Certain group dynamical systems induced by Hecke algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilwoo Cho
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study dynamical systems induced by a certain group \\(\\mathfrak{T}_{N}^{K}\\ embedded in the Hecke algebra \\(\\mathcal{H}(G_{p}\\ induced by the generalized linear group \\(G_{p} = GL_{2}(\\mathbb{Q}_{p}\\ over the \\(p\\-adic number fields \\(\\mathbb{Q}_{p}\\ for a fixed prime \\(p\\. We study fundamental properties of such dynamical systems and the corresponding crossed product algebras in terms of free probability on the Hecke algebra \\(\\mathcal{H}(G_{p}\\.
Hecke Groups, Dessins d'Enfants and the Archimedean Solids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang-Hui eHe
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Grothendieck's dessins d'enfants arise with ever-increasing frequency in many areas of 21st century mathematical physics. In this paper, we review the connections between dessins and the theory of Hecke groups. Focussing on the restricted class of highly symmetric dessins corresponding to the so-called Archimedean solids, we apply this theory in order to provide a means of computing representatives of the associated conjugacy classes of Hecke subgroups in each case. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that dessins arising in mathematical physics can point to new and hitherto unexpected directions for further research. In addition, given the particular ubiquity of many of the dessins corresponding to the Archimedean solids, the hope is that the computational results of this paper will prove useful in the further study of these objects in mathematical physics contexts.
Free probability on Hecke algebras and certain group C^{*}-algebras induced by Hecke algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilwoo Cho
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, by establishing free-probabilistic models on the Hecke algebras \\(\\mathcal{H}\\left(GL_{2}(\\mathbb{Q}_{p}\\right\\ induced by \\(p\\-adic number fields \\(\\mathbb{Q}_{p}\\, we construct free probability spaces for all primes \\(p\\. Hilbert-space representations are induced by such free-probabilistic structures. We study \\(C^{*}\\-algebras induced by certain partial isometries realized under the representations.
Hecke algebras with unequal parameters
Lusztig, G
2003-01-01
Hecke algebras arise in representation theory as endomorphism algebras of induced representations. One of the most important classes of Hecke algebras is related to representations of reductive algebraic groups over p-adic or finite fields. In 1979, in the simplest (equal parameter) case of such Hecke algebras, Kazhdan and Lusztig discovered a particular basis (the KL-basis) in a Hecke algebra, which is very important in studying relations between representation theory and geometry of the corresponding flag varieties. It turned out that the elements of the KL-basis also possess very interesting combinatorial properties. In the present book, the author extends the theory of the KL-basis to a more general class of Hecke algebras, the so-called algebras with unequal parameters. In particular, he formulates conjectures describing the properties of Hecke algebras with unequal parameters and presents examples verifying these conjectures in particular cases. Written in the author's precise style, the book gives rese...
Representations of affine Hecke algebras
Xi, Nanhua
1994-01-01
Kazhdan and Lusztig classified the simple modules of an affine Hecke algebra Hq (q E C*) provided that q is not a root of 1 (Invent. Math. 1987). Ginzburg had some very interesting work on affine Hecke algebras. Combining these results simple Hq-modules can be classified provided that the order of q is not too small. These Lecture Notes of N. Xi show that the classification of simple Hq-modules is essentially different from general cases when q is a root of 1 of certain orders. In addition the based rings of affine Weyl groups are shown to be of interest in understanding irreducible representations of affine Hecke algebras. Basic knowledge of abstract algebra is enough to read one third of the book. Some knowledge of K-theory, algebraic group, and Kazhdan-Lusztig cell of Cexeter group is useful for the rest
Orthogonality and Hecke operators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pmsc/119/03/0283-0286. Keywords. Hecke operator; eigenvalue; orthogonality; Atkin–Lehner theory. Abstract. In this article we analyze orthogonality relations between old forms and the connection to the theory of Hecke operators. Author Affiliations.
Orthogonality and Hecke operators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E-mail: winfried@mathi.uni-heidelberg.de; christian.f.weiss@web.de. MS received 16 January 2006; revised 21 April 2009. Abstract. In this article we analyze orthogonality relations between old forms and the connection to the theory of Hecke operators. Keywords. Hecke operator; eigenvalue; orthogonality; Atkin–Lehner ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lan Wang
Full Text Available Much information could be processed unconsciously. However, there is no direct evidence on whether perceptual grouping could occur without awareness. To answer this question, we investigated whether a Kanizsa triangle (an example of perceptual grouping is processed differently from stimuli with the same local components but are ungrouped or weakly grouped. Specifically, using a suppression time paradigm we tested whether a Kanizsa triangle would emerge from interocular continuous flash suppression sooner than control stimuli. Results show a significant advantage of the Kanizsa triangle: the Kanizsa triangle emerged from suppression noise significantly faster than the control stimulus with the local Pacmen randomly rotated (t(9 = -2.78, p = 0.02; and also faster than the control stimulus with all Pacmen rotated 180° (t(11 = -3.20, p<0.01. Additional results demonstrated that the advantage of the grouped Kanizsa triangle could not be accounted for by the faster detection speed at the conscious level for the Kanizsa figures on a dynamic noise background. Our results indicate that certain properties supporting perceptual grouping could be processed in the absence of awareness.
Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina
2015-01-01
Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...
Lectures on Iwahori-Hecke Algebras and their Representation Theory
Cherednik, Ivan; Howe, Roger; Lusztig, George
2002-01-01
Two basic problems of representation theory are to classify irreducible representations and decompose representations occuring naturally in some other context. Algebras of Iwahori-Hecke type are one of the tools and were, probably, first considered in the context of representation theory of finite groups of Lie type. This volume consists of notes of the courses on Iwahori-Hecke algebras and their representation theory, given during the CIME summer school which took place in 1999 in Martina Franca, Italy.
Schappacher, Norbert
1988-01-01
The starting point of this Lecture Notes volume is Deligne's theorem about absolute Hodge cycles on abelian varieties. Its applications to the theory of motives with complex multiplication are systematically reviewed. In particular, algebraic relations between values of the gamma function, the so-called formula of Chowla and Selberg and its generalization and Shimura's monomial relations among periods of CM abelian varieties are all presented in a unified way, namely as the analytic reflections of arithmetic identities beetween Hecke characters, with gamma values corresponding to Jacobi sums. The last chapter contains a special case in which Deligne's theorem does not apply.
Matula, Dominik
2013-01-01
The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...
Torabi-Dashti, Mohammad
2011-01-01
Like Pascal's triangle, Faulhaber's triangle is easy to draw: all you need is a little recursion. The rows are the coefficients of polynomials representing sums of integer powers. Such polynomials are often called Faulhaber formulae, after Johann Faulhaber (1580-1635); hence we dub the triangle Faulhaber's triangle.
Combinatorics of traces of Hecke operators.
Frechette, Sharon; Ono, Ken; Papanikolas, Matthew
2004-12-07
We investigate the combinatorial properties of the traces of the nth Hecke operators on the spaces of weight 2k cusp forms of level N. We establish examples in which these traces are expressed in terms of classical objects in enumerative combinatorics (e.g., tilings and Motzkin paths). We establish in general that Hecke traces are explicit rational linear combinations of values of Gegenbauer (also known as ultraspherical) polynomials. These results arise from "packaging" the Hecke traces into power series in weight aspect. These generating functions are easily computed by using the Eichler-Selberg trace formula.
Abdalla, Sala; Pierre, Sacha; Ellis, Harold
2013-05-01
Calot's triangle is an anatomical landmark of special value in cholecystectomy. First described by Jean-François Calot as an "isosceles" triangle in his doctoral thesis in 1891, this anatomical space requires careful dissection before the ligation and division of the cystic artery and cystic duct during cholecystectomy. The modern definition of the boundaries of Calot's triangle varies from Calot's original description, although the exact timing of this change is not entirely clear. The structures within Calot's triangle and their anatomical relationships can present the surgeon with difficulties, particularly when anatomical variations are encountered. Sound knowledge of the normal anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract and vasculature, as well as understanding of congenital variation, is thus essential in the prevention of iatrogenic injury. The authors describe the normal anatomy of Calot's triangle and common anatomical anomalies. The incidence of structural injury is discussed, and new techniques in surgery for enhancing the visualisation of Calot's triangle are reviewed. © . Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pd-catalyzed Heck reactions of aryl bromides with 1,2-diarylethenes
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Limberger, Jones; Poersch, Silvia; Monteiro, Adriano L., E-mail: adriano.monteiro@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LCM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. of Molecular Catalysis
2011-07-01
A catalytic system composed of Pd(OAc){sub 2} and P(o-tol){sub 3} was found to be effective for the Heck reaction of aryl bromides with diarylethylenes. Using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a base and DMF as a solvent, trisubstituted olefins were obtained in good to excellent yields. Aryl bromides containing an electron-withdrawing group in para position were less reactive for the Heck coupling reaction and gave substantial amount of homocoupling by-product suggesting that oxidative addition is not the rate-determining step. Electron withdrawing group substituent in the para position of stilbene affects the regioselectivity of the reaction. In this case, the phenyl group from the Ph-Pd complex migrates preferentially to the same carbon of the double bond to which the phenyl is bonded. Finally, a one pot sequential double Heck arylation of styrene was performed, giving trisubstituted olefin with an overall yield of 73%. (author)
Barton, Patricia Shea
2003-01-01
Notes that Montessori classrooms provide children with the opportunity to explore and discover mathematics. Describes the introduction to Pascal's Triangle as a suggested opportunity to connect young children to deep mathematical truths. Provides teachers with materials requirements, and notes ideas on what can be acquired from the problem, the…
An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy
Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.
2016-01-01
We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).
De Lima Oliveira, Rafael; Hooijmans, Jasper B. F.; de Jongh, Petra E.; Klein Gebbink, Bert; de Jong, Krijn P.
2014-01-01
Pd nanoparticles were synthesized on nonfunctionalized and functionalized SBA-15 grafted with thiol or amine groups. The resulting materials were used as catalysts to study the influence of these functional groups for a similar Pd particle size of approximately 2 nm on the Heck reaction that uses
Semisimplicity of Hecke and (walled) Brauer Algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
We show how to use Jantzen's sum formula for Weyl modules to prove semisimplicity criteria for endomorphism algebras of Uq-tilting modules (for any field 핂 and any parameter q∈핂−{0,−1}). As an application, we recover the semisimplicity criteria for the Hecke algebras of types A and B, the walled...
The Finitistic Consistency of Heck's Predicative Fregean System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cruz-Filipe, L.; Ferreira, Fernando
2015-01-01
Frege's theory is inconsistent (Russell's paradox). However, the predicative version of Frege's system is consistent. This was proved by Richard Heck in 1996 using a model theoretic argument. In this paper, we give a finitistic proof of this consistency result. As a consequence, Heck's predicative...
Singh, Manpreet; Vashistha, Arpit; Chaudhary, Manoj; Kaur, Gagandeep
2016-01-01
The purpose of this manuscript is to add some more information in the present scientific literature on these nearly forgotten triangles of surgical importance. The neck is an area that lends itself to anatomical geometry, such as triangles. Many triangles of the neck have been described, and some are well-known, yet, some have been nearly forgotten, i.e., Lesser's triangle, Farabeuf triangle, Pirogoff's triangle, and Beclard's triangle. From the anatomic and surgical point of view, the neck is an amazingly interesting place. It is like a connection where crucial functional units meet and pass. Added surgical landmarks are always helpful to the surgeon while dealing with the neck. Described triangles of neck in this article are always reliable and constant landmarks for head and neck surgeons.
Singh, Manpreet; Vashistha, Arpit; Chaudhary, Manoj; Kaur, Gagandeep
2016-01-01
The purpose of this manuscript is to add some more information in the present scientific literature on these nearly forgotten triangles of surgical importance. The neck is an area that lends itself to anatomical geometry, such as triangles. Many triangles of the neck have been described, and some are well-known, yet, some have been nearly forgotten, i.e., Lesser's triangle, Farabeuf triangle, Pirogoff's triangle, and Beclard's triangle. From the anatomic and surgical point of view, the neck is an amazingly interesting place. It is like a connection where crucial functional units meet and pass. Added surgical landmarks are always helpful to the surgeon while dealing with the neck. Described triangles of neck in this article are always reliable and constant landmarks for head and neck surgeons PMID:27563614
On Integer-Sequence-Based Constructions of Generalized Pascal Triangles
Barry, Paul
2006-05-01
We introduce an integer sequence based construction of invertible centrally symmetric number triangles, which generalize Pascal's triangle. We characterize the row sums and central coefficients of these triangles, and examine other properties. Links to the Narayana numbers are explored. Use is made of the Riordan group to elucidate properties of a special one-parameter subfamily. An alternative exponential approach to constructing generalized Pascal triangles is briefly explored.
Klimek-Piotrowska, Wieslawa; Holda, Mateusz K; Koziej, Mateusz; Salapa, Kinga; Piatek, Katarzyna; Holda, Jakub
2017-03-01
The first aim of this study was to determine the size of the Koch's triangle. The second one was to investigate relation between its dimensions and other individual-specific and heart-specific parameters as well as to create universal formula to estimate triangle dimensions based on these parameters. This study is a prospective one, presenting 120 randomly selected autopsied hearts dissected from adult humans (Caucasian) of both sexes (31.7% females), with mean age of 49.3 ± 17.4 years. The length of triangle sides and angles were measured and the triangle area was calculated as well. Sixteen additional heart parameters were measured in order to analyse potential relationship between the dimensions of Koch's triangle and other dimensions of the heart, using linear regression analysis. The mean (±SD) length of the anterior edge was approximated to 18.0 ± 3.8 mm, the posterior edge to 20.3 ± 4.3 mm, and the basal edge to 18.5 ± 4.0 mm. The average values of the apex angle, the Eustachian angle, and the septal leaflet angle were 58.0 ± 14.4°, 53.8 ± 10.6°, and 67.6 ± 14.4°, respectively. The mean value of the Koch's triangle area was 151.5 ± 55.8 mm2. The 95th percentile of triangle's height (the distance from the apex to the coronary sinus) was 21.8 mm. Mean values and proportions of triangle's sides and angles were presented. Koch's triangle showed considerable individual variations in size. The dimensions of the triangle were strongly independent from individual-specific and heart-specific morphometric parameters; however, the maximum triangle's height can be estimated as 22 mm.
Minor, Darrell P.
2005-01-01
In "Beyond Pascals Triangle" the author demonstrates ways of using "Pascallike" triangles to expand polynomials raised to powers in a fairly quick and easy fashion. The recursive method could easily be implemented within a spreadsheet, or simply by using paper and pencil. An explanation of why the method works follows the several examples that are…
Koyunkaya, Melike Yigit; Kastberg, Signe; Quinlan, James; Edwards, Michael Todd; Keiser, Jane
2015-01-01
Right triangles play a significant role in mathematics. In this favorite lesson, the authors help students understand variant and invariant properties by considering relationships among angle measures and side lengths in right triangles. Students explore these relationships using interactive mathematics software, changing one angle and observing…
Curley, Walter
1974-01-01
After a brief discussion of Pascal's triangle and description of four methods of hand construction, the author provides FORTRAN and BASIC programs for computer construction based on recursive definition. (SD)
Afar Triangle, Ethiopia, Africa
1992-01-01
The Afar Triangle of Ethiopia (11.5N, 42.5E) is a very active plate tectonic region. The region is stressed by Saudi Arabia moving away from Africa and East Africa tearing itself away from the rest of Africa. Because of the plate movements in three different directions, The Afar Triangle is stretched thin and torn resulting in a series of faults seen as long parallel valleys. There is frequent volcanic activity and lava flows occur along the faults.
On the universal module of $p$-adic spherical Hecke algebras
Grosse-Klönne, Elmar
2014-01-01
Let $\\widetilde{G}$ be a split connected reductive group with connected center $Z$ over a local non-Archimedean field $F$ of residue characteristic $p$, let $\\widetilde{K}$ be a hyperspecial maximal compact open subgroup in $\\widetilde{G}$. Let $R$ be a commutative ring, let $V$ be a finitely generated $R$-free $R[\\widetilde{K}]$-module. For an $R$-algebra $B$ and a character $\\chi:{\\mathfrak H}_V(\\widetilde{G},\\widetilde{K})\\to B$ of the spherical Hecke algebra ${\\mathfrak H}_V(\\widetilde{G}...
RSOS models and Jantzen-Seitz representations of Hecke algebras at roots of unity
Foda, O E; Okado, M; Thibon, J Y; Welsh, Trevor A; Foda, Omar; Leclerc, Bernard; Okado, Masato; Thibon, Jean-Yves; Welsh, Trevor A.
1997-01-01
A special family of partitions occurs in two apparently unrelated contexts: the evaluation of 1-dimensional configuration sums of certain RSOS models, and the modular representation theory of symmetric groups or their Hecke algebras $H_m$. We provide an explanation of this coincidence by showing how the irreducible $H_m$-modules which remain irreducible under restriction to $H_{m-1}$ (Jantzen-Seitz modules) can be determined from the decomposition of a tensor product of representations of affine $\\sl_n$.
Matsuda–Heck reaction with arenediazonium tosylates in water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ksenia V. Kutonova
2015-03-01
Full Text Available An environmentally friendly Matsuda–Heck reaction with arenediazonium tosylates has been developed for the first time. A range of alkenes was arylated in good to quantitative yields in water. The reaction is significantly accelerated when carried out under microwave heating. The arylation of haloalkylacrylates with diazonium salts has been implemented for the first time.
The Heck reaction in the production of fine chemicals
Vries, Johannes G. de
2001-01-01
An overview is given of the use of the Heck reaction for the production of fine chemicals. Five commercial products have been identified that are produced on a scale in excess of 1 ton/year. The herbicide Prosulfuron™ is produced via a Matsuda reaction of 2-sulfonatobenzenediazonium on
Dirac cohomology for degenerate affine Hecke-Clifford algebras
Chan, K.Y.
In this paper, we study the Dirac cohomology theory on a class of algebraic structures. The main examples of this algebraic structure are the degenerate affine Hecke-Clifford algebra of type An-1 by Nazarov and of classical types by Khongsap-Wang. The algebraic structure contains a remarkable
: Recyclable, ligand free palladium(II) catalyst for Heck reaction
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Palladium substituted in cerium dioxide in the form of a solid solution, Ce0·98 Pd0·02 O1·98 is a new heterogeneous catalyst which exhibits high activity and 100% trans-selectivity for the Heck reactions of aryl bromides including heteroaryls with olefins. The catalytic reactions work without any ligand. Nano-.
Graphing trillions of triangles.
Burkhardt, Paul
2017-07-01
The increasing size of Big Data is often heralded but how data are transformed and represented is also profoundly important to knowledge discovery, and this is exemplified in Big Graph analytics. Much attention has been placed on the scale of the input graph but the product of a graph algorithm can be many times larger than the input. This is true for many graph problems, such as listing all triangles in a graph. Enabling scalable graph exploration for Big Graphs requires new approaches to algorithms, architectures, and visual analytics. A brief tutorial is given to aid the argument for thoughtful representation of data in the context of graph analysis. Then a new algebraic method to reduce the arithmetic operations in counting and listing triangles in graphs is introduced. Additionally, a scalable triangle listing algorithm in the MapReduce model will be presented followed by a description of the experiments with that algorithm that led to the current largest and fastest triangle listing benchmarks to date. Finally, a method for identifying triangles in new visual graph exploration technologies is proposed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano
2016-01-01
We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon....... The resulting photon spectrum resembles a sharp triangle and can be readily searched for in the gamma-ray sky. Using data from the Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. instruments, we find no evidence for such a spectral feature and, therefore, set strong upper bounds on the corresponding annihilation cross section....... A concrete realization of a scenario yielding gamma-ray triangles consists of an asymmetric dark matter model where the dark matter particle carries lepton number. We show explicitly that this class of models can lead to intense gamma-ray spectral features, potentially at the reach of upcoming gamma...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Irwin, Alan
2014-01-01
I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....
Discovery: Triangle Inequality Revisited
de Mestre, Neville
2016-01-01
As outlined in the paper "The 20 Matchstick Triangle Challenge: An Activity to Foster Reasoning and Problem Solving" by Pat Graham and Helen Chick [EJ1093090], an incredibly useful set of information about the mathematical ability of your students will be revealed. You can look at the way your students try to solve the 20 matchsticks…
Gershon, Tim
2007-01-01
"Physicists at "B-factories" in the US and Japan are closing in on an abstract diagram called the unitarity triangle in the quest to explain the difference between matter and antimatter. But such measurements could also point the way to the discovery of new fundamental particles." (5 pages)
Harkleroad, Leon
2008-01-01
This paper examines three historical geometric constructions for handcrafting stringed instruments. Using elementary geometry--in particular, triangles--these methods can provide quite good rational approximations to the irrationals that arise from tuning instruments in equal temperament. Interestingly, continued fractions help explain the…
Triangle Geometry and Jacobsthal Numbers
Barry, Paul
2003-01-01
The convergence properties of certain triangle centres on the Euler line of an arbitrary triangle are studied. Properties of the Jacobsthal numbers, which appear in this process, are examined, and a new formula is given. A Jacobsthal decomposition of Pascal’s triangle is presented.
Pascal's Infinite Set of Triangles
Skurnick, Ronald
2005-01-01
Pascal's Triangle is, without question, the most well-known triangular array of numbers in all of mathematics. A well-known algorithm for constructing Pascal's Triangle is based on the following two observations. The outer edges of the triangle consist of all 1's. Each number not lying on the outer edges is the sum of the two numbers above it in…
Susan Dicklitch. The Elusive Promise of NGO's | Heck | Uganda ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Susan Dicklitch. The Elusive Promise of NGO's. Simon Heck. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v46i1.23044 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...
Note on Dilogarithm Identities from Nilpotent Double Affine Hecke Algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomoki Nakanishi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Recently Cherednik and Feigin [arXiv:1209.1978] obtained several Rogers-Ramanujan type identities via the nilpotent double affine Hecke algebras (Nil-DAHA. These identities further led to a series of dilogarithm identities, some of which are known, while some are left conjectural. We confirm and explain all of them by showing the connection with Y-systems associated with (untwisted and twisted quantum affine Kac-Moody algebras.
Towards better management of Coral Triangle tuna
Bailey, M.L.; Flores, J.; Pokajam, S.; Rashid Sumaila, U.
2012-01-01
Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea, all part of a regional sub-group known as the Coral Triangle, have sizeable skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye tuna fisheries. Recent figures suggest that as much as a third of tuna catch from the western and central Pacific Ocean can be attributed to
Driessen, C.P.G.; Lorimer, J.
2016-01-01
This chapter investigates the bio-geographical imaginations behind the animal 'back-breeding' programs carried out by Lutz and Heinz Heck - two influential German zoologists who ran Berlin and Munich zoos. Partly with close connections to and patronage from the National Socialist elite, the Heck
The Heck Reaction in Ionic Liquids: Progress and Challenges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Bellina
2010-03-01
Full Text Available As the interest for environmental increases and environmental laws become more stringent, the need to replace existing processes with new more sustainable technologies becomes a primary objective. The use of ionic liquids to replace organic solvents in metal catalyzed reactions has recently gained much attention and great progress has been accomplished in this area in the last years. This paper reviews the recent developments in the application of ionic liquids and related systems (supported ionic liquids, ionic polymers, and so on in the Heck reaction. Merits and achievements of ionic liquids were analyzed and discussed considering the possibility of increasing the effectiveness of industrial processes.
Winkelsas, John
2006-01-01
The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…
The Bermuda Triangle of Education.
Bertrand, Yves
The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…
Properties of hyperbolic Pascal triangles
Belbachir, Hacene; Németh, László; Szalay, László
2017-08-01
Here we summarize some results on a recently introduced new generalization of Pascal's triangle called hyperbolic Pascal triangles. The name comes from the mathematical background, which goes back to regular mosaics on the hyperbolic plane. A few open questions will also be posed.
Grouper: a compact, streamable triangle mesh data structure.
Luffel, Mark; Gurung, Topraj; Lindstrom, Peter; Rossignac, Jarek
2014-01-01
We present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. As a part of this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle--i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format--Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.
Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)
2014-01-01
Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Paulo de Andrade Santos
2007-12-01
Full Text Available A hiperplasia epitelial focal, ou doença de Heck, é uma enfermidade rara, benigna, que afeta a mucosa oral de crianças e adultos jovens de diversas regiões do mundo e em diferentes grupos étnicos, como indígenas e esquimós. Apresenta correlação com o papilomavírus humano (HPV no qual os tipos 13 e 32 têm sido consistentemente detectados nessas lesões. Este artigo relata um caso de uma paciente de 18 anos de idade, descendente de índios potiguares, que compareceu ao serviço de estomatologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, exibindo lesões bem definidas, arredondadas, planas, localizadas em cavidade oral, com tempo de evolução de aproximadamente dois anos. As lesões foram submetidas a biópsias incisionais, constatado-se no exame histopatológico alterações epiteliais, como acantose, cristas epiteliais em forma de "taco de golfe" além de células mitosóides. Esses achados histopatológicos foram compatíveis com a hipótese clínica de hiperplasia epitelial focal (doença de Heck.The focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is a benign rare pathology, that affects children and young adults oral mucosal in many world regions, and different ethnic groups, for example Indians and Eskimos. Presents correlation with the subtypes 13 and 32 of human papillomavirus (HPV. This article report a case of an 18-year-old patient, descent of potiguar indian, attended in stomatology service of Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN, presenting well defined lesions, round, plane, localized in oral cavity with an evolution of two years. The lesions were submitted to incisional biopsies, verifying in histopathologic exam, epithelial alterations, like acanthosis, epithelial projections in "parquet block of golf" beyond mitosoid cells. These histopathological findings were compatible with clinical hypothesis of focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease.
Pascal's triangle and other number triangles in Clifford analysis
Tomaz, G.; Falcão, M. I.; Malonek, H. R.
2012-09-01
The recent introduction of generalized Appell sequences in the framework of Clifford Analysis solved an open question about a suitable construction of power-like monogenic polynomials as generalizations of the integer powers of a complex variable. The deep connection between Appell sequences and Pascal's triangle called also attention to other number triangles and, at the same time, to the construction of generalized Pascal matrices. Both aspects are considered in this communication.
Magnetically Separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalyst for Aqueous Heck Reaction
Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd catalyst has been synthesized via anchoring of palladium over dopamine-coated magnetite via non-covalent interaction and the catalyst is utilized for expeditious Heck coupling in aqueous media.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Dallas
2000-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we report examples of the Heck reaction in the new moisture stable ambient temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim]PF6. We have found that the yield of product is comparable with Heck reactions carried out in DMF, the conventional solvent for this reaction, and that the ionic liquid/catalyst mixture can be recycled several times.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walter López Moreno
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Experts have determined that to commit fraud must exist the power, the opportunity, and the rationalization (D. Cressey, 1961. These three important points are known as the fraud triangle. The main purpose of this research was to detect and identify whether there is relationship between management levels and dimensions of the fraud. For this research, a questionnaire was answered by managers working in the mortgage banking area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. A nonparametric test of Kendall Tau was used to correlate the variables of the investigation. In evaluating the correlation there is sufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis which states that the characteristics of fraud associated with the dimension of the rationalization are determined by the management level in an organization. In the same way, it was found that the characteristics of fraud associated with the size of the opportunity, are determined by the management level in an organization. With this statistical reasoning we presented relationships between the three dimensions of the fraud: power vs. opportunity, power vs. rationalization, and opportunity vs. rationalization. Only in this last relationship, there is an evidence to reject the null hypothesis which states that the characteristics of fraud associated with the angle of opportunity, are not related to the rationalization of the individual who intends or commits fraud.
Antonella Del Rosso
2012-01-01
In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason. A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty. It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...
Anatomic Assessment of Variations in Kambin's Triangle: A Surgical and Cadaver Study.
Ozer, Ali Fahir; Suzer, Tuncer; Can, Halil; Falsafi, Mani; Aydin, Murat; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc
2017-04-01
The relationship of exiting root and Kambin's triangle is discussed in this article. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery as the gold standard of less invasive lumbar disc surgeries is performed through Kambin's triangle. Existing root damage is one of the most important complication for this type of surgery. Anatomic variations in Kambin's triangle may be the main reason for nerve root damage during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery. Kambin's triangle was investigated with surgical views and cadaver studies. Thirty-four patients with far lateral disc herniation were treated with an extraforaminal approach under the microscope. On the other hand, 48 Kambin's triangles were dissected on 8 cadavers. Three main types of triangle were identified, and patients were grouped according to these 3 types of the triangle. Only 6 of the 34 patients had type 3 triangles, which is the wide classical triangle described by Kambin; however, 17 patients had type 2, with a narrow space in the triangle, and 11 patients had type 1, with no space inside the triangle. Cadaver results were similar; only 10 of the 48 specimens had the type 3 classical triangle, whereas 23 specimens had type 2, and 15 specimens had type 1 triangles. Our results disclosed narrowed or no space in 82.4% of the patients and 79.2% of the cadavers. We observed that a wide and safe room of the triangle may not be exist in some patients. Therefore, more care must be taken during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery to avoid nerve damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Supported Heterogeneous Palladium and Ni Catalysts for Heck Reaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongjun Lv
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Two polymer catalysts (Pd-OCMCS and Ni-OCMCS with good reusability were synthesized by coordinating Pd and Ni onto O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCS. The chemical structure and thermal stability of prepared catalysts were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDSanalysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and thermogravimetric analyzer (TG-DTG, and the analysis results showed that the Pd and Ni ions coordinated onto the OCMCS and formed a ligand with the –COOH group, amino groups, and –OH group on the OCMCS, and the EDS and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES analysis results showed that the loading amounts of Pd and Ni were approximately 8.3% and 8.9%, respectively. In the Heck reaction between aryl halides and n-butyl acrylate catalyzed by the prepared catalyst, the test results showed that the product yield followed the order of aryl iodide > aryl bromide > aryl chloride. Additionally, the product yield for the aryl iodide and aryl bromide could reach up to 99% and 96%, respectively. Moreover, the electron-withdrawing and electron-donating property of the group on the aryl also affected the product yield, and the product yield for aryl halides with electron-withdrawing group p-NO2, p-CH3CO, and p-CHO was higher than that with electron-donating group p-CH3.
The Guillain-Mollaret triangle in action.
Murdoch, Sheena; Shah, Pushkar; Jampana, Ravi
2016-06-01
The Guillain-Mollaret triangle comprises the ipsilateral red nucleus in the midbrain, the inferior olive in the medulla and the contralateral dentate nucleus in the cerebellum: together, these form the dentato-rubro-olivary pathway. Pathology in this triangle disinhibits (and so activates) the inferior olivary nucleus. The olivary nucleus then hypertrophies and its rhythmical discharges may manifest clinically as oculopalatal tremor. We describe three cases with either oculopalatal tremor or MRI evidence of olivary hypertrophy caused by vascular insults to this triangle. It is not clear why only some patients have the oculopalatal tremor. Olivary hypertrophy can be confused with demyelination if the imaging is not put into clinical context. Oculopalatal tremor may occur without olivary hypertrophy since the nucleus atrophies with time. Oculopalatal tremor does not respond to medical treatment. A better understanding of the mechanism of the discharge at a cellular level may lead to more targeted medical treatments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Estrada, Sandra E.; Ochoa-Puentes, Cristian; Sierra, Cesar A.
2017-04-01
In order to study the effect of the molecular structure on the optical properties of totally trans-trans phenylenevinylene oligomers (OPVs), sixteen 1,4-distyrylbenzene derivatives (1a-i and 2a-g) functionalized with different electron-donating (ED) and electron-withdrawing (EW) groups were synthesized by the Mizoroki-Heck cross coupling reaction in moderate to good yields (40-95%). The implemented methodology, with a small modification previously reported by our group, allows obtaining the desired vinyl configuration as well as one novel OPV compound (1h). After structural characterization by several techniques (e.g. FTIR, 1H, 13C and Solid-State NMR), particular emphasis was placed upon the investigation of their optical properties by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. The results showed that, with only one exception, the ED and EW groups at the ends of OPV systems lead to a bathochromic shift. This effect is intensified with the introduction of methoxy groups on the central ring. Consistent with these, the HOMO-LUMO gaps (ΔE) decreases as the strength of ED and EW substituents increases. The ED and EW substituents also lead to a decrease in the Φf values. This contribution in the area of organic electronics can be used as a reference to better select the most appropriate technological application for each OPV and this can be extrapolated to their respective structurally analogous segmented polymer.
Dice Tossing and Pascal's Triangle.
Neff, John D.
1982-01-01
Pascal's Triangle is examined within the context of providing a partial model for the outcomes of dice throws. Several issues are addressed regarding the nature of the pattern. Discussion leads to the development of a general formula for six-sided dice. Modifications for other than six sides are noted. (MP)
Serendipitous Discovery of Pascal's Triangle
Stanley, Francis W.
1975-01-01
An algebra class asked: What is the smallest positive integer that is divisible by each integer less than or equal to ten? Students discovered factorials and a solution. Verifying the solution produced a series of numbers. Successive differences between entries, triangular arrays, and successive quotients finally led to Pascal's triangle. (KM)
Young Children's Conceptual Understanding of Triangle
Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan
2016-01-01
This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…
Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric Heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran--effect of prolinate salts.
Morel, Adam; Silarska, Ewelina; Trzeciak, Anna M; Pernak, Juliusz
2013-01-28
Chiral ionic liquids (CILs) containing L-prolinate and L-lactate anions and non-chiral quaternary ammonium cations were employed in the palladium catalyzed enantioselective Heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran with aryl iodides (iodobenzene, 4-iodotoluene, 2-iodoanisole, 4-iodoanisole, 4-iodoacetophenone). In all the reactions 2-aryl-2,3-dihydrofuran (3) was obtained as the main product with the yield up to 52% at the total conversion reaching 83%. Product 3, 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran, was obtained with excellent enantioselectivity (>99% ee) in a 6 h reaction with tetrabutylammonium L-prolinate. In the proposed homogeneous reaction Pd(0) nanoparticles are considered as a resting state of the catalyst and a source of soluble palladium species catalyzing the Heck reaction. The yield and stereoselectivity of the Heck reaction are strongly influenced by the kind of non-chiral cations present in CILs.
Nirode, Wayne
2014-01-01
Geometry students need challenges. They need to apply what they already know to new contexts. As a result, high school teacher Wayne Nirode is always looking for groups of related problems of theorems to challenge his geometry students. He came across one such group or problems when reading Jun's (2012) one-page abstract posted online for the 12th…
Developing Lesson Design to Help Students’ Triangle Conseptual Understanding
Prabawanto, S.; Mulyana, E.
2017-09-01
The research was aimed to develop a lesson design so that students’ triangle conceptual understanding could be achieved. The method that be used in this research was qualitative with applied didactical design research (DDR). The DDR consisted of three main stepts, namely prospective analysis, metapedadicdactic analysis, and retrospective analysis. From the three stepts above, it was gained the empirical lesson design of triangle topic. The reseach results are: (1) there were some learning obstacles of students deal with the triangle topic, namely ontogenical, epietimological, and didactical obstacles; (2) implementaion of the lesson was conducted under three main stepts, namely action, formulation, and validation. For answering weather the design can be applied to other group of students, it was recommended that it cound be investigated by doing advanced reseach.
Transformations of triangle ladder diagrams
Kondrashuk, Igor; Vergara, Alvaro
2010-03-01
It is shown how dual space diagrammatic representation of momentum integrals corresponding to triangle ladder diagrams with an arbitrary number of rungs can be transformed to half-diamonds. In paper arXiv:0803.3420 [hep-th] the half-diamonds were related by conformal integral substitution to the diamonds which represent the dual space image of four-point ladder integrals in the four-dimensional momentum space. Acting in the way described in the present paper we do not need to use the known result for diamond (four-point) diagrams as an external input in deriving relations of arXiv:0803.3420 [hep-th], however, that result for the diamond diagram arises in the present proof as an intermediate consequence in a step-by-step diagrammatic transformation from the triangle ladder diagram to the half-diamond diagrams.
On Generalizations of the Stirling Number Triangles
Lang, Wolfdieter
2000-09-01
Sequences of generalized Stirling numbers of both kinds are introduced. These sequences of triangles (i.e. infinite-dimensional lower triangular matrices) of numbers will be denoted by S2(k;n,m) and S1(k;n,m) with k in Z. The original Stirling number triangles of the second and first kind arise when k = 1. S2(2;n,m) is identical with the unsigned S1(2;n,m) triangle, called S1p(2;n,m), which also represents the triangle of signless Lah numbers. Certain associated number triangles, denoted by s2(k;n,m) and s1(k;n,m), are also defined. Both s2(2;n,m) and s1(2;n + 1, m + 1) form Pascal's triangle, and s2(-1,n,m) turns out to be Catalan's triangle. Generating functions are given for the columns of these triangles. Each S2(k) and S1(k) matrix is an example of a Jabotinsky matrix. Therefore the generating functions for the rows of these triangular arrays constitute exponential convolution polynomials. The sequences of the row sums of these triangles are also considered. These triangles are related to the problem of obtaining finite transformations from infinitesimal ones generated by x^k d/dx, for k in Z.
Applications of Pascal's Triangle for Middle School Students.
Merrill, William L.
This unit is designed to acquaint middle school students with Pascal's Triangle. The unit is intended to be completed in small groups with a minimum of teacher direction. Students complete the activities by using manipulatives, calculators and computers and then report the results to the teacher and the class. The activities include: (1) patterns…
Palladium(II) Acetate Catalyzed Reductive Heck Reaction of Enones; A Practical Approach
Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Reek, Joost N. H.; de Vries, Johannes G.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.
2015-01-01
A surprisingly practical Pd(OAc)(2) or Pd(TFA)(2)-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction between aryl iodides and alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones is described using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA, Hunigs base) as the reductant. In general, 1 mol% of Pd(OAc)(2) is sufficient to afford good yields using
Stadler, Michael
2009-01-01
This thesis is divided into two major parts. The first part deals with the development of conditions for a Heck reaction to introduce aryl and vinyl substituents to the beta-position of crotonaldehyde and related alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. The reaction provides very fast (
Dodds, Deborah L.; Boele, Maarten D. K.; van Strijdonck, Gino P. F.; de Vries, Johannes G.; van Leeuwen, Piet W. N. M.; Kamer, Paul C. J.
A series of new monodentate phosphane ligands 2 have been evaluated in the MizorokiHeck arylation reaction of iodobenzene and styrene and compared with our previously reported ligands, 1, 3 and 4. The concept of rational ligand design is discussed, and we describe how the performance of this new
Dodds, D.L.; Boele, M.D.K.; van Strijdonck, G.P.F.; de Vries, J.G.; van Leeuwen, P.W.N.M.; Kamer, P.C.J.
2012-01-01
A series of new monodentate phosphane ligands 2 have been evaluated in the Mizoroki-Heck arylation reaction of iodobenzene and styrene and compared with our previously reported ligands, 1, 3 and 4. The concept of rational ligand design is discussed, and we describe how the performance of this new
Hecke Eigenforms in the Cohomology of Congruence Subgroups of SL(3, Z)
Geemen, Bert van; Kallen, Wilberd van der; Top, Jaap; Verberkmoes, Alain
1997-01-01
We list here Hecke eigenvalues of several automorphic forms for congruence subgroups of SL(3; Z). To compute such tables, we describe an algorithm that combines techniques developed previously with the Lenstra–Lenstra–Lovász algorithm. With our implementation of this new algorithm we were able to
Unusual selectivity-determining factors in the phosphine-free Heck arylation of allyl ethers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ambrogio, I.; Fabrizi, G.; Cacchi, S.
2008-01-01
The Heck reaction of aryl iodides and bromides with allyl ethers has been investigated. Using phosphinefree Pd(OAc)(2) in DNIF at 90 degrees C in the presence of Bu4NOAc, the reaction gave cinnamyl derivatives, usually in good to high yields, with a wide range of aryl halides. The reaction...
Palladium(II) acetate catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of enones: a practical approach
Mannathan, S.; Raoufmoghaddam, S.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Vries, J.G.; Minnaard, A.J.
2016-01-01
A surprisingly practical Pd(OAc)2 or Pd(TFA)2-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction between aryl iodides and α,β-unsatd. ketones is described using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA, Huenigs base) as the reductant. In general, 1 mol % of Pd(OAc)2 is sufficient to afford good yields using
The tandem Heck-allylic substitution reaction : A novel route to lactams
Pinho, P.; Minnaard, A.J.; Feringa, B.L.
2003-01-01
[GRAPHICS] A novel route to substituted lactams has been developed using a tandem Heck-allylic substitution reaction. The palladium-catalyzed reaction between omega-olefinic N-tosyl amides and vinylic bromides affords in one step the substituted pyrrolidones and piperidones in 49-82% isolated yield.
