the duration of crying was determined as well. Pain was scored by DAN scale.There were no differences in demographic characteristics of all neonates. Results: The results showed that the DAN scale was significantly lower in the sucrose group (mean : 3.840 as compared to the EMLA group (mean: 3.366 and the placebo group(5.557, but the difference in the duration of crying was not significantly different in the sucrose group (mean: 10.5 second and the EMLA group(mean 8.76. Conclusion: Both sucrose and EMLA are effective in reducing stress associated with heel lancet in newborns, but as sucrose acts faster and is healthier, its usage is proposed in neonates requiring heel sticks for blood sampling.

  17. Tradeoffs between impact loading rate, vertical impulse and effective mass for walkers and heel strike runners wearing footwear of varying stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Brian J; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-05-01

    Humans experience repetitive impact forces beneath the heel during walking and heel strike running that cause impact peaks characterized by high rates and magnitudes of loading. Impact peaks are caused by the exchange of momentum between the ground and a portion of the body that comes to a full stop (the effective mass) during the period of the impact peak. A number of factors can influence this exchange of momentum, including footwear stiffness. This study presents and tests an impulse-momentum model of impact mechanics which predicts that effective mass and vertical impulse is greater in walkers and heel strike runners wearing less stiff footwear. The model also predicts a tradeoff between impact loading rate and effective mass, and between impact loading rate and vertical impulse among individuals wearing footwear of varying stiffness. We tested this model using 19 human subjects walking and running in minimal footwear and in two experimental footpads. Subjects walked and ran on an instrumented treadmill and 3D kinematic data were collected. As predicted, both vertical impulse (walking: F(2,54)=52.0, p=2.6E-13; running: F(2,54)=25.2, p=1.8E-8) and effective mass (walking: F(2,54)=12.1, p=4.6E-5; running: F(2,54)=15.5, p=4.7E-6) increase in less stiff footwear. In addition, there is a significant inverse relationship between impact loading rate and vertical impulse (walking: r=-0.88, pfootwear heels influence injury risk during human walking and running. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Orthosis-Shaped Sandals Are as Efficacious as In-Shoe Orthoses and Better than Flat Sandals for Plantar Heel Pain: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Vicenzino

    Full Text Available To investigate efficacy of a contoured sandal being marketed for plantar heel pain with comparison to a flat flip-flop and contoured in-shoe insert/orthosis.150 volunteers aged 50 (SD: 12 years with plantar heel pain (>4 weeks were enrolled after responding to advertisements and eligibility determined by telephone and at first visit. Participants were randomly allocated to receive commercially available contoured sandals (n = 49, flat flip-flops (n = 50 or over the counter, pre-fabricated full-length foot orthotics (n = 51. Primary outcomes were a 15-point Global Rating of Change scale (GROC: 1 = a very great deal worse, 15 = a very great deal better, 13 to 15 representing an improvement and the 20-item Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS on which participants rate 20 common weight bearing activities and activities of daily living on a 5-point scale (0 = extreme difficulty, 4 = no difficulty. Secondary outcomes were worst level of heel pain in the preceding week, and the foot and ankle ability measure. Outcomes were collected blind to allocation. Analyses were done on an intention to treat basis with 12 weeks being the primary outcome time of interest.The contoured sandal was 68% more likely to report improvement in terms of GROC compared to flat flip-flop. On the LEFS the contoured sandal was 61% more likely than flat flip-flop to report improvement. The secondary outcomes in the main reflected the primary outcomes, and there were no differences between contoured sandal and shoe insert.Physicians can have confidence in supporting a patient's decision to wear contoured sandals or in-shoe orthoses as one of the first and simple strategies to manage their heel pain.The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000463875.

  19. Velocity distribution in snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, K.; Ito, Y.

    1997-12-01

    In order to investigate the detailed structure of snow avalanches, we have made snow flow experiments at the Miyanomori ski jump in Sapporo and systematic observations in the Shiai-dani, Kurobe Canyon. In the winter of 1995-1996, a new device to measure static pressures was used to estimate velocities in the snow cloud that develops above the flowing layer of avalanches. Measurements during a large avalanche in the Shiai-dani which damaged and destroyed some instruments indicate velocities increased rapidly to more than 50 m/s soon after the front. Velocities decreased gradually in the following 10 s. Velocities of the lower flowing layer were also calculated by differencing measurement of impact pressure. Both recordings in the snow cloud and in the flowing layer changed with a similar trend and suggest a close interaction between the two layers. In addition, the velocity showed a periodic change. Power spectrum analysis of the impact pressure and the static pressure depression showed a strong peak at a frequency between 4 and 6 Hz, which might imply the existence of either ordered structure or a series of surges in the flow.

  20. Velocity Estimate Following Air Data System Failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLaren, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    .... A velocity estimator (VEST) algorithm was developed to combine the inertial and wind velocities to provide an estimate of the aircraft's current true velocity to be used for command path gain scheduling and for display in the cockpit...

  1. Randomised study showed that recorded maternal voices reduced pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, G; Cabano, R; Villa, G; Bigogno, A; Ardesi, M; Dioni, E

    2017-10-01

    Alleviating pain in neonates should be the goal of all caregivers. We evaluated whether recorded maternal voices were safe and effective in limiting pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit of an Italian children's hospital. This prospective, controlled study took place from December 2013 to December 2015. We enrolled 40 preterm infants, born at a 26-34 weeks of gestation, at a corrected gestational age 29-36 weeks and randomised them to listen or not listen to a recording of their mother's voice during a painful, routine heel lance for blood collection. Changes in the infants' Premature Infant Pain Profile, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure during the procedure were compared by analysis of variance. Possible side effects, of apnoea, bradycardia, seizures and vomiting, were also recorded. Both groups showed a marked increase in PIPP scores and decrease in oxygen saturation during the procedure, but infants in the treatment group had significantly lower PIPP scores (p = 0.00002) and lower decreases in oxygen saturation (p = 0.0283). No significant side effects were observed. Using recorded maternal voices to limit pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures appeared safe and effective. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Contacting gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for contacting substantially immiscible phases to transfer material from one phase to another, which comprises passing the phases through a contactor, while causing portions of at least one phase to be repeatedly passed through at least one other phase. One phase in the contactor is gaseous, and another liquid. A further phase can be liquid or solid The process may be used for extracting impurities from china clay, or extracting uranium values from ore with oxygen gas acting to oxidise the uranium. (author)

  3. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  4. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  5. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  6. Fermi velocity mismatch effects in the tunneling characteristics of high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aponte, J.M.; Nunez-Regueiro, J.E.; Bellorin, A.; Octavio, M.

    1994-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the tunneling characteristics of point contacts in which one electrode was a superconducting single crystal of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x and the other electrode was either a normal metal (N-HTSC point contact), or a non-superconducting rare earth metallic oxide (REMO-HTSC point contact), or another crystal of the same superconductor (HTSC'-HTSC point contact). We show that the mismatch of the Fermi velocities of the electrodes is in part responsible for the irreproducibility of most of the tunneling conductance curves observed in high temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  7. Do we really need radiographic assessment for the diagnosis of non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, Ozkan

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) is a common disorder, particularly in physically active growing children. Foot radiographs are usually obtained as part of the clinical evaluation in routine orthopaedic practice. However, there is still controversy about the specific findings on radiographs, and it is unclear what information is present on radiographs that may alter the diagnosis and management. The purpose of this study was to review a consecutive series of patients with the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis to assess the yield of routine radiographs of the foot. A prospective study was performed on 61 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis in a single-surgeon practice. Standard anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing foot radiographs were obtained for each patient. Seventy-one sets of foot radiographs were reviewed to determine whether radiographs had an impact on diagnosis and management. Patients with antecedent trauma, penetrating injury, foot deformity, achilles tendonitis, bursitis and infections were excluded from the study. Seventy foot radiographs were considered to be normal. The radiographs changed the diagnosis in only one patient, in whom a simple bone cyst of the calcaneous was seen. Calcaneal apophysitis is a self-limiting disease, and patients can be treated conservatively. Neither the sclerosis nor the fragmentation of the apophysis could be used to establish the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis. Therefore, obtaining radiographs as an initial step in their evaluation does not seem to be justified. (orig.)

