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Sample records for hebrew mental lexicon

  1. Translation in Light of Bilingual Mental Lexicon: A Psycholinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congmin Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the translating process of second language learners in language use in light of the mechanism of bilingual mental lexicon. Structure and development of second language mental lexicon explains the existence of first language items and translation equivalents. Conversely translation can promote the construction of second language mental lexicon and ultimately second language acquisition.

  2. Using dictionaries to study the mental lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshen, F; Aronoff, M

    The notion of a mental lexicon has its historical roots in practical reference dictionaries. The distributional analysis of dictionaries provides one means of investigating the structure of the mental lexicon. We review our earlier work with dictionaries, based on a three-way horserace model of lexical access and production, and then present the most recent results of our ongoing analysis of the Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition on CD-ROM, which traces changes in productivity over time of the English suffixes -ment and -ity, both of which originate in French borrowings. Our results lead us to question the validity of automatic analogy from a set of existing words as the driving force behind morphological productivity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. The Representation of Bilingual Mental Lexicon and English Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the theories on the organization and development of L1 mental lexicon and the representation mode of bilingual mental lexicon. It analyzes the structure and characteristics of Chinese EFL learners and their problems in English vocabulary acquisition. On the basis of this, it suggests that English vocabulary…

  4. Changing Places: A Cross-Language Perspective on Frequency and Family Size in Dutch and Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram; Schreuder, Robert; De Jong, Nivja H.; Baayen, R. Harald

    2005-01-01

    This study uses the morphological family size effect as a tool for exploring the degree of isomorphism in the networks of morphologically related words in the Hebrew and Dutch mental lexicon. Hebrew and Dutch are genetically unrelated, and they structure their morphologically complex words in very different ways. Two visual lexical decision…

  5. Examining the reliability and validity of the Hebrew version of the Mini Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Heinik, J; Mendel, A; Reicher, B; Bleich, A

    1999-10-01

    The Mini Mental State Examination is used worldwide for the screening and diagnosis of dementia. The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Hebrew version of the Mini Mental State Examination. The Hebrew version of the Mini Mental State Examination was administered to 36 demented and 19 non-demented elderly persons. Test-retest reliability scores were calculated as exact agreement rates, and ranged from good to excellent for all the items. Strong convergent validity, as measured by the correlation between the MMSE and the CAM-COG (r = 0.94), was found. Good predictive value was observed as over three-quarters of the participants were correctly classified as demented or non-demented. The Hebrew version of the MMSE was found to be a useful and valid instrument for the determination of dementia in the elderly population.

  6. Brief assessment of cognitive mental status in Hebrew: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J P

    2005-07-01

    We describe a new brief neurocognitive assessment instrument, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination, which is built around the shell of the Mini-Mental State Examination but which assesses a wider range of cognitive functions specific to various dementing diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. A Hebrew-language adaptation of the instrument is also provided.

  7. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Mental Lexicon: Neural Network and Text Extraction From Long-term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan G. Arutyunyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper touches upon the principles of mental lexicon organization in the light of recent research in psycho- and neurolinguistics. As a focal point of discussion two main approaches to mental lexicon functioning are considered: modular or dual-system approach, developed within generativism and opposite single-system approach, representatives of which are the connectionists and supporters of network models. The paper is an endeavor towards advocating the viewpoint that mental lexicon is complex psychological organization based upon specific composition of neural network. In this regard, the paper further elaborates on the matter of storing text in human mental space and introduces a model of text extraction from long-term memory. Based upon data available, the author develops a methodology of modeling structures of knowledge representation in the systems of artificial intelligence.

  8. Are there mental lexicons? The role of semantics in lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkina, Katia; McClelland, James L; Plaut, David C

    2010-12-13

    What is the underlying representation of lexical knowledge? How do we know whether a given string of letters is a word, whereas another string of letters is not? There are two competing models of lexical processing in the literature. The first proposes that we rely on mental lexicons. The second claims there are no mental lexicons; we identify certain items as words based on semantic knowledge. Thus, the former approach - the multiple-systems view - posits that lexical and semantic processing are subserved by separate systems, whereas the latter approach - the single-system view - holds that the two are interdependent. Semantic dementia patients, who have a cross-modal semantic impairment, show an accompanying and related lexical deficit. These findings support the single-system approach. However, a report of an SD patient whose impairment on lexical decision was not related to his semantic deficits in item-specific ways has presented a challenge to this view. If the two types of processing rely on a common system, then shouldn't damage impair the same items on all tasks? We present a single-system model of lexical and semantic processing, where there are no lexicons, and performance on lexical decision involves the activation of semantic representations. We show how, when these representations are damaged, accuracy on semantic and lexical tasks falls off together, but not necessarily on the same set of items. These findings are congruent with the patient data. We provide an explicit explanation of this pattern of results in our model, by defining and measuring the effects of two orthogonal factors - spelling consistency and concept consistency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sizing up the competition: quantifying the influence of the mental lexicon on auditory and visual spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Julia F; Sommers, Mitchell S

    2011-09-01

    Much research has explored how spoken word recognition is influenced by the architecture and dynamics of the mental lexicon (e.g., Luce and Pisoni, 1998; McClelland and Elman, 1986). A more recent question is whether the processes underlying word recognition are unique to the auditory domain, or whether visually perceived (lipread) speech may also be sensitive to the structure of the mental lexicon (Auer, 2002; Mattys, Bernstein, and Auer, 2002). The current research was designed to test the hypothesis that both aurally and visually perceived spoken words are isolated in the mental lexicon as a function of their modality-specific perceptual similarity to other words. Lexical competition (the extent to which perceptually similar words influence recognition of a stimulus word) was quantified using metrics that are well-established in the literature, as well as a statistical method for calculating perceptual confusability based on the phi-square statistic. Both auditory and visual spoken word recognition were influenced by modality-specific lexical competition as well as stimulus word frequency. These findings extend the scope of activation-competition models of spoken word recognition and reinforce the hypothesis (Auer, 2002; Mattys et al., 2002) that perceptual and cognitive properties underlying spoken word recognition are not specific to the auditory domain. In addition, the results support the use of the phi-square statistic as a better predictor of lexical competition than metrics currently used in models of spoken word recognition. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  10. A word association response approach toward lexical relationships within the mental lexicon of second language learners: pedagogic ideas from testing McCarthy's theories on Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Robert S; Post, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Through use of word association as detailed in McCarthy (1990) this paper will explore pedagogic implications derived from the following three points in relation to the lexical development of Japanese learners of English: 1) the ability of word association tests to examine the mental links between words in learners' developing mental lexicon, 2) the importance of phonological similarities for lower level students and 3) the correlation between the results from a word association test with the characteristic types of word association patterns discussed in McCarthy (1990). It will be argued that while lexical development within the mental lexicon is difficult to delineate due to overlap of organizational categories, the patterns of syntactic, semantic and conceptual relations between learned words is apparent within the retrieval process for word association and that additionally, context may play a vital role in how words are construed along the links within the mental lexicon. Pedagogic ideas and future research ideas are detailed.

  11. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States: Systemic Emergence of Psychological Lexicon and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.

    In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.

  12. Exploring the Mental Lexicon of the Multilingual: Vocabulary Size, Cognate Recognition and Lexical Access in the L1, L2 and L3

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Cz.

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical findings in the field of Multilingualism have shown that the mental lexicon of a language learner does not consist of separate entities, but rather of an intertwined system where languages can interact with each other (e.g. Cenoz, 2013; Szubko-Sitarek, 2015). Accordingly, multilingual language learners have been considered differently to second language learners in a growing number of studies, however studies on the variation in learners’ vocabulary size both in the L2 and L3...

  13. Isaac Newton learns Hebrew: Samuel Johnson's Nova cubi Hebræi tabella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joalland, Michael; Mandelbrote, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns the earliest evidence for Isaac Newton's use of Hebrew: a manuscript copy by Newton of part of a work intended to provide a reader of the Hebrew alphabet with the ability to identify or memorize more than 1000 words and to begin to master the conjugations of the Hebrew verb. In describing the content of this unpublished manuscript and establishing its source and original author for the first time, we suggest how and when Newton may have initially become acquainted with the language. Finally, basing our discussion in part on an examination of the reading marks that Newton left in the surviving copies of Hebrew grammars and lexicons that he owned, we will argue that his interest in Hebrew was not intended to achieve linguistic proficiency but remained limited to particular theological queries of singular concern.

  14. The unfolding of God's revelation in Hebrews 1:1–2a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... 1.The writer of Hebrews calls his own work a 'word of exhortation' (λόγος .... Arndt and Gingrich's A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early .... prophets but also to all agents of God's revelation, everyone.

  15. Pre-Algebra Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Dunstan; Cuevas, Gilberto

    The pre-algebra lexicon is a set of classroom exercises designed to teach the technical words and phrases of pre-algebra mathematics, and includes the terms most commonly found in related mathematics courses. The lexicon has three parts, each with its own introduction. The first introduces vocabulary items in three groups forming a learning…

  16. Lexicon generation methods, lexicon generation devices, and lexicon generation articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard J [Richland, WA; McCall, Jonathon D [West Richland, WA; Whitney, Paul D [Richland, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Turner, Alan E [Kennewick, WA; Hetzler, Elizabeth G [Kennewick, WA; White, Amanda M [Kennewick, WA; Posse, Christian [Seattle, WA; Nakamura, Grant C [Kennewick, WA

    2010-10-26

    Lexicon generation methods, computer implemented lexicon editing methods, lexicon generation devices, lexicon editors, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a lexicon generation method includes providing a seed vector indicative of occurrences of a plurality of seed terms within a plurality of text items, providing a plurality of content vectors indicative of occurrences of respective ones of a plurality of content terms within the text items, comparing individual ones of the content vectors with respect to the seed vector, and responsive to the comparing, selecting at least one of the content terms as a term of a lexicon usable in sentiment analysis of text.

  17. The New Lexicon Poeticum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon

    The New Lexicon Poeticum (lexiconpoeticum.org) is a project to produce a new lexicographic resource covering Old Norse poetry (initially the category known as skaldic poetry). It is based on the corpus produced by the Skaldic Project (supported project no. 60 of the Union Académique Internationale...... number of words that only exist through editorial conjecture, and omits large numbers of words that are evidenced in the manuscript tradition, particularly as manuscript variants are largely ignored. This situation has left a significant gap in methodologies between the material evidence of the poetic....... The new resource will be linked directly to these resources, enabling the lexicon to be understood in its complex contexts. ONP, founded in 1939, is the major dictionary of Old Norse. The poetic corpus was specifically excluded from ONP because of the lack of a reliable edition of this material — a lack...

  18. Creating Parsing Lexicons from Semantic Lexicons Automatically and Its Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayan, Necip F; Dorr, Bonnie

    2002-01-01

    ...). We also present the effects of using such a lexicon on the parser performance. The advantage of automating the process is that the same technique can be applied directly to lexicons we have for other languages, for example, Arabic, Chinese, and Spanish. The results indicate that our method will help us generate parsing lexicons which can be used by a broad-coverage parser that runs on different languages.

  19. Negating the Infinitive in Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    1999-01-01

    The article examines the negating of the infinitive in biblical and post-biblical Hebrew. The combination of the negation ayin with infinitive is widely claimed to belong to the linguistic layer commonly referred to as late biblical Hebrew and scholars use it to late-date texts. The article showa...

  20. [Women, bodies, and Hebrew medieval medical literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carmen Caballero

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores different views on the female body articulated within Hebrew medieval texts on women's health care. It also investigates whether texts also integrate women's own perceptions of their bodies, and of their needs and care. I have analysed how this genre of Hebrew literature understood two key issues in the construction of sexed bodies: menstruation and cosmetics.

  1. Once again: the problem of dating Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    1997-01-01

    The article argues that the homogeneous nature of biblical Hebrew morphology and syntax does not warrant the conclusion that they were written over a relatively short period of time. Further, the syntactic similarity of pre-exilic Hebrew inscriptions to one type of biblical Hebrew favours the hyp...... the hypothesis that this phase of the Hebrew language is dated to pre-exilic times....

  2. Toddlers' Verb Lexicon Diversity and Grammatical Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hsu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to quantify longitudinal expectations for verb lexicon growth and to determine whether verb lexicon measures were better predictors of later grammatical outcomes than noun lexicon measures. Method: Longitudinal parent-report measures from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Fenson et al.,…

  3. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  4. Workflow Lexicons in Healthcare: Validation of the SWIM Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenan, Chris; Erickson, Bradley; Knight, Nancy; Fossett, Jewel; Olsen, Elizabeth; Mohod, Prerna; Chen, Joseph; Langer, Steve G

    2017-06-01

    For clinical departments seeking to successfully navigate the challenges of modern health reform, obtaining access to operational and clinical data to establish and sustain goals for improving quality is essential. More broadly, health delivery organizations are also seeking to understand performance across multiple facilities and often across multiple electronic medical record (EMR) systems. Interpreting operational data across multiple vendor systems can be challenging, as various manufacturers may describe different departmental workflow steps in different ways and sometimes even within a single vendor's installed customer base. In 2012, The Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine (SIIM) recognized the need for better quality and performance data standards and formed SIIM's Workflow Initiative for Medicine (SWIM), an initiative designed to consistently describe workflow steps in radiology departments as well as defining operational quality metrics. The SWIM lexicon was published as a working model to describe operational workflow steps and quality measures. We measured the prevalence of the SWIM lexicon workflow steps in both academic and community radiology environments using real-world patient observations and correlated that information with automatically captured workflow steps from our clinical information systems. Our goal was to measure frequency of occurrence of workflow steps identified by the SWIM lexicon in a real-world clinical setting, as well as to correlate how accurately departmental information systems captured patient flow through our health facility.

  5. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    1 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits ...Lexicon And Rules William Snavely 2 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material

  6. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  7. Code-Switching Functions in Modern Hebrew Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Yona

    2016-01-01

    The teaching and learning of Modern Hebrew outside of Israel is essential to Jewish education and identity. One of the most contested issues in Modern Hebrew pedagogy is the use of code-switching between Modern Hebrew and learners' first language. Moreover, this is one of the longest running disputes in the broader field of second language…

  8. Morphological families in the mental lexicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Nivja Helena de

    2002-01-01

    Words can occur as constituents of other words. Some words have a high morphological productivity, in that they occur in many complex words, whereas others are morphological islands. Previous studies have found that the size of a word's morphological family can co-determine response latencies in

  9. Growth of a Functionally Important Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister, Eugene B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Uses a dictionary-sampling method and multiple-choice testing of word knowledge to estimate the lexicon size of junior-high students, college students, and older adults. Suggests that there may yet be a role for direct instruction in affecting lexicon size of functionally important words. (SR)

  10. Validation of the Danish PAROLE lexicon (upubliceret)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe; Christoffersen, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    This validation is based on the Danish PAROLE lexicon dated June 20, 1998, downloaded on March 16, 1999. Subsequently, the developers of the lexicon have informed us that they have been revising the lexicon, in particular the morphological level. Morphological entries were originally generated...... automatically from a machine-readable version of the Official Danish Spelling Dictionary (Retskrivningsordbogen 1986, in the following RO86), and this resulted in some overgeneration, which the developers started eliminating after submitting the Danish PAROLE lexicon for validation. The present validation is......, however, based on the January 1997 version of the lexicon. The validation as such complies with the specifications described in ELRA validation manuals for lexical data, i.e. Underwood and Navaretta: "A Draft Manual for the Validation of Lexica, Final Report" [Underwood & Navaretta1997] and Braasch: "A...

  11. The contribution of Qumran to historical Hebrew linguistics: Evidence from the syntax of participial negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus A. Naudé

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine how Qumran Hebrew can contribute to our knowledge of historical Hebrew linguistics. The premise of this paper is that Qumran Hebrew reflects a distinct stage in the development of Hebrew which sets it apart from Biblical Hebrew. It is further assumed that these unique features are able to assist us to understand the nature of the development of Biblical Hebrew in a more precise way. Evidence from the syntax of participial negation at Qumran as opposed to Biblical Hebrew provides evidence for this claim. Keywords: Qumran Hebrew; Biblical Hebrew; historical linguistics;l Dead Sea Scrolls

  12. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    48, 2017, 219-222 doi: 10.5774/48-0-292. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew. Christo H. J. van der Merwe. Department of Ancient Studies, University of Stellenbosch, South ... Merwe, Naudé and Kroeze 2017: 491-493). .... “And I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his.

  13. Anterior Weqatal in the Hebrew Bible and the Qumran Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    weqatal in Qumran are examined. In the larger, relatively non-fragmentary texts, scholars examining the verbal system of Qumran Hebrew have noticed an almost complete absence of this form. This contribution draws the attention to the use of anterior weqatal in other, more fragmentary texts, evaluating...... of Qumran Hebrew as a deliberately archaizing literary language are tentatively proposed....

  14. Reading Hebrews through Akan ethnicity and social identity | Kissi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Akan people of Ghana have concepts of ethnicity and social identity which are similar to those found in the Mediterranean world, which find expression in the issues addressed in the letter to the Hebrews. This similarity makes the reading of Hebrews in light of Akan ethnicity and social identity possible, giving one the ...

  15. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the policies and practices employed in the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew at a school belonging to the “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel”. Its focus is on strategies that the school has developed in order to support the acquisition of biliteracy....... The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is...

  16. Morphosyntactic constructs in the development of spoken and written Hebrew text production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit; Zilberbuch, Shoshana

    2003-05-01

    This study examined the distribution of two Hebrew nominal structures-N-N compounds and denominal adjectives-in spoken and written texts of two genres produced by 90 native-speaking participants in three age groups: eleven/twelve-year-olds (6th graders), sixteen/seventeen-year-olds (11th graders), and adults. The two constructions are later linguistic acquisitions, part of the profound lexical and syntactic changes that occur in language development during the school years. They are investigated in the context of learning how modality (speech vs. writing) and genre (biographical vs. expository texts) affect the production of continuous discourse. Participants were asked to speak and write about two topics, one biographical, describing the life of a public figure or of a friend; and another, expository, discussing one of ten topics such as the cinema, cats, or higher academic studies. N-N compounding was found to be the main device of complex subcategorization in Hebrew discourse, unrelated to genre. Denominal adjectives are a secondary subcategorizing device emerging only during the late teen years, a linguistic resource untapped until very late, more restricted to specific text types than N-N compounding, and characteristic of expository writing. Written texts were found to be denser than spoken texts lexically and syntactically as measured by number of novel N-N compounds and denominal adjectives per clause, and in older age groups this difference was found to be more pronounced. The paper contributes to our understanding of how the syntax/lexicon interface changes with age, modality and genre in the context of later language acquisition.

  17. Deriving a Bilingual Lexicon for Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe a systematic approach to derive a bilingual lexicon automatically from parallel corpora. Following this approach, a lexicon was derived from the English and Dutch version of the Agenda 21 corpus. With the lexicon and a part of the corpus that was not used to derive the

  18. A principled relation between reading and naming in acquired and developmental anomia: Surface dyslexia following impairment in the phonological output lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eFriedmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate--they share components.This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon,on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia.To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, 8 with acquired anomia following brain damage and 8 with developmental-anomia.We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and nonword repetition, and phonological working memory.After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension.We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words,words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes,and potentiophones (words like now that, when read via the sublexical-route,can be sounded out as another word, know. Importantly, all the participants performed flawlessly on pseudohomophone lexical-decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic-input-lexicon and spared access to it and

  19. HMM-based lexicon-driven and lexicon-free word recognition for online handwritten Indic scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, A; Madhvanath, Sriganesh

    2012-04-01

    Research for recognizing online handwritten words in Indic scripts is at its early stages when compared to Latin and Oriental scripts. In this paper, we address this problem specifically for two major Indic scripts--Devanagari and Tamil. In contrast to previous approaches, the techniques we propose are largely data driven and script independent. We propose two different techniques for word recognition based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM): lexicon driven and lexicon free. The lexicon-driven technique models each word in the lexicon as a sequence of symbol HMMs according to a standard symbol writing order derived from the phonetic representation. The lexicon-free technique uses a novel Bag-of-Symbols representation of the handwritten word that is independent of symbol order and allows rapid pruning of the lexicon. On handwritten Devanagari word samples featuring both standard and nonstandard symbol writing orders, a combination of lexicon-driven and lexicon-free recognizers significantly outperforms either of them used in isolation. In contrast, most Tamil word samples feature the standard symbol order, and the lexicon-driven recognizer outperforms the lexicon free one as well as their combination. The best recognition accuracies obtained for 20,000 word lexicons are 87.13 percent for Devanagari when the two recognizers are combined, and 91.8 percent for Tamil using the lexicon-driven technique.

  20. Lexicon and Description of Sui Adjective Intensifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Stanford

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sui, an indigenous minority language of southwest China, has an elaborate system of adjective intensification. Adjectives are intensified with word-specific, bound morphemes that usually either rhyme with the base or alliterate with the base. Stanford (2007 notes morpho-phonological patterns that suggest reduplication, rhyme, alliteration, The Emergence of the Unmarked (McCarthy & Prince 1994, Yip 2001, identity avoidance, and “Copy But Don’t Repeat” (Kennard 2004. However, the adjective intensifiers defy a simple, fully predictable explanation in such terms; the intensifier lexicon may be best described as “patterned variety,” a case of lexicalized poetry or a poeticized lexicon. Word formation is guided by general patterns, but each specific intensifier may vary within those overall guidelines. Many adjectives have multiple intensifiers that bear subtle semantic and pragmatic distinctions. The current paper serves as a complement to Stanford (2007 by providing a detailed lexicon of the Sui adjective intensifiers for future reference and further analysis. This lexicon is based on the author’s fieldwork and represents the first detailed account of Sui adjective intensifiers for the wider linguistic community.

  1. Determination of the noun in Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2000-01-01

    The article investigates the claim that the definite article in biblical Hebrew can be unrelated to determination. This claim is found in the standard grammars of Joüon/Muraoka and Gesenius/Kautzsch and in an article by James Barr. Barr argues that it is a diachronic feature, the biblical texts...... showing the use of the article in a process of change during the biblical period, so that only in later times it acquires a close connection with determination. The article argues that this interpretation of the use of the article is based on a misunderstanding, and the instances of article use that might...... seem to be unrelated to determination in fact are perfectly related to determination when analysed carefully....

  2. Lexicons, contexts, events, and images: commentary on Elman (2009) from the perspective of dual coding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Allan; Sadoski, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Elman (2009) proposed that the traditional role of the mental lexicon in language processing can largely be replaced by a theoretical model of schematic event knowledge founded on dynamic context-dependent variables. We evaluate Elman's approach and propose an alternative view, based on dual coding theory and evidence that modality-specific cognitive representations contribute strongly to word meaning and language performance across diverse contexts which also have effects predictable from dual coding theory. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. A Study of the Longevity of Hebrew Slang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblueth, Ilana; Aynor, Sarah

    1974-01-01

    Investigates the following as possibly related to the longevity of slang items in Hebrew: the language of origin, the category of content, structural characteristics and the background characteristics of the users. (PM)

  4. Defending the Concept of Time in the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundvad, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of reflection on time as an independent subject in the Hebrew Bible, there has been a scholarly tendency to consider biblical time conception more limited than our own, perhaps even nonexistent. This article confronts the scholarly skepticism regarding the ability of the bibli......Due to the scarcity of reflection on time as an independent subject in the Hebrew Bible, there has been a scholarly tendency to consider biblical time conception more limited than our own, perhaps even nonexistent. This article confronts the scholarly skepticism regarding the ability...... of the biblical authors to think about time, defending the presence of time conceptualization in the Hebrew Bible. In the article I discuss central research contributions to the subject of biblical time, in particular Sacha Stern’s thesis that the concept of time is entirely absent from the Hebrew Bible and from...

  5. Neural Correlates of Lexicon and Grammar: Evidence from the Production, Reading, and Judgment of Inflection in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, M.T.; Pancheva, R.; Love, T.; Yee, E.; Swinney, D.; Hickok, G.

    2005-01-01

    Are the linguistic forms that are memorized in the mental lexicon and those that are specified by the rules of grammar subserved by distinct neurocognitive systems or by a single computational system with relatively broad anatomic distribution? On a dual-system view, the productive -ed-suffixation of English regular past tense forms (e.g.,…

  6. Against the Flow: Impassive Modernism in Arabic and Hebrew Literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Alon, Shir

    2017-01-01

    Against the Flow: Impassive Modernism in Arabic and Hebrew Literatures elaborates two interventions in contemporary studies of Middle Eastern Literatures, Global Modernisms, and Comparative Literature: First, the dissertation elaborates a comparative framework to read twentieth century Arabic and Hebrew literatures side by side and in conversation, as two literary cultures sharing, beyond a contemporary reality of enmity and separation, a narrative of transition to modernity. The works analyz...

  7. MOTIVATIONAL LEXICON IN ANTHONY ROBBINS’ UNLIMITED POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Faidatun Naimah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the language learning process, motivation, one of psychological factors, has a great role in endorsing students to be a successful learner. Based on the issues, the choice of words that can influence the students to do the best is practically required by the teachers. So that, teacher as a motivator has a power to influence the students to take action for achieving their excellent learning, using what Anthony Robbins suggest on his book; Unlimited Power. The writer formulated the aims of this study as follow; (1 to identify the motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power from the psychological perspective, and (2 to describe how motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power take apart in the pedagogical field. This research used qualitative research to find out the data. The data analysis technique that researcher used is content analysis since they were texts in Unlimited Power. Researcher found three motivational lexicons used by Anthony Robbins in his book Unlimited Power; think, challenge, and remember. Think used as a tool to lead his readers to come to their memory, re-identify some main points, and consider about the certain thing. Challenge used to pump readers’ emotion, gave a test, and invited them to take action. Remember used as a tool to bring back a piece of information he provided before and try to keep it in readers’ mind. Anthony’s motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power also can use in the pedagogical field. Teacher can use them in the teaching-learning process as it determines the effectiveness of rewards for what students do and apparently influential factor for learning process.

  8. Incidental Lexicon Acquisition through Playful Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Wilhelm Ansteeg

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an educational game which aids learners with foreign lexicon acquisition while entertaining them at the same time. An overview over existing language learning tools is given, and a general platform for educational games for second language acquisition (SLA) is described. It introduces a specific prototype video game which teaches Italian vocabulary to the user. The application puts learning at the core of its game mechanics and combines it with a narrative and role-playing...

  9. Motivational Lexicon in Anthony Robbins’ Unlimited Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Faidatun Naimah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the language learning process, motivation, one of psychological factors, has a great role in endorsing students to be a successful learner. Based on the issues, the choice of words that can influence the students to do the best is practically required by the teachers. So that, teacher as a motivator has a power to influence the students to take action for achieving their excellent learning, using what Anthony Robbins suggest on his book; Unlimited Power. The writer formulated the aims of this study as follow; (1 to identify the motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power from the psychological perspective, and (2 to describe how motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power take apart in the pedagogical field. This research used qualitative research to find out the data. The data analysis technique that researcher used is content analysis since they were texts in Unlimited Power. Researcher found three motivational lexicons used by Anthony Robbins in his book Unlimited Power; think, challenge, and remember. Think used as a tool to lead his readers to come to their memory, re-identify some main points, and consider about the certain thing. Challenge used to pump readers’ emotion, gave a test, and invited them to take action. Remember used as a tool to bring back a piece of information he provided before and try to keep it in readers’ mind. Anthony’s motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power also can use in the pedagogical field. Teacher can use them in the teaching-learning process as it determines the effectiveness of rewards for what students do and apparently influential factor for learning process.

  10. Do reading and spelling share a lexicon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela C; Rawson, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    In the reading and spelling literature, an ongoing debate concerns whether reading and spelling share a single orthographic lexicon or rely upon independent lexica. Available evidence tends to support a single lexicon account over an independent lexica account, but evidence is mixed and open to alternative explanation. In the current work, we propose another, largely ignored account--separate-but-shared lexica--according to which reading and spelling have separate orthographic lexica, but information can be shared between them. We report three experiments designed to competitively evaluate these three theoretical accounts. In each experiment, participants learned new words via reading training and/or spelling training. The key manipulation concerned the amount of reading versus spelling practice a given item received. Following training, we assessed both response time and accuracy on final outcome measures of reading and spelling. According to the independent lexica account, final performance in one modality will not be influenced by the level of practice in the other modality. According to the single lexicon account, final performance will depend on the overall amount of practice regardless of modality. According to the separate-but-shared account, final performance will be influenced by the level of practice in both modalities but will benefit more from same-modality practice. Results support the separate-but-shared account, indicating that reading and spelling rely upon separate lexica, but information can be shared between them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal talk in cognitive development: relations between psychological lexicon, semantic development, empathy and temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores eRollo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between mothers’ psychological lexicon and children’s cognitive and socio-emotive development as assessed through conceptual and semantic understanding tasks, in addition to the traditional tasks of theory of mind. Currently, there is considerable evidence to suggest that the frequency of mothers’ mental state words used in mother-child picture-book reading is linked with children’s theory of mind skills. Furthermore, mothers’ use of cognitive terms is more strongly related to children’s theory of mind performances than the mothers’ references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Rollo, Buttiglieri, 2009. Current literature has established that early maternal input is related to later child mental state understanding; however it has not yet clarified which maternal terms are most useful for the socio-emotional and cognitive development of the child, and which aspect of the cognitive development benefits from the mother-child interaction.The present study addresses this issue and focuses on the relationship between mothers’ mental state talk and children’s behavior in conceptual and semantic tasks, and in a theory of mind task.In this study fifty pairs consisting of mothers and their 3 to 6-year-old children participated in two sessions: (1 The mothers read a picture book to their children. To assess the maternal psychological lexicon, their narrative was codified according to the categories of mental state references used in literature: perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative. (2 After a few days, the conceptual and semantic skills of the children (tasks of contextualization and classification, memory and definition of words and their psychological lexicon were assessed.The results suggest close links between the frequency and variety of mothers’ mental state words and some semantic and conceptual skills of children.

  12. Supporting Concept Extraction and Identifier Quality Improvement through Programmers' Lexicon Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe, Surafel Lemma

    2013-01-01

    Identifiers play an important role in communicating the intentions associated with the program entities they represent. The information captured in identifiers support programmers to (re-)build the “mental model” of the software and facilitates understanding. (Re-)building the “mental model” and understanding large software, however, is difficult and expensive. Besides, the effort involved in the process heavily depends on the quality of the programmers’ lexicon used to construct th...

  13. Educating "Good Citizenship" through Bilingual Children Literature Arabic and Hebrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Zamir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research has been to evaluate the contribution of the genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to citizenship education. Since the Israeli society is a multicultural society comprised of both nations, Arabs and Jews who live in conflicted environment, one must regard those textbooks as civic agents. Literature is a socialization agent and as such it is an active influential factor in children's mental environment. The responsible citizens act responsibly in their community. They obey rules and regulation, acts kindly to his surroundings and occasionally donates out of their own resources. The participatory citizen actually participates in the social life of the community, at local, state and national levels by joining established systems. The justice citizen calls for attention to matters of injustice and to the importance of pursuing social goals. The content analysis procedure, revealed that most the  stories, hence, ten out the  thirteen  deal  with the  two elevated types  of citizenship,  namely,  the participatory citizen and the justice citizen.  Inspire  of  the  fact   that  we  are  dealing with  children's literature, the  authors  of  bilingual  children literature do not belittle the capacity of  children to  grasp  their role  as citizens in multicultural  society.

  14. Reading Hebrews through Akan ethnicity and social identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Kissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Akan people of Ghana have concepts of ethnicity and social identity which are similar to those found in the Mediterranean world, which find expression in the issues addressed in the letter to the Hebrews. This similarity makes the reading of Hebrews in light of Akan ethnicity and social identity possible, giving one the expected meaning from the perspective of those concepts as within the original context of the audience. This article therefore discusses some theories on ethnicity and social identity as well as the Akan people of Ghana and their concepts of ethnicity and social identity. It further explains the social context of the letter of Hebrews against which Hebrews is then read in light of Akan ethnicity and social identity. The focus of this reading is on how the ethnic identity of the readers presented in Hebrews enhances the social identity of the readers and provides the means by which the author’s appeal to his readers for their faithfulness to God becomes meaningful and urgent.

  15. Take control the Mac OS X lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Zardetto, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This ebook explains a little bit of everything; in fact, it's The Mac OS X (and then some) Lexicon because it's never just you and your Mac. It's you and your Mac and the Web, and your email, and that article you just read that threw 17 new acronyms at you or assumed that you knew all sorts of networking terms. Or it's you and your Mac and Finder features you've never touched, such as burn folders, smart folders, or proxy icons, and that mysterious Services submenu. This book is a great guide for Macintosh users everywhere who have trouble keeping up with the latest jargon, fo

  16. Language Corrections and Language Ideologies in Israeli Hebrew-Speaking Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Hadar; Yitzhaki, Dafna; Lefstein, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This article is about language corrections in Israeli Hebrew-speaking primary classrooms. The ideological significance of language corrections, particularly within the highly contested context of Israeli society and Modern Hebrew, underlies the current study. Teachers in Israeli, Hebrew-speaking classes were found to frequently correct not only…

  17. Lexicon Optimization for Dutch Speech Recognition in Spoken Document Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    In this paper, ongoing work concerning the language modelling and lexicon optimization of a Dutch speech recognition system for Spoken Document Retrieval is described: the collection and normalization of a training data set and the optimization of our recognition lexicon. Effects on lexical coverage

  18. Lexicon optimization for Dutch speech recognition in spoken document retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; van Hessen, Adrianus J.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Dalsgaard, P.; Lindberg, B.; Benner, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, ongoing work concerning the language modelling and lexicon optimization of a Dutch speech recognition system for Spoken Document Retrieval is described: the collection and normalization of a training data set and the optimization of our recognition lexicon. Effects on lexical coverage

  19. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of ...

  20. Exodus, Psalms and Hebrews: A God abounding in steadfast love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    quarter century, there is, perhaps, none more important that that book's uses of the Old ... According to the Hebrew Scriptures God revealed God self to God's people at Sinai. ... perceptions of Yahweh and his relationship to those he claimed his people. (Durham .... is the merciful love of a father (Kraus 1989:292). This is the ...

  1. Beyond divine command theory: Moral realism in the Hebrew bible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the author challenges the popular consensus with several arguments demonstrating the presence of moral realism in the text. It is furthermore suggested that the popular consensus came about as a result of prima facie assessments informed by anachronistic metatheistic assumptions about what the Hebrew ...

  2. Exodus, Psalms and Hebrews: A God abounding in steadfast love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of hesed (“faithfulness, kindness, grace, steadfast love, solidarity” etc) is one of those. According to the Hebrew Scriptures, God revealed God self to God's people at Sinai. This article will deal specifically with the reference to the Sinai revelation as it appears in three Psalms. This discussion will be followed by a ...

  3. Discerning Diachronic Change in the Biblical Hebrew Verbal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    the features that are used to decide whether a text is LBH or EBH, making the linguistic dating of Hebrew biblical texts even more problematic. The article looks at several verbal features used to date texts linguistically, showing that when analyzed closely, use of the features turns out to merit more caution...

  4. Samaria, Samaritans and the Composition of the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Examination of supersessionism and competition over cult and belief inherent in narratives and structures of the Hebrew Bible. While discussions over cult  places are presented in a variety of extra-biblical sources as taking place in post-exilic times, biblical narratives anachronistically place...

  5. The Judaeo-Karaite Reception of the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    DESCRIPTION: The Karaites emerged as a school of thought within Middle Eastern Judaism in the 8th century. The Karaites were a “reading community” whose intellectual activity and daily lives were based around the divine scriptures. Over time Karaism became one of the two main competing schools of...... between the Rabbinate and the Karaite reception and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible....