A Practical Recycle of a Ligand-Free Palladium Catalyst for Heck Reactions
Vries, André H.M. de; Parlevliet, Floris J.; Schmieder-van de Vondervoort, Lizette; Mommers, John H.M.; Henderickx, Huub J.W.; Walet, Monique A.M.; Vries, Johannes G. de
2002-01-01
Ligand-free palladium can be recovered almost quantitatively from Heck reaction mixtures by filtration after its deposition on a carrier such as silica or celite. Subsequently, it is re-activated to its original activity by adding a small amount of iodine or bromine prior to the next reaction cycle.
Palladium(0)/NHC-Catalyzed Reductive Heck Reaction of Enones : A Detailed Mechanistic Study
Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Reek, Joost N H
2015-01-01
We have studied the mechanism of the palladium-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of para-substituted enones with 4-iodoanisole by using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) as the reductant. Kinetic studies and in situ spectroscopic analysis have provided a detailed insight into the reaction. Progress
Palladium(0)/NHC-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of enones: a detailed mechanistic study
Raoufmoghaddam, S.; Mannathan, S.; Minnaard, A.J.; de Vries, J.G.; Reek, J.N.H.
2015-01-01
We have studied the mechanism of the palladium-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of para-substituted enones with 4-iodoanisole by using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) as the reductant. Kinetic studies and in situ spectroscopic anal. have provided a detailed insight into the reaction.
Pd-Diimine : A Highly Selective Catalyst System for the Base-Free Oxidative Heck Reaction
Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Teichert, Johannes F.; Heijnen, Donis; Eisink, Niek; van Dijk, Simon; Ferrer, Catalina; van den Hoogenband, Adri; Minnaard, Adriaan J.
2011-01-01
Pd(OAc)(2)/3 is an efficient catalyst system for the base-free oxidative Heck reaction that outperforms the currently available catalysts for the more challenging substrates studied. The catalyst system is highly selective, and works at room temperature with dioxygen as the oxidant.
The Equivariant Tamagawa Number Conjecture for modular motives with coefficients in Hecke algebras
Fouquet, Olivier
2016-01-01
Under mild hypotheses on the residual representation, we prove the Equivariant Tamagawa Number Conjecture for modular motives with coefficients in universal deformation rings and Hecke algebras using a novel combination of the methods of Euler systems and Taylor-Wiles systems. We also prove the compatibility of this conjecture with specialization.
Weight two blocks of Iwahori-Hecke algebras in characteristic two
Fayers, Matthew
2005-11-01
We study blocks of the Iwahori-Hecke algebra {cal H}_q (frak{S}_n) of weight two over a field of characteristic two. Using techniques and notation developed by Scopes, Richards, Chuang and Tan for the case of odd characteristic, we find the decomposition numbers and classify extensions between simple modules for these blocks.
Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.
Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J
2016-03-30
Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).
Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.
Foda, Hossam M T
2016-08-01
The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Pascal's Triangle: 100% of the Numbers Are Even!
Bhindi, Nayan; McMenamin, Justin
2010-01-01
Pascal's triangle is an arrangement of the binomial coefficients in a triangle. Each number inside Pascal's triangle is calculated by adding the two numbers above it. When all the odd integers in Pascal's triangle are highlighted (black) and the remaining evens are left blank (white), one of many patterns in Pascal's triangle is displayed. By…
The Soft Triangle: An Often Neglected Area in Rhinoplasty.
Kayabasoglu, Gurkan; Nacar, Alpen
2015-10-01
This study aims to focus on one of the lesser mentioned topics in discussions of aesthetic nose operations, the soft triangle. In addition to outlining the characteristics of the area, the various complications specific to the soft triangle are discussed along with methods and techniques utilized by the authors to avoid such complications. One hundred twenty-seven of 841 (15 %) patients who were assessed both preoperatively and intraoperatively for the presence of an anatomical issue of the soft triangle were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to their anatomical features that were identified intraoperatively. The preoperative and postoperative photographs of all patients were compared to assess the effects of the respective soft triangle grafts on both nostril length and the nostril/lobule harmony. The average follow-up time of the patients was 27 months (6-60). Postoperative notching (of various degrees) was found in six (6/127) total patients: one (1/31) patient in the first group, two (2/24) patients in the second group, and three (3/72) patients in the third group. Neglecting the soft triangle area might yield grim results in terms of cosmetic and functional aspects. To avoid these problems, incisions should be planned purposefully, and patients who have anatomically weak support should be identified so that additional precautions should be taken for these cases. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Transformations of triangle ladder diagrams
Kondrashuk, Igor; Vergara, Alvaro
2009-01-01
It is shown how dual space diagrammatic representation of momentum integrals corresponding to triangle ladder diagrams with an arbitrary number of rungs can be transformed to half-diamonds. In paper arXiv:0803.3420 [hep-th] the half-diamonds were related by conformal integral substitution to the diamonds which represent the dual space image of four-point ladder integrals in the four-dimensional momentum space. Acting in the way described in the present paper we do not need to use the known re...
Triangle strings: Structures for augmentation of vertex-disjoint triangle sets
Zhang, Zan-Bo; Zhang, X.
2014-01-01
Vertex-disjoint triangle sets (triangle sets for short) have been studied extensively. Many theoretical and computational results have been obtained. While the maximum triangle set problem can be viewed as the generalization of the maximum matching problem, there seems to be no parallel result to
The effect of ultrasound on the yields of Heck reaction using Pd-catalyst in DMF/water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saïd Khemaïs
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The heck reaction of aryl bromide with styrene in N,N-dimethyl formamide/water as solvent has been studied using different catalysts under ultrasonic irradiation at room temperature. The effect of the solvent, the base, and the catalyst of the transfer phase were studied. The results show that ultrasonic irradiation increases the heck reaction yield and becomes faster with the amount of aliquat-336.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arbia Talbi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A Barbier reaction–Heck arylation sequence from α-bromomethylbutenolide to fused tri and tetracyclic lactones has been developed. The first step involving a Barbier reaction enabled installing ortho-bromoaromatics in α-ylidene γ-lactones. The latter substrates were subjected to intramolecular Heck reaction conditions which selectively afforded 6,5,5 or 6,6,5 fused ring systems depending on the nature of the base employed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
İsmail Özdemir
2010-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.
Magic Numbers and Pascal's Triangle
López-Cruz, Elías
2002-03-01
Papers concerning the so called "magic numbers"^1-3 span different areas of Solid State Physics. Treatment of the growth of metal clusters and its stability conditions from the theoretical point of view in Ref. 1 leads to the conclusion that the clusters can take place in two or three dimensions. The clusters are triangular or tetrahedral and are obtained only for certain "magic numbers". Experimental work concerning the growth of metal clusters in two dimensions^2 have confirmed the growth only for certain magic numbers and these are the same as the calculated ones in Ref. 1. The present work shows that these "magic numbers" can be deduced from the numeric arrangement called Pascal's Triangle as two of the many numeric sequences contained in the triangle. Some other sequences will be discussed. 1. S.M. Reimann, M. Kuskinen, H. Häkkinen, P.E. Lindelof, and M. Manninen, Phys. Rev. B 56, 12147 (1997-I) 2. M.Y. Lai and Y.L. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 164 (1998) 3. T.E.M. Staab, M. Haugk, Th. Frauenheim, and H.S. Leipner, Phys. REv. Lett. 83, 5519 (1999)
The Weimar Triangle and The Ukrainian Crisis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Christophe Romer
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The article analyzes the activity of Weimar Triangle (Germany, France, Poland during Ukrainian crisis (2013-2014 as an efficient, but still largely underestimated negotiation force of the European Union. The evolution of role of Weimar Triangle in post-bipolar era is indicated, as well as the role of this specific structure during Ukrainian crisis.
Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coghetto Roland
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.
Fulfilling the Promise of the Learning Triangle
Nichols, Paul
2011-01-01
The learning triangle described by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) offers a powerful vision for improved student learning. Learning theory clearly plays a central role in the construct-centered approach presented by the learning triangle. But the assumption of such an important role requires Black et al. to devote corresponding care to the…
A Note on Morley's Triangle Theorem
Mueller, Nancy; Tikoo, Mohan; Wang, Haohao
2012-01-01
In this note, we offer a proof of a variant of Morley's triangle theorem, when the exterior angles of a triangle are trisected. We also offer a generalization of Morley's theorem when angles of an "n"-gon are "n"-sected. (Contains 9 figures.)
Dadová, Jitka; Vidláková, Pavlína; Pohl, Radek; Havran, Luděk; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal
2013-10-04
Aqueous-phase Heck coupling methodology was developed for direct attachment of butyl acrylate to 5-iodoracil, 5-iodocytosine, 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine, and 7-iodo-7-deazaguanine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 5'-O-monophosphates (dNMPs) and 5'-O-triphosphates (dNTPs) and compared with the classical approach of phosphorylation of the corresponding modified nucleosides. The 7-substituted 7-deazapurine nucleotides (dA(BA)MP, dA(BA)TP, dG(BA)MP, and dG(BA)TP) were prepared by the direct Heck coupling of nucleotides in good yields (35-55%), whereas the pyrimidine nucleotides reacted poorly and the corresponding BA-modified dNTPs were prepared by triphosphorylation of the modified nucleosides. The acrylate-modified dN(BA)TPs (N = A, C, and U) were good substrates for DNA polymerases and were used for enzymatic synthesis of acrylate-modified DNA by primer extension, whereas dG(BA)TP was an inhibitor of polymerases. The butyl acrylate group was found to be a useful redox label giving a strong reduction peak at -1.3 to -1.4 V in cyclic voltammetry.
Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes
Sun, Feng
2011-12-01
Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Triangle and GA Methods for UAVs Jamming
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Yu Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We focus on how to jam UAVs network efficiently. The system model is described and the problem is formulated. Based on two properties and a theorem which helps to decide good location for a jammer, we present the Triangle method to find good locations for jammers. The Triangle method is easy to understand and has overall computational complexity of ON2. We also present a genetic algorithm- (GA- based jamming method, which has computational complex of OLMN2. New chromosome, mutation, and crossover operations are redefined for the GA method. The simulation shows that Triangle and GA methods perform better than Random method. If the ratio of jammers’ number to UAVs’ number is low (lower than 1/5 in this paper, GA method does better than Triangle method. Otherwise, Triangle method performs better.
A Lobatto interpolation grid over the triangle
Blyth, M. G.; Pozrikidis, C.
2006-02-01
A sequence of increasingly refined interpolation grids over the triangle is proposed, with the goal of achieving uniform convergence and ensuring high interpolation accuracy. The number of interpolation nodes, N, corresponds to a complete mth-order polynomial expansion with respect to the triangle barycentric coordinates, which arises by the horizontal truncation of the Pascal triangle. The proposed grid is generated by deploying Lobatto interpolation nodes along the three edges of the triangle, and then computing interior nodes by averaged intersections to achieve three-fold rotational symmetry. Numerical computations show that the Lebesgue constant and interpolation accuracy of the proposed grid compares favorably with those of the best-known grids consisting of the Fekete points. Integration weights corresponding to the set of Lobatto triangle base points are tabulated.
Pythagorean triangles of equal areas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malvina Baica
1988-01-01
Full Text Available The main intent in this paper is to find triples of Rational Pythagorean Triangles (abbr. RPT having equal areas. A new method of solving a2+ab+b2=c2 is to set a=y−1, b=y+1, y∈N−{0,1} and get Pell's equation c2−3y2=1. To solve a2−ab−b2=c2, we set a=12(y+1, b=y−1, y≥2, y∈N and get a corresponding Pell's equation. The infinite number of solutions in Pell's equation gives rise to an infinity of solutions to a2±ab+b2=c2. From this fact the following theorems are proved.
Laparoscopic Management of Mirizzi Syndrome Without Dissection of Calot's Triangle.
Koike, Daisuke; Suka, Yusuke; Nagai, Motoki; Nomura, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Nobutaka
2017-02-01
Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is a rare complication of cholecystolithiasis that causes compacted gallstones and is often accompanied by severe inflammation of Calot's triangle. This study compared the use of laparoscopic surgery for MS without dissection of Calot's triangle with routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A total of 411 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic surgery for benign gallbladder (GB) disease between January 2013 and December 2014. Five patients underwent laparoscopic surgery for MS (MS group) while 406 underwent routine LC (LC group). The preoperative diagnosis was accurate in all patients in the MS group. The LC and MS groups did not differ significantly in the operation time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, or incidence of GB carcinoma. In addition, conversion, bile duct injury, and bile leak rate were not different between the two groups. This study demonstrates the safety of laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy without dissection of Calot's triangle for MS. In addition, an accurate preoperative diagnosis is critical in surgical decision making to avoid injury to the bile duct.
Carbonylative Heck Reactions Using CO Generated ex Situ in a Two-Chamber System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermange, Philippe; Gøgsig, Thomas; Lindhardt, Anders Thyboe
2011-01-01
A carbonylative Heck reaction of aryl iodides and styrene derivatives employing a two-chamber system using a stable, crystalline, and nontransition metal based carbon monoxide source is reported. By applying near-stoichiometric amounts of the carbon monoxide precursor, an effective exploitation o...... of the hazardous CO gas is obtained affording chalcone derivatives in good yields. Application to isotope labeling, incorporating 13CO, was further established....
Ultrasonic activation of Heck type reactions in the presence of Aliquat-336.
Saïd, Khemaïs; Moussaoui, Younes; Kammoun, Majed; Ben Salem, Ridha
2011-01-01
Without phosphine and base, palladium catalysts such as PdCl(2), Pd(OAc)(2) and PdCl(2)(PhCN)(2) in water/DMF mixtures with Aliquat-336 proved to be excellent catalytic systems for Heck reactions involving several aryl bromides with styrene and acrylic compounds. Yields are remarkably improved under ultrasonic irradiation and the products show a high purity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pd-NHC catalyzed conjugate addition versus the Mizoroki-Heck reaction.
Gottumukkala, Aditya L; de Vries, Johannes G; Minnaard, Adriaan J
2011-03-07
Ace of base: A catalytic system is presented that, solely by choice of the base, selectively switches between conjugate addition and the Mizoroki-Heck reaction of aryl halides with Michael acceptors (see scheme; R, R' = alkyl, aryl). For conjugate addition reactions, this avoids the preparation and use of organometallics. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Recent Advances in Noble Metal Nanocatalysts for Suzuki and Heck Cross-Coupling Reactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radha Narayanan
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Since metal nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio and very active surface atoms, they are very attractive catalysts for a wide variety of organic and inorganic reactions, compared to bulk catalysts. Metal nanoparticles suspended in colloidal solutions and those adsorbed onto bulk supports have been used as catalysts for a wide variety of carbon-carbon bond formation reactions such as the Suzuki and Heck cross-coupling reactions. This review article highlights some of the latest advances in the application of noble metal nanoparticles as catalysts for these two industrially important classes of cross-coupling reactions. We will discuss several important advances in using metal nanocatalysts in Suzuki and Heck cross-coupling reactions such as investigations on the nanoparticle shape dependence on the catalytic activity, novel types of supported metal nanoparticles as nanocatalysts, and the use of bi-metallic, tri-metallic and multi-metallic nanoparticles as catalysts for the Suzuki and Heck cross-coupling reactions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Fengwei; Niu, Jianrui; Wang, Haibo; Yang, Honglei; Jin, Jun; Liu, Na; Zhang, Yubin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Rong, E-mail: liyirong@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, Jiantai, E-mail: majiantai@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2012-02-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Palladium-based heterogeneous catalyst was prepared facilely via the co-precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles are nearly spherical in shape with an average size of 20 {+-} 1.0 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed magnetic catalyst showed high activity for Heck reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture with external magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalytic efficiency for Heck reaction remains unaltered even after 6 repeated cycles. -- Abstract: A novel and high-performance palladium-based catalyst for Heck reaction was prepared easily by the co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The catalyst afforded a fast conversion of the 4-bromonitrobenzene to 4-nitrostilbene at a catalyst loading of 5 mol%, and the efficiency of the catalyst remains unaltered even after 6 repeated cycles. The excellent catalytic performance of the Pd/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} catalyst might be attributed to the enhanced synergistic effect between Pd nanoparticles and magnetite.
Are Bilinear Quadrilaterals Better Than Linear Triangles?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Azevedo, E.F.
1993-01-01
This paper compares the theoretical effectiveness of bilinear approximation over quadrilaterals with linear approximation over triangles. Anisotropic mesh transformation is used to generate asymptotically optimally efficient meshes for piecewise linear interpolation over triangles and bilinear interpolation over quadrilaterals. For approximating a convex function, although bilinear quadrilaterals are more efficient, linear triangles are more accurate and may be preferred in finite element computations; whereas for saddle-shaped functions, quadrilaterals may offer a higher order approximation on a well-designed mesh. A surprising finding is different grid orientations may yield an order of magnitude improvement in approximation accuracy.
78 FR 14366 - Triangle Capital Corporation; Notice of Application
2013-03-05
... COMMISSION Triangle Capital Corporation; Notice of Application February 28, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... Application: Triangle Capital Corporation (``Triangle'') requests an order (``Amended Order'') that would....sec.gov/search/search.htm or by calling (202) 551-8090. Applicant's Representations 1. Triangle is an...
76 FR 52649 - Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application
2011-08-23
... Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Application On August 5, 2011, Golden Triangle Storage, Inc. (Golden Triangle) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... existing storage site located in Jefferson County, Texas. Golden Triangle also seeks market based rates for...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Po-Chih Yang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We report the responsive fluorescence chemosensory phenomena of a carbazole-functionalized crosslinked polymer (PCaT with pendent terpyridine (tpy groups as receptors of metal ions. The polymer was synthesized using Heck polymerization between 3,6-dibromide groups in a carbazole-based polymer (PC2Br and divinyl tpy monomer. The effects of the polymeric structure on the optical and chemosensory properties of the PCaT were compared with those of a carbazole-tpy alternating conjugated polymer (PCT. Photoluminescence titrations demonstrated that the PCaT and PCT had the high sensing ability toward Fe3+ ions, with Stern–Volmer constants of 8.10 × 104 and 6.68 × 104 M−1, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD toward Fe3+ of the PCaT and PCT was estimated to be 1.31 × 10−6 and 1.81 × 10−6 M, respectively, and the superior LOD of the PCaT was ascribed to its lowly crosslinked structure. The fluorescence of the solutions of these polymers that were quenched by Fe3+ ions recovered when trace CN− anions were added because of the high stability constant of the CN−–Fe3+ complex. Micellar aggregates with a mean diameter of approximately 239.5 nm were formed by dissolving the PCaT in tetrahydrofuran (THF solution. Our results suggest that the PCaT is a promising material for chemosensory applications.
Hyperbolic Triangle Centers The Special Relativistic Approach
Ungar, A.A
2010-01-01
After A. Ungar had introduced vector algebra and Cartesian coordinates into hyperbolic geometry in his earlier books, along with novel applications in Einstein’s special theory of relativity, the purpose of his new book is to introduce hyperbolic barycentric coordinates, another important concept to embed Euclidean geometry into hyperbolic geometry. It will be demonstrated that, in full analogy to classical mechanics where barycentric coordinates are related to the Newtonian mass, barycentric coordinates are related to the Einsteinian relativistic mass in hyperbolic geometry. Contrary to general belief, Einstein’s relativistic mass hence meshes up extraordinarily well with Minkowski’s four-vector formalism of special relativity. In Euclidean geometry, barycentric coordinates can be used to determine various triangle centers. While there are many known Euclidean triangle centers, only few hyperbolic triangle centers are known, and none of the known hyperbolic triangle centers has been determined analytic...
Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan
2006-01-01
subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sem Raj Tamang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We recently reported an air and moisture stable 16-electron borapalladacycle formed upon combination of 8-quinolyldimesitylborane with bis(benzonitriledichloropalladium(II. The complex features a tucked mesityl group formed upon metalation of an ortho-methyl group on a mesityl; however it is unusually stable due to contribution of the boron pz orbital in delocalizing the carbanion that gives rise to an η4-boratabutadiene fragment coordinated to Pd(II, as evidenced from crystallographic data. This complex was observed to be a highly active catalyst for the Heck reaction. Data of the catalyst activity are presented alongside data found in the literature, and initial comparison reveals that the borapalladacycle is quite active. The observed catalysis suggests the borapalladacycle readily undergoes reductive elimination; however the Pd(0 complex has not yet been isolated. Nevertheless, the ambiphilic ligand 8-quinolyldimesitylborane may be able to support palladium in different redox states.
2010-11-05
... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Golden Triangle Railroad Company Golden Triangle Railroad, LLC (GTRA), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to: (1) Acquire from Golden Triangle Railroad Company (Old GTRA...
Yang, Jui-Jung; Lin, Leou-Chyr; Chao, Kuo-Hua; Chuang, Shih-Youeng; Wu, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Tsu-Te; Lian, Yu-Tung
2013-01-02
Intracapsular femoral neck fractures are associated with high rates of nonunion. We aimed to identify risk factors for nonunion in patients with both displaced and nondisplaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures treated with three 7-mm parallel cannulated screws, placed in either a triangle or an inverted triangle configuration, using failure of fixation as the primary outcome. Clinical and radiographic data for patients with intracapsular femoral neck fractures treated with either triangle fixation (one proximal screw and two distal screws) or inverted triangle fixation (two proximal screws and one distal screw), between January 1, 2000, and July 30, 2009, were analyzed. A total of 202 patients, seventy-six men and 126 women with an average age (and standard deviation) of 64.53 ± 15.81 years (range, nineteen to ninety-three years), were included in the analysis. Union occurred in 158 patients, and nonunion occurred in forty-four. There were no differences between the union and nonunion groups with respect to age, sex, fracture side, fracture angle, fracture level, or estimated bone density. There were significant differences in fracture type, fixation configuration, reduction quality, and screw-tip subchondral purchase between patients with and without union. The estimated odds ratio for fracture nonunion was 2.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08, 7.96) in subjects with displaced fractures compared with those without displaced fractures (p = 0.035), 18.92 (95% CI, 1.91, 187.09) in subjects with borderline and unacceptable reduction compared with those with anatomic reduction (p = 0.012), and 2.92 (95% CI, 1.27, 6.69) for internal fixation with a triangle configuration compared with fixation with an inverted triangle configuration (p = 0.010). Screw fixation with a triangle configuration, a displaced fracture, and poor reduction are risk factors for nonunion in intracapsular femoral neck fractures treated with fixation with multiple screws.
Reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit.
Constantine, Fadi C; Lee, Michael R; Sinno, Sammy; Thornton, James F
2013-05-01
Of all nine subunits, the soft triangle is perhaps the most challenging to recreate. The complexity of soft triangle reconstruction resides in its proximity to such important structures as the nasal tip, nasal ala, and distal columella. If the soft triangle is not properly reconstructed, problems with nasal function and aesthetics often arise. Anatomical asymmetries in the lower third and abnormal shadowing can occur following insufficient restoration. A retrospective review was completed of all patients undergoing reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, from 1995 to 2010. Defects with only external skin intact were classified as type I. Defects involving both skin and underlying soft tissue with intact mucosa were classified as type II. Finally, transmural defects with violated mucosa were classified as type III. Surgical outcomes were graded on a scale of I to IV. Grades given were based on the complexity of the existing defect and restoration of the soft triangle, with higher grades given when adjacent structures were not distorted. Of the 14 cases reviewed, two (14 percent) were type I defects, nine (64 percent) were type II defects, and three (21 percent) were type III defects. Three patients (21 percent) required revision with subsequent resurfacing and two (14 percent) required resurfacing alone. All but one patient (93 percent) had a grade of 2.0 or better, with the one patient opting not to undergo revision. The authors believe their method of soft triangle reconstruction using the proposed algorithm is an easy approach to soft triangle reconstruction that will yield consistent surgical and clinical success from aesthetic and functional perspectives. Furthermore, the authors were able to achieve excellent aesthetic outcomes without compromise or facing any structural complications. Therapeutic, IV.
GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle
Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine
2017-11-01
When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 < z < 30(˜ 0.1 - 0.3× 109 years after the big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.
GLINT - Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle
Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine
2017-11-01
When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadym Kozell
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Zirconium phosphate glycine diphosphonate nanosheets (ZPGly have been used as support for the preparation of solid palladium nanoparticles, namely Pd@ZPGly. Thanks to the presence of carboxy-aminophosponate groups on the layer surface, ZPGly-based materials were able to stabilize a high amount of palladium (up to 22 wt % also minimizing the amount of metal leached in the final products of representative important cross-coupling processes selected for proving the catalysts’ efficiency. The catalytic systems have been fully characterized and used in low amounts (0.1 mol % in the Suzuki–Miyaura and Heck cross-couplings. Moreover, the protocols were optimized for the use of recoverable azeotropic mixtures (aq. EtOH 96% or aq. CH3CN 84%, respectively and in the flow procedure allowing one to isolate the final pure products, without any purification step, with very low residual palladium content and with a very low waste production.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carolina S. García
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Aqueous Mizoroki–Heck coupling reactions under microwave irradiation (MW were carried out with a colloidal Pd nanocatalyst stabilized with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP. Many stilbenes and novel heterostilbenes were achieved in good to excellent yields starting from aryl bromides and different olefins. The reaction was carried out in a short reaction time and with low catalyst loading, leading to high turnover frequency (TOFs of the order of 100 h−1. The advantages like operational simplicity, high robustness, efficiency and turnover frequency, the utilization of aqueous media and simple product work-up make this protocol a great option for stilbene syntheses by Mizoroki–Heck reaction.
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Annamaria Deagostino
2010-04-01
Full Text Available This review is an overview of the last ten years’ use of the Mizoroki–Heck coupling applied to 1,2- and 1,3-dienes. Since both these systems form π-allyl palladium intermediates in Pd(0 coupling, they show particular chemical behavior. Many examples of 1,2-dienes Heck reactions are presented. 1,2-Dienes are important substrates because of their high reactivity that makes them useful building blocks for the synthesis of biologically relevant structures.
The triangle inequality constraint in similarity judgments.
Yearsley, James M; Barque-Duran, Albert; Scerrati, Elisa; Hampton, James A; Pothos, Emmanuel M
2017-11-01
Since Tversky's (1977) seminal investigation, the triangle inequality, along with symmetry and minimality, have had a central role in investigations of the fundamental constraints on human similarity judgments. The meaning of minimality and symmetry in similarity judgments has been straightforward, but this is not the case for the triangle inequality. Expressed in terms of dissimilarities, and assuming a simple, linear function between dissimilarities and distances, the triangle inequality constraint implies that human behaviour should be consistent with Dissimilarity (A,B) + Dissimilarity (B,C) ≥ Dissimilarity (A,C), where A, B, and C are any three stimuli. We show how we can translate this constraint into one for similarities, using Shepard's (1987) generalization law, and so derive the multiplicative triangle inequality for similarities, Sim(A,C)≥Sim(A,B)⋅Sim(B,C) where 0≤Sim(x,y)≤1. Can humans violate the multiplicative triangle inequality? An empirical demonstration shows that they can. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Linear polystyrene-stabilized PdO nanoparticle-catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reactions in water.
Ohtaka, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Teratani, Takuto; Shimomura, Osamu; Nomura, Ryôki
2011-10-27
Linear polystyrene-stabilized PdO nanoparticles (PS-PdONPs) were prepared by thermal decomposition of Pd(OAc)(2) in the presence of polystyrene. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the production of PdO nanoparticles. The loading of palladium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PS-PdONPs exhibited high catalytic activity for Mizoroki-Heck reactions under air in water and could be recycled without loss of activity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina Rubina
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A novel class of chiral phosphanyl-oxazoline (PHOX ligands with a conformationally rigid cyclopropyl backbone was synthesized and tested in the intermolecular asymmetric Heck reaction. Mechanistic modelling and crystallographic studies were used to predict the optimal ligand structure and helped to design a very efficient and highly selective catalytic system. Employment of the optimized ligands in the asymmetric arylation of cyclic olefins allowed for achieving high enantioselectivities and significantly suppressing product isomerization. Factors affecting the selectivity and the rate of the isomerization were identified. It was shown that the nature of this isomerization is different from that demonstrated previously using chiral diphosphine ligands.
Reactivity and Regioselectivity in the Heck Reaction - A Hammett Study of 4-Substituted Styrenes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fristrup, Peter; Le Quement, Sebastian; Tanner, David Ackland
2004-01-01
The regioselectivity in the cationic Heck reaction of 4-substituted styrenes was addressed by a Hammett study. In this branching reaction, plots based on the substrate reactivity did not give meaningful data, whereas the product distribution was variable due to differing preferences for further...... substitution under the reaction conditions and, thus, unsuitable for Hammett plots. Mechanistically meaningful graphs were obtained by combination of the measured initial branching ratio with the approximately constant substrate reactivity. For the alpha-substitution a clear Hammett relation is observed...
Linear Polystyrene-Stabilized PdO Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck Reactions in Water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takuto Teratani
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Linear polystyrene-stabilized PdO nanoparticles (PS-PdONPs were prepared by thermal decomposition of Pd(OAc2 in the presence of polystyrene. X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM indicated the production of PdO nanoparticles. The loading of palladium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. PS-PdONPs exhibited high catalytic activity for Mizoroki-Heck reactions under air in water and could be recycled without loss of activity.
Palladium Catalyzed Heck Arylation of 2,3-Dihydrofuran—Effect of the Palladium Precursor
Adam Morel; Anna M. Trzeciak; Juliusz Pernak
2014-01-01
Heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran with iodobenzene was carried out in systems consisting of different palladium precursors (Pd2(dba)3, Pd(acac)2, PdCl2(cod), [PdCl(allyl)]2, PdCl2(PhCN)2, PdCl2(PPh3)2) and ionic liquids (CILs) with L-prolinate or L-lactate anions. All the tested CILs caused remarkable increases of the conversion values and in all of the reactions 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran (3) was obtained as the main product with a yield of up to 59.2%. The highest conversions of iodobenze...
Nekrasov and Argyres–Douglas theories in spherical Hecke algebra representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rim, Chaiho, E-mail: rimpine@sogang.ac.kr; Zhang, Hong, E-mail: kilar@itp.ac.cn
2017-06-15
AGT conjecture connects Nekrasov instanton partition function of 4D quiver gauge theory with 2D Liouville conformal blocks. We re-investigate this connection using the central extension of spherical Hecke algebra in q-coordinate representation, q being the instanton expansion parameter. Based on AFLT basis together with intertwiners we construct gauge conformal state and demonstrate its equivalence to the Liouville conformal state, with careful attention to the proper scaling behavior of the state. Using the colliding limit of regular states, we obtain the formal expression of irregular conformal states corresponding to Argyres–Douglas theory, which involves summation of functions over Young diagrams.
Triangle Counting in Dynamic Graph Streams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bulteau, Laurent; Froese, Vincent; Pagh, Rasmus
2015-01-01
Estimating the number of triangles in graph streams using a limited amount of memory has become a popular topic in the last decade. Different variations of the problem have been studied, depending on whether the graph edges are provided in an arbitrary order or as incidence lists. However......, with a few exceptions, the algorithms have considered insert-only streams. We present a new algorithm estimating the number of triangles in dynamic graph streams where edges can be both inserted and deleted. We show that our algorithm achieves better time and space complexity than previous solutions...... for various graph classes, for example sparse graphs with a relatively small number of triangles. Also, for graphs with constant transitivity coefficient, a common situation in real graphs, this is the first algorithm achieving constant processing time per edge. The result is achieved by a novel approach...
LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J
2011-01-28
We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.
Triangle UD integrals in the position space
Kondrashuk, Igor; Kotikov, Anatoly
2008-08-01
We investigate triangle UD ladder integrals in the position space. The investigation is necessary to find an all-order in loop solution for an auxiliary Lcc correlator in Wess-Zumino-Landau gauge of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and to present correlators of dressed mean gluons in terms of it in all loops. We show that triangle UD ladder diagrams in the position space can be expressed in terms of the same UD functions Φ(L), in terms of which they were represented in the momentum space, for an arbitrary number of rungs.
Cadaveric Analysis of the Kambin's Triangle.
Hoshide, Reid; Feldman, Erica; Taylor, William
2016-02-02
Introduction Kambin's Triangle is a right triangle over the dorsolateral disc. The area of this right triangle currently serves as a strategic site of posterolateral, minimally invasive access to the nerve root for delivery of epidural steroid injections. This posterolateral approach has also been considered a safe area of access to the intervertebral disc space and, thus, an effective approach in reducing complications, such as violation of the thecal sac, the nerve root, or the bony elements of the spine during minimally invasive spinal surgery. No published studies have been performed to characterize the dimensions of the Kambin's Triangle. Our aim is to characterize its dimensions at the lumbar levels and determine its efficacy and safety as a site of access for minimally invasive spinal surgery. Methods Two randomly chosen adult male cadavers were used for this study. The measurements were made bilaterally at their lumbar levels (L1-L5), which equates to 16 total measurements (eight bilateral disc spaces on two cadavers). The disc space was first accessed using a Kirschner wire in a standard oblique approach. With the assistance of fluoroscopy, a Kirschner wire was passed into the disc through the Kambin's Triangle. The procedure was performed on the cadavers bilaterally at four levels, followed by open dissection. The calculations of the area were made by measuring the exiting nerve root, the superior border of the caudal vertebra, and the superior articulating facet-the borders of the Kambin's Triangle. Results The Kambin's Triangle height and width respectively averaged at 12 mm and 10 mm (L1-L2), 13 mm and 11 mm (L2-L3), 17 mm and 11 mm (L3-L4), and 18 mm and 12 mm (L4-L5). Thus, the area at each level was 60 mm(2) (L1-L2), 71.5 mm(2) (L2-L3), 93.5 mm(2) (L3-L4), and 108 mm(2) (L4-L5). All dissected levels demonstrated adequate anchoring of the Kirschner wire into the disc space with no evidence of nerve injury. Following this, a retractor was placed
Integrating Triangle and Jaccard similarities for recommendation
Sun, Shuang-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Heng; Dong, Xin-Ling; Zhang, Heng-Ru; Li, Tong-Jun; Zhang, Lin
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a new measure for recommendation through integrating Triangle and Jaccard similarities. The Triangle similarity considers both the length and the angle of rating vectors between them, while the Jaccard similarity considers non co-rating users. We compare the new similarity measure with eight state-of-the-art ones on four popular datasets under the leave-one-out scenario. Results show that the new measure outperforms all the counterparts in terms of the mean absolute error and the root mean square error. PMID:28817692
Basketing nanopalladium into calix[4]pyrrole as an efficient catalyst for Mizoroki-Heck reaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anita Kongor
2017-12-01
Full Text Available An approach to synthesize calix[4]pyrrole protected palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs employed for catalytic Mizoroki-Heck C-C coupling reaction is reported. The nanoparticles are synthesized in water using novel calix[4]pyrrole tetrahydrazide (CPTH as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent which is a proficient “one-pot” synthesis discouraging the need of an external stabilizer. CPTH-PdNPs have been characterized and studied by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, transmission electron microscopy, energy‐dispersive X‐ray and powder X‐ray diffraction. The synthesized palladium nanoparticles with a size range of 5–9 nm show an efficient catalytic activity for Heck cross-coupling reactions giving good yields within short reaction time in comparison with conventional palladium catalyst. Also, a good degree of recyclability is shown by the nanocatalyst with five consecutive catalytic cycles. CPTH-PdNPs also exhibit a potential antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria which shows the biological applicability of the synthesized CPTH-PdNPs.
Combinatorics of solvable lattice models, and modular representations of Hecke algebras
Foda, O E; Okado, M; Thibon, J Y; Welsh, Trevor A; Foda, Omar; Leclerc, Bernard; Okado, Masato; Thibon, Jean-Yves; Welsh, Trevor A.
1997-01-01
We review and motivate recently-observed relationships between exactly solvable lattice models and modular representations of Hecke algebras. Firstly, we describe how the set of $n$-regular partitions label both of the following classes of objects: 1. The spectrum of unrestricted solid-on-solid lattice models based on level-1 representations of the affine algebras $\\sl_n$, 2. The irreducible representations of type-A Hecke algebras at roots of unity: $H_m(\\sqrt[n]{1})$. Secondly, we show that a certain subset of the $n$-regular partitions label both of the following classes of objects: 1. The spectrum of restricted solid-on-solid lattice models based on cosets of affine algebras $(sl(n)^_1 \\times sl(n)^_1)/ sl(n)^_2$. 2. Jantzen-Seitz (JS) representations of $H_m(\\sqrt[n]{1})$: irreducible representations that remain irreducible under restriction to $H_{m-1}(\\sqrt[n]{1})$. Using the above relationships, we characterise the JS representations of $H_m(\\sqrt[n]{1})$ and show that the generating series that count...
The Pascal Triangle of a Discrete Image: Definition, Properties and Application to Shape Analysis
Boutin, Mireille; Huang, Shanshan
2013-04-01
We define the Pascal triangle of a discrete (gray scale) image as a pyramidal arrangement of complex-valued moments and we explore its geometric significance. In particular, we show that the entries of row k of this triangle correspond to the Fourier series coefficients of the moment of order k of the Radon transform of the image. Group actions on the plane can be naturally prolonged onto the entries of the Pascal triangle. We study the prolongation of some common group actions, such as rotations and reflections, and we propose simple tests for detecting equivalences and self-equivalences under these group actions. The motivating application of this work is the problem of characterizing the geometry of objects on images, for example by detecting approximate symmetries.
The Pascal Triangle of a Discrete Image: Definition, Properties and Application to Shape Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mireille Boutin
2013-04-01
Full Text Available We define the Pascal triangle of a discrete (gray scale image as a pyramidal arrangement of complex-valued moments and we explore its geometric significance. In particular, we show that the entries of row k of this triangle correspond to the Fourier series coefficients of the moment of order k of the Radon transform of the image. Group actions on the plane can be naturally prolonged onto the entries of the Pascal triangle. We study the prolongation of some common group actions, such as rotations and reflections, and we propose simple tests for detecting equivalences and self-equivalences under these group actions. The motivating application of this work is the problem of characterizing the geometry of objects on images, for example by detecting approximate symmetries.
An Intramolecular Heck reaction that Prefers a 5-endo- to a 6-exo-trig Cyclization Pathway
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vital, Paulo; Norrby, Per-Ola; Tanner, David Ackland
2006-01-01
A regioselective aromatic Claisen rearrangement was used to prepare 17a, the precursor of triflate 17e. The intramolecular Heck reaction of 17e is promoted only by bidentate phosphine ligands, giving exclusively and in excellent yield 20, the product of a 5-endo-trig cyclization, despite...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Gao, Ting-Ting; Jin, Ai-Ping; Shao, Li-Xiong
2012-01-01
A well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II)-1-methylimidazole [NHC-Pd(II)-Im] complex 1 was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction of a variety of aryl chlorides with styrenes...
Vries, André H.M. de; Mulders, Jan M.C.A.; Mommers, John H.M.; Henderickx, Huub J.W.; Vries, Johannes G. de
2003-01-01
Ligand-free Pd(OAc)2 can be used as a catalyst in the Heck reaction of aryl bromides as long as the amount of catalyst is kept between 0.01 and 0.1 mol %. At higher concentrations palladium black forms and the reaction stops. The actual catalyst is monomeric. Palladacycles merely serve as a source
Evaluation of the Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System.
2009-01-01
The "Historic Triangle" in Virginia is named for the historic areas comprising and surrounding Williamsburg, Jamestown, and Yorktown, Virginia. A Historic Triangle Wayfinding Sign System was designed to lead travelers from I-64 to historic sites in W...
Fibonacci-like sequences and generalized Pascal's triangles
Vincenzi, G.; Siani, S.
2014-05-01
The properties pertaining to diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangles are studied. Combinatorial relationships between Fibonacci-like sequences and Fibonacci sequence itself are determined, using the sequence of diagonals of generalized Pascal's triangle.
The simulation research of a novel uwb triangle monopole antenna
Lin, Shu; Qiu, Jinghui; Gu, Xuemai; Ren, He; Zhao, Bo
2007-01-01
Based on that triangle monopole antenna has wide frequency band, this paper proposes a novel composite triangle monopole antenna, which is composed of three similar triangle metal plates. Through the electromagnetic simulation software CST Microwave Studioreg, we obtain its characteristics under the condition that its ground-plate is infinite perfect conductor. The simulation results show that the composite triangle monopole antenna not only has wide impedance frequency band, but also takes u...
Combinatorics Connections: Playoff Series and Pascal's Triangle.
Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.
