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Sample records for hechi guangxi china

  1. Multidimensional poverty measure and analysis: a case study from Hechi City, China.

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    Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Baixue

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the anti-poverty outline of China and the human-environment sustainable development, we propose a multidimensional poverty measure and analysis methodology for measuring the poverty-stricken counties and their contributing factors. We build a set of multidimensional poverty indicators with Chinese characteristics, integrating A-F double cutoffs, dimensional aggregation and decomposition approach, and GIS spatial analysis to evaluate the poor's multidimensional poverty characteristics under different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. The case study from 11 counties of Hechi City shows that, firstly, each county existed at least four respects of poverty, and overall the poverty level showed the spatial pattern of surrounding higher versus middle lower. Secondly, three main poverty contributing factors were unsafe housing, family health and adults' illiteracy, while the secondary factors include fuel type and children enrollment rate, etc., generally demonstrating strong autocorrelation; in terms of poverty degree, the western of the research area shows a significant aggregation effect, whereas the central and the eastern represent significant spatial heterogeneous distribution. Thirdly, under three kinds of socioeconomic classifications, the intra-classification diversities of H, A, and MPI are greater than their inter-classification ones, while each of the three indexes has a positive correlation with both the rocky desertification degree and topographic fragmentation degree, respectively. This study could help policymakers better understand the local poverty by identifying the poor, locating them and describing their characteristics, so as to take differentiated poverty alleviation measures according to specific conditions of each county.

  2. Prevalence of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Guangxi, China.

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    Ma, G; Zheng, D; Cai, Q; Yuan, Z

    2010-01-01

    Melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is now recognized as an important public health problem in Southeast Asia and tropical northern Australia. Although B. pseudomallei has been detected in various water and soil samples in southeast China, the enviromental distribution of B. pseudomallei in China is unclear. In the winter months of 2007, 154 and 130 soil and water samples, respectively, were collected from several locations in Guangxi, China. The samples were screened for B. pseudomallei by bacterial culture and identification and confirmed by PCR for species-specific 16S rDNA and flagellin genes. B. pseudomallei was detected in 8.4% of the soil samples but in none of the water samples. All positive samples were confined to a single low-lying region from rice paddy fields. Counts of B. pseudomallei ranged from 23 to 521 c.f.u./g soil. This is the first geographical distribution survey of B. pseudomallei in soil in Guangxi, China, and the data are of importance for further evaluating the impact of this pathogen on melioidosis in this region.

  3. A mass vaccination campaign targeting adults and children to prevent typhoid fever in Hechi; Expanding the use of Vi polysaccharide vaccine in Southeast China: A cluster-randomized trial

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    Yang Hong-hui

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of this study was to learn the coverage, safety and logistics of a mass vaccination campaign against typhoid fever in children and adults using locally produced typhoid Vi polysaccharide (PS and group A meningococcal PS vaccines in southern China. Methods The vaccination campaign targeted 118,588 persons in Hechi, Guangxi Province, aged between 5 to 60 years, in 2003. The study area was divided into 107 geographic clusters, which were randomly allocated to receive one of the single-dose parenteral vaccines. All aspects regarding vaccination logistics, feasibility and safety were documented and systematically recorded. Results of the logistics, feasibility and safety are reported. Results The campaign lasted 5 weeks and the overall vaccination coverage was 78%. On average, the 30 vaccine teams gave immunizations on 23 days. Vaccine rates were higher in those aged ≤ 15 years (90% than in adolescents and young adults (70%. Planned mop-up activities increased the coverage by 17%. The overall vaccine wastage was 11%. The cold chain was maintained and documented. 66 individuals reported of adverse events out of all vaccinees, where fever (21%, malaise (19% and local redness (19% were the major symptoms; no life-threatening event occurred. Three needle-sharp events were reported. Conclusion The mass immunization proved feasible and safe, and vaccine coverage was high. Emphasis should be placed on: injection safety measures, community involvement and incorporation of mop-up strategies into any vaccination campaign. School-based and all-age Vi mass immunizations programs are potentially important public health strategies for prevention of typhoid fever in high-risk populations in southern China.

  4. Lyssavirus surveillance in bats of southern China's Guangxi Province.

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    Lu, Zhuan-Ling; Wang, Wen; Yin, Wei-Li; Tang, Hai-Bo; Pan, Yan; Liang, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Xiong, Yi; Minamoto, Nobuyuki; Luo, Ting Rong

    2013-04-01

    Although rabies virus is widely distributed in the world, and has been the subject of extensive investigations with the objective of its ultimate prevention, control, and management, there is much less knowledge of the characteristics, distribution, and infectivity of other lyssaviruses. Since bats are known animal vectors for all but one of the known lyssavirus genotypes, we have performed an extensive survey of bats in the Guangxi Province to provide information on lyssavirus distribution in southern China. The lyssavirus nucleoprotein gene was detected in brains of 2.86 % of 2,969 bats. Nucleotide sequence homologies among isolates were 86.9-99.6 %, but only 70.0-85.0 % for lyssaviruses in GenBank. These infected bats were detected from a wide area, essentially forming a band running from the south-west to the north-east of Guangxi, and it appears that infection by new lyssaviruses is widespread in this region.

  5. Coping, social support, stigma, and gender difference among people living with HIV in Guangxi, China.

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    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined whether gender, HIV-related stigma, social support, and the interaction between gender and social support are associated with coping responses among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in Guangxi, China. A total of 2987 PLWHA in Guangxi participated from October 2012 to August 2013. Multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted with gender and social support as main factors in the model, and stigma and other variables as covariates. After controlling for demographic variables and stigma, there were significant main effects of emotional social support (F = 1.61, p social support (F = 1.67, p social support (F = 3.67, p social support (F = 1.33, p social support differences in the coping strategies among PLWHA in Guangxi, China.

  6. Cultivar Evaluation and Essential Test Locations Identification for Sugarcane Breeding in China

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    Jun Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies across test sites and years, along with the interaction between cultivar and environment, make it difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the sugarcane cultivars. Using a genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (GGE Biplot software, the yield performance data of seven sugarcane cultivars in the 8th Chinese National Sugarcane Regional Tests were analyzed to identify cultivars recommended for commercial release. Fn38 produced a high and stable sugar yield. Gn02-70 had the lowest cane yield with high stability. Yz06-407 was a high cane yield cultivar with poor stability in sugar yield. Yz05-51 and Lc03-1137 had an unstable cane yield but relatively high sugar yield. Fn39 produced stable high sugar yield with low and unstable cane production. Significantly different sugar and cane yields were observed across seasons due to strong cultivar-environment interactions. Three areas, Guangxi Chongzuo, Guangxi Baise, and Guangxi Hechi, showed better representativeness of cane yield and sugar content than the other four areas. On the other hand, the areas Guangxi Chongzuo, Yunnan Lincang, and Yunnan Baoshan showed strong discrimination ability, while the areas Guangxi Hechi and Guangxi Liuzhou showed poor discrimination ability. This study provides a reference for cultivar evaluation and essential test locations identification for sugarcane breeding in China.

  7. New species and records of the stonefly genus Neoperla (Plecoptera, Perlidae) from Jinhuacha Nature Reserve, Guangxi of China.

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    Wang, Guo-Quan; Li, Wei-Hai; Yang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Two new Neoperla species (Neoperla mesospina, Neoperla latispina) are described from the adult male stage from the Jinhuacha Nature Reserve, Guangxi of China. The new species are compared with similar taxa. Taxonomic remarks are also provided for N. transversprojecta Du & Sivec and N. yao Stark. The latter species is newly recorded for Guangxi.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Parvovirus N Strain Isolated from Guangxi, China

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    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety.

  9. Zoonotic helminths parasites in the digestive tract of feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, China.

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    Fang, Fang; Li, Jian; Huang, Tengfei; Guillot, Jacques; Huang, Weiyi

    2015-08-16

    In Guangxi, a province of southern China, an important number of dogs and cats roam freely in rural settings, and the presence of these animals in proximity of people may represent a risk of parasitic zoonoses. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and identify gastrointestinal helminths in feral carnivores in Guangxi province. Therefore, post mortem examination was performed in 40 dogs and in 39 cats. The Gastrointestinal helminths were found in all the necropsied dogs and in 37 out of 39 cats. Fifteen species were identified including 7 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 5 nematodes. Most of them may be responsible for zoonotic infections. Major zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths, including liver and intestinal flukes, Toxocara spp., and Ancylostoma spp., are present in feral dogs and cats in Guangxi, and may represent a significant risk for public health.

  10. Mummified fossil woods of Fagaceae from the upper Oligocene of Guangxi, South China

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    Huang, Luliang; Jin, Jianhua; Quan, Cheng; Oskolski, Alexei A.

    2018-02-01

    Three new fossil species, two attributed to the genus Castanopsis (C. nanningensis and C. guangxiensis) and one to the organ genus Lithocarpoxylon (L. nanningensis) are described on the basis of well-preserved mummified wood from the upper Oligocene of Yongning Formation in the Nanning Basin, Guangxi Province, South China. The two species of Castanopsis represent the most ancient reliable wood record of this genus in China and also southeastern Asia, which is the center of diversity of extant species. The fossil leaf records of Castanopsis indicated this genus has migrated to South China in the late Eocene. This fossil wood evidence confirms the presence and persistence of Castanopsis in this region in the late Oligocene. In the Yongning Formation, the presence of numerous Fagaceae woods with faint or absent growth ring boundaries (in C. nanningensis) occasionally associated with prominent ring-porous patterns, suggests that Guangxi (South China) had a seasonal (probably monsoonal) tropical climate during the late Oligocene.

  11. Diversity and frequency of kdr mutations within Anopheles sinensis populations from Guangxi, China.

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    Yang, Chan; Feng, Xiangyang; Huang, Zushi; Li, Mei; Qiu, Xinghui

    2016-08-15

    Anopheles sinensis is a major vector of malaria in China and its control is under great threat as the development of insecticide resistance. Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) is the target of several classes of insecticides. Genetic mutations of VGSC have been documented to confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids in mosquitoes. To control this vector efficiently, it is important to know the resistance-associated genetic mutations, their distribution frequencies and genealogical relations. Three hundreds and thirteen (313) adults of An. sinensis collected from nine locations across Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were used. The partial sequence of the An. sinensis voltage gated sodium channel gene (AS-VGSC) containing codon 1014 was sequenced. PHASE2.1 was used to construct the haplotypes of each individual, and the accuracy of haplotypes was further confirmed by clone sequencing. The genealogical relations of kdr mutations in AS-VGSC was analysed using TCS 2.1 and Network 5.0. Sixteen AS-VGSC haplotypes including seven haplotypes carrying non-synonymous mutations at codon 1014, and fifty-five AS-VGSC genotypes were identified from 313 mosquitoes collected from nine geographical locations across Guangxi. The number of haplotypes in each of the nine populations ranged from 5 to 13. The frequency of haplotypes carrying kdr mutations ranged from 2.7 to 80.0 % within the nine populations, of which 1014C was unexpectedly high in the northeast of Guangxi. Genealogical analysis suggested multiple origins of kdr mutations in An. sinensis. Diverse haplotypes of AS-VGSC are distributed in Guangxi. The presence of haplotypes carrying mutations at codon 1014 indicates a risk of pyrethroid and DDT resistance. The kdr mutations show differential distribution geographically, with high frequencies occurred in the northeast of Guangxi. Genealogical analysis suggests multiple origins of kdr mutations in An. sinensis populations

  12. Complete genome sequence of porcine parvovirus N strain isolated from guangxi, china.

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    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-08

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety. Copyright © 2015 Su et al.

  13. Patient characteristics and perceived health status of individuals with HIV and tuberculosis coinfection in Guangxi, China

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    Zhu, Yujia; Wu, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Chen, Huanhuan; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Li; Luo, Liuhong; Rui, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To explore demographics, clinical and medication profiles, patients? social support, and perceived health status in HIV/TB coinfected patients in Guangxi, China. We performed a cross-sectional study in the HIV clinic of the Guigang City People's Hospital (N?=?150). Health professionals conducted face-to-face interviews and collected data from patients? electronic medical records regarding patients? demographic, clinical, and medication information, as well as their social support and...

  14. Epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV from poultry in Guangxi Province, Southern China.

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    Yi Peng

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. However, some LPAIV strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. Genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. Southern China is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. In this study, we conducted an epidemiological survey of LPAIV at different live bird markets (LBMs in Guangxi province, Southern China. From January 2009 to December 2011, we collected 3,121 cotton swab samples of larynx, trachea and cloaca from the poultry at LBMs in Guangxi. Virus isolation, hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, and RT-PCR were used to detect and subtype LPAIV in the collected samples. Of the 3,121 samples, 336 samples (10.8% were LPAIV positive, including 54 (1.7% in chicken and 282 (9.1% in duck. The identified LPAIV were H3N1, H3N2, H6N1, H6N2, H6N5, H6N6, H6N8, and H9N2, which are combinations of seven HA subtypes (H1, H3, H4, H6, H9, H10 and H11 and five NA subtypes (N1, N2, N5, N6 and N8. The H3 and H9 subtypes are predominant in the identified LPAIVs. Among the 336 cases, 29 types of mixed infection of different HA subtypes were identified in 87 of the cases (25.9%. The mixed infections may provide opportunities for genetic recombination. Our results suggest that the LPAIV epidemiology in poultry in the Guangxi province in southern China is complicated and highlights the need for further epidemiological and genetic studies of LPAIV in this area.

  15. Chiritopsis longzhouensis, a New Species of Gesneriaceae from Limestone Areas in Guangxi, China

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    Bo Pan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Gesneriaceae, Chiritopsis longzhouensis B. Pan & W. H. Wu from limestone areas in Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to C. jingxiensis Yan Liu, W. B. Xu & H. S. Gao in the corolla shape, but differs in its leaf blade 2-4 × 1.3-2.5 cm, appressed pilose on both surfaces, Cymes 5-10, 1-3-branched, each 5-25-flowered, filaments geniculate about 1 mm above base, sparsely glandular-puberulent, staminodes 3.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of the 'One4All' HIV Linkage Intervention in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

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    Xiao Zang

    Full Text Available In Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, an estimated 80% of newly-identified antiretroviral therapy (ART-eligible patients are not engaged in ART. Delayed ART uptake ultimately translates into high rates of HIV morbidity, mortality, and transmission. To enhance HIV testing receipt and subsequent treatment uptake in Guangxi, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC executed a cluster-randomized trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a streamlined HIV testing algorithm (the One4All intervention in 12 county-level hospitals.To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of the One4All intervention delivered at county hospitals in Guangxi, China, compared to the current standard of care (SOC.Health System.1-, 5-and 25-years.We adapted a dynamic, compartmental HIV transmission model to simulate HIV transmission and progression in Guangxi, China and identify the economic impact and health benefits of implementing the One4All intervention in all Guangxi hospitals. The One4All intervention algorithm entails rapid point-of-care HIV screening, CD4 and viral load testing of individuals presenting for HIV screening, with same-day results and linkage to counselling. We populated the model with data from the One4All trial (CTN-0056, China CDC HIV registry and published reports. Model outcomes were HIV incidence, mortality, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the One4All intervention compared to SOC.The One4All testing intervention was more costly than SOC (CNY 2,182 vs. CNY 846, but facilitated earlier ART access, resulting in delayed disease progression and mortality. Over a 25-year time horizon, we estimated that introducing One4All in Guangxi would result in 802 averted HIV cases and 1629 averted deaths at an ICER of CNY 11,678 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis revealed that One4All remained cost-effective at even minimal levels of effectiveness

  17. One new species of Amphinemura and description of the female of A. ancistroidea Li & Yang (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southern China.

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    Mo, Raorao; Yang, Ding; Wang, Guoquan; Li, Weihai

    2017-06-11

    A new nemourid species, Amphinemura yao sp. nov. is described from the Daoyao Mountains of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of southern China. Amphinemura ancistroidea Li & Yang, 2007 is newly recorded from Guangxi and the female is described for the first time including the internal vaginal complex. The new species is compared with related taxa.

  18. Description of two new species of the Neoperla montivaga group (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

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    Yang, Juan; Zhang, Sujiong; Li, Weihai

    2017-03-05

    The following two new species from Shiwandashan of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China are described, Neoperla bicolor Yang, Zhang & Li, sp. nov. and N. muranyii Yang, Zhang & Li, sp. nov. The new species are compared with related congeners of their respective species subgroups.

  19. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Guangxi, southern China.

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    Hai Long Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR, southern China.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013.(64.2% samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60 and 63.3% (38/60 in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60 cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli.The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  20. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Interest among Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

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    Zou, Yunfeng; Yang, Xiaobo; Abdullah, Abu S.; Zhong, Xiaoni; Ruan, Yuhua; Lin, Xinqin; Li, Mingqiang; Wu, Deren; Jiang, Junjun; Xie, Peiyan; Huang, Jiegang; Liang, Bingyu; Zhou, Bo; Su, Jinming; Liang, Hao; Huang, Ailong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and willingness to participate in a clinical trial for both safety and efficacy of PrEP were investigated among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in three cities in Guangxi. Structured, self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the acceptability of PrEP and the willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors. Results Among 405 participants, 15.1% had heard of PrEP. If PrEP was deemed to be effective, safe and provided for free, 85.9% reported that they would accept it, and 54.3% of those who accepted PrEP said that they would participate in a clinical trial. The increased acceptability of PrEP was associated with working in male dominated venues, higher income, a poor family relationship, better HIV/AIDS knowledge, not realizing HIV risk from unfamiliar clients, not being forced to use condoms by the gatekeepers, consistent use of condoms, and use of drugs to prevent STD infection. The increased willingness to participate in a clinical trial was associated with a poor family relationship, better HIV/AIDS knowledge, not realizing HIV risk from unfamiliar clients, a willingness to adhere to daily PreP use, and not being concerned about discrimination by others. The main reason for rejecting PrEP or participating in a clinical trial was the concern about the side effects of PrEP. Conclusions Acceptability of PrEP among Guangxi FSWs is relatively high, indicating that PrEP intervention programs may be feasible for Chinese FSWs. Given the fact that most of the participants had never heard of PrEP before, and that family, gatekeepers, and social discrimination could significantly affect its acceptability, a comprehensive mix of multiple interventions is necessary for the successful implementation of a PrEP program among this population in Guangxi. PMID:24465956

  1. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

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    Chengjing Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. METHODS: Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. RESULTS: The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  2. Prevalence of signs and symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in Guangxi, China.

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    Liu, Jianhong; Wei, Caizhou; Huang, Luying; Wang, Wu; Liang, Dahua; Lei, Zhijian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Hou, Xiujuan; Tang, Xiaojun

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence, profiles, and potential risk factors of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in China are largely unknown. This study aims to investigate the prevalence, profiles, and potential risk factors for snoring and OSAHS in Guangxi, China, and the association between OSAHS and ethnicity. Urban and rural population-based cluster samples were randomly selected in each of eight counties/cities. All residents aged 14 years or older in the selected clusters were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. A subject was considered to have clinically diagnosed OSAHS if snoring was loud and habitual, breathing pauses were observed, and the subject experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. Among 12,742 sampled subjects, 10,819 completed the questionnaire (response rate = 84.9%). The overall OSAHS prevalence was 4.1% (men, 5.7% (5.1-6.3%); women, 2.4% (2.0-2.9%); Zhuang people, 3.2% (2.8-3.7%); Han people 6.0% (5.2-6.8%).The overall rate of habitual snoring was 11.5 % (men, 17.1% (16.1-18.1%); women, 5.6% (5.0-6.2%)). Univariate analysis showed that the OSAHS prevalence was significantly higher among the following groups: urban residents, elderly individuals, smokers, drinkers, those with higher body mass indexes (BMI), those with more years of schooling, those with nasal problems, those whose parents are Han, and those who usually sleep in prone position. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that only urban residency, age, smoking status, drinking status, and BMI were the risk factors for OSAHS. OSAHS is prevalent in individuals aged 14 years or older in Guangxi, China. Han and Zhuang people differ significantly in their obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) prevalence, but this difference is explained by the combination of classic OSA risk factors.

  3. A latest Permian non-reef calcisponge fauna from Laibin, Guangxi, southern China and its significance

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    Ya-Sheng Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A calcisponge fauna occurs in uppermost Permian Conodont Clarkina meishanensis yini zone of the sequence exposed in the vicinity of Laibin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. The fauna is dominated by one thalamid species, Amblysiphonella vesiculosa de Koninck, 1863, and one new sclerosponge genus and species, Radiofibrosclera laibinensis gen. et sp. nov. They are associated with a few other accessory species, including the thalamid sponges Amblysiphonella laibinensis Deng, 1981, Colospongia sp., Polycystocoelia sp., and the inozoan sponge Acoelia discontinua sp. nov. Though the individuals are abundant, the species diversity is very low. Without common calcisponge components of Changhsingian reefal faunas, the assemblage is interpreted as not a reefal fauna. The water depth at which they dwelled was less than 105 m, and more probably less than 40 m. Its occurrence indicates a significant sea-level drop at the end of Late Permian Changhsingian Age.

  4. Comparisons of forecasting for hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using three neural networks models

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    Ruijing Gan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares and evaluates the prediction of hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using back propagation neural networks based genetic algorithm (BPNN-GA, generalized regression neural networks (GRNN, and wavelet neural networks (WNN. In order to compare the results of forecasting, the data obtained from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The results show that when the small data set of hepatitis has seasonal fluctuation, the prediction result by BPNN-GA will be better than the two other methods. The WNN method is suitable for predicting the large data set of hepatitis that has seasonal fluctuation and the same for the GRNN method when the data increases steadily.

  5. Health and human rights concerns of drug users in detention in Guangxi Province, China.

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    J Elizabeth Cohen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although confinement in drug detoxification ("detox" and re-education through labor (RTL centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8-23 y and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times. IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. CONCLUSIONS: Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights

  6. Health and human rights concerns of drug users in detention in Guangxi Province, China.

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    Cohen, J Elizabeth; Amon, Joseph J

    2008-12-09

    Although confinement in drug detoxification ("detox") and re-education through labor (RTL) centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs) and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8-23 y) and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times) and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times). IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights and imperil drug users' health.

  7. RDL mutations predict multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles sinensis in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chan; Huang, Zushi; Li, Mei; Feng, Xiangyang; Qiu, Xinghui

    2017-11-28

    Anopheles sinensis is a major vector of malaria in China. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel, encoded by the RDL (Resistant to dieldrin) gene, is the important target for insecticides of widely varied structures. The use of various insecticides in agriculture and vector control has inevitably led to the development of insecticide resistance, which may reduce the control effectiveness. Therefore, it is important to investigate the presence and distribution frequency of the resistance related mutation(s) in An. sinensis RDL to predict resistance to both the withdrawn cyclodienes (e.g. dieldrin) and currently used insecticides, such as fipronil. Two hundred and forty adults of An. sinensis collected from nine locations across Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were used. Two fragments of An. sinensis RDL (AsRDL) gene, covering the putative insecticide resistance related sites, were sequenced respectively. The haplotypes of each individual were reconstructed by the PHASE2.1 software, and confirmed by clone sequencing. The phylogenetic tree was built using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. Genealogical relations among different haplotypes were also analysed using Network 5.0. The coding region of AsRDL gene was 1674 bp long, encoding a protein of 557 amino acids. AsRDL had 98.0% amino acid identity to that from Anopheles funestus, and shared common structural features of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels. Three resistance-related amino acid substitutions (A296S, V327I and T345S) were detected in all the nine populations of An. sinensis in Guangxi, with the 296S mutation being the most abundant (77-100%), followed by 345S (22-47%) and 327I (8-60%). 38 AsRDL haplotypes were identified from 240 individuals at frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 34.8%. Genealogical analysis suggested multiple origins of the 345S mutation in AsRDL. The near fixation of the 296S mutation and the occurrence of the 327I and 345S mutations in addition to 296S

  8. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs—economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities—on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, pentrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, pentrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty. PMID:29596517

  9. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naminse, Eric Yaw; Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs-economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities-on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, pentrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, pentrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty.

  10. Study on molecular epidemiology of the alpha-thalassemias in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Liu, Jingzhong; Wang, Lirong; Liang, Xin; Xiao, Bai; Su, Liu; Zhou, Yan; Pan, Lizhen

    2004-01-01

    Guangxi is one of the provinces of Southern China with the highest incidence of alpha-thalassemia (thal). Liuzhou is the second biggest city in Guangxi. To find out the incidence of the various alpha-thal genotypes, and their distribution in the Liuzhou area, an F820 Blood Cell Analysis System was used to measure the parameters of red blood cells. A SPIFE Rapid Auto-Electrophoresis System was used to analyze the normal and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used to detect the alpha-globin genotypes. Thirty-two (2.05%) out of 7805 young couples undergoing pre-marriage counseling, were diagnosed as having an Hb H (beta4) disease. The study of 1228 cord blood samples revealed 138 newborn children carrying an alpha-thal determinant with nine different genotypes, thus making the total incidence of alpha-thal 11.24%. Among 185 cases of Hb H, 119 (64.1%) were confirmed as being deletional, and 66 cases (35.7%) nondeletional types. The severity of the Hb H diseases could be classified in the following order: alphaCSalpha/--SEA (alphaConstant (Spring)alpha/--Southeast Asia); alpha(-4.2)/--SEA; alpha(-3.7)/--SEA. Ten cases of alpha-thal determinants were found in combination with beta-thal. The mPCR technique can detect all kinds of combinations of the three common large deletions (--SEA, alpha(-4.2) and alpha(-3.7)) accurately and conveniently.

  11. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of a uranium mine in Guangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Zhang Zhao; Zhang Guopu; Liu Min

    2012-01-01

    Close-out of projects of a mine in Guangxi province of China includes open pit,east and west waste rock piles, ore transfer station, industrial fields, buildings, ore transporting road, and equipment and conduits. The following remediation limits are introduced: environment penetrating radiation dose rate and 222 Rn flux of open pit and waste rock piles, 226 Ra specific activity of soil and individual dose. Remediation objective and programme are discussed in details. Remediation effects are evaluated. (authors)

  12. Equity in health financing of Guangxi after China's universal health coverage: evidence based on health expenditure comparison in rural Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xianjing; Luo, Hongye; Feng, Jun; Li, Yanning; Wei, Bo; Feng, Qiming

    2017-09-29

    Healthcare financing should be equitable. Fairness in financial contribution and protection against financial risk is based on the notion that every household should pay a fair share. Health policy makers have long been concerned with protecting people from the possibility that ill health will lead to catastrophic financial payments and subsequent impoverishment. A number of studies on health care financing equity have been conducted in some provinces of China, but in Guangxi, we found such observation is not enough. What is the situation in Guagnxi? A research on rural areas of Guangxi can add knowledge in this field and help improve the equity and efficiency of health financing, particularly in low-income citizens in rural countries, is a major concern in China's medical sector reform. Socio-economic characteristics and healthcare payment data were obtained from two rounds of household surveys conducted in 2009 (4634 respondents) and 2013 (3951 respondents). The contributions of funding sources were determined and a progressivity analysis of government healthcare subsidies was performed. Household consumption expenditure and total healthcare payments were calculated and incidence and intensity of catastrophic health payments were measured. Summary indices (concentration index, Kakwani index and Gini coefficient) were obtained for the sources of healthcare financing: indirect taxes, out of pocket payments, and social insurance contributions. The overall health-care financing system was regressive. In 2013, the Kakwani index was 0.0013, the vertical effect of all the three funding sources was 0.0001, and some values exceeded 100%, indicating that vertical inequity had a large influence on causing total health financing inequity. The headcount of catastrophic health payment declined sharply between 2009 and 2013, using total expenditure (from 7.3% to 1.2%) or non-food expenditure (from 26.1% to 7.5%) as the indicator of household capacity to pay. Our study

  13. New species and records of Leuctridae (Plecoptera) from Guangxi, China, on the basis of morphological and molecular data, with emphasis on Rhopalopsole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Murányi, Dávid; Gamboa, Maribet; Yang, Ding; Watanabe, Kozo

    2017-03-13

    The species of Leuctridae (Plecoptera) from Guangxi, China are reviewed. Two species of Rhopalopsole are described as new to science, R. cestroidea sp. nov. and R. triangulis sp. nov., belonging to the R. vietnamica group and the R. magnicerca group, respectively. Six species of Leuctridae are now known for Guangxi including two additional species of Rhopalopsole and one Paraleuctra recorded for the first time. The previously unknown female of R. duyuzhoui Sivec & Harper, 2008 is described from specimens from Guangxi. Characters are illustrated for the separation of R. furcospina (Wu, 1973) and R. sinensis Yang & Yang, 1993. Mitochondrial sequences of five Rhopalopsole species support their specific recognition.

  14. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS CULICOIDES (JILINOCOIDES)(DIPTERA: CERATOPOGONIDAE) FROM THE GUANGXI ZHUANG AUTON. REG., CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUGuo-ping; HAOBao-shan

    2003-01-01

    A new species of Culicoides ( Jilinocoides ), C. ( J. ) guangxiensis sp. nov. from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China is described. The new species is closely allied to Culicoides qianweiensis Yu 1982,but is distinctly different in the presentation of the sensilla coeloconica, sensory pit of the palpus third segment,number of mandible teeth, pale spot on basal portion of wing and r-m pale spot on wing of female. The type spec-imen is deposited in the Institute of Military Medical Sciences, Shenyang Military District, Shenyang 110034,China.

  15. [Natural regeneration of young Excentrodendron hsienmu in karst mountainous region in Southwest Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhi-Yang; Su, Zhi-Yao; Peng, Yu-Hua; Hu, Qin-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Rong

    2013-09-01

    A field survey was conducted in the karst mountainous region in Pingguo County of Southwest Guangxi, China to explore the structural characteristics, spatial distribution pattern, and growth dynamics of young Excentrodendron hsienmu as well as the main environmental factors affecting the natural regeneration of the E. hsienmu population. In the study area, the population structure of the young E. hsienmu was stable, and exhibited a clumped spatial pattern for the seedlings and seedling sprouts. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the young E. hsienmu presented the same variation trend, i. e., the ground diameter increased with increasing height. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the E. hsienmu seedlings were limited by population density, i. e., decreased with increasing population density. The correlation analysis showed that the trees more than 2.5 m in height and the shrubs were the major stand factors affecting the natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu, while the herbs had no significant correlation with the regeneration. The percentage of covered rock also had no significant effects on the regeneration. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed that there existed significant differences in the height and ground diameter of young E. hsienmu at different slope degrees and slope positions. The population density, height, and ground diameter had significant differences across slope aspects. The natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu was comprehensively affected by the species biological characteristics, intraspecific competition, interspecific competition, heterogeneous habitat, and anthropogenic disturbances.

  16. Drinking reasons and alcohol problems by work venue among female sex workers in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol use is a key determinant of sexual risk behaviors, but pathways to alcohol use in the context of commercial sex still remain unclear. The present study explores reasons for drinking and their roles on alcohol use problems among female sex workers (FSWs) in different types of commercial sex venues. In 2009, a sample of 1,022 FSWs from Guangxi, China completed a survey containing a 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a 28-item measure of reasons for drinking. Factor analysis revealed five reasons for drinking: suppression, disinhibition, work requirement, sexual enhancement, and confidence booster. All identified reasons except confidence booster appeared to be related to a higher tendency of developing alcohol use problems among FSWs. Types of commercial sex venues moderated the relationship between work requirement and alcohol use problems. Alcohol-risk reduction interventions among this population need to provide them with alternative approaches to regulate emotions and modify their misconceptions about alcohol's sexual enhancing function. More attention is needed to FSWs' vulnerability to the negative influence of occupational drinking.

  17. Significant association between RGS14 rs12654812 and nephrolithiasis risk among Guangxi population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jun; Chen, Yang; Lin, Haisong; Liao, Ming; Li, Tianyu; Tong, Lei; Wei, Suchun; Xian, Xiaoying; Zhu, Jia; Chen, Jianxin; Tian, Jiarong; Wang, Qiuyan; Mo, Zengnan

    2018-03-26

    Nephrolithiasis is a worldwide health problem that affects almost all populations. This study aimed to evaluate the association between rs12654812 of regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) gene and nephrolithiasis in the Chinese population. A total of 1541 participators including 830 cases and 711 controls were included from Guangxi area in China. Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, drinking status, creatinine, uric acid, and urea nitrogen were analyzed between the case group and control group. We found that the G/A+A/A genotypes of rs12654812 had a significantly increased nephrolithiasis risk after adjusting age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking, and hypertension, compared with G/G genotype (OR = 1.361, 95% CI = 1.033-1.794, P = .029). This hazardous effect was more pronounced in subgroup of age < 50, ever smoking, ever drinking, creatinine normal, and high uric acid. The G/A genotype of rs12654812 also had a significantly increased nephrolithiasis risk compared with G/G genotype. The A allele of rs12654812 significantly increased the risk of nephrolithiasis compared with the G allele after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and hypertension (OR = 1.277, 95% CI = 1.013-1.609, P = .038). Our results suggest that the RGS14 polymorphism is involved in the etiology of nephrolithiasis and thus may be a genetic marker for nephrolithiasis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Influence of surface water availability on mammal distributions in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Bo; Sung, Yik-Hei; Bosco Chan, Pui-Lok; Meng, Yuan-Jun; Wan, Pak-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Surface water is a major limiting factor affecting animal activities in karst ecosystems. From March, 2006 to June, 2007 and from October, 2010 to May, 2011, infra-red camera traps were installed along animal trails and temporary rain pools in Nonggang National Nature Reserve, Guangxi, China, to monitor mammal diversity and relative abundance. In total, 19 species from 17 genera, 12 families, and 5 orders were recorded, including two State Key Protection Class I species, the François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi) and Assam macaque (Macaca assamensis). Although 42% of species only occurred in one of the microhabitats, differences in species assemblages between trails and pools were not significant. The results of our observation indicated that camera trapping was effective in monitoring medium to large sized mammals, and for recording illegal hunting. In addition, our results suggest that authorities should reinforce patrolling, especially at water pools during the dry season, and eradicate unsustainable extraction of underground water. Moreover, based on the advantages of large inhibited environments to animal species, especially to large predators, we also recommend connecting the three isolated sections of the reserve to promote species recovery and dispersal.

  19. Metals and metalloids in PM10 in Nandan County, Guangxi, China, and the health risks posed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guanghui; Song, Bo; Xia, Deshang; Yang, Zijie; Wang, Fopeng

    2018-03-16

    Intense mining, smelting, and tailing activities of polymetallic ore deposits have affected the environment in Nandan County, Guangxi, China. Samples of particulates with aerodynamic diameters low or equal 10 μm (PM 10 ) were collected in Nandan County to investigate the concentrations of and health risks posed by 17 metals and metalloids in the PM 10 . The metal and metalloid concentrations were lower than those found in other industrial cities. The mean Cr concentration was 7.48 ng/m 3 . Significant higher metal and metalloid concentrations were found in PM 10 from mining areas (Dachang and Chehe) than from the control area (Liuzhai) (p metalloids in PM 10 at all the sites were low, but the non-carcinogenic risks posed to children by all the metals and metalloids together exceeded the safe level (i.e., risk value > 1). The carcinogenic risks posed by Cd, Ni, and Pb were negligible at all sites, while As, Co, and Cr posed potential carcinogenic risks to the residents.

  20. Patient characteristics and perceived health status of individuals with HIV and tuberculosis coinfection in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujia; Wu, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Chen, Huanhuan; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Li; Luo, Liuhong; Rui, Chao

    2017-04-01

    To explore demographics, clinical and medication profiles, patients' social support, and perceived health status in HIV/TB coinfected patients in Guangxi, China.We performed a cross-sectional study in the HIV clinic of the Guigang City People's Hospital (N = 150). Health professionals conducted face-to-face interviews and collected data from patients' electronic medical records regarding patients' demographic, clinical, and medication information, as well as their social support and perceived health status. We classified all HIV/AIDS patients into HIV monoinfected and TB coinfected, at a ratio of 2:1.Compared with the HIV monoinfected, patients with HIV/TB coinfection were more likely to be older, male, less educated, unemployed, carrying health insurance, having advanced stage of HIV infection, longer history with HIV, and other opportunistic infections. Patients coinfected with TB were also more likely to hold a negative belief that their HIV treatment could prevent exacerbations, and reported significantly worse emotional/informational support, social interaction, and perceived health status. Better social support and better self-efficacy to the HIV treatment adherence was significantly associated with better perceived health status among patients with HIV and TB coinfection.Having HIV/TB coinfection was associated with poorer perceived general well-being and mental health, particularly in those undergoing TB therapy. Our findings suggest the need for mental health referrals and medication management for coinfected individuals, as well as further efforts and policies to improve coordinated care.

  1. Incidence and Interrelated Factors in Patients With Congenital Hypothyroidism as Detected by Newborn Screening in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Fan MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A newborn screening program (NSP for congenital hypothyroidism (CH was carried out in Guangxi in order to understand the incidence of CH and the factors interrelated to major types of CH in this region of China. Methods. During 2009 to 2013, data from 930 612 newborns attending NSP in Guangxi were collected. Patients were classified with either permanent CH (PCH or transient CH (TCH after 2 years of progressive study. Results. A total of 1210 patients were confirmed with CH with an incidence of 1/769, including 68 PCH and 126 TCH cases with incidences of 1/6673 and 1/3385, respectively. The frequency of thyroid stimulating hormone values greater than 5 mIU/L was 7.2%, which, based on WHO guidelines, suggests that the population was mildly iodine deficient. Conclusions. The incidence of CH was high in Guangxi. Approximately two thirds of CH patients were TCH, which may be due to a deficiency in iodine within the population.

  2. Eradication of schistosomiasis in Guangxi, China. Part 2: Political economy, management strategy and costs, 1953-92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, A.; Jackson, S.; Li, X.; Huang, K.

    1998-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study of the political economy, management, and costs of the successful Guangxi schistosomiasis eradication programme, spanning 40 years from 1953 to 1992. For this purpose we analysed all government data and memoranda on the policy, management, technical support, finance, and the control strategy of the programme. We also interviewed many local staff involved in the programme over the 40-year period and obtained cost data from annual county-level records on seven major categories of variable costs. Schistosomiasis control in Guangxi began with one of the first examples of community participation and rapid assessment in public health history--the use of pre-franked envelopes to return disease questionnaires and suspect snails from rural areas. This approach quickly and accurately delineated the endemic area. This was Mao Zedong's "mass line", incorporating ideas and knowledge from peasants directly into services run for and by them, here the schistosomiasis control programme. Recognition by China's leaders that schistosomiasis was a great economic burden, steadfast prioritizing of the programme over 40 years, local innovative scientific study, agricultural and environmental focus on eradicating the snail hosts and boosting rural production, and mass community education and support were all key factors in the final success. Local leaders motivated programme staff and everyone involved knew the objectives. The programme was always multisectoral, with policy developed centrally, and strategy and collaboration encouraged and rewarded at the grass-roots. These features explain how a very poor autonomous region such as Guangxi finally eradicated schistosomiasis, spending less than US$ 0.50 per protected citizen per year; it is remarkable that the disease and snails were initially found across a large area of complex environments and modern drugs such as praziquantel were not available for most of the 40-year period. The lessons from Guangxi

  3. Geochemical and palaeontological evidence for the definition of the Silurian/Devonian boundary in the Changwantang Section, Guangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jin Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Southern Guangxi Province is one of the important areas for the study of the Silurian/Devonian boundary (SDB in South China. Despite attempts to define the exact level of the SDB in the Yulin (Guangxi Province area using biostratigraphy, no consensus has been reached as the indicator fossils (e.g. graptolite Monograptus uniformis uniformis, conodont Icriodus woschmidti woschmidti and trilobite Warburgella rugulosa rugosa are not coexistent in South China. Since Mann et al. (2001: Dynamics of the Silurian/Devonian boundary sequence: sedimentary cycles vs. organic matter variation. Terra Nostra, 2001, 44–48 reported the first isotope curve based on organic carbon for the SDB at Klonk in the Czech Republic (GSSP, some comparable variation curves of δ13Corg across the SDB have been obtained at several locations including sections in Turkey and China. This distinct variation curve of the isotopic composition of organic carbon across the SDB provides a chemostratigraphic reference for a worldwide correlation of the SDB. In this study, organic geochemistry together with graptolite biostratigraphy is applied as a tool for identifying the SDB at the Changwantang Section in Yulin (Guangxi Province. The results suggest that the variations in some indexes of organic geochemistry can be correlated to the representative curve of the SDB in the Klonk and Esenyali sections. The exact level of the SDB in the Changwantang Section is positioned within the upper part of the Fangcheng Formation, which is consistent with the available palaeontological data from graptolites (e.g. Colonograptus colonus, Plectograptus sp., Monograptus uniformis, M. cf. M. praehercynicus and M. aequabilis.

  4. Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites at Zuodeng Section, Guangxi Province, South China: Geobiology and palaeoceanographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuheng; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Kershaw, Stephen; Yang, Hao; Luo, Mao

    2017-05-01

    A previously unknown microbialite bed in the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary beds of Zuodeng section, Tiandong County, Guangxi, South China comprises a thin (5 cm maximum thickness) stromatolite in the lower part and the remaining 6 m is thrombolite. The Zuodeng microbialite has a pronounced irregular contact between the latest Permian bioclastic limestone and microbialite, as in other sites in the region. The stromatolite comprises low-relief columnar and broad domal geometries, containing faint laminations. The thrombolite displays an irregular mixture of sparitic dark coloured altered microbial fabric and light coloured interstitial sediment in polished blocks. Abundant microproblematic calcimicrobe structures identified here as Gakhumella are preserved in dark coloured laminated areas of the stromatolite and sparitic areas in thrombolites (i.e. the calcimicrobial part, not the interstitial sediment) and are orientated perpendicular to stromatolitic laminae. Each Gakhumella individual has densely arranged segments, which form a column- to fan-shaped structure. Single segments are arch-shaped and form a thin chamber between segments. Gakhumella individuals in the stromatolite and thrombolite are slightly different from each other, but are readily distinguished from the Gakhumella- and Renalcis-like fossils reported from other P-Tr boundary microbialites in having a smaller size, unbranching columns and densely arranged, arch-shaped segments. Renalcids usually possess a larger body size and branching, lobate outlines. Filament sheath aggregates are also observed in the stromatolite and they are all orientated in one direction. Both Gakhumella and filament sheath aggregates may be photosynthetic algae, which may have played an important role in constructing the Zuodeng microbialites. Other calcimicrobes in the Zuodeng microbialite are spheroids, of which a total of five morphological types are recognized from both stromatolite and thrombolite: (1) sparry calcite

  5. Research on plant utilization and adaptation to environment of human in Guangxi of Southern China during the latest 30000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Xie, G.

    2017-12-01

    It is an important scientific problem in the study of the relationship between man and land to select the key areas and important periods of human evolution. In the latest 30 thousand years, it is an important period for late Pleistocene climate change, which has a profound impact on human evolution. Southern China including Guangxi has a unique geographical landscape pattern and unique vegetation and climate background, which is not only an important channel for the diffusion and migration of ancient humans but also an ideal refuge to avoid climate changes. It preserved the rich archaeological remains of the evolution and development of human beings, and provided a rare place for the adaptive strategies of human survival and early the environment. In this paper, Yahuai cave site in Guangxi will be selected for investigation. We will analyze the continuous accumulation of ancient human remains, and utilized AMS14C to reconstruct the dating framework. We will also extract the plant information and environment of the site through pollen, phytolith, grain and starch grains. We will further explore the succession mode of utilization of plant resources and its relationship with climate change and reveal the adaptability to the environment and strategy.

  6. Energy efficiency and potentials of cassava fuel ethanol in Guangxi region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Du; Hu Zhiyuan; Pu Gengqiang; Li He; Wang Chengtao

    2006-01-01

    The Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region has plentiful cassava resources, which is an ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production. The Guangxi government intends to promote cassava fuel ethanol as a substitute for gasoline. The purpose of this study was to quantify the energy efficiency and potentials of a cassava fuel ethanol project in the Guangxi region based on a 100 thousand ton fuel ethanol demonstration plant at Qinzhou of Guangxi. The net energy value (NEV) and net renewable energy value (NREV) are presented to assess the energy and renewable energy efficiency of the cassava fuel ethanol system during its life cycle. The cassava fuel ethanol system was divided into five subsystems including the cassava plantation/treatment, ethanol conversion, denaturing, refueling and transportation. All the energy and energy related materials inputs to each subsystem were estimated at the primary energy level. The total energy inputs were allocated between the fuel ethanol and its coproducts with market value and replacement value methods. Available lands for a cassava plantation were investigated and estimated. The results showed that the cassava fuel ethanol system was energy and renewable energy efficient as indicated by positive NEV and NREV values that were 7.475 MJ/L and 7.881 MJ/L, respectively. Cassava fuel ethanol production helps to convert the non-liquid fuel into fuel ethanol that can be used for transportation. Through fuel ethanol production, one Joule of petroleum fuel, plus other forms of energy inputs such as coal, can produce 9.8 J of fuel ethanol. Cassava fuel ethanol can substitute for gasoline and reduce oil imports. With the cassava output in 2003, it can substitute for 166.107 million liters of gasoline. With the cassava output potential, it can substitute for 618.162 million liters of gasoline. Cassava fuel ethanol is more energy efficient than gasoline, diesel fuel and corn fuel ethanol but less efficient than biodiesel

  7. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Shao, Qing; Yang, Lei; Qi, Dianyuan; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiaojun; Yu, Zongying

    2013-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge.