  6. SHEBANQ : System for HEBrew Text: ANnotations for Queries and Markup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, D.; Glanz, Oliver; van den Berg, H.; Van de Schraaf, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    The shebanq service is the first data service of ancient-data.org. Shebanq is a search engine for the Hebrew Bible, powered by the ETCBC4 linguistic database, formerly know as WIVU. The data is archived for open access, clicking the Sources menu or the DANS logo at the bottom will bring you to the

  7. Business Metaphors in a Bilingual Business Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: General purpose dictionaries benefit users at large in many ways, but the definitions and examples might not satisfy the diverse needs of different professional users. This is especially true of metaphors. The article discusses the treatment of business metaphors in the PolyU Business Lexicon derived from the trilingual PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. During the process the concordances are grouped by senses, and then separated according to their literal and metaphorical meanings, which in turn lead to the decisions of sense order, word meaning and translation equivalents. Since different cultures have different 'bags' of metaphors, and metaphorical meanings also vary in different registers, the focus is primarily on the differences between Chinese and English in terms of culture, psychology, language and how such differences can be translated and presented in a corpus-based business lexicon with a minimum loss of their original connotations. Cultural transformations, such as direct translation, image substitution, explanatory notes and abandonment of the figure of speech, are suggested to bridge interlanguage metaphorical gaps.

    Keywords: METAPHOR, DEFINITION, TRANSLATION, CULTURAL DIFFERENCE

    Opsomming: Sakemetafore in 'n tweetalige sakewoordeboek. Woordeboeke vir algemene doeleindes bevoordeel gewone gebruikers op baie maniere, maar die definisies en voorbeelde mag dalk nie die uiteenlopende behoeftes van verskillende professionele gebruikers bevredig nie. Dit is veral waar van metafore. Die artikel bespreek die behandeling van sakemetafore in die PolyU Business Lexicon gebaseer op die drietalige PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. Gedurende die proses word die konkordansies deur betekenisse gegroepeer, en dan geskei volgens hul letterlike en metaforiese betekenisse, wat vervolgens lei tot die besluite oor betekenisorde, woordbetekenis, en vertaalsekwivalente. Aangesien verskillende kulture verskillende "sakke" metafore het, en

  8. Incidental Lexicon Acquisition through Playful Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Wilhelm Ansteeg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational game which aids learners with foreign lexicon acquisition while entertaining them at the same time. An overview over existing language learning tools is given, and a general platform for educational games for second language acquisition (SLA is described. It introduces a specific prototype video game which teaches Italian vocabulary to the user. The application puts learning at the core of its game mechanics and combines it with a narrative and role-playing elements. In a user study, the game is compared to two other learning methods with focus on long term retention of vocabulary and enjoyment of the exercise. The game is found to perform within 10% of the efficiency of pure vocabulary learning exercises, while being considerably more enjoyable to the user.

  9. Late Hebrew Immersion at Mt. Scopus College, Melbourne: Towards Complete Hebrew Fluency for Jewish Day School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, S. C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates a Hebrew immersion program for Jewish day school students at Mt. Scopus College in Melbourne, Australia. Specific sections address the following: (1) the first year; (2) the second year; (3) designing the evaluation of the program; (4) results of the evaluation (including academic outcomes, student and parent…

  10. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Language corpora are now indispensable to dictionary compilation. They help broaden the role of the dictionary from standardizing the vocabulary to recording a language. The trilingual corpus generated by the Hong Kong Polytechnic University gives a record of business languages used in Hong Kong. It differs from other corpora in that (1 it includes English, Chinese and Japanese; (2 it shows local characteristics; and (3 it focuses on a specific area (financial services, including banking, accounting, auditing, insurance and investment. The paper discusses various issues of setting up a tricorpus, and how to make full use of the data to generate a trilingual lexicon.

    Keywords: MULTILINGUAL, SPECIAL PURPOSE, CORPUS, LEXICON

    Opsomming: Van sakekorpus tot sakeleksikon. Taalkorpora is tans onontbeerlik virdie samestelling van woordeboeke. Hulle help om die rol van die woordeboek uit te brei vanaf diestandaardisering van die woordeskat tot die optekening van ‘n taal. Die drietalige korpus wat deurdie Hongkongse Politegniese Universiteit ontwikkel is, verskaf ‘n opgawe van die saketale wat inHongkong gebruik word. Dit verskil van ander korpora deurdat (1 dit Engels, Chinees and Japaneesinsluit; (2 dit plaaslike eienskappe vertoon; en (3 dit op 'n spesifieke gebied (finansiële dienste,insluitende bankwese, rekeningkunde, ouditering, versekering en belegging fokus. Die artikelbespreek verskillende aspekte van die totstandbrenging van 'n drietalige korpus, en hoe om vollegebruik te maak van die data om 'n drietalige leksikon te genereer.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIG, SPESIALE DOEL, KORPUS, LEKSIKON

  11. Arabic Feature-Based Level Sentiment Analysis Using Lexicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... structured reviews being prior knowledge for mining unstructured reviews. ... FDSO has been introduced, which defines a space of product features ... polarity of a review using feature ontology and sentiment lexicons.

  12. Guessing lexicon entries using finite-state methods

    OpenAIRE

    Koskenniemi, Kimmo Matti

    2018-01-01

    A practical method for interactive guessing of LEXC lexicon entries is presented. The method is based on describing groups of similarly inflected words using regular expressions. The patterns are compiled into a finite-state transducer (FST) which maps any word form into the possible LEXC lexicon entries which could generate it. The same FST can be used (1) for converting conventional headword lists into LEXC entries, (2) for interactive guessing of entries, (3) for corpus-assisted interactiv...

  13. Automatic Construction and Global Optimization of a Multisentiment Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual annotation of sentiment lexicons costs too much labor and time, and it is also difficult to get accurate quantification of emotional intensity. Besides, the excessive emphasis on one specific field has greatly limited the applicability of domain sentiment lexicons (Wang et al., 2010. This paper implements statistical training for large-scale Chinese corpus through neural network language model and proposes an automatic method of constructing a multidimensional sentiment lexicon based on constraints of coordinate offset. In order to distinguish the sentiment polarities of those words which may express either positive or negative meanings in different contexts, we further present a sentiment disambiguation algorithm to increase the flexibility of our lexicon. Lastly, we present a global optimization framework that provides a unified way to combine several human-annotated resources for learning our 10-dimensional sentiment lexicon SentiRuc. Experiments show the superior performance of SentiRuc lexicon in category labeling test, intensity labeling test, and sentiment classification tasks. It is worth mentioning that, in intensity label test, SentiRuc outperforms the second place by 21 percent.

  14. The Role of Emergent Bilingualism in the Development of Morphological Awareness in Arabic and Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Taha, Haitham; Assad, Hanan; Khamaisi, Ferdos; Eviatar, Zohar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of dual language development and cross-linguistic influence on morphological awareness in young bilinguals' first language (L1) and second language (L2). We examined whether (a) the bilingual children (L1/L2 Arabic and L1/L2 Hebrew) precede their monolingual Hebrew- or Arabic-speaking peers in L1 and L2 morphological awareness, and (b) 1 Semitic language (Arabic) has cross-linguistic influence on another Semitic language (Hebrew) in morphological awareness. The study sample comprised 93 six-year-old children. The bilinguals had attended bilingual Hebrew-Arabic kindergartens for 1 academic year and were divided into 2 groups: home language Hebrew (L1) and home language Arabic (L1). These groups were compared to age-matched monolingual Hebrew speakers and monolingual Arabic speakers. We used nonwords similar in structure to familiar words in both target languages, representing 6 inflectional morphological categories. L1 Arabic and L1 Hebrew bilinguals performed significantly better than Arabic- and Hebrew-speaking monolinguals in the respective languages. Differences were not found between the bilingual groups. We found evidence of cross-linguistic transfer of morphological awareness from Arabic to Hebrew in 2 categories-bound possessives and dual number-probably because these categories are more salient in Palestinian Spoken Arabic than in Hebrew. We conclude that children with even an initial exposure to L2 reveal acceleration of sensitivity to word structure in both of their languages. We suggest that this is due to the fact that two Semitic languages, Arabic and Hebrew, share a common core of linguistic features, together with favorable contextual factors and instructional factors.

  15. Il Lexicon of Scholarly Editing: una bussola nella Babele delle tradizioni filologiche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spadini, E.; Dillen, Wout; Zanardo, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the Lexicon of Scholarly Editing, a multilingual digital lexicon of philological terms, that aims to facilitate the international exchange, gathering definitions from the variety of theoretical and methodological approaches to textual criticism, textkritik, critique textuelle,

  16. Humoral theory as motivation for anger metaphors in the Hebrew Bible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the role of the ancient Israelite humoral theory in the motivation of anger metaphors in the Hebrew Bible. It is argued that the role of the folk theory of bodily fluids on the cognitive interpretation of anger in the Hebrew Bible has been underestimated. While the study of universal bodily experience as ...

  17. Validation of the Simple View of Reading in Hebrew--A Semitic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R. Malatesha; Ji, Xuejun Ryan; Breznitz, Zvia; Amiel, Meirav; Yulia, Astri

    2015-01-01

    The Simple View of Reading (SVR) in Hebrew was tested by administering decoding, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension measures to 1,002 students from Grades 2 to 10 in the northern part of Israel. Results from hierarchical regression analyses supported the SVR in Hebrew with decoding and listening comprehension measures explaining…

  18. Hebrew Education in the United States: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This article sketches the trajectory of Hebrew education in the United States from the early 1900s to the present. Attending to the historiography of Hebrew education, it shows how current curricula and pedagogical approaches have been stamped by historical considerations and language ideologies, how goals and strategies have changed (or remained…

  19. Internal consistency reliability and validity of the Hebrew translation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L J; Katz, Y J

    2000-08-01

    The Hebrew translation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory and the short form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire were completed by 298 undergraduate women in Israel. The findings confirm the internal reliability of the Hebrew translation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory and support the construct validity according to which "happiness is a thing called stable extraversion."

  20. Family Language Policies, Reported Language Use and Proficiency in Russian-Hebrew Bilingual Children in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Carmit; Burstein Feldman, Zhanna; Yitzhaki, Dafna; Armon Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between family language policy (FLP) and language choice, language use, proficiency in Russian and Hebrew, codeswitching (CS) and linguistic performance was studied in Russian-speaking immigrant parents and their Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children. By means of Glaser's Grounded Theory, the content of sociolinguistic…

  1. Morphological Processing during Visual Word Recognition in Hebrew as a First and a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether sublexical morphological processing takes place during visual word-recognition in Hebrew, and whether morphological decomposition of written words depends on lexical activation of the complete word. Furthermore, it examined whether morphological processing is similar when reading Hebrew as a first language (L1)…

  2. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  3. The Meanings of Hebrew: Defining Bilingual Education in a Dual-Language Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Using a discourse analytic framework that draws on theories of language ideologies, this paper analyzes the semiotics of a heritage language as it moves from the context of parochial education to the realm of public schooling. Specifically, it examines how Hebrew undergoes resemioticization when a Hebrew language charter school in the District of…

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Hebrew Language Version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaby, Dana; Jarus, Tal; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    The satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) is a widely accepted and widely used tool for measuring well-being. Although its potential as a cross-cultural index is recognized, an introduction and systematic validation of the Hebrew version is needed. Thus, the purpose of this study is: (1) to describe the process of developing the Hebrew version of…

  5. The Role of Emergent Bilingualism in the Development of Morphological Awareness in Arabic and Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Taha, Haitham; Assad, Hanan; Khamaisi, Ferdos; Eviatar, Zohar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of dual language development and cross-linguistic influence on morphological awareness in young bilinguals' first language (L1) and second language (L2). We examined whether (a) the bilingual children (L1/L2 Arabic and L1/L2 Hebrew) precede their monolingual Hebrew- or…

  6. Classist proofs that “Philosophia” is Hebrew not Greek | Nnaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :9 ―Niphilaosapher‖ (i.e. numbers that cannot be counted or explained). The study's hypothesis states (1)HO: that all the above Hebrew old Testament words entered Greek from around 300-250BC when the Hebrew-Aramaic Old Testament ...

  7. "A Seed Blessed by the Lord": The Role of Religious References in the Creation of Modern Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Iair G.

    2016-01-01

    The nativization of Modern Hebrew at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth is one of the most commonly cited examples of language planning and (possibly) revival. The Hebrew Language Committee, which was the main body responsible for Hebrew language planning in the formative years 1890-1953, held numerous discussions…

  8. Oral-diadochokinesis rates across languages: English and Hebrew norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icht, Michal; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2014-01-01

    Oro-facial and speech motor control disorders represent a variety of speech and language pathologies. Early identification of such problems is important and carries clinical implications. A common and simple tool for gauging the presence and severity of speech motor control impairments is oral-diadochokinesis (oral-DDK). Surprisingly, norms for adult performance are missing from the literature. The goals of this study were: (1) to establish a norm for oral-DDK rate for (young to middle-age) adult English speakers, by collecting data from the literature (five studies, N=141); (2) to investigate the possible effect of language (and culture) on oral-DDK performance, by analyzing studies conducted in other languages (five studies, N=140), alongside the English norm; and (3) to find a new norm for adult Hebrew speakers, by testing 115 speakers. We first offer an English norm with a mean of 6.2syllables/s (SD=.8), and a lower boundary of 5.4syllables/s that can be used to indicate possible abnormality. Next, we found significant differences between four tested languages (English, Portuguese, Farsi and Greek) in oral-DDK rates. Results suggest the need to set language and culture sensitive norms for the application of the oral-DDK task world-wide. Finally, we found the oral-DDK performance for adult Hebrew speakers to be 6.4syllables/s (SD=.8), not significantly different than the English norms. This implies possible phonological similarities between English and Hebrew. We further note that no gender effects were found in our study. We recommend using oral-DDK as an important tool in the speech language pathologist's arsenal. Yet, application of this task should be done carefully, comparing individual performance to a set norm within the specific language. Readers will be able to: (1) identify the Speech-Language Pathologist assessment process using the oral-DDK task, by comparing an individual performance to the present English norm, (2) describe the impact of language

  9. General principles of researching the lexicon of traditional material culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljkov Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a linguistic research of terminological systems connected with basic fields of human life and work which, in modern conditions, are either transformed into contemporary modern forms or gradually disappear due to changes in the way of life and work. The lexicon of material culture of native inhabitants of Vojvodina is examined, resulting in monographs on the terminologies of fishing, cartwrighting, shepherding and houses and furniture, all of which have in common the fact that the starting point was the research of the lexicon in question by semantic fields. The paper shows the lexicological and lexicographical procedures used while researching these terminological systems.

  10. Grammar-Lexicon Distinction in a Neurocognitive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishkhanyan, Byurakn

    hypotheses and testing them through using various methods. The grammar-lexicon distinction and working memory are thus central topics of this thesis. The results suggest a potential for a successful integration of the two theories. The findings further provide evidence for Boye & Harder’s (2012......) understanding of the grammar-lexicon distinction, and for the involvement of working memory in language production, as the REF-model would predict. As a starting point for integrating the two theories, the present thesis gives directions for future research on the neurocognitive underpinning of language and its...... relation to working memory....

  11. The Hebrew Language in Quevedo’s España defendida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Cohen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of Hebrew in one of the famous writings of Francisco de Quevedo, España defendida. The work considers aspects in the book where Quevedo’s knowledge of Hebrew can be studied from different linguistic perspectives: phonetics, morphology, etymology and, in this specific case, graphematics. Also, in addition to the above, it is interesting to notice how Quevedo is frequently making cultural and literary deductions that, in many cases, are to be considered with his view of Hebrew. Certainly, in the early stages of the work of Quevedo as an author and thinker, he demonstrated a plentitude of exquisite ability of writing about erudite topics. To the point where the analysis of the Hebrew language from socio-linguistic standpoint coincide with his view about the identity of the Spanish people in relation to tradition and religion, from the Hebrews to Christianity and Spain.

  12. Psychologist in a Pocket: Lexicon Development and Content Validation of a Mobile-Based App for Depression Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Paula Glenda Ferrer; Ramos, Roann Munoz; Bitsch, Jó Ágila; Jonas, Stephan Michael; Ix, Tim; See, Portia Lynn Quetulio; Wehrle, Klaus

    2016-07-20

    Language reflects the state of one's mental health and personal characteristics. It also reveals preoccupations with a particular schema, thus possibly providing insights into psychological conditions. Using text or lexical analysis in exploring depression, negative schemas and self-focusing tendencies may be depicted. As mobile technology has become highly integrated in daily routine, mobile devices have the capacity for ecological momentary assessment (EMA), specifically the experience sampling method (ESM), where behavior is captured in real-time or closer in time to experience in one's natural environment. Extending mobile technology to psychological health could augment initial clinical assessment, particularly of mood disturbances, such as depression and analyze daily activities, such as language use in communication. Here, we present the process of lexicon generation and development and the initial validation of Psychologist in a Pocket (PiaP), a mobile app designed to screen signs of depression through text analysis. The main objectives of the study are (1) to generate and develop a depressive lexicon that can be used for screening text-input in mobile apps to be used in the PiaP; and (2) to conduct content validation as initial validation. The first phase of our research focused on lexicon development. Words related to depression and its symptoms based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and in the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines classification systems were gathered from focus group discussions with Filipino college students, interviews with mental health professionals, and the review of established scales for depression and other related constructs. The lexicon development phase yielded a database consisting of 13 categories based on the criteria depressive symptoms in the DSM-5 and ICD-10. For the draft of the depression lexicon for

  13. Neural correlates of lexicon and grammar: evidence from the production, reading, and judgment of inflection in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T; Pancheva, Roumyana; Love, Tracy; Yee, Eiling; Swinney, David; Hickok, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    Are the linguistic forms that are memorized in the mental lexicon and those that are specified by the rules of grammar subserved by distinct neurocognitive systems or by a single computational system with relatively broad anatomic distribution? On a dual-system view, the productive -ed-suffixation of English regular past tense forms (e.g., look-looked) depends upon the mental grammar, whereas irregular forms (e.g., dig-dug) are retrieved from lexical memory. On a single-mechanism view, the computation of both past tense types depends on associative memory. Neurological double dissociations between regulars and irregulars strengthen the dual-system view. The computation of real and novel, regular and irregular past tense forms was investigated in 20 aphasic subjects. Aphasics with non-fluent agrammatic speech and left frontal lesions were consistently more impaired at the production, reading, and judgment of regular than irregular past tenses. Aphasics with fluent speech and word-finding difficulties, and with left temporal/temporo-parietal lesions, showed the opposite pattern. These patterns held even when measures of frequency, phonological complexity, articulatory difficulty, and other factors were held constant. The data support the view that the memorized words of the mental lexicon are subserved by a brain system involving left temporal/temporo-parietal structures, whereas aspects of the mental grammar, in particular the computation of regular morphological forms, are subserved by a distinct system involving left frontal structures.

  14. Universal and particular in morphological processing: Evidence from Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhy, Yael; Veríssimo, João; Clahsen, Harald

    2018-05-01

    Do properties of individual languages shape the mechanisms by which they are processed? By virtue of their non-concatenative morphological structure, the recognition of complex words in Semitic languages has been argued to rely strongly on morphological information and on decomposition into root and pattern constituents. Here, we report results from a masked priming experiment in Hebrew in which we contrasted verb forms belonging to two morphological classes, Paal and Piel, which display similar properties, but crucially differ on whether they are extended to novel verbs. Verbs from the open-class Piel elicited familiar root priming effects, but verbs from the closed-class Paal did not. Our findings indicate that, similarly to other (e.g., Indo-European) languages, down-to-the-root decomposition in Hebrew does not apply to stems of non-productive verbal classes. We conclude that the Semitic word processor is less unique than previously thought: Although it operates on morphological units that are combined in a non-linear way, it engages the same universal mechanisms of storage and computation as those seen in other languages.

  15. Food Service Technical Terms. English-Spanish Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Spanish lexicon presents food service technical terms. The terms are divided into seven categories: basic food items, common baking terms, food cutting terms, general cooking terms, non-English culinary terms, and tools and equipment. Each English word or term is followed by its Spanish equivalent(s). (YLB)

  16. "Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon": Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34[5], 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…

  17. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon | Lan | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shows local characteristics; and (3) it focuses on a specific area (financial services, including banking, accounting, auditing, insurance and investment). The paper discusses various issues of setting up a tricorpus, and how to make full use of the data to generate a trilingual lexicon. Keywords: multilingual, special purpose, ...

  18. The Emotional Lexicon of Individuals Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the specific emotional lexicons in narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASPD exhibit deficiencies in emotional language. Study participants consisted of 60 prison inmates with ASPD, 40 prison inmates without ASPD, and 60 men without…

  19. Comprehensive Study on Lexicon-based Ensemble Classification Sentiment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Augustyniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method for counting sentiment orientation that outperforms supervised learning approaches in time and memory complexity and is not statistically significantly different from them in accuracy. Our method consists of a novel approach to generating unigram, bigram and trigram lexicons. The proposed method, called frequentiment, is based on calculating the frequency of features (words in the document and averaging their impact on the sentiment score as opposed to documents that do not contain these features. Afterwards, we use ensemble classification to improve the overall accuracy of the method. What is important is that the frequentiment-based lexicons with sentiment threshold selection outperform other popular lexicons and some supervised learners, while being 3–5 times faster than the supervised approach. We compare 37 methods (lexicons, ensembles with lexicon’s predictions as input and supervised learners applied to 10 Amazon review data sets and provide the first statistical comparison of the sentiment annotation methods that include ensemble approaches. It is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of domain sentiment analysis in the literature.

  20. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional's corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior.

  1. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional’s corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior. PMID:26630138

  2. Learning to Read a Semitic Abjad: The Triplex Model of Hebrew Reading Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, David L; Bar-On, Amalia

    2017-07-01

    We introduce a model of Hebrew reading development that emphasizes both the universal and script-specific aspects of learning to read a Semitic abjad. At the universal level, the study of Hebrew reading acquisition offers valuable insights into the fundamental dilemmas of all writing systems-balancing the competing needs of the novice versus the expert reader (Share, 2008). At the script-specific level, pointed Hebrew initially employs supplementary vowel signs, providing the beginning reader a consistent, phonologically well-specified script while helping the expert-to-be unitize words and morphemes via (consonantal) spelling constancy. A major challenge for the developing Hebrew reader is negotiating the transition from pointed to unpointed Hebrew, with its abundance of homographs. Our triplex model emphasizes three phases of early Hebrew reading development: a progression from lower-order, phonological (sublexical) sequential spelling-to-sound translation (Phase 1, Grade 1) to higher-order, string-level (lexical) lexico-morpho-orthographic processing (Phase 2, Grade 2) followed, in the upper elementary grades, by a supralexical contextual level (Phase 3) essential for dealing with the pervasive homography of unpointed Hebrew.

  3. Whole-Word Phonological Representations of Disyllabic Words in the Chinese Lexicon: Data From Acquired Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Po Law

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the issue of the existence of whole-word phonological representations of disyllabic and multisyllabic words in the Chinese mental lexicon. A Cantonese brain-injured dyslexic individual with semantic deficits, YKM, was assessed on his abilities to read aloud and to comprehend disyllabic words containing homographic heterophonous characters, the pronunciation of which can only be disambiguated in word context. Superior performance on reading to comprehension was found. YKM could produce the target phonological forms without understanding the words. The dissociation is taken as evidence for whole-word representations for these words at the phonological level. The claim is consistent with previous account for discrepancy of the frequencies of tonal errors between reading aloud and object naming in Cantonese reported of another case study of similar deficits. Theoretical arguments for whole-word form representations for all multisyllabic Chinese words are also discussed.

  4. On Biblical Hebrew and Computer Science: Inspiration, Models, Tools, And Cross-fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Eep Talstra's work has been an inspiration to maby researchers, both within and outside of the field of Old Testament scholarship. Among others, Crist-Jan Doedens and the present author have been heavily influenced by Talstra in their own work within the field of computer science. The present...... of the present author. In addition, the tools surrounding Emdros, including SESB, Libronis, and the Emdros Query Tool, are described. Ecamples Biblical Hebrew scholar. Thus the inspiration of Talstra comes full-circle: from Biblical Hebrew databases to computer science and back into Biblical Hebrew scholarship....

  5. The Hebrew Bible in contemporary philosophy of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Some dialogue among these specialists, especially between biblical scholars and philosophers of religion, is unquestionably long overdue.(Stump 1985:1�Over the last few decades, there has been an increased concern for the establishment of more sustained interdisciplinary dialogue between biblical scholars and philosophers of religion. In this article, aimed at biblical scholars, the author as biblical scholar offers a descriptive and historical overview of some samples of recourse to the Hebrew Bible in philosophical approaches in the study of religion. The aim is to provide a brief glimpse of how some representative philosophers from both the analytic and continental sides of the methodological divide have related to the biblical traditions in the quest for a contemporary relevant Christian philosophy of religion.

  6. SOCIAL PROTECTION – FROM EARLY HEBREW CULTURE TO CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Without the slightest exaggeration we can say that in ancient Israel a complex system of social security was regulated. If that system worked as depicted by the words of Moses and its efficiency are altogether other problems that can make the topic of new research. The disadvantaged categories the Old Testament refers to are not basically different from the persons that make today’s social politics topic, which are: the poor, orphans, widows, emigrants and the sick. Besides, a pericope through Deuteronomy bears the name The Rights of the foreigner, the orphan and widow. It is worth noting that in the Biblical text, the issue of protecting the disadvantaged transcends historical eras. It is found, thus, in the lamentations of the rightful Job, in the thoughts of Solomon and even in the words of our Savior. An everlasting issue to solve which modern approaches should not exclude, in our opinion, is the perennial parts of early Hebrew culture.

  7. Validation of the Hebrew version of the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitser, Jennifer; Peretz, Chava; Ber David, Aya; Shabtai, Herzl; Ezra, Adi; Kestenbaum, Meir; Brozgol, Marina; Rosenberg, Alina; Herman, Talia; Balash, Yakov; Gadoth, Avi; Thaler, Avner; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G; Tilley, Barbara C; Luo, Sheng T; Liu, Yuanyuan; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya

    2017-12-01

    The Movement Disorders Society (MDS) published the English new Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) as the official benchmark scale for Parkinson's disease (PD) in 2008. We aimed to validate the Hebrew version of the MDS-UPDRS, explore its dimensionality and compare it to the original English one. The MDS-UPDRS questionnaire was translated to Hebrew and was tested on 389 patients with PD, treated at the Movement Disorders Unit at Tel-Aviv Medical Center. The MDS-UPDRS is made up of four sections. The higher the score, the worst the clinical situation of the patient is. Confirmatory and explanatory factor analysis were applied to determine if the factor structure of the English version could be confirmed in the Hebrew version. The Hebrew version of the MDS-UPDRS showed satisfactory clinimetric properties. The internal consistency of the Hebrew-version was satisfactory, with Cronbach's alpha values 0.79, 0.90, 0.93, 0.80, for parts 1 to 4 respectively. In the confirmatory factor analysis, all four parts had high (greater than 0.90) comparative fit index (CFI) in comparison to the original English MDS-UPDRS with high factor structure (0.96, 0.99, 0.94, 1.00, respectively), thus confirming the pre-specified English factor structure. Explanatory factor analysis yielded that the Hebrew responses differed from the English one within an acceptable range: in isolated item differences in factor structure and in the findings of few items having cross loading on multiple factors. The Hebrew version of the MDS-UPDRS meets the requirements to be designated as the Official Hebrew Version of the MDS-UPDRS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphology-based Enhancement of a French SIMPLE Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Namer , Fiammetta; Bouillon , Pierrette; Jacquey , Evelyne; Ruimy , Nilda

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic methodology for acquiring a French SIMPLE lexicon based on the morphological properties of complex words. This method combines the results of the French morphological analyzer DériF with infor-mation from general lexical resources and corpora, when available. It is evaluated on a set of neolo-gisms extracted from Le Monde newspaper cor-pora.

  9. Towards a Unified Sentiment Lexicon Based on Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ibeth Barbosa-Santillán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to create what we have called a Unified Sentiment Lexicon (USL. This approach aims at aligning, unifying, and expanding the set of sentiment lexicons which are available on the web in order to increase their robustness of coverage. One problem related to the task of the automatic unification of different scores of sentiment lexicons is that there are multiple lexical entries for which the classification of positive, negative, or neutral {P,N,Z} depends on the unit of measurement used in the annotation methodology of the source sentiment lexicon. Our USL approach computes the unified strength of polarity of each lexical entry based on the Pearson correlation coefficient which measures how correlated lexical entries are with a value between 1 and −1, where 1 indicates that the lexical entries are perfectly correlated, 0 indicates no correlation, and −1 means they are perfectly inversely correlated and so is the UnifiedMetrics procedure for CPU and GPU, respectively. Another problem is the high processing time required for computing all the lexical entries in the unification task. Thus, the USL approach computes a subset of lexical entries in each of the 1344 GPU cores and uses parallel processing in order to unify 155802 lexical entries. The results of the analysis conducted using the USL approach show that the USL has 95.430 lexical entries, out of which there are 35.201 considered to be positive, 22.029 negative, and 38.200 neutral. Finally, the runtime was 10 minutes for 95.430 lexical entries; this allows a reduction of the time computing for the UnifiedMetrics by 3 times.

  10. The Old Testament or Hebrew Bible in Africa: Challenges and prospects for interpretation and translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloo O. Mojola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Old Testament or Hebrew Bible is much loved in Africa. It is however encountered almost exclusively in translation, either through translation into local indigenous languages or translation into foreign, non-local languages. The source language Hebrew text is inaccessible to the vast majority of readers, including Christian pastors or theological students who would naturally be expected to have access by virtue of their profession. Knowledge of the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible is thus mediated through existing translations and interpretations, and through the popular or scholarly writings of Old Testament or Hebrew Bible experts. In many parts of Africa the latter are in very short supply. This article is an attempt to engage and critically reflect further on some of the issues arising out of this situation with specific reference to the work of Knut Holter, as well as others. This situation and the challenges posed for a full and unencumbered encounter with the Hebrew scriptures and prospects for the future is explored.Intradisciplinary and/or�interdisciplinary�implications: It is expected that the translation of the Hebrew scriptures involves interaction with local cultures and belief systems opening space for new interpretations from the perspectives of local world views and practices. The challenges for local Christian theologies and Christian doctrine in general arising from this are unavoidable.

  11. Shared cross-modal associations and the emergence of the lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Cuskley, Christine F.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis centres around a sensory theory of protolanguage emergence, or STP. The STP proposes that shared biases to make associations between sensory modalities provided the basis for the emergence of a shared protolinguistic lexicon. Crucially, this lexicon would have been grounded in our perceptual systems, and thus fundamentally non-arbitrary. The foundation of such a lexicon lies in shared cross-modal associations: biases shared among language users to map properties in ...

  12. Developing a reduced consumer-led lexicon to measure emotional response to beer

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya, Carolina; Eaton, Curtis; Hewson, Louise; Fernández Vázquezc, Rocío; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Smart, Katherine A.; Hort, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous researchers have recently recommended and utilised consumer-led lexicons to measure emotional response. This study further advances this approach by 1) making the lexicon generation process more efficient by using consumer focus groups as opposed to individual consumer interviews and 2) decreasing the number of responses required from each consumer by reducing the lexicon to categories of similar terms. In response to 10 lager samples which were manipulated in order to control select...

  13. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Laurice; Weiss, Yael; Katzir, Tami; Bitan, Tali

    2018-01-01

    Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks) provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27) and 5th (N = 29) grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks), and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks). Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older readers. Moreover

  14. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurice Haddad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27 and 5th (N = 29 grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks, and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks. Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older

  15. VERBAL REPRESENTATION OF THE CONCEPT OF POLITENESS AND ITS SPECIFICS IN RUSSIAN AND MODERN HEBREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchalnikova Vera Anatolyevna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare the content of the universal ethic notion of politeness in Russian and Modern Hebrew on the basis of structural research of word's lexical meaning. Politeness is investigated as a basic ethic value that is included into the nucleus of ethnic culture and has certain influence on the content of ethnic worldview. The verbal representation of politeness as an ethic category differs significantly revealing the different structure and specific correlation of semantic components. The authors emphasize that national and cultural specifics of communicative behavior are defined by the different content of the concept of politeness in the communicative consciousness of the representatives of different linguocultures. In the process of communication the members of an ethnos act according to different operational understanding of the politeness assimilated during the social adaptation process. The authors underline that the notions (concepts described by the same word often differ in psychological meaning within the conceptual spheres of different nations. These different parts of ethnosspecific concepts contain significant information and national specifics of communicative behavior, and that is why they are pragmatically relevant. The research of the specifics of politeness concept meaning is a theoretical and pragmatic topic of current importance. The authors describe the first stage of politeness concept modelling based on lexicographic data. By comparing the components of concepts' meaning, that are denominated by comparable words in Russian and Jewish linguocultures, the authors prove the stability of concept's structure as a specific mental unit. The structural and semantic models of ъебйга and вежливость contain discreet components of meaning that are opposed gradually. The authors believe that this could be the indication of certain universal types of relations between word's meaning components.

  16. GRADIENCE, PHONOTACTICS, AND THE LEXICON IN ENGLISH PHONOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hammond

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work has established that when subjects judge the phonological wellformedness of nonsense forms, they are strongly affected by the frequency of the phonological elements of the form and by the number of actual words that such a form is similar to. These results challenge phonological theory by suggesting a central role for frequency and the lexicon. In this paper, I review these results and show how they can be easily modelled with Probabilistic Optimality Theory. The payoff is that from very few phonological assumptions we can derive virtually the whole panoply of experimental effects. We can also derive various Local Conjunction effects as well.

  17. Gender differentiation in the lexicon of the serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дарія Володимирівна Девлиш

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses its attention on the concepts "gender", "gender stereotype" and linguistic picture of the world. The lexicon of the Serbian language was researched through the prism of the analysis of synonymic rows which are used to represent character traits of men and women. In the structure of these concepts the following terms were pointed out: external characteristics, physical characteristics, internal characteristics, intellectual characteristics. Within the framework of the microcomponent “internal characteristics” two different negative features of both genders were analyzed: indecisive man, rude man; talkative woman, angry woman. 

  18. Nonviolent words. Introduction to a glossary for a Capitinian lexicon

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    Daniele TAURINO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aldo Capitini (1899-1968 is the most important philosopher for the nonviolence in Italy. In this article I will try to write a brief philosophical introduction about his complex thought, focusing on Capitini’s peculiar use of language. By throwing the proposal of a Capitinian Lexicon, here I’ll speak about three coordinates of Capitini’s philosophy: nonviolence, persuasion, co-presence. In my opinion these coordinates give the idea of revolutionary scope of his thought: trying to clarify the meaning of these terms is essential for the understanding of its influence and to imagine future researches and nonviolent actions.

  19. Lexicon development, consumer acceptance, and drivers of liking of quinoa varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of varieties being commercially available. In order to compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needed to be developed. Thus, the objective of this paper was to develop a lexicon describing ...

  20. The Generator of the Event Structure Lexicon (GESL): Automatic Annotation of Event Structure for Textual Inference Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation aims to develop the Generator of the Event Structure Lexicon (GESL) which is a tool to automate annotating the event structure of verbs in text to support textual inference tasks related to lexically entailed subevents. The output of the GESL is the Event Structure Lexicon (ESL), which is a lexicon of verbs in text which includes…

  1. Building an Arabic Sentiment Lexicon Using Semi-supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz H.H. Mahyoub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment analysis is the process of determining a predefined sentiment from text written in a natural language with respect to the entity to which it is referring. A number of lexical resources are available to facilitate this task in English. One such resource is the SentiWordNet, which assigns sentiment scores to words found in the English WordNet. In this paper, we present an Arabic sentiment lexicon that assigns sentiment scores to the words found in the Arabic WordNet. Starting from a small seed list of positive and negative words, we used semi-supervised learning to propagate the scores in the Arabic WordNet by exploiting the synset relations. Our algorithm assigned a positive sentiment score to more than 800, a negative score to more than 600 and a neutral score to more than 6000 words in the Arabic WordNet. The lexicon was evaluated by incorporating it into a machine learning-based classifier. The experiments were conducted on several Arabic sentiment corpora, and we were able to achieve a 96% classification accuracy.