1992-01-01
Applies Pascal's Triangle to determine the number of ways in which a given team can win a playoff series of differing lengths. Presents the solutions for one-, three-, five-, seven-, and nine-game series, and extends the solution to the general case for any series. (MDH)
Similarity, Separability, and the Triangle Inequality.
Tversky, Amos; Gati, Itamar
1982-01-01
The coincidence hypothesis predicts that dissimilarity between objects that differ on two separable dimensions is larger than predicted from their unidimensional differences on the basis of triangle inequality and segmental additivity. The coincidence hypothesis was supported in two-dimensional stimuli studies. (Author/CM)
Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian
1999-01-01
Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...
Electronic Configuration Pattern Found in Pascal's Triangle
Duncan, Robert L.
1996-08-01
A simple method for revealing the electronic configuration pattern within Pascal's Triangle is discussed. The origin of this unique pattern may be part of a combinatoric and is suggested a link may be made to quantum mechanics. Based on this triangular array an alternate representation of the Periodic Table is presented.
Pascal's Triangle. Popular Lectures in Mathematics.
Uspenskii, V. A.
Pascal's Triangle is an important numerical table; with its help, a number of computation problems may be solved. Some of these problems are examined and the question of what"solving a problem" can mean is generally considered. (Author/MK)
Space vector-based analysis of overmodulation in triangle ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The equivalence of triangle-comparison-based pulse width modulation (TCPWM) and space vector based PWM (SVPWM) during linear modulation is well-known. This paper analyses triangle-comparison based PWM techniques (TCPWM) such as sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and common-mode voltage injection PWM ...
Aqueous Oxidative Heck Reaction as a Protein-Labeling Strategy
Ourailidou, Marilena; van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Baas, Bert-Jan; Jeronimus-Stratingh, Catherine; Gottumukkala, Aditya L.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Dekker, Frans
2014-01-01
An increasing number of chemical reactions are being employed for bio-orthogonal ligation of detection labels to protein-bound functional groups. Several of these strategies, however, are limited in their application to pure proteins and are ineffective in complex biological samples such as cell
Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra; Mahmooduddin, Faiz
2011-03-16
Many patients each year who are born with obstetric brachial plexus injuries eventually do not achieve complete recovery. As a result of the primary nerve injuries, these patients will often develop bony deformities involving the shoulder joint as a secondary consequence. The triangle tilt surgery has been shown to be an effective procedure to correct these deformities and has been performed on patients ranging in age from less than a year old to adolescence. The purpose of this retrospective study is to compare outcomes of triangle tilt surgery performed on patients before the age of 2 years versus after 2 years of age to determine an optimal age to operate on these children. 36 patients with deformities developed secondarily from the initial obstetric brachial plexus injury in this study were divided into 2 groups. Group 1, those who had undergone triangle tilt surgery at 2 yrs of age (20 patients). Group 1 age range: 9 months to 23 months, average: 18 months. Group 2 age range: 26 months to 9 years, average: 6 years. Significant differences were found between the 2 groups (0-2 yrs vs > 2yrs) in regards to overall changes (pre- to post-op) in Mallet score, external rotation score, hand-to-mouth score, and supination angle. This study demonstrates that triangle tilt surgery had better outcomes on clinical functioning if performed before the age of 2 years, however, improvement in clinical functioning can still be achieved if the triangle tilt surgery is performed after the age of 2 years as well. A possible mechanism to explain this phenomenon is the increased potential for anatomical remodeling if the triangle tilt surgery is performed at a younger age, thereby leading to significant functional improvement.
Properties of distance spaces with power triangle inequalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Greenhoe
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Metric spaces provide a framework for analysis and have several very useful properties. Many of these properties follow in part from the triangle inequality. However, there are several applications in which the triangle inequality does not hold but in which we may still like to perform analysis. This paper investigates what happens if the triangle inequality is removed all together, leaving what is called a distance space, and also what happens if the triangle inequality is replaced with a much more general two parameter relation, which is herein called the "power triangle inequality". The power triangle inequality represents an uncountably large class of inequalities, and includes the triangle inequality, relaxed triangle inequality, and inframetric inequality as special cases. The power triangle inequality is defined in terms of a function that is herein called the power triangle function. The power triangle function is itself a power mean, and as such is continuous and monotone with respect to its exponential parameter, and also includes the operations of maximum, minimum, mean square, arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and harmonic mean as special cases.
Miyata, M.; Kiseki, K.; Yakata, S.; Wada, H.; Kimura, T.
2012-04-01
We have studied the magnetic domain structures in a magneto-statically-coupled chain array of the triangle dots and an isosceles triangle dot by means of magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Despite the strong magneto-static interaction in the chain array of the dots, each triangle dot takes a single vortex structure. The chirality of each dot is found to behave similarly to that for the isolated triangle dot. We also demonstrated that single-vortex and double-vortex structures with the desired chiralities can be stabilized in an isosceles triangle dot.
A Case Report of Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease Treated with CO2 Laser
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javad Sarabadani
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck’s disease is a rare benign lesion of oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 and 32. The disease is predominantly found in children and adolescents with indigenous heritage. This paper reports a unique case of Heck's disease in an 11-year-old Iranian girl with multiple, bilateral and elevated lesions on the buccal and labial mucosa. The lesions had persisted for a year. The disease was diagnosed as focal epithelial hyperplasia through the clinical examination. Considering esthetic and functional problems, CO2 laser (Wavelength: 10600 nm surgery was determined as a suitable choice of treatment. The patient was followed up over 1 year with no signs of lesion recurrence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan, Hui; Li, Mengyang; Zhang, Guanghui; Gallagher, James R.; Huang, Zhiliang; Sun, Yu; Luo, Zhong; Chen, Hongzhong; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Zou, Ruqiang; Lei, Aiwen; Zhao, Yanli
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT: The development of organometallic single-site catalysts (SSCs) has inspired the designs of new heterogeneous catalysts with high efficiency. Nevertheless, the application of SSCs in certain modern organic reactions, such as C-C bond formation reactions, has still been less investigated. In this study, a single-site Pd(II) catalyst was developed, where 2,2'-bipyridine-grafted periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) was employed as the support of a Pd(II) complex. The overall performance of the single-site Pd(II) catalyst in the oxidative Heck reaction was then investigated. The investigation results show that the catalyst displays over 99% selectivity for the product formation with high reaction yield. Kinetic profiles further confirm its high catalytic efficiency, showing that the rate constant is nearly 40 times higher than that for the free Pd(II) salt. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that the catalyst has remarkable lifetime and recyclability.
Selective Heck Arylation of Cyclohexene with Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Palladium Catalysts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ewa Mieczyńska
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Palladium catalysts containing Pd(II supported on Al2O3 and alumina-based mixed oxides, Al2O3-ZrO2, Al2O3-CeO2, and Al2O3-Fe2O3, are very effective in the Heck coupling of iodobenzene with cyclohexene in DMF solution. The best results, up to 81% of monoarylated products with a selectivity to 4-phenylcyclohexene (3 close to 90% were obtained with KOH as a base. The catalytic activity of palladium supported on alumina-based oxides was compared with that of homogeneous precursors, such as Pd(OAc2 and PdCl2(PhCN2, used in [Bu4N]Br as the reaction medium. Under such conditions homogeneous systems were more selective and produced up to 60% of monoarylated products with a selectivity to 3 close to 60%.
Palladium catalyzed heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran-effect of the palladium precursor.
Morel, Adam; Trzeciak, Anna M; Pernak, Juliusz
2014-06-19
Heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran with iodobenzene was carried out in systems consisting of different palladium precursors (Pd2(dba)3, Pd(acac)2, PdCl2(cod), [PdCl(allyl)]2, PdCl2(PhCN)2, PdCl2(PPh3)2) and ionic liquids (CILs) with L-prolinate or L-lactate anions. All the tested CILs caused remarkable increases of the conversion values and in all of the reactions 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran (3) was obtained as the main product with a yield of up to 59.2%. The highest conversions of iodobenzene were achieved for the [PdCl(allyl)]2 precursor. Formation of Pd(0) nanoparticles, representing the resting state of the catalyst, was evidenced by TEM.
Palladium Catalyzed Heck Arylation of 2,3-Dihydrofuran—Effect of the Palladium Precursor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Morel
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Heck arylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran with iodobenzene was carried out in systems consisting of different palladium precursors (Pd2(dba3, Pd(acac2, PdCl2(cod, [PdCl(allyl]2, PdCl2(PhCN2, PdCl2(PPh32 and ionic liquids (CILs with L-prolinate or L-lactate anions. All the tested CILs caused remarkable increases of the conversion values and in all of the reactions 2-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran (3 was obtained as the main product with a yield of up to 59.2%. The highest conversions of iodobenzene were achieved for the [PdCl(allyl]2 precursor. Formation of Pd(0 nanoparticles, representing the resting state of the catalyst, was evidenced by TEM.
The East Mediterranean Triangle at Crossroads
2016-03-01
Israeli-Arab dispute.10 As a result, it also deepened the level of distrust between Israel and Greece. However, the Suez War of 1956 would lead to a...an end to these expectations. As a result of this crisis between Ankara and Jerusalem, the competition in the East Mediterranean region evolved...sensitivity of three allies. The core issue of the current troubles in the East Mediterranean Triangle remains the crisis in the Turk- ish-Israeli
Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle
Patrice Loïez
2002-01-01
The CKM Unitarity Triangle Workshop is meant to provide an opportunity for an intense and fruitful exchange of ideas between experimentalists and theorists to assess the present knowledge on fundamental parameters from the data of LEP and other colliders, to define an agenda of future measurements to further probe the model assumptions employed in the interpretation of the data and to indicate paths for the B physics programme at LHC.
The Kanizsa triangle illusion in foraging ants.
Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
2016-01-01
The Kanizsa triangle, wherein three Pac-Man configurations symmetrically face inwards, is a well-known illusion. By exposing foraging ants (Lasius niger) to Kanizsa-shaped honeydew solutions, we studied the origin of this illusion. More specifically, we examined whether foraging ants showed different movement reactions to local honeydew patterns formed by nestmates. This novel phenomenon could serve as an abstract model of the Kanizsa triangle illusion under the assumption that such an illusion could arise through the sum of each agent's limited global cognitions, because each agent could not perceive the entire subjective contours. Even a subjective consciousness consists of some parts which have no identical perception and could be an illusion. We succeeded in inducing foragers to move along the sides of a Kanizsa triangle when Pac-Man-shaped inducers were introduced. Furthermore, foragers appeared to form Y-shaped trajectories when dot-shaped or inverse Kanizsa inducers were used. Based on our findings, we propose an agent-based ant model that compares modelled behaviour with experimental phenomena. Our abstract model could be used to explain such cognitive phenomena for bottom-up processes, because ants cannot perceive the given subjective contours, instead simply move along the edges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion.
Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S
2011-12-01
Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species.
Kambin's Triangle Approach of Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Injection with Spinal Stenosis.
Park, Ji Woong; Nam, Hee Seung; Cho, Soo Kyoung; Jung, Hee Jin; Lee, Byeong Ju; Park, Yongbum
2011-12-01
To compare the short-term effect and advantage of transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) performed using the Kambin's triangle and subpedicular approaches. Forty-two patients with radicular pain from lumbar spinal stenosis were enrolled. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups. All procedures were performed using C-arm KMC 950. The frequency of complications during the procedure and the effect of TFESI at 2 and 4 weeks after the procedure between the two groups were compared. Short-term outcomes were measured using a visual numeric scale (VNS) and a five-grade scale. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between possible outcome predictors (Kambin's triangle or subpedicular approach, age, duration of symptoms and sex) and the therapeutic effect. VNS was improved 2 weeks after the injection and continued to improve until 4 weeks in both groups. There were no statistical differences in changes of VNS, effectiveness and contrast spread pattern between these two groups. No correlation was found between the other variables tested and therapeutic effect. Spinal nerve pricking occurred in five cases of the subpedicular and in none of the cases of the Kambin's triangle approach (ptriangle approach is as efficacious as the subpedicular approach for short-term effect and offers considerable advantages (i.e., less spinal nerve pricking during procedure). The Kambin's triangle approach maybe an alternative method for transforaminal epidural steroid injection in cases where needle tip positioning in the anterior epidural space is difficult.
Nath, Rahul K; Avila, Meera B; Karicherla, Priyanka; Somasundaram, Chandra
2011-01-01
The benefits of triangle tilt surgery in children with OBPI have been previously validated through measurements of statistical improvements in Mallet scores and in glenohumeral congruity. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of triangle tilt surgery through the application of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument, a well validated questionnaire designed to evaluate function and comfort in children with musculoskeletal disorders. OBPI patients between 2 and 10 years of age who came to our institute for routine office visits between May 2009 and October 2009 were considered to participate in the study. Among the patient group, the first 130 completed surveys who met the study criteria were included in the study. The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument was completed by the parents of patients who have undergone triangle tilt surgery (Group 1: N=63) or those who were considered candidates for this procedure (Group 2: N=67). The results were compared between the two patient groups and analyzed using the unpaired student's t-test. Later, 23 patients from the group 2, underwent triangle tilt surgery (Group 3). We collected post-op data, compared and analyzed the outcome of the surgery in these patients to their own pre-op PODCI scores, using the paired student's t test. In patients who have undergone triangle tilt surgery, significantly higher PODCI scores were observed in the parameters of upper extremity function (ptriangle tilt surgery. Further, PODCI scores in group 3 patients were significantly higher after surgery in the parameters of upper extremity function (p triangle tilt surgery. The results of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument demonstrate the functional benefits of triangle tilt surgery in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanveer Mahamadali Shaikh
2013-08-01
Full Text Available A series of general and selective Pd(II-catalyzed Heck reactions were investigated under mild reaction conditions. The first protocol has been developed employing an imidazole-based secondary phosphine oxide (SPO ligated palladium complex (6 as a precatalyst. The catalytic coupling of aryl halides and olefins led to the formation of the corresponding coupled products in excellent yields. A variety of substrates, both electron-rich and electron-poor olefins, were converted smoothly to the targeted products in high yields. Compared with the existing approaches employing SPO–Pd complexes in a Heck reaction, the current strategy features mild reaction conditions and broad substrate scope. Furthermore, we described the coupling of arylboronic acids with olefins, which were catalyzed by Pd(OAc2 and employed N-bromosuccinimide as an additive under ambient conditions. The resulted biaryls have been obtained in moderate to good yields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ting-Ting Gao
2012-11-01
Full Text Available A well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene–palladium(II-1-methylimidazole [NHC-Pd(II-Im] complex 1 was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki–Heck reaction of a variety of aryl chlorides with styrenes. Both activated and deactivated aryl chlorides work well to give the corresponding coupling products in good to excellent yields by using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as the ionic liquid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerzy Zakrzewski
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates were synthesized in 30–100% yield using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolylphosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Naghipour
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The catalytic acvtivity of dimeric and monomeric ortho-palladated complexes [Pd{C6H2(CH2NH2-(OMe2,3,4}(µ-Cl]22 and [Pd{C6H2(CH2NH2-(OMe2,3,4}Cl(PPh3](3, were investigated in Heck cross-coupling reaction. These complexes are more active and efficient catalysts for Heck cross-coupling reaction. The palladium complexes 2 and 3 are employed in the Heck cross-coupling reaction between styrene and acrylate with several aryl halides. High yields of corresponding C–C products, low catalyst loadings, mild reaction conditions and short reaction times are important features of these homogeneous reactions. The cross-coupled prod-ucts were produced in high yields using catalytic amounts of [Pd{C6H2(CH2NH2-(OMe2,3,4}(µ-Cl]2 or [Pd{C6H2(CH2NH2-(OMe2,3,4}Cl(PPh3] as a thermally stable and oxygen insensitive complexes in NMP at 130 ºC.
Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion
Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S
2011-01-01
Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes tha...
75 FR 61788 - Triangle Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application
2010-10-06
... COMMISSION Triangle Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2010. AGENCY: Securities... (``Exchange Act'') granting an exemption from section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. Applicants: Triangle Capital Corporation (``Triangle''), Triangle Mezzanine Fund, LLLP (``TMF''), New Triangle GP, LLC (``General Partner...
The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
2014-01-01
applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...
Dynamic Investigation of Triangles Inscribed in a Circle, Which Tend to an Equilateral Triangle
Stupel, Moshe; Oxman, Victor; Sigler, Avi
2017-01-01
We present a geometrical investigation of the process of creating an infinite sequence of triangles inscribed in a circle, whose areas, perimeters and lengths of radii of the inscribed circles tend to a limit in a monotonous manner. First, using geometrical software, we investigate four theorems that represent interesting geometrical properties,…
Sex determination of human crania using Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle.
Jain, Deepali; Jasuja, O P; Nath, Surinder
2013-05-01
In the present study an attempt has been made to establish standards for sex determination from the various direct and indirect measurements of the cranium. A total of 100 cranium (50 of either sex) were measured for nine direct measurements pertaining to Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. These measurements were used further to calculate four indirect measurements pertaining to the calculation of Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle area and angles. Analysis of data reveals that the male crania exhibit greater values for all the measurements except the angle right Mastoidale-Opisthion-left Mastoidale. The sex difference has been observed to be statistically significant for all the measurements except for the angles of the Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. Sectioning point was calculated for the diagnosis of sex based on the mean values of these measurements; the accuracy of sex determination varied from measurement to measurement. The highest value for determining sex was obtained for Asterion-Mastoidale length of right side i.e. 80%, followed by Bi-mastoid breadth i.e. 75%. This suggests that these measurements could be used with relatively high degree of accuracy in determining sex of the unknown crania. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Das, Pradeep; Juyal, Abhishek; Moody, Dustin
2017-11-01
In this paper we show that there are infinitely many pairs of integer isosceles triangles and integer parallelograms with a common (integral) area and common perimeter. We also show that there are infinitely many Heron triangles and integer rhombuses with common area and common perimeter. As a corollary, we show there does not exist any Heron triangle and integer square which have a common area and common perimeter.
Triangle anomaly in triple-Regge limits
White, Alan R.
2001-01-01
Reggeized gluon interactions due to a single quark loop are studied in the full triple-Regge limit and in closely related helicity-flip helicity-pole limits. Triangle diagram Reggeon interactions are generated that include local axial-vector effective vertices. It is shown that the massless quark triangle anomaly is present as a chirality-violating infrared divergence in the interactions generated by maximally nonplanar Feynman diagrams. An asymptotic dispersion relation formalism is developed which provides a systematic counting of anomaly contributions. The asymptotic amplitude is written as a sum over dispersion integrals of triple discontinuities, one set of which is unphysical and can produce chirality transitions. The physical-region anomaly appears in the generalized real parts, determined by multi-Regge theory, of the unphysical discontinuities. The amplitudes satisfy a signature conservation rule that implies color parity is not conserved by vertices containing the anomaly. In the scattering of elementary quarks or gluons the signature and color parity of the exchanged Reggeon states are such that the anomaly cancels. At lowest order, it cancels in individual diagrams after the transverse momentum integrations are performed.
Pascal-Like Triangle and Pascal-Like Functional Matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bayat
2013-06-01
Full Text Available . In this paper we shall first introduce the Pascal-like triangle, using a generalization of the recurrence relation for arrays of Pascal triangle. Then we define the Pascal-like functional and Fermat-like matrices and investigate their algebraic properties. Finally, we obtain some binomial identities, using these matrices
What Do You Find? Students Investigating Patterns in Pascal's Triangle
Obara, Samuel
2012-01-01
In this paper, students used problem-solving skills to investigate what patterns exist in the Pascal triangle and incorporated technology using Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) in the process. Students came up with patterns such as natural numbers, triangular numbers, and Fibonacci numbers. Although the patterns inherent in Pascal's triangle may seem…
Triangle-free graphs whose independence number equals the degree
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandt, Stephan
2010-01-01
In a triangle-free graph, the neighbourhood of every vertex is an independent set. We investigate the class S of triangle-free graphs where the neighbourhoods of vertices are maximum independent sets. Such a graph G must be regular of degree d = α (G) and the fractional chromatic number must...
From Concept to Reality in Implementing the Knowledge Triangle
Sjoer, Ellen; Nørgaard, Bente; Goossens, Marc
2016-01-01
The concept of Knowledge Triangle (KT) links together research, education and innovation and replaces the traditional "one way" flow of knowledge, essentially from research to education, by a "both ways" circular motion between all the corners of a triangle that, besides research and education, also includes innovation, the…
Inferior lumbar triangle hernia: case report | Naidoo | East African ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A patient with a spontaneously acquired hernia along the inferior lumbar triangle commonly referred to as lumbar triangle of Petit is presented. This was confirmed on CT scan and successfully treated surgically. A review of the literature relevant to this condition is presented. It is likely that with advances in imaging ...
Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John
2000-01-01
Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph...
The paradox of the universal triangle: Concepts, language, and prototypes.
Lupyan, Gary
2017-03-01
For over 300 years, the humble triangle has served as the paradigmatic example of the problem of abstraction. How can we have the idea of a general triangle even though every experience with triangles is with specific ones? Classical cognitive science seemed to provide an answer in symbolic representation. With its easily enumerated necessary and sufficient conditions, the triangle would appear to be an ideal candidate for being represented in a symbolic form. I show that it is not. Across a variety of tasks-drawing, speeded recognition, unspeeded visual judgments, and inference-representations of triangles appear to be graded and context dependent. I show that using the category name "triangle" activates a more prototypical representation than using an arguably coextensive cue, "three-sided polygon". For example, when asked to draw "triangles" people draw more typical triangles than when asked to draw "three-sided polygons". Altogether, the results support the view that (even formal) concepts have a graded and flexible structure, which takes on a more prototypical and stable form when activated by category labels.
The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2017-01-01
Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during...
Teaching Pascal's Triangle from a Computer Science Perspective
Skurnick, Ronald
2004-01-01
Pascal's Triangle is named for the seventeenth-century French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal (the same person for whom the computer programming language is named). Students are generally introduced to Pascal's Triangle in an algebra or precalculus class in which the Binomial Theorem is presented. This article, presents a new method…
Developing Formulas by Skipping Rows in Pascal's Triangle
Buonpastore, Robert J.; Osler, Thomas J.
2007-01-01
A table showing the first thirteen rows of Pascal's triangle, where the rows are, as usual numbered from 0 to 12 is presented. The entries in the table are called binomial coefficients. In this note, the authors systematically delete rows from Pascal's triangle and, by trial and error, try to find a formula that allows them to add new rows to the…
The DNA Triangle and Its Application to Learning Meiosis
Wright, L. Kate; Catavero, Christina M.; Newman, Dina L.
2017-01-01
Although instruction on meiosis is repeated many times during the undergraduate curriculum, many students show poor comprehension even as upper-level biology majors. We propose that the difficulty lies in the complexity of understanding DNA, which we explain through a new model, the DNA triangle. The "DNA triangle" integrates three…
A Triangle Mesh Standardization Method Based on Particle Swarm Optimization.
Wang, Wuli; Duan, Liming; Bai, Yang; Wang, Haoyu; Shao, Hui; Zhong, Siyang
2016-01-01
To enhance the triangle quality of a reconstructed triangle mesh, a novel triangle mesh standardization method based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. First, each vertex of the mesh and its first order vertices are fitted to a cubic curve surface by using least square method. Additionally, based on the condition that the local fitted surface is the searching region of PSO and the best average quality of the local triangles is the goal, the vertex position of the mesh is regulated. Finally, the threshold of the normal angle between the original vertex and regulated vertex is used to determine whether the vertex needs to be adjusted to preserve the detailed features of the mesh. Compared with existing methods, experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the triangle quality of the mesh while preserving the geometric features and details of the original mesh.
Pedro Paulo de Andrade Santos; Marcelo Gadelha Vasconcelos; Karuza Maria Alves Pereira; Lélia Batista de Souza; Roseana de Almeida Freitas; Antônio de Lisboa Lopes Costa; Ana Myriam Costa de Medeiros
2007-01-01
A hiperplasia epitelial focal, ou doença de Heck, é uma enfermidade rara, benigna, que afeta a mucosa oral de crianças e adultos jovens de diversas regiões do mundo e em diferentes grupos étnicos, como indígenas e esquimós. Apresenta correlação com o papilomavírus humano (HPV) no qual os tipos 13 e 32 têm sido consistentemente detectados nessas lesões. Este artigo relata um caso de uma paciente de 18 anos de idade, descendente de índios potiguares, que compareceu ao serviço de estomatologia d...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leah O. Nyangasi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available TiO2 fibers were prepared through electrospinning of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA and titanium isopropoxide (TIP solution followed by calcination of fibers in air at 500°C. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB protected palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs prepared through reduction method were successfully adsorbed on the TiO2 nanofibers (NF. Combined studies of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and transmission electron microscope (TEM indicated that the synthesized Pd/TiO2 had anatase. BET indicated that the synthesized TiO2 and Pd/TiO2 had a surface area of 53.4 and 43.4 m2/g, respectively. The activity and selectivity of 1 mol% Pd/TiO2 in the Heck reaction have been investigated towards the Mizoroki-Heck carbon–carbon cross-coupling of bromobenzene (ArBr and styrene. Temperature, time, solvent, and base were optimized and catalyst was recycled thrice. 1H NMR and 13C NMR indicated that stilbene, a known compound from literature, was obtained in various Heck reactions at temperatures between 100°C and 140°C but the recyclability was limited due to some palladium leaching and catalyst poisoning which probably arose from some residual carbon from the polymer. The catalyst was found to be highly active under air atmosphere with reaction temperatures up to 140°C. Optimized reaction condition resulted in 89.7% conversions with a TON of 1993.4 and TOF value of 332.2 hr−1.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tom H. Koornwinder
2008-06-01
Full Text Available This paper builds on the previous paper by the author, where a relationship between Zhedanov's algebra AW(3 and the double affine Hecke algebra (DAHA corresponding to the Askey-Wilson polynomials was established. It is shown here that the spherical subalgebra of this DAHA is isomorphic to AW(3 with an additional relation that the Casimir operator equals an explicit constant. A similar result with q-shifted parameters holds for the antispherical subalgebra. Some theorems on centralizers and centers for the algebras under consideration will finally be proved as corollaries of the characterization of the spherical and antispherical subalgebra.
Simulating arbitrary-geometry ultrasound transducers using triangles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1996-01-01
for a precise simulation. A triangle better fits these aperture shapes, and the field from a triangle has recently been derived. A new field simulation program has been made based on the triangular shape. It is written in C and interfaced to the Matlab environment through a set of M-files. A large number...... of a rectangle, as the triangle equations are far more complicated. This approach is therefore best suited for accurate modeling of fields, whereas the rectangle program is better suited to make fast simulated images, since contributions from many scatterers are summed here and the error is thereby reduced...
Preventing Soft-Tissue Triangle Collapse in Modern Rhinoplasty.
Campbell, Carey F; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Basci, Deniz S; Scheuer, Jack F; Sieber, David A; Rohrich, Rod J
2017-07-01
The unique anatomy of the soft-tissue triangle makes it prone to notching in primary, secondary, and reconstructive rhinoplasty. Understanding the anatomy of the region is critical to appropriate treatment. This article is meant to further clarify the anatomy of the soft-tissue triangle and to present the senior author's (R.J.R.) approach to proactive correction and prevention of soft-tissue triangle notching through five key steps: (1) precise dissection and incision placement, (2) providing internal support with cartilage grafting if needed, (3) closure of dead space, (4) avoiding undue tension during closure, and (5) providing external support postoperatively.
Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech, P; Bech, P
2009-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety...... psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life....
Penrose triangles of the fossil-to-bio-based transition.
Stankiewicz, Andrzej
2017-09-21
Transition within the chemical industry from fossil to green feedstocks is a complex process characterized by the generation of commercially viable feedstock-process-product triangles. The research in this area encompasses a great diversity of relevant topics. A number of those topics have been addressed within this volume of Faraday Discussions and are summarized in this paper. They are categorized and discussed along with seven general questions arising from the feedstock-process-product triangles. Opportunities are identified that should make more of these triangles technically and economically feasible. The future role of renewable electricity as the primary energy source for the bio-based industry is emphasized.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sobhy Serry Dessouky
2016-08-01
The evaluation is carried out on DGA data obtained from three different groups of transformers. A Matlab program was developed to automate the evaluation of Duval Triangle graph to numerical modification, Also the fault gases can be generated due to oil decomposing effected by transformer over excitation which increasing thetransformer exciting current lead to rising the temperature inside transformer core beside the other causes.
2012-08-07
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle..., Research Triangle Institute, Hermann Building, East Institute Drive, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park... Research Triangle Institute to import the basic classes of controlled substances is consistent with the...
2012-09-10
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle..., Research Triangle Institute, Hermann Building, East Institute Drive, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle... factors in 21 U.S.C. 823(a), and determined that the registration of Research Triangle Institute to...
Lau, Phei Li; Allen, Ray W K; Styring, Peter
2013-01-01
The palladium metal catalysed Heck reaction of 4-iodoanisole with styrene or methyl acrylate has been studied in a continuous plug flow reactor (PFR) using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as the solvent, with THF and methanol as modifiers. The catalyst was 2% palladium on silica and the base was diisopropylethylamine due to its solubility in the reaction solvent. No phosphine co-catalysts were used so the work-up procedure was simplified and the green credentials of the reaction were enhanced. The reactions were studied as a function of temperature, pressure and flow rate and in the case of the reaction with styrene compared against a standard, stirred autoclave reaction. Conversion was determined and, in the case of the reaction with styrene, the isomeric product distribution was monitored by GC. In the case of the reaction with methyl acrylate the reactor was scaled from a 1.0 mm to 3.9 mm internal diameter and the conversion and turnover frequency determined. The results show that the Heck reaction can be effectively performed in scCO2 under continuous flow conditions with a palladium metal, phosphine-free catalyst, but care must be taken when selecting the reaction temperature in order to ensure the appropriate isomer distribution is achieved. Higher reaction temperatures were found to enhance formation of the branched terminal alkene isomer as opposed to the linear trans-isomer.
Enhancement in the Catalytic Activity of Pd/USY in the Heck Reaction Induced by H2 Bubbling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miki Niwa
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Pd was loaded on ultra stable Y (USY zeolites prepared by steaming NH4-Y zeolite under different conditions. Heck reactions were carried out over the prepared Pd/USY. We found that H2 bubbling was effective in improving not only the catalytic activity of Pd/USY, but also that of other supported Pd catalysts and Pd(OAc2. Moreover, the catalytic activity of Pd/USY could be optimized by choosing appropriate steaming conditions for the preparation of the USY zeolites; Pd loaded on USY prepared at 873 K with 100% H2O gave the highest activity (TOF = 61,000 h−1, which was higher than that of Pd loaded on other kinds of supports. The prepared Pd/USY catalysts were applicable to the Heck reactions using various kinds of substrates including bromo- and chloro-substituted aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. Characterization of the acid properties of the USY zeolites revealed that the strong acid site (OHstrong generated as a result of steaming had a profound effect on the catalytic activity of Pd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phei Li Lau
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The palladium metal catalysed Heck reaction of 4-iodoanisole with styrene or methyl acrylate has been studied in a continuous plug flow reactor (PFR using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 as the solvent, with THF and methanol as modifiers. The catalyst was 2% palladium on silica and the base was diisopropylethylamine due to its solubility in the reaction solvent. No phosphine co-catalysts were used so the work-up procedure was simplified and the green credentials of the reaction were enhanced. The reactions were studied as a function of temperature, pressure and flow rate and in the case of the reaction with styrene compared against a standard, stirred autoclave reaction. Conversion was determined and, in the case of the reaction with styrene, the isomeric product distribution was monitored by GC. In the case of the reaction with methyl acrylate the reactor was scaled from a 1.0 mm to 3.9 mm internal diameter and the conversion and turnover frequency determined. The results show that the Heck reaction can be effectively performed in scCO2 under continuous flow conditions with a palladium metal, phosphine-free catalyst, but care must be taken when selecting the reaction temperature in order to ensure the appropriate isomer distribution is achieved. Higher reaction temperatures were found to enhance formation of the branched terminal alkene isomer as opposed to the linear trans-isomer.
Frustration, satisfaction and degeneracy in triangle-based lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berlinsky, A.J. (Inst. for Materials Research and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Canada)); Kallin, C. (Inst. for Materials Research and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster Univ., Hamilton (Canada))
1994-07-01
The low temperature behavior of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a kagome lattice is discussed in terms of the statistical properties of a membrane of edge-sharing, satisfied, spin-triangles. (orig.)
Research Triangle Park, NC Laboratory at a Glance
Among many other things, EPA's Research Triangle Park scientists simulate many different types of air pollution under varying meteorological conditions and study the health effects of air pollution mixtures.
Note: Design and capability verification of fillet triangle flexible support
Wang, Tao; San, Xiao-Gang; Gao, Shi-Jie; Wang, Jing; Ni, Ying-Xue; Sang, Zhi-Xin
2017-12-01
By increasing the section thickness of a triangular flexible hinge, this study focuses on optimal selection of parameters of fillet triangle flexible hinges and flexible support. Based on Castigliano's second theorem, the flexibility expression of the fillet triangle flexible hinge was derived. Then, the case design is performed, and the comparison of three types of flexible hinges with this type of flexible hinge was carried out. The finite element models of fillet triangle flexible hinges and flexible support were built, and then the simulation results of performance parameters were calculated. Finally, the experiment platform was established to validate analysis results. The maximum error is less than 8%, which verifies the accuracy of the simulation process and equations derived; also the fundamental frequency fits the requirements of the system. The fillet triangle flexible hinge is proved to have the advantages of high precision and low flexibility.
The Last B-2s: A Wobbly Iron Triangle
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Stacy, Jerry
1996-01-01
.... The Republican victory in the 1994 congressional elections that gave them control of the House of Representatives, and the "iron triangle" of mutual interests formed by the Air Force, Northrop...
A Pascal-like triangle from finding power sums
Chen, Zhibo
2014-08-01
A Pascal-like triangle is constructed so that power sums can be conveniently obtained by college (or high school) students with no need for memorizing complicated formulas or performing difficult calculations.
Unimodal Rays in the Ordinary and Generalized Pascal Triangles
Blebachir, HacÈne; Szalay, L.ászló.
2008-06-01
The present paper provides the solution of two problems recently posed by Bencherif, Belbachir and Szalay. For example, they conjectured that any sequence of binomial coefficients lying along a ray in Pascal's triangle is unimodal.
A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruimin Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.
Packing 16, 17 of 18 circles in an equilateral triangle
Melissen, J.B.M.; Schuur, Peter
1995-01-01
We present new, efficient packings for 16, 17 and 18 congruent circles in an equilateral triangle. The results have been found by the use of simulated annealing and a quasi-Newton optimization technique, supplemented with some human intelligence.
The comfort triangles : A new tool for bioclimatic design
Evans, J.M.
2007-01-01
This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables,
Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn; Liang, Tianshu
2016-10-01
In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.
From electrostatic potentials to yet another triangle center
Abraham, Hrvoje; Kovač, Vjekoslav
2013-01-01
We study the problem of finding a point of maximal electrostatic potential inside an arbitrary triangle with homogeneous surface charge distribution. In this article we show that such point is indeed unique and we derive several synthetic and analytic relations for its location in the plane. Moreover, this point satisfies the definition of a triangle center, different from any of 5622 currently known centers from Clark Kimberling's encyclopedia. Writing style is slightly informal as the paper...
Kidney herniation through lumbar triangle following open pyeloplasty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qais Al Hooti
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Kidney herniation through the lumbar triangle is an uncommon type of hernia which is classically managed surgically. Contrast enhanced computerised tomography revealed lower pole of the right kidney herniating through the lumbar triangle in a 60-year-old woman, 10 years after an open right pyeloplasty. Surgical intervention was advised, however, patient opted for non-surgical management. Patient was successfully treated conservatively in clinic requiring regular analgesics for relief of mild pain.
When Can One Expect a Stronger Triangle Inequality?
Faiziev, Valerii; Powers, Robert; Sahoo, Prasanna
2013-01-01
In 1997, Bailey and Bannister showed that a + b greater than c + h holds for all triangles with [gamma] less than arctan (22/7)where a, b, and c are the sides of the triangle, "h" is the altitude to side "c", and [gamma] is the angle opposite c. In this paper, we show that a + b greater than c + h holds approximately 92% of the time for all…
Perilaku Kecurangan Akademik Mahasiswa Akuntansi: Dimensi Fraud Triangle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annisa Fitriana
2012-08-01
Full Text Available This study examine the dimensions of Fraud Triangle to explain this effect on the student’s cheating. This study uses a model of research The Academic Dishonesty Scale modifi cation. Sample in this study were 217 accounting students in Brawijaya University Malang. Data was collected through survey methods. This study have obtained empirical evidence that student’s cheating behaviorwas determined by the dimensions of the Fraud Triangle consists of incentive, opportunity and rationalization.
Sides of "The" Unitarity Triangle: Results from Belle and Babar
Kinoshita, K.
2005-01-01
The principal goal of the B-factories is to test the CKM paradigm through measurements that overconstrain the shape of the so-called Unitarity Triangle. The sides of the triangle are evaluated through absolute values of several elements of the CKM matrix, so achieving high precision on these is an important aspect of the B-factory program. Recent results from Belle and Babar are presented.
Scholarly, digital, open: an impossible triangle?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robin Goodfellow
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Contemporary approaches to the digital transformation of practice in university research and teaching sometimes assume a convergence between the digital and openness. This assumption has led to the idea of ‘digital open scholarship,’ which aims to open up scholarship to participants from outside academic scholarly communities. But scholarship, digitality and openness exist in tension with each other – we can see the individual features of each, but we cannot make sense of the whole picture. It resembles an ‘impossible triangle’. Particularly confounding is the tension between digital scholarship and open knowledge, where the former is focused on the creation by specialist communities of knowledge of a stable and enduring kind, whilst the latter is characterised by encyclopaedic knowledge and participation that is unbounded by affiliation or location. However, we need not be permanently thwarted by the apparent impossibility of this triangle. It is a stimulus to look critically at the contexts of practice in which a relationship between scholarship, digitality and openness is sought. Constructive examples of such critique can be found in the emerging research field of literacy and knowledge practice in the digital university.
Love triangles, quantum fluctuations and spin jam
Lee, Seung-Hun
When magnetic moments are interacting with each other in a situation resembling that of complex love triangles, called frustration, a large set of states that are energetically equivalent emerge. This leads to exotic spin states such as spin liquid and spin ice. Recently, we presented evidence for the existence of a topological glassy state, that we call spin jam, induced by quantum fluctuations. The case in point is SrCr9pGa12-9pO19 (SCGO(p)), a highly frustrated magnet, in which the magnetic Cr ions form a quasi-two-dimensional triangular system of bi-pyramids. This system has been an archetype in search for exotic spin states. Understanding the nature of the state has been a great intellectual challenge. Our new experimental data and theoretical spin jam model provide for the first time a coherent understanding of the phenomenon. Furthermore, the findings strongly support the possible existence of purely topological glassy states. Reference:
TRIANGLING BELLOW’S SEIZE THE DAY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nita Novianti
2015-12-01
Abstrak Teori-teori kritik sastra terus bermunculan, baik sebagai tanggapan, kritik, atau perkembangan dari teori-teori sebelumnya. Makalah ini memperkenalkan sebuah teori yang cukup baru yang bisa memperkaya khasanah kritik sastra di Indonesia, yaitu terapi sistem keluarga, melalui sebuah analisis terhadap novel berjudul Seize the Day karangan Saul Bellow, seorang penulis Amerika yang karya-karyanya terutama mengangkat tema keluarga dan permasalahan yang melingkupinya. Sebagai kritik terhadap teori Psikoanalisis oleh Freud dan variasi-variasinya, terapi sistem keluarga percaya bahwa identitas seseorang adalah bagian dari matriks identitas, sehingga analisis terhadap keterhubungan seseorang dengan orang lain yang terlibat dalam matriks tersebut diperlukan jika ingin memahami diri seseorang. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa protagonis novel tersebut, Wilhelm, terlibat dalam sebuah hubungan segitiga atau triangling dalam usahanya untuk menghadapi kegelisahan hidupnya; selain itu, hubungan segitiga hanyalah satu dari sekian jalan keluar untuk kegelisahan yang dihadapi protagonis. Makalah ini menyimpulkan bahwa teori psikoterapi keluarga cocok untuk menganalisis secara kritis karya-karya sastra yang berkenaan dengan masalah keluarga, seperti Seize the Day. Teori ini menawarkan sudut pandang baru, tidak hanya terhadap praktik dalam kritik sastra, tapi juga terhadap cara melihat permasalahan dalam hidup. Kata kunci: Terapi sistem keluarga, segitiga, kegelisahan.
Triangles, tricks and tics: Hyper-mentalizing in response to animated shapes in Tourette syndrome.
Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E
2015-10-01
Tourette syndrome (TS) can feature complex tics involving socially inappropriate behaviours. Adults with TS can also demonstrate differences to healthy controls when reasoning about mental states. This study investigated spontaneous mentalizing in TS. Twenty adults with TS and twenty healthy controls completed the animations task. Participants were asked to watch short ambiguous animations involving two triangles and describe what was happening. Some animations featured random movement of the triangles, while others depicted social interactions that were simple (e.g., dancing) or more complex (e.g., one triangle tricking the other). Measures were taken of executive functions, alexithymia and clinical symptoms. Individuals with TS responded similarly to controls when viewing animations featuring simple and complex interactions, demonstrating intact mentalizing ability. However, significant group differences were apparent for the random movement animations. TS was associated with a greater tendency to attribute mental states during this condition, and to describe random movements as motivated actions guided by the intentions of the triangles. There were no group differences for the alexithymia scale, but TS was associated with mild executive deficits. No relationships were apparent between animation responses and other measures. Our findings suggest that TS is associated with a propensity to adopt the intentional stance. Hyper-mentalizing in TS could be linked to both dopamine dysfunction and altered social behaviour, whereby amplified salience of social cues could contribute to the complex interplay between environmental context and tic expression. These observations may offer further insight into the potential effects of dopamine dysfunction on social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
"Triangle of safety": anatomic considerations in transvaginal natural orifice surgery.
Roberts, Kurt; Solomon, Daniel; Bell, Robert; Duffy, Andrew
2013-08-01
The introduction of transvaginal (TV) natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) brings the loss of traditionally used cutaneous landmarks for safe peritoneal access. This video describes the use of landmarks within the posterior vaginal fornix to define a "triangle of safety" wherein the peritoneal cavity can be accessed while minimizing the risk of injury to surrounding structures. The triangle of safety is best identified in the following way. The cervix and posterior fornix are visualized. Then an imaginary clock located at the base of the cervix is envisioned. The superior two corners of the triangle are represented by the 4 and 8 o'clock positions on this imaginary clock. Sometimes the cervix needs to be grasped and elevated anteriorly so that the inferior apex of the triangle delineated by the center of the rectovaginal fold is better visualized. During hybrid TV NOTES, the rectovaginal pouch of Douglas is visualized from the umbilicus, and the vaginal port can then be safely passed through the center of the triangle. It is important that the vaginal port should be angled upward, aiming toward the umbilicus to avoid injury to the rectum. During pure TV NOTES, the incision is made with electrocautery from the 5 o'clock position to the 7 o'clock position within the triangle. The peritoneum is sharply entered, and the colpotomy is dilated with the surgeons' fingers. The triangle of safety defines a set of landmarks between the base of the cervix and the rectovaginal fold. It allows for a safe TV access for hybrid and pure TV NOTES while minimizing the risk of injury to surrounding structures.
Evaluation of the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in patients with cleft lip and palate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohsen Shirazi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleft lip and palate patients require orthodontic treatments during their childhood and adolescence. Tweed diagnostic triangle as well as cephalometric assessments provides important data regarding the skeletal patterns for the treatment and diagnostic purposes. The present study determined the cephalometric changes of Tweed triangle in the cleft lip and palate patients compared to normal patients. Materials and Methods: In total, 101 cleft and palate patients as well as 95 normal individuals with the balanced age, gender and race were evaluated. All the cleft and palate patients had similar treatment histories. Radiographic clichés were obtained from both groups and the images were traced after identifying the anatomic landmarks. The studied landmarks included points, lines, and plans as well as dental and skeletal angles and distance ratios measured in radiographic images. The landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Significant differences were found between the cleft lip and palate patients and normal individuals regarding craniofacial complex morphology (P0.05. Conclusion: In total, significant differences were observed between normal and cleft lip and palate individuals regarding Tweed diagnostic triangle area. These differences were decreased IMPA and increased FMA and FMIA angles. No significant differences were found in terms of other indices.
An alternate dissection approach to the female urogenital triangle.
Hall, Margaret I; Walters, Linda M
2013-09-01
Traditional dissections of the female urogenital (UG) triangle can lead to early destruction of the erectile tissues, associated musculature, and neurovascular structures. Here, we present an alternate dissection of the female UG triangle. Rather than begin the female UG triangle dissection with the fatty tissue of the labia majora, we utilize an early identification of the suspensory ligament of the clitoris to organize the dissection. The suspensory ligament leads to the body of the clitoris, which can be palpated from distal to proximal to find the crura of the clitoris with overlying ischiocavernosus muscles. Once the crura have been defined, the bulbs of the vestibule with overlying bulbospongiosus muscles can be palpated medially and posteriorly. This dissection approach results in a clean dissection that well demonstrates homologies between male and female external genitalia. Through the use of this method, most student dissection attempts are able to demonstrate the erectile tissues and associated musculature that comprise the female UG triangle. This technique can also be used for male UG triangle dissections, encouraging identification of male and female homologies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Clinical and radiologic features of submandibular triangle hemangioma.
Cho, Jung-Hae; Nam, In-Chul; Park, Jun-Ook; Kim, Min-Sik; Sun, Dong-Il
2012-07-01
The clinical and radiologic features of submandibular triangle hemangioma have not been systematically reported. Hemangiomas in the submandibular triangle are very rare and are often misdiagnosed as other benign cystic masses or inflammatory conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 5 patients who underwent surgery for submandibular triangle hemangioma between January 2006 and April 2011. All patients presented with fluctuating swelling with or without pain in the submandibular triangle. Computed tomographic (CT) scans showed cystic masses around the submandibular glands and calcified nodules in the lesions. Ill-defined vascular lesions and variably sized hard nodules were identified during surgery. Bleeding was controlled by early ligation of feeding vessels. The submandibular gland was removed for surgical exposure in 4 patients. Pathologic review of each specimen revealed that all were cavernous hemangiomas with thrombosis and phleboliths. Complications included 1 temporary marginal mandibular nerve paresis and 1 postoperative hematoma. No recurrence after surgery was seen during a follow-up period of 4 to 52 months. The possibility of submandibular triangle hemangioma should first be considered when a cystic mass around the submandibular gland and multiple calcifications are present on CT. Ligation of feeding vessels and resection of the submandibular gland may be needed to obtain surgical exposure and prevent massive bleeding.
Triangle of Marcille: the anatomical gateway to lateral pelvic exenteration.
Lee, Peter; Francis, Katherine E; Solomon, Michael J; Ramsey-Stewart, George; Austin, Kirk K S; Koh, Cherry
2017-07-01
To perform more radical surgery for complex pelvic malignancies and recurrent colorectal cancer, the surgeon must increasingly operate outside the conventional anatomical planes. Published in 1963 the 'Triangle of Marcille' (lumbosacral triangle) remained primarily of intellectual interest being found lateral to the traditional operating field. However, with the advancement of complex colorectal and gynaecological surgery it now provides a schema to assist surgeons in becoming acquainted with a complex and poorly understood anatomical region. Additionally, it prepares the surgeon for the extent of lateral dissection required to achieve the 'holy grail' for oncological surgery in pelvic malignancy, the complete resection (R0). To prosect a preserved cadaver in order to demonstrate, in vivo, the contents and borders of the Triangle of Marcille for the purposes of teaching surgeons and future surgeons. The Triangle of Marcille is both described and demonstrated in vivo, illustrated with diagrams and photographs. The importance of this region to the surgical management of complex colorectal and gynaecological surgery is discussed. The Triangle of Marcille is a vital anatomical region for advanced pelvic surgery, particularly in the current era of pelvic exenteration, and especially for those that include the lateral pelvic compartment. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
A unique Pd-catalysed Heck arylation as a remote trigger for cyclopropane selective ring-opening
Singh, Sukhdev; Bruffaerts, Jeffrey; Vasseur, Alexandre; Marek, Ilan
2017-02-01
Combining functionalization at a distant position from a reactive site with the creation of several consecutive stereogenic centres, including the formation of a quaternary carbon stereocentre, in acyclic system represents a pinnacle in organic synthesis. Here we report the regioselective Heck arylation of terminal olefins as a distant trigger for the ring-opening of cyclopropanes. This Pd-catalysed unfolding of the strained cycle, driving force of the chain-walking process, remarkably proved its efficiency and versatility, as the reaction proceeded regardless of the molecular distance between the initiation (double bond) and termination (alcohol) sites. Moreover, employing stereodefined polysubstituted cyclopropane vaults allowed to access sophisticated stereoenriched acyclic scaffolds in good yields. Conceptually, we demonstrated that merging catalytically a chain walking process with a selective C-C bond cleavage represents a powerful approach to construct linear skeleton possessing two stereogenic centres.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Norrby, Per-Ola; Kaukoranta, Päivi
2008-01-01
. The steric interactions in this transition state fully account for the enantioselectivity observed with the ligands studied. The calculations also predict relative reactivity and nonlinear mixing effects for the investigated ligands; these predictions are fully validated by experimental testing. Finally......The asymmetric Heck reaction using P,N-ligands has been studied by a combination of theoretical and experimental methods. The reaction follows Halpern-style selectivity; that is, the major isomer is produced from the least favored form of the pre-insertion intermediate. The initially formed Ph......, the low conversion observed with some catalysts was found to be caused by inactivation due to weak binding of the ligand to Pd(0). Adding monodentate PPh3 alleviated the precipitation problem without deteriorating the enantioselectivity and led to one of the most effective catalytic systems to date....
Hilton, Margaret J; Xu, Li-Ping; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wu, Yun-Dong; Wiest, Olaf; Sigman, Matthew S
2014-12-19
The mechanism of the redox-relay Heck reaction was investigated using deuterium-labeled substrates. Results support a pathway through a low energy palladium-alkyl intermediate that immediately precedes product formation, ruling out a tautomerization mechanism. DFT calculations of the relevant transition structures at the M06/LAN2DZ+f/6-31+G* level of theory show that the former pathway is favored by 5.8 kcal/mol. Palladium chain-walking toward the alcohol, following successive β-hydride eliminations and migratory insertions, is also supported in this study. The stereochemistry of deuterium labels is determined, lending support that the catalyst remains bound to the substrate during the relay process and that both cis- and trans-alkenes form from β-hydride elimination.
Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Per Anker
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish...... Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The conventional iron triangle of quality, cost and schedule for project management is the theoretical starting point, but this is seen as mainly being related to process integrity in the construction stage. It is supplemented by a similar value triangle of cultural...... value, use value and quality of realization for product integrity, mainly for the design stage. Based on this framework an evaluation is made of the value management in six of DR’s building projects from the first around 1930 to the most recent – the new headquarters DR Byen finalised in 2009...
Triangle inequalities in coherence measures and entanglement concurrence
Dai, Yue; You, Wenlong; Dong, Yuli; Zhang, Chengjie
2017-12-01
We provide detailed proofs of triangle inequalities in coherence measures and entanglement concurrence. If a rank-2 state ϱ can be expressed as a convex combination of two pure states, i.e., ϱ =p1| ψ1〉〈 ψ1|+ p2| ψ2〉〈 ψ2| , a triangle inequality can be established as |E (|Ψ1〉 )-E (|Ψ2〉 )|≤E (ϱ ) ≤E (|Ψ1〉 )+E (|Ψ2〉 ) , where | Ψ1〉= √{p1}|ψ1〉 and | Ψ2〉= √{p2}|ψ2〉 ; E can be considered either coherence measures or entanglement concurrence. This inequality displays mathematical beauty for its similarity to the triangle inequality in plane geometry. An illustrative example is given after the proof.
Robust Generation of Signed Distance Fields from Triangle Meshes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2005-01-01
A new method for robust generation of distance fields from triangle meshes is presented. Graphics hardware is used to accelerate a technique for generating layered depth images. From multiple layered depth images, a binary volume and a point representation are extracted. The point information...... is then used to convert the binary volume into a distance field. The method is robust and handles holes, spurious triangles and ambiguities. Moreover, the method lends itself to Boolean operations between solids. Since a point cloud as well as a signed distance is generated, it is possible to extract an iso......-surface of the distance field and fit it to the point set. Using this method, one may recover sharp edge information. Examples are given where the method for generating distance fields coupled with mesh fitting is used to perform Boolean and morphological operations on triangle meshes....
An Indoor Collaborative Coefficient-Triangle APIT Localization Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Su-Ting Chen
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The Approximate Point-In-Triangulation (APIT localization algorithm is a widely used indoor positioning technology due to its simplicity and low power consumption. However, in practice, In-to-Out misjudgments exist regularly in APIT, and a considerable amount of nodes cannot be positioned due to the low node density. To tackle this issue, a Collaborative Coefficient-triangle APIT Localization (CCAL algorithm is proposed. Firstly, an effective triangle criterion is put forward to reduce the probability of In-to-Out misjudgment and reduce the computational complexity. Then, a further Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI location and weighted triangle coordinate calculation method is adopted to reduce the positioning error. Meanwhile, the idea of iterative collaborative positioning of the positioned unknown nodes is introduced to remarkably expand the localization coverage rate. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms APIT, RSSI, and other improved algorithms in terms of both node location error and localization coverage rate.
Vortex shells in mesoscopic triangles of amorphous superconducting thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kokubo, N., E-mail: kokubo@uec.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Science, University of Electro-Communications, Cho-fugaoka 1-5-1, Cho-fu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Miyahara, H. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Electro-Communications, Cho-fugaoka 1-5-1, Cho-fu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Okayasu, S. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nojima, T. [Institute for Materials Research,Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
2016-11-15
Highlights: • Direct imaging of multi-vortex states was made in mesoscopic equilateral triangles. • Commensurate and incommensurate vortex states were observed with metastability. • Formation of triangular multiple shells with alternative vortex packing was discussed. • Occupations of vortices in triangular multiple shells are not monotonic with vorticity. • Packing sequence of triangular shells was compared with ones of square and circle shells. - Abstract: Direct observation of vortex states confined in mesoscopic regular triangle dots of amorphous Mo–Ge thin films was made with a scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscope. The observed magnetic images illustrate clearly how vortices are distributed over the triangle dots by forming not only commensurate triangular clusters, but also unique patterns imposed by incommensurability. We discuss the results in terms of vortex shells and construct the packing sequence of vortices in the multiple shell structure.
Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voon, Chen Huey, E-mail: chenhv@utar.edu.my; Hui, Liew How, E-mail: liewhh@utar.edu.my; How, Yim Kheng, E-mail: tidusyimhome@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematical and Actuarial Sciences, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)
2016-06-02
Let mK{sub 3} = (V{sub m}, E{sub m}) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K{sub 3}, where V{sub m} is the set of vertices, E{sub m} is the set of edges and both V{sub m} and E{sub m} are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK{sub 3} is a function f which maps the elements in V{sub m} and E{sub m} to positive integer values, i.e. f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V{sub m} and an edge xy ∈ E{sub m} joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.
Detecting Statistically Significant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks
2016-04-26
Granovetter, M. (1983), “The strength of weak ties: A network theory revisited,” Sociological Theory 1 pp. 201-233. [4] Lancichinetti, A., Fortunato, S...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0025 Detecting Statistically Signicant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks Marcus Perry IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF...triangle motifs in undirected networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0019 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Marcus Perry
Generalized Pascal triangle for binomial coefficients of words
Leroy, Julien; Rigo, Michel; Stipulanti, Manon
2017-01-01
We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite word. Similarly to the Sierpiński gasket that can be built as the limit set, for the Hausdorff distance, of a convergent sequence of normalized compact blocks extracted from Pascal triangle modulo 2, we describe and study the first properties of the subset of [0, 1] × [0, 1] associated with this extended...
Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes
Sun, Xiang
2016-08-12
This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ŉormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.
Sun, Yuanxu; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Guo, Dandan; Chen, Xiao; Dai, Jingtao
2017-07-01
Platinum and palladium bimetal nanoparticles on ferroferric oxide (PtPd/Fe3O4 NPs) nanocomposite catalysts were successfully synthesized with polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a stabilizing agent. The resultant samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma, and magnetic studies. The catalytic performance of the PtPd/Fe3O4 NPs in the Heck and Suzuki coupling reactions was evaluated. Results showed that the cubic phase of Pt and Pd bimetal nanoparticles coexists with that of Fe3O4. The PtPd/Fe3O4 NP catalysts, which were approximately 22 nm in size, showed excellent catalytic activity in the Heck and Suzuki reactions. Moreover, the catalyst can be recovered with a magnet and reused several times without the significant loss of catalytic activity.
Miocene reef-coral diversity of Indonesia: unlocking the murky origins of the Coral Triangle
Santodomingo Aguilar, Nadia
2014-01-01
Reefs in the Coral Triangle host the richest marine diversity today. While the biodiversity gradients associated with the Coral Triangle are progressively better documented, the mechanisms responsible for the origins and maintenance of this pattern still remain obscure. Until recently,
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sellinger, Alan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McNichols, Brett W. [Colorado School of Mines; United States Air Force Academy; Koubek, Joshua T. [Colorado School of Mines
2017-10-27
We have developed a single step palladium-catalyzed Heck coupling of aryl halides with vinyl phosphonic acid to produce functionalized (E)-styryl phosphonic acids. This pathway utilizes a variety of commercially available aryl halides, vinyl phosphonic acid and Pd(P(tBu)3)2 as catalyst. These conditions produce a wide range of styryl phosphonic acids with high purities and good to excellent yields (31-80%).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takuya Nagamine
2011-03-01
Full Text Available A novel heterogeneous transition-metal catalyst comprising a polymer-supported terpyridine palladium(II complex was prepared and found to promote the Suzuki-Miyaura, Mizoroki-Heck, Sonogashira, and Tsuji-Trost, reactions in water under aerobic conditions with a high to excellent yield. The catalyst was recovered by simple filtration and directly reused several times without loss of catalytic activity.
The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah
Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.
1999-01-01
for the White Rim oil. The most attractive potential sources for White Rim oil include beds within one or more of the following formations: the Proterozoic Chuar Group, which is present in the subsurface southwest of the Tar Sand triangle; the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone and equivalent formations, the Permian Kaibab Limestone, the Sinbad Limestone Member of the Triassic Moenkopi Formation, and the Jurassic Arapien Shale, Twin Creek Limestone, and Carmel Formation, which are present west of the Tar Sand triangle; the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation in the Paradox basin east of the Tar Sand triangle; and the Permian Park City Formation northwest of the Tar Sand triangle. Each formation has a high total organic carbon content and is distributed over a wide enough geographic area to have provided a huge volume of oil. Source beds in all of the formations reached thermal maturity at times prior to or during the time that migration into the White Rim is interpreted to have occurred. Based on all available data, the most likely source for the Tar Sand triangle appears to be the Mississippian Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone. Secondary migration out of the Delle is interpreted to have occurred during the Cretaceous, during Sevier thrusting. Subsequent tertiary migration into the Tar Sand triangle reservoir is interpreted to have occurred later, during middle Tertiary Laramide deformation.
Wang, Jian-yun; Wu, Sheng-xian; Jiang, Liang-duo
2011-05-01
To study the effect of triangle drugs as ginseng, Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim, and rhubarb on the levels of blood lipids as [total cholesterol (TC), triglyeride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)] and pro-inflammatory cytokines as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) during the process of treating atherosclerosis. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups after one-week adaptive feeding, i.e., the normal control group (n=6), the model group (n=6), and the triangle drugs group (n=8). High fat diet was fed to rabbits in the triangle drugs group and the model group at the daily dose of 100 g for six weeks. Iliac artery was injured in the model group and the triangle drugs group at the seventh week using balloon injury. High fat diet was successively fed to those after surgery for six weeks. At the same time of modeling, preventive medication (at the daily dose of dry ginseng 0.64 g/kg, Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim 2.14 g/kg, and prepared Radix et Rhizoma Rhei with wine 0.43 g/kg, with the volume of 2 mL/kg) was administered by gastrogavage to rabbits in the triangle drugs group. Changes of blood lipids levels and related pro-inflammatory cytokines were dynamically observed. On the 7th week (before surgery), the levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C in the model group, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C in the triangle drugs group significantly increased, showing significant difference when compared with those of the normal control group (P triangle drugs group were significantly higher than those in the normal control group (P triangle drugs group than in the model group, showing statistical difference (P triangle drugs group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group, showing statistical difference (P triangle drugs group were significantly higher than those of the normal
Triangle of Safety Technique: A New Approach to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulrahman F. M. S. Almutairi
2009-01-01
dissection of the Calot's triangle can lead to such injuries. The aim of the authors in this study is to present a new safe triangle of dissection. Patients and Method. 501 patients under went LC in the following approach; The cystic artery is identified and mobilized from the gall bladder (GB medial wall down towards the cystic duct which would simultaneously divide the medial GB peritoneal attachment. This is then followed by dividing the lateral peritoneal attachment. The GB will be unfolded and the borders of the triangle of safety (TST are achieved: cystic artery medially, cystic duct laterally and the gallbladder wall superiorly. The floor of the triangle is then divided to delineate both cystic duct and artery in an area relatively far from CBD. Results. There were little significant immediate or delayed complications. The mean operating time was 68 minutes, nearly equivalent to the conventional method. Conclusions. Dissection at TST appears to be a safe procedure which clearly demonstrates the cystic duct and may help to reduce the CBD injuries.
8th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle
2014-01-01
The International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle is well-established as one of the leading meetings in the field of quark flavour physics. It provides a venue for theorists and experimentalists to discuss the latest new developments and to come up with ideas for improved analyses.
Spelling Development among Triangle versus Native Bedouin Arabic Pupils
Fragman, Alon
2014-01-01
This study compared spelling development of consonants (guttural: /?/, uvular-velar: /q/ and /g/, emphatic: /??/, /??/, and /ð?, and dental: /?/) in the written form of Arabic among native Bedouin Arabic speakers from north and southern Israel (N = 666), versus native Arabic pupils from the triangle (N = 153), learning in second, fourth, and sixth…
Keeping up with Coordination: From Clark's Triangle to Microcosmographia
Salazar, Jose; Leihy, Peodair
2013-01-01
In 1986 (first published 1983) Clark's triangle of coordination compared national higher education systems according to the dimensions of state authority, market and academic oligarchy. The picture was of a particular time, one in which those three factors could be ably used to illustrate major differences in how coordination took place.…
Enriching Triangle Mesh Animations with Physically Based Simulation.
Li, Yijing; Xu, Hongyi; Barbic, Jernej
2017-10-01
We present a system to combine arbitrary triangle mesh animations with physically based Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, enabling control over the combination both in space and time. The input is a triangle mesh animation obtained using any method, such as keyframed animation, character rigging, 3D scanning, or geometric shape modeling. The input may be non-physical, crude or even incomplete. The user provides weights, specified using a minimal user interface, for how much physically based simulation should be allowed to modify the animation in any region of the model, and in time. Our system then computes a physically-based animation that is constrained to the input animation to the amount prescribed by these weights. This permits smoothly turning physics on and off over space and time, making it possible for the output to strictly follow the input, to evolve purely based on physically based simulation, and anything in between. Achieving such results requires a careful combination of several system components. We propose and analyze these components, including proper automatic creation of simulation meshes (even for non-manifold and self-colliding undeformed triangle meshes), converting triangle mesh animations into animations of the simulation mesh, and resolving collisions and self-collisions while following the input.
Clark's Triangle and Fiscal Incentives: Implications for Colleges'
Lang, Dan
2015-01-01
For nearly 35 year's Burton Clark's triangle has been used as a paradigm for describing, assessing, and comparing systems of postsecondary education (Clark, 1998, 2004). Two major developments in the fiscal management of post-secondary education occurred more or less contemporaneously: incentive or performance funding on the part of the state and…
From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 135-148. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
The chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a core closed-cluster concept map of the type advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. Some of the implications of this view for teaching, learning and ...
Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.
Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...
Penrose Triangles of Fossil-to-Bio Transition
Stankiewicz, A.I.
2017-01-01
Transition within the chemical industry from fossil to green feedstocks is a complex process characterized by the generation of commercially viable feedstock–process–product triangles. The research in this area encompasses a great diversity of relevant topics. A number of those topics have been
the chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching
African Journals Online (AJOL)
IICBA01
... seem well suited to chemical education for human development in Africa. Fig 1 SATLC: Closed-cluster concept maps. THE CHEMIST'S TRIANGLE (5). Johnstone [6] drew attention many years ago (1999) to the existence of what he called the three forms (or levels) of chemistry: macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic.
Video Pipeline Tree For Scan Conversion Of Triangles
Robinett, Warren
1991-01-01
Scenes containing many polygons generated in real time. Video pipeline subsystem having branched structure performs scan conversion of polygons in images generated by computers. New subsystem divides polygons into triangles, each of which processed rapidly in parallel, modular fashion and merged into image.
The space of triangles, vanishing theorems, and combinatorics
Kallen, W. van der; Magyar, P.
1996-01-01
We consider compactications of ( P n ) 3 n S ij , the space of triples of distinct points in projective space. One such space is a singular variety of congurations of points and lines; another is the smooth compactication of Fulton and MacPherson; and a third is the triangle space of Schubert and
Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear ...
78 FR 46369 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Research Triangle Institute
2013-07-31
... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Research Triangle..., 2013, Research Triangle Institute, Poonam G. Pande, Ph.D. RPH, RAC, Hermann Building, East Institute Drive, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, made application by renewal to the...
2013-10-25
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Research Triangle... that on July 25, 2013, Research Triangle Institute, Hermann Building East Institute Drive, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, made application by letter to the Drug Enforcement...
77 FR 34069 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Research Triangle Institute
2012-06-08
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Research Triangle..., Research Triangle Institute, Hermann Building, East Institute Drive, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park...
2012-05-22
... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice Of Application; Research Triangle... that on April 12, 2012, Research Triangle Institute, Hermann Building, East Institute Drive, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle, North Carolina 27709, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement...
On a Family of Generalized Pascal Triangles Defined by Exponential Riordan Arrays
Barry, Paul
2007-03-01
We introduce a family of number triangles defined by exponential Riordan arrays, which generalize Pascal's triangle. We characterize the row sums and central coefficients of these triangles, and define and study a set of generalized Catalan numbers. We establish links to the Hermite, Laguerre and Bessel polynomials, as well as links to the Narayana and Lah numbers.
THE EFFECT OF INTERNET-BASED EDUCATION ON STUDENT SUCCESS IN TEACHING OF 8TH GRADE TRIANGLES SUBJECT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deniz KAYA, Ministry of Education, TURKEY
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out with total 37 8th grade students in two separate classes in a study centre in 2011-2012 school years. It was carried out internet-based teaching material on the experiment group and also conventional teaching method and materials on the control group. In the research, “the achievement test consisting of triangles subject” was carried out as a data collection tool in pre-test and post-test both groups. As a result of the research, success grade of experiment group which was carried out internet-based application applied with Vitamin Program is higher than success grade of control group in which was used conventional teaching method. In consequence of the study, it was suggested that internet-based teaching programs, which call and attract students’ attention must be used in a more frequent way.
Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine.
Weber, Griffin M
2013-05-24
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.
Pressley, Andrew
2002-02-01
To take stock and to discuss the most fruitful directions for future research, many of the world's leading figures met at the Durham Symposium on Quantum Groups in the summer of 1999, and this volume provides an excellent overview of the material presented there. It includes important surveys of both cyclotomic Hecke algebras and the dynamical Yang-Baxter equation. Plus contributions which treat the construction and classification of quantum groups or the associated solutions of the quantum Yang-Baxter equation. The representation theory of quantum groups is discussed, as is the function algebra approach to quantum groups, and there is a new look at the origins of quantum groups in the theory of integrable systems.
Tornabene, Luke; Valdez, Samantha; Erdmann, Mark; Pezold, Frank
2015-01-01
The Coral Triangle is widely regarded as the richest marine biodiversity hot-spot in the world. One factor that has been proposed to explain elevated species-richness within the Coral Triangle is a high rate of in situ speciation within the region itself. Dwarfgobies (Gobiidae: Eviota) are a diverse genus of diminutive cryptobenthic reef fishes with limited dispersal ability, and life histories and ecologies that increase potential for speciation. We use molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic data from two clades of Eviota species to examine patterns, processes and timing associated with species origination within the Coral Triangle. Sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA were used to generate molecular phylogenies and median-joining haplotype networks for the genus Eviota, with emphasis on the E. nigriventris and E. bifasciata complexes - two species groups with distributions centered in the Coral Triangle. The E. nigriventris and E. bifasciata complexes both contain multiple genetically distinct, geographically restricted color morphs indicative of recently-diverged species originating within the Coral Triangle. Relaxed molecular-clock dating estimates indicate that most speciation events occurred within the Pleistocene, and the geographic pattern of genetic breaks between species corresponds well with similar breaks in other marine fishes and sessile invertebrates. Regional isolation due to sea-level fluctuations may explain some speciation events in these species groups, yet other species formed with no evidence of physical isolation. The timing of diversification events and present day distributions of Eviota species within the Coral Triangle suggest that both allopatric speciation (driven by ephemeral and/or 'soft' physical barriers to gene flow) and sympatric speciation (driven by niche partitioning and assortative mating) may be driving diversification at local scales within the Coral Triangle. The presence of multiple young, highly
Triangle tilt and steel osteotomy: similar approaches to common problems.
Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra; Mahmooduddin, Faiz
2011-03-24
Each year, thousands of children worldwide suffer obstetric brachial plexus nerve injuries resulting not only in primary nerve injury, but also in development of secondary muscle and bone deformities of the shoulder. The triangle tilt surgery has been developed and shown to effectively address these deformities. The triangle tilt procedure was initially designed by the lead author (RKN) to follow the concepts of joint normalization featured in the Steel pelvic osteotomy used to correct developmental dysplasia of the hip joint, and indeed ultimately bears a striking resemblance to the Steel osteotomy. Prior to performing these bony surgical procedures, soft tissue procedures are performed to release the muscle contractures of the shoulder and hip. The purpose of this article is to compare and analyze the similarities between the indications, surgical techniques, involved anatomy, and outcomes of these operative procedures. A literature review was conducted using PubMed to identify articles pertaining to triangle tilt surgery and the Steel pelvic osteotomy. Functional parameters and surgical strategies were compared. Pre- and post-operative CTs were analyzed to compare anatomical results of the procedures. Similarities were found between both procedures in terms of indications, involved anatomy, surgical techniques, and outcomes. The triangle tilt surgery is indicated to correct the developmental dysplasia of the glenohumeral joint in obstetric brachial plexus injury patients. Steel pelvic osteotomy is performed to correct the subluxation and dislocation of the hip innominate bone in patients with congenital dysplasia, cerebral palsy myelodysplasia, and poliomyelitis. The involved anatomy of both procedures is similar in that both involve limb girdles and ball-and-socket joints, namely the shoulder and hip. Both procedures are also triple osteotomies, the triangle tilt involving the acromion, clavicle and scapula while the Steel osteotomy involves the iliac spine
Ziętek, Zbigniew; Starczewski, Kamil; Sulikowski, Tadeusz; Iwan-Ziętek, Iza; Maciej, Żukowski; Kamiński, Marek; Ziętek-Czeszak, Angelika
2015-12-30
A new look at the topography of the lumbar triangle becomes a challenge for modern anesthesia. The aim of this study was to redefine the topography of the lumbar triangle for transverse abdominis plane block. We explored 74 lumbar regions in 37 preserved cadavers (17 F and 20 M). The lumbar triangle was identified in 66 (89%) out of all explored cadavers' lumbar regions. The predominant triangle was the acute-angled shaped. It was identified in 39 (59%) out of all explored lumbar regions. The second type of dissected triangles had the obtuse-angled shaped. Most triangles of acute-angled shaped and obtuse-angled shaped (36) had medium surface (range from 3 cm2 to 6 cm2), which accounted for 55% of all dissected lumbar triangles. The mean surface of the lumbar triangle was 3.6±2.2 cm2. Based on other measurements, we demonstrated that the majority of the lumbar triangles (62 triangles) were beyond the posterior axillary line. According to the obtained results, the randomized searching for lumbar triangle should be limited to the area situated beyond of the posterior axillary line. The region situated anteriorly to the midaxillary line was defined in the study as the critical area for finding the lumbar triangle. Outcomes from the study revealed that the size and the location of the lumbar triangle as the gate for the transverse abdominal plane block may be responsible for difficulties encountered by anesthetists. Thus, establishing the area with the highest probability of localization of the lumbar triangle can improve both safety and efficiency of transversus abdominis plane block.
Hamid, Syahibul K.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Rahantoknam, Meyske A.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.; Hungan, Marselus
2017-10-01
Kei Islands located inside the coral triangle. Therefore, the biodiversity level on the sea in this area is considered high. United nation has proposed for water that included in the coral triangle has to apply marine protected area (MPA) to preserve the area. The main problem is most of the community especially in Kei Islands have depended on the sea as their sources of the economy even fisheries commodity like fish play a large part on the inflation rate and other prosperity indicators likes school and housing. Also, Kei Islands practice on form local wisdom for owning areal of the sea which calls “petuanan laut” by certain of villages or group of villages in one area. This study aimed to map the cluster of catching fisheries area based on the quantity of fish supply on a local market in Kei Islands and measure each cluster on their support and perspective on Marine Protected Area (MPA). We conducted a focus group discussion and collecting additional data by questionnaires with descriptive and quantitative analysis with logistic regression. The implication of this study can provide a clear view of coastal communities view on MPA program also to identify an area that has marine resources, human resources, and equipment to provide government an empirical view on catching fisheries in Kei Islands to issued better policy to develop fishing industry in Kei Islands.
Ding, Ya-Hui; Fan, Hong-Xia; Long, Jing; Zhang, Quan; Chen, Yue
2013-11-15
A series of guaianolide-type sesquiterpene lactones derivatives with arylation of α-methylene-γ-lactone moiety was synthesized using Heck reactions, and was evaluated for their activities against acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell line HL-60 and doxorubicin-resistant cell line HL-60/A. Although all compounds were significantly less active against HL-60 than the parent molecules, surprisingly, compounds 3a, 4c-4e, 5e, and 8d exhibited high potency against doxorubicin-resistant cell line HL-60/A (IC50=6.2-19 μM), and their activities against HL-60/A were comparable to that of their parent molecules. In view of their novel activities against HL-60/A, compound 5e with inhibitory activity against HL-60/A (IC50=6.2±0.5 μM) was selected for study its preliminary mechanism. The result reveals that compound 5e can obviously induce apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruy, H.J.
1998-03-01
Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.
On degree sums of a triangle-free graph
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandt, Stephan; Harant, J.; Naumann, S.
2014-01-01
For a simple triangle-free k-chromatic graph G with k >= 2 the upper bound m(n-f (k-2)) on the sum Sigma(2)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(2)(x) of the squares of the degrees of G is proved, where n, m, and f(1) are the order of G, the size of G, and the minimum order of a triangle-free l......-chromatic graph, respectively. Consequences of this bound are discussed. Moreover, we generalize the upper bound on Ep (G) = Sigma(p)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(x)) for p = 2 to P >= 3. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
The local triangle axiom in topology and domain theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pawel Waszkiewicz
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We introduce a general notion of distance in weakly separated topological spaces. Our approach differs from existing ones since we do not assume the reflexivity axiom in general. We demonstrate that our partial semimetric spaces provide a common generalization of semimetrics known from Topology and both partial metrics and measurements studied in Quantitative Domain Theory. In the paper, we focus on the local triangle axiom, which is a substitute for the triangle inequality in our distance spaces. We use it to prove a counterpart of the famous Archangelskij Metrization Theorem in the more general context of partial semimetric spaces. Finally, we consider the framework of algebraic domains and employ Lebesgue measurements to obtain a complete characterization of partial metrizability of the Scott topology.
Is Chronic Groin Pain a Bermuda Triangle of Sports Medicine?
Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Čuljak, Vencel; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario
2014-01-01
Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncertain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes w...
Enumeration of Triangles in a Divisor Cayley Graph | Chalapathi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper a new class of arithmetic Cayley graphs, namely, divisor Cayley graphs associated with the divisor function d ƒvnƒw , n „d1,an integer is introduced. It is shown that this graph is regular, hamiltonian, connected and not bipartite, and when n is odd it is eulerian. The enumeration of triangles in this graph is also ...
Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)
1995-12-31
Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)
Algorithmic self-assembly of DNA Sierpinski triangles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul W K Rothemund
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Algorithms and information, fundamental to technological and biological organization, are also an essential aspect of many elementary physical phenomena, such as molecular self-assembly. Here we report the molecular realization, using two-dimensional self-assembly of DNA tiles, of a cellular automaton whose update rule computes the binary function XOR and thus fabricates a fractal pattern--a Sierpinski triangle--as it grows. To achieve this, abstract tiles were translated into DNA tiles based on double-crossover motifs. Serving as input for the computation, long single-stranded DNA molecules were used to nucleate growth of tiles into algorithmic crystals. For both of two independent molecular realizations, atomic force microscopy revealed recognizable Sierpinski triangles containing 100-200 correct tiles. Error rates during assembly appear to range from 1% to 10%. Although imperfect, the growth of Sierpinski triangles demonstrates all the necessary mechanisms for the molecular implementation of arbitrary cellular automata. This shows that engineered DNA self-assembly can be treated as a Turing-universal biomolecular system, capable of implementing any desired algorithm for computation or construction tasks.
The disease triangle: pathogens, the environment and society.
Scholthof, Karen-Beth G
2007-02-01
The primary means to define any disease is by naming a pathogen or agent that negatively affects the health of the host organism. Another assumed, but often overlooked, determinant of disease is the environment, which includes deleterious physical and social effects on mankind. The disease triangle is a conceptual model that shows the interactions between the environment, the host and an infectious (or abiotic) agent. This model can be used to predict epidemiological outcomes in plant health and public health, both in local and global communities. Here, the Irish potato famine of the mid-nineteenth century is used as an example to show how the disease triangle, originally devised to interpret plant disease outcomes, can be applied to public health. In parallel, malaria is used to discuss the role of the environment in disease transmission and control. In both examples, the disease triangle is used as a tool to discuss parameters that influence socioeconomic outcomes as a result of host-pathogen interactions involving plants and humans.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Tanner, David Ackland; Cacchi, Sandro
2009-01-01
The Heck arylation of acrolein acetal has been studied computationally and compared to the corresponding reaction with allyl ethers. The reaction can be controlled to give either cinnamaldehydes or arylpropanoic esters by addition of different coordinating anions, acetate, or chloride....... The computational study reveals that coordinating acetate raises the energy of an intermediate sufficiently to block the access to an otherwise favorable beta-hydride elimination. The reaction path is also compared to that of allyl ethers, which always give significant amounts of cinnamyl ether products under all...... reaction conditions. The difference between the two substrate classes could be rationalized in terms of relative hydride donating power of the two substrates....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. Battaglia et al.
2004-04-02
This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e{sup +}e{sup -} machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. This report is organized as a coherent document with chapters
A triangle voting algorithm based on double feature constraints for star sensors
Fan, Qiaoyun; Zhong, Xuyang
2018-02-01
A novel autonomous star identification algorithm is presented in this study. In the proposed algorithm, each sensor star constructs multi-triangle with its bright neighbor stars and obtains its candidates by triangle voting process, in which the triangle is considered as the basic voting element. In order to accelerate the speed of this algorithm and reduce the required memory for star database, feature extraction is carried out to reduce the dimension of triangles and each triangle is described by its base and height. During the identification period, the voting scheme based on double feature constraints is proposed to implement triangle voting. This scheme guarantees that only the catalog star satisfying two features can vote for the sensor star, which improves the robustness towards false stars. The simulation and real star image test demonstrate that compared with the other two algorithms, the proposed algorithm is more robust towards position noise, magnitude noise and false stars.
Patients' ranking of interdental "black triangles" against other common aesthetic problems.
Cunliffe, Joanne; Pretty, Iain
2009-12-01
The purpose of this study is to assess patients' aesthetic perceptions of interdental "black triangles", both in terms of the number of triangles visible and their severity; and to ascertain how patients rank the presence of "black triangles" against other aesthetic problems. It is based on a questionnaire of 80 randomly selected individuals who were asked to rate the aesthetics of digitally-manipulated images. Patients'perceptions of interdental "black triangles" were compared with their perceptions of other 'non-aesthetic' features. Interdental "black triangles" were rated as the third most disliked aesthetic problem below caries and crown margins. This study demonstrates the importance of interdental "black triangles" to patients, and therefore, as they can occur during prosthetic treatment, must be discussed with patients prior to commencing therapy.
Nath, Rahul K.