  8. PALAEOECOLOGICAL CHANGES AFTER THE END-PERMIAN MASS EXTINCTION: EARLY TRIASSIC OSTRACODS FROM NORTHWESTERN GUANGXI PROVINCE,SOUTH CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE CRASQUIN-SOLEAU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Early Triassic (Griesbachian to Spathian ostracod faunas are here first discovered and described form the Guangxi Province, South China. Thirty-seven species belonging to fourteen genera are recognized. Seven species are new: Bairdia fengshanensis n.sp., Bairdia wailiensis n.sp., Liuzhinia guangxiensis n.sp., Ptychobairdia luciaae n.sp., Ptychobairdia aldaae n.sp., Paracypris jinyaensis n.sp. and Paracypris gaetanii n.sp. The Griesbachian assemblage from the basal microbial limestone is well diversified and does not suggest any abnormal palaeoenvironmental conditions in terms of salinity, temperature or oxygen content. Particularly, the ostracods are typical of well oxygenated water and do not reflect any anoxia. Dienerian and Smithian ostracods are evidenced for the first time and the assemblages suggest less favourable palaeoenviromental conditions. Diversity and abundance of ostracod assemblages recovered from the Spathian on. The main taxonomic turnover among ostracod assemblages occurred seemingly between the Griesbachian and the Spathian.

  9. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.; Qi, D.; Lin, J.; Lin, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge. (authors)

  10. Equality in the distribution of health material and human resources in Guangxi: evidence from Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian

    2017-08-29

    The aim of this study was to assess the equality in the distribution of health material and human resources in Guangxi, and put forward proposal to improve the equality status of the health material and human resources. We used concentration index to evaluate the degree of income-related equality of health material and human resources. The concentration index values of the five resources ranged from -0.0847 to 0.1416 from 2011 to 2015. Health institution was concentrated among the poorer populations, while other four resources were concentrated among the richer populations. Overall, the equality status of health institutions, health care beds, health technical personnel, and certified nurses got better from 2011 to 2015. However, the equality status of practicing physicians has got worse since 2014.

  11. Genetic polymorphism of 23 Y-STR loci in the Zhuang minority population in Guangxi of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haibo; Song, Feng; Zhang, Lushun; Hou, Yiping

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, 23 Y-STR loci (DYS576, DYS389I, DYS389 II, DYS448, DYS19, DYS391, DYS481, DYS549, DYS533, DYS438, DYS437, DYS570, DYS635, DYS390, DYS439, DYS392, DYS393, DYS458 DYS456, DYS643, YGATAH4, and DYS385ab) were investigated in 266 unrelated, healthy autochthonous individuals from the Zhuang minority population residing in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. One hundred and eighty-nine alleles and 245 haplotypes were found in the Zhuang group. Two hundred and twenty-four haplotypes among them were unique, and the remaining 21 haplotypes were found in two individuals. Discrimination capacity was 0.9211. Haplotype diversity was 0.9993 and gene diversity ranged from 0.4173 (DYS437) to 0.9678 (DYS385ab). Populations' differentia was calculated and compared with Tibetan, Bai, Dai, Minnan Han, Beijing Han, Chengdu Han, Xuanwei Han, and Southern Han ethnic groups in China, the Singapore Han population, and the Kinh group from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in the same 23 Y-STR loci. Our results showed that these 23 Y-STRs are highly genetically polymorphic in the Zhuang group and can also enrich Chinese ethnic genetic information.

  12. Soil characteristics and heavy metal accumulation by native plants in a Mn mining area of Guangxi, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xue-hong; Li, Tian-yu; Wu, Qing-xin; Jin, Zhen-jiang

    2014-04-01

    Revegetation and ecological restoration of a Mn mineland are important concerns in southern China. To determine the major constraints for revegetation and select suitable plants for phytorestoration, pedological and botanical characteristics of a Mn mine in Guangxi, southern China were investigated. All the soils were characterized by low pH and low nitrogen and phosphorus levels except for the control soil, suggesting that soil acidity and poor nutrition were disadvantageous to plant growth. In general, the studied mine soils had normal organic matter (OM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). However, OM (8.9 g/kg) and CEC (7.15 cmol/kg) were very low in the soils from tailing dumps. The sandy texture and nutrient deficiency made it difficult to establish vegetation on tailing dumps. Mn and Cd concentrations in all soils and Cr and Zn concentrations in three soils exceeded the pollution threshold. Soil Mn and Cd were above phytotoxic levels, indicating that they were considered to be the major constraints for phytorestoration. A botanical survey of the mineland showed that 13 plant species grew on the mineland without obvious toxicity symptoms. High Mn and Cd concentrations have been found in the aerial parts of Polygonum pubescens, Celosia argentea, Camellia oleifera, and Solanum nigrum, which would be interesting for soil phytoremediation. Miscanthus floridulus, Erigeron acer, Eleusina indica, and Kummerowia striata showed high resistance to the heavy metal and harsh condition of the soils. These species could be well suited to restore local degraded land in a phytostabilization strategy.

  13. Low Virologic Failure and Drug Resistance among HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Hospital-Based ART While Care and Outreach through Community in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shujia; Shen, Zhiyong; Yan, Jing; Liang, Fuxiong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Liu, Wei; Kan, Wei; Liao, Lingjie; Leng, Xuebing; Ruan, Yuhua; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virologic suppression and drug resistance among HIV-infected patients receiving first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in hospitals while community care and outreach through local health workers in Guangxi, China. This was a series of cross-sectional surveys from 2004 to 2012 in Guangxi, supported by the Chinese National HIVDR Surveillance and Monitoring Network Working Group. Guangxi, China. Demographic, ART, and laboratory data (CD4(+) cell count, viral load, and drug resistance) were analyzed. Factors associated with virologic suppression were identified by logistic regression analysis. A total of 780 patients were included in this study. The median treatment duration was 20.6 months (IQR 6.6-35.9). Of 780 study participants, 95.4% of patients (744/780) had HIV virologic suppression. Among these, of the 143 patients who were infected through drug injection, only 10 (7.0%) experienced virologic failure, and the overall prevalence of HIV drug resistance was 2.8% (22/789). Factors associated with virologic suppression in the final multivariate models included self-reported missing doses in the past month (compared to not missing doses in the past month, AOR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6) and initial ART regimen without 3TC (compared to initial ART regimen with 3TC, AOR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.4). Moreover, the trend chi-square test showed that the proportion of virologic suppression increased over time from 2004 to 2012 (P = 0.002). This study first demonstrated that HIV patients infected through various transmission routes can achieve an excellent treatment outcome in hospitals at or above the county level for free first-line ART in Guangxi. It is an important of ART education and adherence to intervention for achieving better treatment outcomes.

  14. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Very High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China, for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population.

  15. [Effects of topography on the diversity and distribution pattern of ground plants in karst montane forests in Southwest Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tie-Xiang; Zhang, He-Ping; Ou, Zhi-Yang; Tan, Yi-Bo

    2014-10-01

    Covariance analysis, curve-fitting, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to explore the effects of topographic factors on the plant diversity and distribution patterns of ground flora with different growth forms in the karst mountains of Southwest Guangxi, China. A total of 152 ground plants were recorded. Among them, 37 species were ferns, 44 species herbs, 9 species lianas, and 62 species shrubs. Covariance analysis revealed that altitude significantly correlated with the individual number and richness of ground plants, and slope aspect had a significant effect on richness. Statistical analyses showed a highly significant nonlinear correlation between the individual number or richness of ground plants and altitude. Results of CCA revealed that slope aspect had a significant effect on the distribution pattern of ferns, and slope had a significant effect on the distribution patterns of herbs, lianas and shrubs. Ferns were more sensitive than herbs, lianas and shrubs to changes in heat and soil water caused by aspect. The effect of slope was stronger than that of elevation on soil water and nutrients, and it was the most important topographic factor that affected the distribution patterns of herbs, lianas and shrubs in this region.

  16. Ultrasonographic characteristics and BI-RADS-US classification of BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Liu, Junjie; Wang, Sida; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Zhigang; Zeng, Jian; Li, Zhixian

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze and compare the ultrasonographic characteristics and BI-RADS-US classification between patients with BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer and those without BRCA1 gene mutation in Guangxi, China. The study was performed in 36 lesions from 34 BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer patients. A total of 422 lesions from 422 breast cancer patients without BRCA1 mutations served as control group. The comparison of the ultrasonographic features and BI-RADS-US classification between two the groups were reviewed. More complex inner echo was disclosed in BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer patients (x(2) = 4.741, P = 0.029). The BI-RADS classification of BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer was lower (U = 6094.0, P = 0.022). BRCA1 mutation-associated breast cancer frequently displays as microlobulated margin and complex echo. It also shows more benign characteristics in morphology, and the BI-RADS classification is prone to be underestimated.

  17. Study on Karst Rock Desertification by Human-Nature Interaction: A Case Study of Fengshan County of Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Su, C.; Zhang, R.; Shi, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ma, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Rocky desertification is a process of soil erosion leading to the bareness of bedrock, and is a kind of typical natural disaster in karst areas, which seriously constrains the developments of local society and economy. This paper studies the impact of human activities on the changes of rocky desertification. With the interpretation of remote sensing images of Fengshan County, GuangXi, China covering 1990, 1995 and 2005, this paper analyzes the relationship of the changes of social and economic index (including population density, agricultural population, rural per capital net income, and farmland) and the changes of rocky desertification in recent 15 years. The results indicate that: in recent 15 years, the average annual growth rate of rocky desertification, rate of change of population density, agricultural population, rural per capita net income, and farmland area are 8.7375 km2 /year, 0.7 person/km2.year, 1153 person/year, 85 Yuan/year, and -269.1 ha/year, respectively. The first three of social and economic indicators at different degrees of growth, show a positive correlation with rocky desertification change. However, farmland area, which has been diminishing, shows a negative correlation with rocky desertification. The influence of human activities for karst rocky desertification can be regarded as population growth - steep slope reclamation - the destruction of vegetation - erosion - rocky desertification - poverty.

  18. [Transport and differentiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air from Dashiwei karst Sinkholes in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Sheng; Qi, Shi-Hua; Sun, Qian; Huang, Bao-Jian

    2012-12-01

    The typical karst Dashiwei Sinkholes located in Leye County, Guangxi were chosen as the study object. The air samples from the opening of Dashiwei Sinkholes to the underground river profiles were collected by polyurethane foam passive samplers (PUF-PAS), and the meteorological parameters were observed. The 16 PAHs were analyzed using GC-MS. The results showed that the total PAHs concentration in air in Dashiwei Sinkholes ranged from 33.76 ng x d(-1) to 150.86 ng x d(-1), with an average of 80.36 ng x d(-1). The mean concentrations in the cliff, the bottom and the underground river profiles were 67.17, 85.36 and 101.67 ng x d(-1), respectively. The 2-3 rings PAHs (including phenanthrene, anthracene, napnthalene and fluorene) accounted for 87.97% of the total of PAHs. The transport and accumulation processes of PAHs in air in Dashiwei Sinkholes were: the ground to the cliff section to the bottom section and then to the underground river, and the total PAHs concentrations showed an obvious increasing tendency with the decrease in altitude or increase in the length of the underground river. Low molecular weight PAHs compounds (including phenanthrene, anthracene, flourene and fluoranthene) in air went through differentiation at the bottom of the west peak, the bottom of the sinkhole and the underground river. The primary sources of PAHs were pyrogenic sources with atmosphere transport. Ambient temperature was the predominating factor influencing the transport and accumulation of gas phase PAHs in Dashiwei Sinkholes, following by wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity. Relative humidity and the temperature were the predominating factors influencing the differentiation, following by wind speed and wind direction. As a whole, a "cold trapping effect" of POPs was showed obviously in Dashiwei Sinkholes.

  19. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with a contaminated well in a middle school, Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Hui-min

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In May 2012, an outbreak of viral hepatitis A was reported to the Guangxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention from a middle school in Liujiang County. An investigation was conducted to identify the cause and mode of transmission and to recommend control and prevention measures.Methods: A case was defined as any person from the middle school with onset of fatigue, anorexia, abdominal pain, diarrhoea or jaundice from 20 February to 20 May 2012. We compared attack rates (AR between boys and girls, assuming that only boys used well water and girls used pipeline water. We then selected 133 students from three classes in each of the three grades to compare AR by reported water source and drinking history.Results: There were 22 cases, an AR of 3.8% (21/553 for students and 1.5% for teachers (1/65. Those who used well water were 8.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1–37.2 times more likely to be ill than those using pipeline water. The cohort study showed that students who reported using well water daily were 5.2 (95% CI = 0.7–41.8 times more likely to be ill than those that reported using the pipeline water daily. Eighteen cases were confirmed as hepatitis A.Conclusion: This hepatitis A outbreak was potentially caused by a contaminated school well. We recommended that the school discontinue using the well and that the students should drink boiled water. As there is a vaccine for hepatitis A, we recommended that several doses of the vaccine be stored for controlling outbreaks and for immunizing susceptible populations in future outbreaks.

  20. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with a contaminated well in a middle school, Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye-Qing, Xu; Fu-Qing, Cui; Jia-Tong, Zhuo; Guo-Ming, Zhang; Jin-Fa, Du; Qu-Yun, Den; Hui-Min, Luo

    2012-10-01

    In May 2012, an outbreak of viral hepatitis A was reported to the Guangxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention from a middle school in Liujiang County. An investigation was conducted to identify the cause and mode of transmission and to recommend control and prevention measures. A case was defined as any person from the middle school with onset of fatigue, anorexia, abdominal pain, diarrhoea or jaundice from 20 February to 20 May 2012. We compared attack rates (AR) between boys and girls, assuming that only boys used well water and girls used pipeline water. We then selected 133 students from three classes in each of the three grades to compare AR by reported water source and drinking history. There were 22 cases, an AR of 3.8% (21/553) for students and 1.5% for teachers (1/65). Those who used well water were 8.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1-37.2) times more likely to be ill than those using pipeline water. The cohort study showed that students who reported using well water daily were 5.2 (95% CI = 0.7-41.8) times more likely to be ill than those that reported using the pipeline water daily. Eighteen cases were confirmed as hepatitis A. This hepatitis A outbreak was potentially caused by a contaminated school well. We recommended that the school discontinue using the well and that the students should drink boiled water. As there is a vaccine for hepatitis A, we recommended that several doses of the vaccine be stored for controlling outbreaks and for immunizing susceptible populations in future outbreaks.

  1. The Effects of Floods on the Incidence of Bacillary Dysentery in Baise (Guangxi Province, China) from 2004 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuena; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Baofa

    2017-02-12

    Research shows potential effects of floods on intestinal infections. Baise, a city in Guangxi Province (China) had experienced several floods between 2004 and 2012 due to heavy and constant precipitation. This study aimed to examine the relationship between floods and the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Baise. A mixed generalized additive model and Spearman correlation were applied to analyze the relationship between monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery and 14 flood events with two severity levels. Data collected from 2004 to 2010 were utilized to estimate the parameters, whereas data from 2011 to 2012 were used to validate the model. There were in total 9255 cases of bacillary dysentery included in our analyses. According to the mixed generalized additive model, the relative risks (RR) of moderate and severe floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-1.69) and 1.78 (95% CI: 1.61-1.97), respectively. The regression analysis also indicated that the flood duration was negatively associated with the incidence of bacillary dysentery (with RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.40-0.86). Therfore, this research suggests that floods exert a significant part in enhancing the risk of bacillary dysentery in Baise. Moreover, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the incidence of bacillary dysentery than moderate floods. In addition, short-term floods may contribute more to the incidence of bacillary dysentery than a long-term flood. The findings from this research will provide more evidence to reduce health risks related to floods.

  2. Spatiotemporal Variation of Karst Ecosystem Service Values and Its Correlation with Environmental Factors in Northwest Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyang; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Kelin; Yue, Yuemin; Qi, Xiangkun; Fan, Feide

    2011-11-01

    In this investigation we analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of ecosystem service values (ESVs) and its correlation with numerous environmental factors (EFs) for the karst region of Northwest Guangxi, China, from 1985 to 2005 using remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical techniques. The results indicate that historically ESVs for this karst region decreased from 1985 (109.652 billion Yuan) to 1990 (88.789 billion Yuan) and then increased at the turn of the twenty-first century. However, the ESVs in both 2000 (103.384 billion Yuan) and 2005 (106.257 billion Yuan) never achieved the level recorded in 1985. The total of nutrient cycling, organic production and gas regulation combined were 72.69, 64.57, 70.18 and 72.10% of ESVs in 1985, 1990, 2000 and 2005, respectively. In contrast, the ESVs of water conservation, soil reservation, recreation and culture were determined to be relatively low contributing only 17.44, 23.82, 19.26 and 24.76% of total ESVs, respectively, during these four years. With regards to the spatial distribution of ESVs, larger values were recorded in the west and smaller ones recorded in the east. The most significant factors that were deemed to influence ESVs are annual rainfall, per capita cropland, slope and vegetation coverage. Annual rainfall and slope exert a negative force, whereas per capita cropland and vegetation coverage exert a positive force on ESVs. The results of the study would suggest that ecosystem conditions of this important karst region have been improved as the result of the implementation of rocky desertification control policies.

  3. Diversity, Novelty, and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Actinobacteria From Mangrove Plants in Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve of Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-ke Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinobacteria are one of the important pharmaceutical resources and well known for producing different types of bioactive substances. Nevertheless, detection of the novelty, diversity, and bioactivity on endophytic actinobacteria isolated from mangrove plants are scarce. In this study, five different mangrove plants, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia obovota, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Thespesia populnea, were collected from Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 101 endophytic actinobacteria strains were recovered by culture-based approaches. They distributed in 7 orders, 15 families, and 28 genera including Streptomyces, Curtobacterium, Mycobacterium, Micrococcus, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Nocardioides, Kineococcus, Kytococcus, Marmoricola, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Actinoplanes, Agrococcus, Amnibacterium, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Dermacoccus, Glutamicibacter, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Janibacter, Leucobacter, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Pseudokineococcus, Sanguibacter, and Verrucosispora. Among them, seven strains were potentially new species of genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Amnibacterium, Marmoricola, and Mycobacterium. Above all, strain 8BXZ-J1 has already been characterized as a new species of the genus Marmoricola. A total of 63 out of 101 strains were chosen to screen antibacterial activities by paper-disk diffusion method and inhibitors of ribosome and DNA biosynthesis by means of a double fluorescent protein reporter. A total of 31 strains exhibited positive results in at least one antibacterial assay. Notably, strain 8BXZ-J1 and three other potential novel species, 7BMP-1, 5BQP-J3, and 1BXZ-J1, all showed antibacterial bioactivity. In addition, 21 strains showed inhibitory activities against at least one “ESKAPE” resistant pathogens. We also found that Streptomyces strains 2BBP-J2 and 1BBP-1 produce bioactive compound with inhibitory

  4. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60 data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60 and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs for each group. Results: Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion: Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care.

  5. The Effects of Floods on the Incidence of Bacillary Dysentery in Baise (Guangxi Province, China from 2004 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuena Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research shows potential effects of floods on intestinal infections. Baise, a city in Guangxi Province (China had experienced several floods between 2004 and 2012 due to heavy and constant precipitation. This study aimed to examine the relationship between floods and the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Baise. A mixed generalized additive model and Spearman correlation were applied to analyze the relationship between monthly incidence of bacillary dysentery and 14 flood events with two severity levels. Data collected from 2004 to 2010 were utilized to estimate the parameters, whereas data from 2011 to 2012 were used to validate the model. There were in total 9255 cases of bacillary dysentery included in our analyses. According to the mixed generalized additive model, the relative risks (RR of moderate and severe floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery were 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.16–1.69 and 1.78 (95% CI: 1.61–1.97, respectively. The regression analysis also indicated that the flood duration was negatively associated with the incidence of bacillary dysentery (with RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.40–0.86. Therfore, this research suggests that floods exert a significant part in enhancing the risk of bacillary dysentery in Baise. Moreover, severe floods have a higher proportional contribution to the incidence of bacillary dysentery than moderate floods. In addition, short-term floods may contribute more to the incidence of bacillary dysentery than a long-term flood. The findings from this research will provide more evidence to reduce health risks related to floods.

  6. Diversity, Novelty, and Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Actinobacteria From Mangrove Plants in Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve of Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-ke; Tuo, Li; Huang, Da-lin; Osterman, Ilya A.; Tyurin, Anton P.; Liu, Shao-wei; Lukyanov, Dmitry A.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Korshun, Vladimir A.; Li, Fei-na; Sun, Cheng-hang

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic actinobacteria are one of the important pharmaceutical resources and well known for producing different types of bioactive substances. Nevertheless, detection of the novelty, diversity, and bioactivity on endophytic actinobacteria isolated from mangrove plants are scarce. In this study, five different mangrove plants, Avicennia marina, Aegiceras corniculatum, Kandelia obovota, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Thespesia populnea, were collected from Beilun Estuary National Nature Reserve in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 101 endophytic actinobacteria strains were recovered by culture-based approaches. They distributed in 7 orders, 15 families, and 28 genera including Streptomyces, Curtobacterium, Mycobacterium, Micrococcus, Brevibacterium, Kocuria, Nocardioides, Kineococcus, Kytococcus, Marmoricola, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Actinoplanes, Agrococcus, Amnibacterium, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Dermacoccus, Glutamicibacter, Gordonia, Isoptericola, Janibacter, Leucobacter, Nocardia, Nocardiopsis, Pseudokineococcus, Sanguibacter, and Verrucosispora. Among them, seven strains were potentially new species of genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, Amnibacterium, Marmoricola, and Mycobacterium. Above all, strain 8BXZ-J1 has already been characterized as a new species of the genus Marmoricola. A total of 63 out of 101 strains were chosen to screen antibacterial activities by paper-disk diffusion method and inhibitors of ribosome and DNA biosynthesis by means of a double fluorescent protein reporter. A total of 31 strains exhibited positive results in at least one antibacterial assay. Notably, strain 8BXZ-J1 and three other potential novel species, 7BMP-1, 5BQP-J3, and 1BXZ-J1, all showed antibacterial bioactivity. In addition, 21 strains showed inhibitory activities against at least one “ESKAPE” resistant pathogens. We also found that Streptomyces strains 2BBP-J2 and 1BBP-1 produce bioactive compound with inhibitory activity on protein

  7. Assessment of metals pollution on agricultural soil surrounding a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolan; Li, Zhongyi; Yang, Weiwei; Pan, Liping; Gu, Minghua; Lee, DoKyoung

    2013-06-01

    Soil samples were collected on farmland in a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China. The contamination of the soil by eight metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni) was determined. Among all these metals, Cd is the most serious pollutant in this area. Zn, Hg as well asPb can also be measured at high levels, which may affect the crop production. All other metals contributed marginally to the overall soil contamination. Besides the evaluation of single metals, the Nemerow synthetic index indicated that the soil is not suitable for agricultural use.

  8. The Participation Role of Villagers in Village Plan Implementation: A Comparative Study on Two Villages in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengzhi; YIN; Haitao; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    China is in a process of rapid urbanization. Meanwhile, building development in rural areas is also accelerating. The paper intends to illustrate an original study focusing on villagers’ role in participation in village plan implementation in rural areas of China. Case studies, comparative studies, interviews, and questionnaires have been applied to reveal the mechanism of villager participation in village plan imple-mentation. Two case villages, which are pioneer units in the transition in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, have been selected. The study outcome shows that the villager participation plays an extremely important role in implementing the official village plan. The ideal development regulation mode in village planning in rural China should be a local government-villager cooperating system formed by three pillars: financial and technical supports from local governments; the participation of rural autonomous organizations, non-governmental organizations, and 'able persons' in formulation, implementation, and monitoring of official village plans; village construction teams like developers.

  9. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianyan; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward; Zhou, Hongxia; Deng, Qiuyun; Dong, Aihu

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18-54 months in rural Guangxi. Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011-2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Weighted Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1) and second (MCV2) doses of the vaccine. A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%-62.0%) for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%-80.0%) for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%-51.0%). The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27-38) days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118-195) days for MCV2. The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyan Tang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV. This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18–54 months in rural Guangxi. Methods: Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011–2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Weighted Kaplan–Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1 and second (MCV2 doses of the vaccine. Results: A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%–62.0% for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%–80.0% for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%–51.0%. The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27–38 days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118–195 days for MCV2. Conclusions: The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China.

  11. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a novel parvovirus isolated from chickens in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Xie, Zhixun; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhiqin; Huang, Li; Fan, Qin; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Leyi

    2016-11-01

    A previously unidentified chicken parvovirus (ChPV) strain, associated with runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), is now endemic among chickens in China. To explore the genetic diversity of ChPV strains, we determined the first complete genome sequence of a novel ChPV isolate (GX-CH-PV-7) identified in chickens in Guang Xi, China, and showed moderate genome sequence similarity to reference strains. Analysis showed that the viral genome sequence is 86.4 %-93.9 % identical to those of other ChPVs. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that this newly emergent GX-CH-PV-7 is closely related to Gallus gallus enteric parvovirus isolate ChPV 798 from the USA, indicating that they may share a common ancestor. The complete DNA sequence is 4612 bp long with an A+T content of 56.66 %. We determined the first complete genome sequence of a previously unidentified ChPV strain to elucidate its origin and evolutionary status.

  12. Periodontopathogens and human β-defensin-2 expression in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with periodontal disease in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, X; Chen, Y; Tao, R; Zeng, Q; Liu, Z; Jiang, L; Ye, L; Lin, X

    2015-06-01

    Periodontal diseases are often induced by periodontopathogens, which are always exposed to certain innate immune factors in gingival crevicular fluid, including human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2). This study aims to investigate the relationship among periodontopathogens, clinical parameters and hBD-2 expression. Thirty-two healthy controls, 42 patients with chronic gingivitis and 95 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited in Guangxi, China. Bleeding index, probing depth and clinical attachment level were measured for all teeth including mesiobuccal, buccal, disobuccal, mesiolingual, lingual, disolingual six sites of all patient. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the study sites. The prevalence and copy numbers (CN) of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia and total bacteria in gingival crevicular fluid were quantified by real-time PCR. The hBD-2 concentration in gingival crevicular fluid was measured by ELISA. Both the prevalence and the CN of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia were higher in patients with chronic periodontitis than in healthy controls and patients with chronic gingivitis; however, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of P. intermedia among the three study groups, and the highest CN was found in patients with chronic gingivitis, rather than in patients with chronic periodontitis. The loads of P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. denticola and total bacteria were positively related to probing depth, bleeding index and clinical attachment level. The concentration of hBD-2 in gingival crevicular fluid was higher in patients with chronic gingivitis and in patients with chronic periodontitis than in healthy controls. In addition, the hBD-2 concentration was positively related to the CN of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and total bacteria, as well as to bleeding index and probing depth. The

  13. Paleoclimate Reconstruction of Guangxi in SW China during the Past 2000-Year: Stalagmite Records from Two Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, W. Y.; Li, H. C.; Mii, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions help us to understand the role of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) on local precipitation and controlling factor of EASM variability, and to improve our climatic prediction. This study presents two stalagmite records from Jinlun Cave (23.553oN, 108.265oE) and Yilingyan Cave (23.041oN, 108.297oE) which are only 60 km apart in Guangxi Province, China. The 35-cm long stalagmite JL12 from Jinlun Cave and 10-cm long stalagmite YLY12 from Yilingyan Cave reveal 1500-year and 2000-year continuous growth respectively based on AMS 14C dating. Data points of the AMS 14C dates with the least dead carbon fraction (DCF) are used to build up the age model. Although dead carbons influence the 14C dating results, it is a feasible dating method for the stalagmites as 230Th/U dating on both stalagmites was not successful due to low U contents. A total of 1586 samples from JL12 and 948 samples from YLY12 have been done for stable isotopes analyses to serve as paleoclimate proxies. Comparison of the d18O records with the local rainfall records and the dry-wetness historic records shows the stalagmite d18O records as a rainfall proxy. The JL12 d18O record resembles the YLY12 d18O record in general, though some differences exist, which confirms the d18O records representing the local climate. The relatively lighter (lower) d18O values of the JL12 and YLY12 records during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, AD900-1200) indicate stronger EASM. In the first phase of Little Ice Age (LIA), from AD1300 to AD1560, the d18O fluctuate drastically and the average during this period was lower, while the d18O was higher in the second phase of Little Ice Age (AD1560-AD1760), exhibiting a drier and stable climate in the second phase. Furthermore, the DCF varies through the stalagmite records, ascending during the LIA, descending during the MWP, which informs dry condition during the LIA and a moist climate in the MWP. Spectral analysis of the high-resolution d18O records

  14. Facies-succession and architecture of the third-order sequences and their stratigraphic framework of the Devonian in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Mingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian orogeny at the end of the Silurian resulted in great changes in the palaeogeography in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area of South China; the continental area of the Early Paleozoic evolved into the extensive Dian-Qian-Gui Sea in the Late Paleozoic. Early in the Devonian, as a result of a major transgression, seawater encroached gradually from the south to the north and clastic facies were deposited. Carbonate deposition was then established in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, with a palaeogeography marked by attached platforms, isolated platforms and narrow basins. As a result of the Ziyun movement towards the end of the Devonian, the Upper Devonian strata are regressive and thin out from the open-sea to the land areas. A study of the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies in space and time recognises 13 third-order sequences in the Devonian strata in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi area, and these form two second-order sequences. The strata of the Lower Devonian comprise 5 third-order sequences (SQ1 to SQ5, which are dominated by transgressive clastics. 4 third-order sequences (SQ6 to SQ9 in the Middle Devonian are characterized by alternations of transgressive clastics and highstand carbonates. In the Upper Devonian, carbonates constitute 4 third-order sequences (SQ10 to SQ13, which are generally marked by the transgressive limestones and highstand dolomites. On the basis of earlier biostratigraphic studies, sea-level changes represented by the third-order sequences with their different facies successions are explored, and the sequence stratigraphic framework is established. Therefore, the Devonian strata in the study area provide an example for further understanding of depositional trends within the sequence-stratigraphic framework.

  15. Guangxi non-ferrous metal industry speeding up its restructuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Non-ferrous metal industry in Guangxi takes an important position in China.However,the waste of resources is severe due to its simple industrial structure,small size of enterprises, sloppy technology,scattered layout,obstructed market and indiscriminate mining.Starting from last year,Guangxi began the project of building a world-influential non-ferrous metal

  16. Engaging HIV-infected patients in antiretroviral therapy services: CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yao; Ray Y. Chen; ZHANG Fu-jie; LU Lin; LI Hui-qin; LIU Wei; TANG Zhi-rong; FANG Hua; Jennifer Y. Chen; MA Ye; ZHAO Yan

    2011-01-01

    Background The initiation and expansion of China's national free antiretroviral therapy program has led to significant improvement of survival among its participants. Success of further scaling up treatment coverage rests upon intensifying HIV screening and efficient linkage of care. Timely CD4 cell count testing after HIV diagnosis is necessary to determine whether a patient meets criteria for antiretroviral treatment, and represents a crucial link to engage HIV-infected patients in appropriate care, which has not been evaluated in China.Methods We evaluated all patients ≥16 years who tested HIV positive from 2005 to 2009 in Yunnan and Guangxi.Multivariate Logistic regression models were applied to identify factors associated with lack of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months after HIV diagnosis.Results A total of 83 556 patients were included. Over the study period, 30 635 (37%) of subjects received a CD4 cell count within 6 months of receiving the HIV diagnosis. The rate of CD4 cell count testing within 6 months of HIV diagnosis increased significantly from 7% in 2005 to 62% in 2009. Besides the earlier years of HIV diagnosis, negative predictors for CD4 cell count testing in multivariate analyses included older age, not married or unclear marriage status,incarceration, diagnosis at sexual transmitted disease clinics, mode of HIV transmission classified as men who have sex with men, intravenous drug users or transmission route unclear, while minority ethnicity, receipt of high school or higher education, diagnosis at voluntary counseling and testing clinics, and having HIV positive parents were protective.Conclusions Significant progress has been made in increasing CD4 testing among newly diagnosed HIV positive patients in Yunnan and Guangxi from 2005-2009. However, a sizable proportion of HIV positive patients still lack CD4testing within 6 months of diagnosis. Improving CD4 testing, particularly among patients with identified risk factors, is essential to

  17. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yunbo; Hu, Guijie; Chen, Qingyun; Peng, Hailun; Li, Kailan; Wei, Jinling; Yi, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs), the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33%) had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55%) had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  18. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Qing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs, the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. Methods: An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Results: Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33% had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55% had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Conclusion: Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  19. [Study on HIV-1 subtype among elderly male clients and female sex workers of low-cost venues in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y Q; Li, J J; Fang, N Y; Wang, B; Wang, J W; Liang, S S; Shen, Z Y; Lan, G H; Zhang, H M; Wu, X H; Lu, H X; Ge, X M

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To understand HIV-1 subtype characteristics and transmission clusters in elderly male clients and female sex workers (FSWs) of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in FSWs and elderly male clients (≥50 years) of low-cost commercial sex venues in 4 cities and 9 counties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region by convenient sampling in 2012. The blood sample was collected from each case for HIV-1 antibody detection. The pol gene fragments were amplified and sequenced from viral RNA template extracted from plasma samples. The phylogenetic tree was constructed and the subtypes were identified. Results: A total of 4 048 elderly male clients and 784 FSWs were surveyed, and 116 HIV-1 infections were detected, the positive rate was 2.5% (103/4 048) in the clients and 1.7% (13/784) in FSWs. The gene amplification and sequencing of HIV-1 detected in 84 blood samples indicated that 53 pol gene sequences were successfully determined (48 blood samples from elderly male clients and 5 blood samples from FSWs). Among 53 pol sequences, 48(90.6% ), 4(7.5% ), and 1(1.9% ) sequences were identified as CRF01_AE, CRF08_BC, and CRF07_BC, respectively. Two transmission clusters were identified among CRF01_AE, including 4 sub-clusters. One transmission cluster was identified among CRF08_BC. The transmission cluster or sub-cluster were from the infected individuals at same low-cost commercial sex venue, or different low-cost commercial sex venues in the same town, or same place, or adjacent villages and towns. Conclusions: CRF01_AE was the predominant HIV-1 subtype among elderly male clients and FSWs of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, circulating in same venue or adjacent villages and towns. The HIV-1 positive male clients and FSWs might play an important role in the spread of the strains.

  20. [Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Farmland Soil in Du'an Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-yong; Lei, Mei; Gao, Ding; Qiao, Peng-wei; Du, Guo-dong

    2015-08-01

    For a comprehensive understanding of the pollution characteristics and ecological risk of heavy metals of farmland soil in Du'an Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, this study evaluated the cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and lead ( Pb) pollution situation using the single factor index, the Nemerow pollution index and the Hakanson ecological risk index. The results showed that heavy-metal pollution of farmland soil in Du'an County was serious. 74.6% of the soil samples had heavy metals concentrations higher than the Grade II of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995). The over standard rates of Cd, As, Ni, Zn, Cr, Sb, Cu, Pb were 70.6%, 42.9%, 34.9%, 19.8%, 19.6%, 2.94%, 1.59%, 0.79%, respectively. Cd and As were the main contaminants in Du'an County, the pollution was far more serious than those of the national and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In terms of the ecological risk, heavy metals of farmland soil in Du'an County showed a "middle" ecological risk, with Cd accounting for 88% of the total ecological risk. The north-west of Jiudu Town and the zone between Bao'an Town and Dongmiao Town were two areas with high ecological risk in Du'an County. The contamination of farmland soils in Du'an County was caused by two main sources, whereas the pollution of As and Sb of farmland soils near Diaojiang River was mainly caused by the upstream mining industry.

  1. First detection of multiple knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel using three new genotyping methods in Anopheles sinensis from Guangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei L; Li, Chun X; Wang, Zhong M; Liu, Mei D; Dong, Yan D; Feng, Xiang Y; Wu, Zhi M; Guo, Xiao X; Xing, Dan; Zhang, Ying M; Wang, Zhong C; Zhao, Tong Y

    2012-09-01

    To investigate knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles sinensis (Wiedemann, 1828), from Guangxi province, southwest China, a segment of a sodium channel gene was sequenced and genotyped using three new genotyping assays. Direct sequencing revealed the presence of TTG-to-TCG and TG-to-TTT mutations at allele position L1014, which led to L1014S and L1014F substitutions in a few individual and two novel substitutions of N1013S and L1014W in two DNA templates. A low frequency of the kdr allele mostly in the heterozygous state of L1014S and L1014F was observed in this mosquito population. In this study, the genotyping of An. sinensis using three polymerase chain reaction-based methods generated consistent results, which agreed with the results of DNA sequencing. In total, 52 mosquitoes were genotyped using a direct sequencing assay. The number of mosquitoes and their genotypes were as follows: L/L = 24, L/S = 19, L/F = 8, and F/W = 1. The allelic frequency of L1014, 1014S, and 1014F were 72, 18, and 9%, respectively.

  2. Identification of the -α(2.4) Deletion in One Family and in One Hb H Disease Patient in Guangxi, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wanrong; Sun, Lei; Long, Ju; Weng, Xunjin; Ye, Xuehe; Wang, Junjie; Liao, Yan; Tang, Weijun; Fan, Zuqian; Wu, Suping; Song, Chuanlu; Wei, Xiaoying; Zhang, Chenghong

    2016-06-01

    The 2.4 kb (or -α(2.4)) deletion in the α-globin gene cluster (NG_000006.1) is an α(+)-thalassemia (α(+)-thal) allele. The molecular basis of -α(2.4) is a deletion from 36860 to 39251 of the α-globin gene cluster. It was reported by three research groups in 2005, 2012 and 2014, respectively. In routine thalassemia screening studies by this research group, we found an individual with the -α(2.4)/αα genotype and an Hb H (β4) disease patient whose genotype was - -(SEA)/-α(2.4). Samples from the parents of the carrier of the -α(2.4)/αα genotype were collected to perform pedigree analysis, and the proband's mother's genotype was diagnosed to be - -(SEA)/-α(2.4). The research revealed that the -α(2.4) allele exists in the population of southern Guangxi, People's Republic of China.

  3. Declining Inconsistent Condom Use but Increasing HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Among Older Male Clients of Female Sex Workers: Analysis From Sentinel Surveillance Sites (2010-2015), Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua

    2016-05-01

    Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs).We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40-49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time.By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P HIV prevalence increased for older age clients (1.3%-2.0%, P = 0.159) while syphilis prevalence remained stable. HCV infections were halved among older clients in 3 years (1.7%-0.8%, P sex with men or intravenous drug use. Clients preferred LTFSWs, especially older clients (81.9%).Our results suggest that HIV and syphilis infections are increasing in older clients who prefer LTFSWs. HIV and syphilis are likely increasing in Guangxi Province through heterosexual transmission.

  4. Patterns of HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in the cross-border area of Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Tran V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess patterns of injecting drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs in an international border area along a major heroin trans-shipment route. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of IDUs in 5 sites in Lang Son Province, Vietnam (n = 348 and 3 sites in Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China (n = 308. Respondents were recruited through peer referral ("snowball" methods in both countries, and also from officially recorded lists of IDUs in Vietnam. A risk behavior questionnaire was administered and HIV counseling and testing conducted. Results Participants in both countries were largely male, in their 20s, and unmarried. A majority of subjects in both countries were members of ethnic minority groups. There were strong geographic gradients for length of drug injecting and for HIV seroprevalence. Both mean years injecting and HIV seroprevalence declined from the Vietnamese site farthest from the border to the Chinese site farthest from the border. 10.6% of participants in China and 24.5% of participants in Vietnam reported crossing the international border in the 6 months prior to interview. Crossing the border by IDUs was associated with (1 distance from the border, (2 being a member of an ethnic minority group, and (3 being HIV seropositive among Chinese participants. Conclusion Reducing the international spread of HIV among IDUs will require programs at the global, regional, national, and "local cross border" levels. At the local cross border level, the programs should be coordinated on both sides of the border and on a sufficient scale that IDUs will be able to readily obtain clean injection equipment on the other side of the border as well as in their country of residence.

  5. Relative importance of climate changes at different time scales on net primary productivity-a case study of the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyu; Zhang, Mingyang; Lin, Zhenshan

    2017-10-05

    Climate changes are considered to significantly impact net primary productivity (NPP). However, there are few studies on how climate changes at multiple time scales impact NPP. With MODIS NPP product and station-based observations of sunshine duration, annual average temperature and annual precipitation, impacts of climate changes at different time scales on annual NPP, have been studied with EEMD (ensemble empirical mode decomposition) method in the Karst area of northwest Guangxi, China, during 2000-2013. Moreover, with partial least squares regression (PLSR) model, the relative importance of climatic variables for annual NPP has been explored. The results show that (1) only at quasi 3-year time scale do sunshine duration and temperature have significantly positive relations with NPP. (2) Annual precipitation has no significant relation to NPP by direct comparison, but significantly positive relation at 5-year time scale, which is because 5-year time scale is not the dominant scale of precipitation; (3) the changes of NPP may be dominated by inter-annual variabilities. (4) Multiple time scales analysis will greatly improve the performance of PLSR model for estimating NPP. The variable importance in projection (VIP) scores of sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale, and precipitation at quasi 5-year time scale are greater than 0.8, indicating important for NPP during 2000-2013. However, sunshine duration and temperature at quasi 3-year time scale are much more important. Our results underscore the importance of multiple time scales analysis for revealing the relations of NPP to changing climate.

  6. Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from stool samples of longevous people in regions of Hotan, Xinjiang and Bama, Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Rui-Xia; Yang, Zhen-Quan; Li, Zheng-Hua; Chen, Shun-Li; Luo, Zhen-Lan

    2008-12-01

    A total of 567 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from the stool samples of longevous people in regions of Hotan, Xinjiang and Bama, Guangxi, China. In order to reduce the number of strains for further examinations, 36 isolates were screened out for further examination whilst the other strains, which had lower probiotic properties, were not suitable for yogurt production due to the absence of growth in pH 3.5 MRS medium and no curding during fermentation, and so were excluded. The result of identification by API, sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis showed that there were three strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10 strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, three strains of Lactobacillus casein, three strains of Lactobacillus brevis, two strains of Enterococcus faecium, two strains of Enterococcus faecalis, four strains of Bifdibacterium infantis, three strains of Bifdibacterium brevise, three strains of Bifdibacterium bifidium, two strains of Bifdibacterium adolecentis and one strain of Bifdibacterium longam among the 36 isolates. These strains were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival upon exposure to pH 2.0, 3.0 and/or 0.3% oxgall and adhesion to the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 as well as antimicrobial activity against potential pathogens. The results presented here show that L. rhamnosus LV108, L. rhamnosus F, B. brevise R39 and B. infantis R42 are acid and bile tolerant, adhere to the cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, antagonistic activity against potential pathogenic bacteria infection in vitro, and so are potential strains for probiotic use.

  7. Identification of Three Types of α-Thalassemia Deletion, -α21.9, -α2.4, and - -THAI, and Their Frequencies, in One Family in the Population of Southern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wanrong; Long, Ju; Weng, Xunjin; Fan, Qiongying; Sun, Lei; Pan, Zhijian; Fan, Zuqian

    2018-01-01

    Different types of deletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) have been reported by researchers in China. This study describes one family carrying -α 21.9 (NG_000006.1: g.14373_36299delinsGGGAAGGGTGGGTGGGAATAACAGCTTTT), -α 2.4 (NG_000006.1: g.36860_39251del) and - - THAI (Thailand) (NG_000006.1: g.10664_44164del) alleles in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China (PRC), and reports the frequencies of these types in the population of this region. The proband was a 4-year-old girl, who screened positive for thalassemia, although the thalassemia genotype results were normal when screened using the routine kits. Samples of the proband's parents were also collected to perform further analyses. Two real-time gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) systems were designed for separate detection of - - THAI and screening for -α 21.9 and -α 2.4 . The genotype of the proband was -α 21.9 /-α 2.4 , and the two variants were inherited from her parents. In the frequency study, five - - THAI , four -α 21.9 and 11 -α 2.4 positive individuals were detected in the 3410 random samples. Thus, allele frequencies of -α 21.9 , - - THAI and -α 2.4 in the population of southern Guangxi were determined as 0.059, 0.073 and 0.161%, respectively. This is the first report of an individual carrying the -α 21.9 /-α 2.4 genotype, and the first report of the detection of -α 21.9 , -α 2.4 and - - THAI in a single family. The total frequency for these alleles was 0.293% in southern Guangxi, suggesting that the thalassemia clinical center in this region should utilize a screening kit that allows detection of these types of deletions for a more comprehensive evaluation of thalassemia risk.