  2. Exponence, allomorphy and haplology in the number and State morphology of Modern Hebrew

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Noam

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the regularities of plural exponence in Modern Hebrew. There are two genders in Modern Hebrew, each with its specific plural marker. Nouns can appear in the Construct or Free states, and the State of a noun also has an effect on the plural marking, though only in the case of masculine nouns. Finally, in nouns with possessive suffixes and in newly-formed dual nouns, plural number seems to be marked twice in the feminine noun, but only once in the masculine nou...

  3. A source of parametric variation in the lexicon

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    Guglielmo Cinque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An influential conjecture concerning parameters is that they can possibly be “restricted to formal features of functional categories” (Chomsky 1995: 6. In Rizzi (2009, 2011 such features are understood as instructions triggering one of the following syntactic actions: (1 External Merge; (2 Internal Merge (Move; (3 Pronunciation/Non pronunciation (the latter arguably dependent on Internal Merge – Kayne 2005a, b. In this article I consider a particular source of parametric variation across languages in the domain of the lexicon (both functional and substantive which appears to be due to the possibility of underspecifying certain features in some languages. The paradigmatic variation can be characterized as follows: language A has two (or more lexical items which correspond to just one lexical item in language B.

  4. The Translation of Indonesian Cultural Lexicons in the Novel Saman

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    Evert H. Hilman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Article was aimed to explore and identity the manners used by the translator in translating the Indonesian cultural lexicon in the novel Saman into English, and to find out which manners that contained the least semantic shifts concerning the problems of meaning related to cultural differences. Method applied was descriptive qualitative research by collecting and analyzing both the Indonesian and English versions of the novel. The samples were classified by Newmark four categories: loan words, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, and addition. It can be concluded that there are only seven manners found from the collected data but only four manners used in the analysis, they are loan word, cultural equivalent, functional equivalent, and addition.

  5. CzEngVallex: a Bilingual Czech-English Valency Lexicon

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    Urešová Zdeňka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new bilingual Czech-English verbal valency lexicon (called CzEng-Vallex representing a relatively large empirical database. It includes 20,835 aligned valency frame pairs (i.e., verb senses which are translations of each other and their aligned arguments. This new lexicon uses data from the Prague Czech-English Dependency Treebank and also takes advantage of the existing valency lexicons for both languages: the PDT-Vallex for Czech and the EngVallex for English. The CzEngVallex is available for browsing as well as for download in the LINDAT/CLARIN repository.

  6. Child Bilingualism in an Immigrant Society: Implications of Borrowing in the Hebrew 'Language of Games.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Adon, Aaron

    The first waves of immigrants arriving in Palestine were faced with the problem of forming a new culture and creating a new language, actually, reviving Hebrew, an ancient language. The children were faced with creating their own traditions, games, and folklore; in so doing, through straight borrowing, spontaneous translation (loan translation),…

  7. Peace Education through Bilingual Children's Literature Written in Arabic and in Hebrew: Different Narratives, Different Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research has been to evaluate the contribution of the emerging Israeli genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to peace education. Since Israeli society is a multicultural one comprised of two nations, Arabs and Jews who live in an environment of conflict, one must regard those textbooks as political socialization agents.…

  8. Universal and Language-Specific Constraints on Phonemic Awareness: Evidence from Russian-Hebrew Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor; Kogan, Nadya; Walters, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The study tested phonemic awareness in the two languages of Russian (L1)-Hebrew (L2) sequential bilingual children (N = 20) using phoneme deletion tasks where the phoneme to be deleted occurred word initial, word final, as a singleton, or part of a cluster, in long and short words and stressed and unstressed syllables. The experiments were…

  9. Children's Production of Subject-Verb Agreement in Hebrew When Gender and Context Are Ambiguous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel; Artzi, Sigal; Ludmer, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Third and 5th grade Hebrew-speaking children performed two sentence completion tasks, one requiring the assignment of male, female, or gender-ambiguous names and the inflection of verbs for male-stereotyped, female-stereotyped, and gender-neutral activities, and the other task, of inflecting verbs for male- and female-stereotyped activities…

  10. Balfour's Mission to Palestine: Science, Strategy, and the Inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Roy

    2008-01-01

    In 1925, A.J. Balfour, first Earl Balfour and author of the famous "Balfour Declaration", attended the inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. His education and experience of foreign policy equipped him to take a prominent role. However, the conditions of strife-torn Palestine weighed heavily upon him, and raised wider…

  11. Differences in the Reading of Shallow and Deep Orthography: Developmental Evidence from Hebrew and Turkish Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul; Kargin, Tevhide; Guldenoglu, Birkan

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates differences in the word-reading process between individuals reading in a deep (unpointed Hebrew) and a shallow orthography (Turkish). The participants were 120 students evenly and randomly recruited from three levels of education (primary = 3rd-4th graders; middle = 6th-7th graders; high = 9th-10th graders). The…

  12. The Role of Morphology in Word Recognition of Hebrew as a Templatic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganyan, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Research on recognition of complex words has primarily focused on affixational complexity in concatenative languages. This dissertation investigates both templatic and affixational complexity in Hebrew, a templatic language, with particular focus on the role of the root and template morphemes in recognition. It also explores the role of morphology…

  13. Jesus the interceding High Priest: A fresh look at Hebrews 7:25 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the book of Hebrews, the locus of Jesus' intercession is found in his role as a high priest. Yet neither the Levitical high priest nor Melchizedek, the prototype after which Jesus' priestly function is modelled, interceded in a strict sense of the word. In a context where prayer is seen as an activity that pertains to the ...

  14. Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic in Israel: Linguistic Frameworks and Speech-Language Pathology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel-Karl, Sigal; Kanaan, Fadi; Yifat, Rachel; Meir, Irit; Abugov, Netta; Ravid, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of cooperation between Israeli Jewish and Arab psycholinguists and speech-language disorders specialists. It presents two facets of the Israeli communications disorders scene: (1) a review of some linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic facets of Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic, two Semitic languages whose…

  15. Investigative change detection: identifying new topics using lexicon-based search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2002-08-01

    In law enforcement there is much textual data which needs to be searched in order to detect new threats. A new methodology which can be applied to this need is the automatic searching of the contents of documents from known sources to construct a lexicon of words used by that source. When analyzing future documents, the occurrence of words which have not been lexiconized are indicative of the introduction of a new topic into the source's lexicon which should be examined in its context by an analyst. A system analogous to this has been built and used to detect Fads and Categories on web sites. Fad refers to the first appearance of a word not in the lexicon; Category refers to the repeated appearance of a Fad word and the exceeding of some frequency or spatial occurrence metric indicating a permanence to the Category.

  16. A Unified Framework for Creating Domain Dependent Polarity Lexicons from User Generated Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Asghar

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in the explosion of Web-based user generated reviews has resulted in the emergence of Opinion Mining (OM applications for analyzing the users' opinions toward products, services, and policies. The polarity lexicons often play a pivotal role in the OM, indicating the positivity and negativity of a term along with the numeric score. However, the commonly available domain independent lexicons are not an optimal choice for all of the domains within the OM applications. The aforementioned is due to the fact that the polarity of a term changes from one domain to other and such lexicons do not contain the correct polarity of a term for every domain. In this work, we focus on the problem of adapting a domain dependent polarity lexicon from set of labeled user reviews and domain independent lexicon to propose a unified learning framework based on the information theory concepts that can assign the terms with correct polarity (+ive, -ive scores. The benchmarking on three datasets (car, hotel, and drug reviews shows that our approach improves the performance of the polarity classification by achieving higher accuracy. Moreover, using the derived domain dependent lexicon changed the polarity of terms, and the experimental results show that our approach is more effective than the base line methods.

  17. Pedagogy of social transformation in the Hebrew Bible: Allowing Scripture to inform our interpretive strategy for contemporary application

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    Katherine Moloney

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hebrew Bible itself teaches its readers and listeners how to learn. Its pedagogy of social transformation instructs contemporary Christians how to interpret and apply lessons from Scripture in a manner that is consistent with the orientation, priorities and methods inherent in the text. This article demonstrates that relationship and identity are the necessary precursors to biblical education. It then considers the educational perspective for social transformation within the Hebrew Bible. The analysis explores the purpose and process of education for social transformation and the pastorally oriented pedagogy that the Bible utilises to advance moral development and prevent hermeneutic bias. Lastly, the article considers how the narrative, Law, prophets and wisdom texts in the Hebrew Bible train in social critique. This article helps Christians to develop a biblically based hermeneutic of the Hebrew Scripture’s social transformation for application today.

  18. Economic utopia of the Torah. Economic concepts of the Hebrew Bible interpreted according to the Rabbinical Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Esa Mangeloja

    2004-01-01

    Hebrew Bible offers alternative Economic utopia for building Theocratic society. In this paper, various economic concepts and themes are presented, as found in the Hebrew Bible. These economic concepts include taxation, property rights, labor market, social policy, banking, years of Sabbath and Jubilee, and business cycles. Most economic issues of the Bible are found in the texts of Torah, also known as five Books of Moses. These texts are analyzed by using classical Rabbinical commentaries f...

  19. Tre voci per un Lexicon di Giuseppe Pontiggia

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    Daniela Marcheschi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tre parole-chiave offrono lo spunto per un’immersione nel pensiero e nell’opera di Giuseppe Pontiggia. La prima: parola, riaffermata dallo scrittore in quanto atto civile e ‘corporeo’ mediante il quale l’uomo fa esperienza di se stesso entrando in contatto con i suoi simili e con il circostante, ricongiungendosi insieme alla sua più profonda e antica natura. Viene così restituita allo scrittore/critico la responsabilità di lottare contro l’attuale minaccia dello svuotamento linguistico, nel nome di una costruttiva utopia culturale. La seconda parola, musica, serve a illuminare i romanzi di Pontiggia – in specie La grande sera e L’arte della fuga – attraverso suggestive analogie con la musica classica e il jazz, predilette dallo scrittore. Ossimoro è l’ultima voce di questo Lexicon: figura retorica, ma soprattutto figura conoscitiva che permette allo scrittore di scoprire la propria verità e il proprio linguaggio e al lettore di abbracciare una visione non lineare e problematica del mondo, capace di ampliare le prospettive e rinnovare lo sguardo.

  20. Indic Lexicon in the English/Creole of Trinidad

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    Lise Winer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Examines the contemporary lexical component of the English/Creole of Trinidad (TEC that is derived from languages of India. Author focuses on the TEC as spoken among Indo-Trinidadians, but also pays attention to Indic words used in the TEC of Afro-Trinidadians and other groups. Author sketches the history of Indian immigration into Trinidad, explaining how most came from the Bihar province in northern India and spoke Bhojpuri, rather than (closely related Hindi, and how in the 20th c. Indian languages were replaced by English with education. She further focuses on retained Indic words incorporated in current-day TEC, and found 1844 of such words in usage. She discusses words misassigned locally as Indian-derived, but actually from other (European or African languages. Then, she describes most of the Indo-TEC lexicon, categorizing items by their semantic-cultural domain, with major domains for Indian-derived words: religious practice, music, dance and stickfighting, food preparation, agriculture, kinship, and behaviour or appearance. Further, the author discusses to what degree Indic words have been mainstreamed within the non-Indian population of Trinidad, sometimes via standard English, sometimes directly assimilated into TEC, and made salient through the press or street food selling.

  1. An Unusual use of the Definite Article in Biblical and Post-Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    1999-01-01

    The article investigates the claim that the definite article in mishnaic Hebrew can be unrelated to determination. This claim is found in the standard grammars of Moshe Azar and in the work of Gabriel Birnbaum. The article argues that this interpretation of the use of the article is based...... on a misunderstanding, and the instances of article use that might seem to be unrelated to determination in fact are perfectly related to determination when analysed carefully....

  2. A study of color: Uses of לָבָן in the Hebrew Bible

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    Carlos Santos Carretero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of color allows us to make assumptions about the correlation (and no correlation between psychological, social, symbolic elements and language itself. And the Hebrew Bible does not escape from this. With regard to the magnitude of this project, this paper reflects the first stage of my work studying colors in the Masoretic text, specifically on לָבָן, term commonly translated as ‘white.’ In addition, there are various verbal forms containing the verbal root לבן. If we compare לָבָן with the rest of terms of color, we find that this is the most common of them all, which makes it to be considered a primary and widely documented term. But its antiquity is also proof of its opacity. A detailed reading of לָבָן reinforces the idea that the translation of this term as ‘white’ is incomplete. It actually refers to something whose chromatism is low but bright at the same time. Such “vague nature” is what makes לָבָן so present throughout the Hebrew Bible. This paper aims to provide a complete picture of the לָבָן in the Hebrew Bible, establishing the sensory chromatic perception of the term.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew version of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamus, Dorit; Glasser, Saralee; Langner, Elisheva; Beth-Hakimian, Aliza; Caspi, Israel; Carmel, Narin; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Amir, Hagai; Ziv, A; Papa, M; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-06-17

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health complaints, with lifetime prevalence rates as high as 84%. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is often the measure of choice for LBP in both research and clinical settings and, as such, has been translated into 29 languages and dialects. Currently, however, there is no validated version of Hebrew-translated ODI (ODI-H). To examine the psychometric properties of the ODI-H. Cross-culturally appropriate translation into Hebrew was conducted. A convenience sample of 115 participants (Case Group) with LBP and 68 without LBP (Control Group) completed the ODI-H, SF-36 Health Survey, and two Visual Analog Scales (VAS). Internal consistency was α = 0.94 and test-retest reliability for 18 participants repeating the ODI-H was 0.97. No floor or ceiling effects were noted for Cases, although there was a floor effect for the Control Group. Scores were significantly different for the two groups, indicating discriminant validity. Concurrent validity was reflected by significant correlations with SF-36 scores, particularly the Physical Functioning and Bodily Pain subscales (-0.83 and -0.79, respectively) and with the VAS (0.84 and 0.79). The ODI-H is a valid and reliable measure of low back pain-related disability for the Hebrew-speaking public.

  4. Ethnic reasoning in social identity of Hebrews: A social-scientific study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Kissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity reasoning offers one way of looking at social identity in the letter to the Hebrews. The context of socio-economic abuse and hardships of the audience creates a situation in which ethnicity in social identity becomes an important issue for the author of Hebrews to address. This article is a social-scientific study which explores how the author establishes the ethnic identity of the audience as people of God. While this ethnic identity indicates the more privileged position the readers occupy in relation to the benefits of God accessible to them, it also provides the author with the appropriate social institutions and scripts by which his demand for appropriate response to God and the Christian group becomes appreciable and compelling. The article involves the definition of social-scientific criticism, ethnicity and social identity, and discusses the social context of the letter to the Hebrews. It then explains how some social scripts within specific ethnic institutions give meaning to the demands the author makes from his readers.

  5. Letter-transposition effects are not universal: The impact of transposing letters in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of letter transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that transposed-letter (TL) root primes inhibited responses to targets derived from the non-transposed root letters, and that this inhibition was unrelated to relative root frequency. Experiment 2 replicated this result and showed that if the transposed letters of the root created a nonsense-root that had no lexical representation, then no inhibition and no facilitation were obtained. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that in contrast to English, French, or Spanish, TL nonword primes did not facilitate recognition of targets, and when the root letters embedded in them consisted of a legal root morpheme, they produced inhibition. These results suggest that lexical space in alphabetic orthographies may be structured very differently in different languages if their morphological structure diverges qualitatively. In Hebrew, lexical space is organized according to root families rather than simple orthographic structure, so that all words derived from the same root are interconnected or clustered together, independent of overall orthographic similarity.

  6. Psychometric properties of the hebrew translation of the patient activation measure (PAM-13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Glasser, Saralee

    2014-01-01

    "Patient activation" reflects involvement in managing ones health. This cross-sectional study assessed the psychometric properties of the Hebrew translation (PAM-H) of the PAM-13. A nationally representative sample of 203 Hebrew-speaking Israeli adults answered the PAM-H, PHQ-9 depression scale, SF-12, and Self-efficacy Scale via telephone. Mean PAM-H scores were 70.7±15.4. Rasch analysis indicated that the PAM-H is a good measure of activation. There were no differences in PAM-H scores based on gender, age or education. Subjects with chronic disease scored lower than those without. Scores correlated with the Self-efficacy Scale (0.47), Total SF-12 (0.39) and PHQ-9 (-0.35, PPAM-H score of those who scored below 10 (72.1±14.8) on the PHQ-9 (not depressed) compared to those scoring ≥10 (i.e. probable depression) (59.2±15.8; t 3.75; P = 0.001). The PAM-H psychometric properties indicate its usefulness with the Hebrew-speaking Israeli population. PAM-H can be useful for assessing programs aimed at effecting changes in patient compliance, health behaviors, etc. Researchers in Israel should use a single translation of the PAM-13 so that findings can be compared, increasing understanding of patient activation.

  7. Validation of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Werner, Perla; Davidson, Michael; Schmidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy

    2003-05-01

    The validity of the Hebrew version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modified (TICS-m) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), for dementia, and for cognitive impairment (either MCI or dementia) was investigated. Of the 10 059 who took part of the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease Cohort, 1902 of the 2901 survivors in 1999 had TICS-m interviews. Those with a score of 27 or below and a random sample with a score of 28 or 29 were invited to have a physician's examination for the diagnosis of dementia. The analysis was performed on the 576 who agreed. Based on physician's diagnosis, 269 were diagnosed as suffering from dementia, 128 as suffering from MCI, and 179 were diagnosed with no cognitive impairment. The TICS-m Hebrew version's internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98) and showed a strong convergent validity with the MMSE (r = 0.82; p education and hearing impairment, TICS-m was a strong predictor of dementia, MCI and cognitive impairment. At a cut-off of 27/50 the Hebrew version of the TICS-m is a useful screening instrument to identify subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment, dementia and cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia). Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible � A comparative-philosophical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief comparative philosophical clarification of the concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible. Utilising the format of a presentation presented by Ryan (2008, four philosophical definitions of wisdom were compared with similar sentiments in ancient Israelite religion: (1 wisdom as epistemic humility, (2 wisdom as factual knowledge, (3 wisdom as useful knowledge, and (4 wisdom as successful living. Cumulatively the four criteria might approximate a functional list of individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for instantiating the property of being wise.

  9. Auditory working memory and early reading skills in Hebrew-speaking preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that different subcomponents of auditory working memory are differentially related to early reading skills was tested in 63 Hebrew speaking 4-year-old children, using a battery of early reading (phonological processing and familiarity with written language) and memory (simple and complex spans) tasks. Complex spans accounted for significant amounts of variance on both facets of early reading even after the contribution of simple spans was accounted for. These findings suggest that the unique contribution of complex working memory to early reading can be identified as early as preschool and that the structure of correlations between reading and memory is similar across ages.

  10. Learning homophones in context: Easy cases are favored in the lexicon of natural languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Fibla, Laia; Fievet, Anne-Caroline; Christophe, Anne

    2018-08-01

    Even though ambiguous words are common in languages, children find it hard to learn homophones, where a single label applies to several distinct meanings (e.g., Mazzocco, 1997). The present work addresses this apparent discrepancy between learning abilities and typological pattern, with respect to homophony in the lexicon. In a series of five experiments, 20-month-old French children easily learnt a pair of homophones if the two meanings associated with the phonological form belonged to different syntactic categories, or to different semantic categories. However, toddlers failed to learn homophones when the two meanings were distinguished only by different grammatical genders. In parallel, we analyzed the lexicon of four languages, Dutch, English, French and German, and observed that homophones are distributed non-arbitrarily in the lexicon, such that easily learnable homophones are more frequent than hard-to-learn ones: pairs of homophones are preferentially distributed across syntactic and semantic categories, but not across grammatical gender. We show that learning homophones is easier than previously thought, at least when the meanings of the same phonological form are made sufficiently distinct by their syntactic or semantic context. Following this, we propose that this learnability advantage translates into the overall structure of the lexicon, i.e., the kinds of homophones present in languages exhibit the properties that make them learnable by toddlers, thus allowing them to remain in languages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adults' Self-Directed Learning of an Artificial Lexicon: The Dynamics of Neighborhood Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Neil Prodeep

    2010-01-01

    Artificial lexicons have previously been used to examine the time course of the learning and recognition of spoken words, the role of segment type in word learning, and the integration of context during spoken word recognition. However, in all of these studies the experimenter determined the frequency and order of the words to be learned. In three…

  12. Making Sense of Student Feedback Using Text Analysis--Adapting and Expanding a Common Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Elizabeth; Lynch, Bernardine; Jones, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the findings of a study into the automated text analysis of student feedback comments to assist in investigating a high volume of qualitative information at various levels in an Australian university. It includes the drawbacks and advantages of using selected applications and established lexicons. There has been…

  13. Developing a Maori Language Mathematics Lexicon: Challenges for Corpus Planning in Indigenous Language Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinick, Tony; May, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, there has been significant modernisation and elaboration of the Maori language mathematics lexicon and register to support the teaching of (Western) mathematics as a component of Maori-medium schooling. These developments are situated within the wider Maori language revitalisation movement in Aotearoa/New Zealand, of which…

  14. Emotion and Emotionality as a Hidden Dimension of Lexicon and Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Ake

    2008-01-01

    In her thought-provoking article, Aneta Pavlenko approaches emotion and emotion-laden words in the bilingual lexicon from an impressive number of different perspectives. This is particularly welcome, since most models of linguistic structure do not account for emotional meanings in a systematic way. One exception worth mentioning, however, is…

  15. Development of a lexicon for caviar and its usefulness for determining consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Allison K; Vixie, Beata; Rasco, Barbara A; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-12-01

    Although caviar is a premium product which offers nutritional benefits, few studies have characterized its sensory properties. As such, this study sought to develop a lexicon for sensory evaluation of caviar appearance, texture, aroma, and flavor/taste and to relate these attributes to consumer acceptance. A trained panel identified 16 sensory attributes for evaluation along a 15-cm scale and used CATA (check all that apply) methodology to indicate the less frequently encountered off-aromas, appearance traits, and persistent flavors. Using this lexicon, the trained panel described differences among caviar samples harvested from sturgeon fed varying diets. Acceptance of the caviar was also evaluated by a consumer panel. As evaluated by the trained panelists, analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated differences among caviar in the sensory attributes of tactile firmness, mustard color, egg size, in-mouth firmness, seafood fresh flavor, fresh butter flavor, earthy flavor, yeasty flavor, and bitterness (P consumer and trained panel data, overall consumer acceptance of caviar was driven by tactile firmness, sea fresh flavor, fresh butter flavor, and black color. This overall acceptance was highly correlated with acceptance of texture (r = 0.867) and flavor/taste (r = 0.999). Overall, this lexicon allows for standardized sensory evaluation of caviar using a common set of descriptors. This lexicon and information regarding the drivers of caviar acceptance can be used by industry professionals to ensure optimal caviar quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Lexicon Sextant: Modeling a Mnemonic System for Customizable Browser Information Organization and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Siu-Tsen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing study of the development of a customizable web browser information organization and management system, which the author has named Lexicon Sextant (LS). LS is a user friendly, graphical web based add-on to the latest generation of web browsers, such as Google Chrome, making it easier and more intuitive to store and…

  17. Ou wyn in nuwe sakke: 'n Kritiese waardering van Bijbels lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nel Otto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Opsomming: Bijbels lexicon is 'n Nederlandse leksikon wat woorde en uitdrukkings bevat wat aan die Bybel ontleen is en wat ná 1945 nog bekend was. Die teikengebruikers van hierdie leksikon is waarskynlik persone wat graag die Bybel lees en diegene wat belangstel in die oor-sprong en agtergrond van die Nederlandse taal. Die inleiding tot die leksikon bevat baie inligting, onder andere oor hoe die leksikon saamgestel is, 'n uiteensetting van tipes leksikale items en motivering vir lemmakeuses en tydvak wat gedek word, hoe om leksikale items na te slaan, ens. Selfs niegelowiges sal die leksikon kan gebruik, aangesien die inleiding ook agtergrondsinligting in blokvorm bevat, nl. 'n uiteensetting van die inhoud van die Bybel, en inligting oor Nederlandse Bybelvertalings, spreekwoordversamelings en Bybelse name. Die voordele van hierdie leksikon is dat dit slegs huidige gebruiksvoorbeelde bevat en daarom dus neologismes en veranderde betekenisse akkommodeer. Hoewel die outeurs in enkele gevalle afwyk van die terminologie vir verskillende tipes leksikale items, soos deur hulle self omskryf, is die hantering van woordeboekartikels oor die algemeen baie konsekwent en inligting is maklik toeganklik. Die waarde van die leksikon sou moontlik verder verhoog kon word deur die gebruik van meer kruisverwysings.

    Sleutelwoorde: BETEKENIS, BYBEL, EIENAAM, HEDENDAAGSE GEBRUIK, HER-KOMS, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, LEKSIKON, NEDERLANDS, NEOLOGISME, SITAAT, SPREEK-WOORD, VASTE UITDRUKKING

    Abstract: Old Wine in New Bottles: A Critical Appreciation of Bijbels lexicon. Bijbels lexicon is a Dutch lexicon which includes words and fixed expressions which have been borrowed from the Bible and which were still known after 1945. The target users of this lexicon are probably people who are fond of reading the Bible and those who are interested in the origin and background of the Dutch language. The introduction to the dictionary contains much information, inter alia on how

  18. Morphosyntax in the Bilingual Mental Lexicon: An Experimental Study of Strong Stems in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Helena; Bosch, Sina; Clahsen, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Although morphosyntax has been identified as a major source of difficulty for adult (nonnative) language learners, most previous studies have examined a limited set of largely affix-based phenomena. Little is known about word-based morphosyntax in late bilinguals and of how morphosyntax is represented and processed in a nonnative speaker's…

  19. Partial Word Knowledge: Frontier Words in the L2 Mental Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareva, Alla

    2012-01-01

    The study set out to examine the partial word knowledge of native speakers, L2 advanced, and intermediate learners of English with regard to four word features from Richards' (1976) taxonomy of aspects describing what knowing a word entails. To capture partial familiarity, the participants completed in writing a test containing low and mid…

  20. Proportion of categories of associates and structure of the mental lexicon

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    Savić Irena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a systematic distinction between associate pairs that constitute categories of lexical relations (e.g. synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms etc. and categories of associate pairs that have no obvious lexical relation. Proportion of categories of associates were estimated on 80 nouns from "Associative Dictionary of Serbian Language" (Piper, Dragićević & Stefanović, 2005, while frequencies of associates were estimated from "Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary Serbian Language" (Kostić, Đ., 1999. Categories of associates were divided into two groups: group of categories that included standard lexical relations and group that included idiosyncratic associates. Proportions of categories were analyzed with respect to a frequency of a noun to which associates were generated and b whether it was an abstract or concrete noun. Three measures were used to estimate proportion of categories: a number of associates, b sum frequency of associates and c the average frequency per associate. When estimated with respect to number of associates and sum frequency of associates proportion of categories that included standard lexical relations were negligible (6% and 18%, but they become dominant when estimated with respect to the average frequency per associate. Such an outcome suggests that categories that include standard lexical relations are characterized by small number of associates (due to the fact that they are closed classes with high frequency associates. Distinction between abstract and concrete nouns did not affect number of associates per category, which was not the case when proportions were estimated with respect to sum frequency of associates. Frequency of a noun to which associates were generated has no effect on productivity of associates, nor does it affects sum frequency per category. However, it has significant effect on the average frequency per associate within a given category.

  1. Grammatical Deviations in the Spoken and Written Language of Hebrew-Speaking Children With Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur-Kaspa, Hana; Dromi, Esther

    2001-04-01

    The present study reports a detailed analysis of written and spoken language samples of Hebrew-speaking children aged 11-13 years who are deaf. It focuses on the description of various grammatical deviations in the two modalities. Participants were 13 students with hearing impairments (HI) attending special classrooms integrated into two elementary schools in Tel Aviv, Israel, and 9 students with normal hearing (NH) in regular classes in these same schools. Spoken and written language samples were collected from all participants using the same five preplanned elicitation probes. Students with HI were found to display significantly more grammatical deviations than their NH peers in both their spoken and written language samples. Most importantly, between-modality differences were noted. The participants with HI exhibited significantly more grammatical deviations in their written language samples than in their spoken samples. However, the distribution of grammatical deviations across categories was similar in the two modalities. The most common grammatical deviations in order of their frequency were failure to supply obligatory morphological markers, failure to mark grammatical agreement, and the omission of a major syntactic constituent in a sentence. Word order violations were rarely recorded in the Hebrew samples. Performance differences in the two modalities encourage clinicians and teachers to facilitate target linguistic forms in diverse communication contexts. Furthermore, the identification of linguistic targets for intervention must be based on the unique grammatical structure of the target language.

  2. Shallow and deep orthographies in Hebrew: the role of vowelization in reading development for unvowelized scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel

    2012-12-01

    The present study explored the speed, accuracy, and reading comprehension of vowelized versus unvowelized scripts among 126 native Hebrew speaking children in second, fourth, and sixth grades. Findings indicated that second graders read and comprehended vowelized scripts significantly more accurately and more quickly than unvowelized scripts, whereas among fourth and sixth graders reading of unvowelized scripts developed to a greater degree than the reading of vowelized scripts. An analysis of the mediation effect for children's mastery of vowelized reading speed and accuracy on their mastery of unvowelized reading speed and comprehension revealed that in second grade, reading accuracy of vowelized words mediated the reading speed and comprehension of unvowelized scripts. In the fourth grade, accuracy in reading both vowelized and unvowelized words mediated the reading speed and comprehension of unvowelized scripts. By sixth grade, accuracy in reading vowelized words offered no mediating effect, either on reading speed or comprehension of unvowelized scripts. The current outcomes thus suggest that young Hebrew readers undergo a scaffolding process, where vowelization serves as the foundation for building initial reading abilities and is essential for successful and meaningful decoding of unvowelized scripts.

  3. Metaphysical perspectives on YHWH as a fictional entity in the Hebrew Bible

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    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Within a literary ontology, YHWH in the Hebrew Bible is technically also a fictional entity or object. In Hebrew Bible scholarship, a variety of philosophical issues surrounding fiction have received sustained and in-depth attention. However, the mainstream research on these matters tends to focus on the philosophical foundations of or backgrounds to a particular literary theory, rather than on metaphysical puzzles as encountered in the philosophy of fiction proper. To fill this gap, the present article seeks to provide a meta-theoretical overview of the main contemporary philosophical perspectives on the metaphysics of fictional objects. Three views (and their sub-currents are discussed, namely possibilism, (neo-Meinongianism and (literary creationism. Each view’s theory is introduced and critically appropriated with reference to what is implied to be an answer to the question of what exactly the biblical character YHWH can meaningfully be said to be in the context of the metaphysics of fictional objects. In this way, the present study also goes beyond the traditional concern with the nature of God in Old Testament theology.

  4. Selective deficit of second language: a case study of a brain-damaged Arabic-Hebrew bilingual patient

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    Ibrahim Raphiq

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of how two languages are represented in the human brain is best obtained from studies of bilingual patients who have sustained brain damage. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether one or both languages of an Arabic-Hebrew bilingual individual are disrupted following brain damage. I present a case study of a bilingual patient, proficient in Arabic and Hebrew, who had sustained brain damage as a result of an intracranial hemorrhage related to herpes encephalitis. Methods The patient's performance on several linguistic tasks carried out in the first language (Arabic and in the second language (Hebrew was assessed, and his performance in the two languages was compared. Results The patient displayed somewhat different symptomatologies in the two languages. The results revealed dissociation between the two languages in terms of both the types and the magnitude of errors, pointing to aphasic symptoms in both languages, with Hebrew being the more impaired. Further analysis disclosed that this dissociation was apparently caused not by damage to his semantic system, but rather by damage at the lexical level. Conclusion The results suggest that the principles governing the organization of lexical representations in the brain are not similar for the two languages.

  5. The Effects of Orthographic Transparency and Familiarity on Reading Hebrew Words in Adults with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yael, Weiss; Tami, Katzir; Tali, Bitan

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of transparency and familiarity on word recognition in adult Hebrew dyslexic readers with a phonological processing deficit as compared to typical readers. We measured oral reading response time and accuracy of single nouns in several conditions: diacritics that provide transparent but less familiar…

  6. Reading Sacred Texts in the Classroom: The Alignment between Students and Their Teacher's Interpretive Stances When Reading the Hebrew Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenfeld, Ziva R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the voices of students interpreting Hebrew Bible texts in one fourth-grade classroom. Through think-alouds on the Biblical text with each student, exit interviews, teacher interviews, and classroom observations, this study found that those students whose interpretive stances were more aligned with the teacher's were given…

  7. "Why Do We Know Hebrew and They Do Not Know Arabic?" Children's Meta-Linguistic Talk in Bilingual Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Gorbatt, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Language-focused listening to young children's talk provides insight into their internal thinking mechanisms regarding language as they engage in language learning. The aim of this exploratory longitudinal study was to examine and analyze children's meta-linguistic talk and its main characteristics in a bilingual Arabic-Hebrew-speaking preschool.…

  8. The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units as Online and Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, T.

    2012-12-01

    The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units provides freely accessible definitions and supplementary information about geological units of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and their associated continental shelf. It is an online database that can be searched at www.bgs.ac.uk/Lexicon/. It has existed since 1990 (under different names) but the database and user interface have recently been completely redesigned to improve their semantic capabilities and suitability for describing different styles of geology. The data are also now freely available as linked data from data.bgs.ac.uk/. The Lexicon of Named Rock Units serves two purposes. First, it is a dictionary, defining and constraining the geological units that are referenced in the Survey's data sets, workflows, products and services. These can include printed and digital geological maps at a variety of scales, reports, books and memoirs, and 3- and 4-dimensional geological models. All geological units referenced in any of these must first be present and defined, at least to a basic level of completeness, in the Lexicon database. Only then do they become available for use. The second purpose of the Lexicon is as a repository of knowledge about the geology of the UK and its continental shelf, providing authoritative descriptions written and checked by BGS geoscientists. Geological units are assigned to one of four themes: bedrock, superficial, mass movement and artificial. They are further assigned to one of nine classes: lithostratigraphical, lithodemic intrusive, lithodemic tectono-metamorphic, lithodemic mixed, litho-morpho-genetic, man-made, age-based, composite, and miscellaneous. The combination of theme and class controls the fields that are available to describe each geological unit, so that appropriate fields are offered for each, whether it is a Precambrian tectono-metamorphic complex, a Devonian sandstone formation, or a Devensian river terrace deposit. Information that may be recorded

  9. Self-emergence of Lexicon Consensus in a Population of Autonomous Agents by Means of Evolutionary Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravall, Darío; de Lope, Javier; Domínguez, Raúl

    In Multi-agent systems, the study of language and communication is an active field of research. In this paper we present the application of evolutionary strategies to the self-emergence of a common lexicon in a population of agents. By modeling the vocabulary or lexicon of each agent as an association matrix or look-up table that maps the meanings (i.e. the objects encountered by the agents or the states of the environment itself) into symbols or signals we check whether it is possible for the population to converge in an autonomous, decentralized way to a common lexicon, so that the communication efficiency of the entire population is optimal. We have conducted several experiments, from the simplest case of a 2×2 association matrix (i.e. two meanings and two symbols) to a 3×3 lexicon case and in both cases we have attained convergence to the optimal communication system by means of evolutionary strategies. To analyze the convergence of the population of agents we have defined the population's consensus when all the agents (i.e. the 100% of the population) share the same association matrix or lexicon. As a general conclusion we have shown that evolutionary strategies are powerful enough optimizers to guarantee the convergence to lexicon consensus in a population of autonomous agents.