  8. Do we really need radiographic assessment for the diagnosis of non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kose, Ozkan [Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Diclekent Bulvari, Ataslar Serhat Evleri, Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) is a common disorder, particularly in physically active growing children. Foot radiographs are usually obtained as part of the clinical evaluation in routine orthopaedic practice. However, there is still controversy about the specific findings on radiographs, and it is unclear what information is present on radiographs that may alter the diagnosis and management. The purpose of this study was to review a consecutive series of patients with the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis to assess the yield of routine radiographs of the foot. A prospective study was performed on 61 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis in a single-surgeon practice. Standard anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing foot radiographs were obtained for each patient. Seventy-one sets of foot radiographs were reviewed to determine whether radiographs had an impact on diagnosis and management. Patients with antecedent trauma, penetrating injury, foot deformity, achilles tendonitis, bursitis and infections were excluded from the study. Seventy foot radiographs were considered to be normal. The radiographs changed the diagnosis in only one patient, in whom a simple bone cyst of the calcaneous was seen. Calcaneal apophysitis is a self-limiting disease, and patients can be treated conservatively. Neither the sclerosis nor the fragmentation of the apophysis could be used to establish the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis. Therefore, obtaining radiographs as an initial step in their evaluation does not seem to be justified. (orig.)

  9. Changes in Achilles tendon mechanical properties following eccentric heel drop exercise are specific to the free tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, S J; Newsham-West, R; Barrett, R S

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical loading of the Achilles tendon during isolated eccentric contractions could induce immediate and region-dependent changes in mechanical properties. Three-dimensional ultrasound was used to examine the immediate effect of isolated eccentric exercise on the mechanical properties of the distal (free tendon) and proximal (gastrocnemii) regions of the Achilles tendon. Participants (n = 14) underwent two testing sessions in which tendon measurements were made at rest and during a 30% and 70% isometric plantar flexion contractions immediately before and after either: (a) 3 × 15 eccentric heel drops or (b) 10-min rest. There was a significant time-by-session interaction for free tendon length and strain for all loading conditions (P tendon length and strain at all contraction intensities after eccentric exercise (P tendon for any of the measured parameters. Immediate changes in Achilles tendon mechanical properties were specific to the free tendon and consistent with changes due to mechanical creep. These findings suggest that the mechanical properties of the free tendon may be more vulnerable to change with exercise compared with the gastrocnemii aponeurosis or tendon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dalen, A.; Schramm, D.N.

    1987-02-01

    We calculate analytically the probability distribution for peculiar velocities on scales from 10h -1 to 60h -1 Mpc with cosmic string loops as the dominant source of primordial gravitational perturbations. We consider a range of parameters βGμ appropriate for both hot (HDM) and cold (CDM) dark matter scenarios. An Ω = 1 CDM Universe is assumed with the loops randomly placed on a smooth background. It is shown how the effects can be estimated of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes. It is found that to obtain large scale streaming velocities of at least 400 km/s it is necessary that either a large value for βGμ or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable. Specifically, for optimal CDM string parameters Gμ = 10 -6 , β = 9, h = .5, and scales of 60h -1 Mpc, the parent size spectrum must be 36 times larger than the evolved daughter spectrum to achieve peculiar velocities of at least 400 km/s with a probability of 63%. With this scenario the microwave background dipole will be less than 800 km/s with only a 10% probability. The string induced velocity spectrum is relatively flat out to scales of about 2t/sub eq//a/sub eq/ and then drops off rather quickly. The flatness is a signature of string models of galaxy formation. With HDM a larger value of βGμ is necessary for galaxy formation since accretion on small scales starts later. Hence, with HDM, the peculiar velocity spectrum will be larger on large scales and the flat region will extend to larger scales. If large scale peculiar velocities greater than 400 km/s are real then it is concluded that strings plus CDM have difficulties. The advantages of strings plus HDM in this regard will be explored in greater detail in a later paper. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  12. Optimal contact definition for reconstruction of Contact Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehr Henning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact maps have been extensively used as a simplified representation of protein structures. They capture most important features of a protein's fold, being preferred by a number of researchers for the description and study of protein structures. Inspired by the model's simplicity many groups have dedicated a considerable amount of effort towards contact prediction as a proxy for protein structure prediction. However a contact map's biological interest is subject to the availability of reliable methods for the 3-dimensional reconstruction of the structure. Results We use an implementation of the well-known distance geometry protocol to build realistic protein 3-dimensional models from contact maps, performing an extensive exploration of many of the parameters involved in the reconstruction process. We try to address the questions: a to what accuracy does a contact map represent its corresponding 3D structure, b what is the best contact map representation with regard to reconstructability and c what is the effect of partial or inaccurate contact information on the 3D structure recovery. Our results suggest that contact maps derived from the application of a distance cutoff of 9 to 11Å around the Cβ atoms constitute the most accurate representation of the 3D structure. The reconstruction process does not provide a single solution to the problem but rather an ensemble of conformations that are within 2Å RMSD of the crystal structure and with lower values for the pairwise average ensemble RMSD. Interestingly it is still possible to recover a structure with partial contact information, although wrong contacts can lead to dramatic loss in reconstruction fidelity. Conclusions Thus contact maps represent a valid approximation to the structures with an accuracy comparable to that of experimental methods. The optimal contact definitions constitute key guidelines for methods based on contact maps such as structure prediction through

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from octylisothiazolinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Anja Pahlow; Frost, Simon; Ohlund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen.......Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen....

  14. Discrete element analysis is a valid method for computing joint contact stress in the hip before and after acetabular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Kevin C; Thomas-Aitken, Holly D; Rudert, M James; Kern, Andrew M; Willey, Michael C; Anderson, Donald D; Goetz, Jessica E

    2018-01-23

    Evaluation of abnormalities in joint contact stress that develop after inaccurate reduction of an acetabular fracture may provide a potential means for predicting the risk of developing post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Discrete element analysis (DEA) is a computational technique for calculating intra-articular contact stress distributions in a fraction of the time required to obtain the same information using the more commonly employed finite element analysis technique. The goal of this work was to validate the accuracy of DEA-computed contact stress against physical measurements of contact stress made in cadaveric hips using Tekscan sensors. Four static loading tests in a variety of poses from heel-strike to toe-off were performed in two different cadaveric hip specimens with the acetabulum intact and again with an intentionally malreduced posterior wall acetabular fracture. DEA-computed contact stress was compared on a point-by-point basis to stress measured from the physical experiments. There was good agreement between computed and measured contact stress over the entire contact area (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.88 to 0.99). DEA-computed peak contact stress was within an average of 0.5 MPa (range 0.2-0.8 MPa) of the Tekscan peak stress for intact hips, and within an average of 0.6 MPa (range 0-1.6 MPa) for fractured cases. DEA-computed contact areas were within an average of 33% of the Tekscan-measured areas (range: 1.4-60%). These results indicate that the DEA methodology is a valid method for accurately estimating contact stress in both intact and fractured hips. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of skin surface hydration state and barrier function of stratum corneum of dorsa of hands and heels treated with PROTECT X2 skin protective cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takahiro