  8. 中国气象频道广西本地发展策略探讨%Discussion on strategy of China Weather Channel's Local Development in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉梅; 孔毅民; 黎琮炜

    2012-01-01

    Basing on analysis of China weather channel's local development and the other weather chan- neFs development across the country, strategy for China weather channeFs local development was proposed, department of joint cooperation mechanism was set up b winning the government and related departments" support for the construction of Guangxi emergency weather channel to promote business services system, improve the comprehensive capability of business channel; perfect Guangxi weather channel emergency system, and improve the service level, establish and perfect the system of business pro- cess, promote talents system construction, and finally make Guangxi emergency channel become compre- hensive prevention and mitigation of the channel.%通过对中国气象频道本地发展现状和全国各地气象频道发展现状进行分析.提出中国气象频道本地发展策略:通过积极争取政府及相关部门支持广西应急气象频道的建设,建立部门联动的合作机制;推进业务服务体系建设,提升频道综合业务能力;完善广西应急气象频道节目体系,切实提升服务水平;建立健全系统业务流程,大力推进人才体系建设,从而把广西应急频道打造成为综合防灾减灾频道。

  9. Leaves and fruits of Bauhinia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Cercideae) from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China and their biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Zhuqiu; Chen, Yunfa; Shen, Si; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-04-24

    The pantropical genus Bauhinia, along with the northern temperate Cercis and several tropical genera, bear bilobate, bifoliolate, or sometimes unifoliolate leaves, which constitute the tribe Cercideae as sister to the rest of the family Leguminosae based on molecular phylogenetics. Hence, the fossil record of Cercideae is pivotal to understand the early evolution and biogeographic history of legumes. Three fossil species of Bauhinia were described from the Oligocene Ningming Formation of Guangxi, South China. Bauhinia ningmingensis sp. nov. is characterized by its bifoliolate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal acrodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins. B. cheniae sp. nov. bears moderately or deeply bilobate, pulvinate leaves, with basal actinodromous primary veins and eucamptodromous secondary veins. B. larsenii D.X. Zhang et Y.F. Chen emend. possesses shallowly or moderately bilobate, pulvinate leaves bearing basal actinodromous primary veins and brochidodromous secondary veins, as well as elliptic, stipitate, non-winged, and oligo-seeded fruits. Meanwhile, previously reported Bauhinia fossils were reviewed, and those pre-Oligocene foliage across the world are either questionable or have been rejected due to lacking of reliable evidence for their pulvini or/and basal actinodromous or acrodromous venations. Besides Oligocene leaves and fruits presented here, foliage and/or wood of Bauhinia have been documented from the Miocene-Pliocene of Thailand, India, Nepal, Uganda, and Ecuador. Bauhinia has exhibited a certain diversity with bifoliolate- and bilobate-leafed species in a low-latitude locality-Ningming since at least the Oligocene, implying that the tropical zone of South China may represent one of the centres for early diversification of the genus. The reliable macrofossils of Bauhinia and Cercis have made their debut in the Eocene-Oligocene floras from mid-low latitudes and appeared to lack in the coeval floras at high latitudes, implying a

  10. Recent discovery of handaxes associated with tektites in the Nanbanshan locality of the Darnel site, Bose basin, Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; MO JinYou; HUANG ZhiTao

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the recent discovery of 176 stone artifacts, including two handaxes (bifacial large cutting tools), which are preserved in the laterized sediments of terrace 4 of the Youjiang River at the Nanbanshan locality of the Damei site in the Bose basin, south China. Their characteristics are similar to Paleolithic stone artifacts discovered from other sites in this basin. The handaxes, picks and other stone artifacts are associated with 155 tektite pieces found in the same horizontal layer. These fresh, unabraded and sharp-edged tektites were buried immediately after the airfall event. This provides fur-ther evidence that the Bose stone artifacts and the tektites were deposited simultaneously around 0.8 Ma. More stone artifacts were also unearthed above the tektite layer, indicating that early humans in the area survived the event.

  11. Mercury contamination and its potential health effects in a lead-zinc mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Chaobing; Zhang Chaolan; Li Lihe; Li Zhongyi; Li Ning

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Soil in the investigated area is severely contaminated by mercury. → Contamination of T-Hg in paddy field soils is more severe than that in dry land soils. → Vertical distributions of T-Hg are different in the paddy and dry land samples. → T-Hg contents in the agricultural products exceed the Chinese tolerance value. - Abstract: Mercury contamination of the environment is of worldwide concern because of its global presence and its potent neurotoxicity. Mining, smelting and the electronics industry are the main sources of Hg pollution. However, few studies have been performed to investigate systemic Hg contamination in metal mining regions. In this study, concentrations of Hg in air, farmland soil, and crops were measured in a Pb-Zn mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China. Key factors that could affect Hg distribution, such as the fate of waste ore and waste residue, were analyzed. Geo-statistical methods were adopted to analyze the characteristics of spatial structure and distribution of Hg. The results show that Hg contamination in this region is serious. The total mercury (T-Hg) content is far higher than the Level II Limit Value of Chinese Soil Standards of 0.30 mg kg -1 , showing obvious directional characteristics from WNW to ESE. Highest Hg concentrations were found in the WNW portion of the study area. The contamination of paddy soil is higher than that in dry farmland soil. The vertical distribution of T-Hg and its decrease with depth suggest that the important sources are waste water irrigation and the improper disposal of the waste ore and waste rock. The T-Hg concentrations in the agricultural products examined exceed the Chinese tolerance value (0.02 mg kg -1 for rice and 0.01 mg kg -1 for vegetables), indicating the seriousness of the problem. The ecological environment and the safety of food grown in this mining area are being affected, with the result that human health is possibly being affected.

  12. [Summer Greenhouse Gases Exchange Flux Across Water-air Interface in Three Water Reservoirs Located in Different Geologic Setting in Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-hong; Pu, Jun-bing; Sun, Ping-an; Yuan, Dao-xian; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Mo, Xue

    2015-11-01

    Due to special hydrogeochemical characteristics of calcium-rich, alkaline and DIC-rich ( dissolved inorganic carbon) environment controlled by the weathering products from carbonate rock, the exchange characteristics, processes and controlling factors of greenhouse gas (CO2 and CH4) across water-air interface in karst water reservoir show obvious differences from those of non-karst water reservoir. Three water reservoirs (Dalongdong reservoir-karst reservoir, Wulixia reservoir--semi karst reservoir, Si'anjiang reservoir-non-karst reservoir) located in different geologic setting in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China were chosen to reveal characteristics and controlling factors of greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface. Two common approaches, floating chamber (FC) and thin boundary layer models (TBL), were employed to research and contrast greenhouse gas exchange flux across water-air interface from three reservoirs. The results showed that: (1) surface-layer water in reservoir area and discharging water under dam in Dalongdong water reservoir were the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in reservoir area in Wulixia water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and the source of atmospheric CH4, while discharging water under dam was the source of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. Surface-layer water in Si'anjiang water reservoir was the sink of atmospheric CO2 and source of atmospheric CH4. (2) CO2 and CH4 effluxes in discharging water under dam were much more than those in surface-layer water in reservoir area regardless of karst reservoir or non karst reservoir. Accordingly, more attention should be paid to the CO2 and CH4 emission from discharging water under dam. (3) In the absence of submerged soil organic matters and plants, the difference of CH4 effluxes between karst groundwater-fed reservoir ( Dalongdong water reservoir) and non-karst area ( Wulixia water reservoir and Si'anjiang water reservoir) was less. However, CO2

  13. Mercury contamination and its potential health effects in a lead-zinc mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Chaobing [Guangxi University, Nanning 530001 (China)] [Environmental Monitoring Station of Guangxi, Nanning 530022 (China); Zhang Chaolan, E-mail: zhangcl@gxu.edu.cn [Guangxi University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li Lihe [Environmental Monitoring Station of Guangxi, Nanning 530022 (China); Li Zhongyi [Guangxi University, Nanning 530001 (China); Li Ning [Environmental Monitoring Station of Guangxi, Nanning 530022 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Soil in the investigated area is severely contaminated by mercury. {yields} Contamination of T-Hg in paddy field soils is more severe than that in dry land soils. {yields} Vertical distributions of T-Hg are different in the paddy and dry land samples. {yields} T-Hg contents in the agricultural products exceed the Chinese tolerance value. - Abstract: Mercury contamination of the environment is of worldwide concern because of its global presence and its potent neurotoxicity. Mining, smelting and the electronics industry are the main sources of Hg pollution. However, few studies have been performed to investigate systemic Hg contamination in metal mining regions. In this study, concentrations of Hg in air, farmland soil, and crops were measured in a Pb-Zn mining area in the karst region of Guangxi, China. Key factors that could affect Hg distribution, such as the fate of waste ore and waste residue, were analyzed. Geo-statistical methods were adopted to analyze the characteristics of spatial structure and distribution of Hg. The results show that Hg contamination in this region is serious. The total mercury (T-Hg) content is far higher than the Level II Limit Value of Chinese Soil Standards of 0.30 mg kg{sup -1}, showing obvious directional characteristics from WNW to ESE. Highest Hg concentrations were found in the WNW portion of the study area. The contamination of paddy soil is higher than that in dry farmland soil. The vertical distribution of T-Hg and its decrease with depth suggest that the important sources are waste water irrigation and the improper disposal of the waste ore and waste rock. The T-Hg concentrations in the agricultural products examined exceed the Chinese tolerance value (0.02 mg kg{sup -1} for rice and 0.01 mg kg{sup -1} for vegetables), indicating the seriousness of the problem. The ecological environment and the safety of food grown in this mining area are being affected, with the result that human health is

  14. The origin of the Tongkeng-Changpo tin deposit, Dachang metal district, Guangxi, China: clues from fluid inclusions and He isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghai, Cai; Jingwen, Mao; Ting, Liang; Pirajno, Franco; Huilan, Huang

    2007-08-01

    Tongkeng-Changpo is the largest tin deposit within the giant Dachang polymetallic tin ore field in Guangxi, southern China, which is part of a large skarn system associated with Cretaceous granitoids. The Tongkeng-Changpo mineralization consists of veins and stockworks in the upper levels and replacement stratiform orebodies (mantos) at lower levels. Based on textural relationships, three major mineralizing stages can be recognized: stage I with cassiterite, sulphides, stannite, tourmaline, and quartz; stage II with cassiterite, sulphides, sulphosalts, quartz, and calcite; and stage III with calcite as the main phase. The study of fluid inclusions has shown that there are two main fluid types: CO2 and NaCl-H2O. Homogenization temperatures are 270 to 365°C, 210 to 240°C, and 140 to 190°C for stages I, II, and III, respectively. Salinities range from 1 to 7 wt.% NaCl equiv. in the early ore stage and 3 to 10 wt.% NaCl equiv. in the late stages. Laser Raman Spectroscopy indicates that the inclusion fluids in stages I and II were of carbono-aqueous composition, with minor amounts of CH4 and H2S, whereas those in stage III were aqueous. Helium isotopic analyses of inclusion fluids indicate that the 3He/4He ratios in the ore veins are in between 1.2 to 2.9 Ra (Ra = 1.4 × 10-6, modern atmospheric ratio), and range from 1.6 to 2.5 Ra in the stratiform orebodies. This range of 3He/4He ratios is significantly higher than that of crustal fluids (0.01-0.05 Ra). The similar characteristics of fluid inclusions and their He isotopic composition, as well as age constraints, indicate that the ore veins and stratiform orebodies of the Tongkeng-Changpo deposit formed from the same hydrothermal system, likely related to granite intrusions of the Mesozoic Yanshanian tectono-thermal event. In addition, the high R/Ra ratios indicate a mantle contribution in the ore fluids.

  15. Investigation of trace elements in Guangxi ancient pottery by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zicheng; Sun Weidong; Huang Yunlan

    1997-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region is an original place for manufacture of ancient pottery in China since Zenpiyan site, dated 9240-10370 years ago, was excavated. Contents of trace elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, U, Th, Sc, Ta, Ba, Cs, Rb, Sr and Zr in 44 pottery shards from Guangxi sites, dated from 1450 B.C. to 200 A.D., were determined by INAA and XRF. The provenances of the 44 samples are postulated by the analyses of geochemical parameters

  16. Dynamics of T-cell subsets and their relationship with oral and systemic opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of HAART in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Huang, Yuxiao; Liu, Zhenmin; Liu, Wei; Qin, Qi; Tao, Renchuan

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the dynamic changes in Th1, Th2, Tc1, and Tc2 of HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to explore their relationship with oral and systemic opportunistic infections, a cohort study was carried out among HIV/AIDS patients in Guangxi, China. Ninety HIV/AIDS patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) were included. The enrolled HIV/AIDS patients were examined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months of HAART. On each visit, oral and systemic opportunistic infections were recorded, oral Candida load and plasma viral load (VL) were counted, differential T-cell counts and flow cytometric analysis of T-cell subsets were performed. During the first year of HAART, the total number of opportunistic infections decreased steadily with the change in oral candidiasis (OC) most representatively. A significant Th1→Th2 switch (Th1/Th2 ratio 0.23 ± 0.12, HC 1.45 ± 0.38) and slight Tc1→Tc2 shift (Tc1/Tc2 ratio 0.93 ± 0.29, HC 1.13 ± 0.33) were found at baseline, and both received slow mitigation after HAART. LgCFU and clinical OC were correlated positively with both LgVL and clinical stage (P Candida load could be useful clinical markers in the evaluation of HIV/AIDS patients. Th1 may play an important role against oral and systemic opportunistic infections. Tc1 and Tc2 both showed positive roles in the control of viremia without HAART. J. Med. Virol. 87:1158-1167, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetic diversity of Guangxi chicken breeds assessed with microsatellites and the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuying; Mo, Guodong; Sun, Junli; Wei, Fengying; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2016-05-01

    The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an excellent model for genetic studies of phenotypic diversity. The Guangxi Region of China possesses several native chicken breeds displaying a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme hot-and-wet environments in the region. We thus evaluated the genetic diversity and relationships among six native chicken populations of the Guangxi region and also evaluated two commercial breeds (Arbor Acres and Roman chickens). We analyzed the sequences of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellite loci of 280 blood samples from six Guangxi native chicken breeds and from Arbor Acres and Roman chickens, and used the neighbor-joining method to construct the phylogenetic tree of these eight breeds. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of Guangxi native breeds was relatively rich. The phylogenetic tree using the unweighed pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGAM) on microsatellite marks revealed two main clusters. Arbor Acres chicken and Roman chicken were in one cluster, while the Guangxi breeds were in the other cluster. Moreover, the UPGAM tree of Guangxi native breeds based on microsatellite loci was more consistent with the genesis, breeding history, differentiation and location than the mtDNA D-loop region. STRUCTURE analysis further confirmed the genetic structure of Guangxi native breeds in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. The nomenclature of mtDNA sequence polymorphisms suggests that the Guangxi native chickens are distributed across four clades, but most of them are clustered in two main clades (B and E), with the other haplotypes within the clades A and C. The Guangxi native breeds revealed abundant genetic diversity not only on microsatellite loci but also on mtDNA D-loop region, and contained multiple maternal lineages, including one from China and another from Europe or the Middle East.

  18. Community-based interventions to enhance knowledge, protective attitudes and behaviors towards canine rabies: results from a health communication intervention study in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China canine rabies poses a serious public health problem in that human mortality ranks the second highest globally. While rabies health education interventions are advocated by WHO to be critical components of modern rabies control and prevention programs, available studies have not adequately investigated the relative efficacy of their implementation in at-risk populations. This study aims to measure and compare the effect on knowledge and protective behavior towards rabies of health education interventions that include a novel Short Messaging Service via cell phone (SMS and rabies health information sessions (IS. Methods The study used a between-subject design involving repeated measures of rabies-related KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice. A total of 350 randomly selected villagers were randomly allocated into three intervention (SMS, IS and SMS + IS and one control group. The content of SMS and IS covered topics about rabies prevention and route of transmission. The SMS intervention consisted of ten separate messages delivered three times two weeks after the pretest; the IS intervention was conducted once immediately after the pretest. A validated questionnaire was used to capture demographic information and KAP information. Ordinary Least Squares regression was used to contrast the effects of interventions. Results Our results indicate that overall SMS outperforms IS at improving knowledge and protective behavior against rabies. Our results suggest that a combined intervention of SMS and IS can result in higher scores than any of the two in isolation. The impact of SMS, IS and SMS + IS is greatest on knowledge, followed by attitude and practice scores. Conclusion This study demonstrated that health communication modes based on SMS, IS and a combination of the two are all effective to improve rabies-related KAP in the short term. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of SMS as an additional tool

  19. An Empirical Study on the Moderate Scale of Food-production-based Family Farm in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaogui WU

    2016-01-01

    The moderate scale family farm is the future agricultural business entity in China,and the scale of family farm is a key factor affecting its development.With Guigang City in Guangxi as a point for the study,from the perspective of maximizing income of rural households,this paper uses production function model to calculate the moderate scale of food-production-based family farm at 5.7 ha,and makes policy recommendations.

  20. Zircon and cassiterite U-Pb ages, petrogeochemistry and metallogenesis of Sn deposits in the Sibao area, northern Guangxi: constraints on the neoproterozoic granitic magmatism and related Sn mineralization in the western Jiangnan Orogen, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Zongqi; Yan, Zhen; Gong, Jianghua; Ma, Shouxian

    2018-01-01

    A number of Sn deposits associated with Neoproterozoic granites are located in the western Jiangnan Orogen of northern Guangxi. The distribution of Sn mineralization is controlled by faults occurring within and around the Neoproterozoic granites. The hydrothermal alteration and mineralization of these Sn deposits exhibit zoning from the granite to the wall rock. The laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages of the cassiterite and zircon from ore-bearing granite in the Menggongshan Sn deposit are 829 ± 19 Ma and 822 ± 4 Ma, respectively, indicating that the Sn mineralization and granites formed in the Neoproterozoic and can considered to be products of coeval magmatic and hydrothermal activities. The ore-bearing granite and Neoproterozoic granites in northern Guangxi are high-K, calc-alkaline, peraluminous, S-type granites that are depleted in Nb, Ti, Sr and Ba and highly enriched in Rb, U and Pb. All the granites show steep fractionated light rare earth element (LREE) and flat heavy rare earth element (HREE) patterns, with strongly negative Eu anomalies. The ɛHf(t) values of the ore-bearing granite vary from - 9.0 to - 1.7, with an average value of - 4.1. Additionally, the ore-bearing granite exhibits low oxygen fugacity values. The magmatic source experienced partial melting during their evolution, and the source was dominated by recycled heterogeneous continental crustal materials. Our evidence confirms that the Neoproterozoic granites in northern Guangxi formed in a collisional tectonic setting. The collision between the Cathaysia and Yangtze blocks or between the Sibao arc (Jiangnan arc) and the Yangtze Block caused asthenospheric upwelling, leading to partial melting and recycling of the crust, forming the peraluminous S-type granites in the Neoproterozoic. The Sn mineralization has a close genetic relationship with the Neoproterozoic granite. The highly differentiated, peraluminous, B-enriched, crustally derived

  1. [Acceptability of male circumcision among male miners in Baise of Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Liang, Xu; Chen, Jian; Yang, Xiao-bo; Jiang, Jun-jun; Deng, Wei; Zou, Yun-feng; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-yong; Liu, Zhi-hao; Liang, Hao

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the acceptability of male circumcision among male miners in Baise, Guangxi, China. A questionnaire-based survey on the willingness to be circumcised (WTC) and its influential factors were conducted among Guangxi male miners recruited by random cluster sampling. Of 569 subjects who were surveyed, 143 (25.13%) expressed their willingness to be circumcised. Univariate analysis showed that marital status, education level, and the awareness of the hazards of phimosis and redundant prepuce and reasons for circumcision were significantly different between WTC group and the non-WTC group (all Pminers WTC. Male miners in this area have low WTC. Education on the basic knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and circumcision may help promote the application of circumcision.

  2. 78 FR 15683 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... National Cereals, Oils & Foodstuffs Import & Export Corp. (China National), (2) China Processed Food Import...) Co., Ltd. (Primera Harvest), (10) Shandong Fengyu Edible Fungus Corporation Ltd. (Shandong Fengyu... Hengyong Industrial & Commercial Dev., Ltd. (Guangxi Hengyong), (2) Zhangzhou Tongfa Foods Industry Co...

  3. New Project in Huacheng Paper of Guangxi State Farms Sugar Group Laid the Foundation Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The foundation-stone laying ceremony of 200,000 t/y culture paper project in Huacheng Paper, a member of Guangxi State Farms Sugar Group, was held in Laibin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, on October 18, 2009.

  4. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Load Response to 2 Antiviral Regimens, Tenofovir/Lamivudine and Lamivudine, in HIV/ HBV-Coinfected Pregnant Women in Guangxi, China: The Tenofovir in Pregnancy (TiP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Wiener, Jeffrey; Bulterys, Marc; Wei, Xiaoyu; Chen, Lili; Liu, Wei; Liang, Shujia; Shepard, Colin; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Ailing; Zhang, Fujie; Kourtis, Athena P

    2016-12-01

     There is limited information on antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV.  A phase 2 randomized, controlled trial of a regimen containing tenofovir (TDF)/lamivudine (3TC) and a regimen containing 3TC in HIV/HBV-coinfected pregnant women in China. The HBV virological response was compared in study arms.  The median decline in the HBV DNA level was 2.60 log 10 copies/mL in the TDF/3TC arm and 2.24 log 10 copies/mL in the 3TC arm (P = .41). All women achieved HBV DNA levels of <6 log 10 copies/mL at delivery.  Initiation of either regimen led to achievement of HBV DNA levels below the threshold associated with perinatal HBV transmission.  NCT01125696. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. An Analysis of the Impact of Guangxi Agricultural Finance, Loan and Insurance on the Trade between Guangxi and CAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukun Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial support, agriculture loan and insurance are the main funding modes for the development of agriculture. This study firstly uses software eviews6.0 to make an analysis of the current state of the Trade between Guangxi and CAFTA, and then makes a study of the data of the funds and the trading volume of Guangxi-ASEAN, and comes to the conclusion that the funds involved has an effect on the trade volume. Generally, government fiscal support curbs the trade while the agricultural loan and the agricultural insurance promote it; however, the case in Guangxi seems the opposite. The trade volume is promoted by government financial support while curbed by loan and insurance.

  6. Le développement touristique de deux sites chinois « incontournables » : Beihai et Guilin (Guangxi The tourist development of two « paramount » Chinese sites: Beihai and Guilin (Guangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Taunay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Le tourisme national dans la région autonome du Guangxi est fortement polarisé par la ville de Guilin, connue dans toute la Chine à cause de son site et de l’expression littéraire : « Le plus beau paysage est à Guilin ». L’analyse de la mise en tourisme de cette ville, ainsi que celle de Beihai - qualifiée de « plus belle plage sous le ciel » - montre des lieux aux structures et aux dynamiques spatiales singulières. L’analyse essaye également de souligner la croissance d’un tourisme de plus en plus individuel dans cette région.Domestic tourism in the Guangxi Autonomous Region stems mainly from the city of Guilin, known all over China because of its setting and because of the literary expression «the most beautiful landscape is in Guilin». The analysis of the tourist development of this city, as well as the city of Beihai – labelled  «most beautiful beach under the sky» – shows places with unique structures and spatial dynamics. The analysis also tries to underscore the growth of an increasingly individual type of tourism in the region.

  7. Pollution Status of Dioxins Persistent Organic Pollutants in Guangxi and Control Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hua; Fan Yongji; Feng Bo; Chen Zhiming; Mo Zhaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Production and pollution control situations of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi were introduced.Pollution status of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi was understood,and the existing problems in pollution control were analyzed,and finally pollution control countermeasures and suggestions were proposed.

  8. 广西珍珠品牌塑造策略研究%Research on the Brand Strategies of Guangxi Pearl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬镇宁

    2013-01-01

    Guangxi enjoys rich pearl resources,but provides the market only with low-end products. The study holds that the branding of Guangxi pearl should take the local history resources,geographical advan-tages and annual China-ASEAN Exposition into account,and consider the ways that help it stand out from the fierce competition. With analysis and discussion of the problems in the branding of Guangxi Pearl and the related reasons,the article points out some brand strategies on the basis of targeting consumers,product experience,advertising strategy and integrated marketing communication.%针对广西珍珠资源丰富,但是只能提供低端产品的现状,思考与强势对手在竞争中如何脱颖而出,充分考虑广西本土的历史资源、地理优势和东盟博览会等现实凭借,在对广西珍珠品牌的问题以及原因思考的基础上,围绕明确消费者、产品体验、广告策略、整合营销传播等提出了广西珍珠品牌的塑造策略。

  9. Study on Investing and Financing Development in Rural Area:A Case Study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junyong; HUANG; Bin; YAO

    2013-01-01

    "Surplus income" of farmers has been increasing steadily with the marked improvement of rural economy. However,development of rural financing market in China is rather backward. To satisfy the financing requirement of farmers and meet the demand of the construction of new countryside as well as harmonious society,development of financing market in rural area is eager to be quickened. Taking Guangxi Autonomous Region as an example,there are problems in rural investing and financing development. Firstly,farmers are in lacking of accurate understanding of investing and financing. Secondly,investors in rural area lack professional knowledge about financing generally. Thirdly,rural area has underdeveloped information degree as well as imperfect investing and financing environment. Fourthly,there are no financial products developed for rural area. Fifthly,economic development is unbalanced and relatively underdeveloped in rural area. Lastly,rural financial market has long been neglected by financial intermediaries. In order to cope with these problems,firstly,farmers should be assisted to establish accurate financial awareness and master necessary financial knowledge. Secondly,local intermediaries like securities firms and banks should be encouraged to exert impact on rural financial market. Thirdly,financial products suitable for Guangxi rural area are to be developed. Fourthly, construction and perfection of rural financial market should be quickened. Lastly,rural economic development should be quickened to enlarge capital source of financing.

  10. Analysis of Affecting Factors and Construction of Index System of Rural Domestic Pollution in Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Duan, Chunyi

    2018-01-01

    This paper systematically analysed the influential factors of rural domestic pollution in Guangxi and the current situation and evaluation index of rural domestic pollution, constructed moisture contents indexes system, which included two kinds of indicators in three levels, in a total of 19 indicators of rural domestic pollution. According to the moisture contents indexes system, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted to make regionalization of rural domestic pollution in Guangxi more reasonable and provided scientific support for the prevention and control of rural domestic pollution in Guangxi Province.

  11. Study on Ecological Risk Assessment of Guangxi Coastal Zone Based on 3s Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z.; Luo, H.; Ling, Z. Y.; Huang, Y.; Ning, W. Y.; Tang, Y. B.; Shao, G. Z.

    2018-05-01

    This paper takes Guangxi coastal zone as the study area, following the standards of land use type, divides the coastal zone of ecological landscape into seven kinds of natural wetland landscape types such as woodland, farmland, grassland, water, urban land and wetlands. Using TM data of 2000-2015 such 15 years, with the CART decision tree algorithm, for analysis the characteristic of types of landscape's remote sensing image and build decision tree rules of landscape classification to extract information classification. Analyzing of the evolution process of the landscape pattern in Guangxi coastal zone in nearly 15 years, we may understand the distribution characteristics and change rules. Combined with the natural disaster data, we use of landscape index and the related risk interference degree and construct ecological risk evaluation model in Guangxi coastal zone for ecological risk assessment results of Guangxi coastal zone.

  12. STUDY ON ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF GUANGXI COASTAL ZONE BASED ON 3S TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes Guangxi coastal zone as the study area, following the standards of land use type, divides the coastal zone of ecological landscape into seven kinds of natural wetland landscape types such as woodland, farmland, grassland, water, urban land and wetlands. Using TM data of 2000–2015 such 15 years, with the CART decision tree algorithm, for analysis the characteristic of types of landscape’s remote sensing image and build decision tree rules of landscape classification to extract information classification. Analyzing of the evolution process of the landscape pattern in Guangxi coastal zone in nearly 15 years, we may understand the distribution characteristics and change rules. Combined with the natural disaster data, we use of landscape index and the related risk interference degree and construct ecological risk evaluation model in Guangxi coastal zone for ecological risk assessment results of Guangxi coastal zone.

  13. [Epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Salmonella Typhi isolates in Guangxi, 1994-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingliu; Kan, Biao; Yang, Jin; Lin, Mei; Yan, Meiying; Zeng, Jun; Quan, Yi; Liao, Hezhuang; Zhou, Lingyun; Jiang, Zhenling; Huang, Dehui

    2014-08-01

    nalidixic acid (ACSSxT-NAL) resistance profile. This was the first report in China. Multi-drug resistant strains were frequently isolated from small scale outbreaks of typhoid fever. The incidence of typhoid fever in Guangxi was still high and some strains showed multi-drug resistance and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, indicating that the surveillance and monitor programs on drug resistance of S. Typhi should be strengthened, to prevent large scale outbreaks of typhoid fever in this province.

  14. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  15. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  16. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Libao; Liang, Qingzhi; He, Xinhua; Luo, Cong; Chen, Hu; Qin, Zhenshi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies. This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers. Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms. The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  17. Study on the situation of female employment in the Guangxi Zhuangzhu autonomous region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the gap between the female labor force and employment opportunities in Guangxi Zhuangzhu Autonomous Region (GZAR) in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census and the 1% sample survey in 1995. GZAR has undergone recent market reforms. In 1995, the total number of employed persons was 24,520,500, of whom 46.8% were women; 46.3% were employed women in 1990. Female employment grew by 8.3% during 1990-95; male employment grew by 5.8%. GZAR has a higher rate of female employment than other provinces. The female employment rates in GZAR, Guangdong, and Guizhou were fairly stable. Rates were the highest in the middle age group and lowest among the old and young. Women in GZAR begin work at an earlier age. The higher female employment rate is attributed to expansion of the light and service industries and migration of males outside home areas. During 1990-95, the number of women working declined in agriculture and increased in light industry and service sectors, especially in wholesale and retail trades, finance and insurance, and restaurants. Women in professions increased. Female professionals were 331/10,000 in GZAR, 410/10,000 in Guizhou, and 743/10,000 in Guangdong. Female professionals were better educated than male professionals. The percentage of illiterates and semiliterates declined by 3.0% for women and 1.8% for men. More women than men worked in areas that required strength. Female unemployment was high; reemployment was higher for males. Four suggestions are made to improve women's economic position.

  18. [Study on association of CTLA4 gene polymorphism with Grave's disease in Guangxi Zhuang nationality population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing-huan; Qin, Ying-fen; Ma, Yan; Xie, Xin-rong; Xie, Kai-qing; Luo, Zuo-jie

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the polymorphic (AT)n repeats in 3ountranslated region of exon 4 of CTLA4 gene [CTLA4(AT)n] and Graveso disease (GD) in Zhuang nationality population of Guangxi province. The studied groups comprised 48 patients with GD and 44 normal controls. Amplification of target DNA was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified products were run by 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and then followed by 0.1% silver staining. Some of amplified products were sequenced directly. Nineteen alleles of CTLA4 gene microsatellite polymorphism were found in Guangxi Zhuang nationality individuals. The 106 bp long allele was apparently increased in patients with GD of Zhuang nationality but not in healthy controls (Pdisease in Zhuang nationality population of Guangxi province. CTLA4(AT)n 106 bp may be the susceptible gene in GD patients of Zhuang nationality in Guangxi; 19 alleles of CTLA4 gene microsatellite polymorphism were found in Guangxi Zhuang nationality individuals.

  19. The genus Scaphidium Olivier in East China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scaphidiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of 21 species of Scaphidium Olivier from East China is presented, including 6 new species: S. jinmingi sp. n. (Zhejiang, Anhui, Chongqing, S. crypticum sp. n.(Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, S. varifasciatum sp. n. (Zhejiang, An’hui, S. robustum sp. n. (Fujian, Guizhou, Chongqing, Guangxi, Yunnan, S. connexum sp. n. (Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and S. bayibini sp. n. (An’hui. New province records for S. comes Löbl, S. grande Gestro, S. sauteri Miwa & Mitono, S. formosanum Pic, S. carinense Achard, S. sinense Pic, S. delatouchei Achard, S. biwenxuani He, Tang & Li, S. klapperichi Pic, S. stigmatinotum Löbl, S. wuyongxiangi He, Tang & Li, and S. direptum Tang & Li as well as some biological notes are reported. Habitus and diagnostic characters of all species are photographed and a key to Scaphidium species of East China is provided.

  20. Understanding the natural and social factors behind regional longevity in Guangxi, China—Is centenarian ratio a good enough indicator for assessing the longevity level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Q.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Despite a number of longevity indicators having been used in previous longevity studies, few studies have critically evaluated whether these indicators are suitable. In addition, an increasing number of studies have attempted to determine the influence of socio-economic and natural factors on regional longevity, but only certain factors were considered. The present study bridges this gap by determining the relationship between the seven longevity indicators and selecting 24 natural and socio-economic indicators in the 91 selected counties and districts in Guangxi, China. The seven longevity indicators here refer to Centenarian ratio, Longevity index, Longevity level, Aging tendency, 80+ ratio, 90+ ratio and 95+ ratio. Natural indicators in this study mainly refer to climatic ones. Socio-economic indicators can be categorized into those related to economic, education, local infrastructure, and health care facilities. These data were mainly drawn from the Meteorological Data Sharing Service System and Guangxi's sixth population census. Stepwise regression analysis has been used as the primary research method to determine the relationship between the longevity indicators and the natural, social, and economic indicators. The results show that the climate factors regarding atmospheric pressure, humidity, and rainfall are the most significant contributors to the longevity of the 60- to 90-year-old elderly in Guangxi, while the difference of mean annual temperature could have negative impacts. Also, the natural and socioeconomic factors that impact the extremely old population (those over 95 years old) in Guangxi are still not clear. This study reveals that the longevity index and longevity level are useful supplementary indexes to the centenarian ratio for assessing the regional longevity as they could help reflect the regional longevity regarding the proportion of young-old and old-old population and not just limit to those over 100 years old. The elderly (those from 60

  1. Two new species of the Rhopalopsole magnicerca group (Plecoptera: Leuctridae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Raorao; Wang, Guoquan; Yang, Ding; Li, Weihai

    2018-03-04

    Two leuctrid species of the Rhopalopsole magnicerca group are described as new, R. brevicula sp. nov. and R. jizushana sp. nov. from the Guangxi Autonomous Region of southern China, bordering Vietnam and Yunnan Province of southwestern China, respectively. The new species are compared with related taxa.

  2. Investigation of natural radioactivity level of the waters in Guangxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingshen; Ming Chuanbao; Dai Guozhi; Liang Runping; Chen Xiuyu; Yang Gang; Jin Mei

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the investigation results of natural radioactivity level in river, lake reservoir, spring, well and tap water in Guangxi Zhuangzu Autonomous Region. There were totally 194 samples collected from 143 measuring points. The results show that the radioactivity level of varied water bodies of the region was within normal natural background

  3. Estimation of Carbon Sink in Surface Carbonate Rocks of Guangxi Province by Using Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B.; Zhou, G.; Wang, H.; Yue, T.; Huang, W.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of the imbalance of source sinks in the carbon cycle show that CO2 absorbed during rock weathering is part of the "miss carbon" of the global carbon cycle. The carbon sink contribution of carbonate rocks obviously plays a very important role in the absorption of atmospheric CO2. Estimation of carbon sinks in karst dynamic system of Guangxi province has great significance for further understanding of global karst carbon cycle and global climate research. This paper quotes the rock data from Tao Xiaodong's paper, which is obtained using RS and GIS techniques. At the same time, the dissolution rate model studied by Zhou Guoqing and others was used to estimate the dissolution rate of carbonate rocks in Guangxi Province. Finally, the CO2 content consumed by carbonate karstification in Guangxi Province was 1342910.447 t a-1. The results obtained are in the same order of magnitude as the CO2 content consumed by carbonate rock karstification in Guangxi Province calculated by Tao Xiaodong.

  4. Is southwestern China experiencing more frequent precipitation extremes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Wang, Kelin; Sun, Alexander Y; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Climate extremes have and will continue to cause severe damages to buildings and natural environments around the world. A full knowledge of the probability of the climate extremes is important for the management and mitigation of natural hazards. Based on Mann–Kendall trend test and copulas, this study investigated the characteristics of precipitation extremes as well as their implications in southwestern China (Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Province), through analyzing the changing trends and probabilistic characteristics of six indices, including the consecutive dry days, consecutive wet days, annual total wet day precipitation, heavy precipitation days (R25), max 5 day precipitation amount (Rx5) and the rainy days (RDs). Results showed that the study area had generally become drier (regional mean annual precipitation decreased by 11.4 mm per decade) and experienced enhanced precipitation extremes in the past 60 years. Relatively higher risk of drought in Yuanan and flood in Guangxi was observed, respectively. However, the changing trends of the precipitation extremes were not spatially uniform: increasing risk of extreme wet events for Guangxi and Guizhou, and increasing probability of concurrent extreme wet and dry events for Yunnan. Meanwhile, trend analyses of the 10 year return levels of the selected indices implied that the severity of droughts decreased in Yunnan but increased significantly in Guangxi and Guizhou, and the severity of floods increased in Yunnan and Guangxi in the past decades. Hence, the policy-makers need to be aware of the different characterizations and the spatial heterogeneity of the precipitation extremes. (letters)

  5. Asian Origins of Cinderella: The Zhuang Storyteller of Guangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Beauchamp

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and understanding of the Asian origins of the “Cinderella” story should replace the widely held belief that the story is fundamentally Western or universal. The Zhuang, an ethnic group at the intersection of China and Vietnam, combined ideas from their own traditions and experiences with motifs from Hindu and Buddhist narratives circulating in their area during the Tang Dynasty, and should be credited with creating this subversive, virginal, talented, and compassionate heroine.

  6. Investigation and Control Mode of Domestic Pollution in Rural Areas of Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chunyi; Chen, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Due to the unbalanced economic development and scattered residence in rural areas, it was difficult to adopt a centralized approach in rural environmental governance. Based on the survey results of the present situation of rural environment in Guangxi and the analysis of the pollution characteristics in rural areas, the control mode of domestic pollution suitable for rural areas was obtained. Based on this research, a demonstration project of Guangxi’s administrative village was selected.

  7. [Analysis of COX1 sequences of Taenia isolates from four areas of Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Chao; Ou-Yang, Yi; Su, Ai-Rong; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Li, Shu-Lin

    2012-06-01

    To analyze the COX1 sequences of Taenia isolates from four areas of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and to understand the distribution of Taenia asiatica in Guangxi. Patients with taeniasis in Luzhai, Rongshui, Tiandong and Sanjiang in Guangxi were treated by deworming, and the Taenia isolates were collected. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) sequences of these isolates were amplified by PCR, and the PCR products were sequenced by T-A clone sequencing. The homogeneities and genetic distances were calculated and analyzed, and the phylogenic trees were constructed by some softwares. Meanwhile, the COX1 sequences of the isolates from the 4 areas were compared separately with the sequences of Taenia species in GenBank. The COX1 sequence of the 5 Taenia isolates collected had the same length of 444 bp. There were 5 variable positions between the Luzhai isolate and Taenia asiatica, the homogeneity was 98.87% and their genetic distance was 0.011. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the Luzhai isolate and Taenia asiatica locating at the same node had a close relationship. The homogeneity between Rongshui isolate A and Taenia solium was 100%, while the homogeneity of Rongshui isolate B with Taeniasis saginata and Taenia asiatica were 98.20% and 96.17%, respectively. The homogeneities of the Tiandong and Sanjiang isolates with Taenia solium were 99.55% and 96.40%, respectively, and the genetic distances were 0.005 and 0.037, respectively. The homogeneity between the Luzhai isolate and Taeniasis saginate was 96.40%. Taenia asiatica exists in Luzhai and Taenia solium and Taenia saginata coexist in Rongshui, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  8. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  9. [Study on the status of institutional delivery and its determinants in rural Guangxi autonomous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Li-Li; Chen, Shu-Zhen; Cen, Ming-Yang; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Qian, Xu

    2008-03-01

    To understand the situation of institutional delivery of rural pregnant women in Guangxi Autonomous Region in the period of 1998 - 2003 and to identify the determinants on institutional delivery utilization. Using Andersen's behavioral model as analytical framework and Guangxi databank of the 3rd National Health Service Survey as data source, we described the status of institutional delivery with the rural women having had live birth history in the period of 1998 - 2003 as subjects, while and the univariate analysis and multivariate logistic analysis were done to identify determinants of institutional delivery utilization. Among a total number of 407 women with live birth history, 39.80 percent of them delivered at the health-care facilities. The rate of institutional delivery increased annually in 1998 - 2003 (Pdelivery in township health centers increased and the proportion of home delivery decreased by year (Pdelivery etc. were determinants of delivery utilization. The OR value were 1.749 for multipara, 1.995 for those going to the nearest healthcare facilities by the most convenient traffic in less than 10 minutes, 3.011 for those drinking tap water, 5.435 for those with the education of high school, 29.149 for those with over 5 times in terms of frequency of prenatal checkup and 37.822 for those being advocated on institutional delivery. Socio-economic situation, status of maternal health care and parity made main contribution to institutional delivery and skilled birth attendance for women in rural Guangxi.

  10. Spatial risk for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Rion

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although economic reforms have brought significant benefits, including improved health care to many Chinese people, accessibility to improved care has not been distributed evenly throughout Chinese society. Also, the effects of the uneven distribution of improved healthcare are not clearly understood. Evidence suggests that mortality is an indicator for evaluating accessibility to improved health care services. We constructed spatially smoothed risk maps for gender-specific adult mortality in an area of southern China comprising both urban and rural areas and identified ecological factors of gender-specific mortality across societies. Results The study analyzed the data of the Hechi Prefecture in southern in China. An average of 124,204 people lived in the area during the study period (2002–2004. Individual level data for 2002–2004 were grouped using identical rectangular cells (regular lattice of 0.25 km2. Poisson regression was fitted to the group level data to identify gender-specific ecological factors of adult (ages 15– Conclusion We found a disparity in mortality rates between rural and urban areas in the study area in southern China, especially for adult men. There were also differences in mortality rates between poorer and wealthy populations in both rural and urban areas, which may in part reflect differences in health care quality. Spatial influences upon adult male versus adult female mortality difference underscore the need for more research on gender-related influences on adult mortality in China.

  11. 75 FR 12508 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Thermphos (China) 69.58 Food Additive Co., Ltd. Yunnan Newswift Company Ltd....... Guangxi Yizhou 69.58... foregoing phosphate salts in all grades, whether food grade or technical grade. The product covered by this... Postponement of Final Determination: Certain Frozen Fish Fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 68 FR...

  12. Clinical features for 89 deaths of hand, foot and mouth disease in Guangxi, China, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to summarize the risk factors of severe Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD and explore the clinical characteristics of pulmonary edema (PE and non-PE in the deceased patients with HFMD. Methods: We identified 89 HFMD deaths which were separated into the PE group or non-PE group. Next, patients were divided based on their initial admission to hospitals as stage 1, 2, 3, or 4; at this point, their clinical manifestations were compared. Results: There were 87 cases in the PE group, and 2 cases in the non-PE group. In the PE group, the difference in median time for patients at different stages from onset to symptoms, showed no significant difference (p > 0.05. The etiology was detected as a positive rate for enterovirus 71 (EV71 of 89.19%, which showed a more severe course than other etiologies. The white blood cell (WBC counts, lymphocyte (LYM counts and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB counts of patients admitted in different stages increased significantly with severity (p < 0.05. Conclusions: There may be two clinical subtypes, mostly PE and rarely non-PE, in the deceased patients with HMFD. EV71 and risk factors such as an increased WBC count are associated with a severe course of HMFD. Keywords: Hand, foot, and mouth disease, Pulmonary edema, Non-pulmonary edema, Death cases

  13. Guangxi crustal structural evolution and the formation and distribution regularities of U-rich strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Zili.