2014-01-01
Introduction. Obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) occurs during the process of labor and childbirth. OBPI has been reported to be associated with shoulder dystocia, macrosomia, and breech delivery. Its occurrence in uncomplicated delivery is possible as well. Case Presentation. The patient in the present report is a 6.5-year-old girl, who suffered a severe brachial plexus injury at birth and had many reconstructive surgical procedures at an outside brachial plexus center before presenting to us. Discussion. The traditional surgical treatments by other surgical groups were unsuccessful and therefore the patient came to our clinic for further treatment. She had triangle tilt surgery with us, as a salvage procedure. Conclusion. The OBPI patient in this study clearly showed noticeable clinical and functional improvements after triangle tilt surgical management. The posture of the arm at rest was greatly improved to a more normal position, and hand to mouth movement was improved as well. Triangle tilt surgery should be conducted as a first choice treatment for medial rotation contracture of the shoulder in OBPI patients. PMID:25506033
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahul K. Nath
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI occurs during the process of labor and childbirth. OBPI has been reported to be associated with shoulder dystocia, macrosomia, and breech delivery. Its occurrence in uncomplicated delivery is possible as well. Case Presentation. The patient in the present report is a 6.5-year-old girl, who suffered a severe brachial plexus injury at birth and had many reconstructive surgical procedures at an outside brachial plexus center before presenting to us. Discussion. The traditional surgical treatments by other surgical groups were unsuccessful and therefore the patient came to our clinic for further treatment. She had triangle tilt surgery with us, as a salvage procedure. Conclusion. The OBPI patient in this study clearly showed noticeable clinical and functional improvements after triangle tilt surgical management. The posture of the arm at rest was greatly improved to a more normal position, and hand to mouth movement was improved as well. Triangle tilt surgery should be conducted as a first choice treatment for medial rotation contracture of the shoulder in OBPI patients.
Efficiency of the knowledge triangle policy in the EU member states: DEA approach
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tarnawska, Katarzyna; Mavroeidis, Vasileios
2015-01-01
...-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model assuming variable returns to scale (VRS). Moreover, the knowledge triangle efficiency indices are calculated, utilising the concept of actual and target inputs...
Teaching and learning apheresis medicine: The Bermuda Triangle in Education.
Crookston, Kendall P; Richter, Deana M
2010-01-01
Apheresis Medicine has evolved markedly due to an explosion of knowledge and technology, whereas the time available for training has shrunk as curricula have become increasingly overloaded. Apheresis teaching has inherited a strong clinical context where real patient problems are used in a hands-on environment. To optimize instruction, those involved in the education of apheresis professionals need to have (1) knowledge of how clinical laboratory medicine education has developed as a field, (2) an understanding of what is known from theory and research about how people learn, and (3) the skills to design teaching/learning activities in ways consistent with literature-based principles of adult education. These developments in education provide a context for curriculum projects currently underway by the American Society for Apheresis. Teachers must determine which competencies are central to the essence of a trained professional. Specific, robust, learning objectives targeted toward the development of higher levels of thinking, professional attitudes, and requisite skills are formulated to guide the learner toward mastering those competencies. Curriculum is developed for each objective, consisting of content and the best teaching/learning methods to help learners attain the objective. Appropriate assessment strategies are identified to determine whether the objective is being achieved. The integration of objectives, curriculum, and assessment creates The Bermuda Triangle of Education (Richter, The Circle of Learning and Bermuda Triangle in Education, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 2004). When educators do not effectively navigate The Bermuda Triangle of Education, learning may disappear into the murky depths of confusion and apathy. When successfully navigated, the result will be a significant learning experience that leads to transformation through education. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Diagnosis and management of neoplastic lesions of the submandibular triangle.
Munir, Nazia; Bradley, Patrick J
2008-03-01
Review of submandibular triangle neoplasms (benign and malignant) treated at a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom (1986-2004). One hundred and seven cases identified via computerised search of histopathology records over the 18 year review period. Retrospective review clinical notes and collation with data maintained prospectively by the senior author. Forty nine benign and 58 malignant neoplasms of the submandibular triangle were reviewed. Definitive diagnosis was by excision and pathological examination. Pleomorphic adenoma (n=37) were the most common benign neoplasms. For malignant lesions (n=58), 48 were primary malignancies and 10 metastatic lesions. The most frequent primary lesions were malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=22), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n=9) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=9). The mainstay treatment for both benign and malignant lesions was surgical either by extracapsular excision of the gland/lesion or selective levels I, IIa and III neck dissection. The main post-operative complication was temporary weakness of the marginal mandibular nerve (13%). Submandibular triangle neoplasms are rare and pose many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. There is a relatively high incidence of malignant neoplasms in this region (54%). Benign tumours manifest a mild course of disease and have an excellent prognosis following adequate excision. Malignant tumours have a poor symptomatology that can result in late (often post-operative) diagnosis. The adequacy of primary surgery is crucial and would support the approach of a more radical excision primarily with a selective levels I, IIa and III neck dissection; ensuring a definitive operation for benign lesions, avoiding the risks of tumour spillage associated with a more limited excision; and removing the primary echelon of lymph nodes at risk of metastasis if the pathology in fact turns out to be malignant; without a significantly higher morbidity in comparison with an extracapsular gland
Variability in reef connectivity in the Coral Triangle
Thompson, D. M.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Watson, J. R.; Curchitser, E. N.
2015-12-01
The Coral Triangle (CT) is not only the global center of marine biodiversity, it also supports the livelihoods of millions of people. Unfortunately, it is also considered the most threatened of all reef regions, with rising temperature and coral bleaching already taking a toll. Reproductive connectivity between reefs plays a critical role in the reef's capacity to recover after such disturbances. Thus, oceanographic modeling efforts to understand patterns of reef connectivity are essential to the effective design of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to conserve marine ecosystems in the Coral Triangle. Here, we combine a Regional Ocean Modeling System developed for the Coral Triangle (CT-ROMS) with a Lagrangian particle tracking tool (TRACMASS) to investigate the probability of coral larval transport between reefs. A 47-year hindcast simulation (1960-2006) was used to investigate the variability in larval transport of a broadcasting coral following mass spawning events in April and September. Potential connectivity between reefs was highly variable and stochastic from year to year, emphasizing the importance of decadal or longer simulations in identifying connectivity patterns, key source and sink regions, and thus marine management targets for MPAs. The influence of temperature on realized connectivity (future work) may add further uncertainty to year-to-year patterns of connectivity between reefs. Nonetheless, the potential connectivity results we present here suggest that although reefs in this region are primarily self-seeded, rare long-distance dispersal may promote recovery and genetic exchange between reefs in the region. The spatial pattern of "subpopulations" based solely on the physical drivers of connectivity between reefs closely match regional patterns of biodiversity, suggesting that physical barriers to larval dispersal may be a key driver of reef biodiversity. Finally, 21st Century simulations driven by the Community Earth System Model (CESM
Laparoscopic management of inferior lumbar hernia (Petit triangle hernia).
Ipek, T; Eyuboglu, E; Aydingoz, O
2005-05-01
Lumbar hernias are rare defects in the posterolateral abdominal wall that may be congenital or acquired. We present a case of laparoscopic approach to repair an acquired inferior triangle (Petit) lumbar hernia in a woman by using polytetrafluoroethylene mesh. The size of the hernia was 8 x 10 cm. The length of her hospital stay was 2 days. The patient resumed normal activities in less than 2 weeks. The main advantage of this approach is excellent operative visualization, thus avoiding injury to structures near the hernia during repair. Patients benefit from a minimally invasive approach with less pain, shortened hospital course, less analgesic requirements, better cosmetic result, and minimal life-style interference.
Unitarity Triangle analysis beyond the Standard Model from UTfit
Bona, Marcella
2016-01-01
The Unitarity Triangle (UT) analysis can be used to constrain the parameter space in possible new physics (NP) scenarios. We present here an update of the UT analysis beyond the Standard Model (SM) by the UTfit collaboration. Assuming NP, all of the available experimental and theoretical information on ∆F = 2 processes is combined using a model-independent parametrisation. We determine the allowed NP contributions in the kaon, D, Bd, and Bs sectors and, in various NP scenarios, we translate them into bounds for the NP scale as a function of NP couplings.
Characterization of linear recurrences associated to rays in Pascal's triangle
Belbachir, Hacène; Komatsu, Takao; Szalay, László
2010-07-01
Our purpose is to describe the recurrence relations associated to the sum of diagonal elements laying along a finite ray crossing Pascal's triangle. We also answer Horadam's question posed in his paper entitled Chebyshev and Pell connections, Fibonacci Quart., (2005). Further, using Morgan-Voyce sequence, we establish the nice identity Fn+1-iFn = in∑k = 0n(2kn+k)(-2-i)k of Fibonacci numbers, where i = √-1 1. Finally, connections to continued fractions, bivariate polynomials and finite differences are given.
Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedoms. I - The EFF element
Alvin, Ken; De La Fuente, Horacio M.; Haugen, Bjorn; Felippa, Carlos A.
1992-01-01
The formulation of 3-node 9-DOF membrane elements with normal-to-element-plane rotations (drilling freedoms) is examined in the context of parametrized variational principles. In particular, attention is given to the application of the extended free formulation (EFF) to the construction of a triangular membrane element with drilling freedoms that initially has complete quadratic polynomial expansions in each displacement component. The main advantage of the EFF over the free formulation triangle is that an explicit form is obtained for the higher-order stiffness.
Colouring the triangles determined by a point set
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Ruy Fabila-Monroy
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Let P be a set of n points in general position in the plane. We study the chromatic number of the intersection graph of the open triangles determined by P. It is known that this chromatic number is at least n3/27+O(n2 and, if P is in convex position, the answer is n3/24+O(n2. We prove that for arbitrary P, the chromatic number is at most n3/19.259+O(n2.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fu-Yu Tsai
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A water-soluble and air-stable Pd(NH32Cl2/cationic 2,2’-bipyridyl system was found to be a highly-efficient and reusable catalyst for the coupling of aryl iodides and alkenes in neat water using Bu3N as a base. The reaction was conducted at 140 °C in a sealed tube in air with a catalyst loading as low as 0.0001 mol % for the coupling of activated aryl iodides with butyl and ethyl acrylates, providing the corresponding products in good to excellent yields with very high turnover numbers. In the case of styrene, Mizoroki-Heck coupling products were obtained in good to high yields by using a greater catalyst loading (1 mol % and TBAB as a phase-transfer agent. After extraction, the residual aqueous solution could be reused several times with only a slight decrease in its activity, making the Mizoroki-Heck reaction “greener”.
[Cysts in the posterior triangle of the neck in adults].
Brea-Álvarez, Beatriz; Roldán-Hidalgo, Amaya
2015-01-01
Cystic lesions of the posterior triangle are a pathologic entity whose diagnosis is made in the first two years of life. Its presentation in adulthood is an incidental finding and the differential diagnosis includes cystic lymphangioma, lymphatic metastasis of thyroid cancer and branchial cyst. Often with the finding of a cervical lump, FNA is made before diagnostic imaging is performed, however, this procedure is not always advisable. We reviewed the cases of patients who came last year to our department with a cystic mass in this location and correlating the imaging findings with pathologic specimen. We show characteristic findings of these lesions in order to make an early diagnosis and thus to get the approach and treatment appropriate of adult patients with a cystic lesion in the posterior cervical triangle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.
Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?
Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario
2014-12-01
Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine.
Species richness accelerates marine ecosystem restoration in the Coral Triangle.
Williams, Susan L; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Sur, Christine; Abbott, Jessica M; Limbong, Steven R
2017-11-07
Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region. Here we demonstrate that species diversity can set the trajectory of restoration. In a seagrass restoration experiment in the heart of the Coral Triangle (Sulawesi, Indonesia), plant survival and coverage increased with the number of species transplanted. Our results highlight the positive role biodiversity can play in ecosystem restoration and call for revision of the common restoration practice of establishing a single target species, particularly in regions having high biodiversity. Coastal ecosystems affect human well-being in many important ways, and restoration will become ever more important as conservation efforts cannot keep up with their loss. Published under the PNAS license.
Pascal's Triangle and its related high-tec
López-Cruz, Elías
2001-03-01
Some self similarity properties of two new numerical series derived from the Pascal's triangle are presented. One of them was reported earlier^1. The other one shows a parallelism with the Fibonacci series. The n-th term is written as: L_n.=E_n./2^n., where E_n. is given by the recursion relation: E_n.=E_n-1.+2E_n-2.. The E_n. series also shows self similarity. One of the high-tec applications of Pascal's triangle is as one of the best cell phone antennas design^2.. In this work it will be shown some other applications of another numerical series which appear in the simulation of the growth of metal clusters of a few atoms^3.. 1. E. López-Cruz and GH Cocoletzi, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. vol. 43, 483 (1998) 2. George Musser, Sci. Amer. Vol. 281, 38 july (1999) 3. S.M. Reimann et al Physical Review B vol. 56, 12147 (1997)
Geometric phase: two triangles on the Poincaré sphere.
Kurzynowski, Piotr; Woźniak, Władysław A; Szarycz, Małgorzata
2011-03-01
The method of obtaining the dynamic and geometric part of the phase introduced by a birefringent medium in two kinds of interferometric experiments is presented. The mathematical formulas for the phases obtained using Jones formalism are visualized with the specific triangles on the Poincaré sphere. Generally, these triangles are similar to those used in the Pancharatnam's original construction developed by Courtial to calculate the Pancharatnam geometric phase for the light passing through a single birefringent plate. In these graphical constructions following Courtial's idea, we used the points representing both of the birefringent medium's eigenvectors. This allowed the most intuitive explanation of the mechanism of dividing the whole phase shift introduced by the birefringent plate into two different parts: dynamical and geometrical. The considered constructions were used as a description of two simple experiments with a birefringent medium in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a polariscopic setup. The experimental verifications of our theoretical predictions should convince the reader of the correctness of the assumed model.
Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle
Unsworth, Richard K. F.; Hinder, Stephanie L.; Bodger, Owen G.; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.
2014-09-01
The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security.
STRATEGIC PLACE TRIANGLE PENGEMBANGAN POTENSI KAWASAN PARIWISATA BOJONEGERO
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Muchammad Nurif
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Kabupaten Bojonegoro ditetapkan sebagai salah satu Daerah Tujuan Wisata (DTW di Jawa Timur karena memiliki potensi obyek wisata alam dan budaya yang telah mendapatkan perhatian wisatawan nusantara pada umumnya. Dalam kebijakan pengembangan yang tertuang dalam Rencana Induk Pengembangan Pariwisata (RIPP Jawa Timur 1999-2015 Kabupaten Bojonegoro meskipun bukan sebagai gerbang utama namun memiliki peran strategis untuk mendorong pertumbuhan kawasan di sekitarnya. Dalam penelitian, peneliti melakukan pemetakan perubahan lingkungan eksternal, pemetakan pesaing dan pelanggan, analisis internal, dan analisis TOWS. Selanjutnya akan dirumuskan Strategic Place Triangle. Yang dimaksud dengan Strategic Place Triangle adalah suatu pendekatan strategi pemasaran wilayah yang mencakup tiga hal kunci, yaitu (1 Strategi yang mencakup Segmentasi-Targeting-Positioning, (2 Taktik yang mencakup Diferensiasi-Marketing Mix-Selling, (3 Value yang mencakup Brand-Servis-Proses. Analisis pemetaan terhadap lingkungan eksternal dan internal dengan menggunakan pendekatan Strategi Pemasaran Wilayah (Marketing Places tersebut akan menghasilkan Positioning, Diferensiasi, dan Brand, bagi potensi kawasan pariwisata Bojonegoro. Positioning- nya adalah ibarat Bali bagi Jawa Timur dengan kekhasan tetap memegang nilai-nilai religi dan kultur lokal setempat. Diferensiasi-nya adalah one-stop-shopping services, pesona wisata yang tak berakhir, cantik alami, penduduknya yang santun, ramah dan mempesona. Brand-nya adalah Pesona Wisata Bojonegoro.
Secure Minutiae-Based Fingerprint Templates Using Random Triangle Hashing
Jin, Zhe; Jin Teoh, Andrew Beng; Ong, Thian Song; Tee, Connie
Due to privacy concern on the widespread use of biometric authentication systems, biometric template protection has gained great attention in the biometric research recently. It is a challenging task to design a biometric template protection scheme which is anonymous, revocable and noninvertible while maintaining acceptable performance. Many methods have been proposed to resolve this problem, and cancelable biometrics is one of them. In this paper, we propose a scheme coined as Random Triangle Hashing which follows the concept of cancelable biometrics in the fingerprint domain. In this method, re-alignment of fingerprints is not required as all the minutiae are translated into a pre-defined 2 dimensional space based on a reference minutia. After that, the proposed Random Triangle hashing method is used to enforce the one-way property (non-invertibility) of the biometric template. The proposed method is resistant to minor translation error and rotation distortion. Finally, the hash vectors are converted into bit-strings to be stored in the database. The proposed method is evaluated using the public database FVC2004 DB1. An EER of less than 1% is achieved by using the proposed method.
Hocini, M.; Loh, P.; Ho, S. Y.; Sanchez-Quintana, D.; Thibault, B.; de Bakker, J. M.; Janse, M. J.
1998-01-01
The purpose of this study was to characterize anisotropy in the triangle of Koch by relating electrophysiology with anatomy. Atrioventricular (AV) node fast and slow pathway characteristics have been suggested to be due to nonuniform anisotropy in the triangle of Koch. During atrial pacing, we
Pugh, Greg L.
2014-01-01
The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…
Maximal outerplanar graphs as chordal graphs, path-neighborhood graphs, and triangle graphs
R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn); B. Novick (Beth)
2011-01-01
textabstractMaximal outerplanar graphs are characterized using three different classes of graphs. A path-neighborhood graph is a connected graph in which every neighborhood induces a path. The triangle graph $T(G)$ has the triangles of the graph $G$ as its vertices, two of these being adjacent
The number of colorings of planar graphs with no separating triangles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Carsten
2017-01-01
A classical result of Birkhoff and Lewis implies that every planar graph with . n vertices has at least . 152n-1 distinct 5-vertex-colorings. Equality holds for planar triangulations with . n-4 separating triangles. We show that, if a planar graph has no separating triangle, then it has at least ...
76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
2011-03-29
... the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On March 25, 1911, a fire spread through the cramped floors of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory in... fire escapes, and were trapped by long tables and bulky machines. As bystanders watched in horror...
Tensegrity: construction of rigid DNA triangles with flexible four-arm DNA junctions.
Liu, Dage; Wang, Mingsheng; Deng, Zhaoxiang; Walulu, Richard; Mao, Chengde
2004-03-03
A tensegrity strategy has been explored to construct a rigid geometrical structure (triangles) from flexible DNA four-arm junctions. The resulting DNA triangles could self-assemble into 1D and 2D arrays. This tensegrity strategy is expected to play an important role in the design of biomimetic nanomaterials.
Higher orbital integrals, Shalika germs, and the Hochschild homology of Hecke algebras
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Victor Nistor
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We give a detailed calculation of the Hochschild and cyclic homology of the algebra 𝒞c∞(G of locally constant, compactly supported functions on a reductive p-adic group G. We use these calculations to extend to arbitrary elements the definition of the higher orbital integrals introduced by Blanc and Brylinski (1992 for regular semi-simple elements. Then we extend to higher orbital integrals some results of Shalika (1972. We also investigate the effect of the induction morphism on Hochschild homology.
2011-09-02
... Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Triangle Storage, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Golden Triangle Storage Expansion Project and Request for Comments On... environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Golden Triangle Storage...
9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle
CKM2016
2016-01-01
The 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle (CKM 2016) will be held during November 28 to December 3, 2016 at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India. The CKM series is a well-established international meeting in the field of quark-flavour physics that brings both experimenters and theorists on a common platform. On the experimental front, we bridge borders between neutron, kaon, charm and beauty hadron, and top quark physics. The theory program tries to cover a wide range of approaches. We shall discuss how this marriage of the two can indirectly probe physics beyond the standard model, taking into account the interplay with high-pT collider searches.
Climate, bleaching and connectivity in the Coral Triangle.
Curchitser, E. N.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Drenkard, E.; Thompson, D. M.; Pinsky, M. L.
2016-12-01
The Coral Triangle (CT) is the apex of marine biodiversity and supports the livelihoods of millions of people. It is also one of the most threatened of all reef regions in the world. We present results from a series of high-resolution, numerical ocean models designed to address physical and ecological questions relevant to the region's coral communities. The hierarchy of models was designed to optimize the model performance in addressing questions ranging from the role of internal tides in larval connectivity to distinguishing the role of interannual variability from decadal trends in thermal stress leading to mass bleaching events. In this presentation we will show how combining ocean circulation with models of larval dispersal leads to new insights into the interplay of physics and ecology in this complex oceanographic region, which can ultimately be used to inform conservation efforts.
Multiresolution analysis over triangles, based on quadratic Hermite interpolation
Dæhlen, M.; Lyche, T.; Mørken, K.; Schneider, R.; Seidel, H.-P.
2000-07-01
Given a triangulation T of , a recipe to build a spline space over this triangulation, and a recipe to refine the triangulation T into a triangulation T', the question arises whether , i.e., whether any spline surface over the original triangulation T can also be represented as a spline surface over the refined triangulation T'. In this paper we will discuss how to construct such a nested sequence of spaces based on Powell-Sabin 6-splits for a regular triangulation. The resulting spline space consists of piecewise C1-quadratics, and refinement is obtained by subdividing every triangle into four subtriangles at the edge midpoints. We develop explicit formulas for wavelet transformations based on quadratic Hermite interpolation, and give a stability result with respect to a natural norm.
The Triangle of the Space Launch System Operations
Fayolle, Eric
2010-09-01
Firemen know it as “fire triangle”, mathematicians know it as “golden triangle”, sailormen know it as “Bermuda triangle”, politicians know it as “Weimar triangle”… This article aims to present a new aspect of that shape geometry in the space launch system world: “the triangle of the space launch system operations”. This triangle is composed of these three following topics, which have to be taken into account for any space launch system operation processing: design, safety and operational use. Design performance is of course taking into account since the early preliminary phase of a system development. This design performance is matured all along the development phases, thanks to consecutives iterations in order to respect the financial and timing constraints imposed to the development of the system. This process leads to a detailed and precise design to assess the required performance. Then, the operational use phase brings its batch of constraints during the use of the system. This phase is conducted by specific procedures for each operation. Each procedure has sequences for each sub-system, which have to be conducted in a very precise chronological way. These procedures can be processed by automatic way or manual way, with the necessity or not of the implication of operators, and in a determined environment. Safeguard aims to verify the respect of the specific constraints imposed to guarantee the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. Safeguard has to be taken into account above the operational constraints of any space operation, without forgetting the highest safety level for the operators of the space operation, and of course without damaging the facilities or without disturbing the external environment. All space operations are the result of a “win-win” compromise between these three topics. Contrary to the fire triangle where one of the topics has to be suppressed in order to avoid the
Combination of a preference pattern with the triangle taste test.
Woodward, W A; Schucany, W R
1977-03-01
When dealing with the problem of obtaining information concerning consumer preferences for two competing brands of a product, one would like to assume that the consumers sampled can actually distinguish between the two brands. Often this is not the case and we have combined the standard triangle test of sensory perception with a preference test in order to obtain information concerning the consumers' ability to distinguish between the two brands. Assuming an underlying multinomial distribution, the maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) of the conditional probability that a person prefers brand A given that he can discriminate between the two products is then obtained. The estimator obtained is a ratio of linear combinations of observed multinomial proportions. The variability of this estimator is assessed by means of the jackknife statistic, the asymptotic variance of the MLE, and Monte Carlo studies. Application of the results obtained to taste test involving two brands of potato chips is discussed.
in Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Triangle
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Divya Varkey
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Marine ecosystem models are used to investigate marine protected area (MPA benefits for coral reef ecosystems located in Raja Ampat, in the heart of the Coral Triangle. Field data from an integrated and diverse research project is used to develop a spatial ecosystem model using Ecopath, Ecosim, and Ecospace modelling software. The ecological and fisheries responses of a reef ecosystem to different levels of fishing effort restrictions inside MPAs are explored. The trade-offs of allowing some fisheries to operate inside the MPAs versus designating the MPAs as no-take zones are highlighted. The results show that rapid rebuilding of reef fish populations, especially the large charismatic species, requires no-take areas. Distinct trade-offs in spillover benefits are observed between partially fished and no-take MPAs.
Comparing MapReduce and Pipeline Implementations for Counting Triangles
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Edelmira Pasarella
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A common method to define a parallel solution for a computational problem consists in finding a way to use the Divide and Conquer paradigm in order to have processors acting on its own data and scheduled in a parallel fashion. MapReduce is a programming model that follows this paradigm, and allows for the definition of efficient solutions by both decomposing a problem into steps on subsets of the input data and combining the results of each step to produce final results. Albeit used for the implementation of a wide variety of computational problems, MapReduce performance can be negatively affected whenever the replication factor grows or the size of the input is larger than the resources available at each processor. In this paper we show an alternative approach to implement the Divide and Conquer paradigm, named dynamic pipeline. The main features of dynamic pipelines are illustrated on a parallel implementation of the well-known problem of counting triangles in a graph. This problem is especially interesting either when the input graph does not fit in memory or is dynamically generated. To evaluate the properties of pipeline, a dynamic pipeline of processes and an ad-hoc version of MapReduce are implemented in the language Go, exploiting its ability to deal with channels and spawned processes. An empirical evaluation is conducted on graphs of different topologies, sizes, and densities. Observed results suggest that dynamic pipelines allows for an efficient implementation of the problem of counting triangles in a graph, particularly, in dense and large graphs, drastically reducing the execution time with respect to the MapReduce implementation.
Kawai, Reiko; Nomura, Osamu; Tomobe, Yutaro; Morikawa, Yoshihiko; Miyata, Koichi; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Miura, Masaru
2018-01-31
We examined whether the Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT) could predict the severity of Kawasaki disease. We enrolled patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease between July 2012 and June 2016 at the emergency department of Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center in Tokyo, Japan. Triage nurses assigned participants to unstable or stable PAT groups. We compared the incidence of coronary artery aneurysms (CAA), the Kobayashi score, which measures resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, and the incidence of initial treatment resistance. Of the 420 participants, who were aged 0-145 months with a mean age of 31.2 ±23.9 months, 66 (16%) were assigned to the unstable PAT group. The incidence of CAA was similar between the two groups. The percentage of unstable PAT group participants with a Kobayashi score of at least five points (39% versus 18%, p<0.001) and initial treatment resistance (25% versus 15%, p=0.047) were significantly higher than in the stable PAT group. Unstable PAT was an independent risk factor for initial treatment resistance (odds ratio 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.90, p=0.035). An unstable PAT was able to predict the severity of Kawasaki disease when measured by a higher rate of initial treatment resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Marcus Mann
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Sociological studies of atheism have tended to coalesce around three primary themes: stigma, identity, and community. To date, however, no studies have taken a reflexive approach to these themes or applied them in the field to test their analytical utility as well as their relations in contemporary atheist experience. This study employs a mixed-methods approach that includes in-depth interviews (n = 19, participant observation, and one survey administered to two atheist groups, one local (n = 151 and one national (n = 456. Ethnographic findings confirm the central role of stigma, identity, and community in atheist experience and emphasize their nestedness in one another. Survey results find that atheist affiliates in both national and local groups rate political activism as more important than social reasons in motivating them to affiliate, while local affiliates rated social reasons significantly higher than national affiliates rated social reasons. Suggestions for future research include consideration of these themes’ connectedness in subsequent analyses and further inquiry into the functional divergences between local and national atheist organizations.
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Intan Oktaviona
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Background: The aimed of almost all of patient came for orthodontics treatment, were to recover face esthetic or their profile. The facial profile not only determined by the hard tissue, but will also be influenced by the soft tissue such as nose, lip, and chin. Tweed has done face analysis with cephalometric by using three angles which are FMA, FMIA, and IMPA. There are many facial profile analysis that usually use in lateral cephalometric one of them is Ricketts analysis that draw the line from pogonion to the tip of nose. The biggest tribe in Indonesia is Javanese, the Javanese have a specific characteristic. Javanese people do not have a long nose and the chin not really uppermost, thick lip, convex profile and female’s profile more convex than male. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the relation between Tweed triangle, upper lip and lower lip to esthetic line according to Ricketts. Methods: The facial profile pictures of subjects which were taken base on sample criteria changed into silhouette black and white. The photo selected by orthodontist and lay persons. Then the lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken and measured the angle of Tweed triangle and the lip position to esthetic line. Results: The FMA were 28.830, FMIA were 56.740 and IMPA were 94.430. The upper lip distance among males were closer to the esthetic line than female. The lower lip of males located in front of esthetic line and female lower lip located rare of esthetic line. Conclusion: There was corelation between FMA and FMIA with lower lip. There was no corelation between IMPA towards upper lip and also lower lip.Latar belakang: Tujuan dari hampir seluruh pasien yang datang untuk perawatan ortodonti adalah untuk memperbaiki estetis wajah atau profilnya. Profil fasial tidak hanya ditentukan oleh jaringan keras, akan tetapi juga akan sangat dipengaruhi oleh jaringan lunak hidung, bibir, dan dagu. Tweed melakukan analisis wajah pada sefalometri menggunakan 3
Wang, Ling-ling; Zhu, Lu-ping; Bing, Nai-ci; Wang, Li-jun
2017-08-01
Evenly dispersed Pd nanoparticles are facilely and successfully deposited on N-doped carbon nanotubes (Pd/N-CNTs) by employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a salt and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as both a surface modifier and a stabilizing agent. The presence of SDS and the amount of PVP have significant influences on the formation of evenly dispersed Pd/N-CNTs catalyst. No additional functionalization steps, reducing agents and stabilizers are required as usual to achieve the uniform deposition of Pd NPs over the N-CNTs surfaces. The as-synthesized Pd/N-CNTs catalyst is proved to be very active in the Heck reaction and can be reused at least for 5 times without significant loss of catalytic activity in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol.
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Siti Kamilah Che Soh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Four air and moisture-stable palladium(II-Schiff base complexes, N,N′-bis(α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2a, N,N′-bis(4-methyl-α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2b, N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2c, and N,N′-bis(4-methoxy-salicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2d, have been successfully synthesised and characterised by CHN elemental analyses and conventional spectroscopic methods. These complexes were investigated as catalysts in the phosphine-free Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions of aryl bromides with methyl acrylate.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, Jason G.; Correia, Carlos Roque D., E-mail: roque@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica
2010-07-01
The palladium catalysed coupling of aryldiazonium salts with {beta}-{gamma}-unsaturated lactones under basic conditions has been investigated. Both (3H)-furanone and {alpha}-angelicalactone were evaluated as substrates in the Heck Matsuda reaction but both failed to afford the desired arylated butenolides. Under basic conditions, {beta}-{gamma}-unsaturated lactones generate highly nucleophilic enolates that preferentially undergo azo coupling reactions with arenediazonium salts to afford aryldiazene butenolides. The electronic and steric effect of the substituents on the aryldiazonium salt in the azo coupling reaction is described. Aryldiazene-lactone derivatives were obtained in good yields from a highly facile and straightforward procedure. An aminoisomaleimide was formed from (3H)-furanone and cyclized to the corresponding pyridazinones in modest yield. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason G. Taylor
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The palladium catalysed coupling of aryldiazonium salts with β-γ-unsaturated lactones under basic conditions has been investigated. Both (3H-furanone and α-angelicalactone were evaluated as substrates in the Heck Matsuda reaction but both failed to afford the desired arylated butenolides. Under basic conditions, β-γ-unsaturated lactones generate highly nucleophilic enolates that preferentially undergo azo coupling reactions with arenediazonium salts to afford aryldiazene butenolides. The electronic and steric effect of the substituents on the aryldiazonium salt in the azo coupling reaction is described. Aryldiazene-lactone derivatives were obtained in good yields from a highly facile and straightforward procedure. An aminoisomaleimide was formed from (3H-furanone and cyclised to the corresponding pyridazinones in modest yield.
Hassan, Norhafiefa; Izwani, Fatin; Yusoff, H. M.
2017-09-01
This is a preliminary study of alkoxy substituted Heck-schiff base compound as recognition layer in electrochemical DNA sensor for liver cancer. 4-(4-nitrostyryl)aniline was synthesized by bis (triphenylphosphine) palladium (II) dichloride as catalyst and has been characterized by using Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer (FTIR), UV-Vis spectrophotometer and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra. The result obtained from FTIR show that there are formation of N=O (NO2) asymmetric stretching vibrations 1340 cm-1. In UV-vis, absorbance of NO2 can be observed at peak 410 nm. While in the 1H NMR and 13C NMR the peak of C-C coupling was found in the range of δH 6.84-7.09 ppm and δC 125.23 ppm.
Inference from Grouped Continuous Data: A Review
Heitjan, Daniel F.
1989-01-01
"Grouped" data are defined to be the result of observing continuous variables only up to the nearest interval, rectangle or triangle. This paper traces the development of statistical methods for grouped data, focusing on the major results and their interpretations. It emphasizes the impact of likelihood and Bayesian ideas on the analysis of grouped data, particularly as they influence current work.
Classifying Chinese children with dyslexia by dual-route and triangle models of Chinese reading.
Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming
2014-11-01
This present study focuses on classifying developmental dyslexia by combining two famous models, the dual-route model and the triangle model of Chinese reading, re-examining validity of the subtypes, and observing the error types of word recognition for each subtype. Sixty-sixth graders with dyslexia in Chinese and 45 sixth graders who were matched by age and IQ with the dyslexic group were involved in the present study. Twelve (20%) sixth graders from the dyslexic group were classified as having phonological dyslexia, 11 (18.3%) were classified as surface dyslexia, 12 (20%) were classified as deep dyslexia, and five (8.3%) of them were classified as displaying more than one kind of deficit. Besides, still more than half (31; 51.7%) of the dyslexic group did not belong to any subtypes here. These subtypes had a good validity based on comparison of their phonological awareness, orthography, and semantics. Finally, for their error types of word recognition, both children with multiple-deficit dyslexia and children with non-subtype dyslexia showed a proportional pattern of six kinds of errors. Children with phonological dyslexia showed more phonetic errors and analogy errors, children with surface dyslexia showed more visual errors and analogy errors, and children with deep dyslexia showed more semantic errors and selective errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paramedics accurately apply the pediatric assessment triangle to drive management.
Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Eckstein, Marc; Horeczko, Timothy; McGrath, Nancy; Kurobe, Aileen; Ullum, Linda; Kaji, Amy H; Lewis, Roger J
2014-01-01
To provide an evaluation of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT) as an assessment tool for use by paramedic providers in the prehospital care of pediatric patients. Paramedics from Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD) received training in the Pediatric Education for Prehospital Professionals (PEPP) course, PAT study procedures, and completed training in applying the PAT to assess children 0-14 years of age. A convenience sample of LAFD paramedic assessments of the pediatric patients transported to 29 participating institutions, over an 18-month period ending July 2010, were eligible for inclusion. Patients who were not transported were excluded from the study, as were the assessments of children with special health-care needs (CSHCN). PAT Study Forms, emergency medical services (EMS) report forms, and emergency department (ED) and hospital charts were entered into a secure database. Two study investigators, blinded to paramedic PAT assessment, reviewed hospital charts and determined the category of illness or injury. A total of 1,552 PAT Study Forms were collected. Overall, 1,168 of the patient (75%) assessments met inclusion criteria, were transported, and had all three data points (PAT Study Form, paramedic EMS report form, and ED/hospital chart) available for analysis. When paramedics used the PAT to identify abnormalities in the three arms of the triangle (PAT Paramedic Pattern) and applied that pattern to form a general impression (PAT Paramedic Impression), the agreement resulted in a κ coefficient of 0.93 [95% CI: 0.91-0.95]. The PAT paramedic impression was congruent with field management, as the majority of patients received consistent interventions with local EMS protocols. The PAT Paramedic Impression for instability demonstrated a sensitivity of 77.4% [95% CI: 72.6-81.5%], a specificity of 90.0% [95% CI: 87.1-91.5%] with a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 7.7 [95% CI: 5.9-9.1] and a negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.3 [95% CI: 0.2-0.3]. The PAT
Employees from EPA’s Research Triangle Park (RTP) campus serve as guest speakers at local schools and in the community. Hands-on activities and interactive discussions supplement classroom instruction and promote environmental awareness
College geometry an introduction to the modern geometry of the triangle and the circle
Altshiller-Court, Nathan
2007-01-01
The standard university-level text for decades, this volume offers exercises in construction problems, harmonic division, circle and triangle geometry, and other areas. 1952 edition, revised and enlarged by the author.
2011-03-01
This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...
The superior fovea triangle approach: a novel safe entry zone to the brainstem.
Yagmurlu, Kaan; Kalani, M Yashar S; Preul, Mark C; Spetzler, Robert F
2017-11-01
The authors describe a safe entry zone, the superior fovea triangle, on the floor of the fourth ventricle for resection of deep dorsal pontine lesions at the level of the facial colliculus. Clinical data from a patient undergoing a suboccipital telovelar transsuperior fovea triangle approach to a deep pontine cavernous malformation were reviewed and supplemented with 6 formalin-fixed adult human brainstem and 2 silicone-injected adult human cadaveric heads using the fiber dissection technique to illustrate the utility of this novel safe entry zone. The superior fovea has a triangular shape that is an important landmark for the motor nucleus of the trigeminal, abducens, and facial nerves. The inferior half of the superior fovea triangle may be incised to remove deep dorsal pontine lesions through the floor of the fourth ventricle. The superior fovea triangle may be used as a safe entry zone for dorsally located lesions at the level of the facial colliculus.
2009-03-01
This study takes a megaregion approach to project future travel demand and choice of transport : modes in the Texas Triangle, which is encompassed by four major metropolitan areas, Dallas-Fort : Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Austin. The model was ...
Report #09-P-0227, August 31, 2009. Vulnerability testing conducted in April 2009 of EPA’s Research Triangle Park Finance Center network identified Internet Protocol addresses with several highrisk vulnerabilities.
James Williamson d/b/a Golden Triangle Builders Information Sheet
James Williamson d/b/a Golden Triangle Builders (the Company) is located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Computer Corner: A Note on Pascal's Triangle and Simple Random Sampling.
Wright, Tommy
1989-01-01
Describes the algorithm used to select a simple random sample of certain size without having to list all possible samples and a justification based on Pascal's triangle. Provides testing results by various computers. (YP)
Single- and Two-Phase Turbulent Mixing Rate between Subchannels in Triangle Tight Lattice Rod Bundle
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
KAWAHARA, Akimaro; SADATOMI, Michio; KUDO, Hiroyuki; KANO, Keiko
2006-01-01
In order to obtain the data on turbulent mixing rate between triangle tight lattice subchannels, which will be adopted as the next generation BWR fuel rod bundle, adiabatic experiments were conducted...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Vismer, HF
1995-08-01
Full Text Available Atmospheric fungal spores were monitored in Vanderbijlpark for the period 1991-92 as part of the Vaal triangle air pollution health study of the medical research council and the CSIR. Cladosporium, Aspergillus/ Penicillium, Alternaria and Epicoccum...
Design of Mao Tensegrity Triangles -- Successful Prediction of Stable DNA Nanostructures.
Sherman, William B.; Kopatsch, Jens; Constantinou, Pamela E.; Seeman, Nadrian C.
2006-03-01
One of the most promising motifs for crystal formation is the tensegrity triangle first developed by Mao and co-workers. This structure consists of three duplex domains ``woven'' across each other. Because the three edges of the triangle are not coplanar, it can serve as a fundamentally three-dimensional motif. This nonplanarity, however, makes the design of tensegrity triangles more complicated than most of the other DNA motifs built to date. We present a geometry-based method for estimating the strain associated with various tensegrity triangle edge lengths. Experiments confirm that the predicted low-strain structures form stably, while structures with strain larger than about 5% tend to form multimers easily.
Functioning of the knowledge triangle in the example of IT education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHIVITSKAYA H.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The analysis of the interactions between knowledge triangle components in IT-education in the Republic of Belarus is described. This paper describes the results of research in the framework of the program of the European Union Tempus IV «Fostering the Knowledge Triangle in Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova» - «FKTBUM». The analysis of the obstacles to the effective integration of higher education, research and innovation is performed.
Dose-response relationship of sertindole and haloperidol using the pharmacopsychometric triangle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech, P; Tanghøj, P; Andreasson, K
2011-01-01
Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains.......Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains....
Dihedral f-tilings of the sphere by rhombi and triangles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana M. Breda
2005-12-01
Full Text Available We classify, up to an isomorphism, the class of all dihedral f-tilings of S 2, whose prototiles are a spherical triangle and a spherical rhombus. The equiangular case was considered and classified in Ana M. Breda and Altino F. Santos, Dihedral f-tilings of the sphere by spherical triangles and equiangular well-centered quadrangles. Here we complete the classification considering the case of non-equiangular rhombi.