    2012-06-01

    Skin roughness is a term commonly used in Japan to describe a poor skin condition related to a rough and dry skin surface that develops as a result of various damaging effects from the environment or skin inflammation. Recovery from skin roughness requires skin care for a long period, thus it is important to prevent development of such skin changes. PROTECT X2 contains agents used for a protective covering of the skin from frequent hand washing or use of alcohol-based disinfectants. These unique components are also thought to be effective to treat skin roughness of the dorsa of the hands and heels. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of PROTECT X2 to increase skin surface hydration state, as well as enhance the barrier function of the stratum corneum of the dorsa of the hands and heels in elderly individuals. A total of 8 elderly subjects and their caretakers without any skin diseases participated in the study. They applied PROTECT X2 by themselves to the dorsum area of 1 hand and heel 3 to 5 times daily for 1 month, while the opposite sides were left untreated. We measured stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before beginning treatment, then 1 week and 1 month after the start of treatment to compare between the treated and untreated skin. SC hydration state after applications of PROTECT X2 was 1.5- to 3.0-fold higher than that of the untreated skin in the dorsa of both hands and heels, indicating that the moisturizing ingredients accompanied by water were replenished in those areas where the cream was applied. Also, TEWL in the dorsum of the hands was 17.0-27.9% lower on the treated side, indicating improvement in SC barrier function. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that PROTECT X2 enhances water-holding in the SC and aids the barrier function of the skin in the dorsum of the hands. In addition, we consider that this formulation is useful for not only protecting the hands from the effects of such agents

  16. ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES FOR M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, J. S.; Ramsey, L. W.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barnes, J. R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gallardo, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic rotation velocities (v sin i) for 56 M dwarf stars using high-resolution Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph red spectroscopy. In addition, we have also determined photometric effective temperatures, masses, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for some stars observed here and in the literature where we could acquire accurate parallax measurements and relevant photometry. We have increased the number of known v sin i values for mid M stars by around 80% and can confirm a weakly increasing rotation velocity with decreasing effective temperature. Our sample of v sin is peak at low velocities (∼3 km s -1 ). We find a change in the rotational velocity distribution between early M and late M stars, which is likely due to the changing field topology between partially and fully convective stars. There is also a possible further change in the rotational distribution toward the late M dwarfs where dust begins to play a role in the stellar atmospheres. We also link v sin i to age and show how it can be used to provide mid-M star age limits. When all literature velocities for M dwarfs are added to our sample, there are 198 with v sin i ≤ 10 km s -1 and 124 in the mid-to-late M star regime (M3.0-M9.5) where measuring precision optical radial velocities is difficult. In addition, we also search the spectra for any significant Hα emission or absorption. Forty three percent were found to exhibit such emission and could represent young, active objects with high levels of radial-velocity noise. We acquired two epochs of spectra for the star GJ1253 spread by almost one month and the Hα profile changed from showing no clear signs of emission, to exhibiting a clear emission peak. Four stars in our sample appear to be low-mass binaries (GJ1080, GJ3129, Gl802, and LHS3080), with both GJ3129 and Gl802 exhibiting double Hα emission features. The tables presented here will aid any future M star planet search target selection to extract stars with low v

  17. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different...... fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane...... carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under...

  18. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  19. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  20. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  1. Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua T; Franklin, Aaron D; Farmer, Damon B; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D

    2013-04-23

    Performance of graphene electronics is limited by contact resistance associated with the metal-graphene (M-G) interface, where unique transport challenges arise as carriers are injected from a 3D metal into a 2D-graphene sheet. In this work, enhanced carrier injection is experimentally achieved in graphene devices by forming cuts in the graphene within the contact regions. These cuts are oriented normal to the channel and facilitate bonding between the contact metal and carbon atoms at the graphene cut edges, reproducibly maximizing "edge-contacted" injection. Despite the reduction in M-G contact area caused by these cuts, we find that a 32% reduction in contact resistance results in Cu-contacted, two-terminal devices, while a 22% reduction is achieved for top-gated graphene transistors with Pd contacts as compared to conventionally fabricated devices. The crucial role of contact annealing to facilitate this improvement is also elucidated. This simple approach provides a reliable and reproducible means of lowering contact resistance in graphene devices to bolster performance. Importantly, this enhancement requires no additional processing steps.

  2. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  3. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-Contact Laser Based Ultrasound Evaluation of Canned Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, David

    2005-03-01

    Laser-Based Ultrasound detection was used to measure the velocity of compression waves transmitted through canned foods. Condensed broth, canned pasta, and non-condensed soup were evaluated in these experiments. Homodyne adaptive optics resulted in measurements that were more accurate than the traditional heterodyne method, as well as yielding a 10 dB gain in signal to noise. A-Scans measured the velocity of ultrasound sent through the center of the can and were able to distinguish the quantity of food stuff in its path, as well as distinguish between meat and potato. B-Scans investigated the heterogeneity of the sample’s contents. The evaluation of canned foods was completely non-contact and would be suitable for continuous monitoring in production. These results were verified by conducting the same experiments with a contact piezo transducer. Although the contact method yields a higher signal to noise ratio than the non-contact method, Laser-Based Ultrasound was able to detect surface waves the contact transducer could not.

  5. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among...... political parties on us-them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical outgroup members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  6. Native American lithic procurement along the international border in the boot heel region of southwestern New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Zeigler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary field projects can be very useful to a more fundamental understanding of the world around us, though these projects are not as common as they should be. In particular, the combination of archeology and geology combines our understanding of human behavior and human use of the landscape with an intimate knowledge of geologic processes and the materials available for human use in order to gain a broader understanding of human-Earth interaction. Here we present data from a cross-disciplinary project that uses a common dataset, archeological artifacts, to explore the anthropological and geologic implications of useage patterns. Archeological excavations and surveys conducted by the Office of Contract Archeology in 2007 along the route of the proposed international border fence reveal patterns of use of geologic materials by Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric Native Americans in the Boot Heel of southwestern New Mexico. Thousands of artifacts were recorded in multiple sites from Guadalupe Pass in the southern Peloncillo Mountains to the Carrizalillo Hills west of Columbus. We identified the lithologies of artifacts, ranging from projectile points to groundstones, and then constructed material movement maps based on either known procurement sites ("quarries" or outcrops identified as the closest source to a given site for each lithology. Not unexpectedly, the majority of the rock types utilized by native peoples are local siliceous volcanic materials. However, several artifacts constructed from obsidian were transported into the region from northern Mexico and eastern Arizona, indicating long-distance travel and/or trade routes. We also examine useage pattern difference between Archaic, Formative and Protohistoric sites. Additionally, a dramatic change in distribution of sources for geologic materials occurs between one pre-Spanish site and one post-Spanish site that are adjacent to one another.