    1989-01-01

    Based on summing up Guangxi geotectonic features and evolutionary regularities, this paper discusses the occurrence features, formation conditions and time-space distribution regularities of various U-rich strata during the development of geosyncline, platform and diwa stages, Especially, during diwa stage all those U-rich strata might be reworked to a certain degree and resulted in the mobilization of uranium, then enriching to form polygenetic composite uranium ore deposits with stratabound features. This study will be helpful for prospecting in the region

  14. [The comparative analysis of acute poisoning characteristics between cities and rural areas in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-fang; Liu, Qing-hua

    2012-06-01

    To compare the acute-poisoning characteristics between city and rural areas of Guangxi Province in order to provide clinical data for the formation of treatment strategies of acute poisoning in Guangxi. Data of acute poisoning patients as treated in 36 municipal and 12 county hospitals, and also 15 rural clinics in 11 cities of Guangxi during 2005 to 2009 were collected and analyzed according to poisoning population, poisoning site, poisoning process, and poisoning degree. By analysing 3678 and 2153 cases of acute poisoning patients in rural and urban areas, the gender [χ (2) = 5.53, P old (11.17% vs. 8.69%), farmers by occupation (74.84% vs. 2.79%), home (80.64% vs. 78.07%), sites of labor (11.83% vs. 3.07%) and other sites (4.08% vs. 2.97%), and the chief causes were professional (3.10% vs. 1.30%), taken by mistake (21.85% vs. 20.91%), homicide (0.30% vs. 0.28%), and suicide (39.07% vs. 18.77%), and by pesticide (60.94% vs. 12.13%), plant (7.08% vs. 2.88%) and animal poisons (7.73% vs. 6.56%), belonging to severe poisoning (25.86% vs. 19.04%) were higher than those in town. In the town, poisoning occurred predominantly in female (55.09% vs. 51.90%), age below 19 years old (23.78% vs. 19.44%), unemployed (33.35% vs. 13.76%), student (17.53% vs. 8.43%), industrial workers (31.95% vs. 2.69%), executives (10.84% vs. 0.22%) and other professional (3.53% vs. 0.05%); occurred in schools (8.78% vs. 0.82%), restaurants (5.48% vs. 1.55%), place of entertainment (1.63% vs. 1.09%), by accidental (52.23% vs. 31.27%), therapeutic (4.46% vs. 2.56%), and other reasons (2.04% vs. 1.85%); by chemicals (33.19% vs. 8.55%), medicines (24.31% vs. 9.12%), and other types of poison (20.92% vs. 6.59%); light and medium degree of poisoning (44.87% vs. 41.22%, 36.09% vs. 32.93%) were higher than those in rural areas. Regarding the acute poisoning in Guangxi, the composition of population, the poisoning sites and causes, the types of poisons, the poisoning degree are distinctly different

  15. Characteristics of gravity and magnetic field and their relationship with uranium mineralization in northern Guangxi area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Xiaojing; Yin Zhongfan; Hao Yuhua; guan Nansheng; Li Xuexun

    1993-08-01

    The characteristics of gravity and magnetic field, deep-seated structures and their relationship with uranium mineralization in Northern Guangxi are investigated. Especially, based on geophysical investigation, the distinguishing features of uranium ore-forming are discussed, involved with the uranium source body, the heating force and mechanical force of granite magma acted on uranium mineralization, the deep-seated geological process, the hydrothermal activity, the formation environments of granite-type uranium deposit, the source of pyrite and its influence on uranium mineralization, the uranium ore-forming of Sinian-Cambrian periods and devonian period formations, and the simple model of uranium ore-forming. On the basis of the relationship of uranium mineralization with geophysical field, as well as the ore-forming geological environments inferred by gravity and magnetic field investigation, the physical-geological model is established in order to predicate uranium prospect

  16. 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ning; Zhou, Shan-Gui; Nuclear Structure in China 2014; NSC2014

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a collection of the contributions to the 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China (NSC2014), held on October 25-28, 2014 in Guilin, China and hosted by Guangxi Normal University. It provides an important updated resource in the nuclear physics literature for researchers and graduate students studying nuclear structure and related topics. Recent progress made in the study of nuclear spectroscopy of high-spin states, nuclear mass and half-life, nuclear astrophysics, super-heavy nuclei, unstable nuclei, density functional theory, neutron star and symmetry energy, nuclear matter, and nuclear shell model are covered.

  17. Violence, stigma and mental health among female sex workers in China: A structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.

  18. [Relationships between landscape structure and rocky desertification in karst region of northwestern Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-nan; Wang, Ke-lin; Chen, Hong-song; Zhang, Wei

    2008-11-01

    By using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), sixteen landscape indices were adopted to quantitatively analyze the relationships between the landscape structure and rocky desertification in karst region of Huanjiang County, Guangxi Province. The results showed that the first and the second ordination axis of CCA were strongly correlated to the factors of average patch area, average dry land patch area, landscape shape index, and landscape aggregation index. The potential rocky desertification in the region was highly positively correlated with the average dry land patch area and the average fractal dimensions of dry land and shrub land, but negatively correlated with the patch numbers of dry land. Light rocky desertification had obvious positive correlations with the fractal dimension index, average fractal dimension of unused land, and patch numbers of shrub land; while moderate and strong rocky desertification had high positive correlations with the average unused land patch area but negative correlation with the average fractal dimension of shrub land. To some extent, rocky desertification degree might be represented by the values of landscape indices. The gradient variation in karst rocky desertification along landscape structure was clearly presented by the results of CCA.

  19. Geochemical characteristics of trace and rare earth elements in Xiangyangping uranium deposit of Guangxi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qi; Xiao Jianjun; Fan Liting; Wen Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The trace and rare earth elements analysis were performed on two kinds ore-hosting rocks (Xiangcaoping granite and Douzhashan granite), alternated cataclastic granite and uranium ores in Xiangyangping uranium deposit of Guangxi. The results show that both of the two kinds granites display similar maturity features of highly evolved crust with the enrichment of Rb, Th, U, Ta and Pb, the depletion of Ba and Sr, high Rb/Sr and low Nb/Ta ratio, moderately rich light rare earth elements, strong negative Eu anomaly. Moreover, Douzhashan granite have higher Rb/Sr ratio and U content, which indicate it experienced more sufficient magma evolution and have higher potential of uranium source. There are almost no change in the content of trace and rare earth elements and distribution patterns during chloritization, hydromicazation and potash feldspathization of granite, but there occurred uranium enrichment and mineralization and REE remobilization while hematitization was superposed. This suggest that hematitization is most closely correlated with uranium mineralization in the working area. Because Most hematitization cataclastic rocks and uranium ore display similar geochemical characteristics to Douzhashan granite with relative high Rb/Sr and low Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf, ΣREE, LREE/HREE ration, and the trace and rare earth elements content and distribution patterns of some Xiangcaoping hematitization cataclastic rocks are between the two kinds of granite, therefore it can be concluded that the mineralization materials were mainly from Douzhashan granite and partly from Xiangcaoping granite. (authors)

  20. [Association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease in Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Lin, Yingzhong; Liu, Hairun; Ji, Qingwei; Lu, Zhihong; Lu, Zhengde; Xu, Nengwen; Yuan, Jun; Liu, Ling

    2015-09-01

    To investigate this association between ABO blood groups and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Chinese Guangxi Zhuang population. From August 2010 to April 2013, we performed a case-control study in a Chinese Zhuang population, which included 1 024 CHD cases and 1 024 age and gender-matched non-CHD controls. The ABO blood groups and biological variables were measured by standard laboratory procedures. The Gensini score was used to evaluate the severity of coronary artery stenosis. Compared to non-CHD control group, CHD group had higher levels of fasting blood glucose ((6.71 ± 6.72) mmol/L vs. (4.98 ± 1.55) mmol/L, P blood groups were associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population. Compared with group O, the group B individuals had a higher risk of CHD (OR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.88-2.90, P group O subjects in the CHD group, and MACE at 1-year follow-up was similar between ABO blood groups of CHD individuals. ABO blood groups are associated with CHD risk in the Chinese Zhuang population.

  1. A New Species of Horseshoe Bat of the Genus Rhinolophus from China (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.

  2. A new species of horseshoe bat of the genus Rhinolophus from China (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi

    2008-04-01

    A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.

  3. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiwei; Yang, Lan; Feng, Qiming; Tighe, Scott S.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction o...

  4. Overview of human clonorchiasis sinensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-Ming, Li; Ying-Dan, Chen; Yi, Ouyang; Hong-Man, Zhang; Rui, Lin; Weil, Mao

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the survey was to determine the current status, trends and transmission factors for Clonorchis sinensis infection in China and to provide updated information for development control strategies. This was part of a nationwide survey of major human parasitic diseases carried out during 2000-2002 sampled by the stratified randomized cluster sampling method. Fecal examination was conducted using the Kato-Katz thick smear method and egg count per gram of feces (EPG) was determined for the egg-positive patients. A questionnaire and a case-control study were applied to analyze the transmission factors for C. sinensis infection. The overall prevalence rate of C. sinensis infection was 0.58% in 356,629 residents from 688 sampled pilot sites in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (PAM) of China. The infection rates of C. sinensis in Guangdong, Jilin, Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, Anhui and Heilongjiang were higher than the other PAM, they were 5.35, 4.77, 3.71, 0.67 and 0.48%, respectively. In Guangxi, moderate and heavy infections were found in 29.14% and 11.52%, respectively, of the total infected. Heavy infections were not found in any of the other provinces except for 2 heavily infected cases in Heilongjiang. The prevalence rate increased with age for residents aged water fish or shrimp were the main risk factors responsible for transmission of the parasite.

  5. Coal forming conditions for coal seams and coal measures of the Heshan Group Upper Permian Series in Guangxi Province (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.

    1980-10-01

    Coal forming conditions for the coal measures of the Heshan Group are discussed based on the analysis of the historical background and paleogeographical environment of the Permian in Guangxi Province. The roof, floor, and partings of the seams are composed of algal micritic limestone, therefore affirming that the central part of Guangxi Province in the late Permian was a typical epi-continental sea. The compensative deposit of algea on the carbonate platform in very shallow water created the conditions for the occurrence of the peat swamp and established the supra-tidal swampy facies. The environment for the accumulation of the major coal seams are analyzed. (In Chinese)

  6. [Investigation of nutritional status of pupils and dietary survey in primary schools in poor counties of Guangxi and Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenjing; Shen, Xiuhua; Mao, Xuanxia; Huang, Jingyan; Cai, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To understand the nutritional status of pupils and to provide basic evidence for the nutritional interventions. The subjects of the study were 2046 pupils from 9 primary schools in poor counties of Guangxi and Yunnan. The contents of the investigation included medical physical examination, haematoglobin determination and dietary survey. Nutritional Status was evaluated according to WHO growth standards. The prevalence of stunting and wasting in children from 6 to 14 years old in poor areas of Guangxi and Yunnan were 34.3% and 6.5% respectively. The anemia prevalence of them was 20.5%. The diet provided by the canteens of local school was mainly composed of plant food. Animal food was deficient. The cooking oil in local school was most of lard oil. The per pupil average daily intake of energy, protein, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C and calcium was 1491.29 kcal, 36.36 g, 179.15 ug, 0.57 mg, 0.37 mg, 53.67 mg and 163.14 mg respectively, which were lower than RNI or Al. The chronic malnutrition of pupils in poor areas is still serious. The variety of food provided by the canteens of local school is quite single, and the quality of the meals is low. Intakes of energy, protein and micronutrient from school diet are insufficient for pupils.

  7. [Prevalence survey and molecular characterization of alpha and beta thalassemia in Liuzhou city of Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ren; Li, Liyan; Liang, Xin; Liu, Zhongying; Su, Liu; Li, Wenjun; Zhu, Qiangui; Mo, Qiuhua; Pan, Lizhen; Ouyang, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the gene frequencies and mutation patterns of alpha thalassemia (alpha-thal) and beta thalassemia (beta-thal) in Liuzhou city of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Cluster sampling was used. A total of 1 028 of umbilical blood samples were collected for a prevalence study of alpha-thal and a total of 1 312 healthy young people when receiving pre-marriage consultation were recruited for a beta-thal prevalence survey. Individuals live in city or town area of Liuzhou. A complete blood count as well as hemoglobin electrophoresis analysis were done in all of samples for phenotyping of alpha and beta-thals. Those with Hb Bart's for alpha-thal indicator and those with both microcytosis (MCV /=4.0%) for beta-thal were further studied by DNA analysis. PCR-based methodologies were used to characterize the mutation contributions of alpha and beta-thals. All the subjects were tested for the state of carrying beta-thala alleles for evaluating the situation of the compound heterozygotes of alpha-thal with beta-thal. Of 1 028 random samples of umbilical blood screened, 112 of subjects were defined to be the gene carriers of alpha-thal. The alpha-thal carrier rate was as high as 11.19% including 3 compound heterozygotes. Five well-known types of alpha-thal alleles were detected with gene contributions of 37.4% (--(SEA) deletion), 31.3% (-alpha(3.7) deletion), 17.4% (-alpha(4.2) deletion), 12.1% (alpha(CS)alpha mutation), and 0.9% (alpha(QS)alpha mutation), successively. Of the 1 312 adult specimens studied, 89 with beta-thal including 14 of the compound higher Hb F subjects were detected. All of the 89 phenotypic beta-thal carriers had the mutations in the beta-globin gene, making the overall prevalence 6.78%. The commonly seen three mutations, beta CD41 - 42 (-CTTT) frameshift, beta CD17 (T-A) nonsense mutation and beta-28 (A-G) promoter variation were accounted for 90% of the beta-thal alleles in Liuzhou. Of these beta-thal subjects, 16 (accounting for 18%) were

  8. Overview on seagrasses and related research in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yajun; Fan, Hangqing; Cui, Xiaojian; Pan, Lianghao; Li, Sen; Song, Xiukai

    2010-03-01

    Seagrass research in China is still in its infancy. Even though there has been progress recently, there is still a great deal of research needed to gain a better understanding of seagrass. In this article we review and discuss the advances in seagrass research in China from two aspects: (1) seagrass species and their distribution; (2) seagrass research in China, including studies on their taxonomy, ecology, photosynthesis, applications in aquaculture, salt-tolerance mechanisms and other research topics. A total of 18 seagrass species belonging to 8 genera are distributed in nine provinces and regions in China (including Hong Kong and Taiwan), as well as the Xisha and Nansha Archipelagos. They can be divided into two groups: a North China Group and a South China Group. Based on the seagrass distribution, the Chinese mainland coast can be divided into three sections: North China Seagrass Coast, Middle China Seagrass Coast, and South China Seagrass Coast. Ecological studies include research on seagrass communities, nutrient cycling in seagrass ecosystems, genetic diversity, pollution ecology and research in the key regions of Shandong, Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan. Seagrass species and their locations, community structure, ecological evaluation, epiphytes, ecological functions and threats in the key regions are also summarized. Other studies have focused on remote sensing of seagrass, threatened seagrass species of China, and pollen morphology of Halophila ovalis.

  9. Effect of the 3'APOB-VNTR polymorphism on the lipid profiles in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruixing, Yin; Guangqin, Chen; Yong, Wang; Weixiong, Lin; Dezhai, Yang; Shangling, Pan

    2007-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein (Apo) B is the major component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicrons. Many genetic polymorphisms of the Apo B have been described, associated with variation of lipid levels. However, very few studies have evaluated the effect of the variable number of tandem repeats region 3' of the Apo B gene (3'APOB-VNTR) polymorphism on the lipid profiles in the special minority subgroups in China. Thus, the present study was undertaken to study the effect of the 3'APOB-VNTR polymorphism on the serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. Methods A total of 548 people of Hei Yi Zhuang were surveyed by a stratified randomized cluster sampling. The epidemiological survey was performed using internationally standardized methods. Serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured. The 3'APOB-VNTR alleles were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels, and classified according to the number of repeats of a 15-bp hypervariable elements (HVE). The sequence of the most common allele was determined using the PCR and direct sequencing. The possible association between alleles of the 3'APOB-VNTR and lipid variables was examined. The results were compared with those in 496 people of Han who also live in that district. Results Nineteen alleles ranging from 24 to 64 repeats were detected in both Hei Yi Zhuang and Han. HVE56 and HVE58 were not be detected in Hei Yi Zhuang whereas HVE48 and HVE62 were totally absent in Han. The frequencies of HVE26, HVE30, HVE46, heterozygote, and short alleles (VNTR-LS (carrier of one long and one short alleles) than in VNTR-LL (the individual carrying two long alleles) genotypes. The levels of TC, triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol, and Apo B in Hei Yi Zhuang were higher in both HVE34 and HVE36 alleles than in HVE32 allele. The levels of TC, TG, HDL-C and Apo B in Hei Yi Zhuang were also higher in

  10. Low density lipoprotein receptor gene Ava II polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Dong-Feng

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several common genetic polymorphisms in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R gene have associated with modifications of serum total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels, but the results are not consistent in different populations. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 1024 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 792 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo A1 and the ratio of ApoA1 to ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P - and A+ alleles was 65.5% and 34.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 80.7% and 19.3% in Han (P -A-, A-A+ and A+A+ genotypes was 42.6%, 45.9% and 11.5% in Bai Ku Yao, and 64.9%, 31.6% and 3.5% in Han (P P 3.20 mmol/L subgroups in Bai Ku Yao (P P P P +A+ genotype had higher serum LDL-C, TC, HDL-C or ApoA1 levels than the subjects with A-A+ and A-A- genotypes. Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed that the levels of LDL-C in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C in Han were correlated with genotypes (P P Conclusions The association of LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism and serum lipid levels is different between the Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. The discrepancy might partly result from different LDL-R gene Ava Ⅱ polymorphism or LDL-R gene-enviromental interactions.

  11. Spatial distribution of HIV, HCV, and co-infections among drug users in the southwestern border areas of China (2004-2014): a cohort study of a national methadone maintenance treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingli; Li, Rongjian; Shen, Zhiyong; Li, Chunying; Liang, Nengxiu; Peng, Zhenren; Huang, Wenbo; He, Chongwei; Zhong, Feng; Tang, Xianyan; Lan, Guanghua

    2017-09-30

    A methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program to curb the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use has been administered by China since 2004. Little is known regarding the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among MMT clients in the resource-constrained context of Chinese provinces, such as Guangxi. This study aimed to characterize the geographic distribution patterns and co-clustered epidemic factors of HIV, HCV and co-infections at the county level among drug users receiving MMT in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, located in the southwestern border area of China. Baseline data on drug users' demographic, behavioral and biological characteristics in the MMT clinics of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during the period of March 2004 to December 2014 were obtained from national HIV databases. Residential addresses were entered into a geographical information system (GIS) program and analyzed for spatial clustering of HIV, HCV and co-infections among MMT clients at the county level using geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics. A total of 31,015 MMT clients were analyzed, and the prevalence of HIV, HCV and co-infections were 13.05%, 72.51% and 11.96% respectively. Both the geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics showed that HIV, HCV and co-infections in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region exhibited significant geographic clustering at the county level, and the Moran's I values were 0.33, 0.41 and 0.30, respectively (P areas surrounding P county. HIV, HCV and co-infections among MMT clients in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region all presented substantial geographic heterogeneity at the county level with a number of overlapping significant clusters. The areas surrounding P county were effective in enrolling high-risk clients in their MMT programs which, in turn, might enable people who inject drugs to inject less, share fewer syringes, and receive referrals for HIV or HCV treatment in

  12. [An exploratory study on the diagnostic cutoff value of International HIV-associated Dementia Scale in minority ethnic groups with different educational levels, in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting-ting; Feng, Qi-ming; Liang, Hao; Tang, Xian-yan; Wei, Bo

    2011-11-01

    Using Intelligence Scale of Mini Mental State Estimated (MMSE) as the gold standard to determine the relevance of International HIV-associated Dementia Scale (IHDS) in minority ethnic areas in Guangxi populations with different cultural values. Corresponding boundary value related to the authenticity and reliability on IHDS were also evaluated. 200 patients with HIV infection were randomly selected from the minority ethnic groups in Guangxi. For each infected person, MMSE and IHDS blind scale were tested at the same period. Using the results from MMSE scale test as the gold standard, ROC curve and IHDS scale in Guangxi minority populations with different education levels which related to the diagnosis of dementia-HIV values were determined. The value of a specific sector under the IHDS sensitivity, specificity, and internal consistency coefficients was also evaluated. When considering the infected person did not differ on their educational level, the IHDS scale diagnostic cutoff appeared as 8.25, while IHDS sensitivity as 0.925, specificity as 0.731 and Kappa as 0.477 (P education groups showed different IHDS diagnostic cutoff values. People with high school, secondary school or higher education levels, the IHDS diagnosis appeared to be 8.25, when sensitivity was 0.917, specificity was 0.895 and Kappa was 0.722 (P education level, the IHDS appeared to be 7.25. When sensitivity was 0.875, specificity was 0.661 and Kappa was 0.372 (P value (IHDS ≤ 10 points). When using IHDS to perform the HIV related dementia screening program, in the minority areas of Guangxi, culture context, the degree and difference of HIV infection should be considered, especially in using IHDS diagnostic cutoff values.

  13. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  14. Eight new species of Batrisodes Reitter from China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-Xin Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight new species of the genus Batrisodes Reitter are described from continental China, seven of which were found in association with ants: B. abdominalis sp. n. and B. tianmuensis sp. n. with an Ectomomyrmex ant from Zhejiang; B. grossus sp. n. with an Odontomachus ant from Guangxi; B. simianshanus sp. n. with an Aphaenogaster ant from Chongqing; B. qiului sp. n. with a Pheidole ant, B. xuhaoi sp. n. with a Lasius ant, and B. zhouchaoi sp. n. with Lasius and Nylanderia ants from Sichuan. Batrisodes zethus sp. n. was collected from a leaf litter sample.

  15. Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Arch Bridges in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielian Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, great progress has been achieved in China in the construction of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton. The span of these bridges has been increasing rapidly, which is rare in the history of bridge development. The large-scale construction of expressways and high-speed railways demands the development of long-span arch bridges, and advances in design and construction techniques have made it possible to construct such bridges. In the present study, the current status, development, and major innovative technologies of CFST arch bridges and concrete arch bridges with a CFST skeleton in China are elaborated. This paper covers the key construction technologies of CFST arch bridges, such as the design, manufacture, and installation of steel tube arch trusses, the preparation and pouring of in-tube concrete, and the construction of the world’s longest CFST arch bridge—the First Hejiang Yangtze River Bridge. The main construction technologies of reinforced concrete arch bridges are also presented, which include cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, adjusting the load by means of stay cables, surrounding the concrete for arch rib pouring, and so forth. In addition, the construction of two CFST skeleton concrete arch bridges—the Guangxi Yongning Yong River Bridge and the Yunnan–Guangxi Railway Nanpan River Bridge—is discussed. CFST arch bridges in China have already gained a world-leading position; with the continuous innovation of key technologies, China will become the new leader in promoting the development of arch bridges. Keywords: Concrete-filled steel tube (CFST arch bridge, Steel-reinforced concrete arch bridge, Cable-stayed fastening-hanging cantilever assembly, Vacuum-assisted pouring in-tube concrete, Adjusting load by stay cables

  16. [Epidemiology of human rabies in China, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y R; Zhu, L L; Zhu, W Y; Tao, X Y

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 and provide evidence for the control and prevention of human rabies. Methods: The incidence data of human rabies in China in 2016 were collected from national infectious disease reporting information management system. The surveillance data were collected from provinces of Shandong, Guizhou, Anhui, Hunan, Jiangsu and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Excel 2013 software was used to process and summarize the data, the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 were described by using indicators such as morbidity, mortality and constituent ratio. Results: A total of 644 human rabies cases were reported in 28 provinces in China in 2016, a decrease of 19.60% (157/801) compared with 2015. The provinces reporting high incidences of human rabies were Henan, Hunan, Guangxi and Guizhou, accounting for 39.44% (254/644) of the total cases. One case was reported in Qinghai province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region respectively. The male to female ratio of the cases was 2.14∶1 (439/205), and the majority of the patients were farmers (444/644). Surveillance points in 6 provinces reported 1 281 340 persons seeking post-exposure treatment, of whom 1 018 367 were treated for dog bite or scratch. A total of 764 234 persons completed the vaccination series, accounting for 63.90% (764 234/1 195 956) of the persons with grade Ⅱ and Ⅲ exposures, and 28.89% (165 677/573 571) of the persons with grade Ⅲ exposure were treated with passive immunization product. The average density of dogs in each surveillance area was 7.03/100 persons, the average canine immunization rate was 37.64%. Conclusion: The incidence of human rabies has remained decline in China in 2016, the number of the affected provinces has increased and that has the tendency of spreading to low-risk regions. The cases mainly occurred in men and farmers, and caused by dog bite or scratch. It is

  17. Demographic and behavioral correlates of HIV/STI among Vietnamese female sex workers in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon Jung; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Zhou, Yuejiao; Chen, Yi; Shen, Zhiyong

    2016-11-01

    Previous literature has suggested high rates of HIV/STIs among Chinese FSWs. However, limited data were available regarding HIV-related risks among Vietnamese FSWs - a rapidly increasing, vulnerable population in southwest China. The current study examined the demographic and behavioral factors associated with the infection rates of HIV, syphilis, and Hepatitis C (HCV) among Vietnamese FSWs in Guangxi, China. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a cumulative sample of 1026 Vietnamese FSWs (aged 14-66) recruited over five years (2010-2014) from 35 National Sentinel Surveillance sites in Guangxi. Analyses included Fisher's exact chi-square test, t-test, and binary logistic regression. The overall prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and HCV infections among the cross-border women were 3.2%, 6.9%, and 2.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that greater lengths of sex work and low paying work venues were significant risk factors for HIV infection; for syphilis infection, older age, drug use experience, and forgoing condom use were significant risk factors; for HCV infection, drug use experience was the only significant risk factor. Our findings suggest that elevated HIV-related risks among the Vietnamese FSWs are closely related to their financial disadvantages and that drug use is a prominent risk factor for cross-border women in the sex trade. Furthermore, culturally tailored and linguistically accessible HIV prevention and intervention initiatives that target cross-border FSWs, with a close international collaboration between China and Vietnam, are urgently needed.

  18. Social support and amphetamine-type stimulant use among female sex workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Mao, Yuchen; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2017-10-01

    Existing research has suggested a positive role of social support in reducing drug use among female sex workers (FSWs). However, there is limited research on the role of social support in amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use among FSWs in China. This study explored the present situation of ATS use among FSWs in Guangxi, China and examined the associations of different types of social support from different sources with ATS use. A sample of 1022 FSWs was recruited from 56 commercial sex venues in Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. Bivariate comparison was used to compare demographic characteristics and source of emotional or tangible social support across frequency of ATS use among FSWs. The relationship between social support and ATS use was examined using multiple ordinal logistic regression models controlling for the potential confounding effects of demographic variables. The multiple ordinal logistic regression indicated that FSWs who were from younger age groups (aOR = 10.88 for age group workers for tangible support (aOR = 1.17). Different types of social support from different sources can be either positively or negatively associated with ATS use among FSWs, therefore, the future intervention efforts should differentiate and target different types and different sources of social support in response to the living and work conditions of FSWs.

  19. Towards universal access to skilled birth attendance: the process of transforming the role of traditional birth attendants in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Qian, Xu; Chen, Lili; Li, Jian; Escobar, Erin; Story, Mary; Tang, Shenglan

    2016-03-21

    Institution-based childbirth, with the ultimate goal of universal access to skilled birth attendance (SBA), has been selected as a key strategy to reduce the maternal mortality rate in many developing countries. However, the question of how to engage traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the advocacy campaign for SBA poses a number of challenges. This paper aims to demonstrate how TBAs in rural regions of China have been integrated into the health system under a policy of institutional delivery. Research was conducted through literature and document reviews and individual in-depth interviews with stakeholders of the safe motherhood program in rural Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 33 individual interviews were conducted with regional and local politicians, policy makers, health managers, health providers, civil society members, village cadres for women affairs, former TBAs, village maternal health workers, mothers and their mother-in-laws. Since 1998, TBA's traditional role of providing in-home care during childbirth has been restructured and their social role has been strengthened in rural Guangxi. TBAs were redesigned to function as the linkage between women and the health system. A new policy in 1999 shifted the role of TBAs to village maternal health workers whose responsibilities were mainly to promote perinatal care and institution-based delivery of pregnant women. This successful transformation involved engaging with government and other actors, training TBAs for their new role, and providing incentives and sanctions for human resources management. The China experience of transforming the role of TBAs in Guangxi rural area is an example of successfully engaging TBAs in promoting institution-based childbirth.

  20. [Environmental efficiency evaluation under carbon emission constraint in Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jian-bo; Yan, Li-jiao; Huang, Shao-rong; Zhang, Ge

    2015-06-01

    This research used the SBM model based on undesirable outputs to measure the static environmental efficiency of Western China under carbon emission constraint from 2000 to 2012. The researchers also utilized the Malmquist index to further analyze the change tendency of environmental efficiency. Additionally, Tobit regression analysis was used to study the factors relevant to environmental efficiency. Practical solutions to improve environmental quality in Western China were put forward. The study showed that in Western China, environmental efficiency with carbon emission constraint was significantly lower than that without carbon emission constraint, and the difference could be described as an inverse U-shaped curve which increased at first and then decreased. Guang-xi and Inner Mongolia, the two provinces met the effective environmental efficiency levels all the time under carbon emission constraint. However, the five provinces of Guizhou, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia and Xinjiang did not. Furthermore, Ningxia had the lowest level of environmental efficiency, with a score between 0.281-0.386. Although the environmental efficiency of most provinces was currently at an ineffective level, the environmental efficiency quality was gradually improving at an average speed of 6.6%. Excessive CO2 emission and a large amount of energy consumption were the primary factors causing environmental inefficiency in Western China, and energy intensity had the most negative impact on the environmental efficiency. The increase of import and export trade reduced the environmental efficiency significantly in Western China, while the increase of foreign direct investment had a positive effect on its environmental efficiency.

  1. Source Areas for the Early Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) at Xiushan in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C X; Chen, X L; Bi, J C; Li, J J; Xiao, X H; Li, Q; Wang, H J; Yang, Q F

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of source areas for the early immigration of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvάth), at Xiushan in the middle reach of Yangtze River of China, was analyzed with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and ArcGIS 10.0. The analysis was based on light trap data collected during April-July in 2000-2012. The synoptic meteorology backgrounds during the immigration periods were analyzed by GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System). The light trap catches of S. furcifera varied monthly and annually. S. furcifera started immigration in Xiushan in early April to early May, whereas the main immigration period was in July. The distribution of the source areas varied monthly, and the core was moved from the south to the north gradually. The main source areas of S. furcifera in May were in southwestern Guangxi and northern Vietnam. The source areas of S. furcifera in June were located in southwestern Guangxi and western Hunan. Additionally, some of the pests were from southeastern Yunnan. The source areas in July were in northwestern Guangxi, southwestern Guizhou, eastern Yunnan, and the transitional parts of Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. The sum frequencies of southwest and south winds on the 850 hPa isobaric surface of Xiushan of May-July in heavy occurrence years were more than the light occurrence years. The key meteorological factors were suggested to be vertical perturbation, precipitation, and wind shear during S. furcifera immigration periods. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Distribution and diversity of twelve Curcuma species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lanyue; Wei, Jingwen; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Feng; Xian, Qiqiu; Su, Ping; Pan, Wanyi; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhiyun

    2018-02-01

    Genus Curcuma a wild species presents an important source of valuable characters for improving the cultivated Curcuma varieties. Based on the collected germplasms, herbariums, field surveys and other literatures, the ecogeographical diversity of Genus Curcuma and its potential distributions under the present and future climate are analysed by DIVA-GIS. The results indicate Genus Curcuma is distributed over 17 provinces in China, and particularly abundant in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. The simulated current distributions are close to the actual distribution regions. In the future climate, the suitable areas for four Curcuma species will be extended, while for other three species the regions will be significantly decreased, and thus these valuable resources need protecting.

  3. Risk assessment of drought disaster in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Drought has become an increasing concern in southern China, but the drought risk has not been adequately studied. This study presents a method for the spatial assessment of drought risk in southern China using a conceptual framework that emphasizes the combined role of hazard, vulnerability, and exposure.A drought hazard map was retrieved with a compound index of meteorological drought method in a GIS environment. Normally, a large variation in the disaster-inducing factor implies a high probability of economic/social losses caused by a drought disaster. The map indicated that areas with a higher risk of drought hazard were mainly distributed in mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The vulnerability indices were based on climate factors as well as land use, geomorphological types, soil properties, and drainage density. The water preserving capability of purple calcareous soil in the basins in Sichuan and mid-east Yunnan, and the lateritic red soil in northeastern Guangdong is relatively weak. The main geomorphological features in Guangxi and Guangdong are hills, which leads to a serious expectation of soil and water losses. Thus, the main areas with a high risk of drought vulnerability are mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The exposure indices were based on population density and agricultural production because population and agriculture experience the main impacts of a drought disaster. Higher exposure indices mean higher economic/social losses due to drought disasters. Areas with high exposure indices were mainly distributed in Guangdong and southern Guangxi.The overall risk was then calculated as the product of the hazard, vulnerability, and exposure. The results indicated a higher risk of drought disaster in the basins in eastern Sichuan,, northeastern Yunnan, and northeastern Guangdong. The main factor influencing the risk of a drought disaster was the hazard, but the vulnerability and exposure also played important roles.

  4. A biogeographical study on tropical flora of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    The tropical climate in China exists in southeastern Xizang (Tibet), southwestern to southeastern Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi, southern Guangdon, southern Taiwan, and Hainan, and these southern Chinese areas contain tropical floras. I checked and synonymized native seed plants from these tropical areas in China and recognized 12,844 species of seed plants included in 2,181 genera and 227 families. In the tropical flora of southern China, the families are mainly distributed in tropical areas and extend into temperate zones and contribute to the majority of the taxa present. The genera with tropical distributions also make up the most of the total flora. In terms of geographical elements, the genera with tropical Asian distribution constitute the highest proportion, which implies tropical Asian or Indo-Malaysia affinity. Floristic composition and geographical elements are conspicuous from region to region due to different geological history and ecological environments, although floristic similarities from these regions are more than 90% and 64% at the family and generic levels, respectively, but lower than 50% at specific level. These differences in the regional floras could be influenced by historical events associated with the uplift of the Himalayas, such as the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina geoblock, clockwise rotation and southeastward movement of Lanping-Simao geoblock, and southeastward movement of Hainan Island. The similarity coefficients between the flora of southern China and those of Indochina countries are more than 96% and 80% at family and generic levels, indicating their close floristic affinity and inclusion in the same biogeographically floristic unit.

  5. Malaysian group looks to invest in China petchems venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Kuok Group, owned by Malaysian tycoon Robert Kuok, has emerged as the latest potential investor in a petrochemicals joint venture in China. The group, which has assets including the Shangri-La chain of hotels and several urea formaldehyde plants in Malaysia and Singapore, has signed a memorandum of understanding with the local authorities of Beihai, Guangxi province to study a $3-billion refinery and petrochemicals complex. Beihai, in coastal southwestern China, is near the Vietnam border. The project, understood to be in the preliminary scoping phase, would include a 100,000-bbl/day refinery and a world-scale 450,000-m.t./year cracker that would feed a 450,000-m.t./year polyethylene unit. To make the operation competitive, the group is considering building an ethylene cracker and looking for a cheap source of natural gas. It is understood that an undisclosed Western company has joined forces in the joint venture, which is not one of the 14 petrochemicals complexes currently planned in China. Kuok, who has good contacts in China and has just agreed to develop a commercial complex in Shanghai's Zhabei district, has been approached by the Beihai authorities. Beihai, an economic development zone, would like its own refinery. The closest one is in Maoming. A decision is expected by the end of then year

  6. Malaysian group looks to invest in China petchems venture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-11-25

    The Kuok Group, owned by Malaysian tycoon Robert Kuok, has emerged as the latest potential investor in a petrochemicals joint venture in China. The group, which has assets including the Shangri-La chain of hotels and several urea formaldehyde plants in Malaysia and Singapore, has signed a memorandum of understanding with the local authorities of Beihai, Guangxi province to study a $3-billion refinery and petrochemicals complex. Beihai, in coastal southwestern China, is near the Vietnam border. The project, understood to be in the preliminary scoping phase, would include a 100,000-bbl/day refinery and a world-scale 450,000-m.t./year cracker that would feed a 450,000-m.t./year polyethylene unit. To make the operation competitive, the group is considering building an ethylene cracker and looking for a cheap source of natural gas. It is understood that an undisclosed Western company has joined forces in the joint venture, which is not one of the 14 petrochemicals complexes currently planned in China. Kuok, who has good contacts in China and has just agreed to develop a commercial complex in Shanghai's Zhabei district, has been approached by the Beihai authorities. Beihai, an economic development zone, would like its own refinery. The closest one is in Maoming. A decision is expected by the end of then year.

  7. Further studies on the Pselaphodes complex of genera from China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Hlaváč, Peter; Li, Li-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    New data on the Pselaphodes complex of genera (Pselaphitae: Tyrini) from China is presented. The generic limits of Labomimus Sharp and Pselaphodes Westwood are discussed and expanded. A revised key to the genera of the Pselaphodes complex is provided. New geographic evidence suggests that previously believed wide-spread species Pselaphodes tianmuensis Yin, Li & Zhao contains a number of related species, resulting in a division of the species to nine separate taxa. Fourteen new species belonging to three genera are diagnosed, described and illustrated: Dayao emeiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Labomimus fimbriatus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus jizuensis Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan), Labomimus simplicipalpus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes anhuianus Yin & Li, sp. n. (Anhui), Pselaphodes daii Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes grebennikovi Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Yunnan), Pselaphodes hainanensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Hainan), Pselaphodes kuankuoshuiensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Guizhou), Pselaphodes longilobus Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Hunbei, Yunnan), Pselaphodes monoceros Yin & Hlaváč, sp. n. (Xizang), Pselaphodes pengi Yin & Li, sp. n. (Sichuan), Pselaphodes tiantongensis Yin & Li, sp. n. (Zhejiang) and Pselaphodes wrasei Yin & Li, sp. n. (Yunnan). Labomimus sichuanicus Hlaváč, Nomura & Zhou (Sichuan) is redescribed and illustrated based on a paratype and the material from the type locality. Two recently described species, Pselaphodes tibialis Yin & Li (Yunnan), and Pselaphodes venustus Yin & Li (Yunnan), are transferred to Labomimus (comb. n.) due to the presence of a median metaventral fovea. New locality data is provided for Pselaphodes aculeus Yin, Li & Zhao (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), Pselaphodes maoershanus Yin & Li (Guangxi, Guizhou), Pselaphodes tianmuensis (Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi) and Pselaphodes pectinatus Yin, Li & Zhao (Hainan), with the aedeagus newly illustrated for the latter species.

  8. Evidences for the view of the importance of Hepu seaport in ancient China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yongjing; Xiong Zhaoming; Ruan Xiangdong; Wang Huijuan; Terrasi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Two ancient tombs considered belonging to the Han Dynasty (206 BC to AD 220), were excavated in Hepu, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. According to the style of cultural relics, some excavated artifacts did not come from the region. If the age of the tombs can be confirmed as belonging to the Han Dynasty, the exotic artifacts present significant evidence to suggest that that Hepu is one of the oldest seaports on China’s ancient maritime trading route. Two wood samples were sent for 14 C dating at CIRCE, Italy. The results of these measurements are presented and the related chronology is discussed. Considering the previous results from a pottery workshop and an excavated sea wharf, the interpretation of Hepu as one of the oldest seaports in ancient China and the important role it played is presented.

  9. Molecular analysis and genetic diversity of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiling, Zhang; Peien, Leng; Xuejun, Wang; Zhong, Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Aedes albopictus is one of the most invasive species, which can carry Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus and more than twenty arboviruses. Based on mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and samples collected from 17 populations, we investigated the molecular character and genetic diversity of Ae. albopictus from China. Altogether, 25 haplotypes were detected, including 10 shared haplotypes and 15 private haplotypes. H1 was the dominant haplotype, which is widely distributed in 13 populations. Tajima'D value of most populations was significantly negative, demonstrating that populations experienced rapid range expansion recently. Most haplotypes clustered together both in phylogenetic and median-joining network analysis without clear phylogeographic patterns. However, neutrality tests revealed shallow divergences among Hainan and Guangxi with other populations (0.15599 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.75858), which probably due to interrupted gene flow, caused by geographical isolations. In conclusion, Ae. albopictus populations showed low genetic diversity in China.

  10. Economic Growth, Foreign Direct Investment and CO2 Emissions in China: A Panel Granger Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of province-level panel data, this paper investigates the Granger causality associations among economic growth (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI and CO2 emissions in China. By applying the bootstrap Granger panel causality approach (Kónya, 2006, we consider both cross-sectional dependence and homogeneity of different regions in China. The empirical results support that the causality direction not only works in a single direction either from GDP to FDI (in Yunnan or from FDI to GDP (in Beijing, Neimenggu, Jilin, Shanxi and Gansu, but it also works in both directions (in Henan. Moreover, we document that GDP is Granger-causing CO2 emissions in Neimenggu, Hubei, Guangxi and Gansu while there is bidirectional causality between these two variables in Shanxi. In the end, we identify the unidirectional causality from FDI to CO2 emissions in Beijing, Henan, Guizhou and Shanxi, and the bidirectional causality between FDI and CO2 emissions in Neimenggu.

  11. A new species of Procontarinia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) damaging fruit of mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-Long; Wang, Hao; Wei, De-Wei; Mo, Jian-You; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Bu, Wen-Jun; Kolesik, Peter

    2018-04-23

    Larvae of a previously unknown species of gall midge were found feeding on young fruit of mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), in Guangxi Autonomous Region in southern China, causing severe damage to the crop. The new species is named Procontarinia fructiculi Jiao, Wang, Bu Kolesik, its morphology is described, the basic biology is given, and the Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene segment is sequenced and compared to other congeners. Procontarinia contains now 16 described species, each feeding on mango. All but three species cause variously shaped galls on leaves, while P. mangiferae (Felt) malforms inflorescence and young leaves, and two species feed on fruit - P. frugivora Gagné causing deep lesions and P. fructiculi sp. nov. tunnel-like holes. Of the two fruit-feeding species, P. frugivora is confined to the Philippines while the new species has thus far been recorded only from southern China.

  12. Phylogenetic and genomic characterization of a novel atypical porcine pestivirus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Wen, W; Hao, G; Hu, Y; Chen, H; Qian, P; Li, X

    2018-02-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been considered a novel pestivirus and causative agent of congenital tremor type A-II. An APPV CH-GX2016 strain was characterized from newly born piglets with clinical symptoms of congenital tremor in Guangxi, China. The genome of APPV CH-GX 2016 strain was 11,475 bp in length and encoded a polyprotein composed of the 3,635 amino acids. This genome sequence exhibited 88.0% to 90.8% nucleotide sequence homology with other APPV reference sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis further showed that APPV CH-GX is a novel pestivirus compared with previously described classical pestivirus strains. Therefore, APPV is present in pigs in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Hydro in China: Sino-Canadian cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, P.A.; Webb, N.K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite a population of over 1 billion, China's installed electric generating capacity is similar to Canada's. To help alleviate the energy shortfalls, the government's seventh 5 year plan (1985-1990) calls for annual installation of new capacity of ca 7,000 MW, the equivalent of a James Bay and Churchill Falls complex every two years. In the short term, 2/3 of new capacity will be filled by thermal stations, but in the longer term, China will turn to its huge undeveloped hydroelectric generating capacity. Information is presented on China's hydroelectric resources, and four hydro projects currently under development in conjunction with Canadian International Project Managers (CIPM), a company whose members are Acres International Inc. of Toronto, Lavalin International Inc. of Montreal and S.N.C. Inc. of Montreal. The Zhao Ping project is a conventional 200 MW project on the Gui River in Guangxi Province in south China, comprising a 73 m high concrete gravity dam and spillway. The Gehe Yan comprises a 151 m high concrete gravity arch dam and spillway and a 1,200 MW powerhouse. The Longtan project would be a 215 m high concrete rockfaced dam with ten 500 MW units and an inclined shiplift with a 500 tonne vessel capacity. The Three Gorges is a multi-purpose water control project that will provide flood control to the regions on the middle reaches of the Yangtze, generate over 8,300 MW of power, and improve navigation on the Yangtze River as far as Chongqing. Up to 750,000 people will have to be resettled to higher land within the river valley. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Disparities in HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors between older male clients with and without steady sex partners in southwestern rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; His, Jenny H; Wu, Xinghua; Shen, Zhiyong; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Huanhuan; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2017-04-12

    Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 93% of reported HIV cases in Guangxi, and Guangxi had 10% of China's total number of reported HIV cases. Older men are particularly vulnerable to STIs, for example, 46% of Guangxi's HIV cases were men over 50 years of age. As this is an under-studied population in China, effective prevention and control policies have yet to be developed. Thus, the aim of this study was to use a large-scale cross-sectional survey to understand the demographic and behavior factors associated with HIV and syphilis infections among older male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a high epidemic area of rural Guangxi, China. A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among older male clients of FSWs in low-cost commercial sex venues. Questionnaire interviews were administered to collect sociodemographic and sexual behavior information. Blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis infection tests. Of the 3485 participants, 2509 (72.0%) clients had a steady sex partner and 976 (28.0%) clients had no steady sex partner. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection were 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared to those with a steady sex partner, clients with no steady partner had higher odds of HIV infection (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.27-2.86), syphilis infection (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02-2.30), and having factors associated with HIV or syphilis infection, including non-commercial casual sex encounters in last month (AOR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.42-4.46), >10 years of commercial sex history (AOR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.12-1.53), >2 incidents of commercial sex in last month (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.96), and aphrodisiac use in last month (AOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16-1.70). Clients with no steady partner had lower odds of having heterosexual intercourse (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.79), awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.88), and having had HIV tests (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Older male clients of low

  15. The political economy of electricity dispatch reform in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Williams, James H.; Hu, Junfeng

    2013-01-01

    The transition to a cleaner and more cost-efficient electricity system in China is political-economic as well as technological. An example is the reform of China's method of dispatching power plants, which potentially affects the economic relationships between consumers and producers, between grid and generating companies, and between central and provincial governments. Historically, coal-fired power plants in China all received roughly the same number of operating hours, regardless of efficiency or cost. In 2007, Chinese government agencies began to pilot “energy efficient dispatch,” which requires that generators be dispatched on the basis of thermal efficiency. Using a case study of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China, we evaluated potential energy and cost savings from a change to energy efficient dispatch. We found that the savings are at best relatively small, because large, efficient generators already account for a significant share of total generation. Moreover, as an administrative policy that does not change economic incentives, energy efficient dispatch exacerbates imbalances and center-provincial tensions in the current system. We argue that incentive-based dispatch reform is likely to produce better outcomes, and that the keys to this reform are empowering an independent regulator with pricing authority and establishing a formal, transparent ratemaking process. - Highlights: ► Savings from China's energy efficient dispatch (EED) policy are at best relatively small. ► EED exacerbates imbalances and center-provincial tensions in China's current power system. ► Incentive-based dispatch reform is likely to produce better outcomes than EED. ► Keys to reform are independent regulation and a formal, transparent ratemaking process. ► Transition to cleaner, cost-efficient electricity system in China is political-economic as well as technological.