The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles (BoTs)
2015-02-01
The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) by Charith Ranawake ARL-CR-0761 February 2015...Ground, MD 22105 ARL-CR-0761 February 2015 The Verification and Validation of the Ray-tracing of Bag of Triangles ( BoTs ) Charith...DD-MM-YYYY) February 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Contractor Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 06/2014–08/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Verification
Une généralisation du triangle de Pascal
Stipulanti, Manon
2016-01-01
We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite word. Similarly to the Sierpinski gasket that can be built as the limit set, for the Hausdorff distance, of a convergent sequence of normalized compact blocks extracted from Pascal triangle modulo 2, we describe and study the first properties of the subset of [0, 1]×[0, 1] associated with this extended P...
The wireless sensor network (WSN triangle centroid localization algorithm based on RSSI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Chuan Wei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Node location is one of the key technologies in wireless sensor network. RSSI-based location is a hotspot in nowadays. For resolving biggish error in RSSI-based location, the paper presents a new method of location, RSSI-based triangle and centroid location, using triangle and centroid method to reduce the error of RSSI measurement. Simulation experiments prove that this algorithm can obviously improve the location accuracy compared to trilateration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ülkü Yılmaz
2013-02-01
Full Text Available A number of novel benzimidazolium salts having aryl substituents such as N-phenyl, 4-chlorophenyl and various alkyl substituents were synthesized. Their microwave-assisted catalytic activities were evaluated in Heck-Mizoroki and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions using a catalytic system consisting of Pd(OAc2/K2CO3 in DMF/H2O under mild reaction conditions with consistent high yields, except those of 2-bromopyridine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orsolya Karácsony
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The synthesis of a new 2,2'-bipyridyl functionalized oligovinylenephenylene (OVP-5 containing a methyl protected thiol using Heck coupling and the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction and is described. A key step involving a diisopropylcarbodiimide promoted dehydration of a stable b-hydroxyphosphonate intermediate was identified. The structure of precursor E-(4-(4-bromostyrylphenyl(methylsulfane (1 was determined using X-ray crystallography.
Bermuda Triangle for the liver: alcohol, obesity, and viral hepatitis.
Zakhari, Samir
2013-08-01
Despite major progress in understanding and managing liver disease in the past 30 years, it is now among the top 10 most common causes of death globally. Several risk factors, such as genetics, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, viral infection, gender, immune dysfunction, and medications, acting individually or in concert, are known to precipitate liver damage. Viral hepatitis, excessive alcohol consumption, and obesity are the major factors causing liver injury. Estimated numbers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects worldwide are staggering (370 and 175 million, respectively), and of the 40 million known human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects, 4 and 5 million are coinfected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Alcohol and HCV are the leading causes of end-stage liver disease worldwide and the most common indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. In addition, the global obesity epidemic that affects up to 40 million Americans, and 396 million worldwide, is accompanied by an alarming incidence of end-stage liver disease, a condition exacerbated by alcohol. This article focuses on the interactions between alcohol, viral hepatitis, and obesity (euphemistically described here as the Bermuda Triangle of liver disease), and discusses common mechanisms and synergy. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.
1984-05-01
The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.
The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh
Rudi, Edi
2012-10-01
Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral Triangle risks overlooking other areas of high conservation significance. One region of potential significance, Aceh, Indonesia, has not been visited by coral taxonomists since the Dutch colonial period. Here we document the species richness of scleractinian corals of Pulau Weh, Aceh. We also compare the species richness of the genus Acropora at 3-5 sites in each of nine regions in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Although dominated by widespread Indo-Pacific species, the coral fauna of Pulau Weh is also the eastern and western boundary for many Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean species, respectively. We identified a total of 133 scleractinian species, of which three have been previously recorded only in the western Indian Ocean and five are presently undescribed. The mean species richness of the Acropora at Pulau Weh is similar to regions within the Coral Triangle. This high species richness plus the high proportion of endemics suggests that the Andaman Sea is of similarly high conservation value to the Coral Triangle. We suggest that an international initiative similar to the Coral Triangle Initiative is required to conserve this region, which includes the territorial waters of six countries. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.
On Some (Pseudo) Involutions in the Riordan Group
Cameron, Naiomi T.; Nkwanta, Asamoah
2005-08-01
In this paper, we address a question posed by L. Shapiro regarding algebraic and/or combinatorial characterizations of the elements of order 2 in the Riordan group. We present two classes of combinatorial matrices having pseudo-order 2. In one class, we find generalizations of Pascal's triangle and use some special cases to discover and prove interesting identities. In the other class, we find generalizations of Nkwanta's RNA triangle and show that they are pseudo-involutions.
Azimi, Parisa; Yazdanian, Taravat; Benzel, Edward C
2017-08-01
Cross-sectional. To examine the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphology stenosis grades and preoperative walking ability in patients with lumbar canal stenosis (LCS). No previous study has analyzed the correlation between MRI morphology stenosis grades and walking ability in patients with LCS. This prospective study included 98 consecutive patients with LCS who were candidates for surgery. Using features identified in T2-weighted axial magnetic, stenosis type was determined at the maximal stenosis level, and only trefoil and triangle stenosis grade types were considered because of sufficient sample size. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed by calculating weighted kappa coefficients. Symptom severity was evaluated via the Japanese Orthopedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ). Walking ability was assessed using the Self-Paced Walking Test (SPWT) and JOABPEQ subscales. Demographic characteristics, SPWT scores, and JOABPEQ scores were compared between patients with trefoil and triangle stenosis types. The mean patient age was 58.1 (standard deviation, 8.4) years. The kappa values of the MRI morphology stenosis grade types showed a perfect agreement between the stenosis grade types. The trefoil group (n=53) and triangle group (n=45) showed similar preoperative JOABPEQ subscale scores (e.g., low back pain, lumbar function, and mental health) and were not significantly different in age, BMI, duration of symptoms, or lumbar stenosis levels (all p>0.05); however, trefoil stenosis grade type was associated with a decreased walking ability according to the SPWT and JOABPEQ subscale scores. These findings suggest preoperative walking ability is more profoundly affected in patients with trefoil type stenosis than in those with triangle type stenosis.
Coaptation Triangle and Golden Proportion in mitral valve anatomy. Does nature play with geometry?
Deorsola, Luca; Bellone, Alessandra
2018-01-01
The Coaptation Triangle, or Tenting Area, can be identified on long-axis 2D images. Its assessment is a routine practice during echocardiographic mitral evaluation. The Golden Proportion is a particular geometric ratio between two segments. Its value is an irrational number, commonly rounded to 0.618 and showing unique geometrical/mathematical properties. Interestingly, its presence has been documented in an extremely variable number of natural settings. Hypothesizing the presence of the Golden Proportion in normal mitral anatomy, we examined the Coaptation Triangle of healthy valves to investigate such a theory. A total of 41 healthy adults, with normal mitral valves, underwent 2D echocardiography. Adequate images were chosen and loaded into custom software. Firstly, the Coaptation Triangle was manually drawn by the operator. Then, a second Coaptation Triangle, with the same base, but based on Golden Proportion, was automatically built by the software. Eventually, the two triangles were analyzed and compared. All retrieved measurements were investigated for differences and correlations. Ratios close to the Golden Proportion were found in several locations of the manually drawn Coaptation Triangle. On the other hand, comparing the manually drawn Coaptation Triangle with the automatically built one, no significant differences were revealed, and very strong correlations were demonstrated. The Golden Proportion appears present in the geometry of normal mitral valves. Studying such an aspect and identifying disruption in anatomical proportions could improve early diagnosis of mitral alterations, and allows a more standardized follow-up and help surgeons to plan a repair strategy, particularly quantifying the needed surgical modifications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chua, Kelvin; Upadhyay, Gaurav; Lee, Elliot; Aziz, Zaid; Beaser, Andrew; Ozcan, Cevher; Broman, Michael; Nayak, Hemal; Tung, Roderick
2017-11-24
Dedicated mapping studies of the triangle of Koch to characterize retrograde fast pathway activation have not been previously performed using high-resolution, 3-dimensional, multielectrode mapping technology. To delineate the activation pattern and spatial distribution of the retrograde fast pathway within the triangle of Koch during typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and right ventricular pacing in a consecutive series of patients using the Rhythmia mapping system (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA). A total of 18 patients with symptomatic typical AVNRT referred for ablation underwent ultrahigh-density mapping of atrial activation with minielectrode basket configuration during tachycardia. The earliest atrial activation was mapped using automated annotation, with manual overreading by 2 independent observers. The triangle of Koch was classified into 3 anatomic regions: anteroseptal (His), midseptal, and posteroseptal (coronary sinus roof). Thirteen patients underwent mapping of atrial activation during ventricular pacing. A median of 422 mapping points (interquartile range 258-896 points) was acquired within the triangle of Koch during tachycardia. The most common site of earliest atrial activation within the triangle of Koch was anterior in 67% of patients (n = 12). Midseptal early atrial activation was seen in 17% (n = 3), and posteroseptal activation was observed in 11% (n = 2). One patient exhibited broad simultaneous activation of the entire triangle of Koch. Slow pathway potentials were not identified. With high-resolution multielectrode mapping, atrial activation during typical AVNRT exhibited anatomic variability and spatially heterogeneous activation within the triangle of Koch. These findings highlight the limitations of an anatomically based classification of atrioventricular nodal retrograde pathways. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sepulveda, W; Wong, A E; Martinez-Ten, P; Perez-Pedregosa, J
2010-01-01
To describe a new first-trimester sonographic landmark, the retronasal triangle, which may be useful in the early screening for cleft palate. The retronasal triangle, i.e. the three echogenic lines formed by the two frontal processes of the maxilla and the palate visualized in the coronal view of the fetal face posterior to the nose, was evaluated prospectively in 100 consecutive normal fetuses at the time of routine first-trimester sonographic screening at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation. In a separate study of five fetuses confirmed postnatally as having a cleft palate, ultrasound images, including multiplanar three-dimensional views, were analyzed retrospectively to review the retronasal triangle. None of the fetuses evaluated prospectively was affected by cleft lip and palate. During their first-trimester scan, the retronasal triangle could not be identified in only two fetuses. Reasons for suboptimal visualization of this area included early gestational age at scanning (11 weeks) and persistent posterior position of the fetal face. Of the five cases with postnatal diagnosis of cleft palate, an abnormal configuration of the retronasal triangle was documented in all cases on analysis of digitally stored three-dimensional volumes. This study demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating evaluation of the retronasal triangle into the routine evaluation of the fetal anatomy at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation. Because fetuses with cleft palate have an abnormal configuration of the retronasal triangle, focused examination of the midface, looking for this area at the time of the nuchal translucency scan, may facilitate the early detection of cleft palate in the first trimester.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Labudde Dirk
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of high-throughput studies produce protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs with many errors and missing information. Even for genome-wide approaches, there is often a low overlap between PPINs produced by different studies. Second-level neighbors separated by two protein-protein interactions (PPIs were previously used for predicting protein function and finding complexes in high-error PPINs. We retrieve second level neighbors in PPINs, and complement these with structural domain-domain interactions (SDDIs representing binding evidence on proteins, forming PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles. Results We find low overlap between PPINs, SDDIs and known complexes, all well below 10%. We evaluate the overlap of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles with known complexes from Munich Information center for Protein Sequences (MIPS. PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles have ~20 times higher overlap with MIPS complexes than using second-level neighbors in PPINs without SDDIs. The biological interpretation for triangles is that a SDDI causes two proteins to be observed with common interaction partners in high-throughput experiments. The relatively few SDDIs overlapping with PPINs are part of highly connected SDDI components, and are more likely to be detected in experimental studies. We demonstrate the utility of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles by reconstructing myosin-actin processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeleton, which were not obvious in the original PPIN. Using other complementary datatypes in place of SDDIs to form triangles, such as PubMed co-occurrences or threading information, results in a similar ability to find protein complexes. Conclusion Given high-error PPINs with missing information, triangles of mixed datatypes are a promising direction for finding protein complexes. Integrating PPINs with SDDIs improves finding complexes. Structural SDDIs partially explain the high functional similarity of second-level neighbors in PPINs. We estimate that
Analyzing Land Surface Evapotranspiration in Semi-Arid Regions Using A Modified Triangle Method
Zhang, H.; Gorelick, S.; Avisse, N.; Tilmant, A.; Rajsekhar, D.; Yoon, J.
2016-12-01
Difficulty in estimating spatially variable actual evapotranspiration continues to pose an obstacle to regional water resources planning and management. The widely-used satellite-based triangle methods require similar elevations across the domain, an assumption that is often doubtful at the regional scale. This study presents a modified triangle method based on the discretization of digital elevation models. It disaggregates the domain into a number of overlapping elevation zones and constructs a temperature-vegetation triangle for each elevation zone. The wet edge is determined using a linear temperature lapse rate derived from annual average air temperature observations across weather stations at different elevations. Dry and wet edges are extended to a hypothetical "fully-vegetated" pixel, and evapotranspiration capacity varies on both edges. This method addresses elevation variation and water stress in semi-arid environments, without altering land surface temperature and elevation data. We demonstrate this method in northwestern Jordan with MODIS data from 2009. Results show that this method is an effective approach to correct overestimation by a traditional triangle method and underestimation by the MODIS evapotranspiration product over both natural vegetated and irrigated areas. In contrast to previous triangle algorithms in which the domain-wide lump temperature and NDVI data could mask the underlying signal and efficacy of triangle methods, this method represents a semi-distributed scheme to discretize the altitude effects on triangle methods and provides a template to address the heterogeneity of other physical factors. It constitutes an essential step towards the satellite-based quantification of irrigation water use and effective water resources management in Jordan as well as other semi-arid regions with high freshwater vulnerability.
Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA) Triangle in Nigerians' Skulls.
Orish, C N; Didia, B C; Fawehinmi, H B
2014-01-01
Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females) from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly (P triangle of 1938.88 mm(2) and 1305.68 mm(2) for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals.
Modified flap design for symmetric reconstruction of the apical triangle of the upper lip.
Johnson-Jahangir, Hillary; Stevenson, Mary; Ratner, Désirée
2012-06-01
The apical triangle is the superior portion of the cutaneous upper lip lying between the medial cheek and alar margin. Defects involving this subunit are often repaired without taking into consideration the aesthetic implications of its potential loss or reduction. We present a simple option for repair of apical triangle defects to address this concern. We collected a series of 69 patients with apical triangle defects treated from 2002 to 2008 with Mohs micrographic surgery. Their defects were reconstructed using various flaps (advancement, rotation, island pedicle, or M-plasty). A subset of 27 patients was identified who had undergone a standard cheek advancement flap or a modified flap. The modified design introduces an incision extending from the alar crease onto the nasal sill along the cutaneous upper lip, creating a second sliding flap to assist in recreating the apical triangle. A modified flap design introduced the ability to transfer adjacent tissue of the cutaneous upper lip to reconstruct the apical triangle subunit. This flap modification is a simple and efficient method of repairing peri-alar defects that restores the apical subunit, preserving facial symmetry. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Min-Soo; Han, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Eun Mi; Jeong, Seung Ho; Lee, Jeong-Rim
2013-01-01
A triangle formed by the sacral hiatus and posterior superior iliac spines (PSISs) has been known as equiangular and has been proposed as a way to help identify the sacral hiatus for a caudal block. In children, however, no feasibility study of this triangle has been performed. We compared the expected sacral hiatus obtained from the equiangular triangle method and the real sacral hiatus confirmed by ultrasound. Eighty children (aged 0.5-72 months) were placed in the left lateral decubitus position in full hip flexion. The vertex of an equiangular triangle formed inferior to PSISs was considered as the expected sacral hiatus by classic bony landmarks. The real sacral hiatus was identified by ultrasound. The angle formed by the 2 lines connecting each PSIS and the real sacral hiatus (angle θ) was also measured. The distances between the midpoint of PSISs and expected sacral hiatus (distance E) and real sacral hiatus (distance R) were measured and compared. The angle θ was greater than 60 degrees in all children (79.3 [9.3] degrees) and negatively correlated with age younger than 1 year. Distance R (3.5 [1.1] cm) was significantly shorter than distance E (4.9 [1.2] cm) (Ptriangle to identify the sacral hiatus may be inappropriate because the actual triangle formed by the sacral hiatus and PSISs is not equiangular.
Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui Zhao
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR environment in order to investigate participants’ in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants’ evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.
Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store.
Zhao, Hui; Huang, Fuxing; Spence, Charles; Wan, Xiaoang
2017-01-01
Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR) environment in order to investigate participants' in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS) effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants' evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sherman, W.B.
2012-04-16
Synthetic DNA nanostructures are typically held together primarily by Holliday junctions. One of the most basic types of structures possible to assemble with only DNA and Holliday junctions is the triangle. To date, however, only equilateral triangles have been assembled in this manner - primarily because it is difficult to figure out what configurations of Holliday triangles have low strain. Early attempts at identifying such configurations relied upon calculations that followed the strained helical paths of DNA. Those methods, however, were computationally expensive, and failed to find many of the possible solutions. I have developed a new approach to identifying Holliday triangles that is computationally faster, and finds well over 95% of the possible solutions. The new approach is based on splitting the problem into two parts. The first part involves figuring out all the different ways that three featureless rods of the appropriate length and diameter can weave over and under one another to form a triangle. The second part of the computation entails seeing whether double helical DNA backbones can fit into the shape dictated by the rods in such a manner that the strands can cross over from one domain to the other at the appropriate spots. Structures with low strain (that is, good fit between the rods and the helices) on all three edges are recorded as promising for assembly.
Song, Hyon Min
2012-01-01
The catalytic activities of water-dispersable Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and Au-Pd alloy NPs were examined. There is growing interest in Au-Pd hybridized NPs in a supported matrix or non-supported forms as catalysts in various reactions that are not limited to conventional Pd-related reactions. Four different Au@Pd core-shell NPs in this study were prepared at room temperature with help from the emulsion phase surrounding the Au core NPs. Au-Pd alloy NPs were prepared over 90 °C, and underwent phase transfer to aqueous medium for their catalytic use. Au@Pd core-shell NPs show catalytic activity in ethanol oxidation reactions as electrocatalysts, and both core-shell and alloy NPs are good to excellent catalysts in various Suzuki-Miyaura and Heck reactions as heterogeneous catalysts. Specifically, Au@Pd core-shell NPs with sharp branched arms show the highest yield in the reactions tested in this study. A relatively small amount (0.25 mol%) was used throughout the catalytic reactions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafiee, Ezzat, E-mail: ezzat_rafiee@yahoo.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Joshaghani, Mohammad [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abadi, Parvaneh Ghaderi-Shekhi [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, Razi University, Kermanshah 67149 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-06-15
The wicker-like Pd-PVP-Fe (palladium-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-iron) was synthesized by the external magnetic field (EMF). The Pd-based catalyst with nano and the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure was obtained at room temperature without using any additive. The resulting composite was characterized. The results show that EMF has a great influence on morphology, particle size, and crystalline structure of the Pd-PVP-Fe composite. The resulting composite (Pd-PVP-Fe), was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki–Heck reaction while is exposed to EMF with the intensity at 486 µT. The reused catalyst for at least five repeating cycles, shows excellent activity. - Highlights: • The wicker-like Pd-PVP-Fe nanocatalyst was synthesized via external magnetic field. • The resulting catalyst composite was characterized. • The C–C coupling reaction was carried out at magnetic field and room temperature. • Magnetic field affects on the morphology and size of the catalyst. • The catalyst could be reused without significant degradation in activity.
Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi
2011-05-31
Herein we described the synthesis of a novel f-CNTs-Pd nanocatalyst by covalent grafting of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and subsequent deposition of Pd nanoparticles. Prior to grafting of PLA, CNTs were oxidized with a mixture of HNO(3)/H(2)SO(4) and successively activated with thionyl chloride. The PLA grafted CNTs (f-CNTs) were then used as platform for in-situ deposition of Pd nanoparticles. The formation of f-CNTs-Pd nanocatalyst was analyzed by UV-vis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, powder XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The morphologies of the nanocatalyst were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The f-CNTs stabilized Pd nanoparticles are found to be more effective in the promotion of Heck cross-coupling reaction between aryl halides and n-butyl acrylate. The f-CNTs-Pd nanocatalyst was regenerated for three cycles of reaction without any significant loss in its activity.
Detecting the topological charge of vortex beams using an annular triangle aperture
Yongxin, Liu; Hua, Tao; Jixiong, Pu; Baida, Lü
2011-10-01
The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a vortex beam by an annular triangle aperture is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. It is found that the pattern of the far-field diffraction intensity distribution exhibits a triangular lattice array, which becomes much clearer with the increase of the ratio of the inner to the outer side of the annular triangle aperture. The number of spot points of any external side of the triangular lattice array minus one is just equal to the topological charge value of the measured optical vortex. For the vortex beam with negative topological charge, the triangular diffraction pattern after the annular triangle aperture will be rotated by 180° in relation to the case of the positive topological charge. Based on the above properties, we propose a simple and feasible method to determine the magnitude and sign of the topological charge of an optical vortex beam.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechesne, R. G.; Muraro, J. W.
1996-06-01
A triangle zone with an internal duplex in the Williams Creek Syncline in the footwall of the Burnt Timber Thrust in the Alberta Foothills was studied and characterized as a relict intercutaneous wedge. This interpretation was based on the presence of a roof thrust that does not wrap over the duplex, the apparent absence of shortening transferred through the triangle zone towards the foreland, and the younger structures below and east of the triangle zone. Three possible histories, based on the presence and amount of out-of-sequence motion on the Burnt Timber Thrust, were advanced to explain the kinematic relationship of the intercutaneous wedge with the Burnt Timber Thrust. 36 refs., 8 figs.
Khisamutdinov, Emil F.; Li, Hui; Jasinski, Daniel L.; Chen, Jiao; Fu, Jian; Guo, Peixuan
2014-01-01
Modulation of immune response is important in cancer immunotherapy, vaccine adjuvant development and inflammatory or immune disease therapy. Here we report the development of new immunomodulators via control of shape transition among RNA triangle, square and pentagon. Changing one RNA strand in polygons automatically induced the stretching of the interior angle from 60° to 90° or 108°, resulting in self-assembly of elegant RNA triangles, squares and pentagons. When immunological adjuvants were incorporated, their immunomodulation effect for cytokine TNF-α and IL-6 induction was greatly enhanced in vitro and in animals up to 100-fold, while RNA polygon controls induced unnoticeable effect. The RNA nanoparticles were delivered to macrophages specifically. The degree of immunostimulation greatly depended on the size, shape and number of the payload per nanoparticles. Stronger immune response was observed when the number of adjuvants per polygon was increased, demonstrating the advantage of shape transition from triangle to pentagon. PMID:25092921
Extended long-term (5 years) outcomes of triangle tilt surgery in obstetric brachial plexus injury.
Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra
2013-01-01
We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, ptriangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients.
Decomposing series-parallel graphs into paths of length 3 and triangles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Merker, Martin
2015-01-01
An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series-parallel gra......An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series......-parallel graphs. We also present a 2-edge-connected non-planar graph that can be embedded on the torus and admits no decomposition into paths of length 3 and triangles....
Comparative Phylogeography of the Coral Triangle and Implications for Marine Management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kent E. Carpenter
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Extreme concentration of marine biodiversity and exploitation of marine resources in the Coral Triangle pose challenges to biogeographers and resource managers. Comparative phylogeography provides a powerful tool to test biogeographic hypotheses evoked to explain species richness in the Coral Triangle. It can also be used to delineate management units for marine resources. After about a decade of phylogeographical studies, patterns for the Coral Triangle are emerging. Broad connectivity in some species support the notion that larvae have maintained gene flow among distant populations for long periods. Other phylogeographic patterns suggest vicariant events resulting from Pleistocene sea level fluctuations, which have, at least occasionally, resulted in speciation. Divergence dates ranging back to the Miocene suggest that changing land configurations may have precipitated an explosion of species diversification. A synthesis of the marine phylogeographic studies reveals repeated patterns that corroborate hypothesized biogeographic processes and suggest improved management schemes for marine resources.
Gonçalves, Marta; Moleiro, Carla
2012-08-01
Understanding the concepts of mental health and help seeking behaviours of migrant and ethnic minority families constitutes an important step toward improving the intercultural competence of health and education professionals. This paper addresses these goals among ethnic and migrant minorities in Portugal. For this a multi-informant approach was selected. The study involved nine focus groups (N = 39) conducted with different samples: young immigrants (12-17 years), immigrant parents, teachers and health professionals. The results showed similarities and differences in concepts of mental health, as well as help seeking processes. Stigma continued to be recognized as a barrier in the access to mental health care. The paper argues that providing adequate training on mental health on cultural diversity competencies to health and education professionals can contribute to a better inter-communication and -relation system in the family-school-primary care triangle and thus facilitate access to mental health care for youth.
A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle.
Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Garcia-Gonzalez, Ulises; Agrawal, Abhishek; Tavares, Paulo L M S; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C
2010-07-01
The lower cranial nerves must be identified to avoid iatrogenic injury during skull base and high cervical approaches. Prompt recognition of these structures using basic landmarks could reduce surgical time and morbidity. The anterior triangle of the neck was dissected in 30 cadaveric head sides. The most superficial segments of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and its superior laryngeal nerves, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves were exposed and designated into smaller anatomic triangles. The midpoint of each nerve segment inside the triangles was correlated to the angle of the mandible (AM), mastoid tip (MT), and bifurcation of the common carotid artery. A triangle bounded by the styloglossus muscle, external carotid artery, and facial artery housed the glossopharyngeal nerve. This nerve segment was 0.06 ± 0.71 cm posterior to the AM and 2.50 ± 0.59 cm inferior to the MT. The vagus nerve ran inside the carotid sheath posterior to internal carotid artery and common carotid artery bifurcation in 48.3% of specimens. A triangle formed by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and internal jugular vein housed the accessory nerve, 1.90 ± 0.60 cm posterior to the AM and 2.30 ± 0.57 cm inferior to the MT. A triangle outlined by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, internal jugular vein, and common facial vein housed the hypoglossal nerve, which was 0.82 ± 0.84 cm posterior to the AM and 3.64 ± 0.70 cm inferior to the MT. Comprehensible landmarks can be defined to help expose the lower cranial nerves to avoid injury to this complex region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Triangle tilt and humeral surgery: Meta-analysis of efficacy and functional outcome.
Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra
2015-01-18
To systematically review and analyze the overall impact and effectiveness of bony surgical procedures, the triangle tilt and humeral surgery in a comparative manner in permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients. We conducted a literature search and identified original full research articles of OBPI patients treated with a secondary bony surgery, particularly addressing the limitation of shoulder abduction and functions. Further, we analyzed and compared the efficacy and the surgical outcomes of 9 humeral surgery papers with 179 patients, and 4 of our secondary bony procedure, the triangle tilt surgical papers with 86 patients. Seven hundred and thirty-one articles were identified, using the search term "brachial plexus" and obstetric or pediatric (246 articles) or neonatal (219 articles) or congenital (188 articles) or "birth palsy" (121 articles). Further, only a few articles were identified using the bony surgery search, osteotomy "brachial plexus" obstetric (35), "humeral osteotomy" and "brachial plexus" (17), and triangle tilt "brachial plexus" (14). Of all, 12 studies reporting pre- and post- operative or improvement in total Mallet functional score were included in this study. Among these, 9 studies reported the humeral surgery and 4 were triangle tilt surgery. We used modified total Mallet functional score in this analysis. Various studies with humeral surgery showed improvement of 1.4, 2.3, 5.0 and 5.6 total Mallet score, whereas the triangle tilt surgery showed improvement of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 and 6.2. The triangle tilt surgery improves on what was achieved by humeral osteotomy in the management of shoulder function in OBPI patients.
Is this child sick? Usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in emergency settings.
Fernandez, Ana; Benito, Javier; Mintegi, Santiago
The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is a rapid assessment tool that uses only visual and auditory clues, requires no equipment, and takes 30-60s to perform. It's being used internationally in different emergency settings, but few studies have assessed its performance. The aim of this narrative biomedical review is to summarize the literature available regarding the usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in clinical practice. The authors carried out a non-systematic review in the PubMed®, MEDLINE®, and EMBASE® databases, searching for articles published between 1999-2016 using the keywords "pediatric assessment triangle," "pediatric triage," "pediatric assessment tools," and "pediatric emergency department." The Pediatric Assessment Triangle has demonstrated itself to be useful to assess sick children in the prehospital setting and make transport decisions. It has been incorporated, as an essential instrument for assessing sick children, into different life support courses, although little has been written about the effectiveness of teaching it. Little has been published about the performance of this tool in the initial evaluation in the emergency department. In the emergency department, the Pediatric Assessment Triangle is useful to identify the children at triage who require more urgent care. Recent studies have assessed and proved its efficacy to also identify those patients having more serious health conditions who are eventually admitted to the hospital. The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is quickly spreading internationally and its clinical applicability is very promising. Nevertheless, it is imperative to promote research for clinical validation, especially for clinical use by emergency pediatricians and physicians. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Structure, function and toxicity of alpha-synuclein: the Bermuda triangle in synucleinopathies.
Villar-Piqué, Anna; Lopes da Fonseca, Tomás; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming
2016-10-01
Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of currently incurable neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the misfolding and accumulation of alpha-synuclein aggregates that are commonly known as synucleinopathies. Clinically, synucleinopathies are heterogeneous, reflecting the somewhat selective neuronal vulnerability characteristic of each disease. The precise molecular underpinnings of synucleinopathies remain unclear, but the process of aggregation of alpha-synuclein appears as a central event. However, there is still no consensus with respect to the toxic forms of alpha-synuclein, hampering our ability to use the protein as a target for therapeutic intervention. To decipher the molecular bases of synucleinopathies, it is essential to understand the complex triangle formed between the structure, function and toxicity of alpha-synuclein. Recently, important steps have been undertaken to elucidate the role of the protein in both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings in the field of alpha-synuclein research, and put forward a new perspective over paradigms that persist in the field. Establishing whether alpha-synuclein has a causative role in all synucleinopathies will enable the identification of targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this devastating group of disorders. Alpha-synuclein is the speculated cornerstone of several neurodegenerative disorders known as Synucleinopathies. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenic effects of this protein remain unknown. Here, we review the recent findings in the three corners of alpha-synuclein biology - structure, function and toxicity - and discuss the enigmatic roads that have accompanied alpha-synuclein from the beginning. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Lonchena, Tiffany K; McFadden, Kathryn; Orebaugh, Steven L
2016-01-01
Correlation between ultrasound appearance, gross anatomic characteristics, and histologic structure of the femoral nerve (FN) is lacking. Utilizing cadavers, we sought to characterize the anatomy of the FN, and provide a quantitative measure of its branching. We hypothesize that at the femoral crease, the FN exists as a group of nerve branches, rather than a single nerve structure, and secondarily, that this transition into many branches is apparent on ultrasonography. Nineteen preserved cadavers were investigated. Ultrasonography was sufficient to evaluate the femoral nerve in nine specimens; gross dissection was utilized in all 19. Anatomic characteristics were recorded, including distances from the inguinal ligament to femoral crease, first nerve branch, and complete arborization of the nerve. The nerves from nine specimens were excised for histologic analysis. On ultrasound, the nerve became more flattened, widened, and less discrete as it coursed distally. Branching of the nerve was apparent in 12 of 18 images, with mean distance from inguinal ligament of 3.9 (1.0) cm. However, upon dissection, major branching of the femoral nerve occurred at 3.1 (1.0) cm distal to the inguinal ligament, well proximal to the femoral crease. Histologic analysis was consistent with findings at dissection. The femoral nerve arborizes into multiple branches between the inguinal ligament and the femoral crease. Initial branching is often high in the femoral triangle. As hypothesized, the FN exists as a closely associated group of nerve branches at the level of the femoral crease; however, the termination of the nerve into multiple branches is not consistently apparent on ultrasonography.
A note on a one-parameter family of non-symmetric number triangles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Irene Falcão
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The recent growing interest in special Clifford algebra valued polynomial solutions of generalized Cauchy-Riemann systems in \\((n + 1\\-dimensional Euclidean spaces suggested a detailed study of the arithmetical properties of their coefficients, due to their combinatoric relevance. This concerns, in particular, a generalized Appell sequence of homogeneous polynomials whose coefficient set can be treated as a one-parameter family of non-symmetric triangles of fractions. The discussion of its properties, similar to those of the ordinary Pascal triangle (which itself does not belong to the family, is carried out in this paper.
Cros, Annick; Ahamad Fatan, Nurulhuda; White, Alan; Teoh, Shwu Jiau; Tan, Stanley; Handayani, Christian; Huang, Charles; Peterson, Nate; Venegas Li, Ruben; Siry, Hendra Yusran; Fitriana, Ria; Gove, Jamison; Acoba, Tomoko; Knight, Maurice; Acosta, Renerio; Andrew, Neil; Beare, Doug
2014-01-01
In this paper we describe the construction of an online GIS database system, hosted by WorldFish, which stores bio-physical, ecological and socio-economic data for the ‘Coral Triangle Area’ in South-east Asia and the Pacific. The database has been built in partnership with all six (Timor-Leste, Malaysia, Indonesia, The Philippines, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea) of the Coral Triangle countries, and represents a valuable source of information for natural resource managers at the regional scale. Its utility is demonstrated using biophysical data, data summarising marine habitats, and data describing the extent of marine protected areas in the region. PMID:24941442
Anatomical topography of the inferior lumbar triangle for transversus abdominis block.
Nteli Chatzioglou, Gkionoul; Bagheri, Hassan; Pinar, Yelda; Govsa, Figen
2017-08-23
Rapid development of anesthetic techniques of thoracic paravertebral block required to redefine anatomical landmarks of the inferior lumbar (Petit) triangle (ILT). Anesthesiologists are mainly interested in the ILT to perform the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block. The aim of this study was to provide comprehensive information of the ILT to improve the success of TAP block. Descriptional anatomy of ILTs such as dimensions, space, area, and types was analyzed in 25 preserved adult male cadavers. The ILT was identified in 100% out of all explored cadavers' lumbar regions. The predominant triangle was the acute-angled shaped (46%). The ILT in terms of the surface area was classified into four distinct types: Type I with a surface area triangles with a surface area of 8-12 cm2 were detected in 36%. Type III or large triangles with a surface area >12 cm2 were found in 14%. Type 0 or no triangle did not exhibit a triangle. For the orientation zone over the posterior lumbar region, it was measured with the distances from the posterior median line (M) to the apex (A), medial point (B), and lateral point (C) of the triangle. MA; as M1A transverse line: 103.3 ± 21.3 mm (left) and 106.4 ± 18.4 mm (right), MB; as M2B transverse line; 102.4 ± 21.8 mm (left) and 105 ± 17.9 mm (right), MC; as M3C transverse line; 119 ± 20.5 mm (left) and 120 ± 19.2 mm (right) were measured. In addition, the measurements of the vertical lines were measured. M1A-M2B and M1A-M3C vertical lines were 20.1-22.8 mm (left-right) and 30-29 mm (left-right), respectively. The shape, the size, useful points, geometry, and topography of the ILT are important to determine the orientation points during block procedures. It is possible to visualize the needle pathway in different shape of ILT to ultrasound-guided TAP block. Anesthetic intervention needs to be individualized, depending upon the size of the triangle. The findings may be useful in establishing the area with the
Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008
Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.
2012-01-01
Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:
On the chromatic number of triangle-free graphs of large minimum degree
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Carsten
2002-01-01
We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c <1/3.......We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c
The influence of Hausdorff dimension on plasmonic antennas with Pascal's triangle geometry
Sederberg, S.; Elezzabi, A. Y.
2011-06-01
We introduce fractal geometry to the common bowtie antenna and investigate the influence of a key fractal parameter, Hausdorff dimension, on the broadband spectral response of the antenna. Length scaling trends are presented for antennas having various Hausdorff dimensions. We show that antennas with Pascal's triangle geometry accommodate resonances that are red-shifted when compared to a standard bowtie antenna having the same size. Furthermore, increasing the Hausdorff dimension of the antenna blue shifts its resonance. By designing nanoplasmonic antennas with Pascal's triangle geometry, the resonance conditions may be varied while the antenna dimensions are kept constant.
Quantum steering and entanglement in three-mode triangle Bose-Hubbard system
Kalaga, J. K.; Leoński, W.; Szczȩśniak, R.
2017-11-01
We consider the possibility of generation steerable states in Bose-Hubbard system composed of three interacting wells in the form of a triangle. We show that although our system still fulfills the monogamy relations, the presence of additional coupling which transforms a chain of wells onto triangle gives a variety of new possibilities for the generation of steerable quantum states. Deriving analytical formulas for the parameters describing steering and bipartite entanglement, we show that interplay between two couplings influences quantum correlations of various types. We compare the time evolution of steering parameters to those describing bipartite entanglement and find the relations between the appearance of maximal entanglement and disappearance of steering effect.
Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Arruda, Eduardo Gustavo; Sturtz, Gustavo; Gemperli, Rolf
2014-01-01
INTRODUCTION Lumbar triangle hernia after breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap (LDMF) is a very rare complication and few cases were previously described. Muscle mobilization and iatrogenic fascia defect are related etiologic factors. PRESENTATION OF CASE The authors describe a rare case of lumbar hernia in a 58-year-old woman who underwent delayed left breast reconstruction with LDMF. Two months after surgery, a progressive symptomatic lower left lumbar bulge was observed. The CT...
The Effect of Internet-Based Education on Student Success in Teaching of 8th Grade Triangles Subject
Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk; Izgiol, Dilek
2013-01-01
In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out…
Saydam, Mehmet; Ozturk, Bulent; Sinan, Huseyin; Balta, Ahmet Z; Demir, Pervin; Ozer, Mustafa T; Demirbas, Sezai
2015-10-01
Although many options exist for surgical treatment of pilonidal sinus disease (PSD), consensus has not yet been achieved, as all surgical methods have various rates of complications, postoperative infection, and recurrence. This study was a prospective, randomized, clinical trial, and was conducted with consecutive 100 patients admitted to Ankara Military Hospital General Surgery Service for treatment of PSD from May 2013 to August 2013. This study compared two surgical treatments for PSD: modified Limberg flap transposition and lateral advancement flap transposition with Burow's triangle. The patients received surgical treatment with either modified Limberg flap transposition (n = 50) or lateral advancement flap transposition with Burow's triangle (n = 50). Clinical healing period, length of hospital stay, operative time, postoperative complications including recurrence, wound dehiscence, and surgical site infection, as noted during postoperative follow-up period; Visual Analog Scale scores for pain. The mean follow-up period was 12 months. No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in length of hospital stay (P = .515), operative time (P = .175), wound dehiscence (P = .645), and Visual Analog Scale pain scores (P = .112). The mean operative times were 42.5 minutes in the modified Limberg group and 40.0 minutes in the lateral advancement group. Although lateral advancement flap transposition with Burow's triangle is used less often than modified Limberg flap transposition, we could not determine a parameter that was statistically different such as operative time, postoperative complication, or the length of hospital stay. Hence, the lateral advancement flap is as viable an option as other more preferable techniques in the treatment of PSD, which particularly settled on the upper segment without a deep natal cleft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rostamnia, Sadegh; Kholdi, Saba
2017-12-01
The silica based hollow nanosphere (silica-HNS) containing polymer of polyaniline was synthesized and chosen as a promising support for PdNPs. Then it was applied as a green catalyst in the reaction of Heck coupling with high yield. TEM and SEM-EDX/mapping images were used to study the structure and morphology. FT-IR spectroscopy, Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA), and BET were used to characterize and investigate the catalyst. Also, the amounts of Pd loading were characterized by ICP-AES technique. Catalyst recyclability showed 5 successful runs for the reaction.
P 6- and triangle-free graphs revisited: structure and bounded clique-width
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Andreas Brandstädt
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The Maximum Weight Stable Set (MWS Problem is one of the fundamental problems on graphs. It is well-known to be NP-complete for triangle-free graphs, and Mosca has shown that it is solvable in polynomial time when restricted to P 6- and triangle-free graphs. We give a complete structure analysis of (nonbipartite P 6- and triangle-free graphs which are prime in the sense of modular decomposition. It turns out that the structure of these graphs is extremely simple implying bounded clique-width and thus, efficient algorithms exist for all problems expressible in terms of Monadic Second Order Logic with quantification only over vertex predicates. The problems Vertex Cover, MWS, Maximum Clique, Minimum Dominating Set, Steiner Tree, and Maximum Induced Matching are among them. Our results improve the previous one on the MWS problem by Mosca with respect to structure and time bound but also extends a previous result by Fouquet, Giakoumakis and Vanherpe which have shown that bipartite P 6-free graphs have bounded clique-width. Moreover, it covers a result by Randerath, Schiermeyer and Tewes on polynomial time 3-colorability of P 6- and triangle-free graphs.