  7. Rationales and treatment approaches underpinning the use of acupuncture and related techniques for plantar heel pain: a critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Maria T; Clark, Richard J; Toohey, Shane; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Acupuncture shows promise as a treatment for plantar heel pain (PHP) or plantar fasciitis (PF), but data heterogeneity has undermined demonstration of efficacy. Recognising that acupuncture is a diverse field of practice, the aim of this study was to gain a broader, global perspective on the different approaches and rationales used in the application of acupuncture in PHP. We built upon an earlier systematic review (which was limited by the necessity of a methodological focus on efficacy) using the critical interpretive synthesis (CIS) method to draw upon a wider international sample of 25 clinical sources, including case reports and case series. Multiple tracks of analysis led to an emergent synthesis. Findings are presented at three levels: primary (summarised data); secondary (patterns observed); and tertiary (emergent synthesis). Multiple treatments and rationales were documented but no single approach dominated. Notable contradictions emerged such as the application of moxibustion by some authors and ice by others. Synthesis of findings revealed a 'patchwork' of factors influencing the approaches taken. The complexity of the field of acupuncture was illustrated through the 'lens' of PHP. The 'patchwork' metaphor provides a unifying framework for a previously divergent community of practice and research. Several directions for future research were identified, such as: importance of prior duration; existence of diagnostic subgroups; and how practitioners make clinical decisions and report their findings. CIS was found to provide visibility for multiple viewpoints in developing theory and modelling the processes of 'real world' practice by acupuncturists addressing the problem of PHP. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Ultrasonography assessment of heel entheses in patients with spondyloarthritis: a comparative study with magnetic resonance imaging and conventional radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila Maldonado, Rodrigo; Ruta, Santiago; Valuntas, María Laura; García, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the agreement between ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and conventional radiography (CR) in the detection of findings indicative of enthesopathy in spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. A cross-sectional study was performed in 40 SpA patients. Heel entheses (Achilles tendon and plantar fascia) were bilaterally examined by US, MRI, and CR. The three imaging modalities were carried out by three independent operators blinded to the other imaging modality data. Soft tissue abnormalities indicative of enthesopathy as thickening, structural changes, and bursitis were assessed by both US and MRI, and cortical bone abnormalities indicative of enthesopathy as erosions and enthesophytes were assessed by the three imaging modalities. The unweighted kappa values between US and MRI were 0.80, 0.66, 0.69, 0.70, and 0.70 for thickening, structural changes, bursitis, enthesophytes, and bone erosions, respectively. With respect to the detection of enthesophytes, the unweighted kappa values between CR and both US and MRI were 0.78 and 0.76, respectively. At last, for the recognition of bone erosions, the unweighted kappa values between CR and both US and MRI were 0.38 and 0.45, respectively. Using MRI as standard reference method, US was more sensitive with respect to CR revealing bone erosions. The present study provides evidence about the high overall agreement between US and MRI for all abnormal comparable findings at entheseal level and between US, MRI, and CR for the detection of enthesophytes in SpA patients.

  9. The effects of altering initial ground contact in the running gait of an individual with transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waetjen, Linda; Parker, Matthew; Wilken, Jason M

    2012-09-01

    High rates of osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the intact limb in persons with amputation have raised concern about the long-term consequence of running. The purpose of this intervention was to determine if loading of the knee on the intact limb of a person with transtibial amputation during running could be decreased by changing the intact limb initial ground contact from rear foot to forefoot strike. This study compared kinematic, kinetic and temporal-spatial data collected while a 27-year-old male, who sustained a traumatic unilateral transtibial amputation of the left lower extremity, ran using a forefoot ground contact and again while using a heel first ground contact. Changing initial ground contact from rear foot strike to forefoot strike resulted in decreases in vertical ground reaction forces at impact, peak knee moments in stance, peak knee powers, and improved symmetry in step length. This case suggests forefoot initial contact of the intact limb may minimize loading of the knee on the intact limb in individuals with transtibial amputation.

  10. Quaternionic contact Einstein structures and the quaternionic contact Yamabe problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Stefan; Vassilev, Dimiter

    2014-01-01

    A partial solution of the quaternionic contact Yamabe problem on the quaternionic sphere is given. It is shown that the torsion of the Biquard connection vanishes exactly when the trace-free part of the horizontal Ricci tensor of the Biquard connection is zero and this occurs precisely on 3-Sasakian manifolds. All conformal transformations sending the standard flat torsion-free quaternionic contact structure on the quaternionic Heisenberg group to a quaternionic contact structure with vanishing torsion of the Biquard connection are explicitly described. A "3-Hamiltonian form" of infinitesimal conformal automorphisms of quaternionic contact structures is presented.

  11. [Contact glass tonometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, P W; Kanngiesser, H; Robert, Y C

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a tonometer built into a contactlens, which allows to measure the eye-pressure and to perform ophthalmoscopy at the same time. Artificially induced changes of the eye-pressure and their influence on the visible fundus can now be checked simultaneously. The contactlens-tonometer (CGT) also is able to record continuously the pulse-curve, which can indicate any circulatory problem. So, the device is expected to give us additional diagnostic criteria of early glaucoma. Each ophthalmologyst in the field will be able to perform with this device a oculodynamometry in an easy way. By this it is possible to estimate the pressure-tolerance of the optic disk from glaucoma-patients. There have been taken some measurements on enucleated human eyes, comparing our device with a Statham-transducer in the vitreous. We found a good correlation. In a second step, we made measurements (65) on healthy volunteers, comparing the device with Perkins-Tonometry. We found a correlation (R = 0.58). The error of the measurements was about +/- 3 mm Hg. Considering both, the deviation of the Perkins-Tonometer with which our results were compared, and the fact of a good correlation (R = 0.999) in the study with the enucleated human eyes, we found that the contact-lens-tonometer measures the intraocular pressure exactly. In future studies, we want to analyze the dynamic component of the measurements.

  12. Contact sport and osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, Michael G

    2011-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease in the world and the single largest cause of disability for those over 18 years. It affects more than twice as many people as does cardiac disease, and increases in incidence and prevalence with age. Animal and human studies have shown no evidence of increased risk of hip or knee OA with moderate exercise and in the absence of traumatic injury, sporting activity has a protective effect. One age-matched case control study found recreational runners who ran 12-14 miles per week for up to 40 years had no increase in radiological or symptomatic hip or knee OA. However, higher rates of hip OA occur in contact sports than in age-matched controls, with the highest rate in professional players. Soccer players with torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are more likely to develop knee OA than those with intact ACL. Early ACL repair reduces the risk of knee OA, but does not prevent it. Established injury prevention programmes have been refined to prevent injuries such as ACL rupture.

  13. The importance of contact quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Gerritsen, Marinel; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects....... Expatriates in the Netherlands were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 33) of which 21 developed high-quality contact with their host, and a control group (n = 32) without host. The results show that contact quality plays an important role and suggest that the higher the quality of the contact......, the more benefit the expatriate experienced. Moreover, expatriates with low-quality contact did not experience a detrimental effect....

  14. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  15. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, contact centers are increasingly becoming the center for customer frustration, and frequently associated with negative comments in the media. Therefore, this research explores the Emotional, Cognitive, ...

  16. Non-contact ultrasound techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    Non-contact ultrasound plays significant role in material characterisation and inspection. Unlike conventional ultrasonic techniques, non-contact ultrasonic is mostly applicable to areas where the former has its weaknesses and limitations. It is interesting to note that the non-contact ultrasonic technique has an important significant application in industry. The technique is signified by the fact that the object to be inspected is further away from the ultrasonic source, no couplant is needed and inconsistent pressure between the transducer and the specimen can be eliminated. The paper discusses some of the non-contact ultrasound technique and its applications. (Author)

  17. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Veien, Niels K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers is frequent, owing to daily exposure to irritants and allergens. OBJECTIVES: To identify sensitization to the most common allergens associated with the occupation of hairdressing. METHODS: Patch test results of 399 hairdressers and 1995...... matched controls with contact dermatitis, registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group between January 2002 and December 2011, were analysed. All patients were patch tested with the European baseline series, and hairdressers were additionally tested with the hairdressing series. RESULTS: Occupational...... contact dermatitis (p dermatitis was less commonly observed among hairdressers (21.3%) than among controls (29.4%) (p 

  18. Are repeated single-limb heel raises and manual muscle testing associated with peak plantar-flexor force in people with inclusion body myositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Love, Michael O; Shrader, Joseph A; Davenport, Todd E; Joe, Galen; Rakocevic, Goran; McElroy, Beverly; Dalakas, Marinos