  16. A novel image encryption scheme based on Kepler’s third law and random Hadamard transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-Ling; Zhou, Rong-Long; Liu, Jun-Xiu; Qiu, Sen-Hui; Cao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61661008 and 61603104), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Grant Nos. 2015GXNSFBA139256 and 2016GXNSFCA380017), the Funding of Overseas 100 Talents Program of Guangxi Provincial Higher Education, China, the Research Project of Guangxi University of China (Grant No. KY2016YB059), the Guangxi Key Laboratory of Multi-source Information Mining & Security, China (Grant No. MIMS15-07), the Doctoral Research Foundation of Guangxi Normal University, the Guangxi Provincial Experiment Center of Information Science, and the Innovation Project of Guangxi Graduate Education (Grant No. YCSZ2017055).

  17. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  18. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children's Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Exposure in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liang, Xia; Liang, Gang; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-11-08

    Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children's SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%), did not smoke at home at all (37%), did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%), or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57%) were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49%) and in the car (22%) were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children's SHS exposure.

  19. An Analysis on the Strategies of Guangxi Enterprises Exploring ASEAN Sale Market%广西企业开拓东盟市场的营销对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雪梅; 林素娟

    2005-01-01

    There is much of superiority for Guangxi to develop the ASEAN markets, but problems may arise as well. Thisarticle, through analysis, points out that the misuse of marketing strategies is the main reason that obstructs enterprises from developing the market and that international marketing measures should be taken to reinforce market information research, decrease products costs, make greater effort to build markets, cultivate enterprise brand names, select enterprise targeted market, andmake a good use of the public international relationships, etc.

  20. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genetic polymorphisms and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, People's Republic of China; Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health at Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, People's Republic of China ...

  1. Energy efficiency assessment by life cycle simulation of cassava-based fuel ethanol for automotive use in Chinese Guangxi context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suiran; Tao Jing

    2009-01-01

    Interest has been renewed in bio-ethanol products for their contributions in moderating oil crises. So far, most research on bio-ethanol in China is based on pilot-level experimental studies. But this work only discloses information regarding material balances and reached yields without any further energy analysis. This paper aims to assess the energy efficiency of the cassava-based fuel ethanol (KFE) product from southwest China. For the purpose of a life cycle study of the KFE product as replacement transportation fuel, the study chose a 'vehicle fueled by cassava-based E10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume)' as the subject and accordingly defined the scope of this study. Then, the life cycle model of the KFE product concerning energetically relevant in- and outputs was built. Due to variations in data collected, as well as some estimates and assumptions used in this study, the Monte Carlo method was introduced to develop the statistical dispersion of calculated outputs of the assessing model. Assessment results show that, within the boundary of this study, KFE has a positive net energy value, with an energy ratio of around 0.70 MJ/MJ, which means 7 MJ into the processing for each MJ of KFE output

  2. Colletotrichum species associated with jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) anthracnose in southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoping; Gao, Hong; Qi, Jianmin; Chen, Miancai; Tao, Aifen; Xu, Jiantang; Dai, Zhigang; Su, Jianguang

    2016-04-28

    Anthracnose, caused by the Colletotrichum species of fungi, is one of the most serious diseases affecting jute in China. The disease causes chlorotic regions with black brown sunken necrotic pits on the surfaces of stems. In late stages of disease, plants undergo defoliation, dieback and blight, which make anthracnose a major threat to jute fiber production and quality in China. In this study, 7 strains of Colletotrichum fungi were isolated from diseased jute stems from Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and Henan plantations in China. Multi-locus sequence (ACT, TUB2, CAL, GS, GAPDH and ITS) analysis coupled with morphological assessment revealed that C. fructicola, C. siamense and C. corchorum-capsularis sp. nov. were associated with jute anthracnose in southeastern China. C. fructicola and C. siamense were previously not associated with jute anthracnose. C. corchorum-capsularis is a new species formally described here. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that all species can infect jute, causing anthracnose, however the virulence of the 3 species differed. This report is the first associating these three species with jute disease worldwide and is the first description of the pathogens responsible for jute anthracnose in China.

  3. Genome characterization, antigenicity and pathogenicity of a novel infectious bronchitis virus type isolated from south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Zhao, Wenjun; Han, Zongxi; Chen, Yuqiu; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Junfeng; Li, Huixin; Shao, Yuhao; Liu, Liangliang; Liu, Shengwang

    2017-10-01

    In 2014, three infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains, designated as γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14, γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14 and γCoV/ck/China/I0118/14, were isolated and identified from chickens suspected to be infected with IBV in Guangxi province, China. Based upon data arising from S1 sequence and phylogenetic analyses, the three IBV isolates were genetically different from other known IBV types, which represented a novel genotype (GI-29). Virus cross-neutralization tests, using γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 as a representative, showed that genotype GI-29 was antigenically different from all other known IBV types, thus representing a novel serotype. Complete genomic analysis showed that GI-29 type viruses were closely related to and might originate from a GX-YL5-like virus by accumulation of substitutions in multiple genes. These GI-29 viral genomes are still evolving and diverging, particularly in the 3' region, although we cannot rule out the possibility of recombination events occurring. For isolate γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14, we found that recombination events had occurred between nsps 2 and 3 in gene 1 which led to the introduction of a 4/91 gene fragment into the γCoV/ck/China/I0114/14 viral genome. In addition, we found that the GI-29 type γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 isolate was a nephropathogenic strain and high pathogenic to 1-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens although cystic oviducts were not observed in the surviving layer chickens challenged with γCoV/ck/China/I0111/14 isolate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiologic Association of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Urinary Calculi: a Population-based Cross-sectional Study in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Ping; Lin, Xing-Gu; He, Rong-Quan; Shen, Juan; Sun, Si-Long; Chen, Gang; Wang, Qiu-Yan; Xu, Jian-Feng; Mo, Zeng-Nan

    2018-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported to have effects on kidney diseases; however, a link between NAFLD and urinary calculi remains to be confirmed. This study was conducted on a male population based on our previous Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey in Guangxi, China in order to estimate the frequency of urinary calculi and assess the association between NAFLD and urinary calculi while controlling for possible confounders. This was a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the Fangchenggang region in Guangxi, China. The diagnoses of NAFLD and urinary calculi were made by ultrasonography. Clinical and laboratory findings were analyzed to investigate whether NAFLD was a risk factor for urinary calculi. A total of 3719 men were enrolled (age range, 17 to 88 years). Slightly more than a quarter (26.5%) of the participants were diagnosed with NAFLD. The percentage of urinary calculi in all participants was 6.9%, and the percentage of NAFLD patients with urinary calculi (8.4%) was significantly higher than that among patients without NAFLD (6.4%, P < .05). Advanced age; high body mass index; elevated levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low education; lower or higher physical activity; and NAFLD were independent risk factors for urinary calculi (P < .05). Our results showed that NAFLD was associated with a higher incidence of urinary calculi in this cohort and NAFLD might represent a risk factor for urinary calculi.

  5. [Phylogenetic analysis of human/swine/avian gene reassortant H1N2 influenza A virus isolated from a pig in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixiang; Meng, Xueqiong; Liu, Qi; Huang, Xia; Huang, Shengbin; Liu, Cuiquan; Shi, Kaichuang; Guo, Jiangang; Chen, Fangfang; Hu, Liping

    2008-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine the genetic characterization and probable origin of the H1N2 swine influenza virus (A/Swine/Guangxi/13/2006) (Sw/GX/13/06) from lung tissue of a pig in Guangxi province, China. Eight genes of Sw/GX/13/06 were cloned and genetically analyzed. The hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M) and non-structural (NS) genes of Sw/GX/13/06 were most closely related to genes from the classical swine H1N1 influenza virus lineage. The neuraminidase (NA) and PB1 genes were most closely related to the corresponding genes from the human influenza H3N2 virus lineage. The remaining two genes PA and PB2 polymerase genes were most closely related to the genes from avian influenza virus lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Sw/GX/13/06 was a human/swine/avian H1N2 virus, and closely related to H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in United States (1999-2001) and Korea (2002). To our knowledge, Sw/GX/13/06 was the first triple-reassortant H1N2 influenza A virus isolated from a pig in China. Whether the Sw/GX/13/06 has a potential threat to breeding farm and human health remains to be further investigated.

  6. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  7. HCV subtype characterization among injection drug users: implication for a crucial role of Zhenjiang in HCV transmission in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HCV transmission is closely associated with drug-trafficking routes in China. However, the transmission route of HCV in Eastern China remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of Zhenjiang city of Jiangsu province, an important transportation hub linking Shanghai with other regions of China, in HCV transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 141 whole blood samples were collected from injection drug users (IDUs in Zhenjiang and then tested for HCV infection. Of them, 115 HCV positive plasmas were subjected to RNA extraction, RT-PCR amplification, and sequencing. The subtype characterization and the evolutionary origin of HCV strains circulating in Zhenjiang were determined using polygenetic or phylogeographic analyses. Seven HCV subtypes 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6e and 6n were detected among Zhenjiang IDUs, showing a complex HCV epidemic. The most predominant subtypes were 3a (38% and 1b (26.8%. Among these subtypes, subtypes 3b, 6n and 6e originated from Southwestern China (i.e., Yunnan and/or Guangxi, subtypes 2a and 6a from Southern China (i.e., Guangdong, subtype 1b from Central (i.e., Henan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China, and subtype 3a from Southwestern (i.e., Yunnan and Northwestern (i.e., Xinjiang China. From Zhenjiang, subtypes 1b and 2a were further spread to Eastern (i.e., Shanghai and Northern (i.e., Beijing China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The mixing of seven HCV subtypes in Zhenjiang from all quarters of China indicates that as an important middle station, Zhenjiang plays a crucial role in HCV transmission, just as it is important in population migration between other regions of China and Eastern China.

  8. Cognitive function of 320 people over 65 years from longevous areas in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region:Feasibility of the mini-mental state examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeguang Wu; Bin Wei; Xiaoming Zhang; Guobing Zhang; Chunlin Zhang; Zhibin Li; Chenghan Wei; Jinchao Chen; Donglan Huang; Rong Zhao; Jinrui Huang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) of Chinese version has been widely used to survey cognitive function of elder people; especially, it shows a good reliability and validity for elder people in city.However, whether it is beneficial to measure cognitive function of elder people in countries in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region should be further studied.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, reliability and validity of the cognitive function among the elderly people aged over 65 years from Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region by using the MMSE of Chinese version.DESIGN: Prevalence survey.SETTING: Department of Psychology, Nanjing Municipal Social Welfare Hospital; Department of Psychology,Yizhou Municipal Jiulong Railroad Hospital; Long Life's Institute of Bama County.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 320 old persons over 65 years old were sampled on the basis of the unit of village of Jiazhuan in Bama County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from the 12th to 28th, March 2004. All the subjects provided the confirmed consents.METHODS: ① Mental Health Questionnaire of long life's old man was adopted including demographic data and international standardized MMSE in Chinese. The survey of MMSE was divided into two phases: In the first phase, every case was examined by MMSE. The positive result was decided by the education level. Illiterate group, who was educated less than one year, then his MMSE scores must be less than 17; primary school group, who was educated from 1 to 6 years, then his MMSE must be less than 20; middle school group, who was educated more than 7 years, then his MMSE must be less than 24. In the second phase, these cases with positive MMSE score were given the neuro-psycho and mental health examination to confirm the dementia types after diagnosis. The content of the questionnaire was revised properly without changing the meaning of the questionnaire. The interclass correlation coefficient of MMSE was 0.89.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INJURY SEVERITY AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: A SURVEY IN SOUTHERN CHINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Liang, Wenjie; Han, Shanshan; Abdullah, Abu S; Yang, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships between road traffic injury severity and individual characteristics in Liuzhou, a city in southern China. Data for this study were collected from the Guangxi Public Security Bureau Traffic Police Corps. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used. Of all 14,595 individuals involved in accidents, males, motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and those aged 21-45 years accounted for the great proportion of all injuries. Children, the elderly, pedestrians, farmers and migrant workers, unemployed people, and novice drivers were at higher risk of serious injury in crashes. These findings suggest that individual characteristics (age, modes of transport, profession, driving experience) are strongly related to injury severity. To address road traffic related mortality and injuries, there is a need to develop policy strategies, strengthen road supervision, and improve public consciousness of road safety.

  10. Assessing future vegetation trends and restoration prospects in the Karst regions of Southwest China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaowei; Wang, Kelin; Brandt, Martin Stefan

    2016-01-01

    for conservation management by monitoring vegetation dynamics, projecting the persistence of vegetation trends and identifying areas of interest for upcoming restoration measures. In this study, we use MODIS satellite time series (2001-2013) and the Hurst exponent to classify the study area (Guizhou and Guangxi......To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool...... on the restoration prospects and associated uncertainty of different terrain classes found in the study area. The results show that 69% of the observed trends are persistent beyond 2013, with 57% being stable, 10% positive, 5% anti-persistent positive, 3% negative, 1% anti-persistent negative and 24% uncertain. Most...

  11. [Epidemiological analysis on mortality of cancer in China, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L; Zhao, F; Cai, Y; Wu, R X; Meng, Q

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the distribution of cancer deaths in China in 2015 and provide reference for the prevention and control of cancer. Methods: Based on the results of Global Burden of Disease 2015, the cancer death distributions in different age groups, sex groups, provinces or by different malignant tumor in Chinese were described. Results: The age-standardized mortality rate of cancer was 159.01/100 000 in China in 2015. The mortality rate was highest in age group ≥70 years (1 102.73/100 000), and lowest in age group 5-14 years (5.40/100 000). The mortality rate in males was 2.15 times higher than that in females. The first 5 provinces with high cancer mortality rate were Anhui, Qinghai, Sichuan, Guangxi and Henan. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer ranked 1-5 in term of mortality rate. Conclusion: The cancer mortality differed with age, gender, area and different malignant tumors, suggesting the necessity to develop targeted prevention and control strategies.

  12. Nature, diversity of deposit types and metallogenic relations of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, K.; Peters, S.G.; Cromie, P.; Burrett, C.; Hou, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The South China Region is rich in mineral resources and has a wide diversity of deposit types. The region has undergone multiple tectonic and magmatic events and related metallogenic processes throughout the earth history. These tectonic and metallogenic processes were responsible for the formation of the diverse styles of base and precious metal deposits in South China making it one of the resource-rich regions in the world. During the Proterozoic, the South China Craton was characterised by rifting of continental margin before eruption of submarine volcanics and development of platform carbonate rocks, and the formation of VHMS, stratabound copper and MVT deposits. The Phanerozoic metallogeny of South China was related to opening and closing of the Tethyan Ocean involving multiple orogenies by subduction, back-arc rifting, arc-continent collision and post-collisional extension during the Indosinian (Triassic), Yanshanian (Jurassic to Cretaceous) and Himalayan (Tertiary) Orogenies. The Late Palaeozoic was a productive metallogenic period for South China resulting from break-up and rifting of Gondwana. Significant stratabound base and precious metal deposits were formed during the Devonian and Carboniferous (e.g., Fankou and Dabaoshan deposits). These Late Palaeozoic SEDEX-style deposits have been often overprinted by skarn systems associated with Yanshanian magmatism (e.g., Chengmenshan, Dongguashan and Qixiashan). A number of Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic VHMS deposits also developed in the Sanjiang fold belt in the western part of South China (e.g., Laochang and Gacun). South China has significant sedimentary rock-hosted Carlin-like deposits, which occur in the Devonian- to Triassic-aged accretionary wedge or rift basins at the margin of the South China Craton. They are present in a region at the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi Provinces called the 'Southern Golden Triangle', and are also present in NW Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi, in an area known as

  13. Geochemical evidence for a catastrophic biotic event at the Frasnian/Famennian boundary in south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun; Chatterton, B.D.E. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)); Orth, C.J.; Attrep, M. Jr. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hongfei Hou (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing (China)); Geldsetzer, H.H.J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Alberta (United States))

    1991-08-01

    A strong {delta}{sup 13}C anomaly coincides with a weak Ir anomaly at the Frasnian/Famennian (F/F) boundary exposed at Xiangtian, Guangxi, south China. The maximum whole-rock Ir abundance is 0.23 ppb (0.35 ppb on a carbonate-free basis) compared with averages of 0.016 and 0.044 ppb above and below the boundary interval. The {delta}{sup 13}C in carbonate abruptly shifts from a late Frasnian level of about +1{per thousand} to {minus}2.49 {per thousand}in the boundary interval and then abruptly returns to pre-boundary levels, suggesting a temporary reduction of surface-water biomass. A widely distributed (over at least several hundred kilometers) limestone breccia unit of possible wave-deposit origin is present directly below the boundary in south China. Enrichments of Al, V, Cr, As, and U, and a dip in the Mn abundance in the boundary interval indicate that reducing conditions might have been associated with the element enrichment. However, an alternative hypothesis is that oceanic impact(s) at the F/F boundary near south China provided the excess Ir and caused the biotic crisis and the formation of breccia deposits observed in the Late Devonian South China Sea.

  14. New species, hyper-diversity and potential importance of Calonectria spp. from Eucalyptus in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Chen, S F; Mou, X; Zhou, X D; Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J

    2015-03-01

    Plantation forestry is expanding rapidly in China to meet an increasing demand for wood and pulp products globally. Fungal pathogens including species of Calonectria represent a serious threat to the growth and sustainability of this industry. Surveys were conducted in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces of South China, where Eucalyptus trees in plantations or cuttings in nurseries displayed symptoms of leaf blight. Isolations from symptomatic leaves and soils collected close to infected trees resulted in a large collection of Calonectria isolates. These isolates were identified using the Consolidated Species Concept, employing morphological characters and DNA sequence comparisons for the β-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Twenty-one Calonectria species were identified of which 18 represented novel taxa. Of these, 12 novel taxa belonged to Sphaero-Naviculate Group and the remaining six to the Prolate Group. Southeast Asia appears to represent a centre of biodiversity for the Sphaero-Naviculate Group and this fact could be one of the important constraints to Eucalyptus forestry in China. The remarkable diversity of Calonectria species in a relatively small area of China and associated with a single tree species is surprising.

  15. Characterization of some tin-contained ancient glass beads found in China by means of SEM-EDS and raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghui; Liu, Song; Su, Bomin; Zhao, Hongxia; Fu, Qiang; Dong, Junqing

    2013-02-01

    A total of nine tin-contained ancient glass beads were characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. These glass beads dated from 1st century BC to 10th century AD were excavated from the Xinjiang and Guangxi provinces of China. Two kinds of tin-based opacifiers/colorants included crystalline cassiterite (SnO(2)) and lead-tin yellow types II were first found in these soda lime glass beads. The tentative chronology of the tin-based opacifiers/colorants used in ancient glasses from China and the West was compared. In addition, several transition metal ions colorants were also found in these beads. The detailed study of the glassy matrices, crystalline inclusions, and the microstructural heterogeneities for these glass beads has revealed some valuable information to trace the possible making technology and provenances. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Outcomes of pregnancy among women with alpha-thalassemia minor: A retrospective study of Pingguo county in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T; Guo, X F; Zhou, Y H; Qiu, X Q; Li, S; Liang, Z R; Qin, X L; Li, K H; Zeng, X Y

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the association between the value of α-thalassemia minor and the outcomes in pregnant women. Methods: A total of 445 pregnant women with α-thalassemia minor were selected as thalassemia group in the Pingguo County Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangxi from January 2011 to December 2015, with ratio of 1∶4 healthy pregnant women was randomly recruited as non-thalassemia group. Clinical characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were retrospectively analyzed using methods including t test, χ (2) test, and logistic regression model and ROC curve. Results: There were no significant differences noticed in factors as age, BMI, gestational age and educational level of the two groups. Hemoglobin of the thalassemia group was significantly lower than that of the non-thalassemia group ( P pregnancy outcomes was comparable on parameters as preterm birth, stillbirth, macrosomia. Findings from the unconditional logistic regression showed that pregnancy complicated with α-thalassemia minor appeared a risk for both newborns with low birth weight (a OR =2.29, 95% CI : 1.32-3.95) and small for date infant (a OR = 2.11, 95% CI : 1.16-3.84). The ROC curve showed that α-thalassemia minor combined with multiple indicators presented a certain predictive value on neonatal birth weight. Conclusion: Pregnancy complicated with α-thalassemia minor was likely to increase the risk of birth weight loss in newborns, suggesting that prenatal care for pregnant women with thalassemia be strengthened, in order to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  17. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...government for needed efficiency. It becomes more and more untenable for an authoritative government to enforce censorship , political repression, state

  18. 广西地方院校大学生多元文化素质培养途径与方法探讨%Discussion on Approaches and Methods for Multicultural Quality Training of Guangxi Local College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴声军

    2012-01-01

    In the context of CAFTA,Guangxi local colleges should exert their advantages and features,building the multicultural curriculum system,developing multiculturalism quality teachers, building a national mutual respect and recognition of university culture, implementing various forms of multicultural classroom teaching and strengthening international cooperation exchanges and other methods to strengthen the multicultural education of all ethnic groups in Guangxi and ASEAN countries multicultural education, To enhance the multicultural quality of college students and cultivate the high-quality international talents.%面对CAFTA的背景,广西地方院校应该发挥自身的优势和特点。通过构建多元文化课程体系、培养合理的师资队伍、建设民族互尊与认同的校园文化、实施形式多样的多元文化课堂教学以及加强国际合作交流等途径和方法,加强广西各民族与东盟各国多元文化教育,全面提升在校大学生多元文化素质,培养高素质的国际化人才。

  19. Two genotypes of H1N2 swine influenza viruses appeared among pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuantian; Zhu, Qiyun; Yang, Huanliang; Zhang, Xiumei; Qiao, Chuanling; Chen, Yan; Xin, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hualan

    2009-10-01

    H1N2 is one of the main subtypes of influenza, which circulates in swine all over the world. To investigate the prevalence and genetic of H1N2 in swine of China. Two H1N2 swine influenza viruses were isolated from Tianjin and Guangdong province of China in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The molecular evolution of eight gene segments was analyzed. A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 has low identity with A/Swine/Guangdong/2006; in the phylogenetic tree of PA gene, A/Swine/Guangdong/1/2006 and A/Swine/Guangxi/1/2006 along with the H1N2 swine isolates of North America formed a cluster; and A/Swine/Tianjin/2004 and A/Swine/Zhejiang/2004, along with the classical H1N1 swine isolates formed another cluster; except that NA gene of A/Swine/Tianjin/1/2004 fell into the cluster of the H3N2 human influenza virus, indicating the reassortment between H3N2 human and H1N1 swine influenza viruses. Two different genotypes of H1N2 appeared among pigs in China. A/swine/Guangdong/1/06 was probably from H1N2 swine influenza viruses of North America; while A/swine/Tianjin/1/04 maybe come from reassortments of classical H1N1 swine and H3N2 human viruses prevalent in North America.

  20. Predictors of Drinking Water Boiling and Bottled Water Consumption in Rural China: A Hierarchical Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Qing; Tao, Yong; Colford, John M; Ray, Isha

    2017-06-20

    Approximately two billion people drink unsafe water. Boiling is the most commonly used household water treatment (HWT) method globally and in China. HWT can make water safer, but sustained adoption is rare and bottled water consumption is growing. To successfully promote HWT, an understanding of associated socioeconomic factors is critical. We collected survey data and water samples from 450 rural households in Guangxi Province, China. Covariates were grouped into blocks to hierarchically construct modified Poisson models and estimate risk ratios (RR) associated with boiling methods, bottled water, and untreated water. Female-headed households were most likely to boil (RR = 1.36, p water, or use electric kettles if they boiled. Our findings show that boiling is not an undifferentiated practice, but one with different methods of varying effectiveness, environmental impact, and adoption across socioeconomic strata. Our results can inform programs to promote safer and more efficient boiling using electric kettles, and suggest that if rural China's economy continues to grow then bottled water use will increase.

  1. Genetic diversity and population demography of the Chinese crocodile lizard (Shinisaurus crocodilurus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayuan Huang

    Full Text Available The Chinese crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus is a critically endangered species, listed in Appendix II of CITES. Its populations and habitat in China have undergone significant changes in recent years. Understanding the genetic variability and phylogeography of this species is very important for successful conservation. In this study, samples were taken from 11 wild ponds and two captive populations in China. We sequenced mitochondrial CYTB, partial ND6, and partial tRNA-Glu and genotyped 10 microsatellite loci. Our analyses of these data showed low genetic variability, no strong isolation caused by distance, and a lack of a phylogeographic structure in this species. Based on our results, the basal divergence between two clades of S. crocodilurus in China may have been caused by the formation of the Pearl River system. We found a population expansion in one of these clades. Microsatellite analysis indicated the presence of three clusters, separated by significant genetic differences. We found that most individuals in the two captive populations were from the Luokeng (Guangdong and Guangxi wild source populations, respectively.

  2. [Epidemiology of imported infectious diseases in China, 2013-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y L; Wang, X; Ren, R Q; Zhou, L; Tu, W W; Ni, D X; Li, Q; Feng, Z J; Zhang, Y P

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To describe the epidemic of imported infectious diseases in China between 2013 and 2016, including the kinds of infectious diseases, affected provinces, source countries and the epidemiological characteristics, and provide scientific information for the prevention and control of imported infectious diseases. Methods: Data of cases of imported infectious diseases in China from 2013 to 2016 were collected from national information reporting system of infectious diseases, Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 18.0 were used to conduct data cleaning and analysis. Results: From 2013 to 2016, a total of 16 206 imported cases of infectious diseases were reported in China. Of all the cases, 83.12% (13 471 cases) were malaria cases, followed by dengue fever (2 628 cases, 16.22%). The majority of the imported cases were males (14 522 cases, 89.61%). Most cases were aged 20-50 years. Except Zika virus disease and yellow fever, which were mainly reported before and after spring festival, other imported infectious diseases mainly occurred in summer and autumn. The epidemic in affected provinces varied with the types of infectious diseases, and Yunnan reported the largest case number of imported infectious diseases, followed by Jiangsu, Guangxi and Guangdong. The imported cases were mainly from Asian countries, such as Burma, and African countries, such as Angola, Equatorial Guinea and Ghana, which also varied with the types of infectious diseases. Conclusions: We should pay more attention to imported infectious diseases and strengthen the prevention and control measures in our country. In order to reduce the incidence of imported infectious diseases, the health education should be enforced for persons who plan to travel abroad and the active surveillance should be strengthened for returned travelers.

  3. The Information Management Platform on Nuclear Emergency Resources of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, L.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The Chinese government has always attached great importance to nuclear emergency work, and has invested to form lots of nuclear emergency resources. Meanwhile, there also exist some management problems such as repeated investment, fragmented inventory list, inefficient management, etc. To achieve integrated management on the nuclear emergency resources of China, the Chinese government initiated the project “The Information Management Platform on Nuclear Emergency Resources of China”. The goal of the project is to support a timely, managed, controlled, coordinated and effective response while the resources managing process remains economically efficient. The project team firstly completed the nuclear emergency resources classification and encoding. Based on these, the nuclear emergency resources information management software system was developed. The pilot operation in the system was carried out both in Guangxi and Liaoning Province at the same time. Nuclear emergency resources survey was done as the relevant information was put into the database in these regions. The evaluation result on the pilot operation showed that, the information management platform on emergency resources would apparently improve efficiency of nuclear emergency preparedness and response, and it also would increase economical efficiency on inventory list, information management and invest decision. (author

  4. Karst collapse in cities and mining areas, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Chen

    1988-01-01

    Karst collapse is a dynamic geological phenomenon, in which the rock mass or deposits overlying the karstified zone subsides down along the karst cavity, resulting in a collapse pit or sinkhole. After discussing the typical examples of collapse emerging in the karst cities and mines in provinces and regions of South China, such as Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Zhejiang, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi, it is considered that human activities of economy and production have become a major effect in causing karst collapse. Man-made collapses make 66.4 percent of the total, whereas natural ones 33.6 percent. Most of the collapses occurred to the area with soil overburden (96.7 percent), only a few in areas of bedrock overburden (3.3 percent). The karst collapses have a close relationship with the extent of karst development, the character and the thickness of overburden, and the dynamic condition of underground water. Collapse usually occurs in those parts of an area that are more intensely karstified, with soil thickness less than 5 m and a high amplitude of water table fluctuation. Many kinds of mechanical effects are caused by pumping or draining on the over-burden and destroying its equilibrium, leading to the collapse. These effects included the support loss and load-added effect, penetrating suffusion, gas explosion, water-hammer, suction pressure erosion, and liquefaction effects. The collapses are the result of varied comprehensive effects, particularly the support loss and load-added, and penetrating suffusion

  5. Association of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2 Alpha Gene Polymorphisms with the Risk of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Liver Disease in Guangxi Chinese: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Huang

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor-2 alpha (HIF-2a plays a major role in the progression of disease, although the role of HIF-2α gene polymorphisms in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related diseases remains elusive. The aim of this study is to determine whether HIF-2a rs13419896 and rs6715787 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are associated with susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B (CHB, liver cirrhosis (LC, or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.A case-control study of 107 patients with CHB, 83 patients with LC, 234 patients with HCC, and 224 healthy control subjects was carried out, and the HIF-2a rs13419896 and rs6715787 SNPs were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP.No significant differences were observed in the genotype or allele frequency of two HIF-2a SNPs between the cases and controls (all p>0.05. However, in subgroup analysis by gender, the HIF-2a rs13419896 GA and AA genotypes were significantly associated with a risk of CHB (odds ratio [OR] = 3.565, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.123-11.314, p = 0.031 and OR = 12.506, 95% CI = 1.329-117.716, p = 0.027 in females, and the A allele of rs13419896 was associated with a risk of CHB (OR = 2.624, 95% CI = 1.244-5.537, p = 0.011 and LC (OR = 2.351, 95% CI = 1.002-5.518, p = 0.050 in females. The rs6715787 CG genotype polymorphism may contribute to a reduced risk of LC in the Guangxi Zhuang Chinese population (OR = 0.152, 95% CI = 0.028-0.807, p = 0.027, as determined via subgroup analysis by ethnicity. Moreover, binary logistic regression analyses that were adjusted by drinking status indicated that the AA genotype of rs13419896 may contribute to an increased risk of LC in the non-alcohol-drinking population (OR = 3.124, 95% CI = 1.091-8.947, p = 0.034. In haplotype analysis, GG haplotype was significantly associated with a reduced risk of LC (OR = 0.601, 95% CI = 0.419-0.862, p = 0.005.The HIF-2a rs13419896 polymorphism is associated with an increased

  6. 电动执行机构总线控制器在广西石化的应用%The application of electric actuator bus controller in Guangxi Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾舒晨

    2013-01-01

    本文通过对ROTORK电动执行机构总线控制器与横河DCS之间串口通讯的具体实现方法的分析,结合实际工作中存在的问题,详细描述了基于串口通讯协议的冗余控制方式及组态方案。ROTORK总线控制器在广西石化储运罐区的的使用中,运行良好。%Based on analyzing the concrete realization method of serial communication between ROTORK electric actuator controller and DCS of Yokogawa, combined with the existing problems of actual implement, this paper describes the detailed redundant control method and configuration scheme based on serial communication protocol. And can approve that ROTORK bus control er runs wel in the operation of Guangxi petrochemical storage tank.

  7. China Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are playing increasingly important roles in clinical and translational research nowadays. China, as a country with the largest population and abundant clinical resources, attaches great importance to the development of biobanks. In recent years, with the increasing support from the Chinese government, biobanks are blooming across the country. This paper provides a detailed overview of China biobanking, which is further divided in the following four parts: (i) general introduction of the number, category and distribution of current biobanks; (ii) summarization of the current development status, and issues that Chinese biobanks are faced with; (iii) international cooperation between China and the global biobanking community; (iv) prospect of the modern twenty-first century Chinese biobanks, which would achieve standardized operation, systematic specimen management, and extensive collaboration, and thus provide support for the robust research discoveries and personalized medicine etc.

  8. Undeveloped region strategic emerging industry development pattern:Guangxi as an example%欠发达地区战略性新兴产业发展模式研究:以广西为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏; 尚毛毛; 陈秋月

    2012-01-01

    通过对战略性新兴产业的内涵、特征等理论基础的研究,总结提出欠发达地区战略性新兴产业的培育准则和培养模式,并以广西为例,提出了欠发达地区战略性新兴产业的主要发展模式,包括产业延伸发展模式、技术领先发展模式、技术跟随发展模式、引进合作发展模式、产业集群发展模式,从而以发展战略性新兴产业推动广西实现"富民强桂新跨越",实现跨越式赶超发展。%This article through to the strategic new industry connotation and characteristics of the theories research article sums up undeveloped region strategic new industry standards and the cultivation of the training mode,and to Guangxi as an example,Put forward the underdeveloped region strategic new industry the main development mode,including(the industry extension development mode,leading technology development mode,technical follow the development mode,introduce the cooperation development mode,the development model of industrial cluster),thereby to develop strategic new industry to promote Guangxi realize "Enrich people,strengthen Gui and new spanning",and realize the great-leap-forward development catch up.

  9. China’s Technology Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    China’s best and brightest workers and do not help Chinese companies develop. Prevalence of FOEs stifles China’s national development of R&D. Source...Treatment of tumors; cell biology; sports technology; ophthalmology ; water pollution; optimization of silver/graphite contact materials; exterior...developments; metabolic engineering Guangdong Nano-biotechnology in the chemical industry Guangxi Green chemistry Hebei L-Tryptophan; lettuce breeding

  10. The impact of land use and land cover changes on solute dynamics in seepage water of soil from karst hillslopes of Southwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Hu; Lang Yunchao; Liu Congqiang

    2011-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes can cause variations in terrestrial energy, water balance and availability of nutrients. To understand the role of vegetation in regulating the hydrochemistry of karst hillslopes, overland flow and soil seepage water from two hillslopes covered with and without vegetation were studied in the Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Guangxi, SW China. Dissolved major ions, as well as isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were examined. Water from the vegetated control slope had higher solute concentrations (except NO 3 - ) and lower δ 13 C values than water from the disturbed slope. The dynamics of K + and NO 3 - in soil water sampled in time-sequence from the control slope was different from the disturbed slope. Specifically, K + and NO 3 - concentrations of the control slope decreased gradually over time, while K + and NO 3 - concentrations of the disturbed slope increased, and other ionic concentrations increased in both of the slopes.

  11. The Role of Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Participatory Plant Breeding in Climate Change Adaptation in Karst Mountain Areas in SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China)

    2011-07-15

    This is a report of a country case study on the impacts of climate change and local people's adaptation. The research sites are located in the karst mountainous region in 3 SW China provinces - Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan – an area inhabited by 33 ethnic groups of small farmers and the poor, with rich Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) and culture. Climate change is exacerbating already harsh natural conditions and impacting on biodiversity of remote farmers living in extreme poverty, with very limited arable land. Genetic diversity has also suffered from the adoption of high yielding hybrids. Yet traditional varieties, related TK and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) for maize and rice are showing real potential for resilience and adaptation.

  12. China's revival

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on China's unique economic experience over the last three decades. What lessons can be learned from China’s blend of visible central guidance at the macro level and fierce competition at the micro level?

  13. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  14. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  15. Molecular epidemiology of HCV monoinfection and HIV/HCV coinfection in injection drug users in Liuzhou, Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV mono-infection and HCV/HIV (human immunodeficiency virus co-infection are growing problems in injection drug users (IDU. Their prevalence and genotypic patterns vary with geographic locations. Access to harm reduction measures is opening up opportunities for improving the HIV/HCV profiling of IDU in China, where IDUs account for a significant proportion of the two infections especially in the southern part of the country. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was conducted. Through the Liuzhou Methadone Clinic, a total of 117 injection drug users (IDUs were recruited from Guangxi, Southern China. A majority of the IDUs (96% were HCV antibody positive, of which 21% were HIV infected. Unlike HCV monoinfection, there was spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of HIV/HCV coinfection, the latter also characterized by a higher prevalence of needle-sharing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that genotype 6a was predominant in the study population. There were shorter genetic distances among the 6a sequences compared to the other HCV subtypes-1a, 3a, and 3b. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggested that HIV and HCV were introduced at around the same time to the IDU populations in Southern China, followed by their differential spread as determined by the biologic characteristics of the virus and the intensity of behavioural risk. This pattern is different from that in other South East Asian countries where HCV infections have probably predated HIV.

  16. Implementation of a "County-Township-Village" Allied HIV Prevention and Control Intervention in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Junjun; Lu, Qinglin; Liang, Bingyu; Liu, Deping; Fang, Keyong; Huang, Jiegang; He, Yang; Ning, Chuanyi; Liao, Yanyan; Lai, Jingzhen; Wei, Wudi; Qin, Fengxiang; Ye, Li; Geng, Wenkui; Liang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    In China, rural areas are a weak link of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. From September 2011, an innovative "county-township-village" allied intervention was implemented in Longzhou County, Guangxi, which assigned the tasks of HIV/AIDS prevention and control to the county Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), township hospitals, and village clinics, respectively, instead of traditional intervention in which the county CDC undertook the entire work. A 6-year consecutive cross-sectional survey, including 3-year traditional intervention (2009-2011) and 3-year innovative intervention (2012-2014), was conducted to evaluate the effects of the new intervention. Compared to traditional intervention, the innovative intervention achieved positive effects in decreasing risky behaviors. Among female sex workers, condom use rate in the last month increased from 72.06% to 96.82% (p ratio of HIV infection during innovative intervention was 0.631 (95% confidence interval 0.549-0.726) compared with traditional one. Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that innovative intervention restores each disability-adjusted life year costing an average of $124.26. Taken together, Longzhou's innovative intervention has achieved good effects on HIV/AIDS prevention and control and provides a good reference for rural China.

  17. Uncovering regional disparity of China's water footprint and inter-provincial virtual water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huijuan; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Hao, Dong; Yu, Xiaoman

    2014-12-01

    With rapid economic development in China, water crisis is becoming serious and may impede future sustainable development. The uneven distribution of water resources further aggravates such a problem. Under such a circumstance, the concepts of water footprint and virtual water have been proposed in order to respond water scarcity problems. This paper focuses on studying provincial disparity of China's water footprints and inter-provincial virtual water trade flows by adopting inter-regional input-output (IRIO) method. The results show that fast developing areas with larger economic scales such as Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Xinjiang had the largest water footprints. The most developed and water scarce areas such as Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Shandong intended to import virtual water, a rational choice for mitigating their water crisis. Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi and Hunan, had the largest per GDP water intensities and were the main water import regions. Another key finding is that agriculture water footprint was the main part in water footprint composition and water export trade. On the basis of these findings, policy implications on agriculture geographical dispersion, consumption behavior changes, trade structure adjustment and water use efficiency improvement are further discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of a needle social marketing strategy to control HIV among injecting drug users in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zunyou; Luo, Wei; Sullivan, Sheena G; Rou, Keming; Lin, Peng; Liu, Wei; Ming, Zhongqiang

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a needle social marketing strategy to reduce needle sharing and hepatitis C Virus (HCV)/HIV transmission among injecting drug users (IDU) in China. Two-armed, prospective, community-randomized prevention trial. Four counties/townships in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces; one randomized to intervention the other to control in each province. Injecting drug users: 823 (443 intervention, 382 control) at baseline and 852 (415 intervention, 407 control) at the second cross-sectional survey 12 months later. A needle social marketing programme, including promotion of safe injection norms and increased access to clean needles over a 12 month period. Cross sectional surveys at baseline and follow-up compared changes in drug using behaviours and HIV and HCV rates in the intervention and control communities. Needle sharing behaviours were similar in the two groups at baseline (68.4 vs. 67.8%), and dropped significantly to 35.3% in the intervention community and remained relatively stable in the control community (62.3%; P marketing can reduce risky injecting behaviour and HIV/HCV transmission among injecting drug users in China and should be expanded.

  19. Psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence among PLWH in China: role of self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangyu; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2017-12-01

    Globally, optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is insufficient despite it is critical for maximum clinical benefits and treatment success among people living with HIV (PLWH). Many factors have been evidenced to influence medication adherence, including perceived barriers and self-efficacy. However, limited data are available regarding to psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence in China. Moreover, few studies have examined the mechanism of these two factors underlying HIV medication adherence. The aim of the current study is to examine the mediating role of adherence self-efficacy between perceived barriers and ART adherence among PLWH. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 2095 PLWH in Guangxi China who provided data on ART adherence. Participants reported their medication adherence, self-efficacy, barriers to ART adherence, as well as background characteristics. Results indicated a significant indirect effect from perceived barriers to medication adherence through adherence self-efficacy. Higher perceived psychological and behavioral barriers to ART adherence were related to lower adherence self-efficacy, which in turn was related to lower ART adherence. Self-efficacy could buffer the negative effects of perceived barriers on ART adherence. Future interventions to promote HIV medication adherence are recommended to focus on eliminating psychological and behavioral barriers, as well as increasing adherence self-efficacy.

  20. Availability of lignocellulose from forestry waste for use as a biofuel in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Zhang, Dong; Mao, Guotao; Wang, Fengqin; Song, Andong

    2018-05-01

    Biomass is a very important renewable energy and plays an important role in the energy structure of China. Here, the role of forestry waste in producing energy in China was analyzed and the availability of forestry waste for biofuel production, theoretically collectable amounts of forest biomass, and density of forestry waste were assessed. Agricultural and forestry waste are important biomass resources. The potential for using forestry waste as a low cost substrate for producing fuel ethanol using existing forestry resources and techniques was analyzed, and the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol in different Chinese provinces was assessed using the specific situation for each province. The results showed that 1081.73 × 10 6  t of forestry waste could be produced in China, and 270.43 × 10 6  t (25% of the amount that could be collected) could be used to produce fuel ethanol. Assuming 10 t of sawdust could be converted into 1 t of ethanol, 27 × 10 6  t of ethanol could be produced from forestry waste. Different provinces have different potentials for producing ethanol from forestry waste, Guangdong Province, Guangxi Province, Sichuan Province, and Yunnan Province having higher potentials than the other provinces. It was predicted that 4478 × 10 6  t of fuel ethanol could be produced from woodcraft waste by 2020, and the provinces with the most potential were found to be Fujian Province, Heilongjiang Province, Jilin Province, Shanxi Province, Sichuan Province, Xinjiang Province, and Yunnan Province. Using forestry waste to produce ethanol could alleviate the energy shortage in China.

  1. Natural gas pricing reform in China: Getting closer to a market system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltsev, Sergey; Zhang, Danwei

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy in China targets an increase in the contribution of natural gas to the nation's energy supply. Historically, China's natural gas prices have been highly regulated with a goal to protect consumers. The old pricing regime failed to provide enough incentives for natural gas suppliers, which often resulted in natural gas shortage. A new gas pricing reform was tested in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces in 2011, and introduced nationwide in 2013. The reform is aimed at creating a more market-based pricing mechanism. We show that a substantial progress toward a better predictability and transparency of prices has been made. The prices are now more connected with the international fuel oil and liquid petroleum gas prices. The government's approach for a temporary two-tier pricing when some volumes are still traded at old prices reduced a potential opposition during the new regime implementation. Some limitations of the natural gas pricing remain as it created biased incentives for producers and favors large natural gas suppliers. The pricing reform at its current stage falls short of establishing a complete market mechanism driven by an interaction of supply and demand of natural gas in China. - Highlights: • China's reform of natural gas pricing is in effect nationwide from 2013. • Prices are now connected to international fuel oil and liquid petroleum gas prices. • The reform benefits domestic producers and importers of natural gas. • There are still price distortions between industrial and residential sector. • The reform needs to create a system where both supply and demand are considered.