  10. On the concept of “variant” in lexicon studies from a historic-variational perspective

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    Américo Venâncio Lopes Machado Filho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though the concept of linguistic variant has been fully established in contemporary sociolinguistic studies, it demands a theoretical review when it is considered from the perspective of lexicon studies, especially when related to historical and variational biases. In this paper, we present limits on identification and characterization of lexical variation, considering formal changes that may occur at other levels of analysis, especially at the morphological or phonetic ones. To support the reflections on the topic, we discuss the process of lexicon constitution in Portuguese and the results of etymological convergence and divergence present in the history of the language. Based on the analysis presented, it is proposed that research on lexical variation should incorporate to this notion any significant formal or content changes.

  11. A Semantic Lexicon-Based Approach for Sense Disambiguation and Its WWW Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lecce, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Marco; Soldo, Domenico

    This work proposes a basic framework for resolving sense disambiguation through the use of Semantic Lexicon, a machine readable dictionary managing both word senses and lexico-semantic relations. More specifically, polysemous ambiguity characterizing Web documents is discussed. The adopted Semantic Lexicon is WordNet, a lexical knowledge-base of English words widely adopted in many research studies referring to knowledge discovery. The proposed approach extends recent works on knowledge discovery by focusing on the sense disambiguation aspect. By exploiting the structure of WordNet database, lexico-semantic features are used to resolve the inherent sense ambiguity of written text with particular reference to HTML resources. The obtained results may be extended to generic hypertextual repositories as well. Experiments show that polysemy reduction can be used to hint about the meaning of specific senses in given contexts.

  12. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a short Hebrew version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory that can be easily administered by health professionals in research, therapy, and counseling. First, the empirical links of time perspective (TP) to subjective well-being and health protective and health risk behaviors are reviewed. Then, a brief account of the instrument's previous modifications is provided. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 572) verified the five-factor structure of the short version and yielded acceptable internal consistency reliability for each factor. The correlation coefficients between the five subscales of the short (20 items) and the original (56 items) instruments were all above .79, indicating the suitability of the short version for assessing the five TP factors. Support for the discriminant and concurrent validity was also achieved, largely in agreement with previous findings. Finally, limitations and future directions are addressed, and potential applications in therapy and counseling are offered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Publishing a Quality Context-aware Annotated Corpus and Lexicon for Harassment Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvan, Mohammadreza; Shekarpour, Saeedeh; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Shalin, Valerie; Sheth, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Having a quality annotated corpus is essential especially for applied research. Despite the recent focus of Web science community on researching about cyberbullying, the community dose not still have standard benchmarks. In this paper, we publish first, a quality annotated corpus and second, an offensive words lexicon capturing different types type of harassment as (i) sexual harassment, (ii) racial harassment, (iii) appearance-related harassment, (iv) intellectual harassment, and (v) politic...

  14. Lexicon Development, Consumer Acceptance, and Drivers of Liking of Quinoa Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Ross, Carolyn F; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of commercially available varieties. To compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needs to be developed. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a lexicon of cooked quinoa and examine consumer acceptance of diverse varieties. A trained panel (n = 9) developed aroma, taste/flavor, texture, and color descriptors to describe the sensory properties of 21 quinoa varieties. In addition, texture of the cooked quinoa was determined using a texture analyzer. Results indicated that the developed lexicon could distinguish among these quinoa varieties, showing significant differences in aromas, taste/flavors, and texture attributes. Specifically, quinoa variety effects were observed for the aromas of caramel, nutty, buttery, grassy, earthy, and woody; taste/flavor of sweet, bitter, grain-like, nutty, earthy, and toasty; and firm, cohesive, pasty, adhesive, crunchy, chewy, astringent, and moist textures. Three varieties, "QQ74," "Linares," and "CO407D," exhibited an adhesive texture that has not been described in other commercialized quinoa. Subsequent consumer evaluation (n = 100) on 6 selected samples found that the "Commercial Red" sample was the most accepted overall whereas the least accepted was the field variety "QQ74." For all consumers, overall acceptance of quinoa was driven by higher intensities of grassy aroma, and firm and crunchy texture. Segmentation of the consumers into 4 groups was explored and showed that consumers varied in their acceptance of specific attributes, particularly texture. From the present study, the quinoa lexicon and key drivers of consumer acceptance can be utilized in the industry to evaluate quinoa varieties, product quality and processing procedures. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Interobserver variability of ultrasound elastography and the ultrasound BI-RADS lexicon of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Sung Hun; Jung, Na Young; Choi, Jae Jung; Kang, Bong Joo; Jung, Hyun Seouk

    2015-03-01

    Elastographpy is a newly developed noninvasive imaging technique that uses ultrasound (US) to evaluate tissue stiffness. The interpretation of the same elastographic images may be variable according to reviewers. Because breast lesions are usually reported according to American College of Radiology Breast Imaging and Data System (ACR BI-RADS) lexicons and final category, we tried to compare observer variability between lexicons and final categorization of US BI-RADS and the elasticity score of US elastography. From April 2009 to February 2010, 1356 breast lesions in 1330 patients underwent ultrasound-guided core biopsy. Among them, 63 breast lesions in 55 patients (mean age, 45.7 years; range, 21-79 years) underwent both conventional ultrasound and elastography and were included in this study. Two radiologists independently performed conventional ultrasound and elastography, and another three observers reviewed conventional ultrasound images and elastography videos. Observers independently recorded the elasticity score for a 5-point scoring system proposed by Itoh et al., BI-RADS lexicons and final category using ultrasound BI-RADS. The histopathologic results were obtained and used as the reference standard. Interobserver variability was evaluated. Of the 63 lesions, 42 (66.7 %) were benign, and 21 (33.3 %) were malignant. The highest value of concordance among all variables was achieved for the elasticity score (k = 0.59), followed by shape (k = 0.54), final category (k = 0.48), posterior acoustic features (k = 0.44), echogenecity and orientation (k = 0.43). The least concordances were margin (k = 0.26), lesion boundary (k = 0.29) and calcification (k = 0.3). Elasticity score showed a higher level of interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of breast lesions than BI-RADS lexicons and final category.

  16. The Implications of The Sociopolitical Context on Arab Teachers in Hebrew Schools

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    Hezi Y. Brosh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of Arabic in Israel by a native speaker is unique; it has ramifications different from the teaching of, say, English by a native speaker. It is not just the nativity issue per se but, even more, the interaction between the native speaker and the status and role of the language in society in a given context. This paper investigates the extent to which language teachers from one ethnic group can integrate themselves into another ethnic group and still effectively teach their language. The paper describes how contextual variables impact the ability of the native language teacher to work in a nonnative educational network under conditions of cultural and political duress. In particular, the paper highlights the special circumstances confronting an Arab language teacher teaching Arabic in Israeli Hebrew schools, and the effects that this native teacher has on a learner's motivation to acquire the language in the first place. The teaching of Arabic in Israel by a native speaker is unique; it has ramifications different from the teaching of, say, English by a native speaker. It is not just the nativity issue per se but, even more, the interaction between the native speaker and the status and role of the language in society in a given context. This paper investigates the extent to which language teachers from one ethnic group can integrate themselves into another ethnic group and still effectively teach their language. The paper describes how contextual variables impact the ability of the native language teacher to work in a nonnative educational network under conditions of cultural and political duress. In particular, the paper highlights the special circumstances confronting an Arab language teacher teaching Arabic in Israeli Hebrew schools, and the effects that this native teacher has on a learner's motivation to acquire the language in the first place.

  17. Lexicon Reduction for Urdu/Arabic Script Based Character Recognition: A Multilingual OCR

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    Saeeda Naz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic script character recognition is challenging task due to complexity of the script and huge number of ligatures. We present a method for the development of multilingual Arabic script OCR (Optical Character Recognition and lexicon reduction for Arabic Script and its derivative languages. The objective of the proposed method is to overcome the large dataset Urdu and similar scripts by using GCT (Ghost Character Theory concept. Arabic and its sibling script languages share the similar character dataset i.e. the character set are difference in diacritic and writing styles like Naskh or Nasta?liq. Based on the proposed method, the lexicon for Arabic and Arabic script based languages can be minimized approximately up to 20 times. The proposed multilingual Arabic script OCR approach have been evaluated for online Arabic and its derivative language like Urdu using BPNN. The result showed that proposed method helps to not only the reduction of lexicon but also helps to develop the Multilanguage character recognition system for Arabic Script.

  18. The BioLexicon: a large-scale terminological resource for biomedical text mining

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    Thompson Paul

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the rapidly expanding body of biomedical literature, biologists require increasingly sophisticated and efficient systems to help them to search for relevant information. Such systems should account for the multiple written variants used to represent biomedical concepts, and allow the user to search for specific pieces of knowledge (or events involving these concepts, e.g., protein-protein interactions. Such functionality requires access to detailed information about words used in the biomedical literature. Existing databases and ontologies often have a specific focus and are oriented towards human use. Consequently, biological knowledge is dispersed amongst many resources, which often do not attempt to account for the large and frequently changing set of variants that appear in the literature. Additionally, such resources typically do not provide information about how terms relate to each other in texts to describe events. Results This article provides an overview of the design, construction and evaluation of a large-scale lexical and conceptual resource for the biomedical domain, the BioLexicon. The resource can be exploited by text mining tools at several levels, e.g., part-of-speech tagging, recognition of biomedical entities, and the extraction of events in which they are involved. As such, the BioLexicon must account for real usage of words in biomedical texts. In particular, the BioLexicon gathers together different types of terms from several existing data resources into a single, unified repository, and augments them with new term variants automatically extracted from biomedical literature. Extraction of events is facilitated through the inclusion of biologically pertinent verbs (around which events are typically organized together with information about typical patterns of grammatical and semantic behaviour, which are acquired from domain-specific texts. In order to foster interoperability, the BioLexicon is

  19. The BioLexicon: a large-scale terminological resource for biomedical text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Due to the rapidly expanding body of biomedical literature, biologists require increasingly sophisticated and efficient systems to help them to search for relevant information. Such systems should account for the multiple written variants used to represent biomedical concepts, and allow the user to search for specific pieces of knowledge (or events) involving these concepts, e.g., protein-protein interactions. Such functionality requires access to detailed information about words used in the biomedical literature. Existing databases and ontologies often have a specific focus and are oriented towards human use. Consequently, biological knowledge is dispersed amongst many resources, which often do not attempt to account for the large and frequently changing set of variants that appear in the literature. Additionally, such resources typically do not provide information about how terms relate to each other in texts to describe events. Results This article provides an overview of the design, construction and evaluation of a large-scale lexical and conceptual resource for the biomedical domain, the BioLexicon. The resource can be exploited by text mining tools at several levels, e.g., part-of-speech tagging, recognition of biomedical entities, and the extraction of events in which they are involved. As such, the BioLexicon must account for real usage of words in biomedical texts. In particular, the BioLexicon gathers together different types of terms from several existing data resources into a single, unified repository, and augments them with new term variants automatically extracted from biomedical literature. Extraction of events is facilitated through the inclusion of biologically pertinent verbs (around which events are typically organized) together with information about typical patterns of grammatical and semantic behaviour, which are acquired from domain-specific texts. In order to foster interoperability, the BioLexicon is modelled using the Lexical

  20. E-Books as a Support for Young Children's Language and Literacy: The Case of Hebrew-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Segal-Drori, Ora

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a series of studies performed in the last decade that examined the contribution of e-books reading to the language and literacy of young Hebrew-speaking children. Children worked with two e-books designed by the researchers to achieve this aim. We present the effect of reading these e-books on the language and literacy of…

  1. Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22: Translation, Cross-cultural Adaptation, and Validation in Hebrew-Speaking Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira Galitz, Yael; Halperin, Doron; Bavnik, Yosef; Warman, Meir

    2016-05-01

    To perform the translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) questionnaire to the Hebrew language. A single-center prospective cross-sectional study. Seventy-three chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and 73 patients without sinonasal disease filled the Hebrew version of the SNOT-22 questionnaire. Fifty-one CRS patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, out of which 28 filled a postoperative questionnaire. Seventy-three healthy volunteers without sinonasal disease also answered the questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest reproducibility, validity, and responsiveness of the questionnaire were evaluated. Questionnaire reliability was excellent, with a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 0.91-0.936) and test-retest reproducibility (Spearman's coefficient, 0.962). Mean scores for the preoperative, postoperative, and control groups were 50.44, 29.64, and 13.15, respectively (P < .0001 for CRS vs controls, P < .001 for preoperative vs postoperative), showing validity and responsiveness of the questionnaire. The Hebrew version of SNOT-22 questionnaire is a valid outcome measure for patients with CRS with or without nasal polyps. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  2. RadLex - German version: a radiological lexicon for indexing image and report information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwede, D.; Lobsien, D.; Kahn, T.; Daumke, P.; Marko, K.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Since 2003 the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) has been developing a lexicon of standardized radiological terms (RadLex) intended to support the structured reporting of imaging observations and the indexing of teaching cases. The aim of this study was to translate the first version of the lexicon (1 - 2007) into German and to implement a language-independent online term browser. Materials and Methods: RadLex version 1 - 2007 contains 6303 terms in nine main categories. Two radiologists independently translated the lexicon using medical dictionaries. Terms translated differently were revised and translated by consensus. For the development of an online term browser, a text processing algorithm called morphosemantic indexing was used which splits up words into small semantic units and compares those units to language-specific subword thesauri. Results: In total 6240 of 6303 terms (99 %) were translated. Of those terms 3965 were German, 1893 were Latin, 359 were multilingual, and 23 were English terms that are also used in German and were therefore maintained. The online term browser supports a language-independent term search in RadLex (German/English) and other common medical terminology (e.g., ICD 10). The term browser displays term hierarchies and translations in different frames and the complexity of the result lists can be adapted by the user. Conclusion: RadLex version 1 - 2007 developed by the RSNA is now available in German and can be accessed online through a term browser with an efficient search function. This is an important precondition for the future comparison of national and international indexed radiological examination results and the interoperability between digital teaching resources. (orig.)

  3. Breast imaging reports for malignant lesions: are we maintaining recommended BI-RADS® lexicon standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masroor, Imrana; Azeemuddin, Muhammad; Sakhawat, Saima; Beg, Madiha; Sohail, Saba; Ahmed, Rashid; Irfan-Ul-Haq; Mehboob, Javed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mammography reports for diagnosed breast cancer cases in major government and private centers in Karachi, Pakistan, with respect to concordance with the Breast Imaging Reports And Data System (BI-RADS ® ) lexicon. A prospective, descriptive, multicenter study was conducted in the radiology sections of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan Naval Station Shifa Hospital, Advanced Radiology Clinic, Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, and Civil Hospital Karachi between May and October 2010 after approval from the ethical review committee of Aga Khan University. Mammograms reported as BI-RADS category 4 and 5 were included in the study. Mammograms reported as BI-RADS category 0, 1, 2 and 3 were excluded. Fifty reports were collected from each center. Data were collected about the clinical indication, breast density, location and description of the lesion, calcification, and comments on axillary lymph nodes. This description was compared with the BI-RADS lexicon. The mean age of the patients was 50 ± 12 years. The clinical indication, breast parenchymal density, lesion location, and presence of calcification were better described by the private centers, while description of lymph node status was better stated by the government centers. This difference was statistically significant, except for lesion description. The description of masses by the two reporting groups was comparable. Mammographic reporting of malignant breast lesions in the private sector is more in line with the BI-RADS lexicon, as compared with government sector hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Lymph node documentation was better in government sector reports

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of repetition tasks for the identification of specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children: evidence from Russian and Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Meir, Natalia

    2016-11-01

    Previous research demonstrates that repetition tasks are valuable tools for diagnosing specific language impairment (SLI) in monolingual children in English and a variety of other languages, with non-word repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SRep) yielding high levels of sensitivity and specificity. Yet, only a few studies have addressed the diagnostic accuracy of repetition tasks in bilingual children, and most available research focuses on English-Spanish sequential bilinguals. To evaluate the efficacy of three repetition tasks (forward digit span (FWD), NWR and SRep) in order to distinguish mono- and bilingual children with and without SLI in Russian and Hebrew. A total of 230 mono- and bilingual children aged 5;5-6;8 participated in the study: 144 bilingual Russian-Hebrew-speaking children (27 with SLI); and 52 monolingual Hebrew-speaking children (14 with SLI) and 34 monolingual Russian-speaking children (14 with SLI). Parallel repetition tasks were designed in both Russian and Hebrew. Bilingual children were tested in both languages. The findings confirmed that NWR and SRep are valuable tools in distinguishing monolingual children with and without SLI in Russian and Hebrew, while the results for FWD were mixed. Yet, testing of bilingual children with the same tools using monolingual cut-off points resulted in inadequate diagnostic accuracy. We demonstrate, however, that the use of bilingual cut-off points yielded acceptable levels of diagnostic accuracy. The combination of SRep tasks in L1/Russian and L2/Hebrew yielded the highest overall accuracy (i.e., 94%), but even SRep alone in L2/Hebrew showed excellent levels of sensitivity (i.e., 100%) and specificity (i.e., 89%), reaching 91% of total diagnostic accuracy. The results are very promising for identifying SLI in bilingual children and for showing that testing in the majority language with bilingual cut-off points can provide an accurate classification. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language

  5. Comparing online opportunities and risks among Israeli children and youth Hebrew and Arabic speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Ina

    2014-10-01

    This study explores the relationships between application usage, online communication patterns, problematic Internet use (PIU) of online applications, and online self-disclosure among children from culturally different groups. An online survey was administered in Hebrew and Arabic among 3867 Israeli 7-17 year old, including Jews, Arabs, and Bedouins. The level of PIU was relatively low-only 9.5% scored "very high" in the PIU index. For all the groups the highest level of communication was reported for safe interactions with family and friends, lower level for purely virtual communication with online acquaintances, and the lowest level for meeting online acquaintances face-to-face. However, various forms of the online communication patterns and use of applications differed across the groups, suggesting cultural diversity in Internet usage among children in the same country. PIU and self-disclosure explained 47.3% of variance in risky e-communication activities (e.g. sending ones' photos to online acquaintances, providing them with a school or home address, and meeting them face-to-face), as well as 34.4% of variance in exposure to unpleasant online experiences (e.g. receiving messages, pictures, or videos that make the children feel uncomfortable). However, both PIU and self-disclosure were unrelated to educational activities and to the use of educational applications.

  6. Development of a Slow Positron Facility at Hebrew University of Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Aidan

    2013-03-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy provides both depth of penetration to study bulk defects in materials as well as nano-scale resolution. This measurement range is achieved by slowing positrons from a radioactive source, typically 22Na, by sending them through a moderator, typically W or solid Ne. The nearly thermal positrons are then accelerated to the desired energy by means of an electrostatic potential. The SPOT project at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem proposes to increase the luminosity of the beam by applying the best practices currently in us, as well as using a short-lived source of positrons, 18F. Simulations based on our current designs indicate this project will be able to deliver positrons in the energy range of 50-50000eV with an energy resolution of 1eV is possible. We will present the unique technical challenges of using this source of positrons, how we plan to overcome them, the results of simulations, and facility construction progress.

  7. Hebrew and Latin astrology in the twelfth century: the example of the location of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Charles

    2010-06-01

    The formative period of Latin and Hebrew astrology occurred virtually simultaneously in both cultures. In the second quarter of the twelfth century the terminology of the subject was established and the textbooks which became authoritative were written. The responsibility for this lay almost entirely with two scholars: John of Seville for the Latins, and Abraham ibn Ezra for the Jews. It is unlikely to have been by coincidence that the same developments in astrology occurred in these two cultures. John of Seville and Abraham ibn Ezra were both brought up within the Islamic culture of Spain, and their astrology was Arabic astrology. Moreover, some scholars have thought that John's origins were Jewish, while Ibn Ezra is known to have collaborated with Latin scholars (whose names are not recorded). It cannot be a coincidence that they forged the science of astrology for their respect co-religionists at almost the same time. Yet, very little research has been done on the possible relations between the two scholars. The purpose of this paper is to begin to explore this relationship, and to illustrate it in particular by their shared doctrine concern the location of pain.

  8. An Arabic-English-French Lexicon of the Dialects Spoken in the Chad-Sudan Area, 1. [Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Laly, Arlette, Comp.

    This lexicon, a preliminary publication of a project dealing with Arabic dialects in the Chad-Sudan area, has been compiled from four earlier lexicons: G. Trenga, "Le bura-maband du Ouadai"; H. Carbou, "Methode pratique pour l'etude de l'arabe parle au Ouaday et a l'Est du Tchad"; G.L. Lethem, "Colloquial Arabic, Shua…

  9. Metamorphological awareness and EFL students' memory, retention, and retrieval of English adjectival lexicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lawrence Jun

    2002-12-01

    Research has shown that foreign or second language learners' metalinguistic awareness has important effects on their acquisition of the target language. Important among a multitude of the concerns are problems these learners encounter when they have to process the morphological features of individual words, particularly in the acquisition of literacy skills. Nevertheless, for students who learn English as a foreign or second language for academic purposes, one of the biggest challenges in their advanced study is how they can effectively remember, retain, and retrieve the colossal number of newly learnt English vocabulary, including adjectival lexicons, to enhance their academic success. Results from the present report on the effects of metamorphological awareness of 65 adult Chinese EFL learners' memory, retention, and retrieval of adjectival lexicons show that, although the subjects in the two groups did not differ significantly in their performance on a pretest designed to check their lexical knowledge and no sex difference was observed, statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in both conditions (immediate and delayed retrievals) on a posttest. The experimental group and women predominantly performed better in the memory-retention-retrieval tasks assigned to them. Implications for educational research and practices are also discussed.

  10. Phonological ambiguity modulates resolution of semantic ambiguity during reading: An fMRI study of Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitan, Tali; Kaftory, Asaf; Meiri-Leib, Adi; Eviatar, Zohar; Peleg, Orna

    2017-10-01

    The current fMRI study examined the role of phonology in the extraction of meaning from print in each hemisphere by comparing homophonic and heterophonic homographs (ambiguous words in which both meanings have the same or different sounds respectively, e.g., bank or tear). The analysis distinguished between the first phase, in which participants read ambiguous words without context, and the second phase in which the context resolves the ambiguity. Native Hebrew readers were scanned during semantic relatedness judgments on pairs of words in which the first word was either a homophone or a heterophone and the second word was related to its dominant or subordinate meaning. In Phase 1 there was greater activation for heterophones in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), pars opercularis, and more activation for homophones in bilateral IFG pars orbitalis, suggesting that resolution of the conflict at the phonological level has abolished the semantic ambiguity for heterophones. Reduced activation for all ambiguous words in temporo-parietal regions suggests that although ambiguity enhances controlled lexical selection processes in frontal regions it reduces reliance on bottom-up mapping processes. After presentation of the context, a larger difference between the dominant and subordinate meaning was found for heterophones in all reading-related regions, suggesting a greater engagement for heterophones with the dominant meaning. Altogether these results are consistent with the prominent role of phonological processing in visual word recognition. Finally, despite differences in hemispheric asymmetry between homophones and heterophones, ambiguity resolution, even toward the subordinate meaning, is largely left lateralized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  12. Morphological structure mediates the notional meaning of gender marking: Evidence from the gender-congruency effect in Hebrew speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the gender-congruency effect of animate nouns in Hebrew. The Picture-Word Interference paradigm was used to manipulate gender congruency between target pictures and spoken distractors. Naming latency revealed an inhibitory gender-congruency effect, as naming the pictures took longer in the presence of a gender-congruent distractor than with a distractor from a different gender category. The inhibitory effect was demonstrated for feminine (morphologically marked) nouns, across two stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) (Experiments 1a and 1b), and masculine (morphologically unmarked) nouns (Experiment 2). The same pattern was observed when participants had to produce bare nouns (Experiment 1) or gender-marked noun phrases (Experiment 3). The inhibitory pattern of the effect resembles previous findings of bare nouns in a subset of Romance languages, including Italian and Spanish. These findings add to previous research which investigated the gender-congruency effect of inanimate nouns, where no effect of gender-congruent words was found. The results are discussed in relation to the null effect previously found for inanimate nouns. The comparison of the present and previous studies is motivated by a common linguistic distinction between animate and inanimate nouns in Hebrew, which ascribes grammatical gender specifications to derivational structures (for inanimate nouns) versus inflectional structures (for animate nouns). Given the difference in the notional meaning of gender specification for animate and inanimate nouns, the case of Hebrew exemplifies how language-specific characteristics, such as rich morphological structures, can be used by the linguistic system to express conceptual distinctions at the form-word level.

  13. The Organization of Words and Symbolic Gestures in 18-Month-Olds' Lexicons: Evidence from a Disambiguation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' early communicative repertoires include both words and symbolic gestures. The current study examined the extent to which infants organize words and gestures in a single unified lexicon. As a window into lexical organization, eighteen-month-olds' ("N" = 32) avoidance of word-gesture overlap was examined and compared with…

  14. Studies in the history of the English language V: variation and change in English grammar and lexicon: contemporary approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloutier, R.A.; Hamilton-Brehm, A.M.; Kretzschmar, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on current approaches to variation and change in historical English grammar and lexicon. Of the twelve papers in the collection, half are based on grammar and syntax, half on lexical developments. The volume highlights the contributions that strong empirical

  15. Does processing a shallow and a deep orthography produce different brain activity patterns? An ERP study conducted in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochva, Irit

    2011-01-01

    Orthographies range from shallow orthographies with transparent grapheme-phoneme relations, to deep orthographies, in which these relations are opaque. Two forms of script transcribe the Hebrew language: the shallow pointed script (with diacritics) and the deep unpointed script (without diacritics). This study was set out to examine whether the reading of these scripts evokes distinct brain activity. Preliminary results indicate distinct Event-related-potentials (ERPs). As an equivalent finding was absent when ERPs of non-orthographic stimuli with and without meaningless diacritics were compared, the results imply that print-specific aspects of processing account for the distinct activity elicited by the pointed and unpointed scripts.

  16. The Developmental Lexicon Project: A behavioral database to investigate visual word recognition across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Pauline; Schroeder, Sascha

    2017-12-01

    With the Developmental Lexicon Project (DeveL), we present a large-scale study that was conducted to collect data on visual word recognition in German across the lifespan. A total of 800 children from Grades 1 to 6, as well as two groups of younger and older adults, participated in the study and completed a lexical decision and a naming task. We provide a database for 1,152 German words, comprising behavioral data from seven different stages of reading development, along with sublexical and lexical characteristics for all stimuli. The present article describes our motivation for this project, explains the methods we used to collect the data, and reports analyses on the reliability of our results. In addition, we explored developmental changes in three marker effects in psycholinguistic research: word length, word frequency, and orthographic similarity. The database is available online.

  17. Indexing thoracic CT reports using a preliminary version of a standardized radiological lexicon (RadLex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwede, Dirk; Schulz, Thomas; Kahn, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    To validate a preliminary version of a radiological lexicon (RadLex) against terms found in thoracic CT reports and to index report content in RadLex term categories. Terms from a random sample of 200 thoracic CT reports were extracted using a text processor and matched against RadLex. Report content was manually indexed by two radiologists in consensus in term categories of Anatomic Location, Finding, Modifier, Relationship, Image Quality, and Uncertainty. Descriptive statistics were used and differences between age groups and report types were tested for significance using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney Test (significance level <0.05). From 363 terms extracted, 304 (84%) were found and 59 (16%) were not found in RadLex. Report indexing showed a mean of 16.2 encoded items per report and 3.2 Finding per report. Term categories most frequently encoded were Modifier (1,030 of 3,244, 31.8%), Anatomic Location (813, 25.1%), Relationship (702, 21.6%) and Finding (638, 19.7%). Frequency of indexed items per report was higher in older age groups, but no significant difference was found between first study and follow up study reports. Frequency of distinct findings per report increased with patient age (p < 0.05). RadLex already covers most terms present in thoracic CT reports based on a small sample analysis from one institution. Applications for report encoding need to be developed to validate the lexicon against a larger sample of reports and address the issue of automatic relationship encoding.

  18. The Book of Ruth and Song of Songs in the First Hebrew Translation of The Taming of the Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Lily

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the earliest Hebrew rendition of a Shakespearean comedy, Judah Elkind’s מוסר סוררה musar sorera ‘The Education of the Rebellious Woman’ (The Taming of the Shrew, which was translated directly from the English source text and published in Berditchev in 1892. Elkind’s translation is the only comedy among a small group of pioneering Shakespeare renditions conducted in late nineteenth-century Eastern Europe by adherents of the Jewish Enlightenment movement. It was rooted in a strongly ideological initiative to establish a modern European-style literature in Hebrew and reflecting Jewish cultural values at a time when the language was still primarily a written medium on the cusp of its large-scale revernacularisation in Palestine. The article examines the ways in which Elkind’s employment of a Judaising translation technique drawing heavily on romantic imagery from prominent biblical intertexts, particularly the Book of Ruth and the Song of Songs, affects the Petruchio and Katherine plotline in the target text. Elkind’s use of carefully selected biblical names for the main characters and his conscious insertion of biblical verses well known in Jewish tradition for their romantic connotations serve to transform Petruchio and Katherine into Peretz and Hoglah, the heroes of a distinctly Jewish love story which offers a unique and intriguing perspective on the translation of Shakespearean comedy.

  19. She will give birth immediately. Pregnancy and childbirth in medieval Hebrew medical texts produced in the Mediterranean West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carmen Caballero

    2014-01-01

    This essay approaches the medieval Hebrew literature on women's healthcare, with the aim of analysing notions and ideas regarding fertility, pregnancy and childbirth, as conveyed in the texts that form the corpus. Firstly, the work discusses the approach of written texts to pregnancy and childbirth as key elements in the explanation of women's health and the functioning of the female body. In this regard it also explores the role of this approach in the creation of meanings for both the female body and sexual difference. Secondly, it examines female management of pregnancy and childbirth as recorded in Hebrew medical literature. It pays attention to both the attitudes expressed by the authors, translators and copyists regarding female practice, as well as to instances and remedies derived from "local" traditions--that is, from women's experience--in the management of pregnancy and childbirth, also recorded in the texts. Finally, the paper explores how medical theories alien to, or in opposition to, Judaism were adopted or not and, at times, adapted to Jewish notions with the aim of eliminating tensions from the text, on the one hand, and providing Jewish practitioners with adequate training to retain their Christian clientele, on the other.

  20. The images of scientists and science among Hebrew- and Arabic-speaking pre-service teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Edna; Cohen, Ariel

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the image of scientists held by Israeli pre-service teachers, the majority of whom were female. The population consisted of students belonging to two cultures, Hebrew-speaking and Arabic-speaking. The DAST ('Draw-a-Scientist-Test') tool and other tools, some of which were developed specifically for this research, tested the image of the scientist as perceived by the participants. It was found that the image of the scientist is perceived as predominantly male, a physicist or a chemist, working in a laboratory typical of the eighteenth, nineteenth or the early-twentieth century. Students did not differentiate between scientists and inventors. Different images were held in the two cultures. Most of the Arabic-speaking students put Classical Islamic scientists near the top of their lists and thought of the scientist as an Arab male, while the Hebrew-speaking students' was as a typical Western male. Recommendations, resulting from the findings, for developing a new learning unit for the purpose of altering stereotypes are suggested.

  1. Oral-diadochokinetic rates for Hebrew-speaking school-age children: real words vs. non-words repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icht, Michal; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2015-02-01

    Oral-diadochokinesis (DDK) tasks are a common tool for evaluating speech disorders. Usually, these tasks involve repetitions of non-words. It has been suggested that repeating real words can be more suitable for preschool children. But, the impact of using real words with elementary school children has not been studied yet. This study evaluated oral-DDK rates for Hebrew-speaking elementary school children using non-words and real words. The participants were 60 children, 9-11 years old, with normal speech and language development, who were asked to repeat "pataka" (non-word) and "bodeket" (Hebrew real word). Data replicate the advantage generally found for real word repetition with preschoolers. Children produced real words faster than non-words for all age groups, and repetition rates were higher for the older children. The findings suggest that adding real words to the standard oral-DDK task with elementary school children may provide a more comprehensive picture of oro-motor function.

  2. The Separability of Morphological Processes from Semantic Meaning and Syntactic Class in Production of Single Words: Evidence from the Hebrew Root Morpheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated to what extent the morphological facilitation effect induced by the derivational root morpheme in Hebrew is independent of semantic meaning and grammatical information of the part of speech involved. Using the picture-word interference paradigm with auditorily presented distractors, Experiment 1 compared the…

  3. Towards an Italian Lexicon for Polarity Classification (polarITA): a Comparative Analysis of Lexical Resources for Sentiment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Farías, Delia Irazú; Laganà, Irene; Patti, Viviana; Bosco, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The paper describes a preliminary study for the development of a novel lexicon for Italian sentiment analysis, i.e. where words are associated with polarity values. Given the influence of sentiment lexica on the performance of sentiment analysis systems, a methodology based on the detection and classification of errors in existing lexical resources is proposed and an extrinsic evaluation of the impact of such errors is applied. The final aim is to build a novel resource from the filtering app...

  4. Radiology residents' comprehension of the breast imaging reporting and data system: The ultrasound lexicon and final assessment category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye; Roh, Yun Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, You Me

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in interpretation and comprehension of breast ultrasonographic descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to suggest the adequate duration of training in breast ultrasonography. A total of 102 radiology residents working in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. They were asked to answer 16 questions about the ultrasonographic lexicon and 11 questions about the BI-RADS category. We analyzed the proportion of correct answers according to the radiology residents’ year of training and duration of breast imaging training. With respect to the duration of breast imaging training, the proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors ranged from 77.2% to 81.3% (p = 0.368) and the proportion of correct answers for the BI-RADS category was highest after three-four months of training compared with after one month of training (p = 0.033). The proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors and BI-RADS category did not differ significantly according to the year of residency training. Radiology residents' comprehension of the BI-RADS category on breast ultrasonography was not associated with their year of residency training. Based on our findings, radiology residents' assessment of the BI-RADS category was significantly improved with three-four months of training compared with one month of training

  5. Radiology residents' comprehension of the breast imaging reporting and data system: The ultrasound lexicon and final assessment category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Lee, Eun Hye [Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Yun Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Youk, Ji Hyun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Me [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate radiology residents' performance in interpretation and comprehension of breast ultrasonographic descriptors in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to suggest the adequate duration of training in breast ultrasonography. A total of 102 radiology residents working in the Department of Radiology were included in this study. They were asked to answer 16 questions about the ultrasonographic lexicon and 11 questions about the BI-RADS category. We analyzed the proportion of correct answers according to the radiology residents’ year of training and duration of breast imaging training. With respect to the duration of breast imaging training, the proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors ranged from 77.2% to 81.3% (p = 0.368) and the proportion of correct answers for the BI-RADS category was highest after three-four months of training compared with after one month of training (p = 0.033). The proportion of correct answers for lexicon descriptors and BI-RADS category did not differ significantly according to the year of residency training. Radiology residents' comprehension of the BI-RADS category on breast ultrasonography was not associated with their year of residency training. Based on our findings, radiology residents' assessment of the BI-RADS category was significantly improved with three-four months of training compared with one month of training.

  6. Breaking the Barriers of a "Silenced Identity": Teacher Trainees' Attitudes towards the Bilingual Presentation in Hebrew and Amharic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baratz Lea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the attitudes of students in a teacher training college training regarding the bilingual presentation of children's literature -- in Hebrew and Amharic. A questionnaire on the importance of bilingual books was used with a group of students of Ethiopian descent (of the Beta Israel community and a group of students who do not belong to this community, with the expectation that a substantial difference would be found between the attitudes of the two groups. The study population, students training to be literature teachers, was aware of the qualities that make "a good story". The main findings emphasize that participants have a substantial understanding of the significance of bilingual books, both in terms of its function in the curriculum and in building a cultural narrative in order to break out of the silenced identity and eliminate cultural visibility.