    2014-04-01

    Repeated heel raises have been proposed as a method of ankle plantar-flexor strength testing that circumvents the limitations of manual muscle testing (MMT). The study objective was to examine the relationships among ankle plantar-flexion isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), repeated single-limb heel raises (SLHRs), and MMT in people with myositis. This was a cross-sectional study with a between-group design. The ability to complete 1 SLHR determined group assignment (SLHR group, n=24; no-SLHR group, n=19). Forty-three participants with myositis (13 women; median age=64.9 years) participated. Outcome measures included MVC, predicted MVC, Kendall MMT, and Daniels-Worthingham MMT. The Kendall MMT was unable to detect significant ankle plantar-flexor weakness established by quantitative methods and was unable to discriminate between participants who could and those who could not perform the SLHR task. Ankle plantar-flexion MVC was not associated with the number of heel-raise repetitions in the SLHR group (pseudo R(2)=.13). No significant relationship was observed between MVC values and MMT grades in the SLHR and no-SLHR groups. However, a moderate relationship between MVC values and MMT grades was evident in a combined-group analysis (ρ=.50-.67). The lower half of both MMT grading scales was not represented in the study despite the profound weakness of the participants. Both Kendall MMT and Daniels-Worthingham MMT had limited utility in the assessment of ankle plantar-flexor strength. Repeated SLHRs should not be used as a proxy measure of ankle plantar-flexion MVC in people with myositis.

  19. Sonographic measurements of the achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad are reliable: A test-retest intra- and intertester study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Finn; Jensen, Signe; Stallknecht, Sandra E; Olsen, Lars Otto; Magnusson, S Peter

    2016-10-01

    To determine intra- and interobserver reliability and precision of sonographic (US) scanning in measuring thickness of the Achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad in patients with heel pain. Seventeen consecutive patients referred with heel pain were included. Two evaluators blinded to the diagnosis performed independently US scanning of both feet without any dialogue with the patient. The examiner left the room, and the next examiner entered. All patients had two US scans performed by each examiner. Two months later, the US images were randomly presented to the evaluators for measurements. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 95% limits of agreement (LOA), and typical error (TE). LOA was calculated as a percentage of the mean thickness of each structure to obtain a unitless parameter. We found excellent intratester reliability (ICC 0.78-0.98) and good intertester reliability using one measurement (ICC 0.72-0.91) and excellent (ICC 0.85-0.95) when using average of two measurements. The intratester agreements were good with LOA: 9.5-23.4% and TE: 3.4-8.4%. The intertester agreements were acceptable using one measurement with LOA: 16.1-36.4%, and better using two measurements with LOA: 14.4-33.2%. US is a reliable technique of measurement in the daily clinic, and one single measurement is sufficient. In research, we recommend that the same observer performs the US measurements, if one single scanning is preferred; if more researchers are involved, the average measurement of two US scans is recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:480-486, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.

  1. Randomized multicenter follow-up trial on the effect of radiotherapy for plantar fasciitis (painful heels spur) depending on dose and fractionation – a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtmann, Henrik; Niewald, Marcus; Prokein, Benjamin; Graeber, Stefan; Ruebe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    An actual clinical trial showed the effect of low dose radiotherapy in painful heel spur (plantar fasciitis) with single doses of 1.0 Gy and total doses of 6.0 Gy applied twice weekly. Furthermore, a lot of animal experimental and in vitro data reveals the effect of lower single doses of 0.5 Gy which may be superior in order to ease pain and reduce inflammation in patients with painful heel spur. Our goal is therefore to transfer this experimentally found effect into a randomized multicenter trial. This was a controlled, prospective, two-arm phase III-multicenter trial. The standard arm consisted of single fractions of 1.0 Gy applied two times a week, for a total dose of 6.0 Gy (total therapy time: 3 weeks). The experimental arm consisted of single fractions of 0.5 Gy applied 3 times a week, for a total dose of 6.0 Gy (total therapy time: 4 weeks). Following a statistical power calculation, there were 120 patients for each investigation arm. The main inclusion criteria were: age > = 40 years, clinical and radiologically diagnosed painful heel spur (plantar fasciitis), and current symptoms for at least 6 months. The main exclusion criteria were: former local trauma, surgery or radiotherapy of the heel; pregnant or breastfeeding women; and a pre-existing severe psychiatric or psychosomatic disorder. After approving a written informed consent the patients are randomized by a statistician into one of the trial arms. After radiotherapy, the patients are seen after six weeks, after twelve weeks and then every twelve weeks up to 48 weeks. Additionally, they receive a questionnaire every six weeks after the follow-up examinations up to 48 weeks. The effect is measured using the visual analogue scale of pain (VAS), the calcaneodynia score according to Rowe and the SF-12 score. The primary endpoint is the pain relief three months after therapy. Patients of both therapy arms with an insufficient result are offered a second radiotherapy series applying the standard dose

  2. Ultrasonic propagation velocity in magnetic and magnetorheological fluids due to an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramantya, M A; Sawada, T; Motozawa, M

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic propagation velocity in a magnetic fluid (MF) and magnetorheological fluid (MRF) changes with the application of an external magnetic field. The formation of clustering structures inside the MF and MRF clearly has an influence on the ultrasonic propagation velocity. Therefore, we propose a qualitative analysis of these structures by measuring properties of ultrasonic propagation. Since MF and MRF are opaque, non-contact inspection using the ultrasonic technique can be very useful for analyzing the inner structures of MF and MRF. In this study, we measured ultrasonic propagation velocity in a hydrocarbon-based MF and MRF precisely. Based on these results, the clustering structures of these fluids are analyzed experimentally in terms of elapsed time dependence and the effect of external magnetic field strength. The results reveal hysteresis and anisotropy in the ultrasonic propagation velocity. We also discuss differences of ultrasonic propagation velocity between MF and MRF.

  3. Combustion Velocity of Benzine-Benzol-Air Mixtures in High-Speed Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnauffer, Kurt

    1932-01-01

    The present paper describes a device whereby rapid flame movement within an internal-combustion engine cylinder may be recorded and determined. By the aid of a simple cylindrical contact and an oscillograph the rate of combustion within the cylinder of an airplane engine during its normal operation may be measured for gas intake velocities of from 30 to 35 m/s and for velocities within the cylinder of from 20 to 25 m/s. With it the influence of mixture ratios, of turbulence, of compression ratio and kind of fuel on combustion velocity may be determined. Besides the determination of the influence of the above factors on combustion velocity, the degree of turbulence may also be determined. As a unit of reference in estimating the degree of turbulence, the intake velocity of the charge is chosen.