  2. China's regional disparities in energy consumption: An input–output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Pan, Lingying; Fu, Feng; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; Amorelli, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    While most of previous studies on China's energy conservation took the huge country as a whole, this manuscript revealed the obvious regional disparities in energy consumption of China's 30 provinces. Based on a hybrid energy input–output model, the total energy consumption of different regions was decomposed and compared using three measurements of embodied energy in inter-regional trade: 1) only considered inter-regional energy trade; 2) considered embodied energy in flow-out of final goods and services; 3) considered embodied energy in flow-in of final goods and services. Based on the second and third measurements, the 30 regions were categorized into four groups by their energy intensity and per capita GDP (gross domestic production). Common characteristics of decomposed regional energy intensity are discussed, and policy implication for regional energy conservation is provided. For developed regions with low energy intensities, such as Shanghai, energy conservation should focus on promoting low energy-consuming life style. For under-developed regions with low energy intensities, such as Guangxi, economic development is more urgent than energy conservation. For developing and energy absorbing regions, improving energy efficiency in industries is significant. For developing and energy exporting regions, transforming primary energy into high value-added products would be beneficial for economic development and energy conservation. - Highlights: • A hybrid input–output model for the decomposition of regional energy consumption. • A discussion of China's regional disparities in energy consumption by model results. • Regional energy consumption was compared by three measurements of embodied energy. • 30 regions of China were categorized into four groups by energy intensity and GDP

  3. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    ... whether continued economic growth will lead to increasing hegemonic tendencies. This thesis employs a China-centric approach--China's history, classical strategic literature, strategic trends, and sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  4. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  5. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  6. Long-term spatiotemporal trends and health risk assessment of oyster arsenic levels in coastal waters of northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Lifei; Jia, Xiaoping; Jackson, Donald A

    2017-09-01

    Long-term spatiotemporal trends and health risk assessment of oyster arsenic levels in the coastal waters of northern South China Sea were investigated in order to help improve the quality and safety control and sustainable aquaculture for mollusks in China. Cultured oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) collected from the waters of 23 bays, harbors, and estuaries along the coast of northern South China Sea from 1989 to 2012 were examined for spatial patterns and long-term temporal trends of oyster arsenic levels. Single-factor index and health risk assessment were used to quantify arsenic exposure to human health through oyster consumption. Overall, arsenic was detected in 97.4% of the oyster samples, and oyster arsenic levels were non-detectable-2.51 mg/kg with an average of 0.63 ± 0.54 mg/kg. Oyster arsenic levels in the coastal waters of northern South China Sea showed an overall decline from 1989 to 2012, remained relatively low since 2005, and slightly increased after 2007. Oyster arsenic levels in Guangdong coastal waters were much higher with more variation than in Guangxi and Hainan coastal waters, and the long-term trends of oyster arsenic levels in Guangdong coastal waters dominated the overall trends of oyster arsenic levels in the coastal waters of northern South China Sea. Within Guangdong Province, oyster arsenic levels were highest in east Guangdong coastal waters, followed by the Pearl River estuary and west Guangdong coastal waters. Single-factor index ranged between 0.27 and 0.97, and average health risk coefficient was 3.85 × 10 -5 , both suggesting that oyster arsenic levels in northern South China Sea are within the safe range for human consumption. However, long-term attention should be given to seafood market monitoring in China and the risk of arsenic exposure to human health through oyster consumption.

  7. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  8. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  9. Monitoring, exposure and risk assessment of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh or dried fruits and vegetables in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tiantian; Huang, Weisu; Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhou, Liying; Lu, Baiyi; Zheng, Lufei; Hu, Yinzhou

    2017-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of products collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang and Hainan) were analysed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1-95.9%, 12.6-92.3%, 70.3-80.0% and 26.0-100.0%, respectively; the mean concentrations of residues were 2.7-120.8, 3.8-35.7, 26.9-99.1 and 12.0-1120.4 mg kg -1 , respectively. The results indicated that fresh vegetables and dried products are critical products; the daily intakes (EDIs) for children were higher than others; the hazard indexes (HI) for four groups were 0.019-0.033, 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.016 and 0.002-0.005 at P50, respectively. But the HI was more than 1 at P99 by intake dried fruits and vegetables. Although the risk for consumers was acceptable on the whole, children were the most vulnerable group. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicated that the level of sulfur dioxide residues was the most influential variable in this model. Thus, continuous monitoring and stricter regulation of sulfites using are recommended in China.

  10. Nurturing compassion through care-giving and care-receiving: the changing moral economy of AIDs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng; Guiheux, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Based on the case study of an Aids clinic operated in Nanning by MSF, this paper looks at how one international NGO, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF, or Doctors Without Borders), deals with the HIV-carrier patients in Nanning, the capital of Guangxi province in China. It explores the process of care-giving to the HIV patients by MSF employees (both foreign and local) and how the patients react to the 'care-receiving' provided by this foreign NGO. This is especially pertinent in China today as HIV-patients are the victims of discriminating policies and are still very much discriminated by the general population. MSF, viewed by the victims as a foreign NGO, is regarded as an organization seen as promoting a changing and compassionate attitude toward AIDs patients through their anonymous and non-discriminating practices. Through the practices and the discourse of MSF workers and the testimonies of the patients, this paper looks at how the moral economy of AIDs is evolving from a repressive and discriminative attitude towards the compassionate attention to individual suffering. As such, MSF, through its actions, is seen as one of the agents promoting attitudinal changes toward disadvantaged groups and is facilitating the emergence of an emotional and compassionate subject.

  11. Application of SCM with Bayesian B-Spline to Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Hypertension in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zirong; Xu, Li; Zhou, Zi; Wu, Yafei; Fang, Ya

    2018-01-02

    Most previous research on the disparities of hypertension risk has neither simultaneously explored the spatio-temporal disparities nor considered the spatial information contained in the samples, thus the estimated results may be unreliable. Our study was based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), including residents over 12 years old in seven provinces from 1991 to 2011. Bayesian B-spline was used in the extended shared component model (SCM) for fitting temporal-related variation to explore spatio-temporal distribution in the odds ratio (OR) of hypertension, reveal gender variation, and explore latent risk factors. Our results revealed that the prevalence of hypertension increased from 14.09% in 1991 to 32.37% in 2011, with men experiencing a more obvious change than women. From a spatial perspective, a standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) remaining at a high level was found in Henan and Shandong for both men and women. Meanwhile, before 1997, the temporal distribution of hypertension risk for both men and women remained low. After that, notably since 2004, the OR of hypertension in each province increased to a relatively high level, especially in Northern China. Notably, the OR of hypertension in Shandong and Jiangsu, which was over 1.2, continuously stood out after 2004 for males, while that in Shandong and Guangxi was relatively high for females. The findings suggested that obvious spatial-temporal patterns for hypertension exist in the regions under research and this pattern was quite different between men and women.

  12. [Predictive distribution and planting GAP of Cyathula officinalis in China based on 3S technology and MaxEnt modelling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Yan; He, Lan; Chen, Jia-Li; Dong, Guang; Cheng, Wu-Xue

    2017-11-01

    Research on predictive distribution and planting GAP of Cyathula officinalis in China is helpful to provide scientific basis for its protection and planting popularization. According to the data in 63 distribution sites and 49 ecological variables, using MaxEnt ecological niche model and 3S technology, we performed a quantitative analysis of suitable distribution and planting GAP of C. officinalis in China. Our results show that: ① the area of suitable distribution of C. officinalis is about 634 385.80 km² in total, and mainly in Northeastern and Southeastern Sichuan, Northern and Southeastern Yunnan, Western and Southwestern Guizhou, Southwestern and Northeastern Chongqing, Southwestern Shaanxi, Southeastern Gansu, Western Guangxi, Southeastern Tibet. ② The main ecological factors determining the potential distribution are precipitation, altitude, minimum temperature of coldest month, soil type, monthly mean temperature. ③ The planting GAP region are mainly in Guangyuan, Mianyang, Ya'an, Leshan, Liangshan, Panzhihua of Sichuan province, Hanzhong of Shaanxi province, Dali, Nujiang, Chuxiong, Baoshan, Qujing, Wenshan of Yunnan province, southwestern autonomous prefecture in Guizhou province. The results are of great significance for realizing the growth environment, predicting the potential distribution and promoting planting popularization for C. officinalis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Real-Time Adherence Device among HIV-Positive IDU Patients in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Bachman DeSilva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We collected data on feasibility and acceptability of a real-time web-linked adherence monitoring container among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU in China. “Wisepill” uses wireless technology to track on-time medication dosing. Ten patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART at the Guangxi CDC HIV clinic in Nanning, China, used Wisepill for one ART medication for one month. We monitored device use and adherence and explored acceptability of the device among patients. Mean adherence was 89.2% (SD 10.6%. Half of the subjects reported a positive overall experience with Wisepill. Seven said that it was inconvenient, supported by comments that it was large and conspicuous. Five worried about disclosure of HIV status due to the device; no disclosures were reported. Twelve signal lapses occurred (5.4% of prescribed doses, of which one was due to technical reasons, nine to behavioral reasons (both intentional and unintentional, and two to unclear reasons. Although the technical components must be monitored carefully, and acceptability to patients presents challenges which warrant further exploration, the Wisepill device has potential for adherence interventions that deliver rapid adherence-support behavioral feedback directly to patients, including IDU. The use of wireless technology appears uniquely promising for providing time-sensitive communication on patient behavior that can be harnessed to maximize the benefits of HIV treatment.

  14. China opens the door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  15. Preliminary Study of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene Plant Food Strategies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi Tang, M.; Liu, X.; Fritz, G.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, studies on the domestication and early cultivation of seed crops have contributed significantly to how we understand human-plant interactions, and their impact on human social organisation and the environment. It is becoming clear, however, that plants have been critical to the human diet for much longer and in more diverse ways than previously assumed. This paper is a preliminary attempt at identifying and addressing early prehistoric plant food strategies in China. In particular, very little is known about the use of vegetatively propagated plants, despite their significant representation in modern crops. Many ingredients of Chinese medicine are also roots and tubers (or vegetative storage organs, VSOs). Unlike seed crops, however, we lack a systematic criterion for examining diagnostic characters of different VSO taxa in the archaeological record. To address this issue, we characterized commonly consumed and historically significant VSOs in China, by studying experimentally charred modern samples under the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. We then compared the characteristics of these modern VSO samples against plant remains from Late Pleistocene to early Holocene archaeological sites in China, such as Zengpiyan (Guangxi), Zhaoguodong (Guizhou), and Jiahu (Henan) sites. We found that different taxa of VSOs can be differentiated by using multiple lines of evidence, including: shape and size of various cells, texture and arrangement of cell walls, as well as anatomical arrangements of organs, especially the vascular bundles. Though identification can be difficult when fragile cell structures have collapsed or deteriorated, more robust features are often preserved for diagnosis. Our results suggest that the potential for studying the role of vegetatively propagated plants in early human-environmental interactions is overlooked, and can be expanded significantly with further investment in their systematic identification.

  16. [Investigation, collation and research of traditional Dai medicine of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Zhong-Lian; Li, Hai-Tao; Niu, Ying-Fen; Guan, Yan-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-01

    In order to find out the composition, characteristics and traditional utilization characteristics of Dai medicine and promote the rational protection, inheritance and utilization of the resources and traditional knowledge of Dai medicine in China, the resources of traditional Dai medicine have been investigated systematically and the traditional knowledge of Dai medicine have been analyzed in the article. We found out that there were altogether 1 077 kinds of traditional Dai medicine in China and among which 272 were the first time recorded in the condition of Dai folk medical uses. There were 1 053 plant medicines which belong to 169 family and 694 genus. These plant medicines mainly distributed in the southern, west southern and east southern area of Yunnan province, the southern area of Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan, Fujian province and tropical, subtropical district as Taiwan, and more than 94.49% plant medicines could be found in Yunnan province. From the point of plant life form, they were major herbaceous or shrubby plants; When it is used as medicinal part, root and rhizome of plants account for the highest proportion, the next were whole plant and leaves. From nature, flavor and channel tropism points of view, the largest proportion of Dai medicines were cool, bitter-tasted and possesses water element. In terms of treatment of disease types, most of the drugs can treat gastrointestinal diseases, next were drugs that could be used to treat upper respiratory infection, traumatological and rheumatic diseases, urinary infection, gynecological diseases, hepatopathy, puerperium fever and diseases caused by poisonous insects and beast of prey bite. The study revealed that the resources of traditional Dai medicine and traditional knowledge of application were abundant in China, but the resources of traditional Dai medicine and traditional knowledge of application were faced with the risk of gradually reduce and loss. The article suggested that we should

  17. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiwei; Yang, Lan; Feng, Qiming; Tighe, Scott S

    2017-01-01

    Background . Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method . To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results . About 75% (28/39) of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39) mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39) showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion . Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor's relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.

  18. Uptake and accumulation of arsenic by 11 Pteris taxa from southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.B. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Wong, M.H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lan, C.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Baker, A.J.M. [School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); Qin, Y.R. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Shu, W.S. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, G.Z. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)]. E-mail: lsdyzhh@zsu.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    A field survey was conducted at a deserted arsenic (As) mine in Guangxi Province, China to explore new potential As hyperaccumulators. In addition, young plants of 11 Pteris taxa were grown in glasshouse conditions for 12 weeks on As-amended soils with 0, 50 and 200 mg As kg{sup -1}. Results of the field survey showed that the fern Pteris fauriei accumulated over 1000 mg As kg{sup -1} in its fronds. Of the 11 Pteris taxa, Pteris aspericaulis, Pteris cretica var. nervosa, P. fauriei, Pteris multifida, P. multifida f. serrulata, and Pteris oshimensis were all found to hyperaccumulate As in addition to P. cretica 'Albo-Lineata' and Pteris vittata (already reported as As hyperaccumulators). However, Pteris ensiformis, Pteris semipinnata and Pteris setuloso-costulata showed no evidence of As hyperaccumulation. Results also revealed a constitutive property of As hyperaccumulation in different populations of P. cretica var. nervosa, P. multifida, P. oshimensis and P. vittata. - Eight Pteris taxa show the ability to hyperaccumulate As under glasshouse conditions.

  19. A remarkable new species of Liparis (Orchidaceae from China and its phylogenetic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available In the present study, we formally describe Liparis pingxiangensis as a new species from Guangxi, China on the basis of morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. It is easily distinguished from closely related species by strongly curved column without column wings, and broadly rhombic-elliptic lip with 2 uncinate calli at the base. In particular, it differs most markedly from its congeners in possessing two pollinia attached by long and prominent caudicles (not stipes, to a distinct sticky disc. This type of pollinarium, as far as we know, is not found in any other species of Liparis, and is also unique among the orchids with waxy pollinia. We then proceeded to a phylogenetic analysis to ascertain the systematic position of this enigmatic species. Molecular study based on nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid matK DNA sequence data supports L. pingxiangensis as a distinct species, which forms an independent lineage sister to L. nervosa and its allies (93% BS, 1.00 BPP. In the light of previous work, the findings have important implications for a better understanding of the well-supported pattern mainly based on vegetative features in Malaxideae.

  20. Job Satisfaction Analysis in Rural China: A Qualitative Study of Doctors in a Township Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Township hospitals in China provide rural communities with basic but much needed critical health care services. The doctors working in these hospitals often feel unsatisfied when considering their work schedules and financial rewards. Method. To explore job satisfaction of health workers in a township hospital, a qualitative study was conducted of 39 doctors from five township hospitals in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The goal was to understand the level of job satisfaction of doctors and to make recommendations for improvements. Results. About 75% (28/39 of the doctors expressed negative attitudes related to their work conditions. Slightly more than half (22/39 mentioned they should receive greater compensation for their work and more than one were seriously considering other options. Many participants (35/39 showed their satisfaction about the achievement of serving as a doctor. Conclusion. Their main concerns related to job satisfaction included working conditions, financial rewards, and the doctor’s relationships with patients. Increasing the incomes and fringe benefits of healthcare workers, improving their work conditions, and providing training and continuing education opportunities would help rural clinics retain doctors and eliminate the current unsatisfactory conditions. The findings also highlight the need for the government to increase financial support of township hospitals.

  1. Community structure of endophytic fungi of four mangrove species in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Long Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests play an important role in subtropical and tropical coastal ecosystems. Endophytic fungi are widely distributed in various ecosystems and have great contribution to global biodiversity. In order to better understand the effects of mangrove species and tissue types on endophytic fungal community, we investigated cultivable endophytic fungi in leaves and twigs of four mangroves Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, and Kandelia candel in Guangxi, China. The four tree species had similar overall colonisation rates of endophytic fungi (24–33%. The colonisation rates of endophytic fungi were higher in twigs (30–58% than in leaves (6–25% in the four plant species. A total of 36 endophytic fungal taxa were identified based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, including 35 Ascomycota and 1 Basidiomycota, dominated by Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Xylaria, Leptosphaerulina, and Pestalotiopsis. The diversity of endophytic fungi was higher in twigs than in leaves in the four plant species. Some endophytic fungi showed host and tissue preference. The endophytic fungal community composition was different among four mangrove species and between leaf and twig tissues.

  2. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children’s Secondhand Smoke (SHS Exposure in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children’s SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%, did not smoke at home at all (37%, did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%, or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57% were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49% and in the car (22% were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children’s SHS exposure.

  3. [Perilla resources of China and essential oil chemotypes of Perilla leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang-Ling; Guo, Bao-Lin; Zhang, Chen-Wu; Zhang, Fen; Tian, Jing; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Shun-Nan

    2016-05-01

    This study, based on the findings for Perilla resources, aimed to describe the species, distribution, importance, features, utilization and status of quantitative Perilla resources in China. This not only helps people to know well about the existing resources and researching development, but also indicates the overall distribution, selection and rational use of Perilla resource in the future. According to the output types, Perilla resources are divided into two categories: wild resources and cultivated resources; and based on its common uses, the cultivated resources are further divided into medicine resources, seed-used resources and export resources. The distribution areas of wild resources include Henan, Sichuan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The distribution areas of medicine resources are concentrated in Hebei, Anhui, Chongqing, Guangxi and Guangdong. Seed-used resources are mainly distributed in Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Chongqing and Yunnan. Export resource areas are mainly concentrated in coastal cities, such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang. For the further study, the essential oil of leaf samples from different areas were extracted by the steam distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. The differences in essential oil chemotypes among different Perilla leaves were compared by analyzing their chemical constituents. The main 31 constituents of all samples included: perillaketone (0.93%-96.55%), perillaldehyde (0.10%-61.24%), perillene (52.15%), caryophyllene (3.22%-26.67%), and α-farnesene (2.10%-21.54%). These samples can be classified into following five chemotypes based on the synthesis pathways: PK-type, PA-type, PL-type, PP-type and EK-type. The chemotypes of wild resources included PK-type and PA-type, with PK-type as the majority. All of the five chemotypes are included in cultivated resources, with PA-type as the majority. Seed-used resources are all PK-type, and export resources are all PA-type. The P

  4. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012. Grantee: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. More than 200 million migrant workers in. China are self-employed or work without contracts, benefits, or legal protection. IDRC- supported research in both India and China has examined ...

  5. Have Fun in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  6. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  7. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-30

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  8. Multiscale analyses on a massive immigration process of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in south-central China: influences of synoptic-scale meteorological conditions and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-Lin; Westbrook, John K.; Hu, Gao; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Sword, Gregory A.; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Mass landings of migrating white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), can lead to severe outbreaks that cause heavy losses for rice production in East Asia. South-central China is the main infestation area on the annual migration loop of S. furcifera between the northern Indo-China Peninsula and mainland China; however, rice planthopper species are not able to survive in this region over winter. In this study, a trajectory analysis of movements from population source areas and a spatiotemporal dynamic analysis of mesoscale and synoptic weather conditions from 7 to 10 May 2012 were conducted using the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to identify source areas of immigrants and determine how weather and topographic terrain influence insect landing. A sensitivity experiment was conducted with reduced topography using the WRF model to explain the associations among rainfall, topography, and light-trap catches of S. furcifera. The trajectory modeling results suggest that the source areas of S. furcifera immigrants into south-central China from 8 to 10 May were mainly southern Guangxi, northern Vietnam, and north-central Vietnam. The appearance of enormous catches of immigrant S. furcifera coincided with a period of rainstorms. The formation of transporting southerly winds was strongly associated with the topographic terrain. Additionally, the rainfall distribution and intensity over south-central China significantly decreased when topography was reduced in the model and were directly affected by wind circulation, which was associated with mountainous terrain that caused strong convection. This study indicates that migrating populations of S. furcifera were carried by the southwesterly low-level jets and that topographically induced convergent winds, precipitation, low temperatures, and wind shear acted as key factors that led to massive landings.

  9. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Fischer, Ingrid

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  10. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  11. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China re...

  12. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  13. [Spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever and its change pattern in 3 provinces in southwestern China, 2001-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L X; Yang, B; Yan, M Y; Tang, Y Q; Liu, Z C; Wang, R Q; Li, S; Ma, L; Kan, B

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever and its change pattern in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi provinces in southwestern China in recent years. Methods: The incidence data of typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases at county level in 3 provinces during 2001-2012 were collected from China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention and analyzed by the methods of descriptive epidemiology and geographic informatics. And the map showing the spatial and temporal clustering characters of typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases in three provinces was drawn. SaTScan statistics was used to identify the typhoid and paratyphoid fever clustering areas of three provinces in each year from 2001 to 2012. Results: During the study period, the reported cases of typhoid and paratyphoid fever declined with year. The reported incidence decreased from 30.15 per 100 000 in 2001 to 10.83 per 100 000 in 2006(annual incidence 21.12 per 100 000); while during 2007-2012, the incidence became stable, ranging from 4.75 per 100 000 to 6.83 per 100 000 (annual incidence 5.73 per 100 000). The seasonal variation of the incidence was consistent in three provinces, with majority of cases occurred in summer and autumn. The spatial and temporal clustering of typhoid and paratyphoid fever was demonstrated by the incidence map. Most high-incidence counties were located in a zonal area extending from Yuxi of Yunnan to Guiyang of Guizhou, but were concentrated in Guilin in Guangxi. Temporal and spatial scan statistics identified the positional shifting of class Ⅰ clustering area from Guizhou to Yunnan. Class Ⅰ clustering area was located around the central and western areas (Zunyi and Anshun) of Guizhou during 2001-2003, and moved to the central area of Yunnan during 2004-2012. Conclusion: Spatial and temporal clustering of typhoid and paratyphoid fever existed in the endemic areas of southwestern China, and the clustering area

  14. Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China

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    Linhua Song

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30

  15. China's Organic Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  16. Green markets in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The great cities of China have enormous pollution problems. The World Bank has estimated that the economic losses in deaths and health damage caused by outdoor air pollution corresponds to 4.5 per cent of China's GNP. If the authorities of China should want to clean the air, that would greatly impact the global climate policy. China has the next largest emission of carbon dioxide of all countries in the world, and these emissions often have the same source as the hazardous particles and gases. China is now probing economical instruments in the environmental policy, and some industrial areas will try quota trade as a road to cleaner air

  17. Headache care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

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    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  19. Risk mapping of clonorchiasis in the People's Republic of China: A systematic review and Bayesian geostatistical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Si Lai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchiasis, one of the most important food-borne trematodiases, affects more than 12 million people in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China. Spatially explicit risk estimates of Clonorchis sinensis infection are needed in order to target control interventions.Georeferenced survey data pertaining to infection prevalence of C. sinensis in P.R. China from 2000 onwards were obtained via a systematic review in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Internet, and Wanfang Data from January 1, 2000 until January 10, 2016, with no restriction of language or study design. Additional disease data were provided by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention in Shanghai. Environmental and socioeconomic proxies were extracted from remote-sensing and other data sources. Bayesian variable selection was carried out to identify the most important predictors of C. sinensis risk. Geostatistical models were applied to quantify the association between infection risk and the predictors of the disease, and to predict the risk of infection across P.R. China at high spatial resolution (over a grid with grid cell size of 5×5 km.We obtained clonorchiasis survey data at 633 unique locations in P.R. China. We observed that the risk of C. sinensis infection increased over time, particularly from 2005 onwards. We estimate that around 14.8 million (95% Bayesian credible interval 13.8-15.8 million people in P.R. China were infected with C. sinensis in 2010. Highly endemic areas (≥ 20% were concentrated in southern and northeastern parts of the country. The provinces with the highest risk of infection and the largest number of infected people were Guangdong, Guangxi, and Heilongjiang.Our results provide spatially relevant information for guiding clonorchiasis control interventions in P.R. China. The trend toward higher risk of C. sinensis infection in the recent past urges the Chinese government to

  20. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in China on effective utilization of cement waste heat; 1999 nendo Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although China ranks first in the world in the manufacture of cement, yet the energy consumption rate is high and there remains room for improvement. Effective utilization of energy at cement making plants will not only profit the industry but also contribute to the stabilization of energy supply for China. The model project on power generation using cement waste heat implemented at Ningguo Cement Plant was concluded successfully. For the purpose of enabling China to domestically manufacture the equipment, the installation of such equipment at Zhujiang Cement Plant and Liuzhou Cement Plant in Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu was assumed, and their locations and plant operating conditions were studied. In addition, surveys were conducted of manufacturers of important components of the power generation equipment such as boilers, steam turbines, generators, and breaker boards. Two manufacturers were visited for each of the components, and they were checked for records of manufacturing similar equipment, quality assurance and process management capabilities, and for ability to satisfy required specifications. Among the visited manufacturers were Nanjing Turbine and Electric Machinery Co., Jinan Power Equipment Factory, and Hangzhou Boiler Works. Based on the results of the surveys, it was concluded that the model project may be implemented. (NEDO)

  1. Spatio-Temporal Variation and Impact Factors for Vegetation Carbon Sequestration and Oxygen Production Based on Rocky Desertification Control in the Karst Region of Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grain to Green Program (GTGP and eco-environmental emigration have been employed to alleviate poverty and control rocky desertification in the Southwest China Karst region. Carbon sequestration and oxygen production (CSOP is used to indicate major ecological changes, because they involve complex processes of material circulation and energy flow. Using remote sensing images and weather records, the spatiotemporal variation of CSOP was analyzed in a typical karst region of northwest Guangxi, China, during 2000–2010 to determine the effects of the Chinese government’s ecological rehabilitation initiatives implemented in 1999. An increase with substantial annual change and a significant increase (20.94%, p < 0.05 in variation were found from 2000 to 2010. CSOP had a highly clustered distribution in 2010 and was correlated with precipitation and temperature (9.18% and 8.96%, respectively, p < 0.05. CSOP was significantly suppressed by human activities (p < 0.01, r = −0.102 but was consistent with the intensity of GTGP (43.80% positive. The power spectrum of CSOP was consistent with that of the gross domestic product. These results indicate that ecological services were improved by rocky desertification control in a typical karst region. The results may provide information to evaluate the efficiency of ecological reconstruction projects.

  2. Spatial-temporal change of land surface temperature across 285 cities in China: An urban-rural contrast perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Ma, Jing; Liu, Qianyuan; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Yi'na; Li, Yingru; Yue, Yuemin

    2018-09-01

    As an important theme in global climate change and urban sustainable development, the changes of land surface temperature (LST) and surface urban heat island (SUHI) have been more and more focused by urban ecologists. This study used land-use data to identify the urban-rural areas in 285 cities in China and comparatively analyzed LST in urban-rural areas with the perspective of spatial-temporal dynamics heterogeneity. The results showed that, 98.9% of the cities exhibited SUHI effect in summer nighttime and the effect was stronger in northern cities than that in southern cities. In 2010, the mean SUHI intensity was the largest in summer daytime, with 4.6% of the cities having extreme SUHI of over 4°C. From 2001 to 2010, the nighttime LST of most cities increased more quickly in urban areas compared with rural areas, with an increasing tendency of the urban-rural LST difference. The difference in the urban- rural LST change rate was concentrated in the range of 0-0.1°C/year for 68.0% of cities in winter and 70.8% of cities in summer. For the higher LST increasing in urban areas compared with rural areas, there were more cities in summer than winter, indicating that the summer nighttime was the key temporal period for SUHI management. Based on the change slope of urban-rural LST, cities were clustered into four types and the vital and major zones for urban thermal environment management were identified in China. The vital zone included cities in Hunan, Hubei and other central rising provinces as well as the Beibu Gulf of Guangxi Province. The major zone included most of the cities in Central Plain Urban Agglomeration, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. These results can provide scientific basis for SUHI adaptation in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

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    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  4. Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Li-Ying; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40×40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis–infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. Conclusions/Significance The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks. PMID:19190771

  5. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Tao, Yong; Luo, Qing; Zhong, Gemei; Romm, Jeff; Colford, John M.; Ray, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Background In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness. Methods We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013–2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data. Findings Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, pwater (-0.45, pwater, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34–0.70, pwater users (RR = 0.70, 0.53–0.93, pwater access and reduce HAP exposure in rural China. PMID:26421716

  6. Acceptability of Male Circumcision among College Students in Medical Universities in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Jiang

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore MC's acceptability and the factors associated with MC among college students in medical universities in western China.A cross-sectional study was carried out in three provinces in western China (Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang to assess the acceptability of MC as well as to discover factors associated with the acceptability among college students in medical universities. A total of 1,790 uncircumcised male students from three medical universities were enrolled in this study. In addition, 150 students who had undergone MC were also enrolled in the survey, and they participated in in-depth interviews.Of all the uncircumcised participants (n = 1,790, 55.2% (n = 988 were willing to accept MC. Among those who accepted MC, 67.3% thought that MC could improve their sexual partners' hygiene, 46.3% believed that HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs could be partially prevented by MC. The multivariable logistic regression indicates that MC's acceptability was associated with three factors: the redundant foreskin (OR = 10.171, 95% CI = 7.629-13.559, knowing the hazard of having a redundant foreskin (OR = 1.597, 95% CI = 1.097-2.323, and enhancing sexual pleasure (OR = 1.628, 95% CI = 1.312-2.021. The in-depth interviews for subjects who had undergone MC showed that the major reason for having MC was the redundant foreskin (87.3%, followed by the benefits and the fewer complications of having MC done. In addition, most of these participants (65.3% said that the MC could enhance sexual satisfaction.MC's acceptance among college students in medical universities is higher than it is among other populations in western China. An implementation of an MC programme among this population is feasible in the future.

  7. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai; Zhang, Peng-Chao; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Pan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Hui-Li; Tong, Guang-Zhi

    2009-08-21

    As pigs are susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses, they have been proposed to be intermediate hosts or mixing vessels for the generation of pandemic influenza viruses through reassortment or adaptation to the mammalian host. In this study, we reported avian-like H1N1 and novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses from pigs in China. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was closely to avian-like H1N1 viruses and seemed to be derived from the European swine H1N1 viruses, which was for the first time reported in China; and the two H1N2 viruses (A/swine/Shanghai/1/07 and A/swine/Guangxi/13/06) were novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses containing genes from the classical swine (HA, NP, M and NS), human (NA and PB1) and avian (PB2 and PA) lineages, which indicted that the reassortment among human, avian, and swine influenza viruses had taken place in pigs in China and resulted in the generation of new viruses. The isolation of avian-like H1N1 influenza virus originated from the European swine H1N1 viruses, especially the emergence of two novel ressortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs serve as intermediate hosts or "mixing vessels", and swine influenza virus surveillance in China should be given a high priority.

  8. HIV/STD pattern and its associated risk factors among male STD clinic attendees in China: a foci for HIV intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qian-Qiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested a high prevalence of STDs including HIV among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in China, but little was known about the prevalence in male patients attending public STD clinics. The aim of this study was to investigate STD patterns and HIV prevalence among male STD clinic attendees in different areas in China and the associated risk factors. The feasibility of Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC was evaluated as well. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at 46 public STD clinics in 4 provinces in China. Between July 2009 and September 2009, a total of 3243 eligible subjects were invited to participate in an interview with a structured-questionnaire for collecting socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavioral information. They also were asked to provide venous blood samples for serological determinations of HIV and syphilis infection, and first void urine specimens for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections, Results Out of the 3243 eligible patients, 2951(91% men agreed to take part in the HIV and syphilis testing. The overall prevalence rate of HIV infection was 0.7% while the rates of syphilis, N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis infections were 10.7%, 4.3% and 6.9%, respectively, with the highest syphilis and N. gonorrhoeae rates in Jiangsu Province. Patients from Guangxi province, homosexual/bisexual practices and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with HIV infection in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC was well accepted by attendees, with 91% of eligible attendees agreeing to undergo HIV testing and counseling. All HIV positive patients were properly managed accordingly. Conclusions A modest prevalence of HIV infection and substantial prevalence of other STD infections were found among male patients attending public STD clinics in China. The

  9. A mangrove forest map of China in 2015: Analysis of time series Landsat 7/8 and Sentinel-1A imagery in Google Earth Engine cloud computing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bangqian; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Xiangping; Pan, Lianghao; Doughty, Russell; Ma, Jun; Dong, Jinwei; Qin, Yuanwei; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Zhixiang; Sun, Rui; Lan, Guoyu; Xie, Guishui; Clinton, Nicholas; Giri, Chandra

    2017-09-01

    Due to rapid losses of mangrove forests caused by anthropogenic disturbances and climate change, accurate and contemporary maps of mangrove forests are needed to understand how mangrove ecosystems are changing and establish plans for sustainable management. In this study, a new classification algorithm was developed using the biophysical characteristics of mangrove forests in China. More specifically, these forests were mapped by identifying: (1) greenness, canopy coverage, and tidal inundation from time series Landsat data, and (2) elevation, slope, and intersection-with-sea criterion. The annual mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was found to be a key variable in determining the classification thresholds of greenness, canopy coverage, and tidal inundation of mangrove forests, which are greatly affected by tide dynamics. In addition, the integration of Sentinel-1A VH band and modified Normalized Difference Water Index (mNDWI) shows great potential in identifying yearlong tidal and fresh water bodies, which is related to mangrove forests. This algorithm was developed using 6 typical Regions of Interest (ROIs) as algorithm training and was run on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) cloud computing platform to process 1941 Landsat images (25 Path/Row) and 586 Sentinel-1A images circa 2015. The resultant mangrove forest map of China at 30 m spatial resolution has an overall/users/producer's accuracy greater than 95% when validated with ground reference data. In 2015, China's mangrove forests had a total area of 20,303 ha, about 92% of which was in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangdong, and Hainan Provinces. This study has demonstrated the potential of using the GEE platform, time series Landsat and Sentine-1A SAR images to identify and map mangrove forests along the coastal zones. The resultant mangrove forest maps are likely to be useful for the sustainable management and ecological assessments of mangrove forests in China.

  10. Reduction of net primary productivity in southern China caused by abnormal low-temperature freezing in winter of 2008 detected by a remote sensing-driven ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, W.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle is an important determinant of global climate change and affected by various factors, including climate, CO2 concentration, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and human activities. Extreme weather events can significantly regulate short-term even long-term carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. During the period from the middle January to the middle February 2008, Southern China was seriously hit by abnormal low-temperature freezing, which caused serous damages to forests and crops. However, the reduction of net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems caused by this extremely abnormal weather event has not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model was employed to assess the reduction of NPP in Southern China caused by the abnormal low-temperature freezing. Prior to the regional simulation, the BEPS model was validated using measured NPP in different ecosystems, demonstrating the ability of this model to simulate NPP reliably in China. Then, it was forced using meteorological data interpolated from observations of weather stations and leaf area index inversed from MODIS reflectance data to simulate national wide NPP at a 500 m resolution for the period from 2003 to 2008. The departures of NPP in 2008 from the means during 2003-2007 were used as the indicator of NPP reduction caused by the low-temperature freezing. It was found out that NPP in 2008 decreased significantly in forests of Southern China, especially in Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Hunan Provinces, in which the low-temperature freeing was more serious. The annul reduction of NPP was above 150 g C/m^2/yr in these areas. Key words: Net Primary Productivity, low-temperature freezing, BEPS model, MODIS Correspondence author: Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

  11. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  12. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  13. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  14. Spatial-temporal variation of marginal land suitable for energy plants from 1990 to 2010 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Zhuang, Dafang; Huang, Yaohuan

    2014-01-01

    Energy plants are the main source of bioenergy which will play an increasingly important role in future energy supplies. With limited cultivated land resources in China, the development of energy plants may primarily rely on the marginal land. In this study, based on the land use data from 1990 to 2010(every 5 years is a period) and other auxiliary data, the distribution of marginal land suitable for energy plants was determined using multi-factors integrated assessment method. The variation of land use type and spatial distribution of marginal land suitable for energy plants of different decades were analyzed. The results indicate that the total amount of marginal land suitable for energy plants decreased from 136.501 million ha to 114.225 million ha from 1990 to 2010. The reduced land use types are primarily shrub land, sparse forest land, moderate dense grassland and sparse grassland, and large variation areas are located in Guangxi, Tibet, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia. The results of this study will provide more effective data reference and decision making support for the long-term planning of bioenergy resources. PMID:25056520

  15. Precipitation Interpolation by Multivariate Bayesian Maximum Entropy Based on Meteorological Data in Yun- Gui-Guang region, Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolin; Zhong, Shaobo; Zhang, Fushen; Huang, Quanyi

    2016-11-01

    Precipitation interpolation has been a hot area of research for many years. It had close relation to meteorological factors. In this paper, precipitation from 91 meteorological stations located in and around Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi Zhuang provinces (or autonomous region), Mainland China was taken into consideration for spatial interpolation. Multivariate Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method with auxiliary variables, including mean relative humidity, water vapour pressure, mean temperature, mean wind speed and terrain elevation, was used to get more accurate regional distribution of annual precipitation. The means, standard deviations, skewness and kurtosis of meteorological factors were calculated. Variogram and cross- variogram were fitted between precipitation and auxiliary variables. The results showed that the multivariate BME method was precise with hard and soft data, probability density function. Annual mean precipitation was positively correlated with mean relative humidity, mean water vapour pressure, mean temperature and mean wind speed, negatively correlated with terrain elevation. The results are supposed to provide substantial reference for research of drought and waterlog in the region.

  16. Echolocation signals of free-ranging Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Sanniang Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Liang; Li, Songhai; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Zhitao; Shi, Wenjing; Wang, Ding

    2015-09-01

    While the low-frequency communication sounds of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) have been reported in a number of papers, the high-frequency echolocation signals of Sousa chinensis, especially those living in the wild, have been less studied. In the current study, echolocation signals of humpback dolphins were recorded in Sanniang Bay, Guangxi Province, China, using a cross-type hydrophone array with five elements. In total, 77 candidate on-axis clicks from 77 scans were selected for analysis. The results showed that the varied peak-to-peak source levels ranged from 177.1 to 207.3 dB, with an average of 187.7 dB re: 1 μPa. The mean peak frequency was 109.0 kHz with a -3-dB bandwidth of 50.3 kHz and 95% energy duration of 22 μs. The -3-dB bandwidth was much broader than the root mean square bandwidth and exhibited a bimodal distribution. The center frequency exhibited a positive relationship with the peak-to-peak source level. The clicks of the wild Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins were short-duration, broadband, ultrasonic pulses, similar to those produced by other whistling dolphins of similar body size. However, the click source levels of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin appear to be lower than those of other whistling dolphins.

  17. The Contents of Terpene Trilactone and Flavonoid in Leaves of Seedlings from Ancient Female Ginkgo Trees in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui ZHANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and terpene trilactones, especially, ginkgo flavonglycosides, ginkgolides and bilobalides in leaves of ginkgo trees, need to be studied for effective application of these active components with high medical and health-care values. This study was aimed to provide scientific bases for genealogies selection and harvest season confirmation for Ginkgo biloba. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC-ELSD was developed to determine the contents of terpene trilactone and flavonoid of 36 ancient G. biloba genealogies from 19 provinces in China. The study indicated that the content gradually increased from April to August, and thereafter declined. Analysis of variance indicated that the contents of terpene trilactone, flavonoids, and their respective components had significant difference among 36 genealogies. The cluster analysis showed that No. 72 (Xing'an, Guangxi, No. 58 (Youyang, Chongqing, No. 82 (Rugao, Jiangsu, No. 123 (Huixian, Gansu, No. 99 (Dujun, Guizhou, No. 10 (Tai'an, Shandong and No. 133 (Mentougou, Beijing genealogies have higher content of terpene trilactone and flavonoid. These results can help us to select superior variety containing high content of terpene trilactone and flavonoid.

  18. South China Sea Dispute

    OpenAIRE

    Tanderup, Kasper Buch; Grinderslev, Emil Juhler; Tønnesen-Højbjerg, Asser Laurits Svend

    2017-01-01

    China is rising rapidly in terms of economics, military spending, sphere of influence and claims to in their view former territory. This paper has aimed to discuss the latter through analysis of the present dispute concerning islands and maritime territory in the South China Sea. The Chinese have become increasingly assertive in their claims formulated through a U-shaped line entailing most of the area within the South China Sea. The claims are contested by Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia...

  19. China's renewables law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Li

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses China's Renewable Energy Promotion Law which will come into force in January 2006. The law shows China's commitment to renewable energy sources. The target is to raise the country's energy consumption from renewables to 10% by 2020. Data for current capacity, and expected capacity by 2020, are given for wind power, solar power, biomass and hydroelectric power. The financial and technological hurdles which China must overcome are mentioned briefly

  20. Nuclear Parity with China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear force structure. It even is conceivable that a slow but steady expansion could have been accomplished without triggering a reaction by...Russia’s reactions , which would likely not be benign. • Achieving nuclear parity is not a matter of honor for China. Chinese leaders never have...analyzes that information, defines its interests, and decides how to act. China and the United States are exact opposites in this typography : China

  1. Should Latin America Fear China?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lora

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares growth conditions in China and Latin America to assess fears that China will displace Latin America in the coming decades. China`s strengths include the size of the economy, macroeconomic stability, abundant low-cost labor, the rapid expansion of physical infrastructure, and the ability to innovate. China`s weaknesses, stemming from insufficient separation between market and state, include poor corporate governance, a fragile financial system and misallocation of savings. ...

  2. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2006-01-01

    ...), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. In addition, China faces several other difficult challenges, such as pollution and growing income inequality, that threaten social stability...

  3. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from China dealing with Economic Affairs. The Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, and Agriculture.

  4. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... However, China faces a number of challenges, including the fallout from the global financial crisis, widespread government corruption, an inefficient banking system, over-dependence on exports...

  5. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao; Wang, Shijie; Ji, Hongbing; Shi, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China), were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils). Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations) are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern China presented the

  6. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    Full Text Available The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China, were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils. Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern

  7. HIV, syphilis and behavioral risk factors among men who have sex with men in a drug-using area of southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghua, Lan; Yi, Chen; Shuai, Tang; Zhiyong, Shen; Zhenzhu, Tang; Yuhua, Ruan; Yousuf, Mohammed Adnan; Wensheng, Fan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and behavioral risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in southwestern China, where HIV started as a drug-driven epidemic, and shifted to mainly heterosexual transmission. These cross-sectional studies were conducted yearly in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Guangxi, China. A total of 1,996, 1,965, and 1,697 participants were recruited in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The data included demographic and sexual behavioral variables. Other variables included individuals who used illegal drugs, and who received HIV counseling, testing, and free condoms, and peer education. Participants were tested for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with whole blood specimens. Questionnaires and laboratory testing data were double entered, and validated with EpiData software. The data were then transferred into SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) and Chi-square test performed. The prevalence of HIV was 6.6% in 2013, 8.4% in 2014, and 11.2% in 2015. The prevalence of syphilis was 9.3% in 2013, 9.8% in 2014, and 6.1% in 2015. And HCV prevalence was 0.5% in 2013 and remained stable at 0.4% in 2014, and 2015. HIV infection, and associated factors among MSM in these 3 annual cross-sectional survey showed that HIV-infected MSM were significantly, more likely, to perform unprotected anal intercourse with any commercial male partners in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.50–2.20), had sex with any female partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01–1.71), used drugs in the past (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.30–5.71), and are syphilis infected (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI: 2.77–4.49). There is an urgent need for intervention strategies like condom distribution, HIV counseling, free testing, and education regarding safe sex, HIV, and other sex-related diseases in Guangxi to curb, and prevent HIV among MSM. PMID:29668597

  8. Carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  9. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  10. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  11. Carbon emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sustainability Science Program

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  12. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  13. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  14. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  15. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  16. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  17. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  18. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  19. China's water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    After the devastating natural disasters that have hit China recently, another crisis is looming, Drought, pollution and heavy usage in the fast-developing megacities have resulted in a shortage of water. A huge construction effort is underway to divert water from the south to the north. But experts warn that it will not solve China's structural water problems

  20. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  1. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  2. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  3. AREVA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    China has a great need for secure, safe, and economic energy supplies that combat the greenhouse effect and global warming. Since January 2002, China, the most heavily populated country with more than 1.3 billion inhabitants in a territory of 9.5 million km 2 (17 times larger than France), has a nuclear capacity of 9 GWe with 11 nuclear plants on line. Forecasts of electricity consumption report a need for 900 to 1,000 GWe per year through 2020, and at this time the country's objective is to increase nuclear generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output. This means a need for additional 30 GWe, which is the equivalent of twenty 1,500 MWe reactors. In addition to nuclear power, China is pushing renewable energy. With the passage of the 2005 Renewable Energy Law, China's government imposed a national renewable energy requirement that is expected to boost the use of renewable energy capacity from 10 to 12 percent by 2020, up from 3% in 2003. This law requires power operators to buy electricity from alternative energy providers and gives economic incentives to these providers. Consequently, China is expanding its interests in renewable energy sources including wind and bio-energies, among others. It is in this context that AREVA, a world expert in energy, creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity for China. Based on its long experience and global presence, AREVA has become the worldwide leader for nuclear energy in the areas of construction, equipment, and services for nuclear power plants, and for the whole nuclear fuel cycle. AREVA is also a world leader in electrical power-grid equipment and systems. This document presents: China's need for energy; the Sources of China's energy mix; the challenges of China's nuclear program; AREVA's action in supporting China's ambitious nuclear program; the strong opportunities in renewable energy; and the high potential market for AREVA's T and D Division

  4. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  5. Holography applications in recent China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dahsiung

    2000-10-01

    Reports on recent developments on holography applications in China are given in this paper, including the development of anti-counterfeiting Holograms from 1986-2000, China issued Banknotes in 1999 with holograms and OVIs, the developments in Machine Readable Holograms in China, the developments in Anti-counterfeiting Information Networks in China.