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Ilham Rizkianto
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the contepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a loval instructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square, and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non-computer activities suppots third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.Key concepts: Geometric properties, rectangle, square, triangle, design research, realistic mathematics education DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.2.414.160-171
Kim, Joohoan
Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…
Metaxas, Nikolaos; Karagiannidou, Andromachi
2010-01-01
Visualization of mathematical relationships enables students to formulate conjectures as well as to search for mathematical arguments to support these conjectures. In this project students are asked to discover the sufficient and necessary condition so that two circles form the circumscribed and inscribed circle of a triangle and investigate how…
Adams, Jean
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present the Soft-skills Learning Triangle (SLT)--a model created to help coaches, mentors, and educators understand how web-technologies can be used to support management learning and soft-skills development. SLT emerged as part of a larger action-learning research project--the NewMindsets Management Education…
Managing Chronic Excuse-Making Behaviors of Faculty: Applying Schlenker's Responsibility Triangle
Burke, Lisa A.; Rau, Barbara
2007-01-01
Managing chronic excuse-making behaviors of faculty can be difficult and challenging for college administrators. In this article, Schlenker's responsibility triangle is applied in the higher education forum to better understand the underpinnings of responsibility and accountability in faculty jobs. Using this framework, attention is given to…
Managing Online Discussion Forums: Building Community by Avoiding the Drama Triangle
Gerlock, Jennifer Ann; McBride, Dawn Lorraine
2013-01-01
The authors critically analyze how the concept of the drama triangle--part of the game theory associated with transactional analysis--can be used by post secondary instructors teaching online to build a sense of community and decrease students' dependence on instructors in discussion forums. The article begins with an overview of sense of…
DNA nanotubes assembled from tensegrity triangle tiles with circular DNA scaffolds.
Afshan, Noshin; Ali, Mashooq; Wang, Meng; Baig, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf; Xiao, Shou-Jun
2017-11-16
Using small circular DNA molecules of different lengths as scaffolds, we successfully synthesised DNA nanotubes consisting of Mao's DNA tensegrity triangle tiles with four-arm junctions (Holliday junctions) at all vertices. Due to the intrinsic curvature of the triangle tile and the consecutive tile alignment, the 2D arrays are organised in the form of nanotubes. Two sized triangle tiles with equilateral side lengths of 1.5 and 2.5 full helical turns are connected by the sticky ended cohesion of a duplex with a length of 2.5 helical turns respectively, and their parallel lozenge tiling lattices were demonstrated by high resolution AFM images, where the former lozenge unit cell has a lattice constant of 13.6 nm, and the latter has a larger lattice constant of 17.0 nm. Modification of the triangle tile with infinitesimal disturbance on side lengths and insertion of one thymine single stranded loop at every vertex resulted in comparably similar nanotubes.
Tracing the Assessment Triangle with Learning Progression-Aligned Assessments in Mathematics
Lai, Emily R.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.; DiCerbo, Kristen E.; Holland, Laura R.
2017-01-01
We describe an application of the assessment triangle, using a learning progression as the "cognition" vertex. We summarize two studies to evaluate whether evidence of student performance is consistent with our progression. In Study 1, we conducted think alouds using draft assessment activities and evaluated responses in relation to the…
Madadin, Mohammed; Menezes, Ritesh G; Al Dhafeeri, Obaid; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Al Ibrahim, Rana; Nagesh, K R; Ramadan, Selma Uysal
2015-09-01
Demographic assessment of skeletal remains in forensic investigations includes identification of sex. The present study aimed to develop population-specific, sex-discriminating anthropometric standards for the mastoid triangle of a documented Saudi population using computed tomographic (CT) images of the lateral aspect of the skull. The present study was performed on 206 CT images of a documented Saudi population of known sex and age. The clinical CT images of subjects visiting the Department of Radiology, Dammam Medical Complex, Dammam, Saudi Arabia (KSA) were evaluated to know the validity of the metric assessment of the mastoid triangle for identification of sex in a Saudi population. The distance between asterion to porion (AP), asterion to mastoidale (AM), porion to mastoidale (PM) were measured and the area of the mastoid triangle (AMT) was calculated using these measurements. Discriminant function procedure was used to analyze the data for sexual dimorphism. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that all the 3 sides of the mastoid triangle and AMT were sexually dimorphic in the sampled Saudi population with PM being the best individual parameter in discriminating sex with an accuracy of 69.4%. Whereas, all the parameters combined showed the highest accuracy (71.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Unilateral Cleft Lip Revision with Conversion to the Modified Inferior Triangle.
Li, Weiwei; Steinbacher, Derek M
2015-09-01
Unilateral cleft lip revision may be necessary to address visible scars, unequal anatomical boundaries, vermillion inequities, or some combination thereof. In the setting of more than one stigma, a complete recreation of the defect and repair is necessary. This study anthropometrically evaluates the results of cleft lip revision following conversion to the modified inferior triangle. A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent cleft lip revision using the modified inferior triangle was included. Standard preoperative and postoperative photographs were obtained and evaluated. Anthropometric points were placed and measurements performed. Results were corroborated by two independent, blinded reviewers (Pearson correlation test), and compared using the paired t test. Twenty-seven patients were included (mean age, 10.89 years; female, n = 10) over a 35-month period. Intraobserver and interobserver ratios were shown to be reliable. Significant differences (p 0.05) were noted in the PCH, HL, and HL' postoperatively. Significant changes (p triangle. Significant changes (p triangle repair, improving the lip appearance with improved anthropometric measures. Therapeutic, IV.
Grigor'ev, E G; Frolova, I G; Velichko, S A
2015-01-01
To estimate the capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in revealing bladder tumor in relation to its sizes and location and in diagnosing concomitant urodynamic disorders. A total of 93 patients (78 men and 15 women; mean age, 62.1 ± 12.2 years) with bladder cancer were examined. Examinations were made using 1.5 T MRI according to an extended protocol with a mandatory inclusion of diffusion-weighted images; dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was carried out in 86 patients. There were single nodules in 48.7% of the patients and multiple bladder wall lesions in 51.3%. Bladder wall injury involving the functional area of Lieutaud's triangle was revealed in 67.5% of the patients. Single and multiple tumors in Lieutaud' triangle were observed in 58.9 and 80.5% of cases. Ureteral orifice involvement led to secondary ureterectasia in 68.2%. As the number of tumors detected in the bladder increases, the risk of tumors in Lieutaud's triangle injury rises. The involvement of the triangle into the pathological process is accompanied by impaired urodynamics as uretere- ctasia in every four cases (26.8%; p < 0.008). It is shown that dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI must necessarily be performed to better visualize a tumor and to determine its relationships to the underlying wall and basic structures of the bladder.
The Efficacy of Police Interventions towards Resolution of Conflicts within the Illemi Triangle
Mele, Joseph; Okoth, Pontian; Were, Edmond; Vundi, Silvia
2016-01-01
Intervention of security agencies is considered key to lasting peace. This is especially crucial to attaining peace in communities where socio-cultural beliefs advocate for revenge. The study sought to examine the efficacy of police interventions towards resolution of conflicts within the Illemi Triangle. The study adopted neo-realism and conflict…
Fermat Point for a Triangle in Three Dimensions Using the Taxicab Metric
Hanson, J. R.
2017-01-01
This article explores the process of finding the Fermat point for a triangle ABC in three dimensions. Three examples are presented in detail using geometrical methods. A delightfully simple general method is then presented that requires only the comparison of coordinates of the vertices A, B and C.
77 FR 50163 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle Institute
2012-08-20
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle Institute Correction In notice document 2012-19208 appearing on pages 47111-47114 in the issue of Tuesday...
Grading and Academic Freedom: An English Academic's Angle on Hill's Contentious Triangle
Buglear, John
2011-01-01
Following the dismissal of a Canadian professor over disputed grading practices, Hill produced his triangle model of competing interests of academics, administrators and students. In the UK, academic freedom in relation to grading is increasingly constrained reflecting more assertive institutional management supervising over-burdened academic…
The V-Flex, Triangle Orientation, and Catalan Numbers in Hexaflexagons
Iacob, Ionut E.; McLean, T. Bruce; Wang, Hua
2012-01-01
Regular hexaflexagons mysteriously change faces as you pinch flex them. This paper describes a different flex, the V-flex, which allows the hexahexaflexagon (with only 9 faces under the pinch flex) to have 3420 faces. The article goes on to explain the classification of triangle orientations in a hexaflexagon and gives an example of the…
Mandal, Bholanath; Datta, Kakali; Mukherjee, Asok K.; Banerjee, Manas
Characteristic polynomial coefficients of three classes of graph, namely Ln + n(p), Cn + n(p) and K1,n-1+n(p), which are known to have reciprocal pairs of eigenvalues, have been shown to be generated by simple manipulation of the Pascal's triangle.
Some Half-Row Sums from Pascal's Triangle via Laplace Transforms
Dence, Thomas P.
2007-01-01
This article presents some identities on the sum of the entries in the first half of a row in Pascal's triangle. The results were discovered while the author was working on a problem involving Laplace transforms, which are used in proving of the identities.
INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND FURNITURE PROCUREMENT IN EPA'S NEW RESEARCH TRIANGLE CAMPUS
The paper discusses various aspects of the EPA's new 1.2 million square foot building in Research Triangle Park that pertain to indoor air, with a particular focus on the process EPA used to select furniture to meet its indoor air guidelines. In keeping with its mission of protec...
Mercurio, Mia Lynn; Randall, Régine
2016-01-01
Through the study of The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, pre-service art teachers learn the about interdisciplinary design and the importance of using discipline-specific literacy strategies alongside the materials and methods of their craft. The creativity and enthusiasm with which these preservice teachers approached the work convinced us that…
Variation in the Course and Termination of the Cephalic Vein in the Deltopectoral Triangle
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Dogood Atoni Atoni
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The knowledge of cephalic vein variation would aid proper identification and prevent error in surgical emergencies. The path, distribution, and termination of the cephalic vein in relation to the deltopectoral triangle were studied in twenty formalin-embalmed cadavers.
Dealing with Prejudice and Conflict in the Classroom: The Pink Triangle Exercise.
Chesler, Mark A.; Zuniga, Ximena
1991-01-01
Describes a class exercise designed to confront homophobic attitudes. Students wear pink triangles to identify with gay/lesbian prejudice and peer pressures. Explores social conflict, prejudice, and oppression using conflict management techniques. Includes excerpts from students writing assignments and finds fear of being stigmatized pervades…
Laplace type problems for a lattice with cell composed by two triangles and one hexagon
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Marius Stoka
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We solve a Laplace type problem for a lattice of the Euclidean plane with cell composed by two triangles and one hexagon. We compute the probability that a segment of random position and constant length intersects a side of the lattice.
Color Degree Sum Conditions for Rainbow Triangles in Edge-Colored Graphs
Li, Ruonan; Ning, Bo; Zhang, Shenggui
Let G be an edge-colored graph and v a vertex of G. The color degree of v is the number of colors appearing on the edges incident to v. A rainbow triangle in G is one in which all edges have distinct colors. In this paper, we first prove that an edge-colored graph on n vertices contains a rainbow
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Reskino
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Abstrak: Model Pendeteksian Kecurangan Laporan Keuangan dengan Analisis Fraud Triangle. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat model dalam mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Penelitian ini menguji variabel fraud triangle dan auditor spesialis industri dengan kecurangan laporan keuangan. Sampel penelitian adalah 30 perusahaan fraud dan 30 perusahaan non-fraudyang listing di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI serta terkena sanksi dan kasus oleh Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan financial targetsdapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan, sedangkan financial stabililty tidak dapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Abstract: Financial Statement Fraud Detection Model with Fraud Triangle Analysis. The research purposes is to create a model to detect financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. Samples were 30 companies of fraud and 30 non-fraud companies that were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX and sanctioned by the Financial Services Authority (FSA. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.
The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons
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Chellaney, B
2002-07-01
This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)
Preservice and Novice Teachers' Knowledge on Preformal Proofs: Triangle Postulate as an Example
Leung, Kui Chiu Issic; Lee, Chun Yeung
2017-01-01
By considering the example of proving the triangle postulate, this study aimed to explore Hong Kong preservice and novice teachers' knowledge competencies and their beliefs about preformal and formal proofs. The findings revealed that such teachers are not proficient in using preformal proofs and do not realize that preformal proofs are a useful…
The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.
Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri
2015-10-01
When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.
The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.
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Pablo Szekely
2015-10-01
Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.
La Rocca, Giuseppe; Altieri, Roberto; Ricciardi, Luca; Olivi, Alessandro; Della Pepa, Giuseppe Maria
2017-10-01
Vertebral artery (VA) identification within the suboccipital triangle is a key step in craniocervical junction surgery. Often VA exposition at this level is arduous (space-occupying lesions, previous surgery); to identify VA more proximally may prove useful in complex cases. An alternative triangle is present just below the suboccipital one, where VA can be easily controlled; we named it the inferior suboccipital triangle (IST). The aim of the study is to identify IST anatomical relations and VA space orientation and evaluate its practical utility in surgery. An anatomical study was performed on ten sides of five injected cadaverdic specimens. Relevant anatomical data were databased. The IST is limited superiorly by the inferior oblique muscle, inferolaterally by the posterior intertransversarii muscle and inferomedially by the C2 lamina; VA at this level has a vertical course with a slight medial to lateral direction (mean 10.8°) and minor posterior to anterior inclination (mean 3.4°). VA within the IST has a constant course without significant loops or kinkings; periarterial venous plexus is less represented at this level. The IST measures an average of 1.89 cm2, and VA at this level has an average length of 98 mm. IST is a significantly large anatomical space where the VA course is rather regular, and its length is sufficient for vascular proximal control purposes. Periarterial venous plexus is less evident at this level, easing the surgical exposure. VA exposition within the IST can be used as an alternative option when space-occupying lesions, scars and stabilisation devices make arterial dissection hazardous in more cranial V3 segments.
Jankovic, Zorica B; du Feu, Frances M; McConnell, Patricia
2009-09-01
The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new technique for providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. Most previous studies have used the lumbar triangle of Petit as a landmark for the block. In this cadaveric study, we determined the exact position and size of the lumbar triangle of Petit and identified the nerves affected by the TAP block. The position of the lumbar triangle of Petit was assessed unilaterally in 26 cadaveric specimens relative to reliably palpable surface landmarks. In addition, a series of dissections were performed to explore the course of the nerves blocked by the TAP. The mean distance from the midaxillary line along the iliac crest to the center of the base of the lumbar triangle of Petit at the level of the subcutaneous tissue and over the skin surface was 6.9 cm (range, 4.5-9.2 cm) and 9.3 cm (range, 4-15.1 cm), respectively. The center of the lumbar triangle of Petit was 1.4 cm above the iliac crest. The depth of the TAP at the lumbar triangle of Petit position was 0.5-4 cm and at the midaxillary line it was 0.5-2 cm. The average size of the lumbar triangle of Petit was 2.3 cm x 3.3 cm x 2.2 cm, with an average area of 3.63 +/- 1.93 cm2. The three cadaveric specimens we explored showed the nerves blocked by TAP passed lateral to the triangle. An incidental finding was that in 66% of specimens the lumbar triangle of Petit contained small branches of the subcostal artery. The lumbar triangles of Petit found in the specimens in this study were more posterior than the literature suggests. The position of the lumbar triangle of Petit varies largely and the size is relatively small. The relevant nerves to be blocked had not entered the TAP in the specimens in this study at the point of the lumbar triangle of Petit. At the midaxillary line, however, all the nerves were in the TAP.
OS053. Trophoblast invasion in the mesometrial triangle of atp infused pregnant rats.
Spaans, F; Chiang, C W; Melgert, B N; Klok, P A; Borghuis, T; Bakker, W W; Faas, M M
2012-07-01
Poor placentation (disturbed and decreased trophoblast invasion) is a hallmark of preeclampsia (PE), which is a major complication of pregnancy. Unfortunately, the cause and mechanism of disturbed trophoblast invasion is still unknown. The pro-inflammatory agent ATP has been shown to induce PE-like signs, after a single infusion in pregnant rats. These PE-like characteristics include proteinuria and decreased fetal weight. Since purinergic ATP receptors are expressed on trophoblast cells, we aimed to study the effect of ATP infusion on trophoblast invasion in pregnant rats in this pilot study. Pregnant rats received a single ATP (n=4) or saline (control,ni=5) infusion via a permanent jugular vein cannula on day 14 of pregnancy. At the time of maximal trophoblast invasion (day 17 of pregnancy) rats were sacrificed and placentas with mesometrial triangle were collected, fixed in zinc-buffer and embedded in paraffin. 4 μm sections were stained with monoclonal α-cytokeratin antibodies. In the mesometrial triangle, the maternal part of the rat placenta, the percentage of surface area of trophoblast invasion was evaluated using computerized image analysis. Also, the depth and width of invasion were analyzed by subdividing the mesometrial triangle in three concentric depth levels of equal width. In addition, trophoblast invaded versus non-invaded spiral arteries in the mesometrial triangle were quantified. In the mesometrial triangle, no changes in percentage of surface area of trophoblast invasion and percentage of invaded spiral arteries were observed after ATP infusion. However, the pattern of trophoblast invasion appeared to be disturbed in ATP infused rats, with a decreased depth of invasion and an increased width of invasion, resulting in a trend towards a decreased depth/width ratio of trophoblast invasion in ATP infused rats. In this (pilot) study we showed an altered trophoblast invasion pattern in the mesometrial triangle of the placenta, although no
Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and Other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles
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Panagiotis Chr. Stefanides
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Under Golden Root Geometry Structuring the Polyhedra and other Forms Via Plato’s Triangles, we refer to the basic geometric configurations which, as this theory contemplates, are necessary for the progressive mode of formation of the five polyhedral and the geometries involved in their sections and related circles and further to logarithms, via lines, areas and volumes. Basis of all these structures is a very special Scalene Orthogonal Triangle “Plato’s Most Beautiful” [F25], together with his Orthogonal Isosceles one. Structural Forms are identified bearing in common these triangular identities. The particular angle of the Scalene Orthogonal is that whose ArcTan[Θ]=Τ and T = SQR ((SQR. (5 + 1/2.
An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors
Li, Xiang; Chen, Hongcai
2014-01-01
This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA), used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E) formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in details based on Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are carried out for verifying the effectiveness of the TFA. The analytical results and simulation studies indicate that three neighboring robots employing conventional sensors can self-organize into E formations successfully regardless of their initial distribution using the same TFAs. PMID:24759118
Pascal (Yang Hui) triangles and power laws in the logistic map
Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto
2015-04-01
We point out the joint occurrence of Pascal triangle patterns and power-law scaling in the standard logistic map, or more generally, in unimodal maps. It is known that these features are present in its two types of bifurcation cascades: period and chaotic-band doubling of attractors. Approximate Pascal triangles are exhibited by the sets of lengths of supercycle diameters and by the sets of widths of opening bands. Additionally, power-law scaling manifests along periodic attractor supercycle positions and chaotic band splitting points. Consequently, the attractor at the mutual accumulation point of the doubling cascades, the onset of chaos, displays both Gaussian and power-law distributions. Their combined existence implies both ordinary and exceptional statistical-mechanical descriptions of dynamical properties.
Transmission of electrons in a finite superlattice with a Pascal's Triangle profile
Contreras-Solorio, D. A.; Ortiz, Carlos; Saldaña, X.; López-Cruz, E.
2005-08-01
We calculate the electronic transmission coefficient as a function of the incident electron energy in a finite semiconductor superlattice where the width of the barriers is modulated by a numerical sequence taken from the Pascal's Triangle. This sequence is formed by the quantity of odd numbers in each of the Triangles rows and has the pattern 1-2-2-4-2-4-4-8- The sequence has the property of self-similarity. Our superlattice is based in AlAs and GaAs. The transmission spectrum is intermediate between that produced by a periodic finite superlattice and that produced by a disordered one. Moreover the self-similarity of the Pascals structure is reflected in a weak similarity in its transmission spectrum.
Analysing Diagnostic Assessment on the Ratio of Sine in a Right Triangle
Andika, R.; Juandi, D.; Rosjanuardi, R.
2017-09-01
This study aims to develop diagnostic assessment with the special topic of the ratio of sinus in a right triangle and analyze the result whether the students are ready to continue to the next lesson of trigonometry specially the sinus rule. The methodology that use in this study is a design research of Plomp model which is it comprises of 3 phases: (a) preliminary research; (b) prototyping phase; and (c) assessment phase. The findings show that almost half of students made a mistake in determining the ratio of sin in a right triangle, consequently the procedure for solving the problem went wrong. In strategic competency and adaptive communication most of students did not solve the problem that was given. According to the result, the students have to get remedial program before to the next lesson, the rule of sin.
Remarks on the P{sub c} structures and triangle singularities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Science, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Nieves, Juan [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Yang, Zhi [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)
2016-10-15
It was proposed that the narrow P{sub c}(4450) structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction Λ{sub b} → J/ψpK might be due to a triangle singularity around the χ{sub c1}-proton threshold at 4.45 GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the J/ψp invariant mass distribution for the decay Λ{sub b} → J/ψpπ, which could explain the bump around 4.45 GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the P{sub c} structures. (orig.)
Chen, Hsi-Chao; Yang, Chi-Hao
2014-05-10
The effects of different pitch and angle of gradual-triangle lenticular lens for the point-blank LED fog lamp were investigated under the standard of ECE R19. The novel LED fog lamp was assembled from a point-blank LED light source, a parabolic reflector, and a gradual-triangle lenticular lens. Light tracing analysis was used for the design of the gradual-triangle lenticular lens. The pitch, which varied from 1 to 6 mm, and the apex angle, which changed from 5 to 32 deg, were both investigated in regard to the gradual-triangle lenticular lens. The optimum pitch was 5 mm, and the efficiency of the lamp system and lenticular lens could reach 93% and 98.1% by simulation, respectively. The results of experiment had over 94%, which is similar to that of simulation by normalized cross correlation (NCC) for the light intensity.
Santoni, Marie-Pierre; Pal, Amlan K; Chartrand, Daniel; Hanan, Garry S; Ménard-Tremblay, Pierre; Tang, Marie-Christine; Venne, Karine; Furtos, Alexandra; Hasenknopf, Bernold
2014-10-06
A molecular triangle, based on the self-assembly of 4,7-phenanthroline by a neutral palladium complex, has been synthesized and characterized by a combination of techniques: (1)H NMR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopies, mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and gel permeation chromatography. This new neutral metallocavitand has demonstrated the capacity to host both anionic and cationic guests, thus acting as an open-shaped heteroditopic receptor. Density functional theory calculations have shown that (i) there is no overtension in the assembly of the discrete triangle, which is more stable than open-chain oligomers, (ii) the adducts formed between the triangle and some salts (modeled in the gas phase) are thermodynamically stable, and (iii) two types of cavities coexist in the triangle, which host ions and ion pairs. This easily accessible triangular unit extends further the rational design of model nanoarchitectures in host-guest chemistry with applications in analytical chemistry and multifunctional molecular materials.
Tebala, Giovanni D
2016-10-01
Ureteral injury is one of the possible complications of distal colectomies. It may be caused by misidentification of the anatomic landmarks during the left lateral dissection, due to factor pertaining to the patient, the disease, and the surgeon. The only way to reduce the risk of this avoidable complication is the perfect knowledge and identification of the anatomy of the left ureter. In this article, we describe an anatomic triangle that can be a valid help in the identification of the ureter in the area where higher is the risk of iatrogenic injury. The left ureteric triangle can be prepared after the dissection of the left Toldt plane, as soon as the dissection reaches the superior mesorectum. Sides of this triangle are (a) superiorly, the dissected mesosigmoid, (b) right side, upper mesorectum and sacral promontorium, and (c) inferiorly, the margin of the incised posterior parietal peritoneum. The left ureter runs within this triangle.
The Uneven City: Planning Insurgencies in Ramlet Bulaq and Maspero Triangle
Shakran, Khalid
2016-01-01
Cairo, Egypt holds 4 of the 30 largest “mega-slums” in the world with nearly 60 percent of Cairo’s population inhabiting informal settlements (Davis, 2007; Khalifa, 2013). Two of these settlements, Ramlet Bulaq and the Maspero Triangle in West Cairo, consistently experience evictions inflicted by state and private developers since the mid-2000s. The central question orienting this research is: How do Ramlet Bulaq and Maspero inhabitants develop insurgent planning practices to resist state and...
High Fluoroquinolone Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori in the Golden triangle
Vilaichone, Ratha Korn; ek, Thawee Ratanachu; Gamnarai, Pornpen; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Uchida, Tomahisa; YAMAOKA, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha
2017-01-01
Background and aims: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, associated with fatal GI diseases such as gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma, remain a major health problem in ASEAN countries. The Golden triangle has long been known as one of Asia?s main opium-producing areas. There have been no prior studies of H. pylori infection in this area. The major objectives of this project were therefore to establish prevalence, antibiotic resistance patterns and associated predictive in the Golden tri...
Measurements of $B \\to DK$ decays to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb
Gandini, Paolo
2014-01-01
The angle g of the CKM unitarity triangle remains the least precisely measured parameter of the CKM mixing matrix. The precision measurement of this parameter is one of the main goals of the LHCb experiment. We present a wide range of measurements of CP violation and partial rates in B ! DK decays, as well as the latest LHCb measurement of g combining all the individual inputs and including D 0 mixing.
Levi's Lemma, pseudolinear drawings of $K_n$, and empty triangles
Arroyo, Alan; McQuillan, Dan; Richter, Bruce; Salazar, Gelasio
2015-01-01
There are three main thrusts to this article: a new proof of Levi's Enlargement Lemma for pseudoline arrangements in the real projective plane; a new characterization of pseudolinear drawings of the complete graph; and proofs that pseudolinear and convex drawings of $K_n$ have $n^2+{}$O$(n\\log n)$ and O$(n^2)$, respectively, empty triangles. All the arguments are elementary, algorithmic, and self-contained.
On the Weight of Minor Faces in Triangle-Free 3-Polytopes
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Borodin Oleg V.
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The weight w(f of a face f in a 3-polytope is the degree-sum of vertices incident with f. It follows from Lebesgue’s results of 1940 that every triangle-free 3-polytope without 4-faces incident with at least three 3-vertices has a 4-face with w ≤ 21 or a 5-face with w ≤ 17. Here, the bound 17 is sharp, but it was still unknown whether 21 is sharp.
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Yoshihiro Shobuda
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The frequency domain performance of a stripline beam position monitor depends largely on the longitudinal shape of its electrode. Some shapes other than a conventional rectangle have been proposed and tested. To attain a good impedance matching along the electrode, they need to be precisely bent down toward their downstream in proportion to their width. This is a considerable task, and a failure to comply with it will result in a large distortion of the frequency-domain transfer function from the ideal one due to unwanted signal reflections. In this report, we first propose a triangle electrode for easy fabrication and setup: it only requires that a triangularly cut flat electrode will be placed in a chamber while being obliquely inclined toward the downstream port. Theoretical and simulation results show that the simple triangle electrode has a remarkably flatter frequency response than the rectangle one. The frequency response, in particular at high frequencies, can be further improved by attaching an “apron” plate, perpendicular to the upstream edge of the electrode. The overshooting of the frequency response at low frequency can be eliminated by replacing the straight sidelines of the triangle by three-point polylines (with a result that the triangle is transformed to a concave pentagon. The concave pentagon electrode needs to be bent only once at the middle point of the polylines for a good impedance matching and thus its fabrication and setup remain to be easy. Rf measurements for the various electrode shapes have been carried out. We found that the concave pentagon electrode achieves a wide and flat frequency response up to about 4 GHz for the J-PARC Main Ring (MR.
Ground state of an arbitrary triangle with a Calogero–Sutherland ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
d. 3. Figure 2. Level curves of the potential and the contours of the eigenfunction are shown together in d2–d3 plane. The Rabouw–Ruijgrok map [2] reduces to that found by Onsager [4] connecting the dynamics of two particles of masses m1 and m2 on a line segment to a right triangle billiard. 614. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol.
A multiplex PCR for rapid identification of Brassica species in the triangle of U
Koh, Joshua C. O.; Denise M Barbulescu; Norton, Sally; Redden, Bob; Salisbury, Phil A.; Kaur, Sukhjiwan; Cogan, Noel; Slater, Anthony T.
2017-01-01
Background Within the Brassicaceae, six species from the genus Brassica are widely cultivated throughout the world as oilseed, condiment, fodder or vegetable crops. The genetic relationships among the six Brassica species are described by U?s triangle model. Extensive shared traits and diverse morphotypes among Brassica species make identification and classification based on phenotypic data alone challenging and unreliable, especially when dealing with large germplasm collections. Consequentl...
Air pollution population exposure evaluation in the Vaal Triangle using GIS
2012-01-01
M.Sc. The evaluation of population exposure to air pollution is a fundamental reason for management and control of regional air quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the exposure of the local population to PM-10 emissions from sources within the Vaal Triangle using a Geographic Information System (GIS). The emission inventory compiled by van Nierop for the calendar year of 1992 (van Nierop, 1994) was used as input data for these calculations. The Industrial Source Complex Sho...
Zangana, Karzan H; Pineda, Eufemio Moreno; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; McInnes, Eric J L; Winpenny, Richard E P
2014-09-21
The preparation and structural characterisation of five 3d-4f mixed metal phosphonate cages with general formula [Cr(III)6Ln(III)2(μ3-O)2(H2O)2(O3P(t)Bu)4(O2C(t)Bu)12(HO(i)Bu)2((i)PrNH2)2] where Ln(III) = La, 1; Tb, 3; Dy, 4; Ho, 5 and [Cr(III)6Gd(III)2(μ3-O)2(H2O)2(O3P(t)Bu)4(O2C(t)Bu)12(HO(i)Bu)4] (2) are reported. The structure contains two oxo-centred {Cr3} triangles, bridged by phosphonates and lanthanides. The magnetic behaviour of 1 has been modelled as two non-interacting isosceles triangles, involving two antiferromagnetic interactions (J1 = -8.8 cm(-1)) with a smaller ferromagnetic interaction for the unique edge of the triangle (J2 = +1.3 cm(-1)) giving an isolated S = 3/2 ground state per triangle. The quartet ground state has been proven through simulation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra obtained at the X- and Q-band. EPR simulations have also resulted in the introduction of small single-ion Zero Field Splitting (ZFS) parameters D = ±0.19 cm(-1) and rhombic term E = ±0.02 cm(-1), which are consistent with strong exchange limit calculations for an isolated S = 3/2 (D = ±0.22 and E = ±0.018 cm(-1)).
Proofs to two inequality conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle
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Fangjian Huang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract We prove two conjectures for a point on the plane of a triangle presented in (Liu in J. Math. Inequal. 8(3:597-611, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11590-013-0708-4 by using the successive difference substitution algorithm NEWTSDS. Compared with the original proof, the new one is simpler and more easily understood. Similar problems can be treated with the same procedure.
Wang, Yanna; Dou, Liguang; Zhang, Hui
2017-11-08
A series of novel nanosheet array-like catalysts Pdx/rGO@CoAl-LDH (x = 0.0098-1.9, refers to Pd loading in wt % on ICP, rGO: reduced graphene oxide, LDH: layered double hydroxide) were first prepared via a simple and green lattice atomic-confined in situ reduction of oxidative Pd precursors by the evenly atomic-dispersed reductive Co2+ sites on LDH layers of a nanohybrid rGO@CoAl-LDH with hexagonal LDH nanoplates (∼73 × 7 nm) interdigitated vertical to the surfaces of rGO layer in both sides, fabricated through a simple citric acid-assisted aqueous-phase coprecipitation method. The as-obtained Pd catalysts possess clean Pd nanoclusters (NCs) with tunable sizes in 1.3-1.8 nm on varied Pd loadings. All the Pdx/rGO@CoAl-LDH catalysts show excellent activities for the Heck reaction, and the Pd0.0098/rGO@CoAl-LDH with the ultrafine Pd NCs of 1.3 ± 0.2 nm yields a maximum turnover frequency of 160 000 h-1 over a heterogeneous catalyst so far. The excellent activities can be attributed to the ultrasmall Pd NCs with high dispersion and clean Pd surfaces, increased electron transfer capacity and surface area, and remarkable Pd-CoAl-LDH-rGO three-phase synergistic effect of the present unique nanosheet array-like Pd NCs catalysts. Moreover, the catalyst Pd0.33/rGO@CoAl-LDH shows a broad range of substrate applicability and can be reused more than five runs without obvious loss of activity, giving the present catalysts long-term stability. These findings make the rGO@CoAl-LDH hybrid prepared by a facile and scalable synthesis route a universal green platform to support other noble or nonprecious metal NCs via lattice atomic-confined in situ reduction strategy to construct more desired heterogeneous catalysts.
Tubbs, R Shane; Stetler, William; Louis, Robert G; Gupta, Ankmalika A; Loukas, Marios; Kelly, David R; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A
2010-01-01
The spinal accessory nerve (SAN) has been reported to have a distinctly coiled appearance in its course through the posterior cervical triangle of the neck. As this is unusual compared with other peripheral nerves including the cranial nerves, the present histological analysis was performed to further elucidate the reason for this anatomy with potential application in nerve injury and repair. Ten adult cadavers underwent dissection of the neck. The SAN was harvested proximally and within the posterior cervical triangle. For comparison with other cranial nerves within the neck, the cervical vagus and hypoglossal nerves were also harvested. All nerves underwent histological analysis. Additionally, 2 human fetuses (11 and 20 weeks' gestation) underwent examination of the SAN in the posterior cervical triangle, and 3 randomly selected specimens were submitted for electromicroscopy. All SANs were found to have a straight gross configuration proximal to the posterior triangle and a coiled appearance within this geometrical area. Histologically, no differences were identified for the SAN in these 2 locations (that is, proximal to and within the posterior cervical triangle). The histology of the SAN both with routine analysis and electron microscopy was similar in both regions and to nerves used as controls (for example, vagus and hypoglossal nerves). Interestingly, both fetal specimens were found to have coiled SANs in the posterior cervical triangle. Based on this study, it appears that the tortuous course of the SAN in the posterior triangle arises from functional as opposed to structural forces. It is hoped that this analysis will provide some insight into the nature behind the morphology observed in the SAN within the posterior cervical triangle and aid in future investigations regarding its injury. Moreover, such a coiled nature of this nerve may assist the neurosurgeon in identifying it during, for example, neurotization procedures.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech, P; Gefke, Maria; Lunde, M
2011-01-01
Background. Our T-PEMF trial has been revisited with focus on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in which effect size is used when comparing wanted versus unwanted clinical effects and quality of life as outcomes. In this analysis, we have especially focused on the self-reported HAM-D(6). Methods......-PEMF was found superior to sham T-PEMF within the pharmacopsychometric triangle with a clinically significant effect size level above 0.40....
Twala, Sibongile Doreen
2012-01-01
The aim of this research was to investigate that whether the Department of Home Affairs has a proper, effective management skill to deal with the impact of illegal immigrants in the Vaal Triangle Region, since the Department of Home Affairs regional offices has the institutionalized procedures and mechanism to process and deport illegal immigrants. For the purpose of this study, the hypothesis was formulated that “the Department of Home Affairs in the Vaal Triangle is currently unable to mana...
Cressey’s fraud triangle (1953 and agency theory: study applied to brazilian banking institutions
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Michele Rílany Rodrigues Machado
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This research examined if Cressey’s (1953 fraud triangle and the agency theory, jointly, enables investigate corporate fraud occurrence in Brazilian banking institutions. It was formulated six research hypotheses were segregated in fraud triangle – pressure, opportunity and rationalization – and measured by variables taken from the agency theory, criminology and empirical papers on corporate fraud. The identification of probability of fraud occurrence was operationalized from multinomial logistic model, applied to data of 44 banking, for the period between January 2001 and December 2012. For element pressure, hypotheses No. 01 was confirmed, since this showed that the lower an institution’s previous performance, the greater probability there is of fraudulent events occurring in the future. In the element of opportunity, the hypothesis No. 03 was confirmed, which showed that low corporate governance indicators increased the possibility of fraud occurrences. In rationalization element, the hypothesis No. 08 was confirmed, therefore, the predominance of women in management reduces the probability of fraud. We thereby conclude that Cressey’s Triangle, when combined with the theory of agency is an appropriate research instrument to use when carrying out an investigation into corporate fraud occurrence in banking institutions.
Cervical posterior triangle castleman's disease in a child - case report & literature review.
Lin, Chien-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Chin
2011-01-01
The most prominent sites of Castleman's disease (CD) are the thorax (mediastinum or lung hilum) and abdomen. It rarely occurs in the cervical area and only one case has been reported in the posterior triangle of the neck. We report a new case of cervical posterior triangle CD in a child. A 9-year-old boy presented with an indolent mass in the posterior triangle (level V) on the left side of his neck for more than six months. Complete excision was undertaken and the histopathological diagnosis was CD of the hyaline-vascular type. At the 3-year follow up, there were no signs of recurrence. The etiologies of persistent cervical lymphadenopathy in children vary. Though it is very rare, we should keep in mind that CD is possible. In addition, CD can be either localized (unicentric) or diffuse (multicentric). The treatment and prognosis of these two are quite different. Therefore, for any case of CD, systemic evaluation is recommended for a precise diagnosis and proper management.
Khisamutdinov, Emil F; Li, Hui; Jasinski, Daniel L; Chen, Jiao; Fu, Jian; Guo, Peixuan
2014-09-01
Modulation of immune response is important in cancer immunotherapy, vaccine adjuvant development and inflammatory or immune disease therapy. Here we report the development of new immunomodulators via control of shape transition among RNA triangle, square and pentagon. Changing one RNA strand in polygons automatically induced the stretching of the interior angle from 60° to 90° or 108°, resulting in self-assembly of elegant RNA triangles, squares and pentagons. When immunological adjuvants were incorporated, their immunomodulation effect for cytokine TNF-α and IL-6 induction was greatly enhanced in vitro and in animals up to 100-fold, while RNA polygon controls induced unnoticeable effect. The RNA nanoparticles were delivered to macrophages specifically. The degree of immunostimulation greatly depended on the size, shape and number of the payload per nanoparticles. Stronger immune response was observed when the number of adjuvants per polygon was increased, demonstrating the advantage of shape transition from triangle to pentagon. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Ten things to get right for marine conservation planning in the Coral Triangle.
Weeks, Rebecca; Pressey, Robert L; Wilson, Joanne R; Knight, Maurice; Horigue, Vera; Abesamis, Rene A; Acosta, Renerio; Jompa, Jamaluddin
2014-01-01
Systematic conservation planning increasingly underpins the conservation and management of marine and coastal ecosystems worldwide. Amongst other benefits, conservation planning provides transparency in decision-making, efficiency in the use of limited resources, the ability to minimise conflict between diverse objectives, and to guide strategic expansion of local actions to maximise their cumulative impact. The Coral Triangle has long been recognised as a global marine conservation priority, and has been the subject of huge investment in conservation during the last five years through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Yet conservation planning has had relatively little influence in this region. To explore why this is the case, we identify and discuss 10 challenges that must be resolved if conservation planning is to effectively inform management actions in the Coral Triangle. These are: making conservation planning accessible; integrating with other planning processes; building local capacity for conservation planning; institutionalising conservation planning within governments; integrating plans across governance levels; planning across governance boundaries; planning for multiple tools and objectives; understanding limitations of data; developing better measures of progress and effectiveness; and making a long term commitment. Most important is a conceptual shift from conservation planning undertaken as a project, to planning undertaken as a process, with dedicated financial and human resources committed to long-term engagement.