  4. Electron velocity and momentum density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    A null 4-vector eta + sigma/sub μ/based on Dirac's relativistic electron equation, is shown explicitly for a plane wave and various Coulomb states. This 4-vector constitutes a mechanical ''model'' for the electron in those staes, and expresses the important spinor quantities represented conventionally by n, f, g, m, j, kappa, l, and s. The model for a plane wave agrees precisely with the relation between velocity and phase gradient customarily used in quantum theory, but the models for Coulomb states contradict that relation

  5. Relationship of biomechanical factors to baseball pitching velocity: within pitcher variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F; Fleisig, Glenn S; McLean, Scott P; Andrews, James R

    2005-02-01

    To reach the level of elite, most baseball pitchers need to consistently produce high ball velocity but avoid high joint loads at the shoulder and elbow that may lead to injury. This study examined the relationship between fastball velocity and variations in throwing mechanics within 19 baseball pitchers who were analyzed via 3-D high-speed motion analysis. Inclusion in the study required each one to demonstrate a variation in velocity of at least 1.8 m/s (range 1.8-3.5 m/s) during 6 to 10 fastball pitch trials. Three mixed model analyses were performed to assess the independent effects of 7 kinetic, 11 temporal, and 12 kinematic parameters on pitched ball velocity. Results indicated that elbow flexion torque, shoulder proximal force, and elbow proximal force were the only three kinetic parameters significantly associated with increased ball velocity. Two temporal parameters (increased time to max shoulder horizontal adduction and decreased time to max shoulder internal rotation) and three kinematic parameters (decreased shoulder horizontal adduction at foot contact, decreased shoulder abduction during acceleration, and increased trunk tilt forward at release) were significantly related to increased ball velocity. These results point to variations in an individual's throwing mechanics that relate to pitched ball velocity, and also suggest that pitchers should focus on consistent mechanics to produce consistently high fastball velocities. In addition, pitchers should strengthen shoulder and elbow musculature that resist distraction as well as improve trunk strength and flexibility to maximize pitching velocity and help prevent injury.

  6. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  7. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence,

  8. Journal of Business Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Goski Alabi Mrs Institute of Professional Studies (IPS) P. 0 Box 149 Institute Of Professional Studies (IPS) Legon, Accra Ghana Phone: +233 24 64 52798. Fax: +233 21 513539. Email: goskia@yahoo.com. Support Contact. Anthony Afeadie. Phone: +233 21 500171. Email: ipsjournal@yahoo.com.

  9. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  10. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  11. Glenohumeral contact force during flat and topspin tennis forehand drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Yoann; Creveaux, Thomas; Dumas, Raphaël; Chèze, Laurence; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives. The results showed no differences in magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces between the flat and topspin forehand drives. The estimated maximal GH contact force during the forward swing phase was 3573 ± 1383 N, which was on average 1.25 times greater than during the follow-through phase, and 5.8 times greater than during the backswing phase. Regardless the phase of the forehand drive, GH contact forces pointed towards the anterior-superior part of the glenoid therefore standing for shearing forces. Knowledge of GH contact forces during real sport tasks performed at high velocity may improve the understanding of various sport-specific adaptations and causative factors for shoulder problems.

  12. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  13. Instrument for measuring flow velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffo, J.

    1977-01-01

    The design described here means to produce a 'more satisfying instrument with less cost' than comparable instruments known up to now. Instead of one single turbine rotor, two similar ones but with opposite blade inclination and sense of rotation are to be used. A cylindrical measuring body is carrying in its axis two bearing blocks whose shape is offering little flow resistance. On the shaft, supported by them, the two rotors run in opposite direction a relatively small axial distance apart. The speed of each rotor is picked up as pulse recurrence frequency by a transmitter and fed to an electronic measuring unit. Measuring errors as they are caused for single rotors by turbulent flow, profile distortion of the velocity, or viscous flow are to be eliminated by means of the contrarotating turbines and the subsequently added electronic unit, because in these cases the adulterating increase of the angular velocity of one rotor is compensated by a corresponding deceleration of the other rotor. The mean value then indicated by the electronic unit has high accurancy of measurement. (RW) [de

  14. Backwards in High Heels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Marianne; Hjort, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    We often describe Denmark and the other Nordic countries as successful when it comes to equality between the sexes. However, is this true? If we survey the management of Danish upper secondary schools, only one third of the top managers are women, an inequality that will not necessarily change in...

  15. A study of the river velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Yang, Han; Lun Chiang, Jie

    2013-04-01

    objects in water in high flow, resulting in measurement automation work still needs further study. If the priority for the safety of personnel and instruments, we can use the non-contact velocity measurement method with the theoretical analysis method to achieve real-time monitoring.

  16. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin-Lam, Toh

    2004-01-01

    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  17. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  18. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  19. Effect of head contact on the rim of the cup on the offset loading and torque in hip joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Williams, Sophie; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2013-11-01

    Head contact on the rim of the cup causes stress concentration and consequently increased wear. The head contact on the rim of the cup may in addition cause an offset load and torque on the cup. The head-rim contact resulting from microseparation or subluxation has been investigated. An analytical model has been developed to calculate the offset loading and resultant torque on the cup as a function of the translational displacement of the head under simplified loading condition of the hip joint at heel strike during a walking cycle. The magnitude of the torque on the cup was found to increase with the increasing translational displacement, larger diameter heads, eccentric cups, and the coefficient of friction of the contact. The effects of cup inclination, cup rim radius, and cup coverage angle on the magnitude of the torque were found to be relatively small with a maximum variation in the torque magnitude being lower than 20%. This study has shown an increased torque due to the head loading on the rim of the cup, and this may contribute to the incidence of cup loosening. Particularly, metal-on-metal hip joints with larger head diameters may produce the highest offset loading torque.

  20. Finite element modeling for predicting the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wookjin; Won, Byeong Hee; Cho, Seong Wook

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we generated finite element (FE) models to predict the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position. Twenty-year-old males were used for three-dimensional scanning to produce the FE human models, which was composed of skin and muscle tissue. A linear elastic isotropic material model was used for the skin, and the Mooney-Rivlin model was used for the muscle tissue because it can effectively represent the nonlinear behavior of muscle. The contact pressure between the human model and the mattress was predicted by numerical simulation. The human models were validated by comparing the body pressure distribution obtained from the same human subject when he was lying on two different mattress types. The experimental results showed that the slope of the lower part of the mattress caused a decrease in the contact pressure at the heels, and the effect of bone structure was most pronounced in the scapula. After inserting a simple structure to function as the scapula, the contact pressure predicted by the FE human models was consistent with the experimental body pressure distribution for all body parts. These results suggest that the models proposed in this paper will be useful to researchers and designers of products related to the prevention of pressure ulcers.

  1. Effect of Environmental and Behavioral Interventions on Pain Intensity in Preterm Infants for Heel Prick Blood Sampling in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharlooei, Fatemeh; Marofi, Maryam; Abdeyazdan, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Recent researches suggest that preterm infants understand pain and stress. Because of the wide range of effects of pain on infants, the present study was conducted on the effect of environmental and behavioral interventions on pain due to heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants. A clinical trial was conducted among 32 infants with gestational age of 32-37 weeks in the intervention and control groups. The effects of noise reduction by earplugs, light reduction by blindfolds, reduction of nursing manipulation, and creation of intrauterine position for neonates, 30 minutes before taking blood samples until 30 minutes after it, were measured during the intervention stage. Data were collected using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) in 5 stages (before intervention, 2 minutes before sampling, during the sampling, and 5 minutes and 30 minutes after the sampling). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t -test in SPSS software. The paired t -test results showed no significant differences between the control and intervention stages in terms of pain scores at base time ( P = 0.42) and 2 minutes before sampling ( P = 0.12). However, at the sampling time ( P = 0.0), and 5 minutes ( P = 0.001) and 30 minutes after the sampling ( P = 0.001), mean pain score in the intervention stage was significantly less than that in the control stage. Based on the findings, environmental and behavioral interventions reduced pain and facilitated heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants.