  7. Enhancement and character recognition of the erased colophon of a 15th-century Hebrew prayer book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, Derek J.; Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Knox, Keith T.; Heimbueger, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A handwritten codex often included an inscription that listed facts about its publication, such as the names of the scribe and patron, date of publication, the city where the book was copied, etc. These facts obviously provide essential information to a historian studying the provenance of the codex. Unfortunately, this page was sometimes erased after the sale of the book to a new owner, often by scraping off the original ink. The importance of recovering this information would be difficult to overstate. This paper reports on the methods of imaging, image enhancement, and character recognition that were applied to this page in a Hebrew prayer book copied in Florence in the 15th century.

  8. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology : a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowie, Wander Marius

    1998-01-01

    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A

  9. Real-Time Processing of ASL Signs: Delayed First Language Acquisition Affects Organization of the Mental Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of…

  10. Responding to Nonwords in the Lexical Decision Task: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Balota, David A.; Ratcliff, Roger; Rueckl, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented how various statistical properties of words (e.g., word-frequency) influence lexical processing. However, the impact of lexical variables on nonword decision-making performance is less clear. This gap is surprising, since a better specification of the mechanisms driving nonword responses may provide valuable insights into early lexical processes. In the present study, item-level and participant-level analyses were conducted on the trial-level lexical decision data for almost 37,000 nonwords in the English Lexicon Project in order to identify the influence of different psycholinguistic variables on nonword lexical decision performance, and to explore individual differences in how participants respond to nonwords. Item-level regression analyses reveal that nonword response time was positively correlated with number of letters, number of orthographic neighbors, number of affixes, and baseword number of syllables, and negatively correlated with Levenshtein orthographic distance and baseword frequency. Participant-level analyses also point to within- and between-session stability in nonword responses across distinct sets of items, and intriguingly reveal that higher vocabulary knowledge is associated with less sensitivity to some dimensions (e.g., number of letters) but more sensitivity to others (e.g., baseword frequency). The present findings provide well-specified and interesting new constraints for informing models of word recognition and lexical decision. PMID:25329078

  11. How lexical is the lexicon? Evidence for integrated auditory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufahl, April; Samuel, Arthur G

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has shown that lexical representations must include not only linguistic information (what word was said), but also indexical information (how it was said, and by whom). The present work demonstrates that even this expansion is not sufficient. Seemingly irrelevant information, such as an unattended background sound, is retained in memory and can facilitate subsequent speech perception. We presented participants with spoken words paired with environmental sounds (e.g., a phone ringing), and had them make an "animate/inanimate" decision for each word. Later performance identifying filtered versions of the words was impaired to a similar degree if the voice changed or if the environmental sound changed. Moreover, when quite dissimilar words were used at exposure and test, we observed the same result when we reversed the roles of the words and the environmental sounds. The experiments also demonstrated limits to these effects, with no benefit from repetition. Theoretically, our results support two alternative possibilities: (1) Lexical representations are memory representations, and are not walled off from those for other sounds. Indexical effects reflect simply one type of co-occurrence that is incorporated into such representations. (2) The existing literature on indexical effects does not actually bear on lexical representations - voice changes, like environmental sounds heard with a word, produce implicit memory effects that are not tied to the lexicon. We discuss the evidence and implications of these two theoretical alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing the lexical hypothesis: are socially important traits more densely reflected in the English lexicon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin

    2015-02-01

    Using a set of 498 English words identified by Saucier (1997) as common person-descriptor adjectives or trait terms, I tested 3 instantiations of the lexical hypothesis, which posit that more socially important person descriptors show greater density in the lexicon. Specifically, I explored whether trait terms that have greater relational impact (i.e., more greatly influence how others respond to a person) have more synonyms, are more frequently used, and are more strongly correlated with other trait terms. I found little evidence to suggest that trait terms rated as having greater relational impact were more frequently used or had more synonyms. However, these terms correlated more strongly with other trait terms in the set. Conversely, a trait term's loadings on structural factors (e.g., the Big Five, HEXACO) were extremely good predictors of the term's relational impact. The findings suggest that the lexical hypothesis may not be strongly supported in some ways it is commonly understood but is supported in the manner most important to investigations of trait structure. Specifically, trait terms with greater relational impact tend to more strongly correlate with other terms in lexical sets and thus have a greater role in driving the location of factors in analyses of trait structure. Implications for understanding the meaning of lexical factors such as the Big Five are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. A proposed lexicon of terms and concepts for human-bear management in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Herrero, Stephen; Shideler, Richard T.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    We believe that communication within and among agency personnel in the United States and Canada about the successes and failures of their human–bear (Ursidae) management programs will increase the effectiveness of these programs and of bear research. To communicate more effectively, we suggest agencies clearly define terms and concepts used in human–bear management and use them in a consistent manner. We constructed a human–bear management lexicon of terms and concepts using a modified Delphi method to provide a resource that facilitates more effective communication among human–bear management agencies. Specifically, we defined 40 terms and concepts in human–bear management and suggest definitions based on discussions with 13 other professionals from the United States and Canada. Although new terms and concepts will emerge in the future and definitions will evolve as we learn more about bear behavior and ecology, our purpose is to suggest working definitions for terms and concepts to help guide human–bear management and research activities in North America. Applications or revisions of these definitions may be useful outside of North America.

  14. Perception and Lexicon Labeling Ability on a Child with Language Delay Diagnosed As Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Psycholinguistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the semantics acquisition of a child with language delay diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. The research problem is on how the child acquired the ability to comprehend meaning. It aims at answering the questions on how the child identified lexical meanings and how he labeled targeted lexicons of his first language. The approach employed in this research is descriptive qualitative to get adequate explanation on a specific language phenomenon, namely semantics acquisition. Its design is case study with the type neo-ethnographic. As the data collection method, it uses participant observation of longitudinal study considering that the research subject has familial relation with the researcher. The data analysis shows that the semantic acquisition of the research subject has complexity in vocabulary enrichment. The research subject often performs echolalic speech when he is asked to identify or label certain object given. The typical idiosyncratic speech is shown by the unique feature of limited syllable and prosody. In general, his ability to identify lexical meanings is far exceeding his ability to label objects. He also has sensitivity to perceive the non-verbal symbol performed by the people he knows well. The use of verbal language supported by non-verbal language facilitates his perception. He finds it difficult to comprehend the lexicons having similar sound as he assumes that one lexicon represents one object which typically belongs to concrete object. In addition, the ability of the research subject in labeling objects cannot be developed easily because of his difficulty in expressing ideas through words. To pronounce the words correctly, he shows high anxiety by lowering down his speech. In selecting the lexicon he also finds it hard to use pronoun, to label homonyms and to apply both polysemy and hyponym. Accordingly, he tends to communicate only to fulfill his needs by asking things, asking the

  15. The Cause of Urban Slang and its Effect on the Development of the Northern Sotho Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Mojela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Urban slang terminology is extensively used today by most indigenous communities when speaking various South African indigenous languages. This is usually the case with informal conversations where the type of language used is also regarded to be informal. There are many instances where slang terms are used, consciously or unconsciously, in the form of code-switching with the indigenous languages in formal speech or informal conversations. These urban slang terms are regarded by most of the South African indigenous communities as prestige terms, especially by the young generation. Just as English and Afrikaans terminologies which had tremendous influence on the vocabularies of the indigenous languages, urban slang terminology has great influence on the daily usage of the South African indigenous languages. Despite this pressure, Northern Sotho and other South African indigenous languages do not have officially recognized adoptives which are derived from slang terminology. This is due to the fact that most language authorities do not want to associate their standard languages with urban slang because of various reasons which include, inter alia, the conservative idea of associating urban slang with crime and juvenile delinquency. Despite the negative attitudes of most of the conservative language authorities who regard the loan words of urban slang origin to be "contaminating" the South African indigenous languages (such as Northern Sotho, this slang terminology is every day becoming more popular and seems to have come to stay rather than be removed from the language of the people. A considerable fraction of the vocabulary of Northern Sotho, for instance, is made up of words which can be regarded as "loan words" derived from urban slang, even though formally we are still refusing to accept them as part of the lexicon of official Northern Sotho.

    Keywords: EUPHEMISM, FLYTAAL, INFERIOR DIALECT, INFERIOR LANGUAGE, MULTILINGUALISM

  16. The Collision of Two Lexicons: Librarians, Composition Instructors and the Vocabulary of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni M. Carter

    2016-03-01

    differences between the two vocabularies was detrimental to student learning. To improve communication and students’ source evaluation, the authors consider developing a common vocabulary for more consistency between the two lexicons.

  17. Psychometric properties of responses by clinicians and older adults to a 6-item Hebrew version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of treatments. Among several abridged versions, the 6-item HAM-D6 is used most widely in lar...... degree because of its good psychometric properties. The current study compares both self-report and clinician-rated versions of the Hebrew version of this scale....

  18. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?

    OpenAIRE

    Römer, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zech...

  19. Psychometric Examination, Adaptation, and Evaluation of the Hebrew Translation of the MMPI-2-RF VRIN-r and TRIN-r Validity Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkalim, Eleanor; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Handel, Richard W; Almagor, Moshe; Tellegen, Auke

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008/2011) Variable Response Inconsistency-Revised (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency-Revised (TRIN-r) scales, including alternative versions of the scales, in the Hebrew translation of the test. First, we examined the applicability of the U.S. VRIN-r and TRIN-r scales in an Israeli Hebrew-speaking mixed clinical sample, and replaced original item pairs that did not meet the development criteria with substitution item pairs that did. Then, using the Israeli normative sample and a pure clinical sample, we compared the psychometric functioning of the adapted Hebrew-language VRIN-r and TRIN-r scales with that of the original versions of these scales under various conditions of simulated non-content-based (random and fixed) responding. Overall, results showed that the adapted versions of the scales did not improve on the original ones. We therefore recommend using the U.S. VRIN-r and TRIN-r versions, which could also facilitate cross-cultural comparisons.

  20. Fast and slow readers of the Hebrew language show divergence in brain response ∼200 ms post stimulus: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Peter Korinth

    Full Text Available Higher N170 amplitudes to words and to faces were recently reported for faster readers of German. Since the shallow German orthography allows phonological recoding of single letters, the reported speed advantages might have their origin in especially well-developed visual processing skills of faster readers. In contrast to German, adult readers of Hebrew are forced to process letter chunks up to whole words. This dependence on more complex visual processing might have created ceiling effects for this skill. Therefore, the current study examined whether also in the deep Hebrew orthography visual processing skills as reflected by N170 amplitudes explain reading speed differences. Forty university students, native speakers of Hebrew without reading impairments, accomplished a lexical decision task (i.e., deciding whether a visually presented stimulus represents a real or a pseudo word and a face decision task (i.e., deciding whether a face was presented complete or with missing facial features while their electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 scalp positions. In both tasks stronger event related potentials (ERPs were observed for faster readers in time windows at about 200 ms. Unlike in previous studies, ERP waveforms in relevant time windows did not correspond to N170 scalp topographies. The results support the notion of visual processing ability as an orthography independent marker of reading proficiency, which advances our understanding about regular and impaired reading development.

  1. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. R�mer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zechariah 5, returned in a certain way through the personification of Wisdom in Proverbs 8, and the �dark sides� of the gods were materialised in the figure of Satan, who experienced an impressive career in the following centuries. The question of evil is not resolved in the Hebrew Bible. Some texts admit the autonomy of evil, whereas Isaiah 45 claims that Yhwh himself is at the origin of evil. This diversity makes it difficult to characterise the Hebrew Bible as the result of a straightforward evolution from polytheism to monotheism.

  2. Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wolniewicz-Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia The goal of this article is to examine how different events and phenomena related to the Second World War and the Holocaust are framed via Wikipedia articles written in Polish, Hebrew and English. Departing from the pillars of the theory of framing in mass media, the article conducts a content analysis of three articles, in three different languages. The articles under analysis are the following: “Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp”, “The Pogrom in Jedwabne”, and “Righteous Among the Nations”. The analysis will use the four roles of frames as categories, determined by Entman: definition of the problem/phenomenon, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and treatment recommendation. Analyzing how the articles fulfill each of the roles in the different languages, the research hypothesis is that the framing of the phenomena will differ between the versions, and each version will follow pillars of the collective memory of the Holocaust in its respective country. Findings, however, are not in complete compliance with this hypothesis.   Kształtowanie popularnej wiedzy o Holocauście na przykładzie trzech artykułów z polskiej, hebrajskiej i angielskiej Wikipedii Celem artykułu jest zbadanie, jak przedstawiane są wybrane wydarzenia i zjawiska, związane z historią II wojny światowej oraz Holokaustem, w internetowej encyklopedii „Wikipedia” w różnych językach. Prezentowana analiza treści opiera się na teorii framingu w mass mediach i obejmuje trzy artykuły: „Auschwitz-Birkenau”, „Pogrom w Jedwabnem” oraz „Sprawiedliwy wśród Narodów Świata”, opublikowane w językach polskim, angielskim oraz hebrajskim. W analizie wykorzystano cztery role „ram” (frames, sformułowane przez Entmana: definicja problemu/zjawiska, interpretacja przyczyn, ewaluacja moralna oraz propozycja rozwiązań. Autor, badając to, jak

  3. Health journalism in the service of power: 'moral complacency' and the Hebrew media in the Gaza-Israel conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna

    2014-05-01

    The power of health news as a vehicle in the production of meaning in the service of power is the core of this article. Tracking the media coverage of a medical service, it shows how a routine practice can be invoked at a time of armed conflict so as to enhance a benevolent state image. The case at hand is the medical treatment of Gaza children in Israeli hospitals. A series of Internet searches revealed a group of publications on the subject in the Hebrew media, during and shortly after Israel's assault on Gaza in the winter of 2008-2009. In the press articles the treatments were invariably constituted as the epitome of Israel's compassion towards the enemy's children. This image relied, however, on a simultaneous silencing of other aspects of these treatments, which would have challenged this image. The monolithic depictions give rise to the notion of reversed moral panic or 'moral complacency', wherein the media amplifies a little-known social phenomenon into an epitome of societal values and charges it with significance on a national scale. The article ends with considering some features that possibly render health news an especially convenient domain for state-supportive media presentations. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of phonological and morphological awareness on reading comprehension in Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Schwartz-Nahshon, Sarit; Nagar, Revital

    2011-06-01

    This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for chronological age (CA) and 38 third graders matched for reading age (RA). We assessed phonological awareness, word reading, morphological awareness, and reading comprehension. Findings indicated that the RD group performed similarly to the RA group on phonological awareness but lower on phonological decoding. On the decontextualized morphological task, RD functioned on par with RA, whereas in a contextualized task RD performed above RA but lower than CA. In reading comprehension, RD performed as well as RA. Finally, results indicated that for normal readers contextual morphological awareness uniquely contributed to reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities, whereas no such unique contribution emerged for the RD group. The absence of an effect of morphological awareness in predicting reading comprehension was suggested to be related to a different recognition process employed by RD readers which hinder the ability of these readers to use morphosemantic structures. The lexical quality hypothesis was proposed as further support to the findings, suggesting that a low quality of lexical representation in RD students leads to ineffective reading skills and comprehension. Lexical representation is thus critical for both lexical as well as comprehension abilities.

  5. Precision astronomy with imperfect fully depleted CCDs — an introduction and a suggested lexicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, C W

    2014-01-01

    lateral electric fields for a shorter time interval. I provide a qualitative overview of the physical effects we think are responsible for the observed device properties, and provide some perspective for the work that lies ahead. Finally, I take this opportunity to make a plea for establishing a clear and consistent vocabulary when describing these various detector features, and make some suggestions for a standard lexicon based on discussions at the workshop. A more refined understanding of the device imperfections we are working to circumvent lies ahead, and this workshop was convened to help us find our way

  6. Retardo mental Mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Vasconcelos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta revisão aborda as recentes descobertas da neurobiologia do retardo mental, enfatizando os novos recursos da citogenética, das técnicas moleculares e da neurorradiologia para esclarecer o diagnóstico. FONTES DE DADOS: O autor pesquisou o banco de dados MEDLINE da National Library of Medicine utilizando as palavras-chave "mental retardation", "developmental disability", "child" e "adolescent" em diferentes combinações, abrangendo o período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2003. Também foram utilizados os bancos de dados das revistas científicas Pediatrics e New England Journal of Medicine através da palavra-chave "mental retardation". No total, o autor consultou cerca de 1.500 títulos de artigos e 500 resumos, e teve acesso direto a 150 artigos completos pertinentes. Quando oportuno, algumas referências dos artigos consultados também foram consideradas. O site Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man foi utilizado como fonte de informações em genética clínica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em outubro de 2003, o total de síndromes genéticas associadas a retardo mental chegou a 1.149. Considerando-se o conjunto das causas genéticas ou ambientais e congênitas ou adquiridas de retardo mental, a avaliação diagnóstica atual é capaz de esclarecer a etiologia em 50 a 70% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O autor sugere uma avaliação diagnóstica do retardo mental em etapas lógicas, visando ao uso racional dos dispendiosos recursos da citogenética, biologia molecular e neuroimagem.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes recent advances in the neurobiology of mental retardation, emphasizing new diagnostic resources provided by cytogenetics, molecular testing, and neuroimaging. SOURCES OF DATA: MEDLINE (January 2000 through October 2003, using the following key words: mental retardation, developmental disability, child, and adolescent. Search of the Pediatrics and New England Journal of Medicine websites using the key word mental retardation. The

  7. Combination Welding Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Combination Welding. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for combination welding is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  8. Automotive Mechanics Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Automotive Mechanics. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for automotive mechanics is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  9. Dinamismo conceptual en las bases de conocimiento terminológico: el caso de EcoLexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Faber Benítez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la nueva orientación de la Terminología, en sentido lingüístico-conceptual, ha dado lugar al desarrollo de un nuevo enfoque centrado en el discurso y el uso real de los términos (Temmerman y Kerremans, 2003. Este cambio de paradigma ha originado una mejora sustancial del contenido de las bases de conocimiento terminológico. Sin embargo, la novedad más destacada en cuanto a la modelización del conocimiento parte del uso extensivo de las ontologías, añadiéndole un mayor grado de expresividad semántica a la Terminología. Objetivo: presentar la base de conocimiento EcoLexicon, desarrollada en la Universidad de Granada por el grupo de investigación LexiCon. Para sacar el máximo partido de las ventajas que ofrece la aplicación de ontologías se propone la definición de un inventario de relaciones conceptuales junto con su potencial combinatorio. A su vez, éste origina una representación restringida por el contexto. Método: según los datos extraídos del corpus recopilado para la investigación, los conceptos del dominio se dividen según su tipología y su poder relacional. Se aplican características propias del lenguaje de ontologías (Web Ontology Language (OWL para realizar inferencias (ej. la transitividad de la meronimia. Resultados: la definición de las relaciones conceptuales según la naturaleza de los conceptos ofrece una solución cuantitativa para la sobrecarga de información y, a su vez, cualitativa, para la adquisición del conocimiento. Conclusiones: EcoLexicon une con éxito la Terminología y la capacidad expresiva de las ontologías, lo que ayudará en el futuro a diseñar sistemas de búsqueda adaptados a distintos usuarios.

  10. Validity and Reliability of the Hebrew Version of the SpREUK Questionnaire for Religiosity, Spirituality and Health: An Application for Oral Diseases

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    Harold D. Sgan-Cohen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has examined the connection between religiosity, spirituality (SpR and health, and the potential of these variables to prevent, heal and cope with disease. Research indicated that participation in religious meetings or services was associated with a lower risk of developing oral disease. We intended to test a Hebrew version of the SpREUK 1.1 questionnaire, which is reported to be a reliable and valid measure of distinctive issues of SpR, and to test its relevance in the context of oral illness among a Jewish population. Methods: In order to validate the SpREUK-Hebrew instrument, minor translational and cultural/religious adaptations were applied. Reliability and factor analyses were performed, using standard procedures, among 134 Jewish Israeli subjects (mean age 38.4 years. Results: Analysis of reliability for internal consistency demonstrated an intra-class correlation of Cronbach's alpha = 0.90 for the intrinsic religiosity/spiritual and the appraisal scales, and of 0.90 for the support through spirituality/religiosity scales. Inter reliability agreement by kappa ranged between 0.7 and 0.9. We were able to approve the previously described factorial structure, albeit with some unique characteristics in the Jewish population. Individuals´ time spent on spiritual activity correlated with the SpREUK scales. The instrument discriminated well between religious subgroups (i.e., ultra Orthodox, conventional religious and less-religious. Preliminary results indicate an association between measures of spirituality and oral health. Conclusions: The traditional and cultural adaptation of the tool was found to be appropriate. SpREUK-Hebrew was reliable and valid among a Jewish population. This method could therefore be employed in comparative studies among different cultural and religious backgrounds.

  11. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  12. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  13. Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the same time. For example, you may have depression and a substance use disorder. Complications Mental illness is a leading cause of disability. Untreated mental illness can cause severe emotional, behavioral and physical health problems. Complications sometimes linked to mental illness include: ...

  14. Lexicon of Albanian mythology: areal studies in the polylingual region of Azov Sea

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    Alexander Alexandrovich Novik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lexicon of Albanian mythology: areal studies in the polylingual region of Azov Sea Four villages with Albanian population are located in the Ukraine: Karakurt (Zhovtnevoe set up in 1811 (Odessa region, Tyushki (Georgievka, Dzhandran (Gammovka and Taz (Devninskoe set up in 1862 (Zaporizh’a region. The analysis of lexica of the Albanian subdialect of the Ukraine shows the continuation of the use of mythological terminology between the districts of the South-Eastern Albania (Korça, Devoll, Kolonja and the Albanian-speaking villages of the Azov Sea region. The Albanian subdialect of the Ukraine has no collective lexeme to designate all the representatives of the demonic world. The most common forms of denotation are these: nok janë të prastúrë (lit. ‘they are unclean’, shpírti nok i prastúrë (lit. ‘unclean spirit’. There are a large number of stories about the transformation of people into the animals – dogs, cats, goats, foxes, chickens etc. and even into things (the most common plot variant is about transformation of a man into a wheel. Also we observe the personification of the steppe wind among the Albanians of the Ukraine. Thus there is a special word for such a kind of wind in this subdialect – varalluzhg/ë, –a (‘varaluzhga’. The Balkan peoples believe that the fate of every individual is assigned by three mythological characters. Most of them, including the Albanians, consider that these three characters are female. They appear several hours after the child’s birth and assign its fate. The Albanians of the Ukraine keep these beliefs, but according to their system of mythological images, there are three men determining the child’s fate instead of three women. As the native consultants claim, these are three huge, tall and strong black men (tri burre qysh japin fatnë. Another variation on this theme comprises the stories about Christ’s disciples, the apostles and their followers, who can also determine the

  15. Malachi 4:4−6 (Heb 3:22−24 as a point of convergence in the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible: A consideration of the intra and intertextual relationships

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    S.D. (Fanie Snyman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Malachi 4:4−6 (Heb 3:22−24 occupies a special place in the canon of Scriptures. In Malachi 4:4−6 (Heb 3:22−24 not only the book of Malachi comes to a close but the whole of the Prophets (Nebi’im, and the second part of the Hebrew Bible. In the Christian Bible the book of Malachi is the last book in the Old Testament, which is concluded with this passage, before one turns to the New Testament. In this article it was argued the these three verses serve not only as the conclusion to the book of Malachi but also as a fitting close to the second part of the Hebrew Bible. It also serves as a link to both the Pentateuch as the first part, and the Psalms as the third part, of the Hebrew canon of Scriptures. In this sense Malachi 4:4−6 (Heb 3:22−24 can be viewed as a point of convergence in the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible.

  16. Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: part II--content of the first lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Pauline; Cowan, Robert; Brown, P Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2009-10-01

    Lexical content is commonly understood to refer to the various categories of words that children produce and has been studied extensively in children with normal hearing. Unlike the hearing child, however, little is known about the word categories that make up the first lexicon of children with hearing loss (HL). Knowledge of the first lexicon is increasingly important, as infants with HL are now being detected through universal newborn hearing screening programs and fitted with hearing aids and cochlear implants in before 12 months of age. For these children, emergence of the first spoken words is a major milestone eagerly awaited by parents and one of the first verbal language goals of teachers and therapists working with such children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lexical content of the first 50 and 100 words produced by children with HL and to contrast this with that of a group of hearing children. Lexical content was compared in two groups of children: one group composed of 24 participants with severe profound or profound HL and a second group composed of 16 participants with normal hearing. Twenty-three participants in the HL group were fitted with a cochlear implant and one with bilateral hearing aids. All were "switched on" or fitted before 30 months of age. The Diary of Early Language (Di-EL) was used to collect a 100-word lexicon from each participant. All single word and frozen phrase data from each child's Di-EL were allocated to 1 of 15 word types grouped into four word categories (noun, predicate, grammatical, and paralexical), and the results were compared for both groups. The hearing and HL groups showed similar distributions of word categories, with nouns constituting the largest portion of the lexicon followed by predicates and paralexicals. Grammaticals made up the smallest portion of the lexicon. However, several significant differences were evident between the two groups. In both the 50- and 100-word lexicons, the hearing group

  17. Functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic buffer revealed in reading and writing Chinese characters by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Erik C; Chen, Sinead H Y; Lin, Yi-Chen; Wu, Denise H

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of orthographic representations to reading and writing has been intensively investigated in the literature. However, the distinction between neuronal correlates of the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic (graphemic) buffer has rarely been examined in alphabetic languages and never been explored in non-alphabetic languages. To determine whether the neural networks associated with the orthographic lexicon and buffer of logographic materials are comparable to those reported in the literature, the present fMRI experiment manipulated frequency and the stroke number of Chinese characters in the tasks of form judgment and stroke judgment, which emphasized the processing of character recognition and writing, respectively. It was found that the left fusiform gyrus exhibited higher activation when encountering low-frequency than high-frequency characters in both tasks, which suggested this region to be the locus of the orthographic lexicon that represents the knowledge of character forms. On the other hand, the activations in the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus were parametrically modulated by the stroke number of target characters only in the stroke judgment task, which suggested these regions to be the locus of the orthographic buffer that represents the processing of stroke sequence in writing. These results provide the first evidence for the functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and buffer in reading and writing Chinese characters. They also demonstrate the critical roles of the left fusiform area and the frontoparietal network to the long-term and short-term representations of orthographic knowledge, respectively, across different orthographies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can we apply the MRI BI-RADS lexicon morphology descriptors on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rasha M; Helal, Maha H; Mansour, Sahar M; Haggag, Marwa A; Nada, Omniya M; Farahat, Iman G; Alieldin, Nelly H

    2016-07-12

    To assess the feasibility of using the MRI breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon morphology descriptors to characterize enhancing breast lesions identified on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). The study is a retrospective analysis of the morphology descriptors of 261 enhancing breast lesions identified on CESM in 239 patients. We presented the morphological categorization of the included lesions into focus, mass and non-mass. Further classifications included (1) the multiplicity for "focus" category, (2) the shape, margin and internal enhancement for "mass" category and (3) the distribution and internal enhancement for "non-mass" category. Each morphology descriptor was evaluated individually (irrespective of all other descriptors) by calculating its sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value (PPV) and negative-predictive value (NPV) and likelihood ratios (LRs). The study included 68/261 (26.1%) benign lesions and 193/261 (73.9%) malignant lesions. Intensely enhancing foci, whether single (7/12, 58.3%) or multiple (2/12, 16.7%), were malignant. Descriptors of "irregular"-shape (PPV: 92.4%) and "non-circumscribed" margin (odds ratio: 55.2, LR positive: 4.77; p-value: <0.001) were more compatible with malignancy. Internal mass enhancement patterns showed a very low specificity (58.0%) and NPV (40.0%). Non-mass enhancement (NME) was detected in 81/261 lesions. Asymmetrical NME in 81% (n = 52/81) lesions was malignant lesions and internal enhancement patterns indicative of malignancy were the heterogeneous and clumped ones. We can apply the MRI morphology descriptors to characterize lesions on CESM, but with few expectations. In many situations, irregular-shaped, non-circumscribed masses and NME with focal, ductal or segmental distribution and heterogeneous or clumped enhancement are the most suggestive descriptors of malignant pathologies. (1) The MRI BI-RADS lexicon morphology descriptors can be applied in the

  19. Fischer's Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of Ukraine and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Typek, Joanna

    2015-12-24

    Historical ethnobotanical studies are important, even if they are only descriptive, because they help to throw light on the missing chains needed for diachronic analysis. However, the documentation of traditional uses of plants in some countries, e.g. Ukraine, is still fragmentary. The aim of this contribution is to fill the gap and present a portion of the data set, from western Ukraine, which was collected by Adam Fischer, a Polish ethnographer from Lviv, in the 1930s. These data were originally gathered to be published in the first part of the Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs, dedicated to plant uses in traditional Slavonic culture. The idea of writing the Lexicon arose in 1929 during the I Congress of Slavic Philologists in Prague and was intended to be a joint international enterprise, but has never actually been fulfilled. In this article we used information from south-eastern Poland at that time - nowadays western Ukraine, collected in four provinces, 11 counties and 28 localities by Fischer's collaborators. The majority of the information was accompanied by voucher specimens, which were determined by botanists at the Jan Kazimierz University. These data are still unpublished and stored on filecards in the archives of the Polish Ethnological Society in Wrocław, Poland. In our analysis we applied two indices: one to measure general plant versatility - Use Value, and another regarding medicinal plants - Relative Importance Value. In total, 179 plant taxa used in peasant culture in the western Ukraine in the 1930s were registered. The species which achieved the highest Use Values were: Achillea millefolium, Allium sativum, Vinca minor, Hypericum sp. and Juniperus communis. Among the collected plant names, Polish names dominate (59%) over clearly Ukrainian and Ruthenian ones (31%). The remaining 10% of names were of unclear origin or could have been used by both groups. The most salient use categories were medicinal, followed by ritual - chiefly plants

  20. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless Thinking about suicide or hurting yourself Other mental health conditions include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. For a good description ...

  1. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) US lexicon and final assessment category for solid breast masses: the rates of inter-and intraobserver agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Koh, Young Hwan; Youn, Byung Jae; Cho, Byung Jae; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the rates of inter-and intraobserver agreement of the BI-RADS US lexicon. Two radiologists reviewed 60 sonograms of solid breast masses to evaluate interobserver agreement. After four weeks, the radiologists reinterpreted the series to evaluate the intraobserver agreement. The radiologists described shape, orientation, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic features and microcalcifications. Final assessment categories and management plans were suggested for each case. The rates of inter-and intraobserver agreements were measured by the use of kappa statistics. Interobserver agreement ranged from the highest for orientation (κ = 0.65) and shape (κ = 0.61) to the lowest for posterior acoustic features (κ = 0.42). For the final assessment categories (κ = 0.46) and management (κ = 0.49), interobserver agreement were moderate. Intraobserver agreement ranged from the highest for microcalcifications in mass (κ = 0.90, 0.82) and orientation (κ 0.87, 0.83) and the lowest for echo patterns (κ = 0.62, 0.57) and posterior acoustic features (κ = 0.59, 0.65). In the final assessment category and management, intraobserver agreements were substantial or nearly complete (κ = 0.65-0.83). There were variable raged inter-and intraobserver agreements in the description of the BI-RADS US lexicon of solid breast masses. Among them, margin and lesion boundary showed lower agreements. A modification of the BI-RADS US lexicon with more detailed guidelines, followed by continuous education, are suggested

  2. ATLAS Experiment Brochure - Hebrew

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081027

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It is a general-purpose particle physics experiment run by an international collaboration, and is designed to exploit the full discovery potential and the huge range of physics opportunities that the LHC provides.

  3. Names and Attributes of the Mother of God. For a Church Slavonic-Russian-Italian Lexicon of Religious Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Ferro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In direct continuity with a previous essay on the study of a selection of attributes referred to the Christian God (Ferro, Romoli 2013, the authors analyze a number of epithets and attributes addressed to the Mother of God or defining her qualities. These words are frequently used in medieval Eastern Slavic literature, they are usually stated in the most authoritative dictionaries of Old and Church Slavonic languages, and remain generally unchanged in modern Russian.Within the project of a trilingual (Church Slavonic-Russian-Italian lexicon, the essay aims to show how the translation of religious terms goes beyond linguistics, as the question of correspondence or lack of correspondence in concepts and contexts of reference often arises. Since general dictionaries frequently fail to provide satisfactory solutions, it is necessary to go back to the origins, semantics and use of the terms through the systematic use of different types of dictionaries. In addition, in order to provide a proper Italian translation, the use of dictionaries of the Italian language is also fundamental.

  4. Story grammar elements and causal relations in the narratives of Russian-Hebrew bilingual children with SLI and typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichman, Sveta; Altman, Carmit; Voloskovich, Anna; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2017-09-01

    While there is general agreement regarding poor performance of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) on microstructure measures of narrative production, findings on macrostructure are inconsistent. The present study analyzed narrative abilities of Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children with and without SLI, with a particular focus on story grammar (SG) elements and causal relations, in order to identify macrostructure features which distinguish bilingual children with SLI from those with typical development. Narratives were collected from 35 typically developing bilinguals (BiTD) and 14 bilinguals with SLI (BiSLI) in both Russian/L1 and Hebrew/L2 using a retelling procedure (LITMUS-Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives) (Gagarina, Klop, Kunnari, Tantele, Välimaa, Balčiūnienė, Bohnacker, & Walters, 2012). Each story contained three episodes, and each episode introduced a different protagonist with explicitly stated Goals (G), Attempts (A) and Outcomes (O). Causal relations assessed included Enabling, Physical, Motivational, and Psychological relations, following Trabasso & Nickels (1992). Each Goal-Attempt-Outcome (GAO) episode was examined for the use of SG elements and causal relations. Group differences emerged for both aspects of macrostructure. For causal relations, narratives of BiSLI children contained fewer Enabling and Physical relations, and differed qualitatively from those of BiTD children. For SG elements, BiSLI children referred to fewer SG elements than BiTD children in the first episode, but performed like BiTD children in the second and the third episodes. Story grammar elements in specific episodes along with Enabling and Physical causal relations distinguish the narratives of children with BiSLI from those with BiTD, which stresses the importance of examining wider array of macrostructure features in narratives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. What Is Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts Recovery Is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...

  6. Mentalizing animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Ethicists have tended to treat the psychology of attributing mental states to animals as an entirely separate issue from the moral importance of animals’ mental states. In this paper I bring these two issues together. I argue for two theses, one descriptive and one normative. The descriptive thesis...... holds that ordinary human agents use what are generally called phenomenal mental states (e.g., pain and other emotions) to assign moral considerability to animals. I examine recent empirical research on the attribution of phenomenal states and agential states (e.g., memory and intelligence) to argue...... that phenomenal mental states are the primary factor, psychologically, for judging an animal to be morally considerable. I further argue that, given the role of phenomenal states in assigning moral considerability, certain theories in animal ethics will meet significant psychological resistance. The normative...

  7. Mammographic features of screening detected pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancer using BI-RADS lexicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargalló, Xavier, E-mail: xbarga@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Santamaría, Gorane, E-mail: gsanta@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Velasco, Martín, E-mail: mvelasco@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Amo, Montse del, E-mail: mdelamo@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Arguis, Pedro, E-mail: parguis@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Burrel, Marta, E-mail: mburrel@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Capurro, Sebastian, E-mail: scapurro@clinic.ub.es [Department of Radiology (CDIC), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Aim: To describe mammographic features in screening detected invasive breast cancer less than or equal to 10 mm using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon in full-field digital mammography. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 123 pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancers in women aged 50–69 years from our screening program. Radiologic patterns were: masses, calcifications, distortions, asymmetries and mixed. Masses: shape, margins and density, and calcifications: morphology, number of flecks and size of the cluster were taken into account, following Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology. Results: We found 61 masses (49.6%), 8 masses with calcifications (6.5%), 30 groups of calcifications (24.4%), 19 architectural distortions (15.4%), 1 architectural distortion with calcifications (0.8%), 4 asymmetries (3.2%). Sixty out of 69 masses were irregular in shape, 6 lobular, 2 ovals and 1 round. Thirty-four showed ill-defined margins, 29 spiculated and 6 microlobulated. Most of them showed a density similar to surrounding fibroglandular tissue. Calcifications were pleomorphic or fine linear in 24 of 30 (80%). Most of cases showed more than 10 flecks and a size greater than 1 cm. Conclusion: The predominant radiologic finding is an irregular, isodense mass those margins tend to share different descriptors, being ill-defined margins the most constant finding. Calcifications representing invasive cancer are predominantly pleomorphic with more than 10 flecks per cm. Architectural distortion and invasive tubular carcinoma are more common than reported in general series.