Hagan, Robert R; Ricci, Joseph A; Eberlin, Kyle R
2018-02-02
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a cause of upper extremity and shoulder dysfunction. TOS can present with a wide range of symptoms due to compression of the brachial plexus or its branches during their passage through the cervicothoracobrachial region or scalene triangle. There are three types of TOS: arterial, venous, and neurogenic. Neurogenic TOS (nTOS) is by far the most frequent type and represents more than 95% of all cases. Historically, surgical intervention for all types of TOS has evolved based on the treatment for a vascular etiology and has typically included a first rib resection. Despite nTOS being by far the more common type, most previous interventions have not considered treatment via peripheral nerve decompression.We describe surgical treatment of nTOS, performed on an outpatient basis, which focuses on the surgical decompression of the structures associated with the scalene triangle in conjunction with release of the pectoralis minor insertion through limited incisions. The procedure avoids the morbidity associated with first rib resection and is successful in ameliorating nTOS symptoms. Further, we propose a nomenclature shift to scalene triangle syndrome (STS) to reflect the nerve and arterial compressions needing to be addressed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
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Xiaosong Zhao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET is an important component of the water budget. Estimation ET through remote sensing over a mountainous terrain is typically obstructed by topographic effects. In this paper, topographic corrections were applied to ET estimates using the surface-air temperature difference-Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ((Ts-Ta-NDVI triangle method with MODIS data for the Taihu Basin in China. The effect of topography on ET was evaluated over an area with a complex terrain. After applying the topographic correction, the results indicate that the ET decreased with elevation and slope. The slope had a stronger impact on ET than the elevation, which caused the corrected ET to decrease by 90% from 6.8 mm day−1 to 0.6 mm day−1 for slopes over 50°. On average, the corrected ET decreased by 10.4% and 32.1% for north- and south-facing slopes, respectively. The ET corrected using the triangle method strongly depended on the evaporative fraction correction, which can mainly be attributed to the surface temperature correction. We conclude that a topographic correction is necessary when the triangle method is applied to areas with a complex terrain.
Assessing the plasmonics of gold nano-triangles with higher order laser modes
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Laura E. Hennemann
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Regular arrays of metallic nano-triangles – so called Fischer patterns – are fabricated by nano-sphere lithography. We studied such gold nano-triangle arrays on silicon or glass substrates. A series of different samples was investigated with a parabolic mirror based confocal microscope where the sample is scanned through the laser focus. By employing higher order laser modes (azimuthally and radially polarised laser beams, we can excite the Fischer patterns using either a pure in-plane (x,y electric field or a strongly z-directional (optical axis of the optical microscope electric field. We collected and evaluated the emitted luminescence and thereby investigated the respectively excited plasmonic modes. These varied considerably: firstly with the light polarisation in the focus, secondly with the aspect ratio of the triangles and thirdly with the employed substrate. Moreover, we obtained strongly enhanced Raman spectra of an adenine (sub-monolayer on gold Fischer patterns on glass. We thus showed that gold Fischer patterns are promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrates.
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H. Pirali
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a combined node searching algorithm for simulation of crack discontinuities in meshless methods called combined visibility and surrounding triangles (CVT is proposed. The element free Galerkin (EFG method is employed for stress analysis of cracked bodies. The proposed node searching algorithm is based on the combination of surrounding triangles and visibility methods; the surrounding triangles method is used for support domains of nodes and quadrature points generated at the vicinity of crack faces and the visibility method is used for points located on the crack faces. In comparison with the conventional methods, such as the visibility, the transparency, and the diffraction method, this method is simpler with reasonable efficiency. To show the performance of this method, linear elastic fracture mechanics analyses are performed on number of standard test specimens and stress intensity factors are calculated. It is shown that the results are in good agreement with the exact solution and with those generated by the finite element method (FEM.
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Ilham Rizkianto
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the concepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a localinstructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non computer activities supports third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.
Cutter-workpiece engagement determination for general milling using triangle mesh modeling
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Xun Gong
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Cutter-workpiece engagement (CWE is the instantaneous contact geometry between the cutter and the in-process workpiece during machining. It plays an important role in machining process simulation and directly affects the calculation of the predicted cutting forces and torques. The difficulty and challenge of CWE determination come from the complexity due to the changing geometry of in-process workpiece and the curved tool path of cutter movement, especially for multi-axis milling. This paper presents a new method to determine the CWE for general milling processes. To fulfill the requirement of generality, which means for any cutter type, any in-process workpiece shape, and any tool path even with self-intersections, all the associated geometries are to be modeled as triangle meshes. The involved triangle-to-triangle intersection calculations are carried out by an effective method in order to realize the multiple subtraction Boolean operations between the tool and the workpiece mesh models and to determine the CWE. The presented method has been validated by a series of case studies of increasing machining complexity to demonstrate its applicability to general milling processes.
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Nino Roistomashvili
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.
Cheves, C. M.; Chasteler, R. M.; Guillemette, J. F.; Laymon, C. M.; Weller, H. R.; Tilley, D. R.
1996-10-01
The Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) Nuclear Data Evaluation Group provides an extensive collection of nuclear data information for A=3--20 on the World Wide Web. Currently included are: Energy Level Diagrams for A=4--20. (2) Abridged versions of TUNL's most recent evaluations, ``Energy Levels of Light Nuclei'' for A=16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 (preliminary). (3) Adopted levels and decay data in ENSDAT style for A=3--20 nuclei as well as reaction data for A=18, 19. This format is similar to the Nuclear Data Sheets style for higher mass nuclei and is based on information from the NNDC Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENSDF). (4) The A=1--20 portion of the Table of Isotopes, which was provided to TUNL by the Berkeley Isotopes Project. (5) Information about the current status of A=3--20 ``Energy Levels of Light Nuclei'' reviews by Fay Ajzenberg-Selove and by the TUNL group. (6) Abridged versions of Fay Ajzenberg-Selove's most recent evaluation for A=5--10. Work supported by DOE Contract Nos. DEFG05-91-ER40619 and DEFG05-88-ER40441.
High Fluoroquinolone Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori in the Golden triangle
Vilaichone, Ratha Korn; Ratanachu ek, Thawee; Gamnarai, Pornpen; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Uchida, Tomahisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha
2017-02-01
Background and aims: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, associated with fatal GI diseases such as gastric cancer and MALT lymphoma, remain a major health problem in ASEAN countries. The Golden triangle has long been known as one of Asia’s main opium-producing areas. There have been no prior studies of H. pylori infection in this area. The major objectives of this project were therefore to establish prevalence, antibiotic resistance patterns and associated predictive in the Golden triangle. Methods: We recruited dyspeptic patients in Chiang khong and Chiang saen districts, Chiangrai province of Thailand. All subjects underwent gastroscopy, and 3 antral gastric biopsies were collected for rapid urease tests and H. pylori culture. E-tests were used to evaluate the MICs for metronidazole (MNZ), levofloxacin (LVX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), amoxicillin(AMX), tetracycline (TET) and clarithromycin (CLR). Results: Total of 148 patients was included. H. pylori infection was present in 36.3%(37/102) of Chiang khong and 34.8 % (16/46) of Chiang saen subjects and the overall H. pylori infection rate was 35.8% (53/148). Antibiotic resistance was demonstrated in 44%, including 2% for CLR and 26% for MNZ, whereas fluoroquinolone resistance was demonstrated to be as high as 25% in Chiang khong. Multi-drug resistant H. pylori was detected in 4%. There was no AMX and TET resistance in this study. The prevalence of CLR resistance on a background of gastritis was significantly higher than peptic ulcer disease in the golden triangle area (100%vs 0%: P= 0.04). Conclusions: H. pylori remains a common infection in the Golden triangle. MNZ resistance appears to be high, whereas fluoroquinolone resistance is prevalent and is becoming a significant problem in this area. Diagnosis of gastritis might be a predictor of CLR resistance in the Golden triangle. H. pylori eradication with an appropriate regimen by using the local antibiotic resistant pattern is a key important tool to reduce H
Applying the Fraud Triangle Model to the Global Credit Crisis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranulph Day
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The premise of this paper is that the unwarranted corporate collapses and failures which occurred during the, currently ongoing, ‘credit crisis’ arise from failures in the decision making processes of the organisation. This paper is written primarily from a legal corporate governance perspective and looks at how the law could allow, what in hindsight appears to be, staggering follies. As such this paper is focussed on the microeconomics of the debacle rather than upon the macroeconomic triggers. The rationale for this approach is that the law cannot regulate behaviour on a mass scale, law acts against the individual rather than the group. There are various reasons for this assumption ranging from the necessity of justice and fairness to practical logistics. However it is the working assumption of this paper that for law to be effective it has to act against individuals and so can only pursue a microeconomic approach.
B Physics: WHEPP-XI working group report
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
physics pp. 729–739. B Physics: WHEPP-XI working group report. AMOL DIGHE1,∗. , ANJAN GIRI2, RUPAK DUTTA3, NAVEEN GAUR4,. TIM GERSHON5, DIPTIMOY GHOSH1, XIAO-GANG HE6, ... Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle [7a] has perhaps been the most important measurement .... s–φBs parameter space.
Tideman, Philip; Taylor, Anne W; Janus, Edward; Philpot, Ben; Clark, Robyn; Peach, Elizabeth; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Tirimacco, Rosy; Montgomerie, Alicia; Grant, Janet; Versace, Vincent; Dunbar, James A
2013-08-23
Cardiovascular (CVD) mortality disparities between rural/regional and urban-dwelling residents of Australia are persistent. Unavailability of biomedical CVD risk factor data has, until now, limited efforts to understand the causes of the disparity. This study aimed to further investigate such disparities. Comparison of (1) CVD risk measures between a regional (Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study (GGT RFS, cross-sectional study, 2004-2006) and an urban population (North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS, longitudinal cohort study, 2004-2006); (2) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) CVD mortality rates between these and other Australian regions; and (3) ABS CVD mortality rates by an area-level indicator of socioeconomic status, the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD). Greater Green Triangle (GGT, Limestone Coast, Wimmera and Corangamite Shires) of South-Western Victoria and North-West Adelaide (NWA). 1563 GGT RFS and 3036 NWAHS stage 2 participants (aged 25-74) provided some information (self-administered questionnaire +/- anthropometric and biomedical measurements). Age-group specific measures of absolute CVD risk, ABS CVD mortality rates by study group and Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) region. Few significant differences in CVD risk between the study regions, with mean absolute CVD risk ranging from approximately 1% in the age group 35-39 years to 14% in the age group 70-74 years. [corrected]. Similar mean 2003-2007 (crude) mortality rates in GGT (98, 95% CI 87 to 111), NWA (103, 95% CI 96 to 110) and regional Australia (92, 95% CI 91 to 94). NWA mortality rates exceeded that of other city areas (70, 95% CI 69 to 71). Lower measures of socioeconomic status were associated with worse CVD outcomes regardless of geographic location. Metropolitan areas do not always have better CVD risk factor profiles and outcomes than rural/regional areas. Needs assessments are required for different settings to elucidate relative
Long, Hao; Zheng, Yan; Situ, Dongrong; Ma, Guowei; Lin, Zhichao; Wang, Jinfeng
2011-03-01
Complete resection of pulmonary metastases remains the standard of care for selected patients. An open approach causes criticism because of aggressiveness. Without manual palpation the video-assisted thoracic surgery procedure has the high probability of missing occult metastases. Transxiphoid bilateral lung metastasectomy surgery has not been widely adopted. We developed a hand-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for bilateral lung metastasectomy through natural sternocostal triangle access in 2001 to solve the problems mentioned previously. We retrospectively evaluated 55 consecutive patients between 2001 and 2009 who underwent hand-assisted thoracoscopic surgery through sternocostal triangle access for pulmonary metastasis. Complications after operation, operative time, operative bleeding, air leak days, length of stay, preoperation imaging examination, and survival rate were evaluated. Fifty-five patients had lung metastases. Bilateral explorations were performed in a total of 51 patients, with a total of 201 minimal resections and one lobectomy. Nearly half of the patients with bilateral metastases were misdiagnosed as unilateral metastases by imaging examination. Intraoperative cardiac arrhythmia was experienced in 5.2% of the right and 10.5% of the left approaches. Postoperative complication rate was 3.6%. Three-year and five-year overall survival rates for metastatic disease were 59.8% and 47.2%, respectively. This new surgical procedure, with an assisted hand, could complete bilateral pleural exploration in a single operation through the natural sternocostal triangle. It is easy to perform and may help the patients gain a faster rehabilitation. Furthermore, it may lead to a better survival. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fluorescent incisionless cholangiography as a teaching tool for identification of Calot's triangle.
Roy, Mayank; Dip, Fernando; Nguyen, David; Simpfendorfer, Conrad H; Menzo, Emanuele Lo; Szomstein, Samuel; Rosenthal, Raul J
2017-06-01
Intraoperative incisionless fluorescent cholangiogram (IOIFC) has been demonstrated to be a useful tool to increase the visualization of Calot's triangle. This study evaluates the identification of extrahepatic biliary structures with IOIFC by medical students and surgery residents. Two pictures were taken, one with xenon light and one with near-infrared (NIR) light, at the same stage during dissection of Calot's triangle in ten different cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). All twenty pictures were organized in a random fashion to remove any imagery bias. Twenty students and twenty residents were asked to identify the biliary anatomy. Medical students were able to accurately identify the cystic duct on an average 33.8 % under the xenon light versus 86 % under NIR light (p = 0.0001), the common hepatic duct (CHD) on an average 19 % under the xenon light versus 88.5 % under NIR light (p = 0.0001), and the junction on an average 24 % under xenon light versus 80.5 % under NIR light (p = 0.0001). Surgery residents were able to accurately identify the cystic duct on an average 40 % under the xenon light versus 99 % under NIR light (p = 0.0001), the CHD on an average 35 % under the xenon light versus 96 % under NIR light (p = 0.0001), and the junction on an average 24 % under the xenon light versus 95.5 % under NIR light (p = 0.0001). IOIFC increases the visualization of Calot's triangle structures when compared to xenon light. IOIFC may be a useful teaching tool in residency programs to teach LC.
Rossell-Perry, Percy
2016-03-01
Many studies have been dedicated toward bettering the understanding of the anatomy of this branch and the relative danger zone. However, most of these articles have focused on identifying the location of this branch based on its trajectory and associations with deep structures, causing some difficulties for aesthetic surgeons to identify its location during facial aesthetic surgery. Here, we present the concept of the marginal nerve triangle; its contents, relations and clinical applications in cosmetic surgery are discussed. This is an anatomical study performed using 64 hemifaces from 32 Peruvian fresh cadavers (25 men and 7 women). They were dissected manually and observed macroscopically by the authors. The marginal nerve and the related structures were dissected from its origin to the terminal branches and associated with the described triangular area. The marginal branch of the facial nerve was found to lie in the described triangle in all cases. This is a triangular area formed by the intersection of three points located at the lateral commissure of the mouth, the mastoid apophysis and a point located over the anterior border of the extracellular matrix (ECM) muscle with a line which intersects the lateral commissure of the mouth and the mandibular groove. The trajectory of the marginal and cervical branches of the facial nerve can be reliably and easily found at the described triangle following the reference points. This study will help guide surgeons to these branches of the facial nerve as it applies to aesthetic surgery. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A multiplex PCR for rapid identification of Brassica species in the triangle of U.
Koh, Joshua C O; Barbulescu, Denise M; Norton, Sally; Redden, Bob; Salisbury, Phil A; Kaur, Sukhjiwan; Cogan, Noel; Slater, Anthony T
2017-01-01
Within the Brassicaceae, six species from the genus Brassica are widely cultivated throughout the world as oilseed, condiment, fodder or vegetable crops. The genetic relationships among the six Brassica species are described by U's triangle model. Extensive shared traits and diverse morphotypes among Brassica species make identification and classification based on phenotypic data alone challenging and unreliable, especially when dealing with large germplasm collections. Consequently, a major issue for genebank collections is ensuring the correct identification of species. Molecular genotyping based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker sequencing or the Illumina Infinium Brassica napus 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array has been used to identify species and assess genetic diversity of Brassica collections. However, these methods are technically challenging, expensive and time-consuming, making them unsuitable for routine or rapid screening of Brassica accessions for germplasm management. A cheaper, faster and simpler method for Brassica species identification is described here. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) consisting of new and existing primers specific to the Brassica A, B and C genomes was able to reliably distinguish all six Brassica species in the triangle of U with 16 control samples of known species identity. Further validation against 120 Brassica accessions previously genotyped showed that the MPCR is highly accurate and comparable to more advanced techniques such as SSR marker sequencing or the Illumina Infinium B. napus 60K SNP array. In addition, the MPCR was sensitive enough to detect seed contaminations in pooled seed samples of Brassica accessions. A cheap and fast multiplex PCR assay for identification of Brassica species in the triangle of U was developed and validated in this study. The MPCR assay can be readily implemented in any basic molecular laboratory and should prove useful for the management of Brassica
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kostić Miroslav
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Three key and interacting roles of universities – education, research and innovation – form the knowledge triangle. The concept of knowledge triangle has become one of the cornerstones of the European research and innovation policy during the last decade. In this respect, the article aims at the assessment of research interactions between Czech universities and businesses leading to knowledge transfer. A steep increase of patent activity of Czech universities seemingly creates high potential for commercialisation of R&D results. However, the majority of patents is registered only in the Czech Republic. Furthermore, the mentioned increase is not accompanied by higher revenues from sale of patents and licences. The business sector perceives universities as one of the main cooperation partners within the innovation process but the share of business expenditures on university research funding remains very low compared to other EU countries. Predominantly low revenues from the knowledge transfer and especially from sale of patents and licences indicate that technology transfer centres at Czech universities do not work as efficiently as similar university centres in developed countries. Besides relatively short period of their operation, one of the main reasons consists in the way of their funding, mostly dependent on projects funded from the EU Structural Funds. Generally low extent of knowledge transfer from universities to the business sector indicates insufficiently developed knowledge triangle in Czechia. While there is no doubt about the significance of research and education role of Czech universities, the innovation role is well developed only at a few – mainly technically oriented – universities, more focused on applied R&D.
Music Composition from the Cosine Law of a Frequency-Amplitude Triangle
Sotiropoulos, Vaggelis D.; Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.
We propose a frequency-amplitude triangle whose cosine law is used as a recurrence equation to algorithmically compose music. The triangle is defined by two sides and the angle between them; one of the sides is the sound frequency, x, at a step, the other side is the sound amplitude, y, at the same step, while the angle between them is a free parameter to be chosen by the composer. The resulting third side of the triangle is defined as the square root of the sound frequency, x, of the next step. The sound amplitude, y, at each step depends, in general, on the amplitude and frequency of the same or previous step(s) in any way the composer chooses. To test our proposition for bifurcation and chaos against known solutions, we consider in detail the case where the amplitude depends only on the frequency of the same or some previous step as yn = b(xn-m)λ, with b being a free parameter, m either zero or a positive integer, and λ a real number greater than or equal to zero. If λ is taken as zero, the resulting equation after a change of variables becomes the one parameter logistic recurrence equation. From the known range of the parameter for bifurcation and chaos, we obtain the range of values for sound amplitude and angle θ for periodic and chaotic music. For specific values, the frequencies corresponding to musical notes are obtained from the proposed triangular recurrence equation and musical chaotic scores are composed and presented. Other λ's are also considered and their effect on the periodicity of the frequencies is examined.
Visualisation of uncertainty for the trade-off triangle used in sustainable agriculture
Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael
2017-04-01
Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm
Combining the triangle method with thermal inertia to estimate regional evapotranspiration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stisen, Simon; Sandholt, Inge; Nørgaard, Anette
2008-01-01
Spatially distributed estimates of evaporative fraction and actual evapotranspiration are pursued using a simple remote sensing technique based on a remotely sensed vegetation index (NDVI) and diurnal changes in land surface temperature. The technique, known as the triangle method, is improved...... in surface temperature, dTs with an interpretation of the triangular shaped dTs-NDVI space allows for a direct estimation of evaporative fraction. The mean daytime energy available for evapotranspiration (Rn-G) is estimated using several remote sensors and limited ancillary data. Finally regional estimates...
Finite-size and shape effects on vortex configurations in superconducting isosceles right triangles
Wu, Wenjuan; Zhao, H. J.; Li, B.; Shi, Z. X.
2017-12-01
We numerically studied vortex configurations in superconducting isosceles right triangles. We found the solution of the London equation using Green’s function method. Then the Gibbs free energy for an arbitrary configuration was obtained. Using molecular dynamic simulation, we calculated the stable configurations for specific vorticities. The filling rulers were revealed by analyzing these states. Moreover, by changing the sample size, we found that many configurations are sensitive to sample size, which shows a very strong size effect. Lastly, general rules of the size effect were summarized.
The World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on China-US-Russia Triangle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexei Dmitrievich Voskressenski
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state of relations in the triangle of Russia-US-China after the late-2000s global financial crisis from the point of view of their national interests, East Asian policy of the USA, China's growth and the strengthening of Russia in Asia. The author critically examines the existing approaches, foreign policy concepts and the latest initiatives which could shift the balance of power in the post-crisis period. According to the author, Russia still has all the chances to reshape its relations with China and the United States.
Triassi, Maria; Alfano, Rossella; Illario, Maddalena; Nardone, Antonio; Caporale, Oreste; Montuori, Paolo
2015-01-01
The term “triangle of death” was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great he...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech, P; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, M H
2012-01-01
Bech P, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial. Objective: To compare within the framework of a novel pharmacopsychometric triangle, augmentation treatment with bupropion...... intention to treat sample was used. Results: Within the pharmacopsychometric triangle, bupropion-SR (sustained release) was superior to buspirone when augmented to the current citalopram treatment. Thus, in the domain of pure antidepressive effect, bupropion-SR was superior (P = 0.05) on the HAM-D(6) , IDS......-C(6) , and IDS-C(30) , but not on the HAM-D(17) . In the domain of side effects, the total scores on the Patient Rated Inventory of Side Effects (PRISE) were reduced significantly more by bupropion-SR than by buspirone (P = 0.03). In the domain of quality of life, the total scores on the Quality...
Cardós García, José Javier; Lillo Crespo, Manuel; Climent Rubio, Andrés; Hernández Urrutia, Emiliano; Mejias Moreno, Beatriz
2016-01-01
This paper aims to provide a broad view of the Turkana tribe of the Ilemi Triangle in northwestern Kenya, especially regarding the way the members of this nomadic ethnic group understand and shape their own construct of health and disease. It is based in an ethnographic study carried out in July and August 2014, including participant observation of 15 villages of the Turkana tribe, formal interviews and in-depth interviews carried out with the collaboration of two translators of the tribe and a nurse. Field notes as well videos and audio records were captured and transcribed for later analysis. Among the primary results of this study, it should be highlighted that the concepts of both health and disease differ greatly from the western approach that external projects bring with them a priori and it is likely that the lack of adherence to these projects is related to the scant cultural knowledge regarding such constructs on the part of the health professionals.
Gampe, David; Huber García, Verena; Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf
2017-04-01
Actual evaporation (Eta) is an essential variable to assess water availability, drought risk and food security, among others. Measurements of Eta are however limited to a small footprint, hampering a spatially explicit analysis and application and are very often not available at all. To overcome the problem of data scarcity, Eta can be assessed by various remote sensing approaches such as the Triangle Method (Jiang & Islam, 1999). Here, Eta is estimated by using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST). In this study, the R-package 'TriangleMethod' was compiled to efficiently perform the calculations of NDVI and processing LST to finally derive Eta from the applied data set. The package contains all necessary calculation steps and allows easy processing of a large data base of remote sensing images. By default, the parameterization for the Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors are implemented, however, the algorithms can be easily extended to additional sensors. The auxiliary variables required to estimate Eta with this method, such as elevation, solar radiation and air temperature at the overpassing time, can be processed as gridded information to allow for a better representation of the study area. The package was successfully applied in various studies in Spain, Palestine, Costa Rica and Canada.
Mesopause dynamics from the scandinavian triangle ofradars within the PSMOS-DATAR Project
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. H. Manson
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The "Scandinavian Triangle" is a unique trio of radars within the DATAR Project (Dynamics and Temperatures from the Arctic MLT (60–97km region: Andenes MF radar (69°N, 16°E; Tromsø MF radar (70°N, 19°E and Esrange "Meteor" radar (68°N, 21°E. The radar-spacings range from 125-270km, making it unique for studies of wind variability associated with small-scale waves, comparisons of large-scale waves measured over small spacings, and for comparisons of winds from different radar systems. As such it complements results from arrays having spacings of 25km and 500km that have been located near Saskatoon. Correlation analysis is used to demonstrate a speed bias (MF smaller than the Meteor between the radar types, which varies with season and altitude. Annual climatologies for the year 2000 of mean winds, solar tides, planetary and gravity waves are presented, and show indications of significant spatial variability across the Triangle and of differences in wave characteristics from middle latitudes.
Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides: instrument and techniques
Mesopause dynamics from the scandinavian triangle of radars within the PSMOS-DATAR Project
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. H. Manson
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The "Scandinavian Triangle" is a unique trio of radars within the DATAR Project (Dynamics and Temperatures from the Arctic MLT (60–97km region: Andenes MF radar (69°N, 16°E; Tromsø MF radar (70°N, 19°E and Esrange "Meteor" radar (68°N, 21°E. The radar-spacings range from 125-270km, making it unique for studies of wind variability associated with small-scale waves, comparisons of large-scale waves measured over small spacings, and for comparisons of winds from different radar systems. As such it complements results from arrays having spacings of 25km and 500km that have been located near Saskatoon. Correlation analysis is used to demonstrate a speed bias (MF smaller than the Meteor between the radar types, which varies with season and altitude. Annual climatologies for the year 2000 of mean winds, solar tides, planetary and gravity waves are presented, and show indications of significant spatial variability across the Triangle and of differences in wave characteristics from middle latitudes. Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides: instrument and techniques
Mesopause dynamics from the scandinavian triangle ofradars within the PSMOS-DATAR Project
Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Hall, C.; Nozawa, S.; Mitchell, N.; Pancheva, D.; Singer, W.; Hoffmann, P.
2004-02-01
. The ``Scandinavian Triangle" is a unique trio of radars within the DATAR Project (Dynamics and Temperatures from the Arctic MLT (60-97km) region): Andenes MF radar (N, E); Tromsø MF radar (N, E) and Esrange ``Meteor" radar (N, E). The radar-spacings range from 125-270km, making it unique for studies of wind variability associated with small-scale waves, comparisons of large-scale waves measured over small spacings, and for comparisons of winds from different radar systems. As such it complements results from arrays having spacings of 25km and 500km that have been located near Saskatoon. Correlation analysis is used to demonstrate a speed bias (MF smaller than the Meteor) between the radar types, which varies with season and altitude. Annual climatologies for the year 2000 of mean winds, solar tides, planetary and gravity waves are presented, and show indications of significant spatial variability across the Triangle and of differences in wave characteristics from middle latitudes.
Te Riele, Anneline S J M; James, Cynthia A; Philips, Binu; Rastegar, Neda; Bhonsale, Aditya; Groeneweg, Judith A; Murray, Brittney; Tichnell, Crystal; Judge, Daniel P; Van Der Heijden, Jeroen F; Cramer, Maarten J M; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Bluemke, David A; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Kamel, Ihab R; Hauer, Richard N W; Calkins, Hugh; Tandri, Harikrishna
2013-12-01
The traditional description of the Triangle of Dysplasia in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) predates genetic testing and excludes biventricular phenotypes. We analyzed Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) studies of 74 mutation-positive ARVD/C patients for regional abnormalities on a 5-segment RV and 17-segment LV model. The location of electroanatomic endo- and epicardial scar and site of successful VT ablation was recorded in 11 ARVD/C subjects. Among 54/74 (73%) subjects with abnormal CMR, the RV was abnormal in almost all (96%), and 52% had biventricular involvement. Isolated LV abnormalities were uncommon (4%). Dyskinetic basal inferior wall (94%) was the most prevalent RV abnormality, followed by basal anterior wall (87%) dyskinesis. Subepicardial fat infiltration in the posterolateral LV (80%) was the most frequent LV abnormality. Similar to CMR data, voltage maps revealed scar (disease involving the basal inferior and anterior RV, and the posterolateral LV. The RV apex is only involved in advanced ARVD/C, typically as a part of global RV involvement. These results displace the RV apex from the Triangle of Dysplasia, and provide insights into the pathophysiology of ARVD/C. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Disruption of the 'disease triangle' by chemical and physical environmental change.
Chappelka, A H; Grulke, N E
2016-01-01
The physical and chemical environment of the Earth has changed rapidly over the last 100 years and is predicted to continue to change into the foreseeable future. One of the main concerns with potential alterations in climate is the propensity for increases in the magnitude and frequency of extremes to occur. Even though precipitation is predicted to increase in some locations, in others precipitation is expected to decrease and evapotranspiration increase with air temperature, resulting in exacerbated drought in the future. Chemical [ozone (O3 ) and other air contaminants] and subsequent physical alterations in the environment will have a profound effect on the 'disease triangle' (a favourable environment, a susceptible host and a virulent pathogen) and should be included in any analysis of biological response to climate change. The chemical and physical environment affects plant health and alters plant susceptibility to insect and pathogen attack through increased frequency, duration and severity of drought and reduction in host vigour. The potential effects of climate change and O3 on tree diseases with emphasis on the western United States are discussed. We describe a generalised modelling approach to incorporate the complexities of the 'disease triangle' into dynamic vegetation models. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Li, Bo; Han, Zeng-Lin; Tong, Lian-Jun
2009-05-01
By the methods of in situ investigation and regional ecological planning, the present ecological environment, ecosystem vulnerability, and ecological environment sensitivity in "Ji Triangle" Region were analyzed, and the ecological network of the study area was constructed. According to the ecological resources abundance degree, ecological recovery, farmland windbreak system, environmental carrying capacity, forestry foundation, and ecosystem integrity, the study area was classified into three regional ecological function ecosystems, i. e., east low hill ecosystem, middle plain ecosystem, and west plain wetland ecosystem. On the basis of marking regional ecological nodes, the regional ecological corridor (Haerbin-Dalian regional axis, Changchun-Jilin, Changchun-Songyuan, Jilin-Songyuan, Jilin-Siping, and Songyuan-Siping transportation corridor) and regional ecological network (one ring, three links, and three belts) were constructed. Taking the requests of regional ecological security into consideration, the ecological environment security system of "Ji Triangle" Region, including regional ecological conservation district, regional ecological restored district, and regional ecological management district, was built.
Gok, Kadir; Inal, Sermet; Gok, Arif; Gulbandilar, Eyyup
2017-05-01
In this study, biomechanical behaviors of three different screw materials (stainless steel, titanium and cobalt-chromium) have analyzed to fix with triangle fixation under axial loading in femoral neck fracture and which material is best has been investigated. Point cloud obtained after scanning the human femoral model with the three dimensional (3D) scanner and this point cloud has been converted to 3D femoral model by Geomagic Studio software. Femoral neck fracture was modeled by SolidWorks software for only triangle configuration and computer-aided numerical analyses of three different materials have been carried out by AnsysWorkbench finite element analysis (FEA) software. The loading, boundary conditions and material properties have prepared for FEA and Von-Misses stress values on upper and lower proximity of the femur and screws have been calculated. At the end of numerical analyses, the best advantageous screw material has calculated as titanium because it creates minimum stress at the upper and lower proximity of the fracture line.
De Pascale, Francesco; Dattilo, Valeria
2016-04-01
This paper presents the first formulation of a theoretical proposal which aims to reconcile, or better, to work together, two different approaches: geoethics and the semiotic tradition of Peirce, on the basis of some important affinities. We will refer to geoethics, discipline that deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geological and geographical practice, at the intersection of Geoscience, Geography, Philosophy, Sociology and Economy. The proposal of this work is to try to explain the new processes of the Anthropocene era through geoethics and semiotics, using as a "translator mechanism" one of the key notions of Peirce semiotics: the semiotic triangle. On the one hand, we employ the geoethical paradigm as a possible interpretative framework for such processes (in other words, we identify in the geoethical paradigm a significant exemplification of hippocratic type, according to some scientists); on the other hand, we use the triangle "geology / geography - planet illness - society", as a metaphor of the principles and the processes inherent Anthropocene era, able to return them in a particularly random way through the semiotic triangulation of Peirce.
Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine
2012-01-01
Institutional investment in technology and infrastructure for the provision of new online and self-access language learning opportunities is not always accompanied by the necessary changes in the practices of learners, practitioners and managers in higher education (Wertsch, 2002). As a result, feelings of frustration, helplessness and confusion…
A unified triangle carrier based PWM strategy for three-phase N-level diode clamped inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Kai; Xie, Chuan; Wei, Min
2017-01-01
The triangle carrier based pulse width modulation (TCB-PWM) can be functionally equivalent to space vector base PWM (SVB-PWM). For multi-level inverter, it is very difficult to realize the SVB-PWM because its vector space is very complex. In this paper, a unified TCB-PWM strategy for three-phase N...... and phase deposition triangle carriers. Especially, the procedures to realize different types of PWM method are demonstrated in this paper. The proposed method can be directly implemented in digital processers....
Schuenke, M D; Vleeming, A; Van Hoof, T; Willard, F H
2012-01-01
Movement and stability of the lumbosacral region is contingent on the balance of forces distributed through the myofascial planes associated with the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). This structure is located at the common intersection of several extremity muscles (e.g. latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus), as well as hypaxial (e.g. ventral trunk muscles) and epaxial (paraspinal) muscles. The mechanical properties of the fascial constituents establish the parameters guiding the dynamic interaction of muscle groups that stabilize the lumbosacral spine. Understanding the construction of this complex myofascial junction is fundamental to biomechanical analysis and implementation of effective rehabilitation in individuals with low back and pelvic girdle pain. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to describe the anatomy of the lateral margin of the TLF, and specifically the interface between the fascial sheath surrounding the paraspinal muscles and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis (TA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles. The lateral margin of the TLF was exposed via serial reduction dissections from anterior and posterior approaches. Axial sections (cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging) were examined to characterize the region between the TA and IO aponeurosis and the paraspinal muscles. It is confirmed that the paraspinal muscles are enveloped by a continuous paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS), formed by the deep lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF. The PRS extends from the spinous process to transverse process, and is distinct from both the superficial lamina of the posterior layer and middle layer of the TLF. As the aponeurosis approaches the lateral border of the PRS, it appears to separate into two distinct laminae, which join the anterior and posterior walls of the PRS. This configuration creates a previously undescribed fat-filled lumbar interfascial triangle situated along the lateral border of the paraspinal muscles from the 12th
Laatikainen, Tiina; Philpot, Benjamin; Hankonen, Nelli; Sippola, Risto; Dunbar, James A; Absetz, Pilvikki; Reddy, Prasuna; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Vartiainen, Erkki
2012-02-01
To analyse how psychosocial determinants of lifestyle changes targeted in the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project conducted in Southeast Australia in 2004-2006 predict changes in dietary behaviour and clinical risk factors. A longitudinal pre-test and post-test study design was used. The group program was completed by 237 people at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Associations between changes in the variables were examined by structural equation modelling using a path model in which changes in psychological determinants for lifestyle predicted changes in dietary behaviours (fat and fibre intake), which subsequently predicted changes in waist circumference and other clinical outcomes. Standardised regression weights are presented, with β=±0.1 and β=±0.3 representing small and medium associations, respectively. Improvements in coping self-efficacy and planning predicted improvements in fat (β=-0.15, p<0.05 and β=-0.32, p<0.001, respectively) and fibre intake (β=0.15, p<0.05 and β=0.23, p<0.001, respectively) which in turn predicted improvements in waist circumference (β=0.18, p<0.01 and β=-0.16, p<0.05, respectively). Improvements in waist circumference predicted improvements in diastolic blood pressure (β=0.13, p<0.05), HDL (β=-0.16, p<0.05), triglycerides (β=0.17, p<0.01), and fasting glucose (β=0.15, p<0.05). Psychological changes predicted behaviour changes, resulting in 12-month biophysical changes. The findings support the theoretical basis of the interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Swetz, Frank J.; Kao, T. I.
This book is primarily a scholarly monograph on ancient Chinese theory and application concerning the right triangle, based on evidence contained in classical mathematics texts and scrolls. It is also the first complete English translation of the ninth chapter of the Chiu chang suan chu, the richest source of problems from antiquity dealing with…
He, Xiangfeng; Shi, Wen; Wen, Song; Sun, Yongqiang; Ling, Guojie; Shen, Kang; Peng, Chunlei; Chen, Baoan; Wang, Jianhong
2015-06-01
To explore the feasibility of preparation of a mouse model of orthotopic colon cancer by injecting tumor cell suspension into mesenteric triangle of the cecum. Twenty SPF 8-week old BALB/c mice (male:female = 1:1) were used in this study. The mouse caecum was exposed by laparostomy, and suspension of mouse colon adenocarcinoma CT26. WT cells was injected into the mesenteric triangle of cecum for preparation of a mouse model of orthotopic colon cancer. Mouse orthotopic colon cancer was developed by injection of tumor cell suspension into mesenteric triangle of the cecum showing a successful rate of 100%, without intestinal obstruction, and the liver, spleen, diaphragm and mesenteric lymph nodes metastasis rates were high in all the 20 experimental mice. The establishment of mouse models of orthotopic colon cancer by injection of tumor cell suspension into the mesenteric triangle is a simple, rapid, and easy to master procedure, causing less damage to the colon wall, safe and with less trauma to the mice. This method may provide an ideal mouse model of orthotopic colon cancer for the study of pathogenesis as well as liver metastasis mechanisms of colon cancer.
Levesque, Luc
2012-01-01
A method is proposed to simplify analytical computations of the transfer function for electrical circuit filters, which are made from repetitive identical stages. A method based on the construction of Pascal's triangle is introduced and then a general solution from two initial conditions is provided for the repetitive identical stage. The present…
Hoeksema, B.W.; Lane, D.J.W.
2014-01-01
Brunei Darussalam is situated on the northwest coast of Borneo, just outside the westernmost boundary of the area presently recognised as the centre of maximum marine biodiversity, the so-called Coral Triangle. This diversity is particularly quantified with regard to numbers of reef coral species.
Meeting report: Urinary Pathology; sixth Research Triangle Park Rodent Pathology Course.
Boyle, M C; Boyle, M H
2013-05-01
Urinary system toxicity is a significant concern to pathologists in the hazard identification, drug and chemical safety evaluation, and diagnostic service industries worldwide. There are myriad known human and animal urinary system toxicants, and investigatory renal toxicology and pathology is continually evolving. The system-specific Research Triangle Park (RTP) Rodent Pathology Course biennially serves to update scientists on the latest research, laboratory techniques, and debates. The Sixth RTP Rodent Pathology Course, Urinary Pathology, featured experts from the government, pharmaceutical, academic, and diagnostic arenas sharing the state of the science in urinary pathology. Speakers presented on a wide range of topics including background lesions, treatment-related non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, transgenic rodent models of human disease, diagnostic imaging, biomarkers, and molecular analyses. These seminars were accompanied by case presentation sessions focused on usual and unusual lesions, grading schemes, and tumors.
Mastoid triangle for sex determination in adult Nigerian population: a validation study.
Jaja, Blessing N R; Ajua, Christiana O; Didia, Blessing C
2013-11-01
In the quest for a simple, reliable technique to estimate the sex of human remains several novel metric skeletal indices have been reported. Only a few have been examined for utility in populations different from those in which they were developed. In this study, the mastoid process was evaluated for sex determination using 102 lateral cephalograms of a Nigerian sample of known age and sex. The asterion-mastoidale distance and mastoid triangular area were sexually dimorphic with mean values higher in males compared with females (p = 0.02). On analysis of the discriminant function, overall accuracy for sex classification was 55%. On cross-validation, the triangular area accurately identified 80% of females and 48% of males. The asterion-mastoidale distance was slightly more accurate at sexing the sample. The practical utility of the mastoid triangle area technique to differentiate sex in Nigerian populations is not supported by the results of this study. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Aldoori, J; Mahadevan, V; Aldoori, M
2018-02-01
Injuries to the hypoglossal and vagus nerves are the most commonly reported injuries during carotid endarterectomy. While unilateral single nerve injury is usually well tolerated, bilateral or combined nerve injuries can pose a serious threat to life. This study aims to increase awareness of the inferior pharyngeal vein, which usually passes posterior to the internal carotid artery but sometimes crosses anterior to it. Injury to either or both hypoglossal and vagus nerves can occur during control of unexpected haemorrhage from the torn and retracted edges of the inferior pharyngeal vein. We recommend careful ligation and division of this vein. In addition, we observed in 9 (17.3%) of the 52 operations that the pharyngeal vein formed a triangle with the vagus and hypoglossal nerves when it passes anterior to the internal carotid artery.
A Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a Ball and Rigid Triangle System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Aguilar-Ibanez
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of linear flatness control along with active disturbance rejection control (ADRC for the local stabilization and trajectory tracking problems in the underactuated ball and rigid triangle system. To this end, an observer-based linear controller of the ADRC type is designed based on the flat tangent linearization of the system around its corresponding unstable equilibrium rest position. It was accomplished through two decoupled linear extended observers and a single linear output feedback controller, with disturbance cancelation features. The controller guarantees locally exponentially asymptotic stability for the stabilization problem and practical local stability in the solution of the tracking error. An advantage of combining the flatness and the ADRC methods is that it possible to perform online estimates and cancels the undesirable effects of the higher-order nonlinearities discarded by the linearization approximation. Simulation indicates that the proposed controller behaves remarkably well, having an acceptable domain of attraction.