  2. Relationship between bone turnover markers and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Takayuki; Arima, Kazuhiko; Abe, Yasuyo; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tomita, Yoshihito; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the age-related patterns and the relationships between serum levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and the heel stiffness index measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in 429 Japanese men, with special emphasis on 2 age groups (40–59 years and 60 years or over). The heel stiffness index (bone mass) was measured by QUS. Serum samples were collected, and TRACP-5b and BAP levels were measured. The stiffness index was significantly decreased with age. Log (TRACP-5b) was significantly increased with age, but Log (BAP) was stable. Generalized linear models showed that higher levels of Log (TRACP-5b) and Log (BAP) were correlated with a lower stiffness index after adjusting for covariates in men aged 60 years or over, but not in men aged 40 to 59 years. In conclusion, higher rates of bone turnover markers were associated with a lower stiffness index only in elderly men. These results may indicate a different mechanism of low bone mass among different age groups of men. PMID:29465590

  3. [Cohort study of the incidence of heel pressure sores in patients with leg casts at the Rizzoli Orthopedic Hospital and of the associated risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Cristiana; Zoli, Marina; Loro, Loretta; Tremosini, Morena; Mini, Sandra; Pirini, Valter; Turrini, Roberta; Durante, Stefano; Nicolini, Annamaria; Riccioni, Francesca; Girolami, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Pressure sores, especially at the heel, are a side effect of the cast. To assess the incidence of late skin complications (heel pressure sores) of a cast and determine risk factors. All consecutive patients treated with a leg cast over a 16 months observation time were recruited. Risk factors were identified by the nurse that placed the cast and skin lesions classified with the NPUAP scale when the cast was removed. In the 216 enrolled patients 17.6% (38) developed a pressure sore: 16/124 in orthopedic wards; 22/92 in oncology wards. The multivariate analysis identified the following risk factors: administration of cytotoxic drugs (p = 0.033; OR = 2.61; having a cancer did not increase the risk); skin redness before cast application (p = 0.001; OR = 4.44) and having reported symptoms after the application (p = 0.000; OR = 7.86). Pressure sores were mainly stage 1 and only 6/216 (2.4%) > or = stage II. The type of plaster cast, the material, the number of days it was worn and having had a surgery are not significant risk factors. Pressure sores related to leg plaster casts are a frequent complication in at risk sub-groups. The acknowledgement and identification of specific risk factors may allow to identify and evaluate preventive interventions to improve the care of these patients.

  4. The foldase CYPB is a component of the secretory pathway of Aspergillus niger and contains the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal HEEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkx, P M; Madrid, S M

    2001-12-01

    Here we report the isolation and characterization of the cypB gene from Aspergillus niger. The cypB gene encodes a protein with a predicted molecular weight of 20.7 kDa, which shows a high degree of identity to the cyclophilin family of peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases) from other eukaryotes. The 5' untranslated region of cypB includes three sequences resembling UPREs (unfolded protein response elements). The expression of cypB is upregulated by tunicamycin and DTT, suggesting that at least one UPRE is functional. The CYPB protein also has a 23-amino acid sequence which serves to target the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the ER retention sequence HEEL. CYPB-(His)(6) was expressed in Escherichia coli; the purified protein is capable of isomerizing a substrate peptide in vitro. This is also the first report to show that C-terminal addition of the sequence HEEL is sufficient to ensure retention of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) within the ER.

  5. Precision of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the knee and heel: methodology and implications for research to reduce bone mineral loss after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, W T; Kim, W J; Ethans, K; Cowley, K C

    2017-05-01

    Methodological validation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based measures of leg bone mineral density (BMD) based on the guidelines of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the precision of BMD estimates at the knee and heel using the manufacturer provided DXA acquisition algorithm. The secondary objective was to determine the smallest change in DXA-based measurement of BMD that should be surpassed (least significant change (LSC)) before suggesting that a biological change has occurred in the distal femur, proximal tibia and calcaneus. Academic Research Centre, Canada. Ten people with motor-complete SCI of at least 2 years duration and 10 people from the general population volunteered to have four DXA-based measurements taken of their femur, tibia and calcaneus. BMDs for seven regions of interest (RIs) were calculated, as were short-term precision (root-mean-square (RMS) standard deviation (g cm -2 ), RMS-coefficient of variation (RMS-CV, %)) and LSC. Overall, RMS-CV values were similar between SCI (3.63-10.20%, mean=5.3%) and able-bodied (1.85-5.73%, mean=4%) cohorts, despite lower absolute BMD values at each RIs in those with SCI (35%, heel to 54%, knee; P10% are needed to detect differences between treated and untreated groups in studies aimed at reducing bone mineral loss after SCI.

  6. Critical velocities in He II for independently varied superfluid and normal fluid velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were performed to measure the critical velocity in pure superflow and compare to the theoretical prediction; to measure the first critical velocity for independently varied superfluid and normal fluid velocities; and to investigate the propagation of the second critical velocity from the thermal counterflow line through the V/sub n/,-V/sub s/ quadrant. The experimental apparatus employed a thermal counterflow heater to adjust the normal fluid velocity, a fountain pump to vary the superfluid velocity, and a level sensing capacitor to measure the superfluid velocity. The results of the pure superfluid critical velocity measurements indicate that this velocity is temperature independent contrary to Schwarz's theory. It was found that the first critical velocity for independently varied V/sub n/ and V/sub s/ could be described by a linear function of V/sub n/ and was otherwise temperature independent. It was found that the second critical velocity could only be distinguished near the thermal counterflow line

  7. Probing the nanoscale: the first contact of an impacting drop

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Erqiang

    2015-11-16

    When a drop impacts onto a solid surface, the lubrication pressure in the air deforms its bottom into a dimple. This makes the initial contact with the substrate occur not at a point but along a ring, thereby entrapping a central disc of air. We use ultra-high-speed imaging, with 200 ns time resolution, to observe the structure of this first contact between the liquid and a smooth solid surface. For a water drop impacting onto regular glass we observe a ring of microbubbles, due to multiple initial contacts just before the formation of the fully wetted outer section. These contacts are spaced by a few microns and quickly grow in size until they meet, thereby leaving behind a ring of microbubbles marking the original air-disc diameter. On the other hand, no microbubbles are left behind when the drop impacts onto molecularly smooth mica sheets. We thereby conclude that the localized contacts are due to nanometric roughness of the glass surface, and the presence of the microbubbles can therefore distinguish between glass with 10 nm roughness and perfectly smooth glass. We contrast this entrapment topology with the initial contact of a drop impacting onto a film of extremely viscous immiscible liquid, where the initial contact appears to be continuous along the ring. Here, an azimuthal instability occurs during the rapid contraction at the triple line, also leaving behind microbubbles. For low impact velocities the nature of the initial contact changes to one initiated by ruptures of a thin lubricating air film.

  8. Non-contact and contact measurement system for detecting projectile position in electromagnetic launch bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Yuan, Weiqun; Xu, Rong; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Wenping; Zhang, Dongdong; Zhao, Ying; Yan, Ping

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces a new measurement system for measuring the position of a projectile within a rapid fire electromagnetic launching system. The measurement system contains both non-contact laser shading and metal fiber contact measurement devices. Two projectiles are placed in the rapid fire electromagnetic launch bore, one in the main accelerating segment and the other in the pre-loading segment. The projectile placed in the main accelerating segment should be shot first, and then the other is loaded into the main segment from the pre-loading segment. The main driving current (I-main) can only be discharged again when the second projectile has arrived at the key position (the projectile position corresponds to the discharging time) in the main accelerating segment. So, it is important to be able to detect when the second projectile arrives at the key position in the main accelerating segment. The B-dot probe is the most widely used system for detecting the position of the projectile in the electromagnetic launch bore. However, the B-dot signal is affected by the driving current amplitude and the projectile velocity. There is no current in the main accelerating segment when the second projectile moves into this segment in rapid fire mode, so the B-dot signal for detecting the key position is invalid. Due to the presence of a high-intensity magnetic field, a high current, a high-temperature aluminum attachment, smoke and strong vibrations, it is very difficult to detect the projectile position in the bore accurately. So, other measurements need to be researched and developed in order to achieve high reliability. A measurement system based on a laser (non-contact) and metal fibers (contact) has been designed, and the integrated output signal based on this detector is described in the following paper.