  6. Being left-behind, mental disorder, and elderly suicide in rural China: a case-control psychological autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Wang, Guojun; Jia, Cunxian; Ma, Zhenyu

    2018-04-25

    Suicide rate among rural elderly is the highest among all age groups in China, yet little is known about the suicide risks in this rapidly growing vulnerable population. This matched case-control psychological autopsy study was conducted during June 2014 to September 2015. Consecutive samples of suicides aged 60 or above were identified in three provinces (Shandong, Hunan, and Guangxi) in China. Living comparisons were 1:1 matched with the suicides in age (±3 years old), gender, and living location. Risk factors included demographic characteristics, being left-behind, mental disorder, depressive symptoms, stressful life events, and social support. A total of 242 suicides and 242 comparisons were enrolled: 135 (55.8%) were male, mean (s.d.) age was 74 (8) years. The most frequently used suicide means were pesticides (125, 51.7%) and hanging (95, 39.3%). Independent risks of suicide included unstable marital status [odds ratio (OR) 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-10.92], unemployed (compared with employed, OR 4.43, 95% CI 1.09-17.95), depressive symptoms (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48), and mental disorder (OR 6.28, 95% CI 1.75-22.54). Structural equation model indicated that the association between being left-behind and suicide was mediated by mental disorder, depressive symptoms, stressful life events, and social support. Unstable marital status, unemployed, depressive symptoms, and mental disorder are independent risk factors for suicide in rural elderly. Being left-behind can elevate the suicide risk through increasing life stresses, depressive symptoms, mental disorder, and decreasing social support. Elderly suicide may be prevented by restricting pesticides, training rural physicians, treating mental disorders, mitigating life stress, and enhancing social connection.

  7. Temporal and Spatial Variation in the Abundance of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shellfish in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Han

    Full Text Available We investigated the abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish sampled from four provinces in China during May 2013 and March 2014 using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR method. Total V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 67.7% of 496 samples. A total of 38.1% and 10.1% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g(-1 and 10,000 MPN g(-1, respectively. V. parahaemolyticus densities followed a seasonal and geographical trend, with Guangxi and Sichuan shellfish possessing total V. parahaemolyticus levels that were 100-fold higher than those of the Liaoning and Shandong regions. Moreover, the levels of V. parahaemolyticus were at least 10-fold higher in the summer and autumn than in the cooler seasons. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels were generally lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels by several log units and tended to be high in samples contaminated with high total V. parahaemolyticus levels. The aqua farms had a lower prevalence but higher abundance of total V. parahaemolyticus compared to retail markets. The catering markets showed the lowest levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, but 20.0% of samples exceeded 1,000 MPN g(-1. The levels of both total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were higher than in clams. The log-transformed abundance of V. parahaemolyticus was significantly correlated with both water temperature and air temperature but not water salinity. These results provide baseline contamination data of V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish in China, which can be applied to local risk assessments to prioritize risk control to key sectors and evaluate the effectiveness of future control measures.

  8. Human Remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition of Southwest China Suggest a Complex Evolutionary History for East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, Darren; Xueping, Ji; Herries, Andy I. R.; Kanning, Bai; Taçon, Paul S. C.; Zhende, Bao; Fink, David; Yunsheng, Zhu; Hellstrom, John; Yun, Luo; Cassis, Gerasimos; Bing, Su; Wroe, Stephen; Shi, Hong; Parr, William C. H.; Shengmin, Huang; Rogers, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Background Later Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a scarcity of well described, reliably classified and accurately dated fossils. Southwest China has been identified from genetic research as a hotspot of human diversity, containing ancient mtDNA and Y-DNA lineages, and has yielded a number of human remains thought to derive from Pleistocene deposits. We have prepared, reconstructed, described and dated a new partial skull from a consolidated sediment block collected in 1979 from the site of Longlin Cave (Guangxi Province). We also undertook new excavations at Maludong (Yunnan Province) to clarify the stratigraphy and dating of a large sample of mostly undescribed human remains from the site. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a detailed comparison of cranial, including a virtual endocast for the Maludong calotte, mandibular and dental remains from these two localities. Both samples probably derive from the same population, exhibiting an unusual mixture of modern human traits, characters probably plesiomorphic for later Homo, and some unusual features. We dated charcoal with AMS radiocarbon dating and speleothem with the Uranium-series technique and the results show both samples to be from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition: ∼14.3-11.5 ka. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis suggests two plausible explanations for the morphology sampled at Longlin Cave and Maludong. First, it may represent a late-surviving archaic population, perhaps paralleling the situation seen in North Africa as indicated by remains from Dar-es-Soltane and Temara, and maybe also in southern China at Zhirendong. Alternatively, East Asia may have been colonised during multiple waves during the Pleistocene, with the Longlin-Maludong morphology possibly reflecting deep population substructure in Africa prior to modern humans dispersing into Eurasia. PMID:22431968

  9. First molecular characterization of enteric protozoa and the human pathogenic microsporidian, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in captive snakes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Md Robiul; Yu, Fuchang; Li, Jian; Li, Junqiang; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Rume, Farzana Islam; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Sumei; Ning, Changshen

    2014-08-01

    Enteric protozoa are frequently found in snakes. Nevertheless, few studies regarding genetic characterization of these parasites have been carried out. We describe here the first molecular survey of protozoan pathogens from snakes in China and the first report on Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotyping in snakes in the world. Here, 240 fecal specimens were collected from two species of captive snakes, Naja naja (Indian cobra) and Ptyas mucosus (Oriental rat snake), in Guangxi Province, China, and examined by PCR amplification of the small subunit-ribosomal RNA of enteric protozoa and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal RNA of E. bieneusi. Cryptosporidium serpentis was identified in three specimens (2.1%) of Oriental rat snakes. Caryospora was found in 5.4% specimens, including eight from cobras (8.1%) and five from rat snakes (3.6%), and represented six new species-Caryospora sp. SKC-2014a to Caryospora sp. SKC-2014 f. Three new Eimeria species, Eimeria sp. SKE-2014a to Eimeria sp. SKE-2014c, were detected in three specimens (2.1%) from rat snakes. Additionally, Sarcocystis sp. SKS-2014 was detected in one specimen from a cobra. The infection rates of E. bieneusi were 3.0% in cobras and 5.7% in rat snakes. Sequence analysis of 11 PCR products revealed the presence of six E. bieneusi genotypes-two known genotypes (type IV and Henan V) and four new genotypes (CRep-1 to CRep-4). All six E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group (group 1). This result raised the possibility that E. bieneusi could be present in animals consumed by snakes. This should be taken into consideration to better understand the diversity of the parasite, its transmission through the predator-prey relationship, and public health implications.

  10. Controlling HIV Epidemics among Injection Drug Users: Eight Years of Cross-Border HIV Prevention Interventions in Vietnam and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Kling, Ryan; Kieu, Binh Thanh; McNicholl, Janet M.; Wasinrapee, Punneeporn; McDougal, J. Stephen; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Meng, Donghua; Huu Nguyen, Tho; Ngoc Hoang, Quyen; Van Hoang, Tren

    2012-01-01

    Introduction HIV in Vietnam and Southern China is driven by injection drug use. We have implemented HIV prevention interventions for IDUs since 2002–2003 in Lang Son and Ha Giang Provinces, Vietnam and Ning Ming County (Guangxi), China. Methods Interventions provide peer education and needle/syringe distribution. Evaluation employed serial cross-sectional surveys of IDUs 26 waves from 2002 to 2011, including interviews and HIV testing. Outcomes were HIV risk behaviors, HIV prevalence and incidence. HIV incidence estimation used two methods: 1) among new injectors from prevalence data; and 2) a capture enzyme immunoassay (BED testing) on all HIV+ samples. Results We found significant declines in drug-related risk behaviors and sharp reductions in HIV prevalence among IDUs (Lang Son from 46% to 23% [pHIV incidence to low levels among new injectors through 36–48 months, then some rebound, particularly in Ning Ming, but BED-based estimates revealed significant reductions in incidence through 96 months. Discussion This is one of the longest studies of HIV prevention among IDUs in Asia. The rebound in incidence among new injectors may reflect sexual transmission. BED-based estimates may overstate incidence (because of false-recent results in patients with long-term infection or on ARV treatment) but adjustment for false-recent results and survey responses on duration of infection generally confirm BED-based incidence trends. Combined trends from the two estimation methods show sharp declines in incidence to low levels. The significant downward trends in all primary outcome measures indicate that the Cross-Border interventions played an important role in bringing HIV epidemics among IDUs under control. The Cross-Border project offers a model of HIV prevention for IDUs that should be considered for large-scale replication. PMID:22952640

  11. China's power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  12. China's oil resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesegart, K

    1981-03-01

    The United Nations International Meeting on Petroleum Geology is being held this month from 18-25 in China, a country whose oil reserves up to mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world's oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy material, the West is showing growing interest in China's energy potential. How real is this prospect forms the subject of this article. 3 tables.

  13. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical...... football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing...

  14. Networking with China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, R.L.A.; Granieri, C.; Fan, Lan; Xu, Rongsheng; Karita, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the history and current status of computer networking between IHEP in Beijing, China and the rest of the world, starting with no links at the beginning of 1987 through X.25 public networks and dial up links, to the installing, in March 1993, of one of the first dedicated 64 kbps satellite computer links between China and the outside world. In May 1994, IHEP became the first operational worldwide Internet connection. Experience with this dedicated link between SLAC and IHEP will be presented together with future plans to add a land line between KEK and IHEP and to extend the links within China

  15. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  16. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  17. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  18. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...... draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...

  19. Osteosarcopenic obesity and its relationship with dyslipidemia in women from different ethnic groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Dan; Hsieh, Peishan; Yu, Hongrong; Zhou, Lining; Gong, Jichun; Xu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Zhao; Deng, Qiongying

    2018-06-09

    To explore the prevalence and ethnic differences of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and dyslipidemia and their relationship among Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao minorities in China. A total of 2315 Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao women aged 20-95 from Guangxi were included in this study. Questionnaire survey was carried out and their blood lipids were tested. Body compositions were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and T-score was assessed by ultrasonic examination, respectively. Our study showed ethnic-specific prevalence of OSO. In older women, the incidence rates of OSO in Mulam were 4.9, 12.6, and 11.5% in Maonan, Mulam, and Hmong ethnicity, respectively. In younger group, the incidence rates of OSO were 0.4, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. However, there is no prevalence of OSO in Yao women in two groups. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in younger women was 22.86, 29.89, 43.35, and 80.00% in group numbering one, two, and three, respectively. In older women, it was 29.13, 39.02, 41.37, and 52.38%, respectively. Based on logistic regression analysis, after controlling for covariates, dyslipidemia in younger group was positively associated with a higher number of adverse body composition, especially for OSO (OR = 12.53, 95%CI 1.34-116.99). Compared with normal women, OSO women in older group were also more likely to have dyslipidemia (OR = 6.75, 95%CI 3.19-14.31). OSO may be a risk factor for dyslipidemia in the ethnic groups. Thus, efforts to promote healthy aging should be focused on preventing obesity and maintaining bone health and muscle mass.

  20. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Maonan people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liya; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Kunhui; Wei, Shanjun; Liu, Bo; Meng, Shaowu; Long, Chunlin

    2015-04-30

    This paper is based on an ethnobotanical investigation that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local Maonan people to treat human diseases in Maonan concentration regions. The Maonan people have relied on traditional medicine since ancient times, especially medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to document medicinal plants used by the Maonans and to report the status of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Ethnobotanical data were collected from June 2012 to September 2014 in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, northern Guangxi, southwest China. In total, 118 knowledgeable informants were interviewed. Following statistically sampling method, eighteen villages from 5 townships were selected to conduct field investigations. Information was collected through the approache of participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory rural appraisals. A total of 368 medicinal plant species were investigated and documented together with their medicinal uses by the Maonans, most of which were obtained from the wild ecosystems. The plants were used to treat 95 human diseases. Grinding was a widely used method to prepare traditional herbal medicines. There were significant relationships between gender and age, and between gender and informants' knowledge of medicinal plant use. Deforestation for agricultural purposes was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by drought and over-harvest. The species diversity of medicinal plants used by the Maonans in the study area was very rich. Medicinal plants played a significant role in healing various human disorders in the Maonan communities. However, the conflicts between traditional inheriting system and recent socio-economic changes (and other factors) resulted in the reduction or loss of both medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Thus, conservation efforts

  1. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  2. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    reduced poverty in China, rural ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. FL. IC. K. R. /D. A. V ... Chinese research institutions collaborate in regional, IDRC-supported research ... part of a regional consortium that is building.

  3. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world's largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  4. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    China's gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate over the past twenty years has been phenomenal and if continued even at a slightly slower pace, could exceed the GDP of the United States (US) by 2020...

  5. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report from China contains the topics: NATIONAL POLICY AND ISSUES, PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONES, ECONOMIC PLANNING, ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT, FINANCE AND BANKING, INDUSTRY, SMALL- SCALE ENTERPRISES, CONSTRUCTION, DOMESTIC...

  6. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  7. Service innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of service innovation in China and to identify the major drivers and impediments for manufacturing companies pushing into services in China. Design/methodology/approach – By employing an in-depth longitudinal case of a Chinese company...... Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed...... in informing our expectations about the push of many Chinese manufacturing companies into services. The paper provides insights into the development and diffusion of service innovation in many fast transforming industrial companies in China. Lessons for other developing countries can also be drawn from...

  8. One Health in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China.

  9. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  10. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2007-01-01

    .... China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth over the next several years, provided that it continues to implement needed reforms, particularly in regard to its inefficient state-owned...

  11. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  12. China's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The influence of China's growing energy demand on world oil markets is considered. Starting from a very low base of energy consumption per capita, China's potential for growth in oil demand is likely still to be subject to the extremely strong impact of a stop-go economic policy in which the availability of oil is used as a macroeconomic control variable to counter inflation. This has led to considerable monthly variations in oil import levels. While this situation continues, the buying pressure from China will tend to alternate between a trickle and a flood with consequent destabilizing impacts on the market. The markets potentially involved are those of Asia, the Middle East, West Africa and the Mediterranean with knock-on effects in the North Sea and Rotterdam. China is likely to constitute a major indirect force in these markets as a volatile source of demand at the margin. (UK)

  13. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    .... Given China's domination of Tibet, incursions into the Spratly Islands, run-ins with the US and Japan, and a host of other seemingly assertive behavior, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate...

  14. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  15. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  16. China Food Trade Promotes the Development of SIAL China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to SIAL CHINA, the 13th China International Food and Beverages Exhibition (SIAL China 2012) will be held in Shanghai New International Expo Center On May 9, 2012.It is hosted together by COMEXPOSIUM and China Business Development Center.Since it was introduced in China for the first time in 2000, SIAL CHINA has maintained a developed speed.Especially in recent years, relying on both foreign and domestic markets, it expanded the influences quickly and became one of the most important food trade exhibitions in Asia, despite of the financial crisis.

  17. All change for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on China's petrochemical industry and its planned raising of foreign investment and reform of the industry in preparation for international competition with the opening up of China's domestic market as part of the accession process to the World Trade Organisation. Details are given of the reorganisation of the industry, its financing, and the consumption of petrochemicals in the agriculture sector and construction, textile and packaging industries

  18. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  19. China's Innovation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Shulin; Schwaag Serber, Sylvia; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2016-01-01

    In their 2006 article on innovation in China in this journal, Gu and Lundvall pointed to some weaknesses and challenges for China’s growth and they also outlined ideas for policy action to overcome those. In this short note, written in collaboration with Sylvia Schwag Serger, they go back...... and assess China's social and economic development in the 10 years that followed in the light of their original analysis of challenges and ideas for policy action...

  20. Biofuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  1. Bioethics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  2. An investigation of parasitic infections and review of molecular characterization of the intestinal protozoa in nonhuman primates in China from 2009 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research laboratories, and examined microscopically. Eleven genera of intestinal parasites were detected: five genera of protozoans (Isospora spp., Entamoeba spp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Cyclospora spp. and six genera of helminths (Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp., Ascaris spp., Physaloptera spp., Ancylostoma spp., and Enterobius spp.. The overall sample prevalence of parasitic infection was 54.1% (1811/3349. Entamoeba spp. was the most prevalent (36.4%, 1218/3349. The infection rate was the highest in free-range animals (73.0%, 670/918 (P < 0.01 and Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region (64.8%, 566/873. Mixed infections were mostly detected for Entamoeba spp., Trichuris spp., and Strongyloides spp.. Molecular characterization was reviewed of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp., as these are zoonotic species or genotypes. This parasitological data for NHPs in China, provides important information for veterinarians and public health authorities for the elimination of such parasites and monitor the potential transmission of zoonotic infections from NHPs.

  3. The impact of land use and land cover changes on solute dynamics in seepage water of soil from karst hillslopes of Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Hu; Lang Yunchao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46th Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China); Liu Congqiang, E-mail: liucongqiang@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46th Guanshui Road, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Land use and land cover changes can cause variations in terrestrial energy, water balance and availability of nutrients. To understand the role of vegetation in regulating the hydrochemistry of karst hillslopes, overland flow and soil seepage water from two hillslopes covered with and without vegetation were studied in the Huanjiang Observation and Research Station for Karst Ecosystems, Guangxi, SW China. Dissolved major ions, as well as isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were examined. Water from the vegetated control slope had higher solute concentrations (except NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and lower {delta}{sup 13}C values than water from the disturbed slope. The dynamics of K{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} in soil water sampled in time-sequence from the control slope was different from the disturbed slope. Specifically, K{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations of the control slope decreased gradually over time, while K{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations of the disturbed slope increased, and other ionic concentrations increased in both of the slopes.

  4. China And The International Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    existing order, it stated that China will “take an active part in reforming and developing 13 Feng Zhang, “Chinese Thinking on the South China Sea and the...interests and those that do not align as closely with U.S. interests. China might be challenging 19 Zhang’s “Chinese Thinking on the South China...China Bets on Sensitive U.S. Start-Ups, Worrying the Pentagon,” New York Times, March 22, 2017a; Paul Mozur and Jane Perlez, “China Tech Investment

  5. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  6. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  7. New U-Pb age constraints on the upper Banxi Group and synchrony of the Sturtian glaciation in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyuan Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nanhua basin in South China hosts well-preserved middle–late Neoproterozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks that are critical for studying the basin evolution, the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia, the nature and dynamics of the “snowball” Earth and diversification of metazoans. Establishing a stratigraphic framework is crucial for better understanding the interactions between tectonic, paleoclimatic and biotic events recorded in the Nanhua basin, but existing stratigraphic correlations remain debated, particularly for pre-Ediacaran strata. Here we report new Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages from the middle and topmost Wuqiangxi Formation (the upper stratigraphic unit of the Banxi Group in Siduping, Hunan Province, South China. Two samples show similar age distribution, with two major peaks at ca. 820 Ma and 780 Ma and one minor peak at ca. 910 Ma, suggesting that the Wuqiangxi sandstone was mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic rocks. Two major age peaks correspond to two phases of magmatic events associated with the rifting of the Nanhua basin, and the minor peak at ca. 910 Ma may correspond to the Shuangxiwu volcanic arc magmatism, which represents pre-collision/amalgamation subduction on the southeastern margin of the Yangtze Block. The youngest zircon group from the topmost Wuqiangxi Formation has a weighted mean age of 714.6 ± 5.2 Ma, which is likely close to the depositional age of the uppermost Banxi Group. This age, along with the ages reported from other sections, constrains that the Banxi Group was deposited between ca. 820 Ma and ca. 715 Ma. The age of 714.6 ± 5.2 Ma from the top of the Wuqiangxi Formation is indistinguishable with the SIMS U-Pb age of 715.9 ± 2.8 Ma from the upper Gongdong Formation in the Sibao village section of northern Guangxi, South China. It is also, within uncertainties, overlapped with two TIMS U-Pb ages from pre

  8. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Cohen

    Full Text Available In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness.We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC, and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data.Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method. Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001, followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001 and pots (-0.44, p<0.01. Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001, followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05 and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06.As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the

  9. China Dimensions Data Collection: China Maps Bibliographic Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China Maps Bibliographic Database is an historical collection of bibliographic information for more than 400 maps of China. The information resides in a searchable...

  10. China Dimensions Data Collection: Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21 consists of full-text program descriptions supporting China's economic and social development. The descriptions represent 69...

  11. Is South China Sea the new 'inalienable' part of China?

    OpenAIRE

    Jash, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    China’s growing military posture and unilateral behavior in South China Sea has raised red alarms in international politics, vehemently challenging the existing status quo. What is apparent is that China’s uncompromising attitude in the South China Sea presents China’s obsession over its territorial claims, wherein, South China Sea can be called the ‘new inalienable part’ of China.

  12. China's South China Sea Conundrum - No Easier Pass

    OpenAIRE

    Jash, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    On July 12, 2016, The Hague- based Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) finally hit the hammer on the verdict of the landmark case of South China Sea arbitration. This case was unilaterally initiated by the Republic of the Philippines on January 22, 2013, on its relevant disputes in the South China Sea with the People’s Republic of China. At the very outset, this case brought China at crossroads to its international repute given Philippines’ allegations against its assertive and unlawful clai...

  13. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  14. HIV, syphilis and behavioral risk factors among men who have sex with men in a drug-using area of southwestern China: Results of 3 cross-sectional surveys from 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghua, Lan; Yi, Chen; Shuai, Tang; Zhiyong, Shen; Zhenzhu, Tang; Yuhua, Ruan; Yousuf, Mohammed Adnan; Wensheng, Fan

    2018-04-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and behavioral risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in southwestern China, where HIV started as a drug-driven epidemic, and shifted to mainly heterosexual transmission.These cross-sectional studies were conducted yearly in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in Guangxi, China. A total of 1,996, 1,965, and 1,697 participants were recruited in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. The data included demographic and sexual behavioral variables. Other variables included individuals who used illegal drugs, and who received HIV counseling, testing, and free condoms, and peer education. Participants were tested for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with whole blood specimens. Questionnaires and laboratory testing data were double entered, and validated with EpiData software. The data were then transferred into SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) and Chi-square test performed.The prevalence of HIV was 6.6% in 2013, 8.4% in 2014, and 11.2% in 2015. The prevalence of syphilis was 9.3% in 2013, 9.8% in 2014, and 6.1% in 2015. And HCV prevalence was 0.5% in 2013 and remained stable at 0.4% in 2014, and 2015. HIV infection, and associated factors among MSM in these 3 annual cross-sectional survey showed that HIV-infected MSM were significantly, more likely, to perform unprotected anal intercourse with any commercial male partners in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.50-2.20), had sex with any female partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.01-1.71), used drugs in the past (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.30-5.71), and are syphilis infected (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI: 2.77-4.49).There is an urgent need for intervention strategies like condom distribution, HIV counseling, free testing, and education regarding safe sex, HIV, and other sex-related diseases in Guangxi to curb, and prevent HIV among MSM.

  15. An update to the taxonomy of the genus Gastroserica Brenske (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangang Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the examination of newly collected material and additional specimens housed in Chinese collections, our knowledge of Gastroserica Brenske, 1897, is expanded. Here, seven new species are described, including habitus photographs and illustrations of the male genitalia: Gastroserica haoyui sp. n. (China: Zhejiang Prov., G. fengduana sp. n. (China: Sichuan Prov., G. wenzhui sp. n. (China: Guangxi Prov., G. damingshanica sp. n. (from China: Guangxi Prov., G. jinxiuensis sp. n. (China: Guangxi Prov., G.liboensis sp. n. (China: Yunnan Prov. and G. carolusi sp. n. (Laos. Additionally, we provide a distribution map of the new taxa and new distribution records of the known taxa.

  16. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  17. China's roadmap for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Yao, Zhonghua; Wan, Weixing

    2018-05-01

    China has approved or planned a string of several space exploration missions to be launched over the next decade. A new generation of planetary scientists in China is playing an important role in determining the scientific goals of future missions.

  18. Foreign direct investment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bredero, Q.S.

    2007-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment in China is one of the most comprehensive studies of FDI in China and provides a remarkable background of information on the evolution of China’s FDI policies over the last 30 years.

  19. China's place in global geopolitics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Heurlin, Bertel

    This text studies the major internal and external pressures and constraints as China emerges as an economic power.......This text studies the major internal and external pressures and constraints as China emerges as an economic power....

  20. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Statistics and Management, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China; Guangxi Colleges and Universities Key Laboratory of Complex System Optimization and Big Data Processing, Yulin Normal University, Yulin 537000, Guangxi, People's Republic of China ...

  1. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  2. Exploring Servitization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad Z.; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a Eur......Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network...... of a European manufacturer providing services in China, in order to develop a better understanding of the resulting and associated challenges. Design/methodology/approach: An in-depth case study approach was used to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network....... Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China. Findings: The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also aligned between organizational units...

  3. China urges rapid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This time last year China's paramount leader, Deng Xiaoping, launched the country on another bout of fast-paced economic growth and restructuring. After three years of riding out political and economic clampdown, foreign chemical companies were jerked awake by major changes in China's chemical industry. As the state becomes less involved with managing the economy, unleashing 12% gross national product growth, closer involvement with domestic factories has become attractive and essential. MCI officials say government funds will now be channeled toward clearing energy and transport bottlenecks, and chemical enterprises will be given more chance to turn a profit. They will be allowed to issue shares, seek foreign investment partners themselves, and bypass trading companies like China National Import-Export Corp. (Sinochem), the former state monopoly. Foreign analysts question whether China's finances and oil resources can support expansion. Even if they can, Cai estimates that ethylene imports will remain around the present level of 1 million tons. To further guarantee chemical supplies, China has invested in urea and polypropylene plants in the US and polystyrene plant in Hong Kong

  4. Pension Reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  5. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  6. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  7. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We

  8. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  9. Networking with China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R L.A.; Granieri, C [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fan, Lan; Xu, Rongsheng [Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing, BJ (China); Karita, Yukio [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1944-04-01

    This paper presents the history and current status Of computer networking between IHEP in Beijing, China and the rest of the world, starting with no links at the beginning of 1987 thru X.25 public networks and dial up links, to the installing, in March 1993, of one of the first dedicated 64 kbps satellite computer links between China and the outside world. In May 1994, IHEP became the first Chinese institution to have a fully operational world-wide Internet connection. Experience with this dedicated link between SLAC and IHEP will be presented together with future plans to add a land line between KEK and IHEP and to extend the links within China.

  10. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  11. CHILI: China Lijiang IFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lei

    2014-07-01

    Wide-field IFU technology on medium-size telescope provides a unique science capability that compliments larger future facilities. Here I introduce a program to employ a VIRUS-like unit on the 2.4 meter telescope in GaoMeiGu Observatory in LiJiang, China. We name the instrument "CHILI (China Lijiang IFU)". It will be an IFU with very large field of view at 1.8'x3.6'. We discuss its science capabilities and its potential benefit to the Chinese astronomical community.

  12. NEV Technology in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to identify the main determinants of the development of the neighbourhood electric vehicle (NEV) industry in China, including influences from private stakeholders as well as the government, and domestic as well as foreign interest groups. Particular emphasis...... – The findings are useful for understanding the development of the NEV industry in China. Originality/value – The current paper is the first application of the GIST (Governance of Innovation towards Sustainability Technology) framework to the case of the Chinese NEV industry....

  13. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue

    2016-01-01

    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  14. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  15. Nuclear Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, W., E-mail: eweike@263.net.cn [Bureau of Geology, China National Nuclear Corporation, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-15

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation and future plans for the development of nuclear power in China. In particular it looks at the present electricity generation system, future demand and plans for nuclear power plants to meet the increasing demands for electrical power in the country. It summarizes the state of uranium exploration activities and planned production of uranium resources, both nationally and internationally. In addition, it provides a brief overview of the existing administrative situation in the nuclear power industry in China and sets out the main challenges to future development. (author)

  16. Stigma against People Living with HIV/AIDS in China: Does the Route of Infection Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people who contracted HIV from "blameless" routes (e.g., blood transfusion, sex with stable partners are less stigmatized compared to people who contracted HIV from "blamable" routes (e.g., injection drug use, sex with sex workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,987 participants in Guangxi province, China, between 2012 and 2013. We employed both explanatory and predictive modeling strategy by using multivariate linear regression models. In the explanatory models, we assessed the association between routes of infection and three types of stigma (perceived, internalized, and enacted. From identified routes of infection that significantly contributed to higher stigma, we employed predictive modeling to explore predictors for the specific type of stigma. Multiple-imputation was employed for sensitivity analyses. Of the total sample, 63% were male and the average age was 42.9 years (ranged between 18 and 88. Multivariate regression models revealed that contraction from commercial sex increased the perceived (β = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.90 and internalized stigma (β = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.09, 1.10, while injecting drug use increased the perceived (β = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.07, 1.22 and enacted stigma (β = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.16 after controlling for confounders. Among PLWHA who were infected via commercial sex partners, social support was negatively associated with perceived (β = -0.47, 95%CI = -0.79, -0.14 and internalized stigma (β = -0.80, 95%CI = -1.24, -0.35. Among PLWHA who were infected via injecting drugs, no adherence to antiretroviral treatment (β = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.01, 0.82 was positively associated with perceived stigma, and disclosure of serostatus to others was negatively associated with enacted stigma (β = -0.20, 95%CI = -0.34, -0.05. Knowledge of the association between routes of infection and stigma can guide health professionals and policy makers to develop tailored

  17. Expert consensus on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the People's Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai BQ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bai-qiang Cai,1 Shao-xi Cai,2 Rong-chang Chen,3 Li-ying Cui,4 Yu-lin Feng,5 Yu-tong Gu,6 Shao-guang Huang,7 Rong-yu Liu,8 Guang-nan Liu,9 Huan-zhong Shi,10 Yi Shi,11 Yuan-lin Song,6 Tie-ying Sun,12 Chang-zheng Wang,13 Jing-lan Wang,1 Fu-qiang Wen,5 Wei Xiao,14 Yong-jian Xu,15 Xi-xin Yan,16 Wan-zhen Yao,17 Qin Yu,18 Jing Zhang,6 Jin-ping Zheng,3 Jie Liu,6 Chun-xue Bai6 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2Southern Medical University South Hospital, Guangzhou, 3The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College and Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou, 4Affiliate Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhehaote, 5Huaxi Hospital of Sichuan University, Chendu, 6Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University and Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Shanghai, 7Ruijing Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 8The First Affiliated University of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 9The First Affiliated University of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 10Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 11General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region, Nanjing, 12Beijing Hospital of the Ministry of Health, Beijing, 13Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 14Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 15Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 16The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University and Hebei Research Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Shijiazhuang, 17The Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University, Beijing, 18The First Affiliated University of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common disease that severely threatens human health. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD is a major cause of

  18. China's income inequality in the global context

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jin; Zhao, Qingxia; Zhang, Mengnan

    2016-01-01

    Although China's GDP has become the world's second largest, China's long-term economic growth with high speed and long-lasting “efficiency first” policy guidance, has brought China into a complicated situation, therein serious inequality exists in China and it has become one of the most serious problems in China nowadays. This paper focuses on China's inequality issues in the context of the world, especially on comparison between China and the European countries, concerning of our common purs...

  19. Prevalence and predictors of HIV among Chinese tuberculosis patients by provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC: a multisite study in South Central of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB and HIV are two worldwide public health concerns. Co-infection of these two diseases has been considered to be a major obstacle for the global efforts in reaching the goals for the prevention of HIV and TB. METHOD: A comprehensive cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit TB patients in three provinces (Guangxi, Henan and Sichuan of China between April 1 and September 30, 2010. RESULTS: A total of 1,032 consenting TB patients attended this survey during the study period. Among the participants, 3.30% were HIV positive; about one quarter had opportunistic infections. Nearly half of the participants were 50 years or older, the majority were male and about one third were from minority ethnic groups. After adjusting for site, gender and areas of residence (using the partial/selective Model 1, former commercial plasma donors (adjusted OR [aOR] = 33.71 and injecting drug users(aOR = 15.86 were found to have significantly higher risk of being HIV-positivity. In addition, having extramarital sexual relationship (aOR = 307.16, being engaged in commercial sex (aOR = 252.37, suffering from opportunistic infections in the past six months (aOR = 2.79, losing 10% or more of the body weight in the past six months (aOR = 5.90 and having abnormal chest X-ray findings (aOR = 20.40 were all significantly associated with HIV seropositivity (each p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence among TB patients was high in the study areas of China. To control the dual epidemic, intervention strategies targeting socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection are urgently called for.

  20. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D. [eds.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  1. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. WAVFH delegates' reports: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Mingyi

    1986-01-01

    The work of radiation protection has been given great attention in China. The Ministry of Health is the competent authority in charge of the work. Before the accident at Chernobyl, the government had formulated and promulgated laws and regulations concerning the radiation protection, such as the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection, the Basic Standard for Radiation Protection of Nuclear Plants, the institutions and organizations for monitoring radioactive pollution at national level and provincial level had been set up. After the accident at Chernobyl, each of the monitoring institutions and organizations took samples of air, subsided substances of atmosphere, rainwater, terrestrial surface water from various sources, vegetables, milk and thyroid glands of sheep and goats immediately, for the detection of radiation contamination. As far as we know that the samples had small extent contamination, the extent of contamination of samples in the south of China is smaller than that of samples in the north of China, that the content of nuclides in various samples is lower than the limits of radioactive substances set in national standard, and that radiation dosage subjected by residents of China caused by the contamination is also lower than the set quota in the national standard. The contamination did not interfere with the regular life of the residents

  3. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-07

    not ask him for help?" Comrade Yaobang immediately wrote a letter of recommendation for the man. Comrade Yaobang’s honesty and kindness were also...relatively low technology and small amounts of capital. This was the sweatshop era. China Investors Taking ’Wait-and-See’ Attitude HK0306070989 Hong

  4. China: Demographic Billionaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, H. Yuan

    1983-01-01

    This document reviews China's population trends and policies since the People's Republic was founded in 1949. Areas addressed include: population growth before 1949, population growth from 1949-1982, and policy responses to population growth (including wan xi shao: later marriages, longer intervals between birth, and fewer children); mortality…

  5. China's Vocational Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Owen B.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes his observations on Chinese society and education during his 1978 visit with the official delegation of United States educators. He notes what Americans would consider primitive facilities and programs, the tremendous problems of China's size and population, and the overriding influence of political concerns on education. (MF)

  6. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world s largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  7. 4th CHINA AUTOMOTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    <正> 9-10 September 2002·Shanghai JC Mandarin Hotel, Shanghai CHINA Key issues ■ Industry Updates & Consumer Insights ■ Imported Car v.s. Domestic Car: Combat Price Reduction ■ Sales Networks & Auto Finance ■ Global Sourcing & Supply Chain Management

  8. Interlinguistics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitao, Liu

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of interlinguistics in China through scientific and specialist journals, tracing a path from early discussions of language policy through growing recognition of Esperanto as an object of scientific study to the application of interlinguistics in computing and terminology. (Author/JL)

  9. China, South Korea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for Canadian readers, this popular account was suggested by the Sixth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Economic, political, geographic, sociological and historical aspects of the nuclear programmes of China, South Korea and Japan are discussed. The importance of past, present and future Canadian nuclear trade with the area is indicated

  10. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas

  11. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  12. Narrating Self and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Irina

    about China and its people. Thus this study explores the questions of how these women writers adopted the roles of cultural interpreters, which allowed them to position themselves as authoritative and representative voices and, at the same time, rejuvenate China’s image in the global arena...

  13. EMNEs from China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    and innovation in Western companies gained momentum some decades ago. However, the recent developments in the field also include the spread of the phenomenon to companies from the emerging economies. In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of the ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese...

  14. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  15. A Fragmented China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Poncet

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the degree of integration of China's domestic market and investigates the determinants of inter-provincial trade barriers under the rubric endogenous trade policy theory. I rely on industry-level trade flows extracted from provincial input-output tables to develop a

  16. China - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of China is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  17. The Case of China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    This report examines the motivations, operations, and collaboration methods of ... Research for development is the use of science and technology to reduce poverty in developing countries through practical, long-term solutions to social, economic, and ..... expenditure of central and local governments” table, China Statistical.

  18. Urban development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, J.H.; van Marrewijk, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is important for economic development. As the largest country in the world in terms of population, China has experienced a remarkable history of urbanization; one 1000 years ago it housed the largest cities in world, it went through a counter-urbanization revolution during the Mao

  19. China and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Liselotte

    through a comparative study of aspiring powers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. She explores its role in China’s border disputes in the South China Sea and with Russia and India; in diplomacy in the UN Security Council over Iran, Sudan, and Myanmar; and in China’s handling of challenges...

  20. Greening China Naturally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  1. China: The Awakened Dragon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    United States should abandon the issues of human rights or censorship ; however, U.S. leaders should limit open criticism of China over issues the...Paracels, Spratlys, Macclesfield Bank, and Pratas. Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia , Vietnam, the Philippines, and Taiwan also in part, lay claim to the

  2. Murdoch Retreats from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessy Zhang

    2006-01-01

    @@ News Corp's Asian flagship enterprise Star Group announced in early June it would sell a 19.9 percent stake in Phoenix Satellite Television to China Mobile. This move is widely interpreted as a signal that Rudolf Murdoch, the helmsman of News Corp,might have lost his patience and could eventually retreat from the Chinese media market.

  3. Biotechnology in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamer, Dean H; Kung, Shain-dow

    1989-01-01

    ... and Shain-dow Kung Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Maryland Biotechnology Institute Department of Botany University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington, DC 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from bo...

  4. Malaysian perceptions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abu Bakar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Malasia que consistía en Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak y Singapur ganó su independencia de los Británicos el 16 de septiembre de 1963. Malaya ganó su independencia de los británicos el 31 de agosto de 1957. En 1965 Singapur era independiente de Malasia. Malasia es una democracia parlamentaria y capitalista. Por otra parte, es una nación multi-religiosa y multirracial. Malasia ha sido poblada por los Malays, los Chinos, los Indios y otros. Los Malays son musulmanes y el Islam es la religión de la federación de Malasia. La nación tiene una larga historia con China pero esa nunca colonizó ningún área en Malasia. Los estados occidentales, fundamentalmente Portugueses y Olandeses colonizaron ciertas áreas en Malasia y luego los Británicos colonizaron la entera región. La percepción malasiana de China está influenciada por muchos factores internos y externos tales como el factor ideologico-político, el desarrollo económico así como las relaciones y la diplomacia nacionales, regionales e internacionales. Este breve artículo presenta la percepción malasiana de China desde un punto de vista cultural, político y económico._____________ABSTRACT:Malaysia consisting of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore gained her independence from the British on 16 September 1963. Malaya gained her independence from the British on 31 August 1957. In 1965 Singapore was independent from Malaysia. Malaysia is a parliamentary democratic and capitalistic nation. Moreover, Malaysia is a multi-religious and multiracial nation. Malaysia has been populated by the Malays, Chinese, Indians and others. The Malays are Muslims and Islam is the religion of the Federation of Malaysia. Malaysia has a very long history with China but China never colonized any area in Malaysia. The Western nations namely the Portuguese and the Dutch colonized certain areas in Malaysia and then the British colonized the whole Malaysia. Malaysian perceptions of China are influenced by many

  5. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  6. China energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them

  7. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  8. Which factors are effective for farmers’ biogas use?–Evidence from a large-scale survey in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Wei; Tu, Qin; Bluemling, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese government since 1995 has carried out programs for the construction of household biogas digesters in the Chinese countryside. Despite the large governmental spending in the building of household biogas digesters, only 12.16% of the households suitable to produce and use biogas, have built a digester (Li, 2009). This article asks which factors on the household level may be important for the decision whether or not to build a biogas digester. Based on a survey with 1227 households from Guangxi, Hubei, Shandong and Gansu provinces, results of a binary Probit Model show that the governmental promotion of biogas has a significant effect on households’ decision. The question arises which households may, if governmental programs were to be running out, be most likely to construct a household biogas digester? The household head′s age, the number of household members staying at home, the total household income and the subjective discount rate of the respondents are significant factors in a farm household′s decision to build a biogas digester. However, also agro-climatic conditions reveal to be decisive, which is why technical solutions for tackling the low productivity of biogas digesters in cold regions may need to be further considered. - Highlights: • A binary Probit Model is used to test important factors of household biogas implementation in rural China. • The analysis is based on a survey of 1227 households from four provinces. • The promotion of government has very big and significant effects on household′s decision-making. • The agro-climatic conditions reveal to be decisive. • Many household characteristics including the subjective discount rate are significant factors

  9. Rheumatic Diseases in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing Yu; Chen, Ren; Darmawan, John; Xiao, Zheng Yu; Chen, Su Biao; Wigley, Richard; Le Chen, Shun; Zhang, Nai Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies of rheumatic diseases have been conducted during the past 20 years in China. The aim of this study was to clarify prevalence rates of common rheumatic diseases in China. Methods Relevant reports of population-based surveys conducted from 1980 to 2006 were retrieved. Studies using the World Health Organization-International League of Associations for Rheumatology COPCORD (Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases) protocol and those that did not employ this protocol but were published in recognized journals were identified and analyzed. Results Thirty-eight surveys including 241,169 adults from 25 provinces/cities were pooled for analysis. The prevalence of rheumatic complaints ranged from 11.6% to 46.4%, varying by locality, study protocol and age of the people surveyed. Prevalence of symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) varied from 5.1% to 20.8%, with common sites of involvement being the lumbar spine, knee joint and cervical spine. Compared with rates of radiographic and symptomatic knee OA in the USA, elderly men in Beijing exhibited similar prevalence rates and elderly women exhibited a higher prevalence. The prevalence of hip OA and hand OA was much lower in Chinese than in Caucasian populations, but both kinds of OA were more common in coal miners. The prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis ranged from 0.2% to 0.54% among Han ethnic Chinese and were lower among mixed ethnic populations. The prevalence of psoriatic arthritis ranged from 0.01% to 0.1%, and that of reactive arthritis was 0.02%; undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy was identified in 0.64% to 1.2% of the individuals included in the surveys. The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) ranged from 0.2% to 0.93%, with the highest rate being reported from a Taiwan urban area. In mainland China there were no significant differences in prevalence of RA between the northern and southern parts of China, or between different ethnic groups. The prevalence of

  10. Countering Chinas Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    Economic Statecraft in the South China Sea 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Bradford D...created and employed a vision and strategy to control it. China continually demonstrates its economic might in the region and conducts economic ...power to counter China’s rising influence in the South China Sea. The policy and strategy should incorporate establishing strong economic ties in

  11. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  12. Geothermal studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  13. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Wang Shijin1 Jiao Shitai2. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Region Environment and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China. Department of Economics and Tourism Management, Baise University, Baise, Guangxi 533000, China.

  14. Introduction to "Islam in China/China in Islam"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Erie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than China versus Islam, the overarching theme of this special issue is “Islam in China/China in Islam.” In thinking through “Islam in China,” we argue that the relationship between China and Islam is not one of opposition, but rather one of cultural, linguistic, and economic imbrication. Indeed, it is difficult to describe Islam and China as two separate or essentialized entities. For some Muslim minorities in certain regions of China, there is no distinction between neo-Confucianism and Islam or between the nation-state and the global umma (community of Muslims. Through intellectual labor, modes of prayer and worship, art, calligraphy, architecture, cuisine, linguistic creoles, and legal pluralism, these Muslims embody multiple cultural referents. For other Muslim minorities in other regions in China, political and economic circumstances present challenges to living in accordance with Islam while also being a citizen of the PRC. In other words, the Muslim experience in China encompasses a complex mosaic of accommodation, adjustment, preservation, and, at times, resistance. Thus, generalizations about this incredibly diverse population are unhelpful, and careful attention must be paid to history, politics, and place...

  15. Nuclear energy and environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kunmin

    1993-01-01

    The paper included following contents: China needs to develop nuclear energy; China pays attention to the radiation environment management; the role of China National Environmental Protection Agency in nuclear energy and the environment

  16. China and BEPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Avi-Yonah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of China’s reaction to the G20/OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS project. From 2013 to 2015, the OECD developed a series of actions designed to address BEPS activities by multinational enterprises, culminating in a final report of 15 action steps. The article reviews and explains China’s reaction to the BEPS project and its actions in detail, with a particular focus on transfer pricing issues. It shows that China has actively participated in both developing and implementing the BEPS project. The article further suggests that in the post-BEPS era, China is expected to implement the BEPS project in a more consistent and coherent way, and will take whatever measures necessary to guarantee the successful implementation of the BEPS package in collaboration with the global community.

  17. El enigma de China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alongside China's material growth, there has come a gradual but steady change in its mentality of governance. This article tries to show one crucial aspect of such a change, having taken place in the past couple of decades, which has given that social giant a new global outlook. The article, based on ethnographic field research, hopes to shed light on the process of statisticalization that, supposedly scientific and modern, has turned itself into a predominant official means for management and administration. The goal is to demonstrate the problematic nature of such a transformation, occurring on the Maoist ruins and generating a number of social sentiments that reflect the growing economic disparity already an undeniable social fact for today's China.

  18. Environmental Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang Jiang; Liu, Lei; Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Wang, Lei; Chen, Ying Guang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, He; Chen, Jian

    Environmental biotechnology has emerged as an important measure to tackle the environmental pollution as China experiences great economic success. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been paid to the following fields in environmental biotechnology: microbial degradation of toxic and organic chemicals, bio-treatment of wastewater, waste recycling. The Chinese researchers have done a lot of work to understand the natural degradation processes for organic and toxic compounds and finally to clean these compounds from polluted environments. For the treatment of wastewater, many new processes were proposed and optimized to meet the more strict effluent standards in China. Finally, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of discharged wastes. In this chapter we review the development in the above fields.

  19. Technology licensing in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Li-Ying, Jason; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms...... of the number of licensed technologies; second, the geographical distribution of licensed technologies among the provinces has gradually reached a new quantitative balance; third, utility models are the most popular technologies to be licensed and the majority of technology licensing in China has been between...... Chinese entities, and most transactions have been local within provinces; and finally, Chinese firms have gradually in-licensed newer and newer technologies, but the technologies in-licensed from foreign sources are by no means state-of-the-art. We make several suggestions for innovation policy...

  20. Transport infrastructure development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouraima Mouhamed Bayane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the historical configuration process of transportation systems in China and examines the relationship between economic development and transport system at three different levels. The current status of transport infrastructure system development in China is summarized at national and regional level. The investment trends for transport infrastructure in China are also depicted. The keys issues relating to government initiatives are presented.

  1. Perfil de mercado de China

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrales, Ana; Hincapié, Vanessa; Ruiz, Liseth

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza las importaciones desde China hacia Colombia y abarca temas estadísticos, análisis regionales, políticas de comercio exterior y revisiones geopolíticas del papel comercial de China en el mundo, dentro de otros aspectos. Es importante hacer el análisis sobre los contextos del comercio exterior colombiano reciente y vincularlo con el papel de China.

  2. Nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourievidis, G.

    1984-01-01

    Having first outlined the main problems China must resolve in the field of energy supply, this paper presents the nuclear option trends established by the government, recalls the different stages in the nuclear Chinese development programme, achievements and projects. The organization of nuclear research and industry, as also the fuel cycle situation and uranium resources are then described. Finally, the international nuclear cooperation policy carried out by the chinese government and more particularly the agreement settled with France are presented [fr

  3. Chinas Response to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    regulations regarding terrorism and related activities (e.g., the 2006 Anti- Money iv Laundering Law), most notably the 2015 Counterterrorism... Money Laundering ASEAN Association for Southeast Asian Nations CASS Chinese Academy of Social Sciences CCP Chinese Communist Party CICIR China...the Financing of Terrorism” in 2006, and passed a new law governing money laundering in an effort to restrict access to funds available to terrorists

  4. China Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-12

    than 50 percent; the breeding of valuable seafoods such as scallops, sea cucumbers and so on all showed considerable growth. Shandong’s great...over 900 yuan in economically developed areas. Grain output will average 415-429 kg per capita, edible oil and sugar,.about six kg, meat , about 23...country, trees will cover 20 percent of the land and timber output will reach 100 million cubic meters. China anticipates an annual meat output of

  5. China's Work Safety Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  6. China Report, Science & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-30

    Distribution of Scientists, Engineers Discussed (CHINA DAILY, various dates) 37 Little Freedom of Movement , by Niu Qiuxia 37 ’Imbalanced...the masses to monitor foreshocks. "A few years ago we had such concoctions as ’indigenous telluric electricity,’ ’indigenous geomagnetism,’ and...skills. It is easier and more feasible than movements of skilled personnel. One might say that it is using "nearby water to slake nearby thirst

  7. JPRS Report, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-10

    Supervision and Management of the People’s Republic of China, abroad), Office of Agriculture, Office of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine , Office of...prefectures, counties, and even townships should have been consid- ered as semi-open separatist economic regimes. The reason that many counterfeit ... medicine , wine, and name- brand products can be mass produced and circulated through official channels is because they are supported by local government

  8. JPRS Report China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-05

    by the goal of China’s price reform, except for a few monopolized industries where prices should be set by the state, most products of industrial... monopolized and assigned procurement has enabled the market mechanism to infiltrate many areas of rural economy. Except for grain and cotton which are...access. This very brief article explains the serological tests performed on white mice to identify the toxin, and offers suggestions on how to

  9. JPRS Report China

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-05

    the diatomite deposit is one of the largest in the world. But for various reasons, China’s stone products industry still remains backward despite...conservancy construction and strive to improve the conditions for agricultural production. 3. Do a good job in improving the soil and its fertility. 4...Beijing Steelworks Eyes World Market, ’International Prestige’ 23 Export Volume in Beijing Sets Record 24 Guangdong Regulations Stimulate

  10. Renewable Energy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China is the most densely populated country in the world with high rate of economic growth resulting in higher demand for energy resources and in strive to guarantee stable supply of these resources. Chinese annual GDP growth in 2012 and 2013 was down to 7.7% comparing to 10% in 2000-2011 [7]. In 2012 and 2013 economic growth stumbled because of slowdown in manufacturing and exports, taking into account that Chinese government was eager to cut inflation and excessive investments in some segments of the market. Speaking about energy sector Chinese government is aimed at promotion of market-based pricing systems, activities for advanced energy efficiency and higher competition between energy companies, and increased investment in renewable energy resources. Considering renewables as one of many ways to diversify energy supplies, lower dependence on coal and improve environmental situation Chinese government actively supports and develops programs aimed at support of renewable energy industry in China. Chinese economic development is tightly attached to five-year plans. It seems important to mention the fact that main energy goals for current 12-th "five-year plan" are to achieve 15% renewables consumption and CO2 sequestration up to 40-45% by2020 in order to lower dependency on coal and improve environmental situation. As a result of Chinese state policy to develop renewables China achieved certain results in wind energy, helioenergetics, hydroenergetics and energy from waste recycling.

  11. Extreme Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cai, Lixue [China Petrochemical Corporations (China)

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  12. Nuclear medicine in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shihchen; Liu, Xiujie

    1986-01-01

    Since China first applied isotopes to medical research in 1956, over 800 hospitals and research institutions with 4000 staff have taken up nuclear technology. So far, over 120 important biologically active materials have been measured by radioimmunoassay in China, and 44 types of RIA kit have been supplied commercially. More than 50,000 cases of hyperthyroidism have been treated satisfactorily with 131 I. Radionuclide imaging of practically all organs and systems of the human body has been performed, and adrenal imaging and nuclear cardiology have become routine clinical practice in several large hospitals. The thyroid iodine uptake test, renogram tracing and cardiac function studies with a cardiac probe are also commonly used in most Chinese hospitals. The active principles of more than 60 medicinal herbs have been labelled with isotopes in order to study the drug metabolism and mechanism of action. Through the use of labelled neurotransmitters or deoxyglucose, RIA, radioreceptor assay and autoradiography, Chinese researchers have made remarkable achievements in the study of the scientific basis of acupuncture analgesia. In 1980 the Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine was founded, and since 1981 the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine has been published. Although nuclear medicine in China has already made some progress, when compared with advanced countries, much progress is still to be made. It is hoped that international scientific exchange will be strengthened in the future. (author)

  13. Capital outflows from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the success in opening the economy and attracting inward foreign direct investment, China has rapidly become an important source of outward foreign direct investment (ODI and portfolio investments in recent years. Since China adopted a Going Global strategy, the stock of Chinese ODI has tripled. China’s outward investments are quite small compared with the inward flows. The change of ODI forms, structure and destinations has made China more and more similar to developed countries. Chinese ODI has accumulated in the service sector and high-tech manufacturing. More recently, China’s financial institutions are starting to play a more substantial role in the foreign financial sector. With the concentration of Chinese ODI in foreign advanced sectors, a lot of China’s funds flow into resource sectors in the developing countries. This double-track approach to outward foreign investment is probably beneficial for China’s economic development and is favourable to the process of catching-up with the developed countries.

  14. Meningococcal Disease in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujun Shao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitides is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis. The epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease varies in different countries and regions. This review summarizes the available data from China describing the burden of meningococcal disease, N. meningitidis serogroups, and vaccination programs. Meningococcal serogroup A (MenA was predominant for several decades in China. However, since 2000, invasive meningococcal disease caused by MenC, MenW, or MenB has increased. MenC, belonging to a hyperinvasive clonal sequence type ST-4821 (CC4821, emerged in Anhui Province and was subsequently disseminated over two-thirds of all Chinese provinces. Serogroup W (CC11 is endemic and causes death. Serogroup B (CC4821 originated from serogroup C (CC4821 via a capsular switching mechanism. Polysaccharide A and C meningococcal vaccines have been introduced into national routine immunization programs and have effectively reduced invasive meningococcal disease. However, the vaccination strategy must be revised based on the epidemic trends in meningococcal disease in China.

  15. Toilet revolution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling

    2018-06-15

    The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Control: China Story Yearbook 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    ‘More cosmopolitan, more lively, more global’ is how the China Daily summed up the year 2016 in China. It was also a year of more control. The Chinese Communist Party laid down strict new rules of conduct for its members, continued to assert its dominance over everything from the Internet to the South China Sea and announced a new Five-Year Plan that Greenpeace called ‘quite possibly the most important document in the world in setting the pace of acting on climate change’. The China Story Y...

  17. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  18. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  19. The petroleum industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    A review is presented of China's petroleum industry. In recent years China has ranked as the world's fifth or sixth largest oil producer, providing ca 20% of China's energy needs and generating US $45 billion in exports during 1988-89. However, domestic oil consumption is rapidly outpacing growth in production, and China may become a net oil importer as early as March 1994 if trends continue. In order to slow declining production rates, China must: introduce modern management techniques, equipment and technology; accelerate exploration to find new reserves; employ the latest equipment and technology, consulting services and foreign training to develop new reserves as quickly as possible; and improve the efficiency with which petroleum is used and traded. Key players including the China National Petroleum Corporation, China National Oil Development Corporation, China National United Oil Company, and China National Offshore Oil Corporation are described. Current Chinese petroleum industry priorities are discussed, together with Canadian capabilities relevant to these activities, and recent bilateral agreements in the sector

  20. Cadaveric organ donation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijin; Elliott, Robert; Li, Linzi; Yang, Tongwei; Bai, Yusen; Ma, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we will discuss several ethical issues concerning cadaveric organ donation from the perspective of sociocultural factors that are unique to China under the condition that China has ended the use of executed prisoner's organs for transplants. It is found that though great developments have been made in organ transplantation, the ethical issues relating to organ transplantation still face dilemmas in China. It is argued that organ donation and transplantation in China could make further progress if the ethical issues proposed in this paper can be carefully considered. PMID:29517702

  1. Petroleum in the South China Sea : a Chinese national interest

    OpenAIRE

    Snildal, Knut

    2000-01-01

    The thesis analyses the relationship between China's petroleum policies and China's involvement in the South China Sea conflict. The aim of the thesis is to determine what China's national interest are in the South China Sea, and to detect who forms, and how, China's South China Sea policy. The thesis discusses whether China's assumed interest in the South China Sea of exploiting the petroleum reserves of the territorially disputed areas of the South China Sea is a short-term national interes...

  2. Two new species of Nomuraius Hlaváč (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng-Chi; Yin, Zi-Wei

    2018-03-22

    Two new Chinese species of the tyrine genus Nomuraius Hlaváč, N. excavatus Huang Yin, sp. n. (Guangxi), and N. nanlingensis Huang Yin, sp. n. (Guangdong), are described and illustrated. The identification key and distributional map of the genus are updated to include the new data.

  3. China's new path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yingling

    2008-01-01

    The recent policy tools have also consolidated and advanced traditional renewable energy industries, including hydropower and solar thermal panels, where China has already been a world leader. The technologies are comparatively simple and low-cost, and the country has developed fairly strong construction, manufacturing and installation industries for both sources. They are still dominant in China's renewable energy use, and are expected to see continuous strong growth. Hydropower accounts for about two-thirds of China's current renewable energy use. It has grown by over 8 per cent annually from 2002 to 2006, and installed capacity will reach 190 GW by 2010 and 300 GW by 2020. China also has nearly two-thirds of the world's solar hot water capacity: more than one in every ten households bathe in water heated by the sun. Such solar thermal has witnessed 20-25 per cent annual growth in recent years, with installed capacity rising from 35 million square metres in 2000 to 100 million square metres by the end of 2006. The government aims for 150 million square metres by 2010 and double that figure by 2020. A more optimistic prediction envisages 800 million square metres installed capacity by 2030, which would mean that more than half of all Chinese households would be using solar energy for water heating. Renewable energy has become a strategic industry in China. The country has more than 50 domestic wind turbine manufacturers, over 15 major solar cell manufacturers and roughly 50 companies constructing, expanding or planning for polysilicon production lines, the key components for solar PV systems. Those two industries together employ some 80,000 people. The country also has thousands of hydropower manufacturers and engineering and design firms. More than a thousand solar water heater manufacturers throughout the country - and associated design, installation and service providers - provide some 600,000 jobs. As renewable industries are scaled up, costs will come down

  4. Congenital malaria in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Tao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Congenital malaria, in which infants are directly infected with malaria parasites from their mother prior to or during birth, is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs at relatively low rates in malaria-endemic regions. It is recognized as a serious problem in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where recent data suggests that it is more common than previously believed. In such regions where malaria transmission is high, neonates may be protected from disease caused by congenital malaria through the transfer of maternal antibodies against the parasite. However, in low P. vivax-endemic regions, immunity to vivax malaria is low; thus, there is the likelihood that congenital vivax malaria poses a more significant threat to newborn health. Malaria had previously been a major parasitic disease in China, and congenital malaria case reports in Chinese offer valuable information for understanding the risks posed by congenital malaria to neonatal health. As most of the literature documenting congenital malaria cases in China are written in Chinese and therefore are not easily accessible to the global malaria research community, we have undertaken an extensive review of the Chinese literature on this subject. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we reviewed congenital malaria cases from three major searchable Chinese journal databases, concentrating on data from 1915 through 2011. Following extensive screening, a total of 104 cases of congenital malaria were identified. These cases were distributed mainly in the eastern, central, and southern regions of China, as well as in the low-lying region of southwest China. The dominant species was P. vivax (92.50%, reflecting the malaria parasite species distribution in China. The leading clinical presentation was fever, and other clinical presentations were anaemia, jaundice, paleness, diarrhoea, vomiting, and general weakness. With the exception of two cases, all patients

  5. China's Pork Miracle? : Agribusiness and Development in China's Pork Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schneider (Mindi); S. Sharma (Shefali)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractEXECUTIVE SUMMARY Agriculture has helped fuel the “China miracle.” Since 1978, agricultural and food output has soared, Chinese agribusiness firms have become key players in domestic and international markets, and by all accounts, China has been highly successful in overcoming land

  6. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    The project ‘Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China’ is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administrat...

  7. Climate Responsive Buildings in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    ) and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put on the description of the different climates in China and a detailed analysis revealed its potential for energy conservation strategies. It could be shown that Natural Ventilation (NV) has the potential to increase thermal comfort up...

  8. CDM Country Guide for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on China

  9. China: An Unlikely Economic Hegemon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cul- ture favors male offspring, leading to some female infanticide, or more commonly, sex - selective abortions . Therefore, “In about 20 or 25...Crisis.” 71. Ibid. 72. Meyer, China or Japan, 56. 73. Somnath Chatterji et al., “The Health of Aging Populations in China and India ,” Health Affairs 27

  10. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  11. Teaching about China. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.

    In spring 1989, the United States watched intently as televised reports relayed the events unfolding in Beijing's (China) Tiananmen Square. This concern for a people whose culture and political institutions are significantly different reflects a continuing and compelling interest in China. Although historians and journalists in the United States…

  12. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  13. Market survey China. Wind Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The title survey presents an overview of the wind developments in China, an analysis of the key market players in this sector, and an assessment of the potential future market for wind-related activities in China. The survey is concluded with a number of conclusions and recommendations

  14. Getting “China Ready”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Matias Thuen; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the Scandinavian tourism sector has identified the Chinese market as attractive, but difficultly accessible. As a consequence, initiatives have been undertaken in order to make Scandinavia ‘China ready’. In this article, we use an extensive literature review, an example of such an initiat...... people into stale and stereotypical representations and takes an important step towards getting truly ‘China ready’....

  15. Assessing China's Relations with Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-10-15

    Oct 15, 2013 ... of dollars in aid to the country as an incentive to do so. By January ... China has followed up this diplomatic success over Taiwan with cooperation .... Gono, in a meeting with the deputy governor of the People's Bank of China,.

  16. China's Environmental Governance in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Carter, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    In the face of unprecedented economic and industrial growth levels, China is rapidly developing its system of environmental governance. Coming from a conventional command-and-control approach to environmental policy, which fitted well its centrally planned economy, transitional China is swiftly

  17. Internationalisierung der Versicherungsrechnungslegung in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xian

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird untersucht, inwiefern die Vorschriften zur Rechnungslegung von Versicherungsunternehmen in China mit denjenigen nach IFRS konvergieren, d.h., wie sich China durch Reformen des Rechnungslegungsrechts schrittweise an die IFRS annähert. Hierbei wird der gegenwärtige chinesische Rechnungslegungsrahmen auch kritisch diskutiert.

  18. Income inequality in today's China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang

    2014-05-13

    Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53-0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China's high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China's high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role.

  19. China: economy: living standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The livelihood of the urban and rural population continued to improve last year, when the average consumption/person reached 224 yuan, according to the latest data released by the State Statisitical Bureau. The bureau, which is responsible for the collection, compilation, and analysis of economic and social statistics, said that after ajustment for inflationary factors, the per capital consumption reflected an increase of 99% since 1952 or an average of 2.5% annually (Table 1). The sustained annual increase was attributed mostly to the remarkable improvement in production, which in turn led to the rise in Chinese peasants' income (L,8049). The Ministry of Agriculture said the average income of each rural inhabitant in China in 1980 was 155 yuan, which compared with 152.69 yuan in 1979, 143.17 yuan in 1978 and 133.94 yuan in 1977. As a result of the increased income, the people's purchasing power also improved. Compared with 1952, each Chinese consumed 8.2% more grain last year, 9.8% more vegetable oil, 88.6% more pork, and 320% more sugar. In the World Banks's 1st extensive report on China, published last June, the improvement in the people's livelihood was cited as the country's most remarkable achievement, although "marked rural inequality and poverty still exist in some areas." The Statistical Bureau's data also revealed a significant decline in infant mortality--from 139/1000 in 1954 to 20 in 1980. In contrast with the fall in mortality rate, the average life expectancy in China increased from 57 years in 1957 to 68 years in 1980, a development which was also hailed by the World Bank. full text

  20. Is China falling apart?

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2012-01-01

    On 1 October 1949 Mao proclaimed the People’s Republic of China. On Tiananmen Square that day was Li Shenzhi, together with tens of thousand of other young, idealistic and excited Communists. “China”, wrote Li when later he was to describe this day, “had said farewell forever to the past … to backwardness, to poverty and to ignorance, and had set out on a completely new road, to liberty, equality and fraternity”. But this is not how it turned out. “The nearly thirty years of th...

  1. China: Ingestion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Diet samples in China were collected according to the sampling strategy devised for the 'First Total Diet Study in China' in 1990 by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine. Based on geographic location, dietary habits and cooking style, the whole of China was divided into 4 regions and from each region one province was selected for the survey. In each of these provinces, 3 survey points (one town and two countryside) were identified, from where 30 families were randomly chosen. The diet composition and the consumption of various food items were recorded by means of weight record for three successive days. Some of these details are given in second total diet study, carried out in China in 1992 [48]. The total diet composition as well as the average daily consumption of each food for Chinese adults, engaged in light physical activity was calculated for each region. Based on the composition of diet and individual food materials, all foods and the products derived from them were classified into the following 13 types: (1) Grain; (2). Beans and nuts; (3) Yam; (4) Meat (including poultry); (5) Egg; (6) Aquatic foods; (7) Milk; (8) Vegetable; (9) Fruits and its salads, etc.; (10) Sugar; (11) Soft beverages and drinking water; (12) Alcoholic beverages; (13) Spices and cooking oil. These foods were collected in 1997 from nearby vegetable markets, subsidiary food stores and farmer markets within the three-survey points in each region. Various foods thus collected were treated and cooked according to the local dietary habit in assigned restaurants and kitchens. Cooked foods were then ground and mixed in the blender. In all, 48 individual food samples were obtained representing the four regions. Samples under frozen condition were shipped to the analytical laboratory for further processing and analysis. All possible precautions already stated in the sampling and quality control chapter were taken to avoid contamination of samples

  2. Computational mathematics in China

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Zhong-Ci

    1994-01-01

    This volume describes the most significant contributions made by Chinese mathematicians over the past decades in various areas of computational mathematics. Some of the results are quite important and complement Western developments in the field. The contributors to the volume range from noted senior mathematicians to promising young researchers. The topics include finite element methods, computational fluid mechanics, numerical solutions of differential equations, computational methods in dynamical systems, numerical algebra, approximation, and optimization. Containing a number of survey articles, the book provides an excellent way for Western readers to gain an understanding of the status and trends of computational mathematics in China.

  3. India : the new China?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanavaty, K. [Reliance Industries Ltd., Mumbai (India). Cracker and Polymer Div.

    2006-07-01

    India is emerging as a strong force in the global economy. The population of China is 1.2 times that of India, and its gross domestic product is 2.5 times that of India. However, analyses of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) indicate that if India continues its rate of growth, its' consumption and production will reach China's current levels in less than 15 years. This represents a significant investment opportunity in basic industry, particularly since a growing middle class will ensure a boom in consumer products consumption. This presentation compared India and China, in terms of economic approaches and challenges for India. Implications for the petrochemical industry were also discussed with reference to Reliance Industries Ltd. and its full integration in the value chain with petroleum refining. Reliance Industries Ltd. claims that India's captive utilities and labour productivity provide the company with conversion costs that are among the lowest in the industry. In terms of agriculture, India is one of the largest producers of agricultural commodities in the world and is well supported by varying agro-climates and fertile land. This presentation also included an agro-commodities yield comparison for rice, wheat and cereal. The Indian manufacturing industry is also competitive, focusing on cutting cost, increasing productivity and innovation. It was noted that although China has the advantage of a well established infrastructure on a global and domestic scale as well as job opportunities and quick policy implementation, it has lax labour laws, poor pollution laws and a challenging banking system. In contrast, India has the entrepreneurial advantage as well as global scale information technology, a globally competitive manufacturing industry, an independent regulatory framework and world class capital markets and banking system. India's challenge lies in its lack of a world-class infrastructure, complicated tax structure and slow

  4. competencia con China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena de la Paz Hernández Águila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo ofrece un diagnóstico del desempeño de la industria mexicana del calzado desde la década de los ochenta hasta la actualidad. Analiza la problemática que ha enfrentado esta rama industrial a partir del proceso de apertura comercial y de la competencia en su mercado interno con productos provenientes de países asiáticos, particularmente China. Problematiza al respecto los retos y las perspectivas que a mediano plazo enfrentará este sector empresarial y sobre las posibilidades de competir en el mercado globalizado.

  5. Geothermal fields of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearey, P.; HongBing, Wei

    1993-08-01

    There are over 2500 known occurrences of geothermal phenomena in China. These lie mainly in four major geothermal zones: Xizang (Tibet)-Yunnan, Taiwan, East Coast and North-South. Hot water has also been found in boreholes in major Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins. This paper presents a summary of present knowledge of these geothermal zones. The geological settings of geothermal occurrences are associated mainly with magmatic activity, fault uplift and depressional basins and these are described by examples of each type. Increased multipurpose utilisation of geothermal resources is planned and examples are given of current usages.

  6. Shooting Stars over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, John

    International cultural exchange and education in the sciences and arts is one of the chief aims of the British Council (BC). The 1998 Leonids Meteor Shower was recognised by the BC in China as an event that would offer an opportunity, both to promote the public understanding of space science at an international level, and to encourage on-going cultural links between the United Kingdom and China. Predictions suggested that the 1998 shower, which was likely to be the most intense for more than three decades, would be best viewed in north-east Asia. The BC contracted the Orbital Mechanics Educational Network, an independent organisation that promotes space education amongst young people, to organise several activities aimed particularly at teenagers. The culmination of the project was a visit to Beijing by a party of British teenagers, to take part in meteor observation at China's Mi Yun Observatory. The paper focusses on the practicalities of organising and running such a project and reports on the achievements and shortcomings of the overall venture. It also reports on the observations and findings that were made by the UK group and their Chinese student partners, all of whom were observing a meteor shower for the first time. It reports on the techniques of observing that were tried, the observations themselves and the findings that were made by the group. It also offers advice to those who might wish to set up similar bi-lateral ventures, particularly with China and the UK, and outlines plans to continue and improve the relationships that have been established. (Please note: I realise this is topic not directly covered by the Conference, but how the subject of the meteor phenomenon in particular and, for that matter, science in general is conveyed to the " man in the street" should be important to all scientists, not least because they depend on external funding and public goodwill! Perhaps a suitable slot can be made for this presentation on Tuesday, which is the

  7. Food legume production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes comprise all legumes grown for human food in China as either dry grains or vegetables, except for soybean and groundnut. China has a vast territory with complex ecological conditions. Rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping involving pulses are normal cropping systems in China. Whether indigenous or introduced crops, pulses have played an important role in Chinese cropping systems and made an important contribution to food resources for humans since ancient times. The six major food legume species (pea, faba bean, common bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, and cowpea are the most well-known pulses in China, as well as those with more local distributions; runner bean, lima bean, chickpea, lentil, grass pea, lupine, rice bean, black gram, hyacinth bean, pigeon pea, velvet bean, winged bean, guar bean, sword bean, and jack bean. China has remained the world's leading producer of peas, faba beans, mung beans, and adzuki beans in recent decades, as documented by FAO statistics and China Agriculture Statistical Reports. The demand for food legumes as a healthy food will markedly increase with the improvement of living standards in China. Since China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO in 2001, imports of pea from Canada and Australia have rapidly increased, resulting in reduced prices for dry pea and other food legumes. With reduced profits for food legume crops, their sowing area and total production has decreased within China. At the same time, the rising consumer demand for vegetable food legumes as a healthy food has led to attractive market prices and sharp production increases in China. Vegetable food legumes have reduced growing duration and enable flexibility in cropping systems. In the future, production of dry food legumes will range from stable to slowly decreasing, while production of vegetable food legumes will continue to increase.

  8. [Response of forest bird communities to forest gap in winter in southwestern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Dong; Wu, Ying-Huan; Lu, Zhou; Jiang, Guang-Wei; Zhou, Fang

    2013-06-01

    Although forest gap ecology is an important field of study, research remains limited. By plot setting and point counted observation, the response of birds to forest gaps in winter as well as bird distribution patterns in forest gaps and intact canopies were studied in a north tropical monsoon forest of southwestern China from November 2011 to February 2012 in the Fangcheng Golden Camellia National Nature Reserve, Guangxi. The regression equation of bird species diversity to habitat factor was Y1=0.611+0.002 X13+0.043 X2+0.002 X5-0.003 X8+0.006 X10+0.008 X1 and the regression equation of bird species dominance index to habitat factor was Y3=0.533+0.001 X13+0.019 X2+0.002 X3-0.017 X4+0.002 X1. There were 45 bird species (2 orders and 13 families) recorded in the forest gap, accounting for 84.9% of all birds (n=45), with an average of 9.6 species (range: 2-22). Thirty-nine bird species (5 orders and 14 families) were recorded in non-gap areas, accounting for 73.6% of all birds (n=39), with an average of 5.3 species (range: 1-12). These results suggested that gap size, arbor average height (10 m from gap margin), arbor quantity (10 m from gap margin), shrub quantity (10 m from gap margin), herbal average coverage (1 m from gap margin) and bare land ratio were the key forest gap factors that influenced bird diversities. On the whole, bird diversity in the forest gap was greater than in the intact canopy. Spatial distributions in the forest gaps were also observed in the bird community. Most birds foraged in the "middle" and "canopy" layers in the vertical stratification. In addition, "nearly from" and "close from" contained more birds in relation to horizontal stratification. Feeding niche differentiation was suggested as the main reason for these distribution patterns.

  9. China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    in China, see Banister, Bloom, and Rosenberg (2010). 13 For a discussion of inequality in India, see Bardhan (2003). population trends in China and...WorkingPapers/2010/PGDA_WP_53.pdf 132 China and India, 2025: A Comparative Assessment Bardhan , Pranab, “Crouching Tiger, Lumbering Elephant: A China-India

  10. New Face of China's Telecom Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ On October 15 2008, China Unicorn merged with China Netcom, the latter declaring withdrawal from the market. Both agreed, to rename "China Unicorn Limited" as 'China Unicorn (HongKong) Limited ', which happened just after China Mobile had announced that would become its wholly-owned subsidiary and China Telecom had proclaimed that it would take over the CDMA business from China Unicorn since October 1 2008. It means that the "six to three" reorganization has finally become a reality and marks the beginning of an era of All-Service Operation for the telecom industry. The three new telecom operators will surely undergo profound changes in corporate strategy and operation areas, it is foreseeable that the merging of China Netcom with China Unicorn will rewrite the history of the development of China's telecom industry.

  11. General aviation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  12. Anticounterfeit holograms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dahsiung; Zhou, Jing; Pei, Wen; Li, Qiang; Huang, Xuhuai; Cao, Yulin

    1995-02-01

    The Chinese holography industry has been given an enormous boost by the energetic sales and technology transfer of several western businesses. It is a fast growing industry which can keep up with domestic demand for anti-counterfeit embossed holograms because product counterfeiting is so rife internally. Tax papers, stamps, plastic cards, identification cards, and many packaged goods are authenticated with embossed holograms. Up to now, about 1,000 kinds of products in China have used holograms to protect themselves. Anti-counterfeit holograms with secret codes have also been used. After dependence on imports, China is rapidly developing its own sources of equipment, holographic materials, and embossing substrates. The quality of this equipment and materials is improving. The new Chinese Holography Association, a national industry association aiming to develop the application of holograms and to promote cooperation between organizations, was established in 1993. The CHA has requested affiliation to the International Hologram Manufacturers Association, a move which should improve the communication between the Chinese industry and the rest of the world industry.

  13. Environmental issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Environmental issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs

  15. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. PING-YING TANG1 GUO-HUA HUANG1 QING-LIAN XIE1 JIAN-YING LI1. Key Laboratory of New Electric Functional Materials of Guangxi Colleges and Universities, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530023, China ...

  16. The changing hues of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2006-01-01

    Six years ago, PetroChina hired an Italian economist responsible for privatizing Italy's national oil company. His influence has helped engineer a reversal of PetroChina's fortunes. Its market capitalization has increased eight-fold since he joined the PetroChina board. The Chinese have since been purchasing international assets rapidly, and many American congressional leaders view China's acquisition of Canadian oil sands assets as a threat to American energy security. Although there is no clear national energy strategy towards China in Canada, the movement towards greater co-operation appears to be gaining momentum. Canadian Natural Resources is currently negotiating with a Chinese company to bring Chinese labourers to work on oilsands projects. Additionally, Canadian energy expertise may be valuable to China. The Chinese use 40 to 50 per cent more energy per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) than North Americans due to inefficiencies. The Chinese government has set a goal of getting the country to be 20 per cent more energy-efficient in the next 5 years. Canadian expertise may also be needed in environmental mitigation strategies, as the Chinese government wants at least 15 per cent of the gasoline sold by 2020 to include biofuels. Currently, 58 per cent of China's rivers are too polluted to serve as drinking water. 2 figs

  17. Social Darwinism in modern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jilin; XIAO Zhiwei

    2012-01-01

    After evolutionary theory was introduced in China,Herbert Spencer's interpretation of it in the form of social Darwinism persuaded the Chinese that if they wanted to strengthen their nation,they would have to accept the brutal truth of natural selection,in which the principle of survival of the fittest rules.This version of evolutionary theory,when combined with the pragmatic thrust of Confucianism and the realpolitik of legalism from China's indigenous tradition,started a storm of materialism and utilitarianism in modern China.In the process,the traditional social order based on the rule of propriety (li) was completely subverted and replaced by a new order predicated on the rule of competition and power.This development produced a new mental outlook that privileged power over everything else,seriously undermined the rules of ethics and caused serious political consequences in the late Qing and early Republican period.This intellectual development may have contributed to ending the dynastic rule in China,but it was also responsible for ruining the newborn Republican China.The Chinese intellectuals of the May Fourth era critically reflected on this problematic legacy.While still believing in the notion of progress,they abandoned social Darwinism and embraced the idea of evolution through mutual assistance.Thus began a historical shift in modern China from focusing on wealth and power to focusing on civilization as China's salvation.

  18. Fusion research activities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiwen

    1998-01-01

    The fusion program in China has been executed in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion for more than 30 years. Basing on the situation of the power supply requirements of China, the fusion program is becoming an important and vital component of the nuclear power program in China. This paper reviews the status of fusion research and next step plans in China. The motivation and goal of the Chinese fusion program is explained. Research and development on tokamak physics and engineering in the southwestern institute of physics (SWIP) and the institute of plasma physics of Academic Sinica (ASIPP) are introduced. A fusion breeder program and a pure fusion reactor design program have been supported by the state science and technology commission (SSTC) and the China national nuclear corporation (CNNC), respectively. Some features and progress of fusion reactor R and D activities are reviewed. Non fusion applications of plasma science are an important part of China fusion research; a brief introduction about this area is given. Finally, an introductional collaboration network on fusion research activities in China is reported. (orig.)

  19. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 8 Center; the U.S.-China Energy Efficiency Action Plan; and the U.S.-China Energy...January 25, 2010. 28 Liu Shengjun, “How to Better Use Forex Reserves,” China Daily, January 13, 2010. 29 Paul R. La Monica, “China Still Likes Us…For...or commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration technology, improve energy efficiency , or renewable energy sources. H.R. 2454 Waxman

  20. China's nuclear programs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.

    1983-01-01

    Economics and the futility of arms competition with the US and USSR has forced China to shift its nuclear effort to peaceful uses, although its current nuclear-deterrent warrants including China in arms negotiations. China's nuclear program began during the 1950s with an emphasis on weaponry and some development in space technology. Proponents of nuclear power now appear to have refuted the earlier arguments that nuclear-plant construction would be too slow, too dangerous and polluting, and too expensive and the idea that hydro resources would be adequate. The current leadership supports a serious nuclear-power-plant construction program. 6 references

  1. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, M.

    2009-07-15

    The project 'Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China' is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and supported by SgurrEnergy Ltd. Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark (Risoe DTU) has been commissioned to perform a satellite based wind resource analysis as part of the project. The objective of this analysis is to map the wind resource offshore at a high spatial resolution (1 km). The detailed wind resource maps will be used, in combination with other data sets, for an assessment of potential sites for offshore wind farm development along the coastline from Fujian to Shandong in China. (au)

  2. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Chong Xu

    2002-01-01

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling

  3. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391) to 0.9617 (DYS385). Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338) to 0.8177 (TPOX), with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51) to 0.2988 (TH01). A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.

  4. Genetic Variation of 25 Y-Chromosomal and 15 Autosomal STR Loci in the Han Chinese Population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the genetic characteristics of 25 Y-chromosomal and 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR loci in 305 unrelated Han Chinese male individuals from Liaoning Province using AmpFISTR® Yfiler® Plus and IdentifilerTM PCR amplification kits. Population comparison was performed between Liaoning Han population and different ethnic groups to better understand the genetic background of the Liaoning Han population. For Y-STR loci, the overall haplotype diversity was 0.9997 and the discrimination capacity was 0.9607. Gene diversity values ranged from 0.4525 (DYS391 to 0.9617 (DYS385. Rst and two multi-dimensional scaling plots showed that minor differences were observed when the Liaoning Han population was compared to the Jilin Han Chinese, Beijing Han Chinese, Liaoning Manchu, Liaoning Mongolian, Liaoning Xibe, Shandong Han Chinese, Jiangsu Han Chinese, Anhui Han Chinese, Guizhou Han Chinese and Liaoning Hui populations; by contrast, major differences were observed when the Shanxi Han Chinese, Yunnan Bai, Jiangxi Han Chinese, Guangdong Han Chinese, Liaoning Korean, Hunan Tujia, Guangxi Zhuang, Gansu Tibetan, Xishuangbanna Dai, South Korean, Japanese and Hunan Miao populations. For autosomal STR loci, DP ranged from 0.9621 (D2S1338 to 0.8177 (TPOX, with PE distributing from 0.7521 (D18S51 to 0.2988 (TH01. A population comparison was performed and no statistically significant differences were detected at any STR loci between Liaoning Han, China Dong, and Shaanxi Han populations. The results showed that the 25 Y-STR and 15 autosomal STR loci in the Liaoning Han population were valuable for forensic applications and human genetics, and Liaoning Han was an independent endogenous ethnicity with a unique subpopulation structure.

  5. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    champions. However, recently growing number of Chinese companies are seeking to create a foundation for growth and development based on innovation. As a result of this, many of them spread their operations to the countries of the traditional industrial ‘triad’ of North America, Europe and Japan to capture...... a foothold in these markets and to tap into the advanced technologies and concepts originating from this developed context. Another category of Chinese companies includes those who seek to move from routine transactional tasks to more innovation-intensive concepts while remaining in China and relying...... on their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept...

  6. HTR Development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dazhong

    2014-01-01

    The roles of HTRs in China: 1. Due to the inherent safety features, high efficiency of electricity generation, site flexibility, the modular HTR can act as a supplement to LWR for small and medium size power generation. 2. Co-generation to supply steam up to 600℃, for petroleum refinery, oil sand and oil shale processing, sea water desalination and district heating, etc. 3. Hydrogen production at 900~1000 ℃ by V/HTR. Conclusions and prospects: • China’s energy system will experience transition and reform in the future; • Nuclear energy will play an irreplaceable role in China’s energy development; • Due to the excellent features of inherent safety, the HTR is a promising technology for electricity generation and process heat utilization; • Further international cooperation and exchanges need to be enhanced

  7. Nationalist Netizens in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Ane Katrine

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government is currently performing a delicate act of balance: attempting to foster a “healthy” nationalism among the young generation in China while at the same time having to deal with the at times rather loud and uncompromising expression of this nationalism online. By examining......-called patriotic education campaign and the rhetoric used online. Even though the viewpoints expressed in the two debates vary widely, the central theme of how to deal with China’s past is plays a strong role in both debates. I argue that though the Chinese government has been rather successful in promoting...... this reliance on a certain historical perspective to understand present day China’s place in the world, the online nationalist expressions take on a life of their own partly due to China’s very special Internet culture....

  8. China's early space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilin, Zhu

    1994-05-01

    China's space exploration began in the late 1950s in response to the launch of the Soviet Sputnik. The Chinese Academy of Science formed a team which was responsible for establishing three design institutes. The Shanghai Institute for Machine and Electricity Design was established. When the plan for the other design institutes was abandoned, the Shanghai Institute began to develop a sounding rocket. In 1960 the liquid-propellant sounding rocket 'T-7' was launched. The T-7 was modified and improved. A series of interplanetary flight symposia were held to discuss developmental approaches to Chinese space technology. Academic research results and technical development achievements laid a solid foundation for the launch in 1970 of the first artificial satellite.

  9. Sociosexuality in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei Jun; Zhou, Xu Dong; Wang, Xiao Lei; Hesketh, Therese

    2014-04-01

    The construct of sociosexuality or sociosexual orientation describes the extent to which people will have casual, uncommitted sexual relationships. The Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI) has been used to measure sociosexuality in many countries, but not in China. The aims of this study were to explore sociosexuality in a cross-section of the Chinese adult population, to quantify sex differences in sociosexuality, and to examine the sociodemographic correlates and the impact of the high sex ratio. The study consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire. It was administered to adults of reproductive age in three provinces: Zhejiang, Guizhou, and Yunnan. While questionnaires were received from 7,424 participants, total SOI scores could be computed only for the 4,645 (63 %) who completed all seven items of the SOI. The mean score for men and women combined was 21.0, very low compared with most other countries, indicating restricted sociosexuality. The men (n = 2,048) had a mean of 27, showing more restricted sociosexuality than in all other countries where the SOI has been used. Wealth was the strongest independent correlate of high (unrestricted) sociosexuality in men and women. The effect size for the difference between the sexes was moderate (Cohen's d = .64), and comparable to more developed countries, perhaps reflecting relative gender equality in contemporary China. Despite the very high sex ratio, which is theorized to lead to restricted sexuality, its influence was difficult to determine, since differences in sociosexuality between high and low sex ratio areas within this population were inconsistent.

  10. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  11. Uranium Supply Strategy of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shangxiong; Zhang Decun; Zhang Yi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: With the rapid development of nuclear power in the next few years, uranium demand will increase accordingly. Overseas uranium development will be the major channel to meet the future requirement of NPP demand in China.

  12. China's Maritime Strategy Peaceful Rise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horrell, Steven L

    2008-01-01

    .... As a result the global maritime environment will be key to this continental power's continued growth As a subset of maritime strategy China's naval strategy and accompanying People's Liberation Army...

  13. Education of dentists in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang; Jiang, Jin; Hu, De-Yu; Kim, Kang-Ju; Toda, Shinji; Tanne, Yuki; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Kirkland, Mark D; Bird, William F

    2006-10-01

    China is geographically located in the east of Asia and its population exceeds 1.3 billion. An understanding of dental education in China is thus of interest. However, as there is little published information on this topic, this paper provides information about China regarding its dental history, dental school system including curriculum and dental licensure. High school graduates take a nationwide entrance examination to apply for dental school, of which there are more than 50 in China. A five year dental education leads to the BDS degree. Dental school graduates must then pass the nationwide licensure examination to practise dentistry. Currently, there are not adequate numbers of dentists to provide the necessary oral health care for people living outside metropolitan areas.

  14. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  15. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  16. July 1976 Tangshan, China Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeastern China. Damage: $5,600 million. The death toll (240,000) was one of largest in recorded history from an earthquake. In addition, around 800,000 were...

  17. Climate change issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Ruqiu (China National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing (China))

    China is vulnerable to global climate change because of its specific geographical and climatic conditions. Recent climate change trends in China are briefly described. To deal with climate change and reduce the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, a set of strategic measures aimed at harmonizing environmental protection and economic development have been worked out. Special attention has been given to the analysis of problems of energy efficiency and energy structure. Preliminary policy consideration is discussed. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Climate change issues in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ruqiu

    1994-01-01

    China is vulnerable to global climate change because of its specific geographical and climatic conditions. Recent climate change trends in China are briefly described. To deal with climate change and reduce the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, a set of strategic measures aimed at harmonizing environmental protection and economic development have been worked out. Special attention has been given to the analysis of problems of energy efficiency and energy structure. Preliminary policy consideration is discussed. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs

  19. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  20. SAE-China Congress 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings gather outstanding papers submitted to the 2015 SAE-China Congress, the majority of which are from China, the biggest car maker as well as most dynamic car market in the world. The book covers a wide range of automotive topics, presenting the latest technical achievements in the industry. Many of the approaches presented can help technicians to solve the practical problems that most affect their daily work.