  8. Mammographic features of screening detected pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancer using BI-RADS lexicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargalló, Xavier; Santamaría, Gorane; Velasco, Martín; Amo, Montse del; Arguis, Pedro; Burrel, Marta; Capurro, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To describe mammographic features in screening detected invasive breast cancer less than or equal to 10 mm using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon in full-field digital mammography. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 123 pT1 (a–b) invasive breast cancers in women aged 50–69 years from our screening program. Radiologic patterns were: masses, calcifications, distortions, asymmetries and mixed. Masses: shape, margins and density, and calcifications: morphology, number of flecks and size of the cluster were taken into account, following Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology. Results: We found 61 masses (49.6%), 8 masses with calcifications (6.5%), 30 groups of calcifications (24.4%), 19 architectural distortions (15.4%), 1 architectural distortion with calcifications (0.8%), 4 asymmetries (3.2%). Sixty out of 69 masses were irregular in shape, 6 lobular, 2 ovals and 1 round. Thirty-four showed ill-defined margins, 29 spiculated and 6 microlobulated. Most of them showed a density similar to surrounding fibroglandular tissue. Calcifications were pleomorphic or fine linear in 24 of 30 (80%). Most of cases showed more than 10 flecks and a size greater than 1 cm. Conclusion: The predominant radiologic finding is an irregular, isodense mass those margins tend to share different descriptors, being ill-defined margins the most constant finding. Calcifications representing invasive cancer are predominantly pleomorphic with more than 10 flecks per cm. Architectural distortion and invasive tubular carcinoma are more common than reported in general series

  9. RadLex - German version: a radiological lexicon for indexing image and report information; RadLex - deutsche Version: Ein radiologisches Lexikon zur Indexierung von Bild- und Befunddaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwede, D.; Lobsien, D.; Kahn, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Daumke, P.; Marko, K.; Schulz, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie und Medizinische Informatik

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: Since 2003 the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) has been developing a lexicon of standardized radiological terms (RadLex) intended to support the structured reporting of imaging observations and the indexing of teaching cases. The aim of this study was to translate the first version of the lexicon (1 - 2007) into German and to implement a language-independent online term browser. Materials and Methods: RadLex version 1 - 2007 contains 6303 terms in nine main categories. Two radiologists independently translated the lexicon using medical dictionaries. Terms translated differently were revised and translated by consensus. For the development of an online term browser, a text processing algorithm called morphosemantic indexing was used which splits up words into small semantic units and compares those units to language-specific subword thesauri. Results: In total 6240 of 6303 terms (99 %) were translated. Of those terms 3965 were German, 1893 were Latin, 359 were multilingual, and 23 were English terms that are also used in German and were therefore maintained. The online term browser supports a language-independent term search in RadLex (German/English) and other common medical terminology (e.g., ICD 10). The term browser displays term hierarchies and translations in different frames and the complexity of the result lists can be adapted by the user. Conclusion: RadLex version 1 - 2007 developed by the RSNA is now available in German and can be accessed online through a term browser with an efficient search function. This is an important precondition for the future comparison of national and international indexed radiological examination results and the interoperability between digital teaching resources. (orig.)

  10. Interpretation of an Epoch in the Novel "the Big Green Tent" by L. Ulitskaya: Linguistic-Cultural Analysis of Verbal Lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildar Ch. Safin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is the verbal lexicon analysis based on the text of the novel "The Big Green Tent" by L. Ulitskaya. The creative manner of the contemporary writer attracts the attention of researchers, her writings describe the emotional experiences of the heroes and also give a generalized image of time full of historical details and features. The language of her stories and short stories is characterized by a special style in the description of time realities. A verb in the text allows the author to express the events and the circumstances that characterize an action in its dynamics due to the fact that verbal categories reflect the real reality in our consciousness. The method of linguistic cultural analysis of verbal lexicon in the novel "The Big Green Tent" made it possible to single out exactly those language units that the writer carefully selects for the creation and interpretation of the era. A special emphasis in the study is made on the creation of an expressive-emotional style of narration using the stylistic capabilities of the Russian verb. The individual author's methods of narration expressiveness creation are singled out: synonymous series, euphemisms, colloquial lexicon, etc. The conducted study and a careful analysis of the selected factual material testifies that, recreating an epoch, the master of the word invariably uses that language arsenal that brightly and fully conveys the color of time. L. Ulitskaya is able to be not only an indifferent witness of the epoch, but also her tenacious observer and interpreter. The analyzed factual material and the main points of this research can be used in the courses on stylistics and linguistic culturology, and also as an illustrative material during the classes on the linguistic analysis of a literary text.

  11. Mental Byomdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup

    Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været...

  12. Early acquisition of the verbal lexicon and semantic approximations in Portuguese / Aquisição inicial do léxico verbal e aproximações semânticas em português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Tonietto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The analogical reasoning that allows relating concepts, permits the construction of the conceptual system. In the early phase of lexicon acquisition, mainly between 2 and 4 years of age, linguistic productions are observed resulting from the analogical reasoning, sometimes named metaphors. According to Duvignau (2002, 2003, these emissions result from the semantic approximation by analogy, a mechanism that allows approaching concepts more or less distant from the available lexicon. This study dimensions the importance of verbal semantic approximations for the early lexical development of monolingual children of the Portuguese language and studies the resource to generic versus specific items. Eighty monolingual children between 2 and 4 years old and 75 undergraduate students took part of this study, answering the Actions Naming and Reformulation Tasks. The results conclude that the semantic approximation by analogy is a fundamental linguistic strategy for lexicon development and reveals the cognitive flexibility which is present in typical development.

  13. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale: a multinational review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jennifer E; Adler, Emerald P; Otilingam, Poorni G; Peters, Townley

    2014-01-01

    The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale is a 29-item questionnaire measuring self-stigma among persons with psychiatric disorders. It was developed with substantial consumer input and has been widely used, but its psychometric qualities have not been comprehensively evaluated across multiple versions. Here we review the 55 known versions, and provide the 47 available versions, including: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Bulgarian, Chinese (Mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong), Croatian, Dutch, English (USA, South Africa), Estonian, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Lithuanian, Lugandan, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Slovenian, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Tongan, Turkish, Urdu, and Yoruba, and qualitative English and Swahili versions, as well as versions for depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, eating disorders, epilepsy, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy, smoking, parents and caregivers of people with mental illness, and ethnicity. The various versions show reliability and validity across a wide range of languages, cultures, and writing systems. The most commonly reported findings of studies using the ISMI are that internalized stigma correlates with higher depression, lower self esteem, and higher symptom severity. Initial studies of ways to reduce internalized stigma are promising and warrant further investigation. © 2014.

  14. MENTAL HEALTH: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-02-01

    of mental health, especially mental health needs to be developed with an Islamic perspective various studies and research, especially the development of mental health recovery means Islamic perspective.

  15. Cross-Linguistic Influence in the Bilingual Mental Lexicon: Evidence of Cognate Effects in the Phonetic Production and Processing of a Vowel Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines cognate effects in the phonetic production and processing of the Catalan back mid-vowel contrast (/o/-/ɔ/) by 24 early and highly proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals in Majorca (Spain). Participants completed a picture-naming task and a forced-choice lexical decision task in which they were presented with either words (e.g., /bɔsk/ "forest") or non-words based on real words, but with the alternate mid-vowel pair in stressed position ((*)/bosk/). The same cognate and non-cognate lexical items were included in the production and lexical decision experiments. The results indicate that even though these early bilinguals maintained the back mid-vowel contrast in their productions, they had great difficulties identifying non-words and real words based on the identity of the Catalan mid-vowel. The analyses revealed language dominance and cognate effects: Spanish-dominants exhibited higher error rates than Catalan-dominants, and production and lexical decision accuracy were also affected by cognate status. The present study contributes to the discussion of the organization of early bilinguals' dominant and non-dominant sound systems, and proposes that exemplar theoretic approaches can be extended to include bilingual lexical connections that account for the interactions between the phonetic and lexical levels of early bilingual individuals.

  16. Mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The article will describe factors of influence on return to work RTW and evidence-based interventions that enhance return to work (RTW) after sick leave due to common mental health disorders (CMD). First the concepts of both RTW and CMD are outlined. Second, the sense of urgency for effective RTW

  17. Control mental

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno i Torrens, David, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    La revista especialitzada NeuroReport ha publicat un article que m'ha aportat nous elements de reflexió sobre els mecanismes neurals de control mental que, de forma innata, realitzem les persones com a part de la nostra vida social.

  18. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for use in Israel (Hebrew), Korea, the US (Spanish), India (Malayalam and Kannada), and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Diane; Furtado, Tamzin; Angalakuditi, Mallik

    2012-01-01

    Background The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a caregiver rating scale for assessing the behavioral profile of children. It was developed in the US, and has been extensively translated and used in a large number of studies internationally. Objective The objective of this study was to translate the CBCL into six languages using a rigorous translation methodology, placing particular emphasis on cultural adaptation and ensuring that the measure has content validity with carers of children with epilepsy. Methods A rigorous translation and cultural adaptation methodology was used. This is a process which includes two forward translations, reconciliation, two back-translations, and cognitive debriefing interviews with five carers of children with epilepsy in each country. In addition, a series of open-ended questions were asked of the carers in order to provide evidence of content validity. Results A number of cultural adaptations were made during the translation process. This included adaptations to the examples of sports and hobbies. An addition of “milk delivery” was made to the job examples in the Malayalam translation. In addition, two sexual problem items were removed from the Hebrew translation for Israel. Conclusion An additional six translations of the CBCL are now available for use in multinational studies. These translations have evidence of content validity for use with parents of children with epilepsy and have been appropriately culturally adapted so that they are acceptable for use in the target countries. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation. PMID:22715318

  19. Hebrew Hermeneutics and Inquisitorial Persecution: The Case of The Hebraist from Salamanca Martín Martínez de Cantalapiedra (XVIth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Muñoz Solla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Halfway through the 16th century in Spain the reading and interpretation of the Bible based on its original languages involved a very real danger for humanists who were seeking a better understanding of the Scriptures. The exclusive authority of the Latin Vulgate version declared by the Council of Trent in 1546 hindered the intellectual work of many Biblicists and Theologians, who were subjected to tight ideological control. In this context it must be considered the case of the Hebraist and scholar from the University of Salamanca, Martín Martínez de Cantalapiedra (1518-1579, who was prosecuted by the Inquisition of Valladolid in 1572 along with his colleagues Fray Luis de León and Gaspar de Grajal. All of them were accused of deviating from the genuine sense of the Vulgate in their more literal interpretations of the Masoretic text. The purpose of this article is to provide new evidence for the intellectual biography of Master Martínez de Cantalapiedra as well a to analyze the hermeneutical principles exposed during his inquisitorial in which he defended the Hebrew knowledge as an essential means of interpreting the Old Testament.

  20. Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Communications Satellite CRT Cathode Ray Tube COMNAVSURFLANT Commander, CS Combat System; Computer Subsystem Naval Surface Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet CSA Close...Sideband Low-Frequency Acoustic Vernier Analyzer LSD Large Screen Display LC Launch Control LSI Low Ship Impact 24 LSNSR Line-of-Bearing Sensor NCA

  1. Higiene mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gomez Pinzón

    1940-08-01

    Full Text Available El número cada día mayor de enfermos mentales, que hace “contraste con  la evidente disminución de enfermedades infecto-contagiosas, -lograda a favor de los modernos métodos de curación y profilaxis- es un hecho que está siendo comprobado “en todos los países civilizados y que constituye motivo de justificada alarma para cuantos se preocupan por cuestiones del orden biológico y social”

  2. The translation and cultural adaptation of the Child Behavior Checklist for use in Israel (Hebrew, Korea, the US (Spanish, India (Malayalam and Kannada, and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diane Wild,1 Tamzin Furtado,1 Mallik Angalakuditi21Oxford Outcomes, Oxford, UK; 2Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USABackground: The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL is a caregiver rating scale for assessing the behavioral profile of children. It was developed in the US, and has been extensively translated and used in a large number of studies internationally.Objective: The objective of this study was to translate the CBCL into six languages using a rigorous translation methodology, placing particular emphasis on cultural adaptation and ensuring that the measure has content validity with carers of children with epilepsy.Methods: A rigorous translation and cultural adaptation methodology was used. This is a process which includes two forward translations, reconciliation, two back-translations, and cognitive debriefing interviews with five carers of children with epilepsy in each country. In addition, a series of open-ended questions were asked of the carers in order to provide evidence of content validity.Results: A number of cultural adaptations were made during the translation process. This included adaptations to the examples of sports and hobbies. An addition of “milk delivery” was made to the job examples in the Malayalam translation. In addition, two sexual problem items were removed from the Hebrew translation for Israel.Conclusion: An additional six translations of the CBCL are now available for use in multinational studies. These translations have evidence of content validity for use with parents of children with epilepsy and have been appropriately culturally adapted so that they are acceptable for use in the target countries. The study highlights the importance of a rigorous translation process and the process of cultural adaptation.Keywords: epilepsy, multinational studies, content validity

  3. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  4. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  5. Mental Illness Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Events About Us Home > Health Information Share Statistics Research shows that mental illnesses are common in ... of mental illnesses, such as suicide and disability. Statistics Top ı cs Mental Illness Any Anxiety Disorder ...

  6. MENTAL HEALTH: ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Muzdalifah M. Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to explain the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, describes the mental health of an Islamic perspective and describes how mental health recovery. The theory used is the concept of mental health perspective Contemporary Psychology, and the concept of mental health perspective Islamic Psychology Writing is writing method using qualitative research methods. Mental health is avoiding an Islamic perspective of all symptoms, complaints and...

  7. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny E

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler "to speak," [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter "to repeat," [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer "to adore," [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire "to drink," [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French inflectional verbal

  8. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lopez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioural experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler ‘to speak’, [parl-]; b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter ‘to repeat’, [répét-] and [répèt-]; c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer ‘to adore’, [ador-] and [adOr-]; and d. idiosyncratic (boire ‘to drink’, [boi-] and [buv-]. For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-] have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-], suggesting that they share a single abstract and underspecified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of

  9. What now of the Vashti character in the Hebrew Bible? Ruminating on the future of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians among emerging scholars in Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe M. Kondemo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerned about the relative absence of activities (including the writings by members of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians within the Democratic Republic of the Congo Circle, Francophone context in general and her Mongolese context in particular, the author uses the marginalised character of Vashti in the Hebrew Bible to see which light the character might shed within the preceding contexts. Can Vashti�s identity in terms of boldness, courage and independence serve as a model for Congolese women in their efforts to make a positive impact on their contexts which remain glaringly patriarchal even today after many years of political independence? In this article, it is argued that the character of Vashti, especially her sense of independence and courage, can serve as a motivation for Congolese female theologians in their search for new identities.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In this article, the disciplines of African studies, political science, gender studies and biblical studies are made to interact with each other in the author�s quest to see how a biblical character such as Vashti can contribute positively to the theory and praxis of theology among emerging Francophone female scholars.Keywords: Circle; Francophone; Vashti; Hebrew Bible; patriarchy

  10. On the validity of the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire: a comparison of diagnostic self-ratings in psychiatric out-patients, general practice patients, and 'normals' based on the Hebrew version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasberg, H; Shalif, I

    1978-09-01

    The short clinical diagnostic self-rating scale for psycho-neurotic patients (The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire) was translated into everyday Hebrew and tested on 216 subjects for: (1) concurrent validity with clinical diagnoses; (2) discriminatory validity on a psychoneurotic gradient of psychiatric out-patients, general practice patients, and normal controls; (3) validity of subscales and discrete items using matrices of Spearman rank correlation coefficients; (4) construct validity using Guttman's smallest space analysis based on coefficients of similarity. The Hebrew MHQ was found to retain its validity and to be easily applicable in waiting-room situations. It is a useful method for generating and substantiating hypotheses on psychosomatic and psychosocial interrelationships. The MHQ seems to enable the expression of the 'neurotic load' of a general practice subpopulation as a centile on a scale, thereby corroborating previous epidemiological findings on the high prevalence of neurotic illness in general practice. There is reason to believe that the MHQ is a valid instrument for the analysis of symptom profiles of subjects involved in future drug trials.

  11. The Extractiones de Talmud and their relationship to the hebrew Talmud Manuscripts of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence (MS Magl. coll. II.I.7, 8 and 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisse Cecini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Talmud manuscripts Magl. coll. II.I.8 and 9 of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence contain marginal Talmud-translations in Latin which correspond to the 13th century translation Extractiones de Talmud. The two manuscripts are described and their textual evidence is compared both with the Latin manuscript tradition of the Extractiones and with the Hebrew/Aramaic Talmudic text which they contain, trying to answer the question of whether the Florence manuscripts are the Vorlage of the Latin translation of the Talmud. The matter reveals itself as complex: striking analogies seem to suggest an affirmative answer to the question at stake; however, evidence can also be found which rather supports the opposite conclusion. Nevertheless, the Florence manuscripts certainly belong to a Hebrew/Aramaic tradition which is very close to the Vorlage of the Extractiones. Moreover, the Latin text they offer in their magins reflects a prior stage of work in the production of the Extractiones, featuring unique variants and passages, which are corrected or omitted in the rest of the Latin manuscript tradition.

  12. Latino Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do Mental Health Conditions Affect the Latino Community? Common mental health disorders among Latinos are generalized anxiety disorder , major ... quality care. Lack of Information and Misunderstanding about Mental Health Overall, the Latino community does not talk about mental health issues. There ...

  13. Mental kontroll under prestasjoner

    OpenAIRE

    Egeland, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Mental control in a performance setting was examined based on the theory of ironic processes (Wegner, 1994). The theory of ironic processes argues that attempted mental control can result in intentional or ironic effects. According to the theory, the outcome of mental control is mediated by (a) mental load, (b) concentration and suppression strategies, and (c) learning. These hypotheses were examined by reviewing research related to mental control in a performance setting. This...

  14. Development of an online, publicly accessible naive Bayesian decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on the American College of Radiology (ACR) BI-RADS lexicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Herda, Christoph [Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Chur (Switzerland); Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S. [University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-01

    To develop and validate a decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on a standardized descriptor terminology (BI-RADS lexicon) to reduce variability of practice. We used separate training data (1,276 lesions, 138 malignant) and validation data (1,177 lesions, 175 malignant). We created naive Bayes (NB) classifiers from the training data with tenfold cross-validation. Our ''inclusive model'' comprised BI-RADS categories, BI-RADS descriptors, and age as predictive variables; our ''descriptor model'' comprised BI-RADS descriptors and age. The resulting NB classifiers were applied to the validation data. We evaluated and compared classifier performance with ROC-analysis. In the training data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.959; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.910 (P < 0.001). The inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (BI-RADS categories alone, P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. When applied to the validation data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.935; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.876 (P < 0.001). Again, the inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. We consider our classifier a step towards a more uniform interpretation of combinations of BI-RADS descriptors. We provide our classifier at www.ebm-radiology.com/nbmm/index.html. (orig.)

  15. Validation of the fifth edition BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon with comparison of fourth and fifth edition diagnostic performance using video clips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Sung Hun; Youk, Ji Hyun; Jeong, Sun Hye; Kim, You Me

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) and the diagnostic performance of the ultrasonographic descriptors in the fifth edition of BI-RADS, comparing with the fourth edition using video clips. From September 2013 to July 2014, 80 breast masses in 74 women (mean age, 47.5±10.7 years) from five institutions of the Korean Society of Breast Imaging were included. Two radiologists individually reviewed the static and video images and analyzed the images according to the fourth and fifth edition of BI-RADS. The PPV of each descriptor was calculated and diagnostic performances between the fourth and fifth editions were compared. Of the 80 breast masses, 51 (63.8%) were benign and 29 (36.2%) were malignant. Suspicious ultrasonographic features such as irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, angular or spiculated margins, and combined posterior features showed higher PPV in both editions (all P<0.05). No significant differences were found in the diagnostic performances between the two editions (all P>0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was higher in the fourth edition (0.708 to 0.690), without significance (P=0.416). The fifth edition of the BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon showed comparable performance to the fourth edition and can be useful in the differential diagnosis of breast masses using ultrasonography

  16. Environmental policy and climate change vulnerability in the Maldives: from the ‘lexicon of risk’ to social response to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Malatesta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The climate change vulnerability discourse in the Maldives coexists with a pervasive set of critical environmental factors of significance to the socio-environmental systems of small peripheral islands. This implies the need to strike a balance between global challenges associated with environmental processes at the supra-national scale and the adjustments and strategies implemented at the local scale in response to change. The current paper offers a discussion of this dialectic, in reference to both the broader contemporary debate in island studies, and the political and environmental context of the Maldives. We first outline the international scenario, and then go on, in the second part of the paper, to provide a reading of environmental policy on these islands. We argue that emphasizing the country’s environmental vulnerability has reinforced a ‘lexicon of risk’ within the environmental discourse and that, in recent years, this narrative has been one of the main forces driving the construction of contemporary Maldivian ‘nation-ness’.

  17. Development of an online, publicly accessible naive Bayesian decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on the American College of Radiology (ACR) BI-RADS lexicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Herda, Christoph; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    To develop and validate a decision support tool for mammographic mass lesions based on a standardized descriptor terminology (BI-RADS lexicon) to reduce variability of practice. We used separate training data (1,276 lesions, 138 malignant) and validation data (1,177 lesions, 175 malignant). We created naive Bayes (NB) classifiers from the training data with tenfold cross-validation. Our ''inclusive model'' comprised BI-RADS categories, BI-RADS descriptors, and age as predictive variables; our ''descriptor model'' comprised BI-RADS descriptors and age. The resulting NB classifiers were applied to the validation data. We evaluated and compared classifier performance with ROC-analysis. In the training data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.959; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.910 (P < 0.001). The inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (BI-RADS categories alone, P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. When applied to the validation data, the inclusive model yields an AUC of 0.935; the descriptor model yields an AUC of 0.876 (P < 0.001). Again, the inclusive model is superior to the clinical performance (P < 0.001); the descriptor model performs similarly. We consider our classifier a step towards a more uniform interpretation of combinations of BI-RADS descriptors. We provide our classifier at www.ebm-radiology.com/nbmm/index.html. (orig.)

  18. Validation of the fifth edition BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon with comparison of fourth and fifth edition diagnostic performance using video clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Yoon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV and the diagnostic performance of the ultrasonographic descriptors in the fifth edition of BI-RADS, comparing with the fourth edition using video clips. Methods From September 2013 to July 2014, 80 breast masses in 74 women (mean age, 47.5±10.7 years from five institutions of the Korean Society of Breast Imaging were included. Two radiologists individually reviewed the static and video images and analyzed the images according to the fourth and fifth edition of BI-RADS. The PPV of each descriptor was calculated and diagnostic performances between the fourth and fifth editions were compared. Results Of the 80 breast masses, 51 (63.8% were benign and 29 (36.2% were malignant. Suspicious ultrasonographic features such as irregular shape, non-parallel orientation, angular or spiculated margins, and combined posterior features showed higher PPV in both editions (all P0.05. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was higher in the fourth edition (0.708 to 0.690, without significance (P=0.416. Conclusion The fifth edition of the BI-RADS ultrasound lexicon showed comparable performance to the fourth edition and can be useful in the differential diagnosis of breast masses using ultrasonography.

  19. The Chinese Lexicon Project: A megastudy of lexical decision performance for 25,000+ traditional Chinese two-character compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Yap, Melvin J; Chan, Yuen-Lai; Sze, Wei Ping; Shaoul, Cyrus; Lin, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Using a megastudy approach, we developed a database of lexical variables and lexical decision reaction times and accuracy rates for more than 25,000 traditional Chinese two-character compound words. Each word was responded to by about 33 native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong. This resource provides a valuable adjunct to influential mega-databases, such as the Chinese single-character, English, French, and Dutch Lexicon Projects. Three analyses were conducted to illustrate the potential uses of the database. First, we compared the proportion of variance in lexical decision performance accounted for by six word frequency measures and established that the best predictor was Cai and Brysbaert's (PLoS One, 5, e10729, 2010) contextual diversity subtitle frequency. Second, we ran virtual replications of three previously published lexical decision experiments and found convergence between the original experiments and the present megastudy. Finally, we conducted item-level regression analyses to examine the effects of theoretically important lexical variables in our normative data. This is the first publicly available large-scale repository of behavioral responses pertaining to Chinese two-character compound word processing, which should be of substantial interest to psychologists, linguists, and other researchers.

  20. Logistic LASSO regression for the diagnosis of breast cancer using clinical demographic data and the BI-RADS lexicon for ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Kim, Yongdai; Jeong, Kuhwan; Jeong, Heeyeong; Kim, Jiyoung

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of image analysis for predicting breast cancer using two distinct regression models and to evaluate the usefulness of incorporating clinical and demographic data (CDD) into the image analysis in order to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer. This study included 139 solid masses from 139 patients who underwent a ultrasonography-guided core biopsy and had available CDD between June 2009 and April 2010. Three breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed 139 breast masses and described each lesion using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. We applied and compared two regression methods-stepwise logistic (SL) regression and logistic least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression-in which the BI-RADS descriptors and CDD were used as covariates. We investigated the performances of these regression methods and the agreement of radiologists in terms of test misclassification error and the area under the curve (AUC) of the tests. Logistic LASSO regression was superior (Pcomparable to the AUC with CDD (0.873 vs. 0.880, P=0.141). Logistic LASSO regression based on BI-RADS descriptors and CDD showed better performance than SL in predicting the presence of breast cancer. The use of CDD as a supplement to the BI-RADS descriptors significantly improved the prediction of breast cancer using logistic LASSO regression.

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) for Hebrew-speaking subjects with and without hand injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Batia S; Carel, Rafael S; Sharabi, Moshe; Ratzon, Navah Z

    2017-06-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) questionnaire is used internationally to assess function and disability. The instrument has been translated into several languages, but no Hebrew version exists. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 questionnaire among Hebrew speakers with and without hand injuries (HI). The translated questionnaire was conducted among 155 uninjured subjects (UI) and 77 male workers with HI. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed in UI subjects and calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC agreement ). Validity was evaluated by correlating the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 to the short-form of health survey (SF-12) in UI subjects and comparing the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 scores and the Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QDASH) Outcome Measure in the HI group. The Cronbach's alpha of the WHODAS 2.0 for the entire sample was α = 0.83. The ICC agreement for test-retest reliability was 0.88. A positive significant correlation was found between the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 and the QDASH (r s  = 0.53, p < .005). The results support the reliability and validity of this Hebrew translation of the 12-item WHODAS 2.0. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Measurement tools that assess activities and participation after HI are an essential part of the rehabilitation process. The 12-item WHODAS 2.0 is a useful tool, since it addresses a broader range of activity and participation domains compared to the DASH and enables better implementation of the ICF model. Since the WHODAS 2.0 does not target a specific disease (as oppose to the DASH), it can be used to compare disabilities caused by different diseases or traumas. The WHODAS 2.0 measures both the function and disability in general populations as well as clinical situations; therefore, the instrument is useful for assessing both health and disability.

  2. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  3. International Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Welch, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.

  4. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  5. Mental toughness in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diment, Gregory Michael

    2014-01-01

    a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...

  6. Malaysian mental health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nusrat N; Yahya, Badi'ah; Abu Bakar, Abd Kadir; Ho, Roger C

    2015-05-01

    The Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 did not come into effect until the Mental Health Regulations 2010 came into force. The Act provides a framework for the delivery of comprehensive care, treatment, control, protection and rehabilitation of those with mental disorders. The Act governs the establishment of private and government psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric nursing homes and community mental health centres. This paper outlines the provisions of the Act and the Regulations.

  7. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  8. Nutrition and Mental Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Zena; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine of 1944-45 had no detectable effects on the adult mental performance of surviving male offspring; birth weight was not related to mental performance; and the association of social class with mental performance was strong. (AL)

  9. Mental Health and Mental Disorder Recommendation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2017-12-01

    The characteristic differences among the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) countries in terms of trade and investment, society and cultural values, medical information and technology, and the living and working environment have become major health problems in terms of mental disorders. The purpose of this article is to identify the gaps in those aspects, to propose mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs, and to recommend policies for policy makers and research investors. A comparative analysis and literature review of existing policy, including overviews of previous research were used to generate a synthesis of the existing knowledge of the mental health and mental disorder recommendation programs. The review results recommend mental health and mental disorder programs for policy makers, research investors, and stakeholders in order to strengthen the directions for implementing these programs in the future. The healthcare provision in each country will not be limited only to its citizens; the healthcare markets and target groups are likely to expand to the neighboring countries in the context of changes in domestic and international factors, which have both positive and negative impacts according to the political, economic, and social situations of the influencing countries.

  10. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: Interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Mona, E-mail: monelkhoury@gmail.com [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada); Mesurolle, Benoit [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de McGill, Cedar Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 687 Pine Avenue West, Montreal, QC H3A1A1 (Canada); Trop, Isabelle [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montréal, Breast Centre, Radiology Department, 3840 Rue Saint Urbain, Montréal, QC H2W1T8 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The use of BI-RADS lexicon in interpreting breast MRI examinations is beneficial. • Our study shows: (a) moderate to substantial agreement between observers and (b) better agreement in interpreting mass than non-mass enhancement (NME). • Careful analysis of the NME should be done to help detect cancer as early as possible. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Materials and methods: Five breast radiologists blinded to patients’ medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. Results: All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α = 0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors – shape, margins and internal enhancement – (α = 0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors – distribution and internal enhancement – (α = 0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α = 0.71). It was however only moderate (α = 0.38) for NME compared to mass (α = 0.80). Conclusion: Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME.

  11. Breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon for breast MRI: Interobserver variability in the description and assignment of BI-RADS category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khoury, Mona; Lalonde, Lucie; David, Julie; Labelle, Maude; Mesurolle, Benoit; Trop, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of BI-RADS lexicon in interpreting breast MRI examinations is beneficial. • Our study shows: (a) moderate to substantial agreement between observers and (b) better agreement in interpreting mass than non-mass enhancement (NME). • Careful analysis of the NME should be done to help detect cancer as early as possible. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate interobserver variability between breast radiologists when describing abnormal enhancement on breast MR examinations and assigning a BI-RADS category using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) terminology. Materials and methods: Five breast radiologists blinded to patients’ medical history and pathologic results retrospectively and independently reviewed 257 abnormal areas of enhancement on breast MRI performed in 173 women. Each radiologist described the focal enhancement using BI-RADS terminology and assigned a final BI-RADS category. Krippendorff's α coefficient of agreement was used to asses interobserver variability. Results: All radiologists agreed on the morphology of enhancement in 183/257 (71%) lesions, yielding a substantial agreement (Krippendorff's α = 0.71). Moderate agreement was obtained for mass descriptors – shape, margins and internal enhancement – (α = 0.55, 0.51 and 0.45 respectively) and NME (non-mass enhancement) descriptors – distribution and internal enhancement – (α = 0.54 and 0.43). Overall substantial agreement was obtained for BI-RADS category assignment (α = 0.71). It was however only moderate (α = 0.38) for NME compared to mass (α = 0.80). Conclusion: Our study shows good agreement in describing mass and NME on a breast MR examination but a better agreement in predicting malignancy for mass than NME

  12. Patterns of malignant non-mass enhancement on 3-T breast MRI help predict invasiveness: using the BI-RADS lexicon fifth edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Nam, Kyung Jin; Choo, Ki Seok; Kim, Jin You; Jeong, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyun Yul; Kim, Jee Yeon

    2018-01-01

    Background Non-mass enhancements (NME) with invasive components account for 10-42% of total malignant NMEs. The factors associated with invasiveness on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be useful for clinical assessment and treatment. Purpose To evaluate the clinical significances of the distributions and internal enhancement patterns (IEP) of malignant NMEs on 3-T breast MRI. Material and Methods A total of 448 consecutive women with newly diagnosed breast cancer that had undergone preoperative MRI and surgery between February 2013 and March 2016 were identified. After exclusions, 72 malignant NMEs without a mass in 72 women (mean age = 51.5 years) were included. Two readers independently assessed distributions and IEPs of NME, according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon fifth edition. Collected data included the presence of invasion and histopathologic factors. Results A clustered ring IEP was significantly associated with invasive cancer (75.0%, P = 0.001, Reader1; 72.9%, P IEP was related to ductal carcinoma in situ (33.3%, P = 0.025; 50.0%, P = 0.001, respectively), absence of lymph node metastasis (24.1%, P = 0.029; 31.5%, P = 0.030, respectively), and presence of necrosis (34.5%, P = 0.003; 44.8%, P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion The presence of a clustered ring IEP in patients with breast cancer was found to be significantly associated with invasive breast cancer and high Ki-67 expression.

  13. A comparison of logistic regression analysis and an artificial neural network using the BI-RADS lexicon for ultrasonography in conjunction with introbserver variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Heon; Park, Jeong Mi; Choi, Yoon Jung; Yoon, Hoi Soo; Sohn, Jung Hee; Baek, Moon Hee; Kim, Yoon Nam; Chae, Young Moon; June, Jeon Jong; Lee, Jiwon; Jeon, Yong Hwan

    2012-10-01

    To determine which Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) descriptors for ultrasound are predictors for breast cancer using logistic regression (LR) analysis in conjunction with interobserver variability between breast radiologists, and to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) and LR models in differentiation of benign and malignant breast masses. Five breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed 140 breast masses and described each lesion using BI-RADS lexicon and categorized final assessments. Interobserver agreements between the observers were measured by kappa statistics. The radiologists' responses for BI-RADS were pooled. The data were divided randomly into train (n = 70) and test sets (n = 70). Using train set, optimal independent variables were determined by using LR analysis with forward stepwise selection. The LR and ANN models were constructed with the optimal independent variables and the biopsy results as dependent variable. Performances of the models and radiologists were evaluated on the test set using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Among BI-RADS descriptors, margin and boundary were determined as the predictors according to stepwise LR showing moderate interobserver agreement. Area under the ROC curves (AUC) for both of LR and ANN were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.94). AUCs for the five radiologists ranged 0.79-0.91. There was no significant difference in AUC values among the LR, ANN, and radiologists (p > 0.05). Margin and boundary were found as statistically significant predictors with good interobserver agreement. Use of the LR and ANN showed similar performance to that of the radiologists for differentiation of benign and malignant breast masses.

  14. Harnessing Reddit to Understand the Written-Communication Challenges Experienced by Individuals With Mental Health Disorders: Analysis of Texts From Mental Health Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Albert; Conway, Mike

    2018-04-10

    online health communities. Our results also suggest that participating in these platforms has the potential to improve members' written communication. For example, members of all three mental health communities showed statistically significant improvement in both lexical diversity and readability compared with members of the OHC focusing on positive emotion. We provide new insights into the written communication challenges faced by individuals suffering from depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. A comparison with three other online health communities suggests that written communication in mental health communities is significantly more difficult to read, while also consisting of a significantly less diverse lexicon. We contribute practical suggestions for utilizing our findings in Web-based communication settings to enhance members' communicative experience. We consider these findings to be an important step toward understanding and addressing everyday written communication challenges among individuals suffering from mental disorders. ©Albert Park, Mike Conway. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 10.04.2018.

  15. Mental Pain and Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    ideation than depression. Conclusion: Mental pain is a core clinical factor for understanding suicide, both in the context of mood disorders and independently from depression. Health care professionals need to be aware of the higher suicidal risk in patients reporting mental pain. In this regard......Background: Mental pain, defined as a subjective experience characterized by perception of strong negative feelings and changes in the self and its function, is no less real than other types of grief. Mental pain has been considered to be a distinct entity from depression. We have performed...... a systematic review analyzing the relationship between mental pain and suicide by providing a qualitative data synthesis of the studies. Methods: We have conducted, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search for the literature in PubMed, Web Of Science, and Scopus. Search terms were "mental pain...

  16. Physiotherapy and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Physiotherapy in mental health care and psychiatry is a recognized specialty within physiotherapy. It offers a rich variety of observational and evaluation tools as well as a range of interventions that are related to the patient’s physical and mental health problems based on evidence-based literature and a 50-year history. Physiotherapy in mental health care addresses human movement, function, physical activity and exercise in individual and group therapeutic settings. Additionally, it conne...

  17. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  18. Salud mental y adicciones

    OpenAIRE

    Boccalari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    La recientemente reglamentada Ley Nacional de Salud Mental 26.657 plantea amplias reformas en el ámbito de la salud pública. Este escrito se detendrá en uno de los puntos de la ley referido al lugar de las adicciones en las políticas de salud mental. Reflexionará sobre las conexiones entre la salud mental y adicciones. Si bien desde la nueva ley las adicciones forman parte de las políticas de salud mental, la “Y” conectora entre ambas, a la vez que unifica ambos campos, también hace pensar en...

  19. Logistic LASSO regression for the diagnosis of breast cancer using clinical demographic data and the BI-RADS lexicon for ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the performance of image analysis for predicting breast cancer using two distinct regression models and to evaluate the usefulness of incorporating clinical and demographic data (CDD into the image analysis in order to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods This study included 139 solid masses from 139 patients who underwent a ultrasonography-guided core biopsy and had available CDD between June 2009 and April 2010. Three breast radiologists retrospectively reviewed 139 breast masses and described each lesion using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. We applied and compared two regression methods-stepwise logistic (SL regression and logistic least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO regression-in which the BI-RADS descriptors and CDD were used as covariates. We investigated the performances of these regression methods and the agreement of radiologists in terms of test misclassification error and the area under the curve (AUC of the tests. Results Logistic LASSO regression was superior (P<0.05 to SL regression, regardless of whether CDD was included in the covariates, in terms of test misclassification errors (0.234 vs. 0.253, without CDD; 0.196 vs. 0.258, with CDD and AUC (0.785 vs. 0.759, without CDD; 0.873 vs. 0.735, with CDD. However, it was inferior (P<0.05 to the agreement of three radiologists in terms of test misclassification errors (0.234 vs. 0.168, without CDD; 0.196 vs. 0.088, with CDD and the AUC without CDD (0.785 vs. 0.844, P<0.001, but was comparable to the AUC with CDD (0.873 vs. 0.880, P=0.141. Conclusion Logistic LASSO regression based on BI-RADS descriptors and CDD showed better performance than SL in predicting the presence of breast cancer. The use of CDD as a supplement to the BI-RADS descriptors significantly improved the prediction of breast cancer using logistic LASSO regression.

  20. Mental Health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness

    OpenAIRE

    Posner, Zoe; Janssen, Jessica; Roddam, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose- Burnout in mental health staff is acknowledged as a major problem. The purpose of this paper is to gain an understanding of mental health staff views on improving burnout and mental toughness in mental health staff.\\ud Design/methodology/approach-Ten participants from two mental health rehabilitation units across the North West of England took part in a Nominal Group Technique (NGT). Participants consisted of mental health workers from varied roles in order to\\ud capture views from a...

  1. Women and mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohen, Dora

    2000-01-01

    ... for the individual. Covering issues including perinatal psychiatric disorders, depression, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and alcohol and drug abuse - from a female perspective - Women and Mental Health will prove a valuable tool for all those working in the fields of mental health. Dora Kohen is a Consultant Psychiatrist and an Honorary Senior...

  2. Rural Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... social networks While there are drawbacks to small communities when it comes to mental health, there are positives as well. The close-knit ... to refer patients to facilities outside of the community. The Substance Abuse and Mental ... Administration (SAMHSA) maintains the 2016 National Directory ...

  3. Children's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, ... is doing to improve access to care. Children’s Mental Health: What's New Article: U.S. Children with Diagnosed Anxiety ...

  4. Mental activity and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective

  5. Mental Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 1 - Stress - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Health and Well-Being ... Well-Being 2 - Mental Health - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center What Is Mental Distress - ...

  6. Women and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unaiza Niaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to the mental health of women are a priority these days. Many international organisations working in the field of psychiatry are having sections on it now. This approach can go a long way in the improvement of the available mental health services for this population.

  7. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  8. National Institute of Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... signs and symptoms of depression in men. More Mental Health Services Research Conference Register now for the nation’s ...

  9. Knowledge transfer: a worldwide challenge in child mental health: a recommendation to the readership of CAPMH concerning the revised version of the IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Anna T; Brown, Rebecca C; Fegert, Joerg M

    2018-01-01

    Transfer of knowledge is an important issue throughout all scientific disciplines, especially in the medical and psycho-social field. The issue of worldwide knowledge transfer in child mental health is one of the aims and goals of the journal Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health (CAPMH). The demand for mental health training is high worldwide, and especially in low- to lower-middle income countries, where inadequate access to knowledge resources in the field of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) is prevalent. At the same time, many of these countries are showing an increased risk for mental health issues in children and adolescents. The International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP) Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health counters this problem. It is an open-access e-textbook aiming to provide an overview of current and established treatment and practical approaches for child and adolescent psychiatrists, psychotherapists and allied (mental health) professionals worldwide. First published in 2012, the updated and revised version was launched in 2015. The aim of this commentary is to review and disseminate the usefulness and practicability of content and further material included in the new version of the textbook. Overall, the textbook contains ten sections divided into 59 chapters, with a total of 1435 pages. The original version of the textbook was written in English. The revised version contains translations of 49 chapters into different languages (to date French, Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic, Portuguese, Russian, Norwegian and/or Japanese), with additional material for knowledge dissemination and self-directed learning (e.g. videos and quizzes) for several chapters. The textbook and the add-on materials for dissemination are of high quality and convey a great introduction to important topics concerning mental health. Apart from knowledge transfer, there is a pragmatic focus on clinical

  10. Aquisição inicial do léxico verbal e aproximações semânticas em português Early acquisition of the verbal lexicon and semantic approximations in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Toniettont

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O raciocínio analógico, que permite relacionar conceitos, possibilita a construção do sistema conceitual. Na fase inicial de aquisição do léxico, notadamente entre 2 e 4 anos de idade, observam-se produções lingüísticas decorrentes do raciocínio analógico, às vezes designadas metáforas. Segundo Duvignau (2002, 2003, tais emissões resultam da aproximação semântica por analogia, mecanismo que permite aproximar conceitos mais ou menos distantes do léxico disponível. O presente estudo dimensiona a importância das aproximações semânticas verbais para o desenvolvimento lexical inicial de crianças monolíngües da língua portuguesa e estuda o recurso aos itens genéricos versus específicos. Participaram deste estudo 80 crianças com idades entre 2 e 4 anos e 75 estudantes universitários monolíngües, que responderam à Tarefa de Nomeação e Reformulação de Ações. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a aproximação semântica por analogia é uma estratégia lingüística fundamental para o desenvolvimento do léxico e revela a flexibilidade cognitiva presente no desenvolvimento típico.The analogical reasoning that allows relating concepts, permits the construction of the conceptual system. In the early phase of lexicon acquisition, mainly between 2 and 4 years of age, linguistic productions are observed resulting from the analogical reasoning, sometimes named metaphors. According to Duvignau (2002, 2003, these emissions result from the semantic approximation by analogy, a mechanism that allows approaching concepts more or less distant from the available lexicon. This study dimensions the importance of verbal semantic approximations for the early lexical development of monolingual children of the Portuguese language and studies the resource to generic versus specific items. Eighty monolingual children between 2 and 4 years old and 75 undergraduate students took part of this study, answering the Actions Naming and

  11. Women and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are not there Extremely high and low moods Aches, headaches, or digestive problems without a clear cause Irritability Social withdrawal Thoughts of suicide Mental disorders can be treated : If you are unsure where ...

  12. Mentalization, embodiment and narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of a strong interactive focus, it remains fundamentally rooted in a Cartesian ontology, overlooking embodied, expressive, enactive and sociocultural dimensions of social cognition. Furthermore, since mentalization theory was originally developed as a framework for understanding Borderline Personality Disorder...

  13. Obesity and Mental Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    People with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese can benefit from taking part in a fitness program called InSHAPE where they receive help with fitness, weight loss, and even grocery shopping on a budget.

  14. Help for Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. You can also go to the website ... may face different mental health issues than the general public. For resources for both service members and ...

  15. Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier

    The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Mental Health Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy and security of drugs (medications), biological products, medical devices, our ...

  17. Mental health awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-22

    Independent, family-owned veterinary group White Cross Vets has been focusing on wellbeing. One of its clinic directors, Rob Reid, joined a group from the practice for some training in mental health awareness. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  19. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  20. Mental sundhed i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Grabowski, Dan

    Denne rapport sætter fokus på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Skolen kan gøre en forskel ved at skabe rammerne for en mental sundhedsfremmende skole, der tænker sundhedsbegrebet bredt. Men skolen bør ikke stå alene med ansvaret og derfor er der behov for en samlet strategi. En mentalt sundhedsfrem...

  1. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article discusses mental retardation in children who had been exposed to ionizing radiation in utero. The time of greatest sensitivity is between the 8th and 15th week after conception and the time of lesser sensitivity between the 16th and 25th weeks. An examination of the thresholds for exposure indicate that severe mental retardation would not result from any present environmental exposures of the public. (U.K.)

  2. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  3. Mental Health, Racism, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others

    This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…

  4. Salud Mental y desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Sarmiento Suárez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre salud mental y desarrollo es tan estrecha como ignorada. Aunque ambas buscan potenciar las capacidades de los individuos para lograr un bienestar individual que redunde en la comunidad, la salud mental ha sido sistemáticamente excluida de los planes de desarrollo. Los problemas de salud mental afectan a millones de personas en el mundo quienes, al no recibir un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno, pueden desarrollar un trastorno. Se calcula que una de cada cuatro personas desarrolla algún tipo de enfermedad mental a lo largo de su vida. En tanto se cree que no es posible recuperarse de estas enfermedades, los recursos no están dirigidos a intervenir sobre ellas. Siendo absolutamente transversal a todos los aspectos de nuestras vidas, y por tanto un pilar fundamental en el desarrollo sostenible, el gasto global en salud mental es de menos de dos dólares por persona por día. Situación que no sólo impacta directamente sobre las tres dimensiones del Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH - salud, educación y estándares de vida - sino que perpetúa la condición de desigualdad estructural en que viven las personas con trastornos mentales. Mientras los problemas de salud mental afectan la esperanza de vida, los años de instrucción esperados y el Ingreso Nacional Bruto per cápita, siendo a su vez causa y consecuencia de la pobreza, las personas con trastornos mentales deben enfrentar numerosas barreras para el acceso a la educación, a las oportunidades de empleo y otras fuentes de generación de ingresos, debido a la estigmatización, discriminación y marginación que históricamente han vivido. Por tanto, si queremos que todos sean partícipes de las oportunidades de desarrollo, es necesario un cambio estructural donde desaparezca el estigma frente a los trastornos mentales, que permita posicionar la salud mental como eje de los planes de desarrollo y aumentar la inversión en la promoción de la salud mental y la prevención e

  5. Observation of influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with heal...

  6. Public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Bilsen, Johan; Jakubauskiene, Marija

    2017-10-01

    Public mental health (PMH) is a major challenge for public health research and practice. This article is organized in six parts. First, we will highlight the significance of PMH; second, we will define mental health and mental disorders; third, we identify and describe determinants of mental health and mental disorders on which we worked in the past 10 years since the establishment of the PMH section such as social determinants and violence. Fourth, we will describe the development of the EUPHA PMH section and provide details on vulnerable groups in the field of PMH, on violence as a main determinant and on suicide as an outcome which affects all countries in the European region. Fifth, we describe policy and practice implications of the development of PMH and highlight the European dimension of PMH. We will conclude this article by providing an outlook on potential further development of PMH as regards research and policy and practice. Finally, we hope that the EUPHA PMH section will contribute to public health in the next 25 years and we can contribute to improvement of PMH in Europe. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Atheism and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.

  8. Romantic relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the research on relationships and mental health. Individuals who are more mentally healthy are more likely to select into relationships, but relationships are also demonstrably associated with mental health. The type of relationship matters - evidence suggests that more established, committed relationships, such as marriage, are associated with greater benefits than less committed unions such as cohabitation. The association between relationships and mental health is clearly bidirectional, however, stronger effects are observed when mental health is the outcome and relationships are the predictor, suggesting that the causal arrow flows more strongly from relationships to mental health than vice versa. Moreover, improving relationships improves mental health, but improving mental health does not reliably improve relationships. Our review of research corroborates the view that relationships are a keystone component of human functioning that have the potential to influence a broad array of mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Pakistan mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.

  10. Mindfulness og mental sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness is a way to practice 'healthy mindedness' – a form of self help that has been the subject for research and development of a number of new significant self-technologies, therapy and meditation treatment methods. To be mindful can help people to feel more relaxed (serenity) and fully...... alive. The article aims at describing realistic expectations to the contribution of mindfulness to health education work in the field of mental health. The article discuss ways in which mindfulnesss is connected with established health education in the mental health promotion field, and ways in which...... mindfulness breaks with established health education. Interest in utilising mindfulness and mindfulness-inspired methods in health-education intervention has increased in recent years. Mindfulness is seen here as an answer to how to achieve more accepting presence, and thereby a healthier mental life...

  11. Mental health informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Insu; Yellowlees, Peter; Diederich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces approaches that have the potential to transform the daily practice of psychiatrists and psychologists. This includes the asynchronous communication between mental health care providers and clients as well as the automation of assessment and therapy. Speech and language are particularly interesting from the viewpoint of psychological assessment. For instance, depression may change the characteristics of voice in individuals and these changes can be detected by a special form of speech analysis. Computational screening methods that utilise speech and language can detect subtle changes and alert clinicians as well as individuals and caregivers. The use of online technologies in mental health, however, poses ethical problems that will occupy concerned individuals, governments and the wider public for some time. Assuming that these ethical problems can be solved, it should be possible to diagnose and treat mental health disorders online (excluding the use of medication).

  12. Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, Mental Health, and Education Providers' Conceptualizations of Trauma-Informed Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donisch, Katelyn; Bray, Chris; Gewirtz, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    This study systematically examined child-service providers' conceptualizations of trauma-informed practice (TIP) across service systems, including child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and education. Eleven focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted, totaling 126 child-service providers. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data with interrater reliability analyses indicating near perfect agreement between coders. Qualitative analysis revealed that child-service providers identified traumatic stress as an important common theme among children and families served as well as the interest in TIP in their service systems. At the same time, child-service providers generally felt knowledgeable about what they define TIP to be, although they articulated wide variations in the degree to which they are taught skills and strategies to respond to their traumatized clients. The results of this study suggest a need for a common lexicon and metric with which to advance TIP within and across child-service systems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Poverty, social stress & mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S

    2007-10-01

    While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.

  14. "Developing culturally sensitive affect scales for global mental health research and practice: Emotional balance, not named syndromes, in Indian Adivasi subjective well-being".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Lacy, Michael G; Upadhyay, Chakrapani

    2017-08-01

    We present a perspective to analyze mental health without either a) imposing Western illness categories or b) adopting local or "native" categories of mental distress. Our approach takes as axiomatic only that locals within any culture share a cognitive and verbal lexicon of salient positive and negative emotional experiences, which an appropriate and repeatable set of ethnographic procedures can elicit. Our approach is provisionally agnostic with respect to either Western or native nosological categories, and instead focuses on persons' relative frequency of experiencing emotions. Putting this perspective into practice in India, our ethnographic fieldwork (2006-2014) and survey analysis (N = 219) resulted in a 40-item Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), which we used to assess the mental well-being of Indigenous persons (the tribal Sahariya) in the Indian states of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. Generated via standard cognitive anthropological procedures that can be replicated elsewhere, measures such as this possess features of psychiatric scales favored by leaders in global mental health initiatives. Though not capturing locally named distress syndromes, our scale is nonetheless sensitive to local emotional experiences, frames of meaning, and "idioms of distress." By sharing traits of both global and also locally-derived diagnoses, approaches like ours can help identify synergies between them. For example, employing data reduction techniques such as factor analysis-where diagnostic and screening categories emerge inductively ex post facto from emotional symptom clusters, rather than being deduced or assigned a priori by either global mental health experts or locals themselves-reveals hidden overlaps between local wellness idioms and global ones. Practically speaking, our perspective, which assesses both emotional frailty and also potential sources of emotional resilience and balance, while eschewing all named illness categories, can be deployed in

  15. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…

  17. Teacher Candidate Mental Health and Mental Health Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dods, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…

  18. Dystonia: Emotional and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Emotional & Mental Health Although dystonia is a movement disorder that impacts ... emotion as well as muscle movement. For years, mental health professionals have recognized that coping with a chronic ...

  19. Mental Health Handbook for Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, M; Hornby, G

    2002-01-01

    This text provides information on a range of mental health problems that confront teachers and discusses their underlying causes. It considers what schools can do to help pupils and reflects on the role of the mental health services.

  20. Epidemiology of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Rick

    Prevalence data on mental retardation is presented including international estimates on general prevalence, age directions, geographical variations within the United States, racial and ethnic variations, economic class distributions, family variations, and population distribution in institutions. Statistics are also provided in areas of specific…

  1. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...... the severity of dementia disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-25...

  2. Recovery from mental illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Friis, Vivi Soegaard; Haxholm, Birthe Lodahl

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services strive to implement a recovery-oriented approach to rehabilitation. Little is known about service users' perception of the recovery approach. The aim is to explore the service user's perspectives on facilitators and barriers associated with recovery. Twelve residents living...

  3. Nations for Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha establecido un programa especial denominado "Naciones unidas para la salud mental" con el fin de fomentar la salud mental en poblaciones subatendidas, con particular énfasis en las mujeres, los niños, los adolescentes, los refugiados y los pueblos indígenas. Uno de los objetivos del programa es crear una mayor conciencia entre el público y los gobiernos acerca del costo social y económico de los trastornos mentales y del abuso de sustancias. Un segundo objetivo es identificar y promover estrategias de colaboración para mejorar la salud mental que se puedan poner en práctica por medio de proyectos de cooperación técnica de nivel nacional dirigidos por las organizaciones del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en colaboración con otras organizaciones internacionales gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. Ya están en marcha varios proyectos de demostración y otros se están planificando.

  4. Mental retirement and schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Martinello, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    , which affect cognitive functioning at old ages, they are invalid as instruments without controlling for schooling. We show by means of simulation and a replication study that unless the model incorporates schooling, the estimated effect of retirement is negatively biased. This explains a large part...... of the “mental retirement” effects which have recently been found...

  5. Mental sundhed i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    Baggrund: Skolebørns opfattelse af sundhed har i høj grad noget med deres selvbilleder, trivsel og sociale inklusion at gøre. Det viser en lang række nyere undersøgelser, der alle peger på, at det er nødvendigt at skærpe opmærksomheden på børn og unges mentale sundhed. Internationalt er der...... udviklet og afprøvet en række pædagogiske programmer, der kan bruges til at igangsætte aktiviteter, der fremmer børn og unges mentale sundhed i skolen. Især i USA, Australien og Storbritannien har der været fokus på evidensbaseret praksis og praksisbaseret evidens i denne sammenhæng. I Danmark har man ikke...... på sammen måde tilgængelig systematiseret viden herom. Sundhedsstyrelsen har gennem de senere år prioriteret indsatser og fremskrivning af evidensgrundlag til fremme af mental sundhed højt. Betydningen af børns mentale sundhed og overvejelser om, hvilken slags evidens der er behov for på dette område...

  6. Deploying the mental eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, A.J.; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Three observers performed a task designed to quantify their "pictorial relief" in visual awareness for a photograph of a piece of sculpture. In separate sessions, they were instructed to assume one of two "mental viewpoints." The main objective was to investigate whether human observers have such

  7. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  8. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  9. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  10. Mental health and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  11. Policy for better mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Layard

    2014-01-01

    Treating mental illness should be a top national priority, especially as proven psychological therapies effectively cost nothing. Richard Layard explains how CEP research has led to a new deal for mental health - but much remains to be done. Mental illness has much greater economic costs than physical illness - but evidence-based ways of treating mental health problems have no net cost to the Exchequer.

  12. School Mental Health Resources and Adolescent Mental Health Service Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegría, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A,; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to increase service use. This paper examines associations of school resources with past-year mental health service use among students with 12-month DSM-IV mental disorders. Method Data come from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescent mental health that included 4,445 adolescent-parent pairs in 227 schools in which principals and mental health coordinators completed surveys about school resources-policies for addressing student emotional problems. Adolescents and parents completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and reported mental health service use across multiple sectors. Multilevel multivariate regression was used to examine associations of school mental health resources and individual-level service use. Results Roughly half (45.3%) of adolescents with a 12-month DSM-IV disorder received past-year mental health services. Substantial variation existed in school resources. Increased school engagement in early identification was significantly associated with mental health service use for adolescents with mild/moderate mental and behavior disorders. The ratio of students-to-mental health providers was not associated with overall service use, but was associated with sector of service use. Conclusions School mental health resources, particularly those related to early identification, may facilitate mental health service use and influence sector of service use for youths with DSM disorders. PMID:23622851

  13. Assessment of Mental Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Glen R; Minagar, Alireza; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the mental status of patients with a neurobehavioral disorder is a critical element in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. This assessment should always be performed after the patient's history it taken and a general physical as well as a neurologic examination is completed. The mental status examination commences with observing the patient's appearance and level of consciousness. The examiner should also pay attention to patient's social behavior, emotional state and mood. There are 3 major means of assessing a patient's mental status. One type attempts to determine if the patient is demented and the severity of the dementia as it pertains to their ability to perform activities of daily living as well as instrumental activities. A second type of assessment utilizes what may be termed as "screening tests" or "omnibus tests". These brief tests are performed independent of the patient's history and examination. The two most frequently used screening tests are the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The third means of assessing a patient's mental status is by using specific neuropsychological tests that focus on specific domains of cognition, such as frontal executive functions, attention, episodic verbal and visuospatial memory, declarative knowledge such as language (speech, reading and writing) and arithmetical, as well as visuospatial and perceptual abilities. These neurobehavioral, neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological assessments of patients with a cognitive decline and behavioral abnormalities should often be accompanied by laboratory tests, and neuroimaging that can help determine the underlying pathologic process so that effective therapeutic and management approaches can be provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth ... PPD) Home Prevention and Wellness Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Mental Health: Keeping Your Emotional Health Mental Health: ...

  15. Chicano Aging and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.

    Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…

  16. Mental Accounting and Economic Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit; Ranyard, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This chapter first presents an overview of research into mental accounting and its effects on economic behaviour. It then considers mental accounts posited to broadly categorize financial resources across the life-cycle, and those constructed for specific transactions. Mental accounting has several

  17. Improving Mental Health in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…

  18. Mental health: More than neurobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2014-01-01

    The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear

  19. Cannabis use and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental

  20. GENETIC DETERMINATIONS OF MENTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Osadcha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to clarifying the role of physicality and psycho-physical characteristics of a person as a preconditions of the mentality forming. It is conducted a retrospective analysis of discourse on the mentality, the history of the concept, its temporal characteristics and collective conditioning. The concept of mentality has been widely studied in various fields of socio-humanities such as: history, psychology, and even marginal context of scientific discourses, including the esoteric. This study attempted to analyse the mentality phenomenon through the prism of the concept of experience. Methodology. The concept of experience was acquired by essential justification through the representatives of the phenomenological approach - the late Edmund Husserl, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Bernhard Valdenfels. On the other hand the concept of mentality as a form of collective unconscious experience was entered to the scientific vocabulary by the representatives of the French historical science - M. Bloch, L. Febvre, J. Le Goff and others. At the intersection of these two methods, historical and phenomenological, the genetic method has been established – as a history of coverage and experience of internalization. Thanks to the application of genetic method the transition of phenomenon into the concept was examined. Novelty. The problem of change dynamics of mental phenomenon, in particular psycho-physical nature of a person, which has been only mentioned in F. Braudel works but has not received the adequate theoretical coverage, is analysed. To explain the practices of physicality and causality of this factor the action component of the cultural the overview of developments of such authors as V. Rozin (2005, M. Epstein (2005, N. Brunov (2003, A. Soares, M. Farhangmehr, A. Shoham (2007, D. Vaskul, F. Vannini Hospital (2012 was committed. Conclusions. The transition to paradoxical behaviour that is oriented on sign, and not on signalling

  1. Mental health as rational autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1981-08-01

    Rather than eliminate the terms "mental health and illness" because of the grave moral consequences of psychiatric labeling, conservative definitions are proposed and defended. Mental health is rational autonomy, and mental illness is the sustained loss of such. Key terms are explained, advantages are explored, and alternative concepts are criticized. The value and descriptive components of all such definitions are consciously acknowledged. Where rational autonomy is intact, mental hospitals and psychotherapists should not think of themselves as treating an illness. Instead, they are functioning as applied axiologists, moral educators, spiritual mentors, etc. They deal with what Szasz has called "personal, social, and ethical problems in living." But mental illness is real.

  2. The genocidal mentality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future

  3. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  4. Mental Health Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...... that emerged in the course of the study. It discusses the particular challenges involved in negotiating access in a hierarchical and conflict-ridden setting with tangible power differences between professionals and patients. I pay particular attention to the positions that became available to the researcher...

  5. The genocidal mentality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.; Markusen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Since the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has witnessed the insidious growth of a genocidal system-a constellation of men, weapons, and war-fighting plans which, if implemented, could put an end to life on this planet. In this book, the cast of mind that created and maintains this threat is examined and an alternative, more hopeful direction is suggested. This book draws on the lessons of the Holocaust- and presents a picture of the genocidal mentality. If we are to survive this genocidal mentality must give way to a species self, to a deepened awareness of belonging to a single species. This shift in mind-set would enable us to renounce nuclearism and to envision a genuine human future.

  6. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  7. Radiation and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    The editorial comments on a report published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima updating information on the induction of mental changes in the light of the revised and more detailed estimate of doses of radiation during pregnancies received by those exposed at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The estimated risks are little changed. The likelihood of a threshold for exposure during the 16th to 25th week is confirmed-at 700 mGy (with a lower 95% confidence interval of 200 mGy). For the more sensitive time between the eighth to 15th weeks a linear model with no threshold still gives a statistically adequate fit to the data. Now, however, if linear models are tested without the constraint of postulating a threshold of zero, fits are obtained indicating substantial thresholds below which mental retardation would not result. When data on all children are included the maximum likelihood threshold value averages about 250 mGy on the different criteria tested (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 0 and 550 mGy). Or if the analyses exclude five children with conditions that themselves sometimes cause mental retardation a threshold of about 400 mGy is indicated (with mean 95% confidence intervals of 150 and 600 mGy). (author)

  8. [Mental Health: Concepts, Measures, Determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Isabelle; Caron, Jean

    Objectives This article aims to situate the concept of mental health in a historical perspective. This article presents the most commonly used measurement tools in Canada and elsewhere in the world to assess specific and multiple dimensions of mental health; when available, psychometric properties are discussed. Finally, research findings on quality of life and mental health determinants are presented.Methods A literature review of concepts, measurement and determinants of mental health is presented in this paper. The selection of measurement scales presented is based on the findings of the research reports conducted by the second author, an expert on mental health measures, for Health Canada and Statistics Canada.Results Mental health is more than the absence of mental illness; rather it is a state of complete well-being, which refers to our ability to enjoy life and deal with the challenges we face. Accordingly, mental health and mental illness are not extremes of the same continuum, but distinct yet correlated concepts. The traditional conceptualization suggesting that mental health represents simply the absence of mental illness has been replaced, in the last few decades, by a more holistic characterization, which directly concerns public health. The components of mental health include emotional well-being/quality of life (QOL) and psychological and social well-being. Mental health influences the personal and social functioning of individuals, justifying the importance of intervening upstream to promote mental health. Specific scales are relevant for obtaining a detailed measure of one aspect of well-being in particular (emotional/quality of life, psychological or social well-being); however, to account for the global mental health status, measurement tools that integrate all three forms of well-being (emotional, psychological and social) should be privileged. A diversity of determinants at the individual, social and neighbourhood levels influence quality of

  9. New percepts via mental imagery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Walter Mast

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not really new but just new interpretations. In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012. Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within known models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience.

  10. Mental health and disorders. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mental health and mental disorders pose a tremendous challenge to the societal, health, and research policies in Europe, and sound advice is needed on a potential strategy for mental health research investment. Toward this goal, the ROAMER initiative ("Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe") was launched to map the current state of the art, to identify gaps and to delineate advances needed in various areas and domains of mental health research in Europe. To further stimulate discussions among the scientific community and stakeholders on how to improve mental health research and to promote an improved research agenda for the next decade, this IJMPR topic issue presents the overall ROAMER methodology as well as a series of selected papers highlighting critical issues of psychological approaches and interventions as outcomes of the ROAMER work package 5 "Psychological research and treatments". Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Hawaii's public mental health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVoort, Debra J

    2005-03-01

    The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.

  12. Physiotherapy students’ mental health assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Gesouli-Voltyraki –E.; Charisi E.; Papastergiou D.; Κostopoulou S.; Borou A.; Alverti V.; Avlakiotis K.; Spanos S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Educational environment has a serious impact on students’ mental health. Few data are available on mental health of Physiotherapy students. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the mental heath of students in a tertiary Physiotherapy Department during the 3rd years of studies. Material and methods: 80 males and females physiotherapy students of the 5th and 6th semester of a tertiary Physiotherapy Department filled in the GHQ-28 questionnaire. Comparisons between groups w...

  13. Gaius Caligula's mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The strange behavior of emperor Gaius has been the subject of debate for many historians. Some charge him with madness and attribute it to his illness in A.D. 37, whereas others believe it occurred later, or else had nothing to do with his sickness.We have no real evidence to reconstruct his mental state. Therefore speculations about madness are fruitless, as they can't be proven. Also, his madness belongs to a discourse which originates mainly from the senatorial narrative that sought to discredit him through any means possible. Thus, his acts should be seen from other angles, and the search for "mad Caligula" abandoned.

  14. Stigmatization and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozge Doganavsargil Baysal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stigmatizasyon represent a chronic negative interaction with the environment that most of people with a of diagnosis mental disorders. Different types of stigma may have harmful effects. Poor psychological well being, poor quality of life and poor self esteem are related stigmatization. In this article, definition and mechanism of stigmatization, influenced factors and consequences of stigmatization are reviewed. Stigmatization is a modifiable environmental risk factor. Integrating approaches against stigma in treatment may represent cost-effective way to reduce the risk of relapse and poor outcome occasioned by chronic exposure to stigma. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 239-251

  15. Mental models of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    Laymen and experts participated in interviews designed to reveal their 'mental models' of the processes potentially causing the miscommunications between experts and the public. We analyzed their responses in terms of an 'expert model' circumscribing scientifically relevant information. From results, there are gaps even between experts. Experts on internal exposure focused mainly on artificial radiation and high level of radiation. Experts on radiation biology focused on medical radiation, level of risk, environmental radiation, and hot springs. Experts on dosimetric performance focused on atomic power generation and needs of radiological protection. It means that even experts, they have interests only on their own specialized field. (author)

  16. Mental models of the operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, I.

    2004-01-01

    A brief explanation is presented of the mental model concept, properties of mental models and fundamentals of mental models theory. Possible applications of such models in nuclear power plants are described in more detail. They include training of power plant operators, research into their behaviour and design of the operator-control process interface. The design of a mental model of an operator working in abnormal conditions due to power plant malfunction is outlined as an example taken from the literature. The model has been created based on analysis of experiments performed on a nuclear power plant simulator, run by a training center. (author)

  17. Pipeline : Hebrew data from ETCBC to Github

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    This pipeline delivers, among other good things, a file bhsa_xx.mql.bz2 which contains all ETCBC data and research additions to it. The form is MQL, compressed, and the size is less than 30 MB. Where ever you have Emdros installed, you can query this data. If you take this file from the continuous

  18. Economics, Judaism, and Marriage (in Hebrew)

    OpenAIRE

    Grossbard, Shoshana Amyra

    1986-01-01

    This paper points to parallels between the economic approach to marriage and Jewish Law. The economic approach is applied to the sex ratio question, the price of Torah scholars, the need for marriage brokers, marriage contracts and polygamy, all topics also addressed by Jewish law.

  19. Zechariah and the Dating of Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    The data presented in the article indicate clearly that the ability to write proper EBH did not end with the exile; but when did it end? In the course of the fifth century, or the fourth century, or even later? This is difficult to resolve, on linguistic grounds. On linguistic grounds, can we say...... conclusions of most biblical scholars. Considering only linguistic data, texts in EBH could have been composed after the exile. Other, non-linguistic considerations can make this unlikely, but we can raise no objections from a linguistic viewpoint to such a dating....

  20. The development of the Biblical Hebrew vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchard, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    In historical linguistics, the prevailing view is that sound change is phonetically regular: within one language variety, the same sound in the same phonetic environment always undergoes the same sound changes, regardless of other factors like word meaning or part of speech. Many of the sound

  1. Breakfast and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    1998-09-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the relationship between breakfast consumption and subjective reports of mental health and health-related behaviours in a general population sample (126 subjects aged between 20 and 79 years). Individuals who consumed a cereal breakfast each day were less depressed, less emotionally distressed and had lower levels of perceived stress than those who did not eat breakfast each day. Those who consumed breakfast had a healthier lifestyle than the others in that they were less likely to be smokers, drank less alcohol and had a healthier diet. However, the relationship between cereal breakfast consumption and mental health did not reflect these differences in the smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. In conclusion, there is an association between breakfast consumption and well-being which cannot entirely be accounted for by differences in other aspects of diet or smoking and alcohol consumption. Further intervention studies are now needed to establish whether causal relationships and mechanisms underlie the associations seen in this study.

  2. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    information on mental health care outcome, to do a cost analysis and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate a cost ... clinical record reviews of mental health service delivery, training ... (d) describe the demographic and clinical profile of HIV positive ..... accommodate the differentiated but integrated care of.

  3. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the third of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). The study reviewed existing South African standards for mental health care facilities. Architectural principles and implications for the use of space were deducted from recent legislation. Objectives were to ...

  4. Acute mental health care and South African mental health legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the first of three reports on a follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). In this first part, qualitative and quantitative descriptions were made of the services and of demographic and clinical data on acute mental health care users managed at HJH, in a retrospective review of ...

  5. Saúde mental versus doença mental

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Luís

    2010-01-01

    Neste artigo são sintetizadas um conjunto de leituras realizadas para a moderação da mesa “Saúde Mental versus Doença Mental”. Pretendemos contribuir para a reflexão sobre a dificuldade de consensos para a definição objectiva de saúde e doença mental.

  6. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  7. Chronic diseases and mental disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Heijmans, M.J.W.M.; Peters, L.; Rijken, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between chronic medical illness and mental distress. Therefore, the association between chronic medical illness and mental distress was analysed, taking into account the modifying effects of generic disease

  8. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  9. Teenage Pregnancy and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Corcoran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.

  10. Mental Disorders and Suicidal Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…

  11. International Students and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…

  12. What Do Mental Terms Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Psychologists and philosophers have long been interested in two questions: (a) What do mental terms mean? and (b) what role do mental terms play in explanations of behavior? In the current sketch I review how mediational neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, and the radical behaviorism of B. F. Skinner address these questions. In so doing, I seek…

  13. VA National Mental Health Statistics - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...

  14. Mindfulness and mental toughness among provincial adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    psychological basis of mental toughness from within existing, evidence-based ... development of mental toughness among athletes. The existing studies have ... that advocated by cognitive-behavioural interventions and traditional mental skills ...

  15. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...

  16. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a term for when someone experiences a mental illness and a substance use disorder simultaneously. Either disorder—substance use or mental illness—can develop first. People experiencing a mental health ...

  17. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.

  18. Cultural diversity and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Narayan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-12-01

    Cultural diversity and its impact on mental health has become an increasingly important issue in a globalised world where the interactions between cultures continue to grow exponentially. This paper presents critical areas in which culture impacts on mental health, such as how health and illness are perceived, coping styles, treatment-seeking patterns, impacts of history, racism, bias and stereotyping, gender, family, stigma and discrimination. While cultural differences provide a number of challenges to mental health policy and practice they also provide a number of opportunities to work in unique and effective ways towards positive mental health. Ethno-specific approaches to mental health that incorporate traditional and community-based systems can provide new avenues for working with culturally diverse populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Living with Mentally Ill Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Buldukoglu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to identify and analyze qualitative studies that examined experiences of children whose parents have a mental illness. This study reported that children whose parents have a mental illness had some common experiences. These experiences may have negative effects on children’s coping skills, resilience to tough living conditions and ability to maintain their mental health. In spite of these negative conditions, some of these children have much more self-confidence, resilience and independence because of inner development and early maturation. Some effective intervention programs are needed to promote information to children and other family members about mental illness, coping behaviors. Availability of such psychiatric services and nation-wide programs with professionals to deal with these problems should be organized properly to increase quality of life of these children. Furthermore, qualitative researches that explore the experiences of children whose parents with mental illness should also be conducted in our country.

  20. Presumptions respecting mental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, K V; Checkland, D; Silberfeld, M

    1994-04-01

    This paper addresses the role(s) played by presumptions regarding mental competence in the context of clinical assessment of decision-making capacity. In particular, the issue of whether or not the usual common law presumption of competence is appropriate and applicable in cases of reassessment of persons previously found incompetent is discussed. Arguments can be made for either retaining a presumption of competence or adopting a presumption of incompetence in reassessment cases. In addressing the issue and the arguments, the authors conclude that the question is really a public policy issue which requires legislative resolution. In writing this paper, the authors have drawn on their joint clinical experience at the Baycrest Competency Clinic. Though the authors' jurisdiction is the province of Ontario, their intent is to raise awareness and to prompt consideration of this issue both inside and outside Ontario.

  1. Disaster medicine. Mental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Masato; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Described are 5 essential comments of view concerning the post-disaster psychiatric care through authors' experience at the aid of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami including Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Firstly, at the acute phase of disaster, the ensured safe place, sleep and rest are necessary as a direct aid of sufferers and their family. Insomnia is seen in many of them and can partly be a prodrome of disorders like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). US Psychological First Aid (PFA) is useful for a guide of the initial aid for disaster, and translated Japanese version is available free. Public anxiety as a psychological effect can be caused even out of the disaster-stricken area by such factors as on-site news reports (inducing identification), internet information, economical and social confusion, forecasted radiation hazard, etc. Cool-headed understanding is required for them and particularly for complicated radiological information. The system for psychiatric treatment is needed as exemplified by its temporary lack due to the radiation disaster near the Plant and consequent prompt dispatch of psychiatrists from Dokkyo Medical University. Survived sufferers' grief and bereavement are said to tend to last long, to be complicated and deteriorated, indicating the necessity of management of continuous mental health. Alcoholism as a result to avoid those feelings should be noted. Finally, pointed out is the mental care for supporters working for recovery from the disaster, like policeman, Self-Defense Force member, fireman, doctor, nurse, officer, volunteer and many others concerned, because PTSD prevalence is reported to amount to 12.4% of rescue and recovery workers of US World Trade Center Disaster (9.11) even 2-3 years after. (T.T.)

  2. Smartphone Applications for Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vona, Pamela L.; Santostefano, Antonella M.; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based. PMID:27428034

  3. How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Mental Arithmetic addresses the twin pillars of mental arithmetic - mental recall and mental agility. Mental recall depends on familiarity with number bonds and plenty of opportunity to practise. Mental agility depends more on confidence with the number system and the four operations. Using the worksheets in this book, students will learn about: tens and units; addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; addition shortcuts; product squares; quick recall; number se

  4. Electrophysiological difference between mental state decoding and mental state reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bihua; Li, Yiyuan; Li, Fuhong; Li, Hong

    2012-06-29

    Previous studies have explored the neural mechanism of Theory of Mind (ToM), but the neural correlates of its two components, mental state decoding and mental state reasoning, remain unclear. In the present study, participants were presented with various photographs, showing an actor looking at 1 of 2 objects, either with a happy or an unhappy expression. They were asked to either decode the emotion of the actor (mental state decoding task), predict which object would be chosen by the actor (mental state reasoning task), or judge at which object the actor was gazing (physical task), while scalp potentials were recorded. Results showed that (1) the reasoning task elicited an earlier N2 peak than the decoding task did over the prefrontal scalp sites; and (2) during the late positive component (240-440 ms), the reasoning task elicited a more positive deflection than the other two tasks did at the prefrontal scalp sites. In addition, neither the decoding task nor the reasoning task has no left/right hemisphere difference. These findings imply that mental state reasoning differs from mental state decoding early (210 ms) after stimulus onset, and that the prefrontal lobe is the neural basis of mental state reasoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. India mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K

    2004-01-01

    India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this

  6. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C

    2015-01-01

    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  7. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  8. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acute care, treatment and rehabilitation as a 72-hour assessment unit in a .... resemble prisons, such as unnecessary bars on windows and one-way glass. ..... model to consider design solutions for other acute mental health care settings.

  9. Promoting Mental Health and Preventing Mental Illness in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.

  10. El enriquecimiento lexical en inglés desde la lectura libre y voluntaria de textos auténticos en las carreras técnicas universitarias / The enrichment of the English lexicon based on the free voluntary reading of authentic texts in university technical majorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fabricio Molina García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the enrichment of the English lexicon by students of university technical majoring. The starting point is the establishment of intertextual relationships from the free voluntary reading of authentic texts related to this area of knowledge to favor the development of vocabulary in English so as to enable the students to carry out academic, scientific and pre-professional tasks in the foreign language. From this perspective, a didactic strategy is offered to synthesize the phases and techniques to achieve this goal.

  11. Sufism and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257

  12. FastStats: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women’s Health State and Territorial Data Reproductive Health Contraceptive Use Infertility Reproductive Health Notice Regarding FastStats Mobile ... Use of Selected Nonmedication Mental Health Services by Adolescent Boys and Girls With Serious Emotional or Behavioral ...

  13. Mental health workers. Graduation daze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carol

    2003-09-11

    PCTs are likely to miss the national target on employment of graduate mental health workers. Pilots are showing success in reducing referrals. Managers must address career progression problems and define roles more clearly.

  14. Student Attitudes Toward Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Garvine, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Inquiry into the initial attitudes toward mental illness of students taking an abnormal psychology class indicates students' concerns and preconceptions and provides a basis for shaping the course to respond to student needs. (JH)

  15. Mental disorders induced by carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, K; Naito, Y; Yoshida, M; Nakanishi, T; Koizumi, J

    1990-03-01

    We present here a case with various physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by the administration of carbamazepine. The patient suffering from right ophthalmic neuralgia showed fever, eczema, erythema, lymphoadenopathy, eosinophilia, vomiting, headache, dizziness, nystagmus, and various mental disorders which consisted of emotional instability, personality change, delusions of reference and persecution, depressive state, and hyperventilation syndrome during the administration of carbamazepine. The physical symptoms in the present case were conformable to the side effect of carbamazepine. The mental disorders appeared in a few days from the start of carbamazepine administration and disappeared after the discontinuation of the administration of this drug without antipsychotic therapy and have never relapsed until now. The mental disorders and the physical symptoms were in parallel with their clinical course. This kind of mental disorders induced by carbamazepine has not yet been reported.

  16. Mental health and therapeutic abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Rondón, Marta B.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of health is reviewed to argue that the mental component as inherent to the integral wellbeing, since mental and physical health are closely related. The relationship between depression and events of the reproductive cycle is described, especially concerning the risk posed by unwanted pregnancy, a risk factor for postpartum depression as reported in studies conducted in various parts of the world. Consequently, women with depression risk factors (history of previous depressive ail...

  17. Mental health in Tamil cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangala, R; Thara, R

    2009-06-01

    Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.

  18. Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kaylene; Bradley, Loretta J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 50 million Americans will experience a mental disorder while only one fourth of them will seek mental health services. Contends that this disparity results from the stigma attached to mental illness. Proposes that counselors must educate the general public about the misconceptions of mental illness and advocate for parity…

  19. Mental life in the space of reasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues the Wittgensteinian point that we can undo the psychologizing of psychology by conceiving of mental life as lived in the space of reasons. It is argued that mental life - human action, feeling and thinking - is constituted by normative connections and necessities rather than...... that it violates our conception of mental illness as something mental, yet outside the space of reasons...

  20. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section 1572.109... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.109 Mental capacity. (a) An applicant has mental...

  1. Mental disorder in Canada: an epidemiological perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Streiner, David L; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    ..., and analyses the prevalence of several significant mental disorders in the population. The collection also includes essays on stigma, mental disorder and the criminal justice system, and mental health among women, children, workers, and other demographic groups. Focusing on Canadian scholarship, yet wide-reaching in scope, Mental Disorder in C...

  2. Mental illness and employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-09-01

    Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes self-confidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability. This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. A broad understanding of the stigmatization process is adopted, which includes cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and structural disadvantages. Stigma is both a proximate and a distal cause of employment inequity for people with a mental disability who experience direct discrimination because of prejudicial attitudes from employers and workmates and indirect discrimination owing to historical patterns of disadvantage, structural disincentives against competitive employment and generalized policy neglect. Against this background, modern mental health rehabilitation models and legislative philosophies, which focus on citizenship rights and full social participation, are to be welcomed. Yet, recent findings demonstrate that the legislation remains vulnerable to the very prejudicial attitudes they are intended to abate. Research conducted during the past year continues to highlight multiple attitudinal and structural barriers that prevent people with mental disabilities from becoming active participants in the competitive labour market.

  3. Evolving society and mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Bhagabati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.

  4. Dangerousness and mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J L

    2008-04-01

    Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed.

  5. Integrating physical and mental health promotion strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Jessica Anne

    2010-01-01

    While health is defined as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’, physical and mental health have traditionally been separated. This paper explores the question: How can physical and mental health promotion strategies be integrated and addressed simultaneously? A literature review on why physical and mental health are separated and why these two areas need to be integrated was conducted. A conceptual framework for how to integrate physical and mental health promotion st...

  6. Television and the promotion of mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...

  7. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  8. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  9. Sports psychiatry: mental health and mental disorders in athletes and exercise treatment of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Andreas

    2018-03-21

    Sports psychiatry has developed for the past 3 decades as an emerging field within psychiatry and sports medicine. An International society has been established in 1994 and also national interest groups were implemented, mostly within the national organizations for psychiatry, some also containing the topic of exercise treatment of mental disorders. Where are we now 30 years later? We systematically but also selectively review the medical literature on exercise, sport, psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders and related topics. The number of publications in the field has increased exponentially. Most topics keep remaining on the agenda, e.g., head trauma and concussion, drug abuse and doping, performance enhancement, overtraining, ADHD or eating disorders. Supported by the growing literature, evidence-based recommendations have become available now in many clinical areas. A relatively new phenomenon is muscle dysmorphia, observed in weightlifters, bodybuilders but also in college students and gym users. Further, sports therapy of mental disorders has been studied by more and more high-quality randomized controlled clinical trials. Mostly as a complementary treatment, however, for some disorders already with a 1a evidence level, e.g., depression, dementia or MCI but also post-traumatic stress disorder. Being grown up and accepted nowadays, sports psychiatry still represents a fast-developing field. The reverse side of the coin, sport therapy of mental disorders has received a scientific basis now. Who else than sports psychiatry could advance sport therapy of mental disorders? We need this enthusiasm for sports and psychiatry for our patients with mental disorders and it is time now for a broadening of the scope. Optimized psychiatric prevention and treatment of athletes and ideal sport-related support for individuals with mental disorders should be our main purpose and goal.

  10. Mentalization, insightfulness, and therapeutic action. The importance of mental organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Alan

    2006-08-01

    Continuing debates over the relative importance of the role of interpretation leading to insight versus the relationship with the analyst as contributing to structural change are based on traditional definitions of insight as gaining knowledge of unconscious content. This definition inevitably privileges verbal interpretation as self-knowledge becomes equated with understanding the contents of the mind. It is suggested that a way out of this debate is to redefine insight as a process, one that is called insightfulness. This term builds on concepts such as mentalization, or theory of mind, and suggests that patients present with difficulties being able to fully mentalize. Awareness of repudiated content will usually accompany the attainment of insightfulness. But the point of insightfulness is to regain access to inhibited or repudiated mentalization, not to specific content, per se. Emphasizing the process of insightfulness integrates the importance of the relationship with the analyst with the facilitation of insightfulness. A variety of interventions help patients gain the capacity to reflect upon and become aware of the intricate workings of their minds, of which verbal interpretation is only one. For example, often it seems less important to focus on a particular conflict than to show interest in our patients' minds. Furthermore, analysands develop insightfulness by becoming interested in and observing our minds in action. Because the mind originates in bodily experience, mental functioning will always fluctuate between action modes of experiencing and expressing and verbal, symbolic modes. The analyst's role becomes making the patient aware of regressions to action modes, understanding the reasons for doing so, and subordinating this tendency to the verbal, symbolic mode. All mental functions work better and facilitate greater self-regulation when they work in abstract, symbolic ways. Psychopathology can be understood as failing to develop or losing the

  11. Significance of mental health legislation for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Getinet

    2018-03-29

     Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness.  To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted.  In many countries, especially in those who have no MHL, people do not have access to basic mental health care and treatment they require. One of the major aims of MHL is that all people with mental disorders should be provided with treatment based on the integration of mental health care services into the primary healthcare (PHC). In addition, MHL plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, the provision of care of high quality, the improvement of access to care at community level. Community-based mental health care further improves access to mental healthcare within the city, to have better health and mental health outcomes, and better quality of life, increase acceptability, reduce associated social stigma and human rights abuse, prevent chronicity and physical health comorbidity will likely to be detected early and managed.  Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.

  12. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Karen F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such

  13. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  14. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  15. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  16. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  17. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  18. Mental life in the space of reasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2006-01-01

    causal ones. The consequence is that mental life is irreducibly moral, and if the sciences of mental life are to become adequate to deal with their subject matter, they should construe themselves as what was once referred to as moral sciences. It is argued that the source of the normativity of mental...... life is found in historically evolved social practices,although not all normativity is conventional or historically contingent. Finally, some objections to the idea that mental life is normative are discussed; first, that this idea represents an intellectualist or rationalist fallacy, and second...... that it violates our conception of mental illness as something mental, yet outside the space of reasons...

  19. The MAL: A Malware Analysis Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    grandfather, James Murray, and his heroic, Victorian project to build the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. He recruited a network of...code to ensure that the binaries in question have not been altered. binary registry pattern matching The practice of searching the binary of an...artifact for particular patterns indicative of certain properties.6 bit flipping A technique used in fuzzers that randomly inverts a single bit in

  20. Semantic Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert; Van Assche, Fons

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals' lexical mappings for their two languages have been found to converge toward a common naming pattern. The present paper investigates in more detail how semantic convergence is manifested in bilingual lexical knowledge. We examined how semantic convergence affects the centers and boundaries of lexical categories for common household…

  1. Leveraging Small-Lexicon Language Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    Glottolog/ ... a typical example: ./geo_distance.tsv – geographical distance sets (0 to 500 km, by 100km) ./ety_distance.tsv – genetic distance...normalizing notation affected automated syllabification; while tweaks of language and subbranch-specific syllable-break rubrics affected proper...many languages – an index that points to the forms that are most likely to be genetically related, but still respects semantic variation between

  2. From Business Corpus to Business Lexicon*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    mal differences at home and abroad, and very little variety appears to be ... releases, newsletters, minutes, posters, notices, leaflets, letters, faxes, memoran- ... The project started in June 1999 and 1.2 million words in each language have.

  3. A Lexicon of Contracting Terms: Contract Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    42 respondents, 24 of them agreed with the definition, while 17 disagreed, and one had no comment . That led to an agreement rate of about 57%. The...synonym. Seventeen others had no comment , and the one who disagreed with the "non-list" offered no suggestions. Proposed Definition. After reviewing...respondents disagreed with the definition, and three had no comment . Rewrite. The two comments dealt with replacing "to" with another word, either "under

  4. A Layman's Lexicon of Manga and Anime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunche, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Manga has been growing rapidly in popularity with young readers in recent years. But to the novice, the form comes with a dizzying array of styles, and even a language all its own. This article provides a short glossary of terms that every otaku should know.

  5. Analysis of terminological literacy of dental lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Fejzrahmanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the quantitative analysis of contextual lexical literacy of 9 magazines and 3 illustrated newspapers (218 articles on stomatology, 9 textbooks, 28 manuals for higher education institutions, 148 theses from the collections of scientific works. Besides, 126 headings of articles and 57 reports, lectures, seminars are analyzed. Calculations of relative and absolute measures were carried out by the formulas offered by authors of the work. Thus the rather high percent of the errors in written and oral speech of dentists was revealed in all tested editions. On the basis of the received results the authors drew the conclusion of the necessary inclusion of lexical and terminological courses in educational process and creation of active forms of standard highly specialized dictionaries which need to be used as manuals in training process.

  6. Salud Mental... Antes y ahora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Velez-Laguado

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprender el concepto de Salud Mental es entender que la Salud depende de algo más que un buen estado físico; es el equilibrio o armonía entre las distintas dimensiones que conforman al individuo dentro de un entorno, que dada las condiciones de nuestro País, ha cambiado. Su prevención está dada por la adquisición de conductas saludables a partir de la implementación, las Políticas de Salud mental dentro de los Lineamientos Departamentales.

  7. [Mental disorders in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Lilli; Mühlemann, Nicole; Bischoff, Thomas

    2010-05-19

    Mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatization) are frequent in Primary care and are often associated to physical complaints and to psychosocial stressors. Mental disorders have in this way a specific presentation and in addition patients may present different associations of them. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize them, but it is important to do so and to take rapidly care of these patients. Specific screening questions exist and have been used in a research of the Institute of General Medicine and the Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine (PMU), University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

  8. Mental depression and kundalini yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S K; Chansauria, J P; Udupa, K N

    1986-10-01

    In cases of mental depression, the plasma serotonin, melatonin and glutamate levels are increased along with the lowering of urinary - 5 - hydroxyindole acetic acid, plasma monoamine oxidase and cortisol levels following three and six months Practice of Kundalini Yoga. The pulse rate and blood pressure in these patients are also lowered after Kundalini Yoga practice. Thus, the practice of Kundalini Yoga helps to maintain a perfect homeostasis by bringing an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities and it can be used as a non - medical measure in treating patients with mental depression.

  9. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. Method: The study described ...

  10. Significance of mental health legislation for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet Ayano

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.

  11. Stigma and Mental Illness: Investigating Attitudes of Mental Health and Non-Mental-Health Professionals and Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…

  12. Media and Mental Health in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental health and the guiding factors for wider media coverage of mental health issues in .... involvement could make a bigger impact in society. Some of the .... Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1998;8(3):213-28.

  13. Mental health, intimate partner violence and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conceptual framework linking mental health to HIV and IPV. This open access article is distributed under. Creative Commons licence ... mental disorders compromise quality of life and functional outcomes in HIV-positive individuals.

  14. Developing Mental Health Peer Counselling Services for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a wide spectrum of mental health/behavioural problems ... Less than half of those found to be affected by mental illness are opportune to receive ... training module and immediately thereafter had a knowledge post-test.

  15. Mental Health: What's Normal, What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Understanding what's considered normal mental health can be tricky. See how feelings, thoughts and behaviors determine mental health and how to recognize if you or a ...

  16. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.

  17. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how you can help. By Mayo Clinic Staff Mental illness in children can be hard for parents to ... help they need. Understand the warning signs of mental illness in children and how you can help your ...

  18. Mental disorders, brain disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Amongst DSM's most vocal 'insider' critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM's adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight ...

  19. Boletín Salud Mental

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2011-01-01

    Boletín informativo de los profesionales de la Red de Salud Mental del Servicio de Salud del Principado de Asturias Newsletter for professionals in the mental health network Asturias Servicio de Salud del Principado de Asturias

  20. Mental Health and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Henry C.

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…

  1. Media, Mental Imagery, and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    Thirty-two students at the University of Oregon were tested to determine the effects of media on mental imagery and memory. The model incorporates a dual coding hypothesis, and five single and multiple channel treatments were used. (Author/JEG)

  2. Early determinants of mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental adversities in pre- and early postnatal life may have life-long consequences. Based upon a series of epidemiological and clinical studies and natural experiments, this review describes how the early life environment may affect psychological functions and mental disorders later in life.

  3. Causal Reasoning with Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-08

    The initial rubric is equivalent to an exclusive disjunction between the two causal assertions. It 488 yields the following two mental models: 489...are 575 important, whereas the functions of artifacts are important (Ahn, 1998). A genetic code is 576 accordingly more critical to being a goat than

  4. Vestibulosympathetic reflex during mental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Cooke, William H.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in sympathetic neural activity occur independently with either vestibular or mental stimulation, but it is unknown whether sympathetic activation is additive or inhibitive when both stressors are combined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of vestibular and mental stimulation on sympathetic neural activation and arterial pressure in humans. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers in the prone position during 1) head-down rotation (HDR), 2) mental stress (MS; using arithmetic), and 3) combined HDR and MS. HDR significantly (P < 0.05) increased MSNA (9 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min). MS significantly increased MSNA (8 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (87 +/- 2 to 101 +/- 2 mmHg). Combined HDR and MS significantly increased MSNA (9 +/- 1 to 16 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (89 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg). Increases in MSNA (7 +/- 1 bursts/min) during the combination trial were not different from the algebraic sum of each trial performed alone (8 +/- 2 bursts/min). We conclude that the interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure is additive during combined vestibular and mental stimulation. Therefore, vestibular- and stress-mediated increases of MSNA appear to occur independently in humans.

  5. Priming the Mental Time Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Casarotti, Marco; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gava, Lucia; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Growing experimental evidence suggests that temporal events are represented on a mental time line, spatially oriented from left to right. Support for the spatial representation of time comes mostly from studies that have used spatially organized responses. Moreover, many of these studies did not avoid possible confounds attributable to target…

  6. Pachyonychia Congenita and Mental Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Ramesh

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Pachyonychia congenital was seen in two different families. In one family the disease was present in only one child, while in the other family the disease was traceable in 5 generations involving 36 members. One individual had associated mental retardation.

  7. Mental map and spatial thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella Castellar, Sonia Maria; Cristiane Strina Juliasz, Paula

    2018-05-01

    The spatial thinking is a central concept in our researches at the Faculty of Education of University of São Paulo (FE-USP). The cartography is fundamental to this kind of thinking, because it contributes to the development of the representation of space. The spatial representations are the drawings - mental maps - maps, chart, aerial photos, satellite images, graphics and diagrams. To think spatially - including the contents and concepts geographical and their representations - also corresponds to reason, defined by the skills the individual develops to understand the structure, function of a space, and describe your organization and relation to other spaces. The aim of this paper is to analyze the role of mental maps in the development of concepts of city and landscape - structuring concepts for school geography. The purpose is to analyze how students in Geography and Pedagogy - future teachers - and young children in Early Childhood Education think, feel, and appropriate these concepts. The analys is indicates the importance of developing mental map in activities with pedagogy and geography graduate student to know that students at school can be producers of maps. Cartography is a language and allows the student to develop the spatial and temporal relationships and notions such as orientation, distance and location, learning the concepts of geographical science. Mental maps present the basic features of the location such as the conditions - the features verified in one place - and the connections that is to understand how this place connects to other places.

  8. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  9. Social inclusion and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2010-09-01

    Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.

  10. Mental health in mass gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12% required admission. Twelve (6.8% pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2% patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7% followed by psychosis (9.8%, insomnia (7.3%, and mood disorders (5.6%. The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%, sleep (55%, anxiety (41%, and fear of being lost (27%. Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu.

  11. Epilepsy and Comorbid Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Preventable and unpreventable causes of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with mental retardation were determined in 692 patients with epilepsy onset between 1977 and 1985 in a Nova Scotia population-based cohort studied in the Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.

  12. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  13. Mental health in mass gatherings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Chauhan, V. S.; Timothy, A.; Kalpana, S.; Khanam, Shagufta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hajj pilgrimage, in Saudi Arabia, is one of the world's largest religious mass gatherings. We have similar mass gathering scenarios in India such as the Amarnath Yatra and Kumbh. A unique combination of physical, physiological, and psychological factors makes this pilgrimage a very stressful milieu. We studied the emergence of psychopathology and its determinants, in this adverse environment in mass gathering situation, in Indian pilgrims on Hajj 2016. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study analyzing the mental morbidity in 1.36 lakh Indian pilgrims during Hajj 2016, using SPSS software version 19. Results: Totally 182 patients reported psychological problems. Twenty-two patients (12%) required admission. Twelve (6.8%) pilgrims reported a past history of a mental illness. One hundred and sixty-five (93.2%) patients never had any mental symptoms earlier in life. The most common illnesses seen were stress related (45.7%) followed by psychosis (9.8%), insomnia (7.3%), and mood disorders (5.6%). The most common symptoms recorded were apprehension (45%), sleep (55%), anxiety (41%), and fear of being lost (27%). Psychotropics were prescribed for 46% of pilgrims. All patients completed their Hajj successfully and returned to India. Conclusions: Cumulative stress causes full spectrum of mental decompensation, and prompt healing is aided by simple nonpharmacological measures including social support and counseling in compatible sociolinguistic milieu. PMID:28659703

  14. mental health.pm6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-08

    May 8, 2003 ... grated approach to mental health care provision and the safety of the public. .... In the case of an application for assisted care the practitioners must establish whether ..... people be found to work on Review Boards? Consider ...

  15. DocSaludMental en netvibes

    OpenAIRE

    Onís, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    DocSaludMental es un escritorio virtual que, a partir de la plataforma netvibes, permite el acceso a información especializada y actualizada mediante la sindicación de contenidos a todos los profesionales de la red de salud mental en el Principado de Asturias DocSaludMental is a virtual desktop that allows access to expert information and updated from content syndication to all professionals in the mental health network in the Principality of Asturias

  16. Perceived barriers on mental health services by the family of patients with mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr Dian Tristiana

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Families whose members suffered from mental illness still experienced barriers in relation to mental health services even with universal health coverage. Improved mental health services are related to the health insurance coverage, affordability, availability of mental health services and stigma reduction in the health professionals and wide community.

  17. Mental Health Service Delivery Systems and Perceived Qualifications of Mental Health Service Providers in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Decia Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…

  18. States Pass Diverse Slate of Mental Health Legislation in 2013. Mental Health: 2013 Legislative Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…

  19. Undergraduate Nursing Students' Attitudes toward Mental Illness and Mental Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzelman, Lois

    2017-01-01

    Historically, nurses have lacked recognition for the work they do, especially in the area of mental health. There is a shortage of qualified mental health nurses to meet the demand for services. Many rural areas in the United States have few or no mental health services to offer communities. Encouraging positive attitudes toward mental health…

  20. Integrating mental health into primary care: a global perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Funk, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    ... for mental disorders is enormous 4. Primary care for mental health enhances access 5. Primary care for mental health promotes respect of human rights 6. Primary care for mental health is affordab...

  1. Quick Guide: Mental Health-Secondary Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Technical Assistance Center on Transition, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…

  2. Orthognathic surgery for mentally retarded patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, A. G.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    The surgical treatment of mentally retarded children for esthetic reasons is discussed. In mentally retarded adults a facial deformity can give rise to functional problems; in some cases a facial deformity can stigmatize the mental state. In selected cases orthognathic surgery may offer a solution

  3. WYOMING MENTAL ABILITY SURVEY, 1957-58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LINFORD, VELMA

    A STATEWIDE PROGRAM WAS INITIATED IN WYOMING FOR THE PURPOSES OF DISCOVERING THE EXTENT OF MENTAL RETARDATION AMONG ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY STUDENTS IN THE STATE, DETERMINING WHERE THE MENTALLY RETARDED ARE FOUND, AND PLANNING AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR THEM. GROUP MENTAL TESTS WERE APPLIED TO 67,620 CHILDREN WHICH REPRESENTED 91.8 PERCENT OF THE…

  4. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the

  5. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  6. Effects of Mental Health on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLind, Ren

    2017-01-01

    Learning can be hindered by students' mental health. Given the increased reports of mental health concerns among college students, it is imperative that we understand how best to provide supports to this population to help them learn and succeed. This is particularly significant given the body of research that demonstrates how mental illness may…

  7. Mental Fatigue Affects Visual Selective Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Leon G.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2012-01-01

    Mental fatigue is a form of fatigue, induced by continuous task performance. Mentally fatigued people often report having a hard time keeping their attention focussed and being easily distracted. In this study, we examined the relation between mental fatigue, as induced by time on task, and

  8. Positive mental health: is there a cross-cultural definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2012-06-01

    SEVEN MODELS FOR CONCEPTUALIZING POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH ARE REVIEWED: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health.

  9. Contradictions In Mental Health: Stigma, Mental Health Literacy And Disclosure (Or Not Of A Mental Disorder Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    manuel torres cubeiro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mental illnesses affect 25% of any given population. The literacy of human population about mental health doesn’t not much the scientific knowledge available about Mental disorders (MDs. Developed countries invest in mental health less than their 9% of their GDPs. There is a contradiction, or discrepancy, between the incidence of MD in human population and how human societies react about them. This discrepancy has long been evident in the literature of medical sociology. In this article we analyze three medical sociology related concepts that have been coined to understand this contradiction: first, mental health literacy; second, stigma of mental ailments; and finally, the disclosure (or not of the diagnosis of a mental illness. With this article we try to solve short use of these concepts in medical sociology in Spanish.

  10. Mental Health Insurance Parity and Provider Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberstein, Ezra; Busch, Susan H

    2017-06-01

    Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages. Quasi-experimental analysis of average wages by state and year for six mental health care-related occupations were considered: Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists; Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors; Marriage and Family Therapists; Mental Health Counselors; Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers; and Psychiatrists. Data from 1999-2013 were used to estimate the association between the implementation of state mental health parity laws and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and average mental health provider wages. Mental health parity laws were associated with a significant increase in mental health care provider wages controlling for changes in mental health provider wages in states not exposed to parity (3.5 percent [95% CI: 0.3%, 6.6%]; pwages. Health insurance benefit expansions may lead to increased prices for health services when the private market that supplies the service is imperfect or constrained. In the context of mental health parity, this work suggests that part of the value of expanding insurance benefits for mental health coverage was captured by providers. Given historically low wage levels of mental health providers, this increase may be a first step in bringing mental health provider wages in line with parallel health professions, potentially reducing turnover rates and improving treatment quality.

  11. The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    sunmi cho; yunmi shin

    2013-01-01

    Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term “prevention” for efforts that occur before onset of a diagnosable disorder. Mental health problems affect 10&am...

  12. Mental Imagery as Facilitator to Lexical Learning-Blocked and Random Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Bhatnagar

    2014-04-01

    typical and atypical words from various lexical categories (Rosch, 1975. These stimuli were divided into treated and untreated groups. A PowerPoint presentation of each target lexical image was prepared with recorded directions. On each slide, the patient was cued with the object name and was directed to think about the perceptual-cognitive image of the pictured object but to refrain from naming it verbally. The patient practiced the pictured-objects, three times daily for six weeks without verbally naming objects verbally. Results The post-treatment assessment yielded a favorable impact of MI training on the naming of both typical and atypical words, after both random and blocked presentations. This learning further generalized crucially to the untrained words. Conclusion MI has proven to be facilitator for lexical learning and generalization. It involved the activation of the same neural circuitry or some vicarious circuitry that is associated with the verbal use of the lexicon. In our opinion, this circuitry activation assisted to link pictured objects to the sub-verbal mental representations. Further, we assumed throughout the study that the suppression of any would-be erroneous verbal attempts to name would help the patient remain focused and indeed would prevent the formation of unwanted, off-target circuitry, scaffolded off of disrupted verbal searching. Moreover, the improved writing that we observed may have resulted from some serendipitous generalization.

  13. Generational attitudes of rural mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Andrew; Kemp, Michael

    2009-04-01

    To determine how attitudes of rural mental health nurses differ across generations. Survey. Mental health services in rural New South Wales. Practising mental health nurses. Survey responses. Survey response rate 44%. A total of 89 mental health nurses, clustered in inpatient units and community health centres, responded. Of these nurses, 4 were veterans, 52 baby boomers, 17 Generation X and 5 Generation Y. There are significant differences in how mental health nurses from different generations view their work, and in what is expected from managers. Managers need to modify traditional working styles, allowing greater flexibility of employment. They must also accept lower staff retention rates, and facilitate the development of younger staff.

  14. Rural mental health: neither romanticism nor despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, J; Chesters, J

    2000-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.

  15. Mental health among students of pedagogical universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinauskas R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.

  16. The Role of Empathy in Mental Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunsteins, Patricia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work examines in what extent a notion of empathy may clarify mindreading’s debate. Taking into account an interdisciplinary and integrative notion of empathy, compatibility with mental attribution strategies both mental simulation and theory-theory, in non pure versions, is evaluated. Firstly, new empirical research is supposed to contribute strengthening an integrative empathy instead of theory-theory or mental simulation `s points of view. Secondly, new empirical research will bring better tools to distinguish between empathy and simulation. Consequently, the relationship between empathy and mental attribution theories may be better delimited and a full mental attribution theory may possibly be proposed.

  17. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Bobby K; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-10-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one's reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one's attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness.

  18. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  19. Mental illness among journalists: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Malcolm, Estelle; Yamaguchi, Sosei; Thornicroft, Graham; Henderson, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Mass media depictions of people with mental illness have a strong influence on public attitudes, to the extent that changes in these depictions can reduce public stigmatization of people with such illness. Journalists' mental health may influence their depiction of those with mental illness, but little is known about this. To investigate mental illness among journalists in five key areas: (1) journalists' mental health status; (2) journalists' personal attitudes towards mental illness; (3) attitudes and support journalists expect or have experienced from colleagues when they have a mental health problem; (4) effect of journalism's professional culture on the course of mental illness; and (5) effect of journalism's professional culture on mass media depictions of people with mental illness. We performed a systematic screening of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library regarding the study aims. We identified 19, 12, seven and four studies for aims 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. No articles were found for aim 5. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among journalists is higher than that among the general population. Journalists have positive personal attitudes towards mental illness, but there are perceived workplace disincentives to disclose mental health problems.

  20. Mental health triage in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, D; Pollard, C; Walpole, B

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a triage scale consistent with the National Triage Scale (NTS) for patients with mental health problems attending emergency departments; and (ii) to reduce emergency waiting times, transit times and improve skills assessing mental health problems. We developed a Mental Health Triage Scale (MHTS) consistent with the NTS. The MHTS was then implemented using a structured education package, and evaluated from March to August 1994. Further evaluation occurred after 2 years. A four-tiered MHTS was produced: category 2, violent, aggressive or suicidal, danger to self or others or with police escort; category 3, very distressed or psychotic, likely to deteriorate, situational crisis, danger to self or others; category 4, long-standing semi-urgent mental health disorder, supporting agency present; and category 5, long-standing non-acute mental health disorder, no support agency present. Patients with illness, injury or self-harm were triaged using combined mental health and medical information. Mean emergency waiting times and transit times were reduced. More consistent triaging for mental health patients occurred, and more consistent admission rates by urgency. Reduced mental health 'did not waits' showed improved customer satisfaction. Mental Health Triage Scale was considered appropriate by liaison psychiatry and its use has continued at 2 years follow-up. A systematic approach to mental health triaging produced a workable scale, reduced waiting times, transit times, and provided effective and consistent integration of mental health patients into a general emergency department.