  9. Rate and State Friction Relation for Nanoscale Contacts: Thermally Activated Prandtl-Tomlinson Model with Chemical Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kaiwen; Goldsby, David L.; Carpick, Robert W.

    2018-05-01

    Rate and state friction (RSF) laws are widely used empirical relationships that describe macroscale to microscale frictional behavior. They entail a linear combination of the direct effect (the increase of friction with sliding velocity due to the reduced influence of thermal excitations) and the evolution effect (the change in friction with changes in contact "state," such as the real contact area or the degree of interfacial chemical bonds). Recent atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments and simulations found that nanoscale single-asperity amorphous silica-silica contacts exhibit logarithmic aging (increasing friction with time) over several decades of contact time, due to the formation of interfacial chemical bonds. Here we establish a physically based RSF relation for such contacts by combining the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson (PTT) model with an evolution effect based on the physics of chemical aging. This thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model with chemical aging (PTTCA), like the PTT model, uses the loading point velocity for describing the direct effect, not the tip velocity (as in conventional RSF laws). Also, in the PTTCA model, the combination of the evolution and direct effects may be nonlinear. We present AFM data consistent with the PTTCA model whereby in aging tests, for a given hold time, static friction increases with the logarithm of the loading point velocity. Kinetic friction also increases with the logarithm of the loading point velocity at sufficiently high velocities, but at a different increasing rate. The discrepancy between the rates of increase of static and kinetic friction with velocity arises from the fact that appreciable aging during static contact changes the energy landscape. Our approach extends the PTT model, originally used for crystalline substrates, to amorphous materials. It also establishes how conventional RSF laws can be modified for nanoscale single-asperity contacts to provide a physically based friction

  10. Nordic project food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ågot; Tesdal Håland, Julie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013––2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic...... countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls....... The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates....

  11. Scalable algorithms for contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dostál, Zdeněk; Sadowská, Marie; Vondrák, Vít

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the authors’ newly developed scalable algorithms for the solutions of multibody contact problems of linear elasticity. The brand new feature of these algorithms is theoretically supported numerical scalability and parallel scalability demonstrated on problems discretized by billions of degrees of freedom. The theory supports solving multibody frictionless contact problems, contact problems with possibly orthotropic Tresca’s friction, and transient contact problems. It covers BEM discretization, jumping coefficients, floating bodies, mortar non-penetration conditions, etc. The exposition is divided into four parts, the first of which reviews appropriate facets of linear algebra, optimization, and analysis. The most important algorithms and optimality results are presented in the third part of the volume. The presentation is complete, including continuous formulation, discretization, decomposition, optimality results, and numerical experimen...

  12. Research in Hospitality Management: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr Sjoerd A Gehrels Editor-in-Chief Stenden Hotel Management School, Academy of International Hospitality Research, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands Email: sjoerd.gehrels@stenden.com ...

  13. EPA Alternative Dispute Resolution Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's ADR efforts depends on a network of talented and experienced professionals in Headquarters offices and EPA Regions. For Agency-wide ADR information, please contact the Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center.

  14. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  15. Embodied Archives as Contact Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vidiella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection about affective politics from locating some theoretical and conceptual genealogies like «emotion», «affection», «zones of contact»…, that understand them as action and force fields. These contributions allow us to rethink the relation of affects with politics and strategies of archive linked to performance, and understood as zones of friction, collision, circulation and contact: performative writing, repertoire, memes…

  16. The effect of increasing strength and approach velocity on triple jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sam J; Yeadon, M R Fred; King, Mark A

    2016-12-08

    The triple jump is an athletic event comprising three phases in which the optimal phase ratio (the proportion of each phase to the total distance jumped) is unknown. This study used a planar whole body torque-driven computer simulation model of the ground contact parts of all three phases of the triple jump to investigate the effect of strength and approach velocity on optimal performance. The strength and approach velocity of the simulation model were each increased by up to 30% in 10% increments from baseline data collected from a national standard triple jumper. Increasing strength always resulted in an increased overall jump distance. Increasing approach velocity also typically resulted in an increased overall jump distance but there was a point past which increasing approach velocity without increasing strength did not lead to an increase in overall jump distance. Increasing both strength and approach velocity by 10%, 20%, and 30% led to roughly equivalent increases in overall jump distances. Distances ranged from 14.05m with baseline strength and approach velocity, up to 18.49m with 30% increases in both. Optimal phase ratios were either hop-dominated or balanced, and typically became more balanced when the strength of the model was increased by a greater percentage than its approach velocity. The range of triple jump distances that resulted from the optimisation process suggests that strength and approach velocity are of great importance for triple jump performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of convection and density difference on contact melting around a cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuansong; Chen Wenzhen; Sun Fengrui

    2010-01-01

    Contact melting around a horizontal cylindrical heat source is investigated theoretically. Considering the convection and solid-liquid density difference, the expression of melting velocity is obtained by solving the dominant equations of the molten layer. The effects of convection and density difference on the contact melting are analyzed and discussed. It is found that convection hinders the heat transfer from the heat source to solid phase change material (PCM) across the molten layer, and smaller melting velocity will be obtained while considering solid-liquid density difference. The comparison of the result in this paper with those of previous study shows the validity of the analytical mode established.

  18. Experimental quantification of contact forces with impact, friction and uncertainty analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    and whirl motions in rotor-stator contact investigations. Dry friction coefficient is therefore estimated using two different experimental setups: (a) standard pin-on-disk tests and (b) rotor impact test rig fully instrumented. The findings in both setups indicate that the dry friction coefficient for brass......During rotor-stator contact dry friction plays a significant role in terms of reversing the rotor precession. The frictional force causes an increase in the rotor's tangential velocity in the direction opposite to that of the angular velocity. This effect is crucial for defining ranges of dry whip......-aluminum configuration significantly varies in a range of 0.16-0.83. The rotor enters a full annular contact mode shortly after two impacts with a contact duration of approximately 0.004 s at each location. It is experimentally demonstrated that the friction force is not present when the rotor enters a full annular...

  19. [Contact allergy to henna tattoos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkjer, Bjarte; Stangeland, Katarina Zak; Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer

    2011-03-18

    Tattoos with henna colours have become very popular and the prevalence of contact allergy seems to increase. This is a short review article based on our own clinical experience and literature identified through a search in PubMed with the words "henna", "paraphenylendiamin" and "allergic contact dermatitis." A case report is included. It is well documented that many experience skin reactions after henna tattoos. The cause is almost always contact allergy to the azo compound paraphenylendiamin, which is added to speed up the process and make the colour darker. Most people, including children, get henna tattoos during vacations in Asia or the Mediterranean. Established contact allergy is permanent. Many hair-colour products contain paraphenylendiamin, and persons with contact allergy against the product may develop a very strong contact allergic eczema by use of such substances. Acute reactions are treated with local cortisone products, or with systemic steroids. Cross reaction to substances with a similar chemical structure may occur. Tattoos with paraphenylendiamin-containing henna colours should be avoided.

  20. Determination of velocity correction factors for real-time air velocity monitoring in underground mines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lihong; Yuan, Liming; Thomas, Rick; Iannacchione, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    When there are installations of air velocity sensors in the mining industry for real-time airflow monitoring, a problem exists with how the monitored air velocity at a fixed location corresponds to the average air velocity, which is used to determine the volume flow rate of air in an entry with the cross-sectional area. Correction factors have been practically employed to convert a measured centerline air velocity to the average air velocity. However, studies on the recommended correction